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Sample records for raphinus sativus linn

  1. Effects of x-rays on growth of plants and mitotic chromosomal aberrations of Lathyrus sativus Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, D.; Das, A.

    1985-01-01

    It has been found that the abnormalities of chromosome at different stages of mitosis show a linear dose relationship. From the detailed study of normal, abnormal phases of prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase, it is observed that the abnormality (per cent) in all stages of mitosis has increased with increase in dose. Under different doses, the observed characters of abnormality in chromosomes of Lathyrus sativus may exhibit the occurence of direct hit process. (M.N.)

  2. Olematu linn / Nicola Desiderio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Desiderio, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    10. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalist (kuraator Richard Burdett). Näitusest "Linn, arhitektuur ja ühiskond". Itaalia paviljoni väljapanekust "Uus linn. Itaalia 2026. Kutse Vemasse" (kuraator Franco Purini), lühidalt Belgia väljapanekust ja Saksa paviljoni ekspositsioonist "Muundatav linn"

  3. Cucumis sativus L, Nasim variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... practice for reducing water consumption and improving product quality. ... Since cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L, Nasim variety) is considered as the main and ... to a significant yield increase (P<0.001), while MAD of 50% had the least yield.

  4. Jumala linn / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna VIII Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme - Ladina-Ameerika mängufilmid "Jumala linn" ("Cidade de Deus") : režissöörid Fernando Meirelles, Katia Lund : Brasiilia - Prantsusmaa - Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002

  5. with Crocus sativus L (saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Pooryousef

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation of symbiosis between Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. is important because this strategic plant encounters with many environmental stresses such as climatic and edaphic stresses during seasons and the AMF can let the crops increase their productivity along with the improvement of their resistance to stress factors and pathogens Materials and methods: The spores of AMF around rhizosphere of saffron were studied in three fields of Gonabad, Khorasan province, Iran (2013-14. Moreover, the colonization of mycorrhizal fungi with saffron and sorghum trap were studied in three regions using morphologic and molecular methods by nested PCR and amplification of small subunit of rRNA gene fragments. Results: Three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Scutellospora dipurpurescens, Funneliformis caledonius and Rhizophagus aggregatus were identified in the soil around rhizosphere of the saffron of three regions. The colonization of sorghum trap in the soil of saffron cultivation areas was among 21 -41%, while the colonization in the natural Saffron field was 1.5% and just in one area. However, the nested PCR results revealed the colonization of Saffron in all 3 regions.  These results showed the colonization of Saffron by Rhizophagus iranicus and F. caledonius. Discussion and conclusion: The genus and species diversity of AMF Saffron and Sorghum are different. Moreover, the hereby proposed molecular method is a more precise approach to identify AMF colonization with Saffron while classical methods may provide different and misleading results.

  6. Response of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumus sativus L.) in response to application of goat ... The main plot treatment was organic manure source (goat dung and poultry dropping) while ... manure useful and important in soil fertility maintenance is their impact on soil fertility ... scarce and high cost of mineral fertilizer.

  7. ( Allium sativum Linn), ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  8. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.W.; Li, R.Q.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA

  9. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA seq...

  10. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE). The yield, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and oxidative ...

  11. Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevalia, Jignesh; Patel, Bhupesh

    2011-01-01

    Gokshura is a well-known Ayurvedic drug that is used in many preparations. Botonically it is identified as Tribulus terrestris Linn., especially the roots and fruits of the plant. But instead the fruits of another plant Pedalium murex Linn. are commonly used and the drug is frequently substituted. Pharmacognostical study has been carried out to identify the distinguishing features, both morphological and microscopic, of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn. This knowledge should help reduce the problem of substitution of the genuine drug. PMID:22661853

  12. Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ... induced cell death by inhibiting oxidative stress and ROS generation. Keywords: ... culture medium; therefore the stock solutions of ... acetic acid (1 %) and ethanol (50 %) to extract.

  13. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Nejad; Erfani Nejad; Yusef Naanaie; Zarrin

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae) is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro) of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a g...

  14. (cucumis sativus l.) in spent engine oil contaminated soil amended

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compost treatment recorded the highest number of leaves while the number of leaves for 0% ... KEYWORDS: Growth, Cucumis sativus, Urena lobata, spent engine oil, contamination, .... sawdust, peat, waste cotton and organic manures are.

  15. Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega / Linda Kongo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kongo, Linda, 1929-

    2007-01-01

    Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega on loonud tema õpilased ja õpilaste õpilased, kes siirdusid kuulama tema loenguid Uppsala Ülikoolis. Mitmed Baltimaadelt pärit loodusteadlased täiendasid end Linné õpilase Johann Andreas Murray juures. Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogus on hoiul üks Linné kiri

  16. Saffron (Crocus sativus L., a monomorphic or polymorphic species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nemati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. which contains exceptional anti-cancer properties is presently the world's most expensive spice. Iran is known as the original habitat of Crocus L. and a significant source of high-quality cultivated saffron production and export. Considering the importance of this species, we used 27 microsatellite markers to assess molecular variability and discriminating capacity of markers regarding their effectiveness in establishing genetic relationships in Iranian Crocus ecotypes. Thirty eight Iranian cultivated saffron ecotypes and 29 wild allies were evaluated in this research. The results from molecular analyses, including a molecular phylogenetic network and RB analysis, revealed two major groups and five subgroups, regardless of their geographical origins. Also, the results showed a clear distinction between C. sativus and other species of Crocus genus, taking into account their close relationship with C. speciosus and C. hausknechtii, which are assumed to be the two closest relatives of Iranian cultivated saffron among species studied. In this paper, we observed for the first time extensive genetic diversity among Iranian C. sativus despite their asexual reproduction. Considering suitable climatic conditions in Iran for cultivating saffron and the country’s leading high-quality production of Crocus sativus worldwide, studies on great genetic variability among Iranian C. sativus ecotypes as well as wild relatives native to Iran will further highlight the value of this crop. In addition, our results provide valuable information for genetic improvement, reduction of strong genetic erosion, and conservation of costly heritable resources of C. sativus in future breeding programs.

  17. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Jani Switu; Harisha C.R.; Mohaddesi Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cav...

  18. Pharmacognostical studies of Portulaca oleracea Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagepalli Srinivasa Ashok Kumar

    Full Text Available Portulaca oleracea Linn, belongs to family Portulaceae and is a widely distributed weed. It has been used as a folk medicine in many countries as diuretics, febrifuge, antiseptic, antispasmodic and vermifuge. This paper deals with the microscopic study of leaf; stem and root of Portulaca oleracea, along with the physico-chemical and preliminary phytochemical analyses that were also studied.

  19. Phytosterols from Spondias mombin Linn with Antimycobacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytosterols from Spondias mombin Linn with Antimycobacterial Activities. ... African Journal of Biomedical Research ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract was carried out by Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) on Silica gel (230-400 mesh) and purification was done using HPLC and TLC. In vitro ...

  20. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  1. Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae) extract attenuates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae, CCY) against 1- methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: MPTP-intoxicated mice model of PD was used for evaluating ...

  2. Linn - sajandi suur armastus / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Tate Modern'is avatud näitusest "Sajandi linn : kunst ja kultuur modernses metropolis". Pariisi, Viini, Moskva, Lagose, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, New Yorgi, Londoni ja Bombay väljapanekutest. Järgneb 20. apr. 2002, lk. 8

  3. Kummardus Carl Linnéle / Andres Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Suur botaanik ja loodusteadlane Carl Linné soovitas oma sõjalise funktsiooni kaotanud kindlustesse või nende varemetesse ürdiaedu rajada. Narva linnus jätkab seda traditsiooni: linnuse Läänehoovi rajati Carl Linné aed. Konkursist võtsid osa ka Eesti Maaülikooli üliõpilased

  4. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

    OpenAIRE

    P. Malairajan; G. Venu Babu; A. Saral; S. Mahesh; Gitanjali

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI) (Compositae) was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percenta...

  5. Improvement of Xylanase Production by Cochliobolus sativus in Submerged Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Bakri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The xylanase production by a new Cochliobolus sativus Cs5 strain was improved under submerged fermentation. The xylanase was induced by xylan and repressed by glucose, sucrose, maltose, xylose, starch and cellulose. Highest enzyme production (98.25 IU/mL was recorded when wheat straw (4 % by mass per volume was used as a carbon source after 120 h of incubation. NaNO3 increased xylanase production 5.4-fold as compared to the control. Optimum initial pH was found to be 4.5 to 5. The C. sativus Cs5 strain grown under submerged culture in a simple medium proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production.

  6. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron and its constituents on nervous system: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50 of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  7. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron and its constituents: possible mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mokhtari-Zaer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO are also reviewed.

  8. New York, rändurite linn / Kadri Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerge, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    New York on linn, mille elanikkond ja ruum on pidevas muutumises. Ehitustegevuse tulemusena on uue ilme saanud kõik linnaosad. Aktuaalseim teema New Yorgi arhitektuuriringkondades ja ehituses on nn. ultrapilvelõhkujatega seonduv

  9. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on pharmacokinetic ... Keywords: Carica papaya, Ciprofloxacin, Sickle cell anaemia, Herb-drug interaction, Pharmacokinetics. Tropical ..... and reproduction in any medium, provided the.

  10. Anticancer Activity of Limonia acidissima Linn (Rutaceae) Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutaceae) which has long been used traditionally for various infectious and malignant diseases. Methods: The fruit extract of Limonia acidissima Linn was obtained by macerating 3 times with methanol and then concentrating it at reduced pressure.

  11. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Exhibits Potent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease [1, 2]. Activation ... Olea europaea Linn. (family, Oleaceae), commonly ... Although the health beneficial effects of olive fruit and leaf oils have ..... are up-regulated in the brains of patients with.

  12. hispidulin and other constituents of scoparia dulcis linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    HIV. INTRODUCTION. Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Scrophulariaceae) has been extensively studied for its flavone and terpene constituents (Ahmed et al., 1990, Ah- san et al., 2003, Chen et al., 1976, Hayashi et al., 1987, 1987b, 1988, 1990, 1991, ...

  13. Antibacterial activity of the active Component of Cassia alata (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    3Department of Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and technology, Aliero. ... Abstract: Fresh leaves of Cassia alata Linn were extracted using different .... Saponins. Steroids. Tannins. Alkaloids. Anthraquinones. -ve. +ve. -ve. -ve. -ve.

  14. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  15. Insufficient Antifungal Potential of Crude Extracts of Carissa Carandas Linn. & Nerium Oleander Linn.”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartyal, M.; Kumar, P.

    2016-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal potential of crude extracts from different parts of Carissa carandas Linn. (Leaf, stem & root) and Nerium oleander Linn. (Leaf, stem & root). Material & method: Different parts of plants were collected, dried and then extracted by using soxhlet extraction method in different polar and non-polar solvents (Water, Methanol & petroleum ether). Extracts were then screened for antifungal activity using ‘Disc Diffusion Assay’ against Candida albicans (Yeast), Aspergillus flavus & Tricophyton mentagrophyte (fungi). Minimum inhibitory concentration, Minimum fungicidal concentration & Total activity were studied. Mean and Standard Deviation have also been calculated. Result: The results indicate that all the tested extracts were found to have no antifungal activity against all the tested microorganisms. Conclusion: The tested extracts did not have, or had too little, antifungal activity. Hence, may not be explored as promising source of new antimicrobial drugs.

  16. Fish passage hydroelectric power plant Linne, Netherlands. Didson measurements; Vispassage waterkrachtcentrale Linne. Didson metingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keeken, O.A.; Griffioen, A.B. [Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies IMARES, Wageningen UR, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    The hydroelectric power plant in the Dutch Maas River near Linne has a fish deflection and passage system. For this study, two evenings in the months of August and September 2011 were dedicated to examining the extent to which fish approached and used the fish passage system. To establish the swimming behavior of the fish, a high-resolution sonar (DIDSON) was used, which generates moving images of fish in turbid waters, to study their behavior. [Dutch] Bij de waterkrachtcentrale in de Maas bij Linne is een visafweer- en geleidingssysteem aangelegd. In deze studie werd op twee avonden verdeeld over de maanden augustus en september 2011 gekeken in hoeverre vissen het visgeleidingssysteem benaderden en gebruikten. Voor het vaststellen van het zwemgedrag van de vissen is gebruik gemaakt van de DIDSON, een hoge resolutie sonar waarmee bewegende beelden kunnen worden gemaakt van vis in troebel water om het gedrag te bestuderen.

  17. Elemental investigation of momordica charantia linn. and syzigium jambolana linn. using atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    Elemental investigation of very important medicinal plant i.e. momordica charantia linn and syzigium jambolana linn, and its decoction has been carried out using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In present study fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements such as Zn, Cr, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Cu, Fe, Pb, Al, Ba, Mn, Co, Ni and Cd were determined in different parts of both plants and in its decoction. The level of essential elements was found high as compared to the level of toxic elements. Both plants are useful in the treatment of diabetes. The validation of the method was checked by employing NBS- 1570 (Spanish) as a standard reference material . The measured values of elements are in close agreement with certified values. (author)

  18. Movement of foliar uptake radionuclides in radish. [Raphanus sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, K.; Kamada, H.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the translocation of /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and two representative fission products of /sup 85/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in radish (Raphanus sativus) and to provide a translocation rate for a given nuclide. The effect of air humidity on the foliar uptake-translocation was also investigated. Retention of the radionuclides was usually higher in plants grown under conditions of 100% humidity at night as opposed to conditions of a constant humidity of 70%. Results indicate that Co and Cs translocate much more than Mn and Sr in the plant.

  19. Antibacterial activity of Cordia dentata Poir, Heliotropium indicum Linn and Momordica charantia Linn from the Northern Colombian Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes Ceballos, Leonor; Sánchez Hoyos, Fredys; Gómez Estrada, Harold

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Cordia dendata Poir, Heliotropium indicum Linn and Momordica charantia Linn are used for treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in folk medicine of the population from the northern Colombian coast. In this study, chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract and fractions from C. dentata, H. indicum and M. charantia were investigated. The chemical constituents of qualitative detection were examined by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). ...

  20. Competition Between Fusarium pseudograminearum and Cochliobolus sativus Observed in Field and Greenhouse Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troth, Erin E Gunnink; Johnston, Jeffrey A; Dyer, Alan T

    2018-02-01

    Among root pathogens, one of the most documented antagonisms is the suppression of Cochliobolus sativus by Fusarium (roseum) species. Unfortunately, previous studies involved single isolates of each pathogen and thus, provided no indication of the spectrum of responses that occur across the respective species. To investigate the variability in interactions between Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium pseudograminearum, field and greenhouse trials were conducted that included monitoring of spring wheat plant health and monitoring of pathogen populations via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The interactions between two isolates of C. sativus and four isolates of F. pseudograminearum were explored in three geographically distinct wheat fields. To complement field trials and to limit potentially confounding environmental variables that are often associated with field studies, greenhouse trials were performed that investigated the interactions among and between three isolates of C. sativus and four isolates of F. pseudograminearum. Across field locations, C. sativus isolate Cs2344 consistently and significantly reduced Fusarium populations by an average of 20.1%. Similarly, F. pseudograminearum isolate Fp2228 consistently and significantly reduced C. sativus field populations by an average of 30.9%. No interaction was detected in the field between pathogen species with regards to disease or crop losses. Greenhouse results confirmed a powerful (>99%), broadly effective suppression of Fusarium populations by isolate Cs2344. Among greenhouse trials, additional isolate-isolate interactions were observed affecting Fusarium populations. Due to lower C. sativus population sizes in greenhouse trials, significant Fusarium suppression of C. sativus was only detected in one isolate-isolate interaction. This study is the first to demonstrate suppression of Fusarium spp. by C. sativus in field and greenhouse settings. These findings also reveal a complex competitive

  1. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus.

  2. Phytopharmacological Profile of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (Oleaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mittal; Satish, Sardana; Anima, Pandey

    2016-04-01

    Plants are the real basis towards animal life and are also central to people's livelihood. The contributions of the plants in performing varied religious celebrations and in other multiple beneficiaries like medicine, human happiness as well as in treating deadly diseases can never be neglected. In treating diseases, the plants and their constituents are better choice than any other synthetic chemical. The nature has been kind enough to provide the human beings with various types of medicinal plants and in the real sense these form the storehouse of curing almost all the ailments. Consequently, most of the drugs which are being used in preparing formulations have their origin and roots in the plants which form the chief natural source of medicines. Even in modern era, the plant-derived drugs are being extensively used, either in their original or semi-synthetic form. It is because their natural phytoconstituents are highly innocuous posing relatively fewer or no side effects. Based upon their observations, analysis and experience, our ancestors used many plants for medicinal purposes and thus their efforts need to be supported by scientific evidence. Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. is one of such important plants. It has been extensively used by the tribes all over India to treat different diseases which mainly include body pains, toothache, stomach ache, ulcers, and sexual impotency. Chemistry of the plant revealed the presence of mainly secoiridoids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Not much scientific support was given to the folklore claims for this plant but some of its traditional uses were investigated like spasmolytic, wound healing, antimicrobial, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, antiulcer and antioxidant activities. This article is the review of research works done on the plant Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. to date. As a part of it the local names, morphology, traditional claims, chemistry and pharmacological activities have been discussed.

  3. Effects of fluorine pollution and the resulting elementary analysis in the radis Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlot, C.; Kisman, S.

    1983-01-01

    After mineral elementary analysis of plant tissue, it was observed that supply of NaF to radish Raphanus sativus L. reduced SiO/sub 2/, probably partly explaining the variation in resistance of plants to fluorine pollution.

  4. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  5. Comparison of de novo assembly statistics of Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Michał; Kuśmirek, Wiktor; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Nowak, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    Genome sequencing is the core of genomic research. With the development of NGS and lowering the cost of procedure there is another tight gap - genome assembly. Developing the proper tool for this task is essential as quality of genome has important impact on further research. Here we present comparison of several de Bruijn assemblers tested on C. sativus genomic reads. The assessment shows that newly developed software - dnaasm provides better results in terms of quantity and quality. The number of generated sequences is lower by 5 - 33% with even two fold higher N50. Quality check showed reliable results were generated by dnaasm. This provides us with very strong base for future genomic analysis.

  6. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  7. Cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase from Crocus sativus stigmas involved in flavonoid glucosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrazem Oussama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonol glucosides constitute the second group of secondary metabolites that accumulate in Crocus sativus stigmas. To date there are no reports of functionally characterized flavonoid glucosyltransferases in C. sativus, despite the importance of these compounds as antioxidant agents. Moreover, their bitter taste makes them excellent candidates for consideration as potential organoleptic agents of saffron spice, the dry stigmas of C. sativus. Results Using degenerate primers designed to match the plant secondary product glucosyltransferase (PSPG box we cloned a full length cDNA encoding CsGT45 from C. sativus stigmas. This protein showed homology with flavonoid glucosyltransferases. In vitro reactions showed that CsGT45 catalyses the transfer of glucose from UDP_glucose to kaempferol and quercetin. Kaempferol is the unique flavonol present in C. sativus stigmas and the levels of its glucosides changed during stigma development, and these changes, are correlated with the expression levels of CsGT45 during these developmental stages. Conclusion Findings presented here suggest that CsGT45 is an active enzyme that plays a role in the formation of flavonoid glucosides in C. sativus.

  8. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg ..... in the brain and inhibition of neuronal output could be ...

  9. Hypoglycemic Effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Fabaceae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    capable of reducing blood sugar level belong to two chemical classes - sulfonylureas and biguanides [3]. ... treatment of cancer, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure [7]. Clitoria ternatea Linn ... was collected from the heart using a syringe, transferred to sodium fluoride bottles bottles, allowed to clot and ...

  10. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  11. Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the nutritive composition of Chrysophyllum albidum Linn. It was necessitated by the need towards creating awareness that this species can provide nutrient supplements for the larger percentage of the population in the rural and peri-urban communities. Chrysophyllum albidum locally called “Udara” is ...

  12. Hypoglycemic Effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Fabaceae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of the aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Fabaceae leaves and flowers on alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Methods: The effect of orally administered aqueous extracts (400 mg/kg body weight) of Clitoria ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, ...

  13. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  14. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  15. Geology and ground-water resources of Linn County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    Linn County, in east-central Iowa, covers about 713 square miles and lies in the Western Young Drift section of the Central Lowlands physiographic province. The normal annual rainfall in the county is about 33 inches and the annual mean temperature is about 48°F. The population in 1960 was 136,899, of which 75 percent was urban.

  16. Karyotype analysis in Machaerium lunatum (Linn. f.) Ducke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... Ducke (syn. Drepanocarpus lunatus (Linn. f.) G.F.W. Mey) belongs to the family Fabaceae-Papilionaceae. (Hutchinson and Dalziel 1954). It has about 130 species distributed from Mexico to Argentina which are difficult to delimit taxonomically (Rudd 1987) and 150 species distributed from Mexico to South.

  17. In Vitro Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oxalis Corniculata Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vitro Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oxalis Corniculata Linn. Fractions in Various Solvents. D Ahmed, S Zara, H Baig. Abstract. As part of our search for natural antioxidants, this work presents an evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and its sub-fractions in hexane, chloroform, ...

  18. Tallinna Visioonikonverents 2010 : Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna Lauluväljaku ruumides 22. novembril toimunud Tallinna Visioonikonverentsist "Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil", kus arutleti teemal, milline võiks olla Tallinn saja aasta pärast. Konverentsil esinesid Toomas Vitsut, Mart Saarma, Jan Sturesson, Raivo Raave, Satish Kumar, Juhani Pallasmaa ning moderaatoriteks olid Hardo Aasmäe ja Mati Heidmets

  19. Investigation On Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Aristolochia Indica Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure. Materials and Methods: ...

  20. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively ...

  1. Pharmacognostic study of Lantana camara Linn. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Lantana camara Linn. root. Method: The pharmacognostic evaluation was done in terms of organoleptic, macro-microscopy, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The characteristic macroscopic features showed that the root consists of 25-40 cm long, 0.2-4.0 cm thick pieces which are usually branched, shallow, tough, creamish-brown externally, outer surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, with hard fracture, characteristic odour and pungent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root shows exfoliating cork, consisting of about 10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells followed by cortex consisting of polygonal parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboidal shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3-4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single layer of non-lignified pericycle. Phloem, a wide zone of xylem consisting of lignified pitted vessels and bi-to triseriate medullary rays are also present. Proximate physicochemical analysis of the root power showed loss on drying, total ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash values as 0.52, 4.26, 3.8 and 5.8 % w/w respectively. Successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 0.19, 0.35, 2.19 and 2.0 % w/w respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colors to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps in identification and standardization of Lantana camara L. root in crude form.

  2. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  3. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  4. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalinee Ronpirin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB, a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight, while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively. Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD. Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  5. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  6. Crocus sativus L. (saffron for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R. Bhandari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era. Among the spices, Crocus sativus L. (saffron; 番紅花 fān hóng huā has generated interest because pharmacological experiments have established numerous beneficial properties including radical scavenging, anti-mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. This review provides a brief insight into the anticancer properties of saffron and its components.

  7. Characteristics of phosphorus metabolism in panax quinquefolium linne plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Li Xianggao

    2001-01-01

    Distribution and metabolism of panax quinquefolium linne plant were determined dynamically by using 32 P application on the surface of leaves. The results showed that phosphorus was distributed mainly to active metabolic part of panax quinquefolium linne plant in different growth stages. The fruit was main distribution center in fruit stage. In bloom stage 32 P was easily transported to root. The 32 P absorbed by the surface of leaves went into metabolism quickly and changed from in organism into many kinds of organic phosphides. About 80 percent of 32 P was in the form of phenol soluble phosphide and 32 P distribution rate was higher in up-ground plant than in sub-ground plant

  8. Carl von Linné jälgedes / Piret Veigel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veigel, Piret, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Alanud aastal tähistatakse Carl von Linné, taimede ülemaailmselt käibiva teadusliku klassifitseerimise süsteemi rajaja 300. sünniaastapäeva. Loodusteadlase majast ja aiast Uppsalas, tema suvekodust Hammarby's ja Fredriksdali vabaõhumuuseumist Helsingborgis, kus leiab Linné-aegset maaharimist

  9. In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, G.P.; Ashok, Purnima

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. for in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark and root of B. variegata Linn. were prepared and assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity by various methods namely total reducing power, scavenging of various free radicals such as 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide. The percentage scavenging of various free radicals were compared with standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA). The extracts were also evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton WR-1339 (iso-octyl polyoxyethylene phenol)-induced hyperlipidemic albino rats by estimating serum triglyceride, very low density lipids (VLDL), cholesterol, low-density lipids (LDL), and high-density lipid (HDL) levels. Result: Significant antioxidant activity was observed in all the methods, (P < 0.01) for reducing power and (P < 0.001) for scavenging DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals. The extracts showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in cholesterol at 6 and 24 h and (P < 0.05) at 48 h. There was significant reduction (P < 0.01) in triglyceride level at 6, 24, and 48 h. The VLDL level was also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced from 24 h and maximum reduction (P < 0.01) was seen at 48 h. There was significant increase (P < 0.01) in HDL at 6, 24, and 48 h. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of B. variegata Linn. can effectively decrease plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and VLDL and increase plasma HDL levels. In addition, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts have shown significant antioxidant activity. By the virtue of its antioxidant activity, B. variegata Linn. may show antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:20177495

  10. Fish passage hydroelectric power plant Linne, Netherlands. Didson measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Keeken, O.A.; Griffioen, A.B.

    2011-11-01

    The hydroelectric power plant in the Dutch Maas River near Linne has a fish deflection and passage system. For this study, two evenings in the months of August and September 2011 were dedicated to examining the extent to which fish approached and used the fish passage system. To establish the swimming behavior of the fish, a high-resolution sonar (DIDSON) was used, which generates moving images of fish in turbid waters, to study their behavior. [nl

  11. A New Ursane type Sulfated Saponin from Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Suleman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One new sulfated saponin 3β,23,30-trihydroxyurs-20-en-28-al-23-sulfate 3-O-β- D -xylopyranoside (Zygofaboside C; 1 was purified from the water soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated through spectral studies, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-FAB mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data.

  12. Kombucha Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn) dan Kemampuannya sebagai Antihiperkolesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartatik, Nanik; Karyantina, Merkuria; Purwanti, Indrias Tri

    2009-01-01

    Kita mengenal adanya teh yang diekstrak dari kelopak bunga rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn). Teh jenis ini dapat dibuat menjadi kombucha dengan cara memfermentasikan ekstrak rosella menggunakan peran mikrobia dalam fer­ mentasi kombucha. Mikrobia dalam fermentasi kombucha ini ditumbuhkan dalam ekstrak rosella sebagai medium per­ tumbuhan dengan variasi konsentrasi rosella (30, 40, 50 gram rosella kering/L). Selama proses fermentasi, kombucha rosella dianalisis pH, total asam, dan aktivitas ...

  13. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation on Leaves of Ficus microcarpa Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandra V D; Padmaa M Paarakh

    2011-01-01

    Ficus microcarpa Linn. (Syn: Ficus nitidas; Family: Moraceae) grows in Tropical and Subtropical regions of India, used for variety of purpose in traditional medicine. The usefulness of this plant is described in many folk books including Ayurveda and different biologically active phytoconstituents were isolated from plant. But no reports are available on morph anatomy, and phytochemical studies, hence present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopically and preliminary phytochemi...

  14. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanna; Chaijaroenkul; Artitiya; Thiengsusuk; Kanchana; Rungsihirunrat; Stephen; Andrew; Ward; Kesara; Na-Bangchang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcina mangostana Linn.(G.mangostana)(pericarp)in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry(LC/MS/MS).Methods:3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G.mangostana Linn.(pericarp)at the concentrations of 12μg/mL(1C50level:concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%)and 30μg/mL(1C90level:concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%)for 12 h.Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS.Results:At the IC50concentration,about 82%of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control(non-exposed),while at the IC90concentration,only 15%matched proteins were found.The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12μg/mL were identified as eneymes that play role in glycolysis pathway,i.e.,phosphoglyeerate mutase putative,L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase,and fruetose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglyeerate kinase.The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30μg/mL of the extract.Conclusions:Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G.mangostana Linn.(pericarp).

  15. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seed performance as influenced by ovary and ovule position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, H.C.; Jalink, H.; Bergervoet, J.W.; Klooster, M.; Du, S.L.; Bino, R.J.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds in relation to ovary and ovule position was monitored during seed production. Seeds from three (first, seventh and tenth nodes) fruit positions and three (stylar, intermediate and peduncular) ovule positions were harvested serially during

  16. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  17. Infraspecific variation of C-banded karyotype and chiasma frequency in Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandran, C.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Nijs, de S.A.P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Infraspecific cytogenetical variation was studied in a diverse collection of five non-cultivated and cultivatedCucumis sativus accessions. The individual chromosomes of different accessions could be identified by the C-banding pattern and chromosome measurements. About 40–50% of the genomic area are

  18. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  19. LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termentzi, Aikaterini; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    In this study, various fractions isolated from the petals of Crocus sativus were assessed at first for their phenolic content both qualitatively and quantitatively and secondly for their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) whereas the antioxidant potential was evaluated by applying two methodologies, the DPPH. radical scavenging activity test and the Co(II)-induced luminol chemiluminescence procedure. According to data obtained from these antioxidant tests, the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions demonstrated the strongest antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the major constituents identified in these fractions correspond to kaempferol, quercetin, naringenin and some flavanone and flavanol derivatives glycosylated and esterified with phenylpropanoic acids. In addition, the presence of some nitrogen-containing substances, as well as other phenolics and phenylpropanoic derivatives was also traced. The identification and structural elucidation of all substances isolated in this study was achieved by both comparing available literature data and by proposed fragmentation mechanisms based on evaluating the LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) experimental data. The quantitative analysis data obtained thus far have shown that Crocus sativus petals are a rich source of flavonoids. Such a fact suggests that the good antioxidant capacity detected in the various fractions of Crocus sativus petals could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, since it is already known that these molecules exert antioxidant capability. The latter, along with the use of Crocus sativus in food and pharmaceutical industry is discussed.

  20. Decolorization of direct dyes using peroxidase from raphanus sativus (F04 SL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, H.N.; Kalsoom, U.; Habib, A.

    2012-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was isolated and partially purified from Raphanus sativus. The purified enzyme was characterized in terms of kinetics and thermodynamic aspects. Finally the enzyme was assessed to see its potential for decolorization of direct dyes. The specific activity of Raphanus sativus peroxidase increased from 44.77 to 65.20 U/mg of protein using 80 % ammonium sulphate precipitation. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme was 4 and 55 deg. C respectively. The activation energy of Raphanus sativus peroxidase was 25.44 kJ/mol and average value of Km was 0.25 mM. The activation energy of thermal denaturation of Raphanus sativus peroxidase was 17.79 kJ/mol. It was observed that with an increase in temperature, there was decrease in a half life and enthalpy, which showed that the enzyme was unstable at higher temperature. A maximum decolorization of 97 and 77 % was observed for Solar Blue A and Solar Flavine 5G at pH 4 and temperature 50 deg. C respectively. It was observed that % decolorization of both the dyes increased with an increase in enzyme units and incubation time. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ dose of 0.8 mM for Solar Blue A and 0.7 mM for Solar Flavine 5G was sufficient for the maximum dye degradation. (author)

  1. Nitrogen release from differently aged Raphanus sativus L. nitrate catch crops during mineralization at autumn temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) has emerged as a promising nitrate catch crop in cereal cropping, although the course of remineralization of residue N following termination of this frost-sensitive crucifer remains obscured. We incubated radish residues of different age (different planting and harvest dates...

  2. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  3. Role of cucurbitacin C in resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema-Boomstra, A.G.; Zijlstra, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Inggamer, H.; Mercke, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are bitter triterpenoid compounds that are toxic to most organisms and occur widely in wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae. The only cucurbitacin identified in Cucumis sativus is cucurbitacin C. The bitter taste of cucumber has been correlated with resistance to the spider mite

  4. The effect of acetylcholine, LatA and FAA on phloem assimilates translocation of Raphanus sativus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chongjun; Zhang Ping

    2005-01-01

    The petiole phloem of Raphanus sativus L. is treated with the medicaments of acetylcholine (Ach, the expansionist material of protoplasm), latrunculin A (LatA, the dissolubility of microfilament) and FAA (the regularization of phloem). The effects of treatments are measured by the accumulated content of dissoluble sugar and starch in the leaves, and 14 C-labelled assimilates. The regulating role of three medicaments on the translocation of assimilates in the phloem of Raphanus sativus L are investigated. The results indicate that low Ach improves assimilates translocation while LatA and FAA inhibit it in petiole phloem of Raphanus sativus L.. (authors)

  5. Chemical Weed Control in Saffron (Crocus sativus Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid abbaspoor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron is derived from the stigmas of the saffron (Crocus sativus L. It is the world’s most expensive spice and has been widely used in many countries. It is also increasingly used for medicinal purposes. Weed control in this perennial, small and low growing crop, needs a lot of labor work. Chemical approach is one of the most effective methods for weed control in saffron. Currently, some herbicide options are available for applications in saffron. For example, satisfactory broadleaved weed control would be achieved by post-emergence application of metribuzin and ioxynil after harvesting saffron flowers. Application of glyphosate and/or 2, 4-D / 2, 4-DB are used to clean up the beds prior to the new season’s flowering and growth of saffron in New Zealand. The selective weed control of weeds in saffron has not been widely reported elsewhere but some in Iran. The choice of herbicide(s depends on the kind of weeds present. In some literatures metribuzin showed promising results for weed control in saffron fields. It is selectively used for control of annual grasses and numerous broad-leaved weeds. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the efficacy of 15 herbicides with different mode of actions, selected on the basis of dominant weed flora and previous studies, on weeds grown in saffron fields. Materials and Methods A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of herbicides for weed control in saffron (Crocus sativus in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Khorasan Razavi Province, Mashhad, in 2014-2015 growing season. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were consisted of metsulfuron-methyl + sulfosulfuron (Total® at dose of 40 g ha-1, sulfosulfuron (Apirus® at dose of 26.6 g ha-1, oxadiazon (Ronestar® at dose of 2 l ha-1, oxyflurofen (Goal® at dose of 2 l ha-1, mesosulfuron + idosulfuron + diflufenican

  6. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Lien K.; Pinch, Benjamin M.; Bennett, William W.

    2016-01-01

    gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all...... of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb...... in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were...

  7. Foliar-applied ethephon enhances the content of anthocyanin of black carrot roots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Glied, Stephan; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) constitute a valuable source of anthocyanins, which are used as natural red, blue and purple food colourants. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds are specialised metabolites, accumulation of which often requires elicitors...

  8. Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.

  9. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  10. Kombucha Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) dan Kemampuannya sebagai Antihiperkolesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartatik, Nanik; Karyantina, Merkuria; Purwanti, Indrias Tri

    2012-01-01

    We know that there is another tea extract, e.i from calyx of roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn). This kind of tea could be made became kombucha by ferment roselle extract using microbe in the fermentation of kombucha. This mi­ crobe grown in roselle extract as a medium with variety of roselle concentration (30; 40; 50 grams of dried roselle/L). During the fermentation process, roselle kombucha was analyzed for pH value, total acid, antioxidant activity at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 days of ferm...

  11. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of nickel sulphate on some physiological aspects of two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Helmy H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two cultivars of radish Raphanus sativus cv. longipinnatus (white radish and Raphanus sativus cv. Cherry Belle (red radish were treated with different concentrations of nickel sulphate (0.0-50-100-150-200 ppm. The fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigments, some antioxidant enzymes, total carbohydrates, total proteins and the SDS-PAGE protein profile of both cultivars were determined after 32 days. The results showed that increasing nickel sulphate concentrations decreased the fresh and dry weights of the shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates and total protein in both cultivars. Higher concentrations of nickel sulphate increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and polypenol oxidase. Electrophoresis banding profiles of proteins revealed qualitative and quantitative changes, and also the appearance or disappearance of some bands of the two cultivars. .

  13. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri investigated by deepSuperSAGE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nuno F.; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding. PMID:25852725

  14. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri as reviewed by deepSuperSAGE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Felipe Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lathyrus sativus (grass pea is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding.

  15. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus) in healthy male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iliass Lahmass; Sabir Ouahhoud; Assia Sabouni; Mohammed Elyoubi; Redouane Benabbas; Rachid Elmoussaoui; Mohammed Choukri; Ennouamane Saalaoui

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron) against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye) in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6) and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups). Our data ...

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Pham Thi Kim; Nguyet, Nguyen Thi Minh; Dao, Dong Thi Anh

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of flavonoid extract from white radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.). Antimicrobial activity was determined by agar diffusion method against 4 strains: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS* radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The constituent elements of flavonoid extract were identified by LC-MS. Results showed that the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L. had antibacterial activity against to all four tested bacteria strains with antibacterial ring diameters in the range 8 - 20 mm in the test concentrations from 100 to 1600 mg/ml. Minimum concentration to inhibit (MIC) in the range 20 - 40 mg/ml. In addition, the extract also has the ability to eliminate ABTS* free radical with IC50 = 7.074 µg/ml. The total antioxidant capacity of extract at concentration of 100 µg/ml was 3.424 ± 0.043 mg ascorbic acid/mg. In the extract, there are three flavonoids were found: rutin, quercetin and narigenin. This is the first time narigenin was found in Raphanus sativus L. extract.

  17. Application of response surface methodology to optimise supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of volatile compounds from Crocus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingsong; Huang, Yuqiu; Zhou, Aicun; Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Ailian; Wang, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Crocus sativus has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. The volatile compounds of C. sativus appear biologically active and may act as antioxidants as well as anticonvulsants, antidepressants and antitumour agents. In order to obtain the highest possible yield of essential oils from C. sativus, response surface methodology was employed to optimise the conditions of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction of the volatile compounds from C. sativus. Four factorswere investigated: temperature, pressure, extraction time and carbon dioxide flow rate. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of the volatile compounds extracted by supercritical fluid extraction were compared with those obtained by hydro-distillation and Soxhlet extraction. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be: optimised temperature 44.9°C, pressure 34.9 MPa, extraction time 150.2 min and CO₂ flow rate 10.1 L h⁻¹. Under these conditions, the mean extraction yield was 10.94 g kg⁻¹. The volatile compounds extracted by supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction contained a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Response surface methodology was successfully applied for supercritical fluid CO₂ extraction optimisation of the volatile compounds from C. sativus. The study showed that pressure and CO₂ flow rate had significant effect on volatile compounds yield produced by supercritical fluid extraction. This study is beneficial for the further research operating on a large scale. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rajesh S; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.

  19. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. β-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), β-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In Vitro Propagation of Sambong (Blumea balsamifera Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Thelma L; Cangao, Evangelina C

    2016-01-01

    Terminal shoot tips of sambong (Blumea balsamifera Linn.) are cultured to initiate and regenerate shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg/L benzyl adenine (BA). After 1 month, shoots, usually 4.5 cm long are separated and subcultured for multiplication. Regenerated shoots, about 6 cm long are rooted on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Exposure of shoots to high humidity for the first 2 weeks and equal proportion (1:1:1) of sterile sand, compost, and coir dust as potting mix favors the development of whole sambong plants. Young shoots from in vitro-derived sambong plants could also be used for propagation.

  1. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  2. Psidium guajava Linn confers gastro protective effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston Raja, N R; Sundar, K

    2012-02-01

    The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.

  3. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  4. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wóycicki, Rafał; Witkowicz, Justyna; Gawroński, Piotr; Dąbrowska, Joanna; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Siedlecka, Ewa; Yagi, Kohei; Pląder, Wojciech; Seroczyńska, Anna; Śmiech, Mieczysław; Gutman, Wojciech; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, Katarzyna; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Tagashira, Norikazu; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Borodovsky, Mark; Karpiński, Stanisław; Malepszy, Stefan; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10) and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930)), Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation) as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth and yield in

  5. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  6. Some Notes on the Genus Lepas Linné, 1767. (Subphylum Crustacea; Classis Cirripedia; Ordo Thoracica; Fam. Lepadidae.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de Fr.

    1952-01-01

    For the last twenty years several authors have been pointing out, that the species of the genus Lepas are very difficult to distinguish. The forms Lepas anatifera Linné and Lepas anserifera Linné especially cause trouble in identifying. It is often hard and sometimes even impossible to distinguish

  7. Cytoprotection mediated antiulcer effect of aqueous fruit pulp extract of Cucumis sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of Cucumis Sativus fruit pulp aqueous extract (CSE in gastric ulcerated rats. Methods: Cytoprotective potential was evaluated via oral administration of CSE at the doses of 250, 500 &1000 mg/kg three times in a day, for 5 days before the induction of ulcers in indomethacin and pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. Further, its effects were studied on various parameters volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output in gastric juice, lipid peroxide (LPO, and activities of enzymic antioxidants-super oxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in gastric mucosa. The levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa and gastric juice were also examined. The extent of healing was also determined with post administration of CSE at the same doses & dosage schedule in acetic acid induced model. Results: In indomethacin and pyloric ligation model, the pretreatment with CSE and ranitidine significantly reduced the lesion index, in comparison with control treated group (P< 0.05. The percentages of protection of ulcers were 25.8, 65.7, 80.6 & 93.8 for the treated groups of CSE and ranitidine whereas in pyloric ligation it was 31.26, 55.18, 93.26 & 95.51 respectively. In pyloric ligation model, CSE resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants i.e. SOD & CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein & carbohydrate concentration and LPO levels. In acetic acid inducer model, treatment with Cucumis sativus (CSE caused significant reduction in lesion index in when compared to control treated group, providing evidence for ulcer healing capacity of it. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CSE. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp extract of Cucumis sativus (CSE has a gastroprotective property.

  8. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million. The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn. has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control.

  10. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P; Balakrishnan, N

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control.

  11. Effect of UV-C irradiation on growth, sporulation and pathogenicity of cochliobolus sativus isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    1999-12-01

    More than 30 isolates of Cochliobolus sativus, the causal agent of common root rot disease; were collected from different regions of Syria. Seven of them were exposed to UV-C light for 40 or 60 h . at a dose rate of 2.52x10 -3 W/cm 2 . A significant increases in the mycelium growth and sporulation were detected (p<0.001). Within the studied range of UV wave length, these two parameters were increased upon increasing the period of exposure to UV-C light. The pathogenicity of four isolates was evaluated after 60 h. of UV irradiation. The response to UV irradiation varied among these isolates, and resulted in an increase in their virulence level (as assessed by evaluating disease severity on sub-crown internodes). Five barley genotypes possessing different levels of resistance to C. sativus were studied. Arabi Abiad was the most susceptible cultivar whereas, Taka 76 line was moderately susceptible. It is concluded that it is possible to implement the positive effect of low doses of UV-C in stimulating the sporulation of fungi, which are difficult to sporulate on artificial media. (author)

  12. Oxidative Stress Induction by Lead in Leaves of Radish (Raphanus sativus Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet BITEUR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress was induced by lead acetate (Pb in Raphanus sativus seedlings grown in a hydroponic system using sand as substrate. Thirty day old acclimated seeds were treated for 7 days with five Pb levels (0 as control, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg l-1. Parameters such as growth, oxidative damage markers (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and hydrogen peroxide contents and enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were investigated. Lead concentration in plant tissues increased with increasing of Pb levels. Shoot fresh weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration were significantly decreased at 100 mg l-1 Pb. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and H2O2 levels were increased at 500 and 1000 mg l-1 Pb compared to control treatment, in shoots. Peroxidase activity showed a straight correlation with H2O2 concentration, whereas CAT activity decreased only in shoots. These changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants showed that the Pb exposition had a significant disturbance on Raphanus sativus plantlets and affect the biochemical and physiological processes.

  13. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladun, Kristen R.; Parker, David R.; Tran, Khoa D.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator–plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8–9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. - Highlights: ► Radish were exposed to selenate and pollination treatments to examine pollination ecology. ► Honey bees foraged on radish for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. ► Se treatment increased seed abortion and decreased plant biomass. ► Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced in Se-treated plants. ► Pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts. - Radish accumulated the pollutant selenium in floral tissues, but this did not deter the pollinator (Apis mellifera) from foraging.

  14. Purification and MIC analysis of antimicrobial proteins from Cucumis sativus L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Akeel, Raid; Mateen, Ayesha; Alharbi, Khalid K; Alyousef, Abdullah A; Al-Mandeel, Hazem M; Syed, Rabbani

    2018-04-03

    Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber), from the family Cucurbitaceae, is a therapeutic plant with various pharmacological benefits, broadly utilized as a part of complementary medicine (e.g., Unani, Ayurveda, Siddha, and Traditional Chinese). In light of past research discoveries, this plant had been chosen to consider its potential antibacterial action. Extracts were purified by dialysis and ion exchange chromatography strategy and then assayed for antibacterial activity against four standard pathogenic bacterial strains known to cause foodborne infections and spoilage of food and herbal drugs. Antimicrobial peptides were extracted from seeds using a sodium phosphate citrate (pH 7.2) - CTAB cradle (pH 6.0). The highest protein concentration was seen with elute fractions 1 and 3 (370 mg/mL) compared with elute fractions 2 and 4 (340 mg/mL). Among the bacteria utilized, E. coli was clearly the most sensitive out of selected four strains. Our results suggest that Cucumis sativus L seeds extracts have significant potentials as new antimicrobial agents.

  15. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder Ekstrak n-Heksan dari Umbi Lobak (Raphanus Sativus Lamk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of secondary metabolite compound in extract of n-Hexane in Umbi Lobak (Raphanus sativus Lamk have been carried out. The purpose of this research is to know secondary metabolite compound which is contained in Umbi Lobak (Raphanus sativus Lamk which obtained from Gowa. The compound was obtained by isolation process that consists of several steps including extraction, fractination, purification, and identification. Extraction was carried out using maceration with n- hexane. The identification has done by phytochemistry test, melting point, solubility, TLC, and IR spectroscopy. The result of research found out that the obtained compound was the steroid compound, with melt point 133-133,5 oC and had positive  reaction toward Lieberman Burchad reagents, where the Lieberman Burchad reagent resulting is green which perfectly solved in n-hexane, bit solved in methanol, and could not be solved in aceton. TLC analysis showed a stain in three scales different solvent and the result of elucidation structure in IR spectrophotometer showed that compound which get is β sitosterol.

  16. New approach to explain results of the low dose radiation on the Raphanus sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, Y.; Yoshioka, K.; Yoshida, S.; Murata, I.; Takahashi, A. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the researches on radiation hormesis toward the animals and plants are made abundantly. The radiation hormesis effect is that subharmful doses of radiation may evoke a stimulatory response in any organism. We did irradiation experiments of fusion (DD and DT) neutron, thermal and fast neutron, and 60-cobalt gamma-ray to the dry seeds of Raphanus stivus, and examined whether radiation hormesis effects appeared by measuring germination rate, the length of a hypocotyl and a root and the total weight on the 7th day from starring cultivation. The evaluation of radiation hormesis effects was done by using relative effectiveness which is the ratio of the mean of the measurement objects of the irradiation group to that of non-irradiation group. In the Raphanus stivus the radiation hormesis effects of the measured objects were only turned up in seed groups irradiated by the fusion (D-T) neutron. We have confirmed that absorbed dose range where the effects are revealed is from 1 cGy to 10 Gy and there the relative effectiveness is from 1.05 to 1.25. In this research the model about radiation hormesis effect on Raphanus sativus confirmed in irradiation of D-T neutrons is proposed. And it is apparent that radiation from radio activated seeds influences hormesis effect on Raphanus sativus. (author)

  17. Efek Penambahan Jus dan Daun Sirih (Piper bettle linn Sebagai Aditif Pakan Terhadap Peforma Ayam Petelur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Haryun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan unggas telah dilakukan dalam hal perkembangbiakan, pemberian pakan dan manajemen. Namun, implementasinya masih menghadapi banyak tantangan seperti masalah penurunan produksi. Salah satu penyebab penurunan produksi adalah gangguan kesehatan yang disebabkan oleh bakteri patogen (Salmonella sp dan Escherichia coli. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah penggunaan bettle linn Juice sebagai pakan tambahan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh bettle linn Juice sebagai pakan tambahan terhadap kinerja ayam petelur. Metode yang digunakan adalah uji biologis ayam petelur umur 69 minggu Isa Brown Strain dari 250 ayam petelur, menggunakan Completely Randomized Design (RAL dengan 5 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Piper bettle linn Juice tidak memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan (P> 0,05 terhadap konsumsi pakan dan angka kematian. Mempengaruhi secara signifikan (P <0,01 terhadap Hen Day Production (HDP, berat telur dan Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR.

  18. The Hypoglicemic Effect of Momordica Charantia Linn in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horea Sărăndan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was intended to test the hypoglycemiant effect of an alcoholic extract of roots or of the fruit seeds from “in vitro” regenerated Momordica charantia Linn. plants grown at USAMVB Timisoara. Diabetes was induced to domestic rabbits by administrating alloxan in dose of 80 mg/ kg body weight. In diabetic rabbits the glycemia decreased by 15.93% ten hours after the administration of the alcoholic extract in dose of 2 ml/kg body weight; the seeds of Momordica charantia Linn. reduced glycemia by 27.42% when administered in dose of 1.5 g/kg body weight. In alloxan recuperated rabbits, 5 hours after administration of the seeds, glycemia dropped 19.26%. The “in vitro” regenerated plants of Momordica charantia Linn. keep their hypoglycemiant effects.

  19. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  20. Elucidation and functional characterization of CsPSY and CsUGT promoters in Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Archana; Mishra, Sonal; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2018-01-01

    The dried stigmas of Crocus sativus constitute the saffron, which is considered to be the costliest spice of the world. Saffron is valuable for its constituents, which are mainly apocarotenoids. In order to enhance the production of apocarotenoids, it is imperative to understand the regulation of apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In C. sativus, although the pathway has been elucidated, the information regarding the regulation of the pathwaygenes is scanty. During the present investigation, the characterization of promoters regulating the expression of two important genes i.e. CsPSY and CsUGT was performed. We successfully cloned the promoters of both the genes, which were functionally characterized in Crocus sativus and Nicotiana tabaccum. In silico analysis of the promoters demonstrated the presence of several important cis regulatory elements responding tolight, hormonesand interaction with transcription factors (TFs). Further analysis suggested the regulation of CsPSY promoter by Abscisic acid (ABA) and that of CsUGT by Gibberellic acid (GA). In addition, we also observed ABA and GA mediated modulation in the expression of significant TFs and CsPSY and CsUGT transcripts. Overall, the study addresses issues related to regulation of key genes of apocarotenoid pathway in C.sativus.

  1. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  2. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  3. Release of carbon and nitrogen from fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) shoots and roots incubated in soils with different management history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Teng; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2018-01-01

    and roots from fodder radish (Raphanus sativus oleiformis L.), a widely used cover crop, on the release of their C and N after addition to soil. Shoots and roots were incubated for 180 d at 20°C using four soils with different management histories (organic versus mineral fertiliser, with and without use...

  4. Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piman Pocasap

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The reproductive parts (flower, pod, and dry seed of Raphanus sativus have the greatest isothiocyanate concentration, evidenced by a sulforaphene concentration higher than the sulforaphane. This result should inform the selection of the most appropriate harvesting stage and plant part for use as a potential chemopreventive agent.

  5. Evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yogesh; Vadgama, Vishalkumar; Baxi, Seema; Chandrabhanu; Tripathi, B

    2011-01-01

    Our aim of the study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs. Adult guinea pigs of either sex were divided into seven groups: group 1 - normal diet; group 2 - high fat diet; group 3 and 4 - normal diet plus leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 5 and 6- high fat diet with leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 7 - high fat diet plus atorvastatin (3 mg/kg). Above diet treatment was given for six weeks and drug was given during last three weeks. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, HDL-c) was performed in each group of animals before and at the end of six weeks. Histological study of aorta, liver and kidney was done in group 1, 2, 6 and 7 and blood cell count was done in animals that were treated juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. before and after juice administration. Simultaneous administration of leaf juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 mL/kg prevents the rise of serum lipid parameters and decreases the fatty changes in the tissue induced by high fat diet, whereas in the dose of 1 mL/kg not only counteracts the elevation, but also significantly (p juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. possesses significant lipid lowering and anti atherosclerotic activity.

  6. Potential dermal wound healing agent in Blechnum orientale Linn

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    Lim Yau

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae is used ethnomedicinally to treat wounds, boils, blisters or abscesses and sores, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints. The aim of the study was to validate the ethnotherapeutic claim and to evaluate the effects of B. orientale water extract on wound healing activity. Methods Water extract of B. orientale was used. Excision wound healing activity was examined on Sprague-Dawley rats, dressed with 1% and 2% of the water extract. Control groups were dressed with the base cream (vehicle group, negative control and 10% povidone-iodine (positive control respectively. Healing was assessed based on contraction of wound size, mean epithelisation time, hydroxyproline content and histopathological examinations. Statistical analyses were performed using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. Results Wound healing study revealed significant reduction in wound size and mean epithelisation time, and higher collagen synthesis in the 2% extract-treated group compared to the vehicle group. These findings were supported by histolopathological examinations of healed wound sections which showed greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts and angiogenesis in the 2% extract-treated group. Conclusions The ethnotherapeutic use of this fern is validated. The water extract of B. orientale is a potential candidate for the treatment of dermal wounds. Synergistic effects of both strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the extract are deduced to have accelerated the wound repair at the proliferative phase of the healing process.

  7. Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

    2012-04-01

    Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.

  8. Potent Insulin Secretagogue from Scoparia dulcis Linn of Nepalese Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Khaga Raj; Adhikari, Achyut; Hafizur, Rahman M; Hameed, Abdul; Raza, Sayed Ali; Kalauni, Surya Kant; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2015-10-01

    Ethno-botanical inspired isolation from plant Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Sweet Broomweed) yielded six compounds, coixol (1), glutinol (2), glutinone (3), friedelin (4), betulinic acid (5), and tetratriacontan-1-ol (6). There structures were identified using mass and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their insulin secretory activity on isolated mice islets and MIN-6 pancreatic β-cell line, and compounds 1 and 2 were found to be potent and mildly active, respectively. Compound 1 was further evaluated for insulin secretory activity on MIN-6 cells. Compound 1 was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity assay against MIN-6, 3T3 cell lines, and islet cells, and in vivo acute toxicity test in mice that was found to be non-toxic. The insulin secretory activity of compounds 1 and 2 supported the ethno-botanic uses of S. dulcis as an anti-diabetic agent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Terminalia catappa Linn seeds as a new food source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate their potential use as a new dietary source, the seeds of Terminalia catappa Linn were analyzed for their nutritional and antinutritional properties, and to determine the effect of roasting. The TC seeds contained high levels of protein, oil and essential minerals. The 2 most limiting amino acids were Tryptophan and Lysine. Oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 are the main fatty acids which were determined at 32.4 and 30.3%, respectively. The ratio of saturated: monounsaturated: polyunsaturated fatty acid was close to what is recommended in the dietary guidelines of the American Heart Association. Contents of phenolic compounds and phytates (IP4 + IP5 + IP6 in raw seeds were 64.9 g of GAE/g and 2,110 mg/100g, which are comparable to the values in edible nuts. Trypsin inhibitor activity was 2.3 trypsin inhibitor units/mg. After roasting at 180°C for 4 min, both phenolic compounds and trypsin activity were reduced, while IP6 phytate degraded into IP4 and IP5 forms

  10. Antibacterial and antioxidative compounds from Cassia alata Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinop Promgool

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Cassia alata Linn. led to the isolation of six known anthraquinones: aloe-emodin (1, emodin (2, ω-hydroxyemodin (3, lunatin (4, physcion (5, and ziganein (6, six flavonoids: apigenin (7, 7,4'-dihydroxy-5- methoxyflavone (8, diosmetin (9, kaempferol (10, luteolin (11, and trans-dihydrokaempferol (12 as well as one stilbene, trans-resveratrol (13. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including UV, IR, NMR and MS. Nine compounds (3-9 and 12-13 were reported for the first time as metabolites of C. alata. Compound 2 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA-SK1 and B. cereus TISTR 687 with MIC values of 4 and 8 µg/mL, respectively. Compound 10 was found to exhibit antioxidative activity with IC50 value of 9.67 µM that was three times stronger than that of ascorbic acid (IC50 25.41 µM.

  11. Comparative studies of the phytochemistry, proximate analysis, mineral and vitamin compositions of the methanol leaf extracts of Cucumis sativus L. and Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essien Augustine Dick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available     Cucumis sativus  and Daucus carota are medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine to treat and prevent various diseases but the basis for this has not been highlighted. Quantitative phytochemicial analysis revealed the presence of anthocyanins, flavonoids, carotenoids and pyrrolidine in D. carota leaf methanol extract but in C. sativus only flavonoids and carotenoids was found present although in a lower amounts. Proximate analysis revealed  that both plants methanol leaf extracts contain moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber and ash. The moisture content of C. sativus (95 ± 0.02% was more than that of D. Carota (82.20 ± 0.01% but the protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash and fiber contents of D. Carota was more than that of C. sativus. The mineral compositions also revealed the presence of Ca, P, Mg, Fe,Zn,Na, and K in both C.sativus and D. carota although in various proportions. The P, Ca, Mg, Fe and Na contents in D. carota were more than that of C. Sativus, but C. sativus has a higher Zn and K contents than D. carota. The vitamin analysis also revealed the presence of important vitamins including A, B1, B2,  B6 ,  C,E, niacin and folate. The vitamin A content of  D. carota were very high (2,901 ± 0.02µg compared to that of  C. Sativus (23 ± 0.01µg. These important macroelements, minerals and vitamins embedded in these important plants may be the reasons behind its use in forklore medicine for its various dietary and therapeutic applications.

  12. Efektivitas antibakteri ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn)terhadap bakteri Enterococcus faecalis (Antibacterial effectiveness of betel leaf extract (Piper Betle Linn) to Enterococcus faecalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Armianty Armianty; Indrya Kirana Mattulada

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of bacteria which have resistance against the pulp tissue defense mechanism and often found in endodontic infections. This bacterial is may hold good colonization, can survive in the root canal without other bacteria, and is capable of producing toxins directly or through the induction of inflammation. Betel leaf (Piper betle Linn)contain essential oils, as the main components of the essential oils are phenols and compounds, among other derivate such a...

  13. EFECTO DE INOCULACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS EN CRECIMIENTO DE RÁBANO (Raphanus sativus EFEITO DA INOCULAÇÃO MICRORGANISMOS NO CRESCIMENTO DE RABANETE (Raphanus sativus EFFECT OF INOCULATION OF MICROORGANISMS ON RADISH GROWTH (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ INDIRA SOTELO D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la inoculación de microorganismos que pueden estimular el crecimiento en plantas, ha sido de gran interés para la producción de bioinsumos en los últimos años. Se inocularon cepas de Azotobacter sp, Bacillus pumilus y Bacillus licheniformis en un cultivo de rábano (Raphanus sativus, aisladas e identificadas de un proceso de compostaje de la empresa (GEO ®. Se realizó un diseño experimental de cinco tratamientos y un control, con 15 repeticiones para cada uno. Previo a la aplicación de los tratamientos cada cepa se sometió individualmente a crecimiento en caldo de cultivo. La aplicación de cada tratamiento se efectuó dos veces por aspersión, con un intervalo de 15 días durante el tiempo de cultivo. Las variables de respuesta que se evaluaron en el cultivo de rábano fueron: longitud de las plantas, número de hojas y peso seco del sistema radicular. Los resultados mostraron menor efectividad en la producción de biomasa radicular en el tratamiento T5 (mezcla de los tres microorganismos; además se encontró un mayor rendimiento en todas las variables de respuesta, con la utilización de la fertllización química. Sin embargo los tres microorganismos aplicados individualmente presentan resultados promisorios para la aplicación en cultivos agrícolas de ciclo corto.O efeito da inoculação de microrganismos que podem estimular o crescimento em plantas tem sido de grande interesse para a produção de bio-produtos nos últimos anos. Isolados foram inoculados Azotobacter sp, Bacillus pumilus e Bacillus licheniformis em uma cultura de rabanete (Raphanus sativus isolados e identificados em um processo de compostagem da empresa (GEO ®. Foi realizado um delineamento experimental de cinco tratamentos e controle, com 15 repetições para cada um. Antes da aplicação dos tratamentos, cada cepa foi submetida ao crescimento individual em caldo. A aplicação de cada tratamento foi realizada por aspersão duas vezes com um

  14. [Presence of conjugated noradrenaline in the walls of the nest of Vespula germanica Linné].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J; Bourdon, V; Damas, J; Leclercq, M; Leclercq, J

    1976-01-01

    Conjugated noradrenaline (NA) has been identified as a constituant of the walls of a Vespid wasp: Vespula germanica Linne. Concentrations range between 1,8 mug/g (external wall) and 18 mug/g (internal structure). Probably NA originates from the saliva of the Hymenoptera.

  15. Anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of Ficus pumila Linn extract in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of Ficus pumila Linn. extract (FPLE) in rats. Methods: Hyperprolactinemic rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of metoclopramide dihydrochloride (50 mg/kg). A high dose (800 mg/kg), moderate dose (400 mg/kg), or low dose (200 mg/kg) of FPLE was ...

  16. Anti-Thrombotic Effect of Carthamus tinctorius Linn Extracts in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius Linne). Neurochem. Res. 2009; 34: 795–. 805. 8. Zhang SQ, Jiang LD. Effect of safflower injection on cardiac energy charge and anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2 in rats' heart.Chin. J. Integr. Tradit. West. Med. 2004;.

  17. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Long-Term Effects of Exotic Tree Species ( Tectona grandis Linn. F ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-Term Effects of Exotic Tree Species ( Tectona grandis Linn. F.) on the Status of Extractable Micronutrients in the ... The study therefore implied that Tectona grandis has an extractive property on micronutrient particularly on soils that are low in these nutrients. Nigerian Journal of Soil and Environmental Research Vol.

  19. Tallinna linn või aukude plombeerimine = City of Tallinn or filling of holes / Veljo Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Veljo

    1999-01-01

    "Eesti Päevalehes" ilmunud arhitektide viimase aja karakteersemate tööde hindamistabelist, selles olevast Nissani keskusest (Andres Siim, Hanno Kreis), Hansapanga hoonest ja Stockmanni kaubamajast (Peep Jänes). Tallinna arhitektuurist kui tervikust. Tallinnas on palju tühje krunte, rekonstrueerimist ootavaid linnaosi ja suuri üksikhooneid. Linn realiseerub läbi investorite majandusliku huvitatuse

  20. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation on barley's (Hordeum Vulgare L.) susceptibility to cochliobolus sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawher, M.; Arabi, I. E.

    1998-03-01

    Two barley genotypes (Tadmor, W12291), and one promising line selected in AECS (76) were exposed to 60 cobalt gamma radiation. The doses used were: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. Susceptibility assessments were scored using a rating scale extending from 1 (highly resistant) to 5 (very susceptible) according to the percentage of infected area at subcrown interodes. In general, doses of 10, 15, 20 and 30 Gy increased the resistance to the pathogen Cochliobolus sativus by 56.29%, 58.29%, 54.57% and 49.71% respectively. The genotypes did not response similarly to the irradiation. The best response was obtained with c.v Tadmor. (author)

  1. Razi’s Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus: a review

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    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi’s Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases.

  2. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a preliminary study for the detection of adulterated saffron and the identification of the adulterant used by means of (1)H NMR and chemometrics is reported. Authentic Greek saffron and four typical plant-derived materials utilised as bulking agents in saffron, i.e., Crocus sativus stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia were investigated. A two-step approach, relied on the application of both OPLS-DA and O2PLS-DA models to the (1)H NMR data, was adopted to perform authentication and prediction of authentic and adulterated saffron. Taking into account the deficiency of established methodologies to detect saffron adulteration with plant adulterants, the method developed resulted reliable in assessing the type of adulteration and could be viable for dealing with extensive saffron frauds at a minimum level of 20% (w/w). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of Salicylic Acid Impacts on Seedling Characteristic of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. under Water Stress

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    Hossein MARDANI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedling characteristic were evaluated under different water stress levels by using a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications at experimental greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The studied factors included three water deficit levels (100% FC, 80% FC, and 60% FC considered as first factor and five levels of SA concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM as second factor. Results showed that foliar application of SA at the highest concentration enhanced leaf area, leaf and dry weight while decreased stomatal conductance under high level of water deficit stress. Though, severe water deficit stress sharply raised the SPAD reading values. In general, exogenous SA application could develop cucumber seedling characteristic and improve water stress tolerance.

  4. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiol, L; Assolari, S; Sacco, P; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  5. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels

  6. Profiling micro rnas and their targets in radish (raphanus sativus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barozai, M.Y.; Din, M.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny, non-protein coding and negative regulatory RNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length. The comparative genomic methodology due to their conserved nature is a reasonable approach for the novel miRNAs discovery. In this research, total 25 novel miRNAs from 18 families (ras-miR-156, 160, 162, 163, 164, 167, 168, 319, 399, 408, 413, 414, 841, 1310, 2936, 5030 and 5661) are identified in an important vegetable radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The 25 miRNA precursor sequences showed secondary structures with the mature miRNAs in the stem region. Total 42 putative targets are also identified for the novel 25 radish miRNAs. These findings suggest that more thorough understanding of the function of such miRNAs will help to unravel the mysteries role in plant biology. (author)

  7. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  8. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using an endophytic fungal supernatant of Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from supernatant of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from the healthy leaves of Raphanus sativus is studied. The synthesized AgNPs are characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The structural analysis is done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The stability of AgNPs is studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS method. The size and shape of AgNPs are observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM and found to be spherical with an average particles size of 4–30 nm. Further, these AgNPs have been found to be highly toxic against human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting the possibility of using AgNPs as efficient antibacterial agents.

  9. Activity of Tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae Attacking the Reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn. (Alligatoridae and Eunectes murinus (Linn. (Boidae, in the Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Ruth LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2, situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02°45'33"S; 59°51'03"W. Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn., and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn., in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented.

  10. Biotechnological production of inducible defense-related proteins in edible radish (raphanus sativus) found in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Praval; Karmacharya, Anil; Sharma, Shishir; Nepal, Ashwini K; Shrestha, Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infection in plant leads to use of many hazardous antifungal chemicals. Alternative to these chemicals, defense related antifungal proteins can be used in case of fungal diseases. An experiment was done in two varieties of edible radish (Raphanus sativus var. Pyuthane Raato and Raphanus sativus var. all season) with aims to produce defense protein within the plant, to identify and perform molecular characterization of those antifungal proteins. The next aim was to compare the antifungal property of those proteins with commercially available synthetic pesticides. Both varieties of radish were infected with fungi (Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum). Protein samples were isolated from leaves following the standard protocol as described for β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and were run along with the standard protein marker of 10-250kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify and molecularly characterize them. An additional band in the range of 37-50kDa was observed in the fungal infected samples, which was not seen on uninfected samples. The antifungal assay was carried out for every sample in 96 wells microtitre plate. The extracted protein samples from fungal inoculated plants showed the significant inhibition of fungal growth compared to other samples. On the basis of molecular weight and their antifungal properties, the protein samples from the fungal infected plant were found to be PR2 (Glucanase) and PR3 (Chitinase). Defense related proteins were successfully produced in two varieties of radish found in Nepal. The use of such biologically produced proteins may reduce the use of biologically harmful synthetic pesticides.

  11. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  12. Prevention of CCl4 induced hypogonadism with Raphanus sativus seeds in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Farhana; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2017-03-01

    Raphanus sativus seeds are used as condiment and to treat hypogonadism, various ailments of liver and kidneys. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of methanol extract of R. sativus seeds (RSME) against hypogonadism induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Thirty six rats were divided in to six groups with six animals in each. Animals of Group I were control and treated with saline, Group II, III and IV were given orally CCl 4 (1 ml/kg bw; 10% in corn oil). Rats of Group III and IV were also simultaneously given RSME at 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw respectively. However, Group V and VI received RSME (100; 200 mg/kg bw, respectively) alone. All treatments were given at alternate days for 15 days. Treatment of CCl4 to rats decreased (P < 0.001) the level of CAT, POD, SOD, GST, GSH-Px and GSR antioxidant enzymes in testes of rat. Concentration of lipid peroxides (TBARS) was increased (P < 0.001) whereas concentration of GSH was decreased (P < 0.001) in testes of CCl4 treated animals. Concentration of testosterone, FSH and LH in serum was decreased (P < 0.001) while the level of estradiol and prolactin was increased (P < 0.001) in CCl4 treated rats. Injuries in seminiferous tubules were determined in histopathology of testes. Administration of RSME, dose dependently, markedly ameliorated the oxidative stress of CCl4 thereby restoring the level of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, male hormones and alterations in histopathology.

  13. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  14. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. fruit extracts on α-glucosidase enzyme, glucose diffusion and wound healing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Mohssin Shadhan

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: It is established that methanolic extract and fractions from H. sabdariffa Linn. fruit can inhibit the α-glucosidase enzyme and glucose movement as well as influence the wound healing activity positively.

  15. Utilization of Tahongai stem bark (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) extract as corrosion inhibitor on API 5L steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky, Yoel; Novita, Eli; Rinda, Shaimah; Sulistijono, Triana, Yunita

    2018-04-01

    Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is one of herbal plant cultivated in Kalimantan. Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is known containing antioxidant to prevent cancer cell growing, therefore it is expected to become a good organic corrosion inhibitor. Tests conducted in this study were: DPPH to prove the content of antioxidant compounds in Tahongai woods (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) from which IC50 number is found to be 153.78 µg/mL, indicating intermediate power, Fourier Transform Infrared Specroscopy (FTIR) to determine the functional groups and compounds in Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) and suspected that flavonoid compound contained in extract, Open Circuit Potential (OCP) to obtain corrosion rate data and found that the slowest corrosion occurred on 400 ppm (30 days) with corrosion rate 8,74 × 10-4 mm/year. The most efficient inhibitor found in 400 ppm (30 days) with 92,063%.

  16. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  17. Antidepressant activity of standardised extract of Marsilea minuta Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Agrawal, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Paras Nath; Singh, Sushil Kumar

    2008-04-17

    Marsilea minuta Linn. (Marsileaceae) has been referred in Indian traditional medicine system (Ayurveda) for the treatment of insomnia and other mental disorders. Marsiline isolated from Marsilea minuta was reported to have sedative and anticonvulsant property. The ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta was standardised for marsiline (1.15%, w/w) and studied for its antidepressant activity. Antidepressant activity was studied using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), learned helplessness test (LHT) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitches response in rodents. Standardised extract of Marsilea minuta in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for three consecutive days and evaluated on day 3, 1h after the last dose treatment. Imipramine (15 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Neurochemical mechanism of antidepressant activity was elucidated by using radioligand receptor binding assays for 5-HT2A and benzodiazepine receptors in rat frontal cortex. Immobility time in FST and TST was significantly (P<0.05) reduced by ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta treated animals. A decrease in number of escape failures in LHT was also observed in Marsilea minuta treated rats. Head twitch response induced by 5-HTP was significantly attenuated by Marsilea minuta (400 mg/kg, p.o.) and imipramine showing the involvement of serotonergic system. This effect was corroborated with radioligand receptor binding study where Marsilea minuta (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.05) down regulated 5-HT2A receptor in frontal cortex, whereas, no marked effect was observed for benzodiazepine receptor. The antidepressant effect exhibited by Marsilea minuta extract may be due to its effect on 5-HT2A density in rat frontal cortex.

  18. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm(-1) (-OH), 1660 cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414 cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219 cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose.

  19. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. root in terms of organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, macro-microscopy and physicochemical parameters.The characteristic macroscopic study showed that the root consists of 7-15 cm long, 0.2 -3.0 cm thick pieces which are cylindrical, tough and yellowish-brown externally, with hard fracture and slightly astringent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root show exfoliating cork, having10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells. Cortex consists of round to oval parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboid shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3- 4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single pericyclic layer. Phloem consists of isodiametric, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells whereas xylem contains lignified pitted vessels. Medullary rays consisting of biseriate layer of lignified and radially elongated parenchymatous cells is narrower in the xylem region during wider in the phloem region. The physicochemical analysis of the root, i.e., total ash, water-soluble ash, sulphated ash are 7.8, 0.9 and 10.3 (% w/w respectively. Further successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 2.2, 2.4, 12.4 and 9.6 (% w/wextracts respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colours to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps inbotanical identification and standardization of Clerodendrum phlomidis L. root part in crude form and provide the authentic data for the researchers and scientists involved in carrying out further research on this plant part.

  20. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lathyrus sativus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since 2003–2004, investigations were carried out to trace the linked association ... F1 hybrid in each cross was raised. F1 plant in each .... This car- ries special significance in case of colchicine-induced dwf1 as colchicine is .... habit. A bsent. A bsent. A bsent. P resent. P resent. S eed yield. /plant. (gm). 2 .2. ±. 0 .69. 12 .3. ±.

  2. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman Biji Sengon (Paraserianthes Falcataria) Menggunakan Air Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn.) Terhadap Kualitas Benih

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain, Tika; ', M. Mardhiansyah; Yoza, Defri

    2015-01-01

    Paraserianthes falcataria are fast growing trees in the tropical and has many benefits economically. In order to avoid seeds of Paraserianthes falcataria not decrease the quality of seeds during storage. Seed treatment is necessary to keep the seeds able to survive until the time of planting by using Piper betle Linn. leaf as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of submursion seeds in water Piper betle Linn. leaf on the quality of seed germination ...

  3. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  4. Protective role of radish oil (raphson sativus) against gamma radiation on lipids and carbohydrate in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, M.F.; Soliman, N.K.I.

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on some biochemical parameters in rats. The rats were exposed to sublethal whole body gamma irradiation dose (1Gy x 4). The protective role of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) was evaluated by oral administration to rats before gamma radiation exposure and the lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen were investigated. Exposed rats to gamma radiation showed significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. Oral administration of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) before gamma irradiation exerted marked ameliorations in the disorders induced by gamma radiation in most of the tested parameters such as lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen

  5. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapi...

  6. Optimization of the ethanolysis of Raphanus sativus (L. Var.) crude oil applying the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Anderson Kurunczi; Saad, Emir Bolzani; Wilhelm, Helena Maria; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Raphanus sativus (L. Var) is a perennial plant of the Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae) family whose oil has not been investigated in detail for biodiesel production, particularly when ethanol is used as the alcoholysis agent. In this work, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum condition for the ethanolysis of R. sativus crude oil. Three process variables were evaluated at two levels (2(3) experimental design): the ethanol:oil molar ratio (6:1 and 12:1), the catalyst concentration in relation to oil mass (0.4 and 0.8 wt% NaOH) and the alcoholysis temperature (45 and 65 degrees C). When the experimental results were tentatively adjusted by linear regression, only 58.15% of its total variance was explained. Therefore, a quadratic model was investigated to improve the poor predictability of the linear model. To apply the quadratic model, the 2(3) experimental design had to be expanded to a circumscribed central composite design. This allowed the development of a response surface that was able to predict 97.75% of the total variance of the system. Validation was obtained by performing one ethanolysis experiment at the conditions predicted by the model (38 degrees C, ethanol:oil molar ratio of 11.7:1 and 0.6 wt% NaOH). The resulting ester yield (104.10 wt% or 99.10% of the theoretical yield of 105.04 wt%) was shown to be the highest among all conditions tested in this study. The second ethanolysis stage of the best RSM product required 50% less ethanol and 90% less catalyst consumption. The amount of ethyl esters obtained after this procedure reached 94.5% of the theoretical yield. The resulting ethyl esters were shown to comply with most of the Brazilian biodiesel specification parameters except for oxidation stability. Addition of 500 ppm of BHT to the esters, however, complied with the specification target of 6h. The application of 2 wt% Magnesol after the second ethanolysis stage eliminated the need for water washing and helped generate a

  7. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF VIR COLLECTIONS OF THE RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. (SMALL RADISH AND RADISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on the diversity of root plants in the species of Raphanus sativus L., which are available in the collection of VIR, enables to comprehensively evaluate the collection of small radish and radish, making descriptions of new forms and cultivar-types, and revealing the biological features of the formation of photosynthetic apparatus, yielding abilities, resistance to biotic and abiotic stressors. This article is the first part of a series of articles devoted to the study of the gene pool of root plants of the species R. sativus L. from the VIR collection. The experimental part of the article includes the results of a study of previously unexplored accessions from the radish collection, the following articles will be devoted to the radish gene pool. As a result of the research conducted in 2016-2017. 110 samples of radish of different eco-geographical origin and representing variety of cultivar type were studied. The studied radish samples were combined into several groups according to the duration of the growing season (early ripening, mid-ripening and late ripening. A longer vegetation period in radish in winter-time-growing was observed in case of insufficient illumination, but some accesions of the red oval-rounded cultivar type (k-2133, k-2343, k-1742, k-2404 have not shown any change in vegetation period. There was a strong change in the shape of the root crop when growing in winter under insufficient illumination. Samples that are capable to form a consumed organ in such conditions without changing the shape of the root crop and vegetation period were k-2404, Netherlands, k-2133, Tanzania, k-2185, Poland, k-2343, Iceland, k-1666, Russia. Among the accessions of the red-oval-round cultivar type, varieties from the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Poland emerged, formed a short-rooted, compact rosette with an elevated leaf arrangement in all growing conditions. The formation of high productivity in the open field types was revealed

  8. Biofumigation with Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus and Eruca sativa for the management of field populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, Bruno M; Haydock, Patrick P J; Woods, Simon; Back, Matthew A

    2015-05-01

    The viability of potato cyst nematode (PCN) populations (Globodera pallida) was evaluated in three field experiments using Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus and Eruca sativa amendments. These species were summer cultivated and autumn incorporated in experiment 1; in experiment 2, overwintered brassicaceous cover crops were spring incorporated. Experiment 3 involved determination of effects of metconazole application on biomass/glucosinolate production by B. juncea and R. sativus and on PCN pre- and post-incorporation. Glucosinolate contents were determined before incorporation. Following cover crop incorporation, field plots were planted with susceptible potatoes to evaluate the biofumigation effects on PCN reproduction. In experiment 1, PCN population post-potato harvest was reduced (P = 0.03) in B. juncea-treated plots, while R. sativus prevented further multiplication, but in experiment 2 there were no significant effects on PCN reproduction. In experiment 3, B. juncea or R. sativus either untreated or treated with metconazole reduced PCN populations. Glucosinolate concentrations varied significantly between different plant regions and cultivation seasons. Metconazole application increased the sinigrin concentration in B. juncea tissues. Glucosinolate concentrations correlated positively with PCN mortality for summer-cultivated brassicaceous plants. The results demonstrated that B. juncea and R. sativus green manures can play an important role in PCN management, particularly if included in an integrated pest management scheme. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreedhara, C.S.; Vaidya, V.P.; Vagdevi, H.M.; Latha, K.P.; Muralikrishna, K.S.; Krupanidhi, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Ethanol extract of the stem of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats and mice were the experimental animals respectively. Different CNS depressant paradigms like analgesic activity (determined by Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method) and anti-inflammatory activity determined by carrageenan induced paw edema using plethysmometer in albino rats) were carried out, following the intra-peritoneal administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (BP) at the dose level of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Results: The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of BP were significant (P Bauhinia purpurea has shown significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at the dose of 100 mg/kg and was comparable with corresponding standard drugs. The activity was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents in the tested extract. PMID:20336222

  10. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  11. Influence of phytochemicals in piper betle linn leaf extract on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Le Thi; Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Do Minh; Hang, Pham Luong; Nghia, Phan Tuan; Thang, Nguyen Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing has being extensively investigated over the world. Healing impairment is caused by many reasons including increasing of free-radicals-mediated damage, delaying in granulation tissue formation, reducing in angiogenesis and decreasing in collagen reorganization. These facts consequently lead to chronic wound healing. Piper betle Linn (Betle) leaves have been folklore used as an ingredient of drugs for cutaneous wound treatment. However, the effect of betle leaf on wound healing is not yet well elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the healing efficacy of methanol leaf extract of Piper betle Linn on proliferation of fibroblast NIH3T3 cells as well as full-thickness burn and excision wounds in swiss mice. Scratch wound healing assays were conducted to examine the effects of betle leaf extract on healing activity of fibroblast cells. Burn and excision wounds on swiss mouse skins were created for investigating the wound healing progress caused by the betle leaf extract. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also evaluated to examine the products of lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) under conditions of with or without betle leaf extract treatment. The results of this study showed that Piper betle Linn leaf extract in methanol increased proliferation of NIH3T3 cells and promoted wound healing in vitro and in vivo with both burn wound and excision wound models. In addition, this extract significant decreased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver of treated-mice compared with that in non-treated mice. Our results suggest that Piper betle Linn can be used as an ingredient in developing natural origin drugs for treatment of cutaneous wounds.

  12. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. ethanolic extract fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Singh Sikarwar; M B Patil

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study investigates the antihyperlipidemic effect of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. (Malvaceae) ethanolic extract fractions in triton and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Oral administrations of 500 mg/kg body weight of various fractions of selected plant were evaluated for possible antihyperlipidemic activity in triton and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats for duration of 48 h and 14 days respectively. In triton model, hyperlipidemia was i...

  13. Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide d...

  14. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Moniruzzaman; Md. Atikur Rahman; Afia Ferdous

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the p...

  15. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardali, Eleni; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papadelli, Marina; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem development and the dynamics of the lactic acid bacteria population during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine at 20 and 30 °C. In both temperatures, lactic acid bacteria prevailed the fermentation; as a result, the pH value was reduced to ca. 3.6 and total titrable acidity increased to ca. 0.4% lactic acid. Enterococci population increased and formed a secondary microbiota while pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds populations were below enumeration limit already before the middle of fermentation. Pediococcus pentosaceus dominated during the first days, followed by Lactobacillus plantarum that prevailed the fermentation until the end. Lactobacillus brevis was also detected during the final days of fermentation. A succession at sub-species level was revealed by the combination of RAPD-PCR and rep-PCR analyses. Glucose and fructose were the main carbohydrates detected in brine and were metabolized into lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol.

  16. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  17. Raman Imaging of Plant Cell Walls in Sections of Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeise, Ingrid; Heiner, Zsuzsanna; Holz, Sabine; Joester, Maike; Büttner, Carmen; Kneipp, Janina

    2018-01-25

    Raman microspectra combine information on chemical composition of plant tissues with spatial information. The contributions from the building blocks of the cell walls in the Raman spectra of plant tissues can vary in the microscopic sub-structures of the tissue. Here, we discuss the analysis of 55 Raman maps of root, stem, and leaf tissues of Cucumis sativus , using different spectral contributions from cellulose and lignin in both univariate and multivariate imaging methods. Imaging based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) indicates different substructures in the xylem cell walls of the different tissues. Using specific signals from the cell wall spectra, analysis of the whole set of different tissue sections based on the Raman images reveals differences in xylem tissue morphology. Due to the specifics of excitation of the Raman spectra in the visible wavelength range (532 nm), which is, e.g., in resonance with carotenoid species, effects of photobleaching and the possibility of exploiting depletion difference spectra for molecular characterization in Raman imaging of plants are discussed. The reported results provide both, specific information on the molecular composition of cucumber tissue Raman spectra, and general directions for future imaging studies in plant tissues.

  18. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2013-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from cell suspension cultures of Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, P P; Tricoli, D M

    1988-06-01

    A procedure for the regeneration of whole cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsett 76) by embryogenesis from cell suspension cultures is described. Embryogenic callus was initiated from the primary leaves of 14-17 day old plants. Suspension cultures of embryogenic cells were grown in liquid Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing 5 uM 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4 uM 6-benzylaminopurine. Suspension cultures were composed of a population of cells that were densely cytoplasmic and potentially embryogenic. Differentiation of embryos was enhanced by washing the suspension culture cells with MS basal medium containing 0.5% activated charcoal and twice with MS basal medium followed by liquid shake cultures in MS basal medium. Sixty to 70 percent of the embryos prewashed with activated charcoal germinated into plantlets with normal morphology. Embryos obtained from suspension cultured cells without prewashing with activated charcoal organized into plantlets with abnormal primary leaves. Morphologically normal plantlets were obtained by excising the shoot tips and transferring them to fresh medium.

  20. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in digestive disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaee Khorasany

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  1. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentolhoda Mousavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent in adult patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily, crocin (15 mg twice daily or placebo. Results: A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE, but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. Conclusions: This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  2. Latent potyvirus infections in Crocus sativus artwrightianus: an underestimated problem in saffron?

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    Maria GRILLI CAIOLA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In over two decades, while studying saffron reproductive biology, we frequently found ultrastructural alterations typical of potyvirus infection in stigmas, styles and leaves of Crocus sativus (saffron and C. cartwrightianus (wild and ornamental species, a putative ancestor of saffron from different provenance. This suggests that these viruses are widely diffused in cultivated Crocus spp., possibly causing latent infections. The few data found in literature, while highlighting the general lack of attention given by plant virologists to Crocus spp., nevertheless confi rm that potyviruses, particularly Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, can cause asymptomatic infections in these host species. The reasons and possible implications of widely distributed potyvirus latent infections in Crocus spp. are reported and discussed, with the aim of increasing general awareness of these viruses, and of encouraging sanitary selection programs focused on saffron, that could improve the quantity and quality of yields of the most expensive spice commodity grown.

  3. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint.

  4. A Comprehensive Look at Nitrogen and Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.

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    Alireza Koocheki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is an annual plant from a biological aspect, but it has a perennial cycle in the field conditions. Cytological impairments such as triploid and self-incompatibility mechanisms are considered as the most important reasons for male-sterility in saffron. Therefore, saffron reproduction is made by meristems tissues and establishment of new daughter corms which are produced by the mother corms. During the growing season, mother corms deteriorate gradually with increasing daughter corms growth. Each daughter corm is considered as a mother corm for replanting in the next growing season. Duo to the life cycle of saffron as a perennial plant in the field conditions, the gradual deterioration of mother corms during the growing season and also the remobilization of nitrogen and phosphorus from aerial part to daughter corms at the end of each growing season, the study of acquisition and use efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in saffron is more complicated than other annual or biannual plants. Firstly, the objective of this review article is to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in aerial parts and daughter corms in saffron. In addition, relevant literature related to the most important strategies for improving nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency is reviewed. Secondly, the relationship between nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency in saffron is discussed.

  5. Attraction of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to four varieties of Lathyrus sativus L. seed volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A

    2015-04-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.

  6. Energetic balance from biodiesel production of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Rubens [Parana Agronomical Institute (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: siqueira@iapar.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Boller, Walter [University of Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Agronomical and Veterinary College

    2008-07-01

    It was evaluated the energetic balance and the energetic efficiency of the oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) crop under the no-tillage system. The energy input totalized 6,718 MJ ha{sup -1} where the industrial processing, the fertilizer and the herbicide had participation of 30.7; 23.0 and 20.2 %, respectively. The energy production was 56,650.94 MJ ha{sup -1} and the produced grains have represented 33.2 % of the total. The energetic demand for the production of one kg of biomass of the aerial part, one kg of oil and one kg of biodiesel were respectively 1,829; 19,000 and 27,422 kJ. There was a return of 8.44 for each energy unit used in the process. The net gain of energy was 49,932 MJ ha{sup -1} which is equivalent in energy to 1,295 L diesel oil. (author)

  7. A comprehensive review of the pharmacological potential of Crocus sativus and its bioactive apocarotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Imran; Manzoor, Mahreen; Dhar, M K

    2018-02-01

    Crocus sativus is an herbaceous plant that belongs to family Iridaceae. It is commonly known as saffron and has been used for medicinal purposes since many centuries in India and other parts of the world. Saffron of commercial importance comprises of dried stigmas of the plant and is rich in flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids. Carotenoids represent the main components of saffron and their cleavage results in the formation of apocarotenoids such as crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal. Studies conducted during the past two decades have revealed the immense therapeutic potential of saffron. Most of the therapeutic properties are due to the presence of unique apocarotenoids having strong free radical scavenging activity. The mode of action of these apocarotenoids could be: modulatory effects on detoxifying enzymes involved in combating oxidative stress, decreasing telomerase activity, increased the proapoptotic effect, inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, and by a strong binding capacity of crocetin with tRNA. The present review focuses on the therapeutic role of saffron and its bio oxidative cleavage products and also highlights the possible molecular mechanism of action. The findings reported in this review describes the wide range of applications of saffron and attributes its free radical scavenging nature the main property which makes this spice a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. INFLUENCIA DE LA DENSIDAD DE SIEMBRA Y LA PODA EN EL CULTIVO DEL PEPINO (Cucumis sativus

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    Paublo Javier Bravo Bravo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la influencia de la densidad de siembra y el número de poda de ejes en el cultivo de pepino (Cucumis sativus. Se estudiaron tres distancias de siembra 1.0x0.2, 1.0x0.4 y 1.0x 0.6 m y la poda de ejes productivos dejando 1, 2 y 3 ejes por planta. La poda se realizó a los 30 días después del trasplante. Se evaluaron las características del fruto de diámetro (cm, longitud (cm, peso (g, fruto por planta y rendimiento por hectárea. Los tratamientos se distribuyeron en un diseño de bloques al azar y los datos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza. Se obtuvo diferencias para la variable rendimiento/hectárea con respecto al resto de las variables evaluadas.

  9. Phenological growth stages of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L. according to the BBCH Scale

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    Horacio Lopez-Corcoles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of climate dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on plants and can be used in many scientific subjects, such as Agronomy, Botany and Plant Biology, but also Climatology as a result of the current global interest in climate change monitoring. The purpose of the detailed specific culture descriptions of the principal growth stages in plants is to provide an instrument for standardization of data recording. To date, there was no coding method to describe developmental stages on saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.. Because of the increasing world-wide interest on this crop, a novel growth development code based on the BBCH extended scale is proposed in this paper. Six principal growth stages were set up, starting from sprouting, cataphylls and flowers appearance, plant appearance and development, replacement corms development, plant senescence and corm dormancy. Each principal growth stage is subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are included to make effective use of the system.

  10. Phenological growth stages of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.) according to the BBCH Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Corcoles, H.; Brasa-Ramos, A.; Montero-Garcia, F.; Romero-Valverde, M.; Montero-Riquelme, F.

    2015-07-01

    Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of climate dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on plants and can be used in many scientific subjects, such as Agronomy, Botany and Plant Biology, but also Climatology as a result of the current global interest in climate change monitoring. The purpose of the detailed specific culture descriptions of the principal growth stages in plants is to provide an instrument for standardization of data recording. To date, there was no coding method to describe developmental stages on saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Because of the increasing world-wide interest on this crop, a novel growth development code based on the BBCH extended scale is proposed in this paper. Six principal growth stages were set up, starting from sprouting, cataphylls and flowers appearance, plant appearance and development, replacement corms development, plant senescence and corm dormancy. Each principal growth stage is subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are included to make effective use of the system. (Author)

  11. Identification of a New Antibacterial Sulfur Compound from Raphanus sativus Seeds

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    Jeries Jadoun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raphanus sativus L. (radish, a member of Brassicaceae, is widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of several diseases and disorders associated with microbial infections. The antibacterial activity of the different plant parts has been mainly attributed to several isothiocyanate (ITC compounds. However, the low correlation between the ITC content and antibacterial activity suggests the involvement of other unknown compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial potential of red radish seeds and identify the active compounds. A crude ethanol seed extract was prepared and its antibacterial activity was tested against five medically important bacteria. The ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of all tested strains. However, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced against Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract followed by HPLC, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 15N-NMR, and HMBC analysis revealed that the active fraction consisted of a single new compound identified as [5-methylsulfinyl-1-(4-methylsulfinyl-but-3-enyl-pent-4-enylidene]-sulfamic acid, which consisted of two identical sulfur side chains similar to those found in ITCs. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of the isolated compound were in the range of 0.5–1 mg/mL. These results further highlight the role of radish as a rich source of antibacterial compounds.

  12. Potency of Lobak Leaves (Raphanus sativus L. var. hortensis Back as Anticancer and Antimicrobial Candidates

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    ESTU RETNANINGTYAS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of vegetables can preventive cancer and have been used traditionally to cure infection, such as lobak (Raphanus sativus L.. Ineffectiveness antibiotics to against microbial infections was still problem until now. Types of antibiotics and anticancer agents from natural resources should be explored and developed. This study was aimed to know toxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of active fractions from lobak leaves. Toxicity study was conducted using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST. Samples were prepared at the concentration of 100, 500, and 1000μg/mL. Antibacterial study against Staphylococcus aureus was conducted using agar-well diffusion method at concentration 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 100%. Ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract is the most active that had larger clear zone in S. aureus culture (10,64 mm and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract is the most active against A. salina (84% death A. salina at 100 µg/mL. Bioactive compounds at active fraction were identified to contain polar compounds.

  13. Adaptation of radish Raphanus sativus L. in response to continuous exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmsley, L.; Ashmore, M.R.; Bell, J.N.B.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between the development of radish Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle in clean air and under continuous exposure to 0 x 17 ppm (340 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) of ozone. The area and dry weight of the individual leaves, and the dry weight of other plant organs, were determined at frequent, regular intervals throughout the experiment. Although the commercial yield of the ozone-treated plants, expressed as hypocotyl dry weight, was significantly reduced, changes in the pattern of development of these plants were observed which were of adaptive value. The pattern of assimilate distribution was altered so that new leaves were produced more rapidly in the ozone-treated plants. These later leaves were more resistant to ozone, showing a slower rate of senescence than the cotyledons or first leaves. Measurements of stomatal resistance suggested that this was an acquired, rather than an inherent, characteristic of the later leaves. By the end of the experiment, the relative growth rates in the two treatments did not differ significantly.

  14. Resistance Evaluation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. Inbred Lines against Turnip mosaic virus

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    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of twenties radish (Raphanus sativus L. inbred lines were mechanically inoculated with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV strain HY to evaluate TuMV resistance of the radish inbred lines. The inoculated radish plants were incubated at 22°C±3°C and resistance assessment was examined using symptom development for 4 weeks. Based on the reactions of differential radish inbred lines, 16 radish lines were produced mild mosaic, mottling, mosaic and severe mosaic symptoms by TuMV infection. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of TuMV coat protein gene, suggesting that TuMV is responsible for the disease symptoms. Four resistant radish lines did not induce systemic mosaic symptoms on upper leaves and chlorosis in stem tissues for 4 weeks, showing they were symptomless by 8 weeks. Further examination of TuMV infection in the 4 radish lines showed no TuMV infection in all systemic leaves. These results suggest that the 4 radish lines are highly resistant to TuMV.

  15. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

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    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  16. Peroxidase activity in Raphanus sativus and its relationship with soil heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, H.; Zare Myvan, H.; Sharifi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Today heavy metals are important environmental pollutants which generated from human activities and are one of the most important environmental stresses that cause molecular damages to plants through reactive oxygen species formation such as H2O2. Heavy metals are absorbed and accumulated by plants thus are absorbed by human bodies through the food chain. Raphanus sativus is a herbaceous plant within the Brassicaceae family that has different varieties and is used as a food plant in different parts of Iran. Peroxidase is one of the most important enzyme in oxidoreductase super family that can metabolize H2O2. In this research we studied some growth parameters, peroxidase activity and their relationships with heavy metal content and other soil factors in three different populations of radish collected from Sari, Semnan and south of Tehran. After harvesting the plants shoots and roots Peroxidase activity was assayed spectrophotometrically at 470 nm. Our results showed total heavy metal content of shomal 3 station soil and radish plants was higher than other stations, so plants collected from this station had lowest root and shoot lengths, fresh weights, dry weights, protein content and leaf collrophyll content. The peroxidase activity in both leaves and roots of these plants was higher than plants of other stations Therefore our results showed that with increasing heavy metal concentrations in soils peroxidase activity increased.

  17. Hormone and Microorganism Treatments in the Cultivation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Plants

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    Aynur Ozkul Acikgoz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The difficult cultivation of the saffron plant (Crocus Sativus L. make the spice of the same name made from its dried stigmas very valuable. It is estimated that some 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas are required to make a single pound of saffron, which explains why it is the world’s most expensive spice. The aim of this study was to identify ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron. For this purpose, the treatment of saffron bulbs with a synthetic growth hormone – a mixture of Polystimulins A6 and K – and two different microorganism based materials – biohumus or vermicompost and Effective Microorganisms™ (EM – in four different ways (hormone alone, biohumus alone, EM alone and EM+biohumus was investigated to determine whether these treatments have any statistically meaningful effects on corms and stigmas. It has been shown that EM + biohumus was the most effective choice for improved saffron cultivation.

  18. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  19. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

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    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  20. A comparative analysis of phloem exudate proteins from Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, D D; Hart, J W

    1976-01-01

    Proteins in sieve tube exudate from Cucumis melo L., Cucumis sativus L. and Cucurbita maxima Duch. were analysed by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Estimated molecular weights and isoelectric points for the major and minor proteins from each plant species are presented. Electrophoresis revealed striking differences between the protein complements of exudatc from the two genera investigated. Similarly, although a few exudate proteins from the two species of Cucumis possessed identical molecular weights, several major proteins were peculiar to each species. Isoelectric focusing of proteins in exudate samples from the three plants confirmed the marked differences in their protein complements. Furthermore, focusing also revealed differences between cultivars of Cucumis sativus. Both Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima possessed relatively large amounts of basic proteins; these were absent in exudate from Cucumis melo. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to present concepts regarding the interrelationships and possible functional roles of P-proteins.

  1. In Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethanol Extract of Buas-buas (Premna serratifolia Linn

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    Dini Hadiarti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, diabetics in Indonesia has reached 8,5 million of 11,1 % prevalence in West Kalimantan. It was estimated to reach 14,1 million in 2035. The treatment of diabetes may occur adverse reactions such as hypoglycemia, lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, lactic acidosis, gastrointestinal disturbances, allergic reactions, and obesity. Therefore, it is necessary to find an alternative medicine to overcome this problem. Buas-buas (Premna serratifolia Linn could supposedly be an anti diabetic by inhibiting the α-glucosidase enzyme, due to the compositions of secondary metabolites, cardioprotective activity and it has a similar genus with Premna serratifolia Linn. The soxhlet extraction result from Premna serrtifolia Linn leaf powders produced of 34,1 % yield. Meanwhile, the activity of α-glucosidase in vitroinhibition test with amicroplate reader in various concentrations of samples of 0,125, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, dan 2,5 2% (b/v were obtained the absorptions of 37,95, 74,77, 86,15, 91,03 and 91,69 %, respectively. The extraction of Premna serratifolia Linn leaf revealed that the concentration of 2 % of sample inhibited in vitro α-glucosidase with a percentage of 91,03 %. The extraction of Premna serratifolia Linn leafinhibited α-glucosidase of 97 % from the percentage of Acarboseinhibition.

  2. Screening of Phytoconstituents, Investigation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Cucumis sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahar, A.; Naqvi, S.A.; Khan, Z.A.; Ahmad, M.; Hussain, Z.; Sahar, T.; Nosheen, S.

    2013-01-01

    The phytoconstituents, antioxidant potential and antibacterial activity of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) cultivated in Pakistan were studied. In addition, the effect of extraction techniques (mercerization and refluxing) on the total phenolics, antioxidant activity and antibacterial potential of C. sativus fruit pulp were also studied. Methanol extract was screened for its phytoconstituents. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determination of total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC) and performing different in vitro antioxidant models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, reducing power, percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid and nitric oxide free radical scavenging assays. Phytochemicals screening results revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, tannic acid and saponins while absence of alkaloids, steroids and anthraquinones. The TPC was found in appreciable concentration (41.03 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) in extract obtained by 4h methanolic mercerization. Long refluxing technique (4h refluxing) was found unfavorable to some extent as it resulted only 33.69 mg GAE/g TPC in methanolic extract. Anyhow the extraction with water using mercerization and refluxing techniques found least effective e.g. 4h mercerization and refluxing showed 14.14 and 18.16 mg GAE/g respectively. Antibacterial assay showed extract obtained by 4h and 2h methanolic mercerization have good potential to inhibit the growth (09.6+-0.7 to 18.5+-0.8 mm) of infection causing bacteria. The results of antioxidants and antibacterial in vitro assays advocated that 4h methanolic mercerization is an effective extraction technique. Therefore, it could be concluded that methanolic mercerization is a technique of maximum extraction of phenolics and bioactive constituents. (author)

  3. Phylogenetics of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae: Cucumber (C. sativus belongs in an Asian/Australian clade far from melon (C. melo

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    Schaefer Hanno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon, Cucumis melo, and cucumber, C. sativus, are among the most widely cultivated crops worldwide. Cucumis, as traditionally conceived, is geographically centered in Africa, with C. sativus and C. hystrix thought to be the only Cucumis species in Asia. This taxonomy forms the basis for all ongoing Cucumis breeding and genomics efforts. We tested relationships among Cucumis and related genera based on DNA sequences from chloroplast gene, intron, and spacer regions (rbcL, matK, rpl20-rps12, trnL, and trnL-F, adding nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences to resolve relationships within Cucumis. Results Analyses of combined chloroplast sequences (4,375 aligned nucleotides for 123 of the 130 genera of Cucurbitaceae indicate that the genera Cucumella, Dicaelospermum, Mukia, Myrmecosicyos, and Oreosyce are embedded within Cucumis. Phylogenetic trees from nuclear sequences for these taxa are congruent, and the combined data yield a well-supported phylogeny. The nesting of the five genera in Cucumis greatly changes the natural geographic range of the genus, extending it throughout the Malesian region and into Australia. The closest relative of Cucumis is Muellerargia, with one species in Australia and Indonesia, the other in Madagascar. Cucumber and its sister species, C. hystrix, are nested among Australian, Malaysian, and Western Indian species placed in Mukia or Dicaelospermum and in one case not yet formally described. Cucumis melo is sister to this Australian/Asian clade, rather than being close to African species as previously thought. Molecular clocks indicate that the deepest divergences in Cucumis, including the split between C. melo and its Australian/Asian sister clade, go back to the mid-Eocene. Conclusion Based on congruent nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies we conclude that Cucumis comprises an old Australian/Asian component that was heretofore unsuspected. Cucumis sativus evolved within this Australian

  4. Raphanus sativus extract protects against Zearalenone induced reproductive toxicity, oxidative stress and mutagenic alterations in male Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A; Oueslati, Ridha

    2009-04-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. It has been implicated in several mycotoxicosis in farm animals and in humans. There is unequivocal evidence of reproductive toxicity of ZEN in male mice although the mechanism of action is unknown. Several reports suggest that exposure to ZEN resulted in oxidative stress, genotoxicity and perturbation of reproductive parameters. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effects of aqueous extract of Raphanus sativus growing in Tunisia against ZEN-induced reproductive toxicity and oxidative stress. Fifty male Balb/c mice were divided into five groups and treated for 28 days as follows: the control group, olive oil-treated groups, another treated with ZEN (40 mg/kg b.w), the last one treated with R. sativus extract alone (15 mg/kg b.w) and the other with ZEN + R. sativus extract. Testis samples were collected for the epididymal sperm count, testosterone concentration, and MDA level, GPx, CAT and SOD activities. Blood samples were collected for different biochemical analyses. Also, RAPD-PCR method was performed to assess the antigenotoxic effect of the extract in germ cells. The results indicated that ZEN-induced toxicological effects in accordance to those reported in the literature: decreasing in the sperm number, testosterone level and antioxidant enzyme status. The RAPD-PCR analysis revealed an alteration in the DNA bands patterns between control and ZEN-treated mice. The extract alone, rich in many antioxidant compounds, was safe and succeeded in counteracting the oxidative stress and protect against the toxicity resulting from ZEN.

  5. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ozone effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle): foliar sensitivity as related to metabolite levels and cell architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassious, R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the first four leaves of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle) was followed to determine the relationship between foliar sensitivity to ozone as related to selected soluble metabolites and leaf-cell arrangement. Although relatively high metabolite (protein, sugars, phenols) levels and compact cell arrangement may be advanced as factors contributing to the resistance of young leaves (L/sub 3,4/ of 21-day old plants) these same parameters do not explain the resistance of old leaves (L/sub 1,2/ of 30-day old plants). 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Ozone effects on growth of radish plants as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition and by temperature. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Adedipe, N.O.; Hofstra, G.

    1973-10-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish) plants were grown in sand culture at two temperatures and fed with nutrient solutions containing relatively low or high levels of either N or P. At the 4-leaf stage, the plants were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 25 pphm for 4 h. Ozone treatments resulted in decreased dry weight of low- and high-N plants at both temperatures and of low and high P plants only at the lower temperature. The study showed that air pollutant growth reduction is not necessarily accentuated by luxuriant growth resulting from high nutritional status. Responses to the nutrition of specific mineral nutrients depend on the modifying affect of temperature.

  8. VALUE OF CLINICAL PULMONARY INFECTION SCORE IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS: BETWEEN THE USE OF CHLORHEXIDINE AND PIPER BETLE LINN MOUTHWASH

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    Irfany Nurul Hamid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the complications of ventilator use in patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU is Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP. Oral hygienes is one of the methods to prevent VAP. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the value of clinical infection score (CPIS in critically ill patients after given oral hygiene using chlorhexidine and Piper betle Linn mouthwash. Methods: This was an observational study with cross-sectional study design, which consisted of two intervention groups. Thirty respondents were selected using total sampling, with 15 respondents randomly assigned in each group. Independent t-test was used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that the mean of CPIS in the Piper betle Linn group was 3.80 and the mean of CPIS in the chlorhexidine group was 4.07. Conclusion: CPIS in the treatment group using Piper betle Linn mouthwash was lower than the mean of CPIS in the treatment group using clorhexidine.

  9. Pengujian Fitokimia dan Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol Jantung Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca LINN. dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

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    Meytij Jeanne Rampe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok (Musa Paradisiaca Linn. dengan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT.  Pengujian dilakukan untuk mencari beberapa senyawa kimia dari ekstrak jantung pisang Musa Paradisaca. Linn serta mengetahui efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach.  Maserasi jantung pisang kepok dilakukan dengan menggunakan etanol. Ekstrak etanol yang diperoleh dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas. Hasil pengujian fitokimia menunjukkan ekstrak etanol jantung pisang Musa paradisiaca. Linn memiliki komposisi senyawa flavonoid, kumarin dan senyawa fenolik lainnya. Ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok memberikan efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 806,8 μg/mL.Kata kunci: jantung pisang kepok, fitokimia, toksisitas, BSLT.

  10. Ecotoxicity of halloysite nanotube-supported palladium nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgetti, Lucia; Riela, Serena; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Scialabba, Anna; Massaro, Marina

    2016-10-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are natural nanomaterials that are biocompatible and available in large amounts at low prices. They are emerging nanomaterials with appealing properties for applications like support for metal nanoparticles (NPs). The potential environmental impacts of NPs can be understood in terms of phytotoxicity. Current research has been focusing on HNT applications in cell or animal models, while their use in plants is limited so their ecotoxicological impact is poorly documented. To date there are no studies on the phytotoxic effects of functionalized halloysites (functionalized-HNTs). To develop a quantitative risk assessment model for predicting the potential impact of HNT-supported palladium nanoparticles (HNT-PdNPs) on plant life, an investigation was undertaken to explore their effects on seed germination, seedling development, and mitotic division in root tip cells of 2 lots of Raphanus sativus L. with different vigor. The results showed that exposure to 1500 mg/L of HNTs, functionalized-HNTs, and HNT-PdNPs had no significant influence on germination, seedling development, xylem differentiation, or mitotic index in both lots. Cytogenetic analyses revealed that treatments with functionalized-HNT significantly increased the number of aberrations in low-vigor seeds. These results suggest that low-vigor seeds represent a model for a stress test that would be useful to monitor the effects of NPs. Moreover the present study offers scientific evidence for the use of halloysite for environmental purposes, supporting the biological safety of HNT-PdNPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2503-2510. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

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    Arash Omidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24 were randomly assigned into four groups including: I healthy, receiving normal saline; II Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg; III pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg; IV pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg. Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats.

  12. Metabolomic approach: postharvest storage stability of red radish (raphanus sativus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, J.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Post harvest storage of vegetables at different temperature for consumption is commonly practiced that need standardization. Among vegetables, red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a well known and commonly consumed vegetable all over the world. Its bioactive or nutritional constituents include a wide range of metabolites including, glucosinolates, phenolics, amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. However, many of these metabolites are not stable and can easily be degraded or modified during storage. In order to investigate the metabolomic changes during post harvest storage, radish samples (intact roots and aerial parts) were subjected to four different storage temperatures above and below 0 degree C (20 degree C, 4 degree C, -20 degree C, and -80 degree C), for a maximum of 28 days. 1H-NMR and two-dimensional NMR spectra data resulting from the analysis of the different samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate any possible metabolomic changes. A profound chemical alteration was observed in primary and secondary metabolites. Glucosinolates, phenylpropanoids, organic acids, amino acids, and sugars were found to be the discriminating metabolites for the storage effect. Initially, an increase in secondary metabolites (phenolics and glucosinolates) was observed, but levels of these compounds decreased in later stages, probably due to the breakdown of these products. Whereas late storage samples contained high amounts of amino acids (alanine, valine, threonine, (gama-amino-butyric acid / GABA)) and some glucosinolates (glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin). This phenomenon was pronounced at room temperature as compared to other storage temperatures. Interestingly even at lower and freezing temperatures metabolomic changes in these biological samples were observed. The least metabolomic changes were observed at samples stored at -80 degree C. While studying temperature dependent metabolomic changes, high levels of glucose, adenine, alanine

  13. MENTIMUN(Cucumis Sativus L DI DESA TIRTA MULYA KECAMATAN MAKARTI JAYA KABUPATEN BANYUASIN II

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    Irham Falahudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. that includes or creeping vines and is one type of vegetable-fruit of the gourd family labuan (Cucurbitaceae that has been popular throughout the world and favored from Asia. Cucumber cultivation in Indonesia, found almost in every region, ranging from lowland to highland hot climate (tropical and moderate. One animal that has an abundant amount in cucumber plants are insects. This study aims to know the different types of species that exist on the Order Coleoptera cucumber farm in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II and determine the role of the Order Coleoptera insects on cucumber plantations in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II. This is a qualitative study conducted in October-November 2014 held in Cucumber Plants in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II. Catching insects done using transect method and pitfall traps such as sweeping the net, pit fall traps and light traps, results in identification in the laboratory penelitanya UIN Raden Fatah Palembang. The results of this study indicate that insects are caught in a cucumber plantation obtained as many as 113 individual 3 families and 7 species. Insects which dominates in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II is Cocinella repanda, Curinus coeruleus, Coelophora inaequalis, and Aulacophora similis, and insects that have the fewest number is Micraspis discolor, Micraspis vincta and Oryctes rhinoceros. The role of the Order Coleoptera Insects in general predators of the family Coccinellidae to eradicate mites while the family Chrysomelidae Scarabacidae and are pests that attack on cucumber plants that can cause death.

  14. Cucumis sativus Aqueous Fraction Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress In Vitro

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    Celeste Trejo-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress play major roles in endothelial dysfunction, and are key factors in the progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of three subfractions (SFs from the Cucumis sativus aqueous fraction to reduce inflammatory factors and oxidative stress induced by angiotensin II (Ang II in human microvascular endothelial cells-1 (HMEC-1 cells. The cells were cultured with different concentrations of Ang II and 0.08 or 10 μg/mL of SF1, SF2, or SF3, or 10 μmol of losartan as a control. IL-6 (Interleukin 6 concentration was quantified. To identify the most effective SF combinations, HMEC-1 cells were cultured as described above in the presence of four combinations of SF1 and SF3. Then, the effects of the most effective combination on the expression of adhesion molecules, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO were evaluated. Finally, a mass spectrometry analysis was performed. Both SF1 and SF3 subfractions decreased the induction of IL-6 by Ang II, and C4 (SF1 and SF3, 10 μg/mL each was the most effective combination to inhibit the production of IL-6. Additionally, C4 prevented the expression of adhesion molecules, reduced the production of ROS, and increased the bioavailability of NO. Glycine, arginine, asparagine, lysine, and aspartic acid were the main components of both subfractions. These results demonstrate that C4 has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  15. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Lan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yin-Xing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, which when occurs in excess in the growth medium, becomes toxic to plants. Rapid inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of B toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in plants. In the present study, we investigated the role of H(2)S in B toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Root elongation was significantly inhibited by exposure of cucumber seedlings to solutions containing 5 mM B. The inhibitory effect of B on root elongation was substantially alleviated by treatment with H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). There was an increase in the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) and up-regulated expression of genes encoding PME (CsPME) and expansin (CsExp) on exposure to high B concentration. The increase in PME activity and up-regulation of expression of CsPME and CsExp induced by high B concentration were markedly reduced in the presence of H(2)S donor. There was a rapid increase in soluble B concentrations in roots on exposure to high concentration B solutions. Treatment with H(2)S donor led to a transient reduction in soluble B concentration in roots such that no differences in soluble B concentrations in roots in the absence and presence of NaHS were found after 8 h exposure to the high concentration B solutions. These findings suggest that increases in activities of PME and expansin may underlie the inhibition of root elongation by toxic B, and that H(2)S plays an ameliorative role in protection of plants from B toxicity by counteracting B-induced up-regulation of cell wall-associated proteins of PME and expansins.

  16. Bioavailability of cerium oxide nanoparticles to Raphanus sativus L. in two soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Schwab, Paul; Wang, Qiang; Ebbs, Stephen D; Ma, Xingmao

    2017-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NP) are a common component of many commercial products. Due to the general concerns over the potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), the phytotoxicity and in planta accumulation of CeO 2 NPs have been broadly investigated. However, most previous studies were conducted in hydroponic systems and with grain crops. For a few studies performed with soil grown plants, the impact of soil properties on the fate and transport of CeO 2 NPs was generally ignored even though numerous previous studies indicate that soil properties play a critical role in the fate and transport of environmental pollutants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the soil fractionation and bioavailability of CeO 2 NPs to Raphanus sativus L (radish) in two soil types. Our results showed that the silty loam contained slightly higher exchangeable fraction (F1) of cerium element than did loamy sand soil, but significantly lower reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions as CeO 2 NPs concentration increased. CeO 2 NPs associated with silicate minerals or the residue fraction (F4) dominated in both soils. The cerium concentration in radish storage root showed linear correlation with the sum of the first three fractions (r 2  = 0.98 and 0.78 for loamy sand and silty loam respectively). However, the cerium content in radish shoots only exhibited strong correlations with F1 (r 2  = 0.97 and 0.89 for loamy sand and silty loam respectively). Overall, the results demonstrated that soil properties are important factors governing the distribution of CeO 2 NPs in soil and subsequent bioavailability to plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Silicon improves salt tolerance by increasing root water uptake in Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Xing; Xu, Xuan-Bin; Hu, Yan-Hong; Han, Wei-Hua; Yin, Jun-Liang; Li, Huan-Li; Gong, Hai-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Silicon enhances root water uptake in salt-stressed cucumber plants through up-regulating aquaporin gene expression. Osmotic adjustment is a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants. Silicon can alleviate salt stress in plants. However, the mechanism is still not fully understood, and the possible role of silicon in alleviating salt-induced osmotic stress and the underlying mechanism still remain to be investigated. In this study, the effects of silicon (0.3 mM) on Na accumulation, water uptake, and transport were investigated in two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars ('JinYou 1' and 'JinChun 5') under salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited the plant growth and photosynthesis and decreased leaf transpiration and water content, while added silicon ameliorated these negative effects. Silicon addition only slightly decreased the shoot Na levels per dry weight in 'JinYou 1' but not in 'JinChun 5' after 10 days of stress. Silicon addition reduced stress-induced decreases in root hydraulic conductivity and/or leaf-specific conductivity. Expressions of main plasma membrane aquaporin genes in roots were increased by added silicon, and the involvement of aquaporins in water uptake was supported by application of aquaporin inhibitor and restorative. Besides, silicon application decreased the root xylem osmotic potential and increased root soluble sugar levels in 'JinYou 1.' Our results suggest that silicon can improve salt tolerance of cucumber plants through enhancing root water uptake, and silicon-mediated up-regulation of aquaporin gene expression may in part contribute to the increase in water uptake. In addition, osmotic adjustment may be a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants.

  18. Uptake and/or utilization of two simple phenolic acids by Cucumis sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shann, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) from solutions (0.1 to 1.00 mM, pH 4.0 to 7.0), was determined for intact and excised roots of Cucumis sativus. Uptake methods based on high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acid depletion from solution were compared to those radioisotopic methods employing [U-ring- 14 C]FA or p-HBA. Although radiotracer methods more accurately reflected actual uptake of the compounds by cucumber seedlings, HPLC solution depletion methods may be useful in the elucidation of trends over very limited periods of time. The uptake of FA was unaffected by the presence of p-HBA. The uptake of p-HBA was reduced by 30% in the presence of FA when compared to the uptake from solutions containing p-HBA alone. Ferulic acid acts both as an allelopathic agent and precursor in the endogenous process of lignification. To evaluate the involvement of exogenous FA in lignin biosynthesis, roots of hydroponically grown cucumber seedlings were exposed to concentrations of FA labeled with [U-ring- 14 C]FA. Radiotracer was distributed throughout the seedling. A quantitative change in lignification occurred in treated seedlings. In roots and stems, the level of lignin increased with the number of exposures and as the concentrations of exogenous FA increased. Radiotracer was found in the residues of lignin isolated from seedling tissue treated with [U-ring- 14 C]FA. This suggested the utilization of the exogenously applied FA in the endogenous process of lignification

  19. Effect of soil cadmium on growth, photosynthesis and quality of Raphanus sativus and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjyot; Jhanji, Shalini

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) raises serious concerns as its accumulation in the plant not only affect the growth and quality of plant but also threaten the health of consumers. In this research, two vegetables, i.e., radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L), were planted in pots having soil treated with Cd as Cd (NO3)2 at different doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil ) to investigate the influence of cadmium on their growth, photosynthetic attributes and quality. Cadmium retarded plant growth as dry weight of radish roots decline by 87% and leaves by 83% following 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application and the corresponding values for lettuce were 64 and 69% respectively. Significant reductions in various photosynthetic parameters viz., leaf area per plant, total chlorophyll, Chl a and Chl b content were also recorded with Cd applications. The Cd treatments resulted in loss of membrane integrity as revealed by significant increase in electrolyte leakage in leaves of both vegetables. There was significant increase in Cd accumulation in radish and lettuce with all applications but no visual symptoms of Cd toxicity were noticed with 25 and 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil application except for yield differences, illustrating that Cd accumulate in this crop without visual evidence of its presence. However, toxicity symptoms in the form of interveinal chlorosis of the leaf lamina, followed by necrosis and leaf rolling, were clearly evident with 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application. Apparently, Cd causes harm due to its phytotoxic effects and high accumulation in edible parts of radish and lettuce without any visible symptoms that constitutes a substantial hazard to human health.

  20. Kaiware Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) extract: a naturally multipotent chemopreventive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, Jessica; Iori, Renato; Papi, Alessio; Orlandi, Marina; Bartolini, Giovanna; Gabbanini, Simone; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Valgimigli, Luca

    2008-09-10

    Brassica vegetables are attracting major attention as healthy foods because of their content of glucosinolates (GLs) that release the corresponding isothiocyanates (ITCs) upon myrosinase hydrolysis. A number of studies have so far documented the chemopreventive properties of some ITCs. On the other hand, single nutrients detached from the food itself risk being somewhat "reductive", since plants contain several classes of compounds endowed with a polyhedral mechanism of action. Our recent finding that 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRH-ITC) and 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRE-ITC), released by the GLs purified from Japanese (Kaiware) Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds and sprouts, had selective cytotoxic/apoptotic activity on three human colon carcinoma cell lines prompted further research on the potential chemopreventive role of a standardized Kaiware Daikon extract (KDE), containing 10.5% w/w GRH and 3.8% w/w GRE, compared to its isolated components. KDE administered in combination with myrosinase at doses corresponding to 50 microM GRH-ITC plus 15 microM GRE-ITC (50 microM KDE-ITC) to three human cancer cell lines (LoVo, HCT-116 and HT-29) significantly reduced cell growth by 94-96% of control in six days (p oxygen consumption rate), as monitored by Clark-type microelectrode oxygen-uptake kinetics, and induced very fast quenching of DPPH. radical in methanol with t(1/2) (s) = (1.47 +/- 0.25) x 10(-2)/[KDE; (g/L)], measured by stopped-flow UV-vis kinetics at 298 K. The potential chemopreventive role of KDE is discussed.

  1. EVALUATION OF ESTERASE POLYMORPHISMS IN MATURE SEEDS OF RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. ACCESSIONS OF VIR COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rudakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A biochemical evaluation of 25 radish accessions (Raphanus sativus L. on esterase isozymes of mature seeds has been carried out. The results of the experiments showed a wide range of diversity among the genotypes based on electrophoretic zones of esterase isoenzymes. The revealed isoenzyme complex of esterases was represented by eight isoforms with molecular weights from 37.7 kD to 57.6 kD. All accessions were divided into 13 electrophoretic zymotypes, differing from each other by the presence or absence of definite zones. The most often observed electrophoretic zymo-type is Gr. 1, which includes 24% of the total number of accessions evaluated. There are 8 zymotypes (Gr. 6 Gr. 13 with a frequency of occurrence 4%. Three groups (Gr. 2 – Gr. 4 had the same frequency of occurrence – 12%. Zimotype of Gr. 5 containes the maximum number of zones – 8. 2 zimotypes – Gr. 3 and Gr. 12 had the smallest number of 4 zones. Two zones of esterases – zones 7 and 8 (Мr 39.7кD and Мr 37.7 kD, respectively were monomorphic. The remaining six zones were polymorphic, i.e. could be absent in some zimotypes. The frequency of occurrence of each zone in different zymotypes has varied from 6.58% to 17.11%. As results of this research the accessions that were selected can become the most promising parent forms for future genetic and selection studies of this culture.

  2. Carrot (Daucus carota L . ssp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. as source of antioxidants

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    Judita BYSTRICKÁ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carrot (Daucus carota L. s sp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. is a significant source of vitamins (A, B, C and beta carotene. Further it contains vitamins B, C, E, H, folic acid and pantothenic acid. Carrot is an important source of trace elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, P, S, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Consumption of carrot improves eyesight, lowers cholesterol and improves digestion. In this work we evaluated and compared content of total polyphenols, ß-caroteneand antioxidant activity in five varieties of carrot (’Jitka’, Kardila’, Katlen , Rubína’ and Koloseum Samples of carrot were collected at full maturity stages from area of Bardejov. Samples of fresh carrot were homogenized (25 g in 50 ml 80 % ethanol and analysed after sixteen hours. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The content of ß-carotene was determined spectrophotometricaly at 450 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm using spectrophotometer. Total polyphenols content in samples ranged from 81.25 ± 13.11 mg/kg to 113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg and content of ß-carotenes ranged from 24.58 ± 2.38 mg/kg to 124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg. We also evaluated and compared the antioxidant activity in selected varieties of ca rrot, which varied from 6.88 ± 0.92 % to 9.83 ± 0.62 %. Statistically si gnificant the highest value of total polyphenols was recorded in variety of Koloseum (113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg. This variety is also character ized by the highest content of ß- carotene (124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg as well as the highest value of antioxidant activity (9.83 ± 0.62 %.

  3. The Effect of Different Hormones on Callus Induction, Regeneration and Multiplication of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Corms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Safarnejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus; Iridaceae is an important economic and medicinal crop in Iran. The saffron that is an herbaceous triploid geophyte is used mainly as a source of secondary metabolites having aromatic and medicinal value. The plant develops annually from buds on the mother corm – i.e. a thickened stem - which acts as a resting, perennating storage organ. In this research in vitro propagation of Crocus sativus through direct and indirect methods has been studied. Corm slices as explants were sterilized and transferred to MS media with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that use of HgCl2 0.15% for 20 minutes is the best treatment for sterilization. The results of ANOVA of direct regeneration indicated that the most corm formation was observed in 2 mg/l BAP. Maximum callus induction was achieved on MS supplemented with 1 mg/l 2,4-D + 2 mg/l BAP. As results indicate the most number of embryos were obtained in MS medium containing 0.15 mg/ l NAA. Also this medium was suitable for germination of embryo. Corm formation was only observed in MS supplemented with1 mg/l 2, 4-D + 2 mg/l BAP in the indirect method. The corm was transferred to JF pot for adaptation and then it was transferred to the pot and soil for growing.

  4. Essential-oil composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and nine different commercial varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), α-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Variation in herbivory-induced volatiles among cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) varieties has consequences for the attraction of carnivorous natural enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, I.F.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Dicke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to herbivory by arthropods, plants emit herbivory-induced volatiles that attract carnivorous enemies of the inducing herbivores. Here, we compared the attractiveness of eight cucumber varieties (Cucumis sativus L.) to Phytoseiulus persimilis predatory mites after infestation of the

  6. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

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    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  7. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI PERASAN MENGKUDU (Morinda citrofilia Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Shygella disenteriae

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    Diah Ariana

    2017-09-01

    Abstract Mengkudu (Morinda citrofilia Linn Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases. This study  to determine the effect of noni juice concentration on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae, the bacteria that causes the disease shigellosis (bacillary dysentery. The design of this study used an experimental design to test laboratory, noni juice obtained by weighing 100g were still ripe noni fruit (puti yellowish color and texture is still hard and washed, blender 100gr noni plus 100ml of sterile distilled water, filtered with sterile gauze and then Stril put in a test tube, back in autoclav sterilized for 15 minutes at a temperature of 1210C that noni juice is really sterile. Inhibition test with freshly made juice dilution method at concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.13%, 1.57% and 0.78%, followed planted in the media Muller Hinton Shigella to know whether it is growing or not growing, Statistical data analysis using Chisquer test on α = 0.05. The test results showed λ2 Chisquer count> λ2 table, then Ho is rejected. The results showed 12.5% of concentration - 100% can inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae while the concentration of 0.78% - 6.25% solid not inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae, so it can be concluded that the noni (Morinda citrofilia Linn can inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae and noni efficiently used for dysentery patients because of the concentration of 12.5% was able to inhibit the growth of Shygella dysenteriae. Keywords: Mengkudu (Morinda citrofilia Linn , Shigella dysenteriae

  8. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of an Acyclic Isoprenoid from Semecarpus anacardium Linn. and its Antibacterial Potential in vitro - Antimicrobial Activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Seeds -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyakkannu Purushothaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Semecarpus anacardium Linn. is a plant well-known for its antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anti-arthritic properties in the Ayurvedic and Siddha system of medicine. This has prompted the screening of this plant for antibacterial activity. The main aims of this study were to isolate compounds from the plant’s seeds and to evaluate their antibacterial effects on clinical bacterial test strains. Methods: The n-butanolic concentrate of the seed extract was subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC and repeated silica gel column chromatography followed by elution with various solvents. The compound was identified based on observed spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The well diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated acyclic isoprenoid compound (final concentration: 5 - 15 μg/mL on four test bacterial strains, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of solidago canadensis linn. Root essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-06-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  11. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli wher...

  12. Phytochemical Studies on Bauhinia racemosa Lam. Bauhinia purpurea Linn. and Hardwickia binata Roxb

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    G. K. Sharanabasappa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phytochemical studies on Bauhinia racemosa Lam., Bauhinia purpurea Linn. and Hardwickia binata Roxb. The phytochemical study of three plants involve preliminary phytochemical studies, physico-chemical studies, quantitative estimation of primary and secondary metabolites, TLC study and HPLC fingerprint study of ethanolic extract of leaves of three plants. In HPLC fingerprint study, the three peaks at a retention time of 15 min, 17 min and 19 min were identical in B. racemosa and B. purpurea which was confirmed by overlaid spectra. The generated data may be useful in suggesting chemotaxonomical interrelation between three plants.

  13. Studies on antifungal activity and elemental composition of the medicinal plant trianthema pentendra linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzada, A.J.; Shaikh, W.; Ghaffar, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Antifungal activity of crude solvent and aqueous extracts of the medicinal plant, Trianthema pentendra Linn., against the dermatophytic fungi, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces varioti, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum revealed that ethanol and aqueous extracts were the most effective antifungal agents as compared to methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. Some basic elements, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, S and Zn were also determined in the medicinal plant, T. pentendra, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and U.V spectrophotometry. T. pentendra contained considerable amount of elements which have therapeutic effects in skin diseases. (author)

  14. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

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    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  15. Occurrence of bacterial pollution indicators in Boulti (Tilapia nilotica Linn. ) fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zanfaly, H.T.; Ibrahim, A.A.

    1982-09-01

    A study was made for the occurrence of coliform and streptococcal groups on the skin surface (32 samples), gills (32 samples), intestinal tract (4 samples) and raw fish flesh (4 samples) and raw fish flesh (4 samples) of Boulti fish (Tilapia nilotica Linn.), a fresh water fish caught from Nasser's Lake in Aswan. Streptococcus group was detected in 13 samples taken from fish surface, 12 samples out of 32 swabs from gills. All intestine samples and raw fish flesh were positive for the streptococcus group. Coliform organisms were detected at nearly 43% of skin or gill samples, 100% of intestine and raw fish flesh samples.

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ETHYLACETATE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF Mesua ferrea LINN

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    S. M. Mizanur Rahman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Furano-napthyl-hydroxy cyclohexyl type of compound was isolated first times in plant from the ethyl extracts of the leaves of Mesua ferrea. The structure of the compound has been established by the modern spectroscopic techniques such as UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy and identified as 12, 13-furano-8-hydroxy napthyl-6-0-b-2',3',4',6' tetrahydroxy-5',5' dimethyl cyclohexyl ether.   Keywords: Mesua ferrea Linn; Euphorbiaceae; Medicinal plant; new compound; spectral analysis

  17. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus petals on preventing of gentamicin induced peliosis hepatis and hepatic telangiectasis in rats: short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis is a rare liver disease characterized by blood-filled cavities scattered irregularly throughout the liver. Risk factors for peliosis include chronic illness such as AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer also use of some drugs such as anabolic steroids and azathioprine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curative properties of crocus sativus petals on induced peliosis hepatis in rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats (weight: 180-220 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: group 1 (healthy group received only IP normal saline, group2 received IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin, group3 IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract, and group 4 was given IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized and their blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for AST and ALT measurement.Then, the livers of the subjects were excised and fixed in formalin. It was found that AST significantly increased in gentamicin group (P<0.05 compared to the healthy group and groups treated by means of crocus sativus petal extract .Moreover, there was no significant differences between the groups administered the extract and those given gentamicin. Histologically,heterogeneous multiple blood-filled cavities were observed in gentamicin group (2 and the treatment groups (3 and 4. The results of the present study show that doses of hydroalcoholic extract of crocus sativus do not effect on peliosis hepatic and telangiectasis due to gentamicin sulfate in rats

  18. In silico identification of miRNAs and their target genes and analysis of gene co-expression network in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinati, Zahra; Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Roohollah; Behpouri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    As an aromatic and colorful plant of substantive taste, saffron (Crocus sativus L.) owes such properties of matter to growing class of the secondary metabolites derived from the carotenoids, apocarotenoids. Regarding the critical role of microRNAs in secondary metabolic synthesis and the limited number of identified miRNAs in C. sativus, on the other hand, one may see the point how the characterization of miRNAs along with the corresponding target genes in C. sativus might expand our perspectives on the roles of miRNAs in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. A computational analysis was used to identify miRNAs and their targets using EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) library from mature saffron stigmas. Then, a gene co- expression network was constructed to identify genes which are potentially involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathways. EST analysis led to the identification of two putative miRNAs (miR414 and miR837-5p) along with the corresponding stem- looped precursors. To our knowledge, this is the first report on miR414 and miR837-5p in C. sativus. Co-expression network analysis indicated that miR414 and miR837-5p may play roles in C. sativus metabolic pathways and led to identification of candidate genes including six transcription factors and one protein kinase probably involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Presence of transcription factors, miRNAs and protein kinase in the network indicated multiple layers of regulation in saffron stigma. The candidate genes from this study may help unraveling regulatory networks underlying the carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthesis in saffron and designing metabolic engineering for enhanced secondary metabolites. PMID:28261627

  19. Molecular mapping and candidate gene analysis for resistance to powdery mildew in Cucumis sativus stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P N; Miao, H; Lu, H W; Cui, J Y; Tian, G L; Wehner, T C; Gu, X F; Zhang, S P

    2017-08-31

    Powdery mildew (PM) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), caused by Podosphaera xanthii, is a major foliar disease worldwide and resistance is one of the main objectives in cucumber breeding programs. The resistance to PM in cucumber stem is important to the resistance for the whole plant. In this study, genetic analysis and gene mapping were implemented with cucumber inbred lines NCG-122 (with resistance to PM in the stem) and NCG-121 (with susceptibility in the stem). Genetic analysis showed that resistance to PM in the stem of NCG-122 was qualitative and controlled by a single-recessive nuclear gene (pm-s). Susceptibility was dominant to resistance. In the initial genetic mapping of the pm-s gene, 10 SSR markers were discovered to be linked to pm-s, which was mapped to chromosome 5 (Chr.5) of cucumber. The pm-s gene's closest flanking markers were SSR20486 and SSR06184/SSR13237 with genetic distances of 0.9 and 1.8 cM, respectively. One hundred and fifty-seven pairs of new SSR primers were exploited by the sequence information in the initial mapping region of pm-s. The analysis on the F 2 mapping population using the new molecular markers showed that 17 SSR markers were confirmed to be linked to the pm-s gene. The two closest flanking markers, pmSSR27and pmSSR17, were 0.1 and 0.7 cM from pm-s, respectively, confirming the location of this gene on Chr.5. The physical length of the genomic region containing pm-s was 135.7 kb harboring 21 predicted genes. Among these genes, the gene Csa5G623470 annotated as encoding Mlo-related protein was defined as the most probable candidate gene for the pm-s. The results of this study will provide a basis for marker-assisted selection, and make the benefit for the cloning of the resistance gene.

  20. Comparative Metagenomics Reveal Phylum Level Temporal and Spatial Changes in Mycobiome of Belowground Parts of Crocus sativus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Ambardar

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal associations have been explored by routine cultivation based approaches and cultivation based approaches cannot catalogue more than 5% of fungal diversity associated with any niche. In the present study, an attempt has been made to catalogue fungal diversity associated with belowground parts i.e. rhizosphere and cormosphere, of Crocus sativus (an economically important herb during two growth stages, using cultivation independent ITS gene targeted approach, taking bulk soil as reference. The 454 pyrosequencing sequence data analysis suggests that the fungal diversity was niche and growth stage specific. Fungi diversity, in the present case, was not only different between the two organs (roots and corm but the dominance pattern varies between the cormosphere during two growth stages. Zygomycota was dominant fungal phylum in the rhizosphere whereas Basidiomycota was dominant in cormosphere during flowering stage. However in cormosphere though Basidiomycota was dominant phylum during flowering stage but Zygomycota was dominant during dormant stage. Interestingly, in cormosphere, the phyla which was dominant at dormant stage was rare at flowering stage and vice-versa (Basidiomycota: Flowering = 93.2% Dormant = 0.05% and Zygomycota: Flowering = 0.8% Dormant = 99.7%. At genus level, Rhizopus was dominant in dormant stage but was rare in flowering stage (Rhizopus: Dormant = 99.7% Flowering = 0.55%. This dynamics is not followed by the bulk soil fungi which was dominated by Ascomycota during both stages under study. The genus Fusarium, whose species F. oxysporum causes corm rot in C. sativus, was present during both stages with slightly higher abundance in roots. Interestingly, the abundance of Rhizopus varied a great deal in two stages in cormosphere but the abundance of Fusarium was comparable in two growth stages (Bulk soil Flowering = 0.05%, Rhizosphere Flowering = 1.4%, Cormosphere Flowering = 0.06%, Bulk soil Dormant = 2.47% and

  1. Sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10% povidone iodine towards recurrent apthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral ulceration often becomes the main reason for the patients to see a dentist. Therapy of the oral ulceration is by giving the palliative therapy with topical antiseptic. Nowadays, there are many researches concerning with the traditional medicines as alternative therapy. One of them is Piper betle linn which contains the antiseptic agent. Purpose: This research is aimed to observe the sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10%povidone iodine. Methods: This laboratory research was conducted by the post test only design with random complete design. The research sampel is Streptococcus viridans culture that was scrapped from the ulcer of the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patient, then it was replicated by using the Federer theory. Results: Inhibitory zone of 35% Piper betle linn extract is bigger than 10% povidone iodine. Conclusion: Streptococcus viridans are more sensitive to 35% Piper bittle linn extract than 10% povidone iodine. 35% Piper betle linn extract has more antibacterial effect than 10% povidone iodine.Latar belakang: Ulserasi rongga mulut seringkali menjadi alasan utama bagi pasien untuk memeriksakan diri ke dokter gigi. Terapi ulserasi rongga mulut adalah pemberian terapi paliatif kepada penderita, seperti: pemberian obat topikal yang mengandung antiseptik. Saat ini banyak penelitian dalam pengembangan obat tradisional yang dapat dijadikan sebagai obat alternatif. Salah satu diantaranya adalah daun sirih yang mengandung zat antiseptik. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui perbedaan sensitivitas Streptococcus viridans terhadap ekstrak daun sirih 35% jika dibandingkan dengan povidone iodine 10%. Metode: Penelitian laboratoris yang dilakukan dengan post test only design dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Sampel penelitian adalah kultur Streptococcus viridans yang diambil melalui swab dari hapusan ulser pada pasien yang menderita stomatitis aftosa rekuren, kemudian dilakukan

  2. Protective role of Carica papaya (Linn.) in electron beam radiation induced hematological and cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (Linn.) is known to possess various biomedical applications. It has remarkable antioxidant properties. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the leaf extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) on hematologic and cytogenetic changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR). Analysis of hematological changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of EBR, and the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract on the same. The Assessment of hematopoietic stress by spleen colony forming unit and spleen body weight index. The analysis of cell proliferation and immunomodulation with response to the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract by estimation of IL-6. The estimation of serum total antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and analyzing the activities of enzymes like SOD, ALP, and AST. Male Swiss albino mice were fed orally with papaya aqueous leaf extract for 15 days. They were irradiated with a whole body dose of 6 Gy Electron Beam radiation. The mice were dissected for liver, kidney, bone marrow, spleen and brain. The hematological studies were done using blood cell count in an automated cell counter. The biochemical estimations like urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, Total Protein, Albumin, Bilirubin were done using the serum and homogenates. The total antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant enzymes were estimated. The Interleukin-6 levels were estimated in serum to assess immune modulation. The results show a decrease in the hematological parameters in radiated animals. The papaya treated groups have shown modulation in the hematological parameters. The extract has also reduced the suppression of the bone marrow induced by radiation. The radiation induced liver damage is also reduced in papaya treated groups. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has shown protective effects in electron beam radiation induced tissue damages in Swiss Albino mice (author)

  3. Ethanol extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn enhances sperm output in healthy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, O B; Oladosu, O S; Dosumu, O O

    2007-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), among other factors, have been implicated in the aetiology of male infertility. Thus, the roles of antioxidants at improving sperm production and quality are being investigated. The present study was designed to assess the effect of the ethanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on the sperm parameters of healthy male Wistar rats. A total of 18 rats, weighing between 108-124 g, were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered 250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d of guava leaf extract (GLE) orally for 53 days respectively. Group 3 animals received normal saline. Sperm count increased from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 57.1+/-0.2 (x10(6)) in group 1 animals, and from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 72.3+/-0.4 (x10(6)) in group 2 animals. Similarly, dose-dependent increases in the percentages of motile spermatozoa were observed in GLE-treated animals compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. possess beneficial effects on sperm production and quality, and may thus improve the sperm parameters of infertile males with oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia.

  4. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  5. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Dept. of Zoology, Radiation and Cancer Biology Lab.

    2008-07-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  6. Aplikasi Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn dalam Menghambat Oksidasi Lemak Jambal Patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Ariyani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian aplikasi ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn untuk menghambat proses oksidasi jambal patin telah dilakukan. Percobaan dilakukan dengan penambahan ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn dalam larutan garam yang digunakan untuk penggaraman ikan. Perbandingan ekstrak daun sirih dan larutan garam yang digunakan adalah 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 (v/v, sedangkan larutan garam tanpa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih digunakan sebagai kontrol. Selesai perendaman dalam campuran larutan garam dan ekstrak sirih (48 jam, patin asin dikeringkan di bawah sinar matahari selama 4–5 hari, selanjutnya disimpan pada suhu ruang (25-32oC selama 8 minggu. Perubahan mutu jambal patin dimonitor secara organoleptik dan kimiawi (angka Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/TBARS, angka anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen, sebelum jambal patin kering disimpan dan setiap 2 minggu selama penyimpanan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih pada larutan garam selama penggaraman mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin selama penyimpanan 8 minggu tercermin dari rendahnya angka TBARS, anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen jambal patin yang diperlakukan dengan daun sirih dibanding dengan kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil uji sensori, jambal patin yang diberi ekstrak air daun sirih tidak berbau tengik, walaupun warna dan rasa jambal patin sedikit berubah. Perlakuan ekstrak sirih yang mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin dengan nilai sensori terbaik adalah kelompok perlakuan ekstrak daun sirih dengan perbandingan 1:5 (v/v.

  7. Pengaruh Gibberellin (GA4 terhadap Waktu Perkecambahan dan Pertumbuhan Tinggi Semai Cendana (Santalum Album Linn.

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    Asri Insiana Putri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Gibberellins (GA4 on Germination Time and Height of Cendana (Santalum album Linn.  The hemiparasite Santalum album Linn. (cendana grows very slow, in nature the rare and difficult seeds need stimulation to germinate. Gibberellins (including GA4 are growth regulators, usually used to increase growth as well as to break seed dormancy. The objectives of this research were to investigate the influence of gibberellins on germination percentage and height of cendana growth. Experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with 3 replicates of 300 seeds for germination percentage and 3 replicates of 10 seeds for seedling growth. Gibberellin was applied as treatment with 100, 300, and 500 ppm. The seed germination was recorded until 9 weeks, and height of plants measured until 8 months at the greenhouse. The results showed that the addition of gibberellins at all treatment increased the percentage of germination and caused the seeds germinated four weeks earlier than the control. In the first 4 months, 500 ppm gibberellins gave the highest acceleration of germination, afterward all treatments have relatively the same influences. Gibberellins gave positive effect on height of cendana growth. After 7 months, the growth decreased although all gibberellin treatments gave higher growth than the control.

  8. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, Ravindra M.; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2008-01-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg -1 day -1 ) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  9. STRUKTUR ANATOMI DAN KUALITAS SERAT KAYU DAN AKAR GANTUNG BERINGIN (FICUS BENJAMINA LINN.

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    Krisdianto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. is one of typical fast growing tree species which are commonly found in Indonesia. The trees grow with hanging roots which grow larger and often can merged with the main stem, then its timber is not optimally utilized. This paper studies the anatomical structure and fiber quality of main stem and large, medium, and small diameter of hanging roots of beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. tree. Anatomical structure was observed macroscopically and microscopically, while fiber dimensions were measured from macerated samples. The results show that the anatomical structure pattern of the roots is similar with those of main stem, however the quantity and dimension of anatomical components of hanging roots are smaller and shorter than components of main stem. Likewise, the fiber dimensions of roots are shorter and thinner than those taken from the main stem. Based on fiber dimensions and its derivative value, beringin wood fibers are classified into class quality II for pulp and paper. The creamy white color with white streaky figure of beringin wood from main stem is recommended for indoor decoration products such as wooden venetian blind, while the small roots are recommended for strap or webbing material crafts.

  10. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn. and its use in food system

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    Rojanakorn, T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD. Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the mathematics models, the condition of pH 2, 100ºC and 105 min was found to be the optimum conditions for pectin extraction from Citrus medica Linn. Mathematical and experimental results were verified. The use of extracted pectin as a gelling agent in pineapple jam revealed no significant difference in gel consistency compared to that of commercial pectin grade 150 (p>0.05. However, the commercial pectin had a higher liking score on the spreadability, texture and overall liking. As a stabilizer in chocolate pasteurised milk, 0.2% of the extracted pectin was required to prevent precipitation of chocolate powder with the similar viscosity obtained from 0.06% κ-carageenan

  11. The role of the seed coat in the light sensivity in Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante seeds O papel do tegumento na sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante

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    Maura Lúcia Costa Gonçalves

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of the seed coat in the light sensitivity of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante was analysed by germination tests of intact and naked seeds. Far-red light caused high inhibition of seed germination, while under white and red lights low inhibition was found. Naked seeds presented no light sensitivity with high percentage germination under light and darkness. However, incubation of naked seeds in -0.6MPa polyethylene glycol solution resulted in light inhibition as observed in intact seeds. The analysis of the seed coat transmitted light indicated that the filtered light presented the same photoequilibrium of phytochrome when compared to the white light, with a decrease of only 33% in the light irradiance which reaches the embryo.O papel do tegumento sobre a sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante foi analisado por testes de germinação de sementes intactas e nuas. A luz vermelho-extremo inibiu fortemente a germinação, enquanto as luzes branca e vermelha apresentaram baixa inibição. Por outro lado, sementes nuas não apresentaram sensibilidade à luz, com alta porcentagem de germinação tanto na luz como no escuro. Entretanto, a incubação das sementes nuas em condições de estresse em solução de polietilenoglicol a -0,6MPa, resultou em inibição na luz, como observadas em sementes intactas. A análise da luz transmitida pelo tegumento das sementes indicou que a luz filtrada apresenta o mesmo fotoequilíbrio teórico do fitocromo obtido na luz branca, com um decréscimo em apenas 33% da irradiância que atinge o embrião.

  12. Changes in the physiological regulation of transpiration caused by the effects of industrial air pollution. [Cucumis sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozinka, V; Klasova, A; Niznansky, A

    1963-01-01

    Through Hygen's method of quantitative analysis of transpiration curves, the authors studied the intensity of stomatal and cuticular transpiration of germinating leaves of Cucumis sativus which were experimentally exposed to solid impurities containing F. The difference between the control and experimental plants shows that the impurities not only blocked the regulating system of breathing but also caused increased cuticular transpiration. Numerous lesions were observed; cuticle damage also spread to the inner tissues. A direct relationship between microscopic and macroscopic symptoms was not proven. The creation of conditions adverse to the normal development of the water balance was intensified when the impurities were dropped onto the surface of the leaves. The possible protective function of trichomes is mentioned, but applies only when the impurities settle on a dry surface.

  13. Suppression of the neurotoxic amino acid in seed storage protein of Lathyrus sativus L. via mutation techniques and gene transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, D P; Chand, P K; Mohapatra, U [Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Orissa (India)

    2004-11-01

    Plant regeneration was achieved in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) by in vitro shoot proliferation in cotyledonary nodes from axenically grown seedlings, de novo shoot organogenesis in callus cultures or adventitious shoot formation directly from explants. Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation were optimized using a binary vector with T-DNA cassette carrying the selectable marker nptII and the reporter gene gus-intron. The detection of GUS activity in glasshousegrown primary transformants substantiated a stable integration and expression of the gus-intron gene. Mutagenesis was induced using {gamma}-irradiation as well as two chemical mutagens viz. ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and N-methyl-N-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (NG). The implications of these investigations are discussed in the context of producing somaclonal variants, genetic transformants or mutants with a reduced level of the neurotoxin ODAP. (author)

  14. Cloning, Structural Characterization, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Flower MADS-Box Genes from Crocus (Crocus sativus L.

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    Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocus (Crocus sativus L. is a crop species cultivated for its flowers and, more specifically, for its red stigmas. The flower of crocus is bisexual and sterile, since crocus is a triploid species. Its perianth consists of six petaloid tepals: three tepals in whorl 1 (outer tepals and three tepals in whorl 2 (inner tepals. The androecium consists of three distinct stamens and the gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil with three carpels, a single three-branched style, and an inferior ovary. The dry form of the stigmas constitutes the commercial saffron used as a food additive, in the coloring industry, and in medicine. In order to uncover and understand the molecular mechanisms controlling flower development in cultivated crocus and its relative wild progenitor species, and characterize a number of crocus flower mutants, we have cloned and characterized different, full-length, cDNA sequences encoding MADS-box transcription factor proteins involved in flower formation.

  15. Ozone-induced growth suppression in radish plants in relation to pre- and post-fumigation temperatures. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) were fumigated with ozone at a concentration of 25 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 3 h, before or after subjecting the plants to two growth temperature regimes. In the cultivar ''Cavalier'' ozone decreased leaf weight at the lower pre-fumigation day/night growth temperature regime of 20/15/sup 0/, but had no significant effect when the plants were either pre- or post-fumigation conditioned at the high temperatures of 30/25/sup 0/. In the cultivar ''Cherry Belle'', ozone decreased the leaf weight of only low temperature post-fumigation conditioned plants. Ozone had no significant effect on the total soluble carbohydrate concentration of ''Cherry Belle'', while it increased that of pre-fumigation conditioned ''Cavalier'' plants.

  16. Control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. tolerance to chilling stress – evaluating the role of ascorbic acid and glutathione

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    Alexander S. Lukatkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures (1-10 ºC are known to disturb cellular physiology, cause oxidative stress via creating imbalance between generation and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS leading finally to cell and/or plant death. Owing to known significance of low molecular antioxidants - ascorbic acid (AsA and glutathione (GSH in plant stress-tolerance, this work analyzes the role of exogenously applied AsA and GSH in the alleviation of chilling stress (3°C-impact in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Vjaznikowskij 37 plants. Results revealed AsA and GSH concentration dependent metabolism of ROS such as superoxide (O2•‾ and the mitigation of ROS-effects such as lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as membrane permeability (measured as electrolyte leakage in C. sativus leaf discs. AsA concentration (750 µM and GSH (100 µM exhibited maximum reduction in O2•‾ generation, LPO intensity as well as electrolyte leakage, all of these were increased in cold water (3°C and 25°C-treated leaf discs. However, AsA, in particular, had a pronounced antioxidative effect, more expressed in case of leaf discs during chilling (3°C; whereas, at temperature 25°C, some AsA concentrations (such as 50 and 100 mM AsA exhibited a prooxidative effect that requires molecular-genetic studies. Overall, it is inferred that AsA and GSH have high potential for sustainably increasing chilling-resistance in plants.

  17. Análisis cuantitativo de la aplicación de cuatro bioestimulantes en el cultivo del rábano (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Londoño I. Jorge

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el segundo semestre de 1984 se realizó el ensayo con el fin de determinar el efecto de la aplicación de Agrostemín, Ergostím, Agrovitae y vitamina C en el cultivo del rábano Raphanus sativus L. Las variables estudiadas fueron porcentaje de germinación, velocidad de germinación, energía germinativa, altura de planta, materia verde, materia seca e índice de cosecha.The effect of four bioestimulants (Agrostemin, Ergostim, Agrovitae and vitamina C on radish Raphanus sativus L. was determined in a trial carried out in Palmira (Valle during the second semester of 1984. The variables studied were: germination percentage, germination speed, germination energy, plant height, green matter, dry matter and harvest index.

  18. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle Linn UNTUK MENGHAMBAT BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila DAN TOKSISITASNYA PADA IKAN PATIN (Pangasius hypophthalmus (THE USE OF PIPER BETLE LINN EXTRACT ON AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA TO OBSTRUCT AND THE TOKSISITY TO PANGASIUS HYPOPHTHALMUS

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    Siti Aisiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui   daya  hambat  daun  sirih   yang  paling  besar  terhadap  bakteri Aeromonas Hydrophila, mengetahui konsentrasi minimal ekstrak daun sirih yang mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri  A. hydrophila  dan mengetahui toksisitas konsentrasi efektif dari  ekstrak daun sirih terhadap ikan patin. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan untuk  uji toksisitas  adalah rancangan acak lengkap, terdiri dari 4 perlakuan yaitu A  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 75%, B  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 25%, C  = Kontrol positif (ikan disuntik dengan akuades steril dan D  = Kontrol negatif (ikan tidak disuntik, diulang 3 kali. Hasil uji sensitivitas antibakteri daun sirih yang mempunyai daya hambat dan daya bunuh paling besar terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila adalah ekstrak daun sirih-metanol. Pengujian MIC menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun sirih-metanol memiliki daya hambat minimal 25 % terhadap aktivitas bakteri A. hydrophila. Hasil uji toksisitas yang dilakukan terhadap ikan patin dengan konsentrasi 75% dan 25% menunjukkan bahwa mortalitas yang terjadi tidak mencapai 50%. Pengamatan hematologis pada masing-masing perlakuan menunjukkan hasil yang berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap kesehatan ikan patin. Parameter kualitas air pada penelitian ini yaitu, , kadar oksigen terlarut,  pH, amoniak, CO2 dan suhu masih dapat mendukung kehidupan ikan patin. This research was aimed a finding the part of Piper betle Linn  which had the biggest resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria and to know the minimal concentrate which could obstruct the growth of A. hydrophila  bacteria and to know effective concentrate toxicity of P. betle Linn  to Pangasius hypophthalmus.  The random sampling used proportionate stratified random sampling. In toxicity test, it had be done 4 treatment, which was given to fish, those were : A = fish was injected with 25 % concentrate of extract  P

  19. The Effect of Subchronic Administration of the Aqueous and Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Crocus sativus from Estahbanat, Fars Province, on Mice

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    M Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In Iranian traditional medicine, Crocus sativus L. has been defined as an exultant plant. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of subchronic administration of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Crocus sativus on mice. Methods: The effect of subchronic i.p. administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg or water and the hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg or water of Crocus sativus stigma on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test in mice. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. The collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Results: The aqueous extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. The hydro-alcoholic extract did not show significant effects on immobility, climbing and swimming behaviors of all studied doses, compared to control group. The aqueous extract of all studied doses and the hydro-alcoholic extract at dose of 1600 mg/kg decreased spontaneous activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the aqueous, but not hydro-alcoholic, extract of Crocus sativus stigma from Estahbanat in Fars province, in subchronic administration possess an antidepressant-like activity which may be mediated through norepinephrine system.

  20. Comparative antioxidant and bioavailability studies of Vitamin C in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and its combinations with Piper nigrum Linn. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe

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    Vanita Somasekhar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla is used in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine and its major constituent is vitamin C which has effective free radical scavenging property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and the bioavailability profile of vitamin C in amla and its combinations with piperine and ginger in comparison to synthetic vitamin C using New Zealand rabbits. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger were carried out using different models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Nitric Oxide, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, Total reductive capability and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity estimation. The study results showed that synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger possess significant in vitro antioxidant activity. For bioavailability studies, synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger 100 mg/kg, were administered orally and the serum samples were analyzed by HPLC at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Bioavailability studies revealed that amla with piperine combination has higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to synthetic vitamin C. This is probably due to presence of piperine, which is a bioavailability enhancer. The present study supports the fact that amla with piperine combination can be an alternative to synthetic vitamin C.

  1. Overexpression of wheat lipid transfer protein gene TaLTP5 increases resistances to Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium graminearum in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuliang; Li, Zhao; Xu, Huijun; Zhou, Miaoping; Du, Lipu; Zhang, Zengyan

    2012-08-01

    The fungus Cochliobolus sativus is the main pathogen of common root rot, a serious soil-borne disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The fungus Fusarium graminearum is the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight, a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. In this study, the wheat lipid transfer protein gene, TaLTP5, was cloned and evaluated for its ability to suppress disease development in transgenic wheat. TaLTP5 expression was induced after C. sativus infection. The TaLTP5 expression vector, pA25-TaLTP5, was constructed and bombarded into Chinese wheat variety Yangmai 18. Six TaLTP5 transgenic wheat lines were established and characterized. PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that the introduced TaLTP5 gene was integrated into the genomes of six transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns, and heritable. RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the TaLTP5 gene was over-expressed in the transgenic wheat lines compared to segregants lacking the transgene and wild-type wheat plants. Following challenge with C. sativus or F. graminearum, all six transgenic lines overexpressing TaLTP5 exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to both common root rot and Fusarium head blight compared to the untransformed wheat Yangmai 18.

  2. Chemical constituents from the flowering buds of Bauhinia tomentosa Linn (FBBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, Raja; Vasantha, Vairathevar Sivasamy; Pitchumani, Kasi

    2016-07-01

    Isolation and characterisation of compounds, 1-(2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4″-methoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxypropane-1,3-dione (1), 5-hydroxyflavone (2), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (3), 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (4) and 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone-3-O-rhamnoside (5) are reported from the air dried flowering buds of Bauhinia tomentosa Linn. Their structures are determined on the basis of extensive chemical and spectral evidences. Compound (1) is reported for the first time from the plant source. While compounds (2) and (4) are reported for the first time from this genus, compound (2) is reported for the second time from the natural source.

  3. TITIK TANGKAP PENGARUH HIPOTENSIF EKSTRAK TANAMAN OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA LINN PADA KUCING

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    Achmad Muhamad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In preliminary reports by others it lias been stated that Oldenlandia corvmbosa Linn had an hypoten­sive effect in rabbits. This study confirmed this finding in cats and found that alcoholic-extracts of the plant decreased resistance in the hindleg significantly in acute experiments. By the used'technique of extraction in which the content of the active component was multiplied by about ten times systemic intravenous infusion of the extract decreased the resistance to flow in the hind leg of the cat about 40 per cent. Thin layer chromatography techniques revealed 4 spots in the alcoholic extract but due to certain constraint factors it was not yet able to detect which spot(s contained the active component(s.

  4. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Organic Extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

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    Sharif M. Al-Reza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrodistillated essential oil and various extracts obtained from Premna integrifolia Linn. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil was resulted in determination 29 different compounds, representing 95.73% of total oil. Antioxidant activities of the essential oil and organic extracts of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were determined by three different test systems namely DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays. The essential oil and methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity among all the tested samples. Furthermore, the amount of total phenolic compounds was determined and its content in methanol extract was the highest as compared to other samples. The results indicate that the essential oil and extracts of Premna integrifolia could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for using in the pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on poriferasterol - A natural phytosterol isolated from Cassia sophera Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mondal, Avijit; Nayek, Nayana; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Poriferasterol, a biologically relevant phytosterol, has been isolated and identified first-time from Cassia sophera Linn. (family: Caesalpiniaceae) based on detailed spectral studies. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces and reactivity descriptor of this plant-derived natural molecule have been performed. The experimentally observed FT-IR spectrum of the title compound has been compared with spectral data obtained by DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G (d,p) method. The UV-visible spectrum of the title compound has also been recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals and band gap energy are measured by TD-DFT approach. The 1H and 13C NMR spectrum has been calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital method and compared with the observed data.

  6. Profiling of Piper betle Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Sharma, Deepty; Kumar, Brijesh; Madhusudanan, K P

    2010-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betle. In this paper we have attempted to profile eight locally available betel cultivars using the recently developed mass spectral ionization technique of direct analysis in real time (DART). Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART MS data of these betel cultivars. The results show that the cultivars of Piper betle could be differentiated using DART MS data. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of Foliar Selenite on the Nutrient Components of Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.

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    Xiong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We administered foliar applications of 50, 100, and 200 mg L−1 selenium (Se, selenite on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn. and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (IV significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (IV positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper. Se (IV treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (IV could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L−1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 μg person−1 day−1 and its favorable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  8. Effects of foliar selenite on the nutrient components of turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Li, Boqun; Yang, Yongping

    2018-03-01

    We administered foliar applications of 50, 100 and 200 mg L‑1 selenium (Se, selenite) on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.) and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (Ⅳ) significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (Ⅳ) positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese and copper. Se (Ⅳ) treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (Ⅳ) could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L‑1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 µg person‑1 day‑1) and its favourable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  9. Hibiscus vitifolius (Linn.) root extracts shows potent protective action against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Mohan, Syam; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Ariamuthu, Saraswathi

    2012-05-07

    The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) is used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in albino rats of either sex by oral administration of a combination of three anti-tubercular drugs. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius (400mg/kg/day) were evaluated for their possible hepatoprotective potential. All the extracts were found to be safe up to a dose of 2000mg/kg. Among the four extracts studied, oral administration of methanol extract of Hibiscus vitifolius at 400mg/kg showed significant difference in all the parameters when compared to control. There was a significant (PHibiscus vitifolius have potent hepatoprotective activity, thereby justifying its ethnopharmacological claim. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed.

  11. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha and unorganized (folk, native & tribal form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn. is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed.

  12. Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn. upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children Uso de extrato de plantas medicinais (Psidium guajava Linn. e Carica papaya Linn. frente a bactérias isoladas de pescado, causadoras de diarréias infantis

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    Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes VIEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer for waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil and used for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol, water and acetone-diluted extracts of guava and papaya leaf sprouts were tested on the bacteria in order to verify their microbicidal potential. The E. coli strains used in the trials were rated LT positive. The papaya leaf extracts (Carica papaya Linn showed no microbicidal activity while the guava sprout extracts (Psidium guajava Linn displayed halos exceeding 13 mm for both species, an effect considered to be inhibitory by the method employed. Guava sprout extracts by 50% diluted ethanol most effectively inhibited E. coli (EPEC, while those in 50% acetone were less effective. It may be concluded that guava sprout extracts constitute a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or by S. aureus-produced toxins, due to their quick curative action, easy availability in tropical countries and low cost to the consumer.Foram coletadas doze amostras de camarão e peixes nas imediações do interceptor oceânico, em Fortaleza e igual número na Feira de pescado do Mucuripe, Fortaleza, para isolamento de E. coli e Staphylococcus aureus, respectivamente. Extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e cetônicos de broto de goiabeira e de folha de mamão foram testados frente às bactérias para se verificar suas ações antibióticas. As cepas de E. coli utilizadas nos ensaios foram as classificadas como LT positivas. Os extratos de folhas de mamão (Carica papaya Linn não revelaram quaisquer atividades antibióticas enquanto que os preparados com broto de goiabeira (Psidium guajava Linn apresentaram halos sempre >13 mm para as duas espécies, considerados como de inibição pelo m

  13. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart: Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

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    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  14. EMS induced dwarf and high yielding mutant in yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.; Abraham, Susan

    1990-01-01

    The species Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn., commonly known as yam bean, is cultivated in many countries for its edible underground tubers. The young tubers can be eaten raw, cooked, or can be sliced and made into chips. As genetic variability is limited in this species, a mutation breeding programme, using physical and chemical mutagens, was initiated to induce variability in a locally adapted cultivar. Genetically pure seeds were treated with concentrations of EMS ranging from 0.25 to 2%. Evaluation of M 2 raised from 1.25% treatment revealed a dwarf mutant showing a higher yield than the control. This mutant attained a height of 20 cm only in M 3 as against 82 cm in the controls. Though the starch content of the tuber and rotenone content in the seeds were the same as that in the control, protein content was slightly higher and the sugar content slightly less

  15. Study on the natural pigments present in the Hulls of Garcinia Mangostana Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Dar Aung; Aye Aye Tun; San San Aye; Maung Maung Htay

    2005-09-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn,(Family; Guttiferae) is known to be a rich source of bioactive molecules including flavonoids, benzophenones and lactones. A variety of xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen plants and fruits include the hull, rind heartwood and flesh. The fruit hull is used as an astringent and also used against cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in traditional medicinal system. Petroleum ether extraction of the dried and powered fruit hulls followed by column chromatographic separation afforded two compounds, namely, gartanin (1) (0.48% in yield, mp 146-152 ) and mangostin (2) (0.97% in yield, mp (179-180). The structures of these two compounds have been identified by UV, FT-IR, NMR and EIMS. These identifications were confirmed by comparison of melting point values with reported data in the literature

  16. Antisickling and toxicological evaluation of the leaves of Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abere, Tavs A; Okoye, Chiagozie J; Agoreyo, Freddy O; Eze, Gerald I; Jesuorobo, Rose I; Egharevba, Clement O; Aimator, Pauline O

    2015-11-23

    Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae) together with other medicinal plants serve as antisickling remedies in Africa. This study was aimed at investigating the antisickling activity of the leaves of the plant as well as establishing the toxicological profile. Chemical tests were employed in phytochemical investigations. Evaluation of the antisickling activity involved the inhibition of sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling of the HbSS red blood cells obtained from confirmed sickle cell patients who were not in crises. Concentrations of the crude extract and its fractions were tested with normal saline and p-hydroxybenzoic acid serving as controls. Acute toxicological evaluation was carried out in mice while 30-day assessment was done in rats. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. Percentage sickling inhibitions of the aqueous methanol extracts of S. dulcis were significant all through the period of assay p Scoparia dulcis in the management of Sickle cell disorders and a candidate for further investigations.

  17. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

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    Bi-Ling Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1 and B (2, and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3, were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were established to be (2S-ent-kauran-2β-ol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S-ent-kauran-2β,18-diol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (R-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher’s method.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn.

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    Souwalak Phongpaichit

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A partially-purified fraction obtained from column chromatographic preparation of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn. rhizomes was investigated for its antimicrobial activities on various microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. It exhibited high activity againstfilamentous fungi: Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, and Penicillium marneffei with IC50 values of 0.2, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml, respectively. However, it showed moderate activity against yeasts: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC 0.1-1 mg/ml and low activity against bacteria (MIC 5->10 mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that hyphae and conidia treated with this fraction were shrunken and collapsed, which might be due to cell fluid leakage.

  19. Actividad antiparasitaria de una decocción de Mentha piperita Linn

    OpenAIRE

    de la Paz Naranjo, José; Maceira Cubiles, María Acelia; Corral Salvadó, Aida; González Campos, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Con el objetivo de comprobar si la Mentha piperita Linn posee efecto antiparasitario, se valoró una decocción de las hojas de esta planta. El modelo biológico utilizado fue la lombriz terrestre del género rojo California y las dosis empleadas fueron 0,475; 0,950 y 1,900 g/dL. Se formaron además un grupo control negativo (agua destilada) y un grupo control positivo (solución de piperazina al 2,0 %). La evaluación, en placa Petri, se realizó de forma continua durante un período de 8 h. La varia...

  20. Ocular effects of acute ingestion of Cola nitida(Linn on healthy adult volunteers

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    S. A. Igwe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cola nitida Linn (Sterculiaceae is an economic plant widely distributed throughout West Africa and possibly other parts of Africa.Members are malvalves because of their lobular nature. Because of its ubiquity, the plant plays an important role in commerce, and in social activities where it is casually eaten without prescription or restriction. The ethnopharmacological effects of bolus ingestion of 30g of Cola nitida was investigated on visually acute and healthy volunteers in order to determine its ocular implications or effects. Results showed that Cola nitida had no effecton the pupil diameter, visual acuity and intraocular pressure but improved the near point of convergence by 43% and increased the amplitude of accommodation by 11% while existing heterophorias are ameliorated. The stimulating effect of Cola nitida might overcome asthenopic symptoms with convergence insufficiency and allows near work to be donewithout stress. Somnolence and ocular muscle imbalance common features of the elderly canbe ameliorated or relieved.

  1. UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT EKSTRAK DAUN PSIDIUM GUAVA LINN (DAUN JAMBU BIJI TERHADAP MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS

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    Amiyatun Naini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Psidium guava Linn leaf extract as mouthrinse has been suggested to be used against toothache, and also has suggested effect against diarrhea and vomiting, as well as anti spasmodic and rheumatic symptoms, anti inflammation, anti piretic, analgetic, and anti bacterial activity. However, to consider potential side effects, this work aimed to test the acute toxicity of guava leaf extract. For this purpose guava leaf extract was given orally to to groups of ten mice each at a doses of 1.25g, 2.5, 5, 10 and 21 g/kg body weight in a suspension with CMC Na 0,5%. Ten mice were used as control with a dose of 1 ml CMC Na 0,5%. The results suggest no acute toxicity to mice, since even the biggest dose given (show no measurable value of LD 50. It could be concluded that guava leaf extract shows no acute toxicity to mice at tested concentrations.

  2. In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Borassus flabellifer Linn. (Palmae against Pheretima posthuma

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    Prasad Govindrao Jamkhande

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anthelmintic activity of Borassus flabellifer (B. flabellifer Linn. leaves against Indian adult earth worms (Pheretima posthuma. Methods: The B. flabellifer leaves and Indian adult earth worms (Pheretima posthuma were collected and authenticated. Earth worms were grouped and treated with extract at 10, 20 and 50 mg/mL concentration, albendazole (10 mg/mL as a standard and normal saline. The paralysis time and mortality time was considered as indicator of anthelmintic efficacy. Results: All the extracts showed concentration dependent activity but significant activity was observed at 50 mg/mL. At concentration 50 mg/mL extract pertained better activity with paralysis time (13.3 min and death times (17.92 min when compared to standard albendazole. Conclusions: The study findings reveal that the methanolic extract of B. flabellifer leaves has effective anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earth worms.

  3. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

    2011-07-01

    Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant.

  4. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse

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    S Sulaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory."nMethods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse in the laboratory."nResults: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. The plant crude extract exhibited against Ae. albopictus larvae with a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 21.2555 ppm and 36.1061 ppm, respectively. There was a significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp. Larvae (P< 0.05. However, bifenthrin showed a significant difference on larvicidal effect to that of A. calamus hexane extract on both Aedes spp (P< 0.05. In testing the adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 17.4075 and 252.9458 ppm against Ae .aegypti and a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 43.9952 and 446.1365 ppm respectively on Ae. albopictus. There was no significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp adults (P> 0.05."nConclusion: Bifenthrin however showed a significant difference on both Aedes spp adults (P< 0.05. With the wide availability of A. calamus in Malaysia, it could be utilized for controlling dengue vectors. "n 

  5. Evaluation of in-vitro anthelmintic activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. leaves in Indian adult earthworm

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    Kabita Mahato

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To carry out an exhaustive study with a view to substantiate the therapeutic potential of the plant in terms of its anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma using mebendazole as a reference standard. Methods: Forty five worms were collected and were divided into nine groups and were washed in normal saline before they were released into 10 mL of respective drug solutions using distilled water as vehicle. Different concentrations (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL of the test (MEHI and AEHI and standard solution were prepared before the commencement of the experiment. Time for paralysis and time for death were recorded for each group. Results: Crude methanolic extract with concentrations of 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL produced dose-dependent paralysis. Time of paralysis and death increased with concentration of 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL as compared with that of standard drug mebendazole. Methanolic extract of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (H. indicum gave shorter paralysis and death time at 100 mg/mL as compared to aqueous extract H. indicum Linn. Results are expressed as mean依SEM (P<0.05 of 5 worms in each group. Conclusions: From the investigation, conclusion can be drawn that the methanolic extract of H. indicum (Boraginaceae showed better activity than aqueous extract of the same to treat intestinal worm infections. In comparison with the standard drug mebendazole, methanolic extract of H. indicum showed significant anthelmintic efficacy.

  6. Pepino japonês (Cucumis sativus L. submetido ao tratamento com fécula de mandioca Japonese cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. submitted of the treatment with cassava starch film

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    Kelen Cristina dos Reis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade e a vida útil do pepino (Cucumis sativus L., utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Após seleção, amostras de pepino japonês foram mergulhadas em suspensões de fécula de mandioca a 0, 2, 3 e 4%, secos ao ar e armazenados em câmara fria a 5ºC e 95% de UR por 8 dias. As análises realizadas foram perda de massa, pH, sólidos solúveis (SS , acidez titulável (AT, Cor L*a*b e firmeza. O delineamento utilizado foi o DIC com 3 repetições, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 4 x 5. O valor encontrado para firmeza nas amostras tratadas com película a 4% foram menores em comparação aos outros tratamentos, isto, provavelmente se deve à plasticidade do tecido que estas amostras apresentaram. A película reduziu significativamente a perda de massa das amostras mantidas sob refrigeração. A aplicação de película de fécula de mandioca na concentração mais elevada (4%, proporcionou ao pepino um aspecto melhor de conservação, tornando o produto mais atraente.This work was made to evaluate the properties and postharvest life of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. coated with cassava starch film. After the selection the fruits were dipped in suspensions 0, 2, 3 and 4% starch, dried naturally and stored in chamber cold (5ºC ± 1ºC and 90% ± 5% HR during 8 days and the analyses were done in the time zero and in intervals of 2 days. The analyses done were loss mass, titratable acidity (TA, pH, soluble solids (SS, color L*a*b and firmness. The test was conducted in completely randomized design, with three repetitions, with the treatments disposed in factory layout 4x5. The value found for firmness in the samples treated with biofilm at 4% was smaller in comparison to the other treatments, this, is probably due to the plasticity of the tissue that these samples presented. The film reduced the loss of mass of the samples maintained under refrigeration

  7. Crude extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora Linn leaves showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Tamires Rocha; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; de Moraes Ramos, Rhayanne Thaís; Bezerra, Isabelle Cristinne Ferraz; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; de Souza Neto, Manoel André; Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Aguiar Guerra, Andreza Conceição Véras; de Medeiros, Juliana Silva; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo

    2018-03-09

    This study showed phytochemical composition and evaluates the anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of crude extract (CE) and fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves. Polyphenols present in crude extract (CE), in aqueous fraction (AqF), and ethyl acetate (EAF) treated fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves were shown by chromatographic analysis in order to conduct a phytochemical characterization. Antibacterial activity was evaluated based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined using the agar dilution method. Doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of the CE and fractions were applied for conducting in vivo models (male Swiss mice, 8-10 weeks old). The peritonitis experimental model was induced by carrageenan following of Myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), Total glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1β and TNF-α levels by spectroscopic UV/VIS analysis. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated based on an abdominal writhing model and hot plate test. The results were statistically evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc test. The level of statistical significance was p fractions obtained from E. uniflora Linn leaves (0.05-0.87%w/w, 0.20-0.32%w/w, and 1.71-6.56%w/w, respectively). In general, the CE had lower MIC values than the fractions, including the lowest MIC against the MRSA strain. The CE and AqF also significantly reduced leukocyte migration and MPO activity (p fractions exhibited an antioxidant effect (p fractions from the studied E. uniflora Linn leaves exhibited antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity in the performed assays.

  8. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn, against N Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced Hepatotoxicity in experimental Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Langeswaran K; Jagadeesan A. J; Vijayaprakash S; Balasubramanian M. P

    2012-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn, belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae and have speculated Medicinal properties. In this present investigation, the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extracts of Scoparia dulcis was evaluated against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced liver cirrhosis in experimental rats. In group III hepatotoxicity induced animals, an oral dose of 500 mg/kg, of the aqueous extracts of Scoparia dulcis exhibited a significant (P

  9. Identifikasi komponen aktif minyak atsiri daun Vitex trifolia Linn yang berperan sebagai penolak serangga terhadap Chrysomya sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Soewandi J. S

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Dried leves powder of Vitex trifolia, Linn, is used tradisionally as insect repellent. The activity of the essential oil (isolated from the leaves and this fractions were studied as a repellent against Chrysomya sp. Fraction E contained a single component and has proven as the most effective to repel Chrysomya sp.According to the spectra of UV, IR, and GC-MS analysis, the single component of fraction E was identified as 4-methyl-1-(methylethy3-cyclohexnol.

  10. Study of Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leucas indica Linn. Aerial Parts on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahananda Sarkar; Prova Biswas; Amalesh Samanta

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Leucas indica Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The extract showed a significant dose depended (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w, orally) reduction in fasting blood glucose level, comparing with reference drug, glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg b.w, orally). In addition, the changes in body weight, analysis of serum biochemical parameters like lipid profile, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate p...

  11. Study on Effect of Type of Explant and Hormone on Callus Induction and Regeneration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Mohsen Sajjadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the medicinal plants that contain active components and medicinal materials. Tissue culture of saffron can improve the quality and quantity of the saffron product, increase its export and the farmers’ income. In this study, 36 different types of hormone combinations in the dark and 9 different treatments of hormone combinations in cold (4°C, using different saffron explants (bulb, leaf, scales around leaf and distal parts of the leaf were studied in tissue culture. To investigate the growth of corms, the callus formation and the regeneration rate, three replications for each treatment were used and the length of shoot (cm, the callus formation percentage and the regeneration percentage were measured and statistical analysis was performed. Among the types of explants, only explants from bulbs produced the callus on MS medium containing 2 mg.l-1 BAP and 1 mg.l-1 IBA in both the dark and cold conditions. The highest percentage of regeneration was obtained in MS medium with hormonal composition of 0.3 mg.l-1 TDZ, 1 mg.l-1 BAP, 2 mg.l-1 IBA and 0.01 mg.l-1 GA3 in the cold conditions.

  12. Antilithiasic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on Mice Fed with a Lithogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  13. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pathogenesis-related protein CsPR10 from Crocus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, L; Rubio-Moraga, A; Ahrazem, O

    2011-03-01

    Plants have developed many mechanisms to protect themselves against most potential microbial pathogens and diseases. Among these mechanisms, pathogenesis-related proteins are produced as part of the active defence to prevent attack. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding the CsPR10 protein was identified in fresh saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus). The deduced amino acid sequence from the nucleotide sequence of the coding region showed homology with PR10 proteins. The clone expressed as a protein in fusion with a GST tag produced a 47-kDa protein in E. coli. CsPR10 had ribonuclease activity, with features common to class II-type ribonucleases; its specific activity was quantified as 68.8 U·mg(-1) protein, thus falling within the range of most PR10 proteins exhibiting RNase activity. Antifungal activity of CsPR10 was assayed against Verticillium dahliae, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium oxysporum. CsPR10 inhibited only F. oxysporum growth, and antifungal potency was reflected in a IC(50) of 8.3 μm. Expression analysis showed the presence of high transcript levels in anther and tepal tissues, low levels in stigmas and roots, and no signal detected in leaves. This protein seems to be involved in the active defence response through activation of the jasmonic acid pathway. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Effect of drought stress, corm size and corm tunic on morphoecophysiological characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in greenhouse conditions

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    M. Sabet Teimouri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of corm tunic, corm weight and drought stress on saffron (Crocus sativus L., an experiment was conducted at the greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Treatment were combination of four corm weights range (2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 8-10 g, two levels of water availability (100% field capacity and drought and two levels of corm tunic (natural corm with tunic and without tunic as factorial arrangement based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The corms were divided to four groups based on their weights and removed tunics of corm in tunic free treatment. Results indicated that the highest biomass produced in irrigation, corms with tunic with maximum weight. Both chlorophyll a and b contents decreased significantly under drought stress and chlorophyll b content was 50% of chlorophyll a content. Effect of corm size and corm tunic and interaction of these treatments imposed a significant effect on the leaf number per plant, leaf weight and chlorophyll content. Effect of corm tunic in 8-10 g corm size increased ch (a/ch (b ratio and leaf number. The relative water content was decreased in drought treatment in both tunic and tunicless treatments and the best corm weight in all treatment was 6-8g and could be useful to tolerate drought stress.

  15. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  16. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. from Its Adulterants

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    Chao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C, C. tinctorius (80.10°C, C. officinalis (79.92°C, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. Tzvel. (79.62°C, N. nucifera (80.58°C, Hemerocallis fulva (L. L. (84.78°C, and Z. mays (84.33°C. The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  17. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Spice

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    Giovanna Soffritti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compared concerning the ability to recover PCR-grade DNA from saffron, truly adulterated samples and possible adulterants, with a clear difference among them, mainly with the processed samples. Only one of the three kits was able to obtain amplifiable DNA from almost all of the samples, with the exception of extracts. On the recovered DNA, new markers were developed based on the sequence of the plastid genes matK and rbcL. These primers, mainly those developed on matK, were able to recognize saffron and the adulterant species and also in mixtures with very low percentages of adulterant. Finally, considering that the addition of different parts of saffron flowers is one of the most widespread adulterations, by analyzing the DNA of the different parts of the flower (styles, stamens and tepals at the genetic and epigenetic level, we succeeded in finding differences between the three tissues that can be further evaluated for a possible detection of the kind of fraud.

  18. Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Abbas, A.; Murtaza, S.; Mahmud, T.; Waheed-uz-Zaman; Salman, M.; Shafiq, U.

    2012-01-01

    Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)

  19. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of safranal, an active ingredient of Crocus sativus , in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia

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    Hamid R. Sadeghnia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Safranal is a monoterpene aldehyde found in saffron (Crocus sativus L. petals. It has been previously reported that safranal has a wide range of activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we examined the effect of safranal on brain injuries in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Safranal in the doses of 72.5 and 145 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally at 0, 3, and 6 h after reperfusion. Neurobehavioral deficit, infarct volume, hippocampal cell loss and markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, total sulfhydryl (SH content, and antioxidant capacity (using FRAP assay were also assessed. The focal cerebral ischemia induced a significant increase in the neurological score, infarct volume and neuronal cell loss in the ipsilateral hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields (p < 0.001 and also oxidative stress markers (p < 0.01. Following safranal administration, the total SH content and antioxidant capacity significantly increased, while marked decreases were observed in the neurological score, infarct volume and hippocampal cell loss, as well as TBARS level. This study concluded that safranal had protective effects on ischemic reperfusion injury in the rat model of stroke. Such effects of safranal may have been exerted mainly by suppressing the production of free radicals and increasing antioxidant activity.

  1. Insights into salicylic acid responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons based on a comparative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, J H; Dong, C J; Zhang, Z G; Wang, X L; Shang, Q M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the response of cucumber seedlings to exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and gain a better understanding of SA action mechanism, we generated a proteomic profile of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons treated with exogenous SA. Analysis of 1500 protein spots from each gel revealed 63 differentially expressed proteins, 59 of which were identified successfully. Of the identified proteins, 97% matched cucumber proteins using a whole cucumber protein database based on the newly completed genome established by our laboratory. The identified proteins were involved in various cellular responses and metabolic processes, including antioxidative reactions, cell defense, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, respiration and energy homeostasis, protein folding and biosynthesis. The two largest functional categories included proteins involved in antioxidative reactions (23.7%) and photosynthesis (18.6%). Furthermore, the SA-responsive protein interaction network revealed 13 key proteins, suggesting that the expression changes of these proteins could be critical for SA-induced resistance. An analysis of these changes suggested that SA-induced resistance and seedling growth might be regulated in part through pathways involving antioxidative reactions and photosynthesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10-12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (Pfunctions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size.

  3. Phloem unloading follows an extensive apoplasmic pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit from anthesis to marketable maturing stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liping; Sun, Huihui; Li, Ruifu; Zhang, Lingyun; Wang, Shaohui; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2011-11-01

    The phloem unloading pathway remains unclear in fruits of Cucurbitaceae, a classical stachyose-transporting species with bicollateral phloem. Using a combination of electron microscopy, transport of phloem-mobile symplasmic tracer carboxyfluorescein, assays of acid invertase and sucrose transporter, and [(14)C]sugar uptake, the phloem unloading pathway was studied in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit from anthesis to the marketable maturing stage. Structural investigations showed that the sieve element-companion cell (SE-CC) complex of the vascular bundles feeding fruit flesh is apparently symplasmically restricted. Imaging of carboxyfluorescein unloading showed that the dye remained confined to the phloem strands of the vascular bundles in the whole fruit throughout the stages examined. A 37 kDa acid invertase was located predominantly in the cell walls of SE-CC complexes and parenchyma cells. Studies of [(14)C]sugar uptake suggested that energy-driven transporters may be functional in sugar trans-membrane transport within symplasmically restricted SE-CC complex, which was further confirmed by the existence of a functional plasma membrane sucrose transporter (CsSUT4) in cucumber fruit. These data provide a clear evidence for an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway in cucumber fruit. A presumption that putative raffinose or stachyose transporters may be involved in soluble sugars unloading was discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Radish (Raphanus sativus L) - a model for studying plant responses to air pollutants and other environmental stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostkarick, R.; Manning, W.J. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sudwest, Filderstadt (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Oekologie)

    1993-01-01

    The use of [ital Raphanus sativus L.] as a model crop for studies on plant response to environmental stresses is reviewed with emphasis on the effects of different atmospheric pollutants (O[sub 3], SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2], acidic precipitation) and their combinations. Responses to temperature, light supply, water stress, and atmospheric CO[sub 2] are also studied and discussed. In addition, the references reviewed are evaluated in terms of their experimental protocols on growth conditions and recommendations for optimal ranges of environmental and cultural variables, i.e. light, temperature, nutrient supply are given. Its distinct pattern of biomass partitioning, the small dimensions along with short and easy culture make radish an excellent experimental plant. The fleshy below-ground storage organ, formed by the hypocotyl and upper radicle, acts as the major sink during vegetative development. Abundant assimilate supply due to elevated levels of CO[sub 2] along with high irradiation frequently promote hypocotyl growth more than shoot growth, whereas under conditions of stress shoot growth is maintained at the expense of the hypocotyl. This makes the hypocotyl:shoot ratio of radish a very sensitive and suitable indicator for various environmental stresses. Potential weaknesses and short-comings of radish in its role as a model crop, particularly the high variability of injury and growth responses, are discussed along with possible solutions. Future research needs are derived from the summarized results presented and from some disparities among findings within the literature reviewed.

  5. Structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible and resistant radish (Raphanus sativus L., var. oleiformis

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    Grażyna Grymaszewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible Raphanus sativus L. cv. "Siletina" and resistant radish cv. "Pegletta" was investigated. In the radish cultivar "Siletina" the syncytia most often appeared in the elongation zone of lateral roots. They were initiated in the procambium and pericycle but also included the parenchyma cells of vascular cylinder. In the susceptible cultivar "Siletina" the cells forming the female's syncytia were subject to hypertrophy. Their cytoplasmic density increased. The cytoplasm contained numerous organella. The proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum took place. Branched cell wall ingrowths were formed next to the vessels. In the male's syncytia the cells were only slightly increased. Their protoplasts contained few organelles. The cell wall ingrowths were poorly developed. In the syncytia of the resistant cultivar "Pegletta" there was only a slight increase of the cell volume. A well developed system of rough endoplasmic reticulum was observed in the protoplast. Distended ER cisterns contained fine fibrillar material. Material of similar structure also appeared in numerous small vacuoles. In resistant plants only some, not numerous, syncytia spreading in procambium fully developed and functioned long enough for the parasite females to mature. At an advanced stage of infection a well developed system of a rough ER was observed also in those syncytia and numerous vacuoles appeared.

  6. Pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. Redondo Gigante with graphite for germination under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobel Penteado Freitas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water stress on germination of radish seeds is dependent on the presence of light. The effect of pelletization of radish seeds with powdered graphite on the tolerance to water stress under light was analysed. White light and far-red lights were filtered by graphite increasing slightly the tolerance of pelleted seeds to water stress of -0.77MPa. Although red light also inhibited seed germination the graphite had no effect. We propose the pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus, at least in cv redondo gigante with graphite as a pratice before planting to increase the tolerance to water stress.O efeito do estresse hídrico é dependente da presença de luz em sementes de rabanete. O efeito da peletização com grafite em pó foi analisado. Luz branca e vermelho-extremo são filtradas pelo grafite aumentando parcialmente a tolerância ao estresse hídrico de -0,77MPa em sementes peletizadas. Embora a luz vermelha também iniba a germinação em condições de estresse a peletização não teve efeito. Nós propomos a peletização de sementes de Raphanus saivus L. cv. redondo gigante como uma prática antes do plantio para aumentar a tolerância ao estresse hídrico.

  7. Studies on different concentration of lead (Pb and sewage water on Pb uptake and growth of Radish (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudratullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the accumulation of lead (Pb by radish (Raphanus sativus cultivars a study was carried out at Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan, during 2012. Two radish varieties i.e., exotic and local, were used. The treatments included sewage water and different concentrations of Pb @ 25, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1. The results showed that the total biomass of both the radish varieties were nonsignificantly influenced by the applied Pb concentrations and sewage water, except for root diameter which were significantly greater in the local cultivar (3.261 cm.Pb treatments significantly reduced the growth and yield of both the cultivars. While the Pb uptake by the root and leaf of radish plants was increased by the increasing the applied Pb levels, with the highest value for root (19.008 mg kg-1 and leaf (16.134 mg kg-1 in the treatment receiving the highest applied Pb concentrations. The total biomass, fresh weight of root and root diameter was found significantly higher except for Pb @ 400 mg L-1, in the plants receiving sewage water as compared to the control and different levels of Pb. The interaction amongst the varieties and treatments were found significantly different for various parameters. Thus, it can be concluded, that the use of sewage water and Pb contaminated wastewater results in higher metal concentration in the radish root and may lead to different types of health problems to consumers.

  8. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  9. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Long

    Full Text Available The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins.

  10. Polyphenolic profile and biological activities of black carrot crude extract (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, A; Denaro, M; Barreca, D; D'Angelo, V; Germanò, M P; Trombetta, D

    2018-01-01

    Black carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) is a valuable source of carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins and contains also high amounts of anthocyanins giving the characteristic deep-purple color. These latter compounds are known as natural dyes used in the food and pharmaceutical industry that have recently attracted much attention for their healthful properties. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time the polyphenolic profile and biological properties of a black carrot crude extract (BCCE) through an in-depth analysis of the main polyphenolic classes evaluating its antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties. Twenty five polyphenols were quantified by LC-DAD-FLD-MS/MS analysis (anthocyanins 78.06%, phenolic acids 17.89% and other flavonoids 4.06%) with polyglycosylated cyanidins as major components. In addition, BCCE showed a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity particularly in the hydrogen transfer-based assays (ORAC and β-carotene bleaching) and a significant increase in the cell viability. Furthermore, BCCE exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic activity at the highest concentration assayed on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (50μg/egg). In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated the antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties of BCCE, which highlight that the higher biological activity of BCCE is probably due to the synergic effects exerted by various polyphenolic classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An RNA Sequencing Transcriptome Analysis of Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) and Development of SSR and KASP Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaopeng; Yang, Tao; Liu, Rong; Hu, Jinguo; Yao, Yang; Burlyaeva, Marina; Wang, Yan; Ren, Guixing; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Dong; Chang, Jianwu; Zong, Xuxiao

    2017-01-01

    Grasspea ( Lathyrus sativus L., 2n = 14) has great agronomic potential because of its ability to survive under extreme conditions, such as drought and flood. However, this legume is less investigated because of its sparse genomic resources and very slow breeding process. In this study, 570 million quality-filtered and trimmed cDNA sequence reads with total length of over 82 billion bp were obtained using the Illumina NextSeq TM 500 platform. Approximately two million contigs and 142,053 transcripts were assembled from our RNA-Seq data, which resulted in 27,431 unigenes with an average length of 1,250 bp and maximum length of 48,515 bp. The unigenes were of high-quality. For example, the stay-green (SGR) gene of grasspea was aligned with the SGR gene of pea with high similarity. Among these unigenes, 3,204 EST-SSR primers were designed, 284 of which were randomly chosen for validation. Of these validated unigenes, 87 (30.6%) EST-SSR primers produced polymorphic amplicons among 43 grasspea accessions selected from different geographical locations. Meanwhile, 146,406 SNPs were screened and 50 SNP loci were randomly chosen for the kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) validation. Over 80% (42) SNP loci were successfully transformed to KASP markers. Comparison of the dendrograms according to the SSR and KASP markers showed that the different marker systems are partially consistent with the dendrogram constructed in our study.

  12. Efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus L. Effects of the culture of the Barley and of periods of control on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus. Foram considerados dois tratamentos testemunha sem controle das plantas daninhas, com e sem a cultura. Nos oito demais tratamentos, a cultura esteve sempre presente, controlando-se as plantas daninhas até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 e 100 dias após a emergência da cevada. A comunidade infestante da área era composta quase exclusivamente por R. .sativus. Avaliou-se o número de plantas, acúmulos de matéria seca, número médio de frutos e sementes de nabiça por planta e por unidade de área ; foram ainda avaliados o número médio de sementes por fruto, peso médio de 1.000 sementes e a contribuição das sementes na composição da matéria se catota. A análise dos resultados evidenciou que a espécie Raphanus sativus apresenta elevado potencial reprodutivo, sendo possível concluir pela ineficiência de programas de controle de curta duração, em termos de redução do banco de sementes. A presença da cultura da cevada reduziu tanto o crescimento quanto o número de sementes produzidas pela nabiça (R. sativus. Na ausência da cultura e de práticas de controle foram produzidas 5.074 sementes/m, a partir de 125 plantas/m ainda presentes na colheita da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of barley and weed control periods on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus, the major weed in the experimental area. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Two checks, with and without the crop, were kept weedy from seeding to harvest. In other eight treatments the crop was kept weed free up to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 days after emergence. It were evaluated the number of plants, the dry matter accumulation and the number of fruits and seeds per plant and per m2, the weight of 1.000 seeds and the

  13. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mudabbar/Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd (Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Methods: Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Results: Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Conclusion: Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude

  14. Morinda citrifolia Linn: potencialidades para su utilización en la salud humana

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    Nirda E González Lavaut

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Noni es el nombre común de la Morinda citrifolia Linn. originaria de la Polinesia, Malasia, Australia, India y el Sudeste de Asia, pero se ha extendido a casi todas las regiones del mundo. En este trabajo se muestran los aspectos más importantes que sobre esta planta aparecen en publicaciones, fundamentalmente de la vía Internet y del Chemical Abstracts en los últimos 5 años, que permitan valorar las potencialidades para su uso en la salud humana. En la medicina tradicional las frutas, flores, hojas, corteza y raíz de esta planta han sido utilizadas para diversos propósitos medicinales. Entre las afecciones más tratadas se encuentran la alergia, artritis, asma, cáncer, diabetes, depresión, debilidad física, desórdenes menstruales, obesidad y estrés. Si bien se ha encontrado en los extractos de varias partes de la planta una elevada cantidad de componentes e incluso algunos se han llegado a aislar, se considera que la acción farmacológica y beneficiosa se alcanza únicamente por el efecto sinérgico de todos los componentes.Noni is the common name given to Morinda citrifolia Linn. It is originating from Polinesia, Malasia, Australia, India and Southeast Asia, but it has extended to almost every region of the world. In this paper, the most important aspects of this plant appearing in publications, Internet and the Chemical Abstracts in the last 5 years that allow to assess the potentialities for its use in human health, are shown. In traditional medicine, the fruit, flowers, leaves, cortex and root of this plant have been used for diverse medicinal purposes. Allergy, arthritis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, depression, physical weakness, menstrual disorders, obesity and stress are among the most treated affections. Although in the extracts of various parts of the plant, a high number of components has been found and even some of them have been isolated, it is considered that the pharmacological and beneficial action is only reached by

  15. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Mudabbar/ Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd ( Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude and MKK were established for future reference. Mudabbar

  16. The allelopathic effect of the black nut leaves (Juglans nigra L. over the species of moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.

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    Sorina CORBU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment is a research on the effect of the allelopathic substances in the leaves of the black nut (Juglans nigra L. over the species of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and the moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.. We have prepared a watery extract of a concentration of 5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the leaves in different seasons (spring, autumn and winter. The watery extract presents an inhibitory effect over the germination and growth of the plants subdued to experiments, especialy over the leaves collected in spring.

  17. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M; Thenmozhi, S; Balakrishnan, B R

    2013-01-01

    Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  18. Effect of heat treatment on yield and quality of loofah (luffa cylindrica linn.) seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinoso, R.

    2015-01-01

    Effect of heat treatment on yield and some quality parameters of loofah seed (Luffa cylindrical Linn.) oil was the focus of this study. Central composite rotatable response surface methodology design for two variables was used for this investigation. Fatty acid composition of the un-treated oil was determined. The independent variables roasting temperature were 102, 110, 130, 150, 158 degree C and duration 16, 20, 30, 40, 44 min while oil yield, moisture content, free fatty acid, colour, refractive index and specific gravity of the oil were the dependent variables. All determinations were done using standard methods. Linoleic acid (50.66%), oleic acid (27.66%), palmitic acid (12.28%) and stearic acid (6.44%) were the major fatty acids. Mean oil yield, moisture, free fatty acid, colour, refractive index and specific gravity were 25.9 ± 5.16%, 0.035 ± 0.003%, 5.3 ± 2.47%, 15.23 ± 1.83 mg/100g, 1.47 ± 0.002 ND 40 and 0.913 ± 0.02, respectively. All the parameters were significantly affected by heat treatment (p<0.05). Regression models were not fit to express the relation, thus optimisation using response surface approach was not adequate. (author)

  19. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  20. Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji (Psidium guajava Linn Sebagai Antibakteri dan Antifungi

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    Siti Nuryani

    2017-10-01

    This research is pre experiments research with laboratory test to determine the inhibitory power of guava ethanol extract as anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. Guava leaves are old made 70% ethanol extract in LPPT UGM using maceration method. The extract made 3 concentrations ie 25%, 50% and 75%. Each concentration was tested for inhibitory by knowing the diameter of growth barrier to Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. Each concentration is repeated 5 times, resulting in 15 data. The data were analyzed descriptively to illustrate their potential comparisons with chlorhexidine as standard materials. The extract of guava leaf using ethanol 70% in laboratory test resulted in average inhibitory zone diameter as follows: for mushroom C.albicans with extract 25%, 50%, and 75% were 13.4mm, 17.6mm, and 19.4mm. While for S. aureus is 2.2mm, 25.6mm, and 27.2mm. The effect of antifungal power of guava leaf extract (Psidium guajava Linn. on the growth of Candida albicans fungus is smaller compared to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria

  1. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Saumya R.; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K.

    2011-01-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. PMID:21572659

  2. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK PENELURAN CHELONIA MYDAS, LINN. 1758 DI KAIMANA-PAPUA BARAT

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    Zeth Parinding

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Venu Island Wildlife areas, Kaimana-West Papua is one of the places for nesting of Chelonia mydas, Linn. 1758/Green Turtles/Jelepi. Thus, This study was conducted to identify the physical characteristics of Jelepi nesting in the Venu Island Wildlife areas, Kaimana-West Papua. Based on the analysis of the main components bi-plot of the physical characteristics of the main factors were found nesting and landing Jelepi, among others: Temperature sand at depth ≤30 cm (X ̅=27.42 C ± stdev 0,47 C, lighting at 11.0013.00 (X ̅=229.25lux ± stdev 326.50lux, building areas (X ̅=3.18 m2 ± stdev 16,74 m2, medium sand fraction in depth ≤30 cm (X ̅=39.86 ± stdev 16.11, and the number of holes nesting Jelepi (X ̅=1.52 nest ± stdev 1.12 nest.

  3. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A T M; Howlader, Md Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds.

  4. The Responses of Mulch Closure on the Germination of Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn.

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    Nurmawati Siregar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors that determine the successful of the development of mindi is the availability of seedling. The seedlings can be propagated generatively by using seeds, however there is a problem related to the hardness of the testa that make it difficult to germinate, so it needs environment condition treatments to get optimal germination, one of this is mulching. The use mulch possibly get the improvement of temperature, humidity, infiltration and evapotranspiration. The study is aimed to determine the effect of mulch and to find out the best mulch type on the germination of mindi (Melia azedarach Linn. seed. Randomized completely design was employed that arranged factorially, consisted of (A mulch types factor and mulch thicknesses factor (B. There were 5 (five types of mulch treatment i.e rice straws, transparent plastics, dark plastics, zeolite and without mulch. The thicknesses of mulch consisted of one layer and two layers of mulch. Germination capacity, germination speed and growth simultaneously were observed. The results showed, mulching effect on germination mindi the best type of mulch is black or transparent plastic mulch while the thickness of the mulch does not affect the germination. Mindi seed capable of germination in the dark and light conditions on the conditions of temperature and humidity high temperatures.

  5. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

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    M. K. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE. In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n=6/group/sex were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n=6/group/sex for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use.

  6. In vivo trypanocidal activity of Nymphaea lotus Linn. methanol extract against Trypanosoma brucei brucei

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    Muhammad Haruna Garba

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antitrypanosomal potentials of methanol extract of Nymphaea lotus Linn. (N. lotus with the aim of obtaining a new lead for formulating safe, inexpensive, nontoxic and readily available trypanocidal drugs. Methods: Seventy percent (v/v (methanol/water crude extract of N. lotus was evaluated for antitrypanosomal activity in experimental trypanosomiasis using Trypanosoma brucei bruceiinfected mice. Infected mice in different groups were administered intraperitoneally 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day of the crude for two weeks, while a positive control group was treated with standard drug, berenil. Results: The crude extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day was more effective than the higher doses in completely clearing parasites from the blood of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Pre-treatment of healthy mice with the crude extract for 5 days before infection did not prevent the establishment of the infection, indicating that the extract had no prophylactic activity. Subinoculation of the blood and cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the cured mice into healthy mice failed to produce any infection within 50 days post inoculation. Administration of 1 000 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract led to the death of 50% of the experimental animals indicating a high level of toxicity of the extract at higher doses. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the potency of the crude extract of N. lotus in treating experimental trypanosomiasis at lower doses.

  7. The Effectiveness of Extracts Basil Leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) against Saprolegnia sp. by in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarno; Luthfi Hakim, Muhammad; Kusdarwati, Rahayu

    2017-02-01

    Saprolegnia SP. is a fungi which is opportunistic and generally as a secondary pathogen on fish. Saprolegnia sp. infects epidermis tissue that begins at the head or fins and can spread over the entire surface of the body. The result of the using of chemicals to control infections of Saprolegnia spp. can cause pollution of the environment and harm the consumer. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential and the minimum concentration of extracts basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) as antifungi against the growth of Saprolegnia sp. by vitro. The research was held in Fish Quarantine Kelas I Juanda Suarabaya in January 2015. A positive result was obtained in the test of the effectiveness of basil leaves in inhibiting the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. Concentration of the extract given to treatment 90% and 100% was able to inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia sp., indicated by the formation of the inhibitory zones at a concentration of treatment, and had the best results on the concentration of 100%.

  8. In Vitro Anti-arthritic activity of Tecoma stans (Linn. Leaves

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    Dharmeshkumar Prajapati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates 80% of the world population presently use herbal medicine for some aspects of primary health care. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks synovial joints. There are many herbs which are described in Ayurveda for arthritis. The medicinal plant contains flavonoids, terpenes, quinones, catechins, alkaloids, anthocyanins and anthoxanthins phytoconstituents, having anti-inflammatory effects. Tecoma stans (Linn. belongs to the family of Bignoniaceae. The root of Tecoma stans as diuretic, vermifuge and tonic. Pharmacological reports revealed that it is having antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties, and extensively used in the treatment of diabetes. Alcohol, Water, successive extracts of Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol and Water extracts of T. stans leaves were tested for Antiarthritic activity using Diclofenac sodium as standard by In-vitro models like, Inhibition of protein denaturation and effect on membrane stabilization. Alcohol, Water and succesive Methanol extracts of T. stans leaves exhibited significant Antiarthritic activity. The results of the investigations justify us the folklore use of T. stans leaves in the treatment of inflammation during arthritis and the plant is worth for further chemical isolation and pharmacological investigations.

  9. HEMOSTATIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Piper betle, Linn LEAVES TO MALE MICE

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    Sadakata Sinulingga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage occurs in most of the dental care. Untreated hemorrhage could cause excessive blood loss, hypotension, and cyanosis. A Natural resource that reported has an hemostatic effect is ethanol extract of betel leaves (Piper betel, Linn.The aim of this study is to find the minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice. The experimental study used pretest-posttest with control group design was conducted on 35 mice that divided into 7 group which are negative control, positive control (feracrylum 1%, the ethanol extract of betel leaves 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. All mice were injected heparin intravenously. Mice’s tail was cut at diameter 3 mm and pretest bleeding time was counted. Mice’s tail was recut at diameter 4 mm, given treatment for 5 seconds and posttest bleeding time was counted. Results of paired t-test showed that reduction of bleeding time between pretest and posttest was significant (p<0,050. The enhancement of ethanol extract of betel leaves concentration leads to better hemostatic effect. Results of ANOVA test showed that comparison of posttest bleeding time among groups was significant (p<0,050. The minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice is 5%.

  10. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arawwawala, L D A M; Arambewela, L S R; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2014-01-01

    Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF HAE AND CEE PROVIDED MARKED DOSE DEPENDENT (HAE: r (2) = 0.97; CEE: r (2) = 0.96) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.

  11. The cytotoxic effect of Elephantopus scaber Linn extract against breast cancer (T47D) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyani, N.; Nurkhasanah

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main cause of death. Elephantopus scaber Linn (ES) which has been used as a traditional medicine contains an antitumor compounds. This study aimed to explore the active fraction from ethanolic extract of ES as anticancer and to determine its inhibition effect on the cell proliferation cycle of breast cancer (T47D) cells. The ES leaf was macerated with ethanol and then evaporated to get the concentrated extract. The extract was fractionated using petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol respectively. The cytotoxic activity of each fraction was carried out with MTT method, and the inhibition of cell cycle test were observed by flowcytometry method. The result showed that ES and the fractions have cytotoxic activity against T47D cell lines with IC50 values of extract, petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol fractions were 58.36±2.38, 132.17±9.69, 7.08±2.11, and 572.89±69.23 µg/mL. The inhibition effect of ethanol extract on the lifecycle of cells was occured in sub G1 phase. There was no prolonging of G1, S, G2/M and polyploidy phase of T47D cell lines. The chloroform fraction of ES is the most cytotoxic fraction against T47D cells without prolonging the cell lifecycle.

  12. Tore Linné Eriksen og de store utviklingsspørsmålene

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    Kristen Nordhaug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of Tore Linné Eriksen’s works within development studies/development research. In a recent introduction to development studies from 2013, he presented development research as a cross-disciplinary social science approach that addresses the grand problems of mankind. Eriksen’s own research into these grand problems has concentrated on the causes of national and international inequality and poverty. In 1974 he supported the view of the “underdevelopment school”: “Underdevelopment” in Africa and Latin America was the outcome of the inclusion of those continents in a capitalist world economy dominated by Europe. Recent works by Eriksen on the origins of the “great divergence” between Western Europe and economically advanced non-European countries (2010 and on inequality and poverty in the current world (2012 are far more complex and empirically nuanced. Still, in a recent discussion of globalization and global capitalism (2013 he reverts to some of the earlier ”underdevelopment arguments” from 1974. The article concludes that there is a tension within Eriksen’s works on the role of capitalism in development and underdevelopment. In his programmatic writings, global capitalism is seen as the main cause of inequality and poverty. In his more empirically grounded works, global capitalism is viewed rather as an important part of the bigger picture of inequality and poverty. 

  13. Antibiotic activity of the extract of Punica granatum Linn. over bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Maria A. R. Silva

    Full Text Available Human and veterinary medicines have not been so well succeeded in order to achieving their goals concerning the treatment of infections for long term caused by Staphylococcus aureus linked to resistance development against antibiotic agents. The antibiotic activity of the Punica granatum Linn. fresh fruit pericarp extract was evaluated by the agar diffusion method on 38 S. aureus strains, isolated from apparently healthy lactating cows in farms situated in counties of the semi-arid region of the State of Paraíba, Brazil to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Twenty-two of the thirty-eight strains are penicillin-resistant (PRSA. The extract of P. granatum presented potential antibiotic action over all the assayed strains, forming 10 to 36 mm diameter inhibition zones. This paper's results claim the effectiveness of the extract of P. granatum as a potential antibacterial agent on S. aureus, and display the significance of evaluating new substances with antimicrobial potential, which can contribute to alternative therapeutics for veterinary and medicine.

  14. Quantification of total tannin, flavonoid contents and pharmacognostic study of the seeds of Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.

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    Tasmia Rahman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To justify the folkloric use of Swietenia mahagoni (S. mahagoni seeds, 90% ethanolic extract and their aqueous and organic partitioning substances were evaluated for their possible antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial potentials in vivo. Methods: Crude ethanolic extract of S. mahagoni seeds were subjected and partitioned into fractions using solvents at different polarity. Antimicrobial and antidiarrheal activities were evaluated and subsequently outcomes were corresponded with the conventional standard drugs. Results: The antidiarrheal activity was assessed using mouse model, where unfractionated ethanolic extract significantly reduced, the number, onset, rate and weight of diarrheal episodes. This fraction showed the limited number of defecation episodes of 27.0% and 40.9% at dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively and reference drug, loperamide, showed 53% at a dose of 50 mg/kg. All extract fractions exhibited the significant potential to kill or subside the growth of known Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract and their aqueous and organic fractious revealed the seeds of S. mahagoni (Linn. have the potential to be used as a remedy for diarrhea and known pathogenic microbes which ensured the folkloric use of the seeds of S. mahagoni.

  15. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  16. Leishmanicidal activity of polyphenolic-rich extract from husk fiber of Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R; Rodrigues, Igor A; Alviano, Daniela S; Santos, André L S; Soares, Rosangela M A; Alviano, Celuta S; Lopes, Angela H C S; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S

    2004-04-01

    The available therapy for leishmaniasis, which affects 2 million people per annum, still causes serious side effects. The polyphenolic-rich extract from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) presents antibacterial and antiviral activities, also inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, as shown by our group in previous works. In the present study, the in vitro leishmanicidal effects of C. nucifera on Leishmania amazonensis were evaluated. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the polyphenolic-rich extract from C. nucifera to completely abrogate parasite growth was 10 microg/ml. Pretreatment of peritoneal mouse macrophages with 10 microg/ml of C. nucifera polyphenolic-rich extract reduced approximately 44% the association index between these macrophages and L. amazonensis promastigotes, with a concomitant increase of 182% in nitric oxide production by the infected macrophage in comparison to nontreated macrophages. These results provide new perspectives on drug development against leishmaniasis, since the extract of C. nucifera at 10 microg/ml is a strikingly potent leishmanicidal substance which inhibited the growth of both promastigote and amastigote developmental stages of L. amazonensis after 60 min, presenting no in vivo allergenic reactions or in vitro cytotoxic effects in mammalian systems.

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF PROBIOTIC KOUMISS FROM GOAT MILK WITH ADDITION OF ROSELLE EXTRACT (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn

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    E. Nuraeni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn are food ingredients with health functionalproperties. This research used Lactobacillus acidophilus RRAM-01 and Lactococcus lactis RRAM-01which had been proven as probiotic, and Saccharomyces cereviceae. Saccharomyces cereviseae wasused to produce specific flavor components in koumiss (bacterial fermentation product. The objectiveof this research was to study the characteristics of goat milk probiotic koumiss added that with roselleextract. The results showed that the addition of different concentration of roselle extract (0%, 0.5%, and1% in the goat milk probiotic koumiss had no effect on chemical and microbiological characteristics ofkoumiss. Goat milk processed into koumiss had ability to suppress the growth of coliform and hadstrong inhibition activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as tested by agar diffusion test.Microbiological analysis used in this research was the pour plate method. Population of lactic acidbacteria indicated that the product fulfilled standards as probiotics koumiss (1011 cfu/mL, coliform wasnot detected in the products, therefore the products met the criteria of The National Agency of Drug andFood Control (NA-DFC as probiotic functional food. Sensory evaluation was conducted by usinghedonic quality test. Based on the hedonic quality test, addition of different concentrations of roselleextract increased the intensity of red color and koumiss viscosity, but had no effect to the aroma andsourness of koumiss.

  18. Assessment of cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea Linn. against human colon adenocarcinoma and vero cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Portulacaceae) is commonly known as purslane in English. In traditional system it is used to cure diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, asthma, and piles, reduce small tumors and inflammations. Aim: To assess cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-15) and normal (Vero) cell line. Materials and Methods: Characterization of chloroform extract of P. oleracea by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed. Cytotoxicity (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used for assessment of cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea. The concentrations of 1000–0.05 μg/ml were used in the experiment. Doxorubicin was considered as standard reference drug. Results: FTIR spectrum showed the peak at 1019.52 and 1396.21 center. The 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) of chloroform extract of P. oleracea and doxorubicin was 1132.02 μg/ml and 460.13 μg/ml against human colon adenocarcinoma and 767.60 μg/ml and 2392.71 μg/ml against Vero cell line, respectively. Conclusion: Chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant was less efficient or does not have cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. It was not safe to normal Vero cell line. But, there is a need to isolate, identify, and confirm the phytoconstituents present in extract by sophisticated analytical techniques. PMID:27833374

  19. Ekstraksi Dan Karakterisasi Serbuk Nano Pigmen Dari Daun Tanaman Jati (Tectona Grandis Linn. F

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    Riahna br Kembaren

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman Jati (Tectona grandis linn. F umumnya hanya dimanfaatkan bagian kayunya untuk industri meubel, namun bagian lain seperti daun kurang dimanfaatkan. Daun jati terutama bagian pucuk daun muda dapat menghasilkan pigmen. Produksi serbuk nano pigmen dari daun jati dan karakterisasi serbuk nano pigmen tersebut belum dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menghasilkan nano pigmen dari pucuk daun jati muda dalam bentuk serbuk dengan menggunakan persentase filler yang berbeda dan melakukan karakterisasi serbuk nano pigmen jati tersebut. Pucuk daun jati muda diberi perlakuan mekanik dengan penggerusan kemudian disaring, larutan yang diperoleh diukur partikelnya dengan Particle Size Analyzer (PSA, dan dikeringkan dengan penambahan filler maltodekstrin 5% dan 10%. Serbuk yang diperoleh dihitung rendemen, ukuran partikel, dan kelarutan dalam air. Warna merah yang dihasilkan dari filtrat pucuk daun jati muda berasal dari zat warna antosianin yang terkandung dalam daun jati muda. Ekstrak dari pucuk daun jati muda memiliki ukuran dengan kisaran 87,8- 318,1 nm dengan ukuran rata-rata 109,2 nm. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak tersebut merupakan produk nano di alam. Penambahan filler dengan konsentrasi berbeda berpengaruh terhadap warna, rendemen, ukuran partikel serbuk, dan kelarutan pigmen serbuk dalam air. 

  20. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

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    Md. Moniruzzaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD. For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P<0.05. Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties.

  1. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) extract and their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraimathi, K L; Sudha, V; Lavanya, R; Brindha, P

    2013-02-01

    The present work focuses the use of the aqueous extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in producing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate aqueous. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannins, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates and proteins and they serve as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were also tested for proteins and ascorbic acid. Its pH was also determined (5.63). The AgNPs obtained was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, Zeta sizer and TG-DSC. SEM images which revealed the presence of various shapes and sizes. FT-IR spectrum showed the AgNPs having a coating of proteins indicating a dual role of bio-molecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Presence of impurities and melting point profile were screened by TG-DSC analyzer. AgNPs were synthesized from the silver nitrate through the reducing power of ascorbic acid present in A. sessilis leaves. In this study, we also investigated antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green synthesized AgNPs. The antimicrobial activity is investigated by Bauer et al.'s method. Antioxidant activity was done by DPPH method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A panoramic view on phytochemical, nutritional, ethanobotanical uses and pharmacological values of Trachyspermum ammi Linn.

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    Hafiz Muhammad Asif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trachyspermum ammi Linn. (T. ammi is an aromatic, grassy, annual plant belonging to Umbelliferae family which grows in the east of India, Pakistan, Iran, and Egypt. T. ammi has been used traditionally to treat arthritis, colic, diarrhea and gastrointestinal problems. In addition to these medicinal uses, T. ammi continues to be valued around the world as an important cooking spice and is believed to relief the common cold, flu-like symptoms, headaches, and even painful menstrual periods. These multiple uses can be explained by its several active compounds. The phytochemical studies on T. ammi seeds have revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, fixed oils, glycosides, tannins, saponin and flavonoids, cumene, thymene, amino acids and dietary fiber essential oils like thymol, c-terpinene, p-cymene. Several pharmacological studies on anti-tussive effect, inhibitory effect on histamine (H1 receptors, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti mutagenic activities of T. ammi seed extracts have been reported in the literature. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of T. ammi.

  3. Beneficial Effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) against Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghwani, Himanshu; Prabhakar, Pankaj; Mohammed, Soheb A; Dua, Pamila; Seth, Sandeep; Hote, Milind P; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Arava, Sudheer; Ray, Ruma; Maulik, Subir Kumar

    2018-04-17

    The study was designed to explore any beneficial effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) (OS) in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats. OS is commonly known as “holy basil” and “Tulsi” and is used in the Indian System of Medicine as antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, adaptogenic, and cardioprotective. Monocrotaline (MCT) administration caused development of PH in rats after 28 days and rats were observed for 42 days. Treatments (sildenafil; 175 µg/kg, OS; 200 mg/kg) were started from day 29 after the development of PH and continued for 14 days. Parameters to assess the disease development and effectiveness of interventions were echocardiography, right and left ventricular systolic pressures, and right ventricular end diastolic pressure, percentage medial wall thickness (%MWT) of pulmonary artery, oxidative stress markers in lung tissue, NADPH oxidase (Nox-1) protein expression in lung, and mRNA expression of Bcl2 and Bax in right ventricular tissue. OS (200 mg/kg) treatment ameliorated increased lung weight to body weight ratio, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased RVSP, and RVoTD/AoD ratio. Moreover, OS treatment decreases Nox-1 expression and increases expression of Bcl2/Bax ratio caused by MCT. The present study demonstrates that OS has therapeutic ability against MCT-induced PH in rat which are attributed to its antioxidant effect. The effect of OS was comparable with sildenafil.

  4. Analytical, antioxidant and hepatoprotective studies on extracts of oxalis corniculata linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.S.; Islam, M.; Khan, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a number of traditional medicinal uses and pharmacological properties, the usefulness of Oxalis corniculata Linn. (Family: Oxalidaceae) is a question due to its high oxalate content which can form insoluble salts with physiological calcium. Therefore, the present study aimed to reduce oxalates in extracts and to investigate such extracts chemically and biologically. The extraction was carried out using different solvents and methods, and analytical studies of extracts indicated that oxalate contents decrease on drying the material. Furthermore, extraction of both fresh and dried materials using 1 % aqueous calcium chloride and ferric chloride solutions resulted in lowering oxalate contents. Methanolic extracts of stems and leaves having lower oxalates were obtained using sequential extraction, which showed good in vitro antioxidant activity - by DPPH and beta-carotene linoleate models - and in vivo hepatoprotective activity in isoniazid and rifampicin-induced oxidative stressed rats (P < 0.05). It was concluded that methanolic extracts of leaves and stems of Oxalis corniculata had lower oxalates and showed promising antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. (author)

  5. Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, G K; Murthy, P N

    2011-01-01

    The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2% w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use.

  6. LEAVES EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LINN FOR ANTIINFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY IN ANIMAL MODELS

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    Ganesh N. Sharma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory andanalgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oraladministration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals.Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hindpaw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in pawvolume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan(1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy’s hotplate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanolextract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edemaand analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy’s hot platemethod and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showedanti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared withthe control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions werestatistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit ofMurraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  7. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

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    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  8. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Atikur Rahman, Md; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties.

  9. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of Cocos nucifera Linn. on streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Sagar; Mazumder, Upal K; Pramanik, Goutam; Gupta, Malaya; Kumar, R B Suresh; Bala, Asis; Islam, Aminul

    2011-12-08

    The plant Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae) is commonly known as coconut. Traditionally the juice of the young spadix when fresh is used in diarrhea and diabetes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidiabetic activity and effect on lipid profile as well as cardioprotective effect of hydro-methanol extract of Cocos nucifera (HECN) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 72 h of STZ (50 mg/kg, b.w. i.p.) administration, animals showing plasma sugar level more than 250 mg/dl were considered as diabetic rat. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured on 0th (after 72 h of STZ), 5th, 10th, and 15th day. On the 15th day all the animals were sacrificed and the serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme status were measured. HECN treated animals showed a significant reduction in FBG level as compared with diabetic control group. Serum enzyme level (SGOT, SGPT, SALP), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme level such as CAT, GSH, SOD and cholesterol and triglycerides in the HECN treated groups were restored towards normal level as compared to diabetic control groups and the values were comparable with the standard groups (glibenclamide). Improvement in the FBG and the restoration of all other biomarker as well as enzymes indicates that HECN has very good antidiabetic activity with very low side effects and provides a scientific rationale for the use as an antidiabetic agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Study of alkaline lignin from Arundo donax linn based on FT Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ting-ting; Ma, Jian-feng; Guo, Si-qin; Xu, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Arundo donax linn, as a perennial energy crop, has promising application prospect. In the present study, Fourier transform Raman (FT Raman) spectroscopy was applied to determine the structural information of materials, milled wood lignin (MWL), and alkaline lignins (AL, under different treated time) from A. donax stem nondestructively. The results indicated that, extractable compounds in A. donax had negative contribution to the Raman spectra without rising new Raman peaks. FT Raman spectrum of MWL indicated that MWL from A. donax was HGS type lignins. Compared with the spectra of MWL from wood materials, the peak at 1173 cm(-1) was much higher in intensity for the MWL from A. donax stem, which may be assigned to hydroxycinnamic acid by analyzing the standard. With respect to FT Raman spectra of ALs, the relatively highest intensity of 1173 cm(-1) was found in alkaline lignin (AL2), which was treated for 40 min by alkaline. Moreover, the peak of coniferaldehyde/sinapaldehyde (1630 cm(-1)) was lowest in intensity while the band attributed to coniferyl alcohol/sinapyl alcohol (1660 cm(-1)) was almost disappeared in AL2. It could be inferred that AL2 demonstrated a highest content of phenolic acid, which may improve its potential application, such as for antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the results obtained by FT Raman spectra were verified by two dimensional heteronuclear singlequantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Above all, FT Raman spectroscopy provided alternative safe, rapid, accurate, and nondestructive technology for lignin structure determination.

  11. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.

  12. A Structural and Histochemical Study of Actinorhizal Nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia Linn.

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    Mohammad Athar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Casuarina equisetifolia Linn. is an introduced actinorhizal plant grown as roadside ornamental tree and as forest plantation in Pakistan. Actinorhizal nodules are formed on the roots of C. equisetifolia as a response to infection by Frankia. Structure of C. equisetifolia nodules is described using histochemical methods to elucidate the nature of micro-symbiont within the nodules. C. equisetifolia nodules were similar to a root in general anatomical structure and resembled with Myrica-type nodules. The nodule consisted of a distinct periderm enclosing the cortex. The cortex showed patches of infected cells interspersed among uninfected ones. Inside the cortex there was a stele bounded by an endodermis, which contained tannins. The phloem-xylem relationship was amphicribral. A poorly defined meristem was also observed. Apart from simple nodules, dichotomously branched and coralloid nodules were also observed. The stele in simple and branched nodules reached up to the tip of the nodules. The micro-symbiont was observed in the nodule tissues in hyphal form only. The histochemical tests revealed absence of vacuoles and starch grains, and presence of tannins and lignin.

  13. Evaluation of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage

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    R Sunil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aims to evaluate antioxidants and protective role of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage. Materials and Methods: The total and profiles of flavonoids were identified and quantified through reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined using standard antioxidant assays. The protective role of C. tora extracts against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage was examined by electrophoretic and scanning electron microscopic studies, respectively. Results: The total flavonoid content of CtEA was 106.8 ± 2.8 mg/g d.w.QE, CtME was 72.4 ± 1.12 mg/g d.w.QE, and CtWE was 30.4 ± 0.8 mg/g d.w.QE. The concentration of flavonoids present in CtEA in decreasing order: quercetin >kaempferol >epicatechin; in CtME: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol; whereas, in CtWE: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol. The CtEA inhibited free radical-induced red blood cell hemolysis and cell membrane morphology better than CtME as confirmed by a scanning electron micrograph. CtEA also showed better protection than CtME and CtWE against free radical-induced DNA damage as confirmed by electrophoresis. Conclusion: C. tora contains flavonoids and inhibits oxidative stress and can be used for many health benefits and pharmacotherapy.

  14. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanolik kulit batang jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale Linn. terhadap Staphylococcus aureus

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    H. Harsini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of cashew stembark (Anacardium occidentale Linn on Staphylococcus aureus. Microbial activity acts as a sign of disruption of bacterial growth. The bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn. contains phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins and anacardic acid which have an activity as antimicrobial. One of the Gram positivebacteria in the oral cavity was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. The aim of the study was to observe the bacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew to a metal ion, i.e. Ca2+ and K+ leakage from S aureus. This research used one ose bacteria S. aureus at a density of 106 standard Brown as much as 10 mL and centrifuged at a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes. The filtrate discarded, pellets in the tube was washed using phosphate buffer pH 7.0. Furthermore the ethanolic extract of the bark of the cashew stembark was added in the concentrations of 3.5% and 7% without any extract as a control, each of which was in 5 tubes, incubated in an incubator for 24 hours. The suspension was centrifused with a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes prior to be filtered. Supernatant liquid was taken and measured absorbance using AAS. Data were analyzed using one way Anova p = 0.05. The results showed that leakage of Ca2+ was  at concentrations of 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% were 2.42 ± 0.82; 32.87 ± 1.97; 49.10 ± 3.33; 66.73 ± 3.29, respectively while for the K+ metal was 15.28 ± 0.46; 606.36 ± 14.14; 895 ± 9.5; 1251 ± 11.54. Anova one way showed a significant effect (p <0.050 ethanolic extract of the bark of cashew against leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ at S aureus bacteria. LSD test showed a significant difference among all treatment groups. It was concluded that there was antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew stembark on bacteria S. aureus based on leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ The highest leakage of metal ions was at the concentrations of 7%.   ABSTRAK Aktivitas

  15. Efficacy of Fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (JatrophaCurcas Linn Compost

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    Erma B. Quinay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the efficacy of fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (Jatophacurcas Linn compost, an experiment was carried out in complete randomized block design based on 3 replications. Varied ratios of commercial organic fertilizer (COF and Jatropha compost (JC are 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 and commercial inorganic fertilizers (CIF were used in planting. Parameters such as number of leaves, length of stems, size and color of leaves were determined after harvesting. The maximum number of leaves was noted in 100:0ratios of JC and COF; the lengthiest stem was noted in vegetables grown with 100:0 JC; while the largest size of leaf was noted in CIF. The color of leaves was the same for the varied ratios with a reading of 4 while the CIF has a reading of 5 in the leaf color chart. The macronutrients of JC have 2.09% N, 1.98%P and 17. 49%K.However the micronutrients of the compost were 203.66 ppm Zn, 326.27 ppmMnand 3997.30 ppmFe. These nutrients are essential for the plant growth. It was observed that potassium (K exceeded the standard for the COF which is 3.66 wt. %. K hastens maturity and increase the size and quality of vegetables.

  16. Phytochemical screening and quantification of flavonoids from leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okorie, N A

    2009-01-01

    The Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) herb is found in SouthWest, Nigeria and other parts of West Africa, and is claimed to possess anti-hypertensive property. The phytochemical screening and flavonoid quantification of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn were studied. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic leaf extract of J. curcas L. was carried using acceptable and standard methods. The flavonoid contents of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IRS) and a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of the leaves of the plant shows the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, phlobatannins, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. To quantify the flavonoid contents of leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L, extracts from the plant samples where examined in a C-18 column with UV detection and isocratic elution with acetonitrile; water (45:55). Levels of flavonoids (flavones) in leaves ranged from 6:90 to 8:85 mg/g dry weight. Results indicate that the methanolic extract of the leaves of Jatropha curcas L. contains useful active ingredients which may serve as potential drug for the treatment of diseases. In addition, a combination of TLC, IRS and HPLC can be used to analyse and quantify the flavonoids present in the leaves of Jatropha curcas L.

  17. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  18. Effect of Nigella Sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae ground seed extract on Carrageenan induced inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Parveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa Linn (Family: Ranunculaceae Bengali name “kalo jera” is used as spice in Bengali foods. Native to Western Asia, Turkey, Iraq and Egypt, the black seed oil has been valued for its health benefits for centuries. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of stomach aches, asthma, bronchitis, coughs, fevers, tumour and as a tonic. The dried and grounded seed was extracted with ethanol and the extract was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. The extracts were administered orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, and statistically significant (p<0.05 anti-inflammatory effects were observed in a dose dependant manner. The extract showed 28.75% and 43.79% inhibition of inflammation at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight after first hour of the carrageenan administration which was comparable to that of standard drugs aspirin 40.52% and hydrocortisone 47.71% respectively. The result of this study supported the traditional medicinal uses of this seed. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2011; 5(1: 22-24

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of echinochloa colona (linn.) link and sporobolus coromandelianus (retz.) kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Khan, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of two plants Echinochloa colona (Linn.) Link and Sporobolus coromandelianus (Retz.) Kunth, were carried out. The results revealed that the extracts of both plants were active against Gram positive bacteria, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and Gram negative bacteria, i.e. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the fungal strains Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The most significant results were obtained from the methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of E. colona, i.e. 24 +- 2.64 mm and 23 +- 2.64 mm against S. aureus, respectively. A significant inhibition zone of 23.66 +- 1.52 was observed by petroleum ether extract of S. coromandelianus. The chloroform extracts of S. coromandelianus showed an inhibition zone 72.33 +- 4.09 mm against A. oryzae and 66.33 +- 1.15 mm against A. niger. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using five approaches, i.e. 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) method; ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, metal chelating assay, total phenolic contents (TPC) and flavonoid contents. The results showed that the methanolic extracts of both plants possessed significant antioxidant activity. The results also indicated that methanolic extract of E. colona had total phenolic and flavonoid contents, i.e. 734.25 and 7774.54 mg/ml, however, methanolic extract of S. coromandelianus had phenolic and flavonoid contents, i.e. 366.75 and 3010.90 mg/ml. (author)

  20. Analgesic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn in rat

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    Alka Sawarkar

    Full Text Available The plant Hibiscus rosa  sinensis Linn. belongs to family “Malvacecae” and Considering various medicinal properties of this plant, the leaves were collected and studied for Extractability percentage, analgesic. The herb Hibiscus rosa  sinensis  belonging to the family “Malvacecae” and is commonly known as jasvand. It is cultivated in garden throughout India native country probably china. The buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste, cooling, astringent, remove burning sensations of the body and relieve pain. In the present study aqueous, alcoholic Extracts of dried leaves of Hibiscus rosasinensis was prepared. The extractability percentage of leaves was 20%. The extract showed marked analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts produced significant results at both doses (P<0.01, the findings indicated the analgesic activity of the leaves of the plant. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 353-354

  1. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  2. Effect of aqueous extract of saffron (crocus sativus L.) against gamma radiation-induced skeletal muscles damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahawy, N.A; Said, U.Z

    2010-01-01

    Muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage are the most important factors in radiation-induced acute damage to muscle tissue. Saffron, obtained from dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae), is a highly valued spice, commonly used in flavouring and food colouring in different parts of the world and is known to possess the richest source of carotenoids. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of an aqueous extract of saffron to protect against radiation-induced oxidative damage in rat's skeletal muscle. Saffron was supplemented orally, via gavages to rats at a dose of 80 mg/ kg body wt/ day for 2 week pre- and 1 week post-exposure to 5 Gy (one shot dose) of whole body gamma-irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 1, 2 and 3 weeks post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma-irradiation of rats induce oxidative stress in skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances associated with significant decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Also, radiation-induces skeletal muscles damage evidenced by significant decreases in the level of pyruvic acid, creatine phosphokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities as well as significant increases in lactic acid, total iron, and copper and calcium levels. Saffron treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less severe damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that saffron by attenuating radiation-induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining skeletal muscle integrity.

  3. Effects of Crocetin Esters and Crocetin from Crocus sativus L. on Aortic Contractility in Rat Genetic Hypertension

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    Silvia Llorens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by an enhancement in vasoconstriction, is clearly associated with hypertension. Saffron (Crocus sativus L. bioactive compounds have been recognized to have hypotensive properties. Recently, we have reported that crocetin exhibits potent vasodilator effects on isolated aortic rings from hypertensive rats. In this work, we have aimed to analyze the anticontractile ability of crocetin or crocetin esters pool (crocins isolated from saffron. Thus, we have studied the effects of saffron carotenoids on endothelium-dependent and -independent regulation of smooth muscle contractility in genetic hypertension. Methods: We have measured the isometric responses of aortic segments with or without endothelium obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The effects of carotenoids were studied by assessing the endothelial modulation of phenylephrine-induced contractions (10−9–10−5 M in the presence or absence of crocetin or crocins. The role of nitric oxide and prostanoids was analyzed by performing the experiments with L-NAME (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or indomethacin (both 10−5 M, respectively. Results: Crocetin, and to a minor extent crocins, diminished the maximum contractility of phenylephrine in intact rings, while crocins, but not crocetin, increased this contractility in de-endothelizated vessels. In the intact vessels, the effect of crocetin on contractility was unaffected by indomethacin but was abolished by L-NAME. However, crocetin but not crocins, lowered the already increased contractility caused by L-NAME. Conclusions: Saffron compounds, but especially crocetin have endothelium-dependent prorelaxing actions. Crocins have procontractile actions that take place via smooth muscle cell mechanisms. These results suggest that crocetin and crocins activate different mechanisms involved in the vasoconstriction pathway in hypertension.

  4. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vivarelli

    Full Text Available Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism.The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ, a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC and isothiocyanates (ITCs, in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced.Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD. After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ. Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids. Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed.SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction. SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase,quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%. HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention.This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product.

  5. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivarelli, Fabio; Canistro, Donatella; Sapone, Andrea; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Babot Marquillas, Clara; Iori, Renato; Antonazzo, Ippazio Cosimo; Gentilini, Fabio; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ), a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC) and isothiocyanates (ITCs), in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced). Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD). After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only) and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ). Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids). Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed. SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction). SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase, quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%). HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention. This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product.

  6. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  7. SELDI-TOF MS-based discovery of a biomarker in Cucumis sativus seeds exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Sun; Park, Eun-Sil; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2014-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit plant seed germination and root elongation via the release of metal ions. In the present study, two acute phytotoxicity tests, seed germination and root elongation tests, were conducted on cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) treated with bulk copper oxide (CuO) and CuO NPs. Two concentrations of bulk CuO and CuO NPs, 200 and 600ppm, were used to test the inhibition rate of root germination; both concentrations of bulk CuO weakly inhibited seed germination, whereas CuO NPs significantly inhibited germination, showing a low germination rate of 23.3% at 600ppm. Root elongation tests demonstrated that CuO NPs were much stronger inhibitors than bulk CuO. SELDI-TOF MS analysis showed that 34 proteins were differentially expressed in cucumber seeds after exposure to CuO NPs, with the expression patterns of at least 9 proteins highly differing from those in seeds treated with bulk CuO and in control plants. Therefore, these 9 proteins were used to identify CuO NP-specific biomarkers in cucumber plants exposed to CuO NPs. A 5977-m/z protein was the most distinguishable biomarker for determining phytotoxicity by CuO NPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SELDI-TOF MS results showed variability in the modes of inhibitory action on cucumber seeds and roots. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the phytotoxic effect of metal oxide NPs on plants is not caused by the same mode of action as other toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Benefits from Bio and organic fertilization by cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) with application of 15N stable isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, Y. G. M.; Soliman, S. M.; Ahmed, F. A.; El-Sherbiny, A. E. A.; Dahdouh, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Benefits from bio and organic fertilizer were evaluated under cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) crop grown on sandy soil at a field scale. The experiment was conducted under drip irrigation system. Fertilization treatment indicated that the combination of 50% mineral fertilizer (MF) + 50% organic compost (OC) was superior over all other fertilization treatment when the fresh weight of cucumber biomass or fruits was considered. It means that half of the recommended dose of of mineral fertilizer is enough to meet the requirement of cucumber crop when supplemented with organic compost. Nitrogen derived from mineral fertilizer (Ndff) by cucumber at different plant growth stages was significantly affected by the rate of addition and enhanced with microbial inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizea (AMF) was superior over Azospirillum and Rhizobium inoculations. The enhancement of Ndff uptake by plants was more pronounced at the fruit stage than at vegetative, flowering and hay growth stages. The highest values of Ndfa were induced by Rhizobium at hay stage followed by fruit. Similar trend, but to different extents was noticed with AMF and Azospirillum inoculum s. Most of nitrogen derived from compost (Ndfc) was occurred by addition of 50% MF + 50% Oc. Rhizobium and AMF were more effective than Azospirilum. High quantities of Ndfc were recognized at hay stage compared to other growth stages.The efficient use of mineral fertilizer-N (%NUE) was increased by addition of half:half mineral and organic fertilizer. Similarly, it seems that microbial inoculation in general has a synergistic effect on enhancement of %NUE. Higher NUE occurred at hay growth stage than others. (Author)

  9. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects to simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. Simulated rainfalls of 2.5, 25, 63, 398, 100 and 2512 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 5.6, 4.6, 4.2, 3.4, 3.0 and 2.6, respectively) decreased root yields (fresh mass) of radishes 26, 42, 37, 41, 66 and 73% compared with plants not exposed to rainfalls, Similar reductions were present in radish shoot fresh mass, leaf area, and root diameter. Fresh mass yields of lettuce plants exposed to 100, 794 and 1995 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 4.0, 3.1 and 2.7, respectively) were 11, 10 and 14%, respectively, below heads of plants not exposed to rainfalls. Yields of plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of 2.0 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 5.7) were similar to plants not exposed to rainfalls. Although visible foliar injury occurred to lettuce, this injury was present only on wrapper leaves and would not affect marketable quality. Yields of wheat which were applied during anthesis and caryopsis development were not influenced by exposure to 46 simulated rainfalls even as high as 1996 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 2.7). Alfalfa plants exhibited no overall differences in fresh mass of forage among treatments even after 57 simulated rainfalls of 1996 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 2.7) over 105 days. 22 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  10. [Effects of temperature regime on low-light tolerance of Cucumis sativus seedling leaves in their photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Sui, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Zhen-xian

    2008-12-01

    In a phytotron, the effects of three temperature regimes (day/night 25 degrees C/18 degrees C, optimal temperature; 15 degrees C/9 degrees C, suboptimal temperature; and 9 degrees C/7 degrees C, low temperature) on the low-light (75-85 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) tolerance of two Cucumis sativus cultivars (shade-susceptible Jinyan 2 and shade-tolerant Deltastar) seedling leaves in their photosynthesis were studied. The results showed that under low light, the SPAD, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II in the light (phi(PS II)), and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (q(p)) of cucumber leaves decreased, with the decrement getting more with decreasing temperature, while the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities were in adverse. During the recovery process after low-light stress relieved, the parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of the leaves recovered gradually, and the recovery of some gas exchange parameters lagged to that of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Under low light, the lower the temperature, the more damage the photosynthesis apparatus suffered, and the lesser tolerance to low light the cucumber leaves had in their photosynthesis. During the low temperature and low light treatment period, the decrease of Pn, phi(PS II), and q(p) was more obvious for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar; and during the relief period, the recovery of these parameters was slower for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar. It was indicated that Jinyan 2 had weaker tolerance to low temperature and/or low light in its photosynthesis than Deltastar.

  11. Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction.

  12. Comparison of microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismanto, A. W.; Kusuma, H. S.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    The comparison of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and microwave hydrodistillation (MHD) in the extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn. was examined. Dry cajuput leaves were used in this study. The purpose of this study is also to determine optimal condition (microwave power). The relative electric consumption of SFME and MHD methods are both showing 0,1627 kWh/g and 0,3279 kWh/g. The results showed that solvent-free microwave extraction methods able to reduce energy consumption and can be regarded as a green technique for extraction of cajuput oil.

  13. VALORACIÓN DE ATRIBUTOS DE CALIDAD EN PEPINO (Cucumis sativus L. FORTIFICADO CON VITAMINA E VALORAÇÃO DE ATRIBUTOS DE QUALIDADE EM PEPINO (Cucumis sativus L. FORTIFICADO COM VITAMINA E VALUATION OF QUALITY ATTRIBUTES IN CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus L. FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISAEL CORTÉS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto mínimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de pepino (Cucumis sativus L, utilizando la ingeniería de matrices. Rodajas impregnadas al vacío (IV con DL-α-tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una fase acuosa isotónica al pepino (NaCl al 1%, son evaluadas en cuanto a propiedades fisicoquímicas, color, textura, estabilidad de la vitamina E y sensorialmente, por influencia del proceso, tiempo de almacenamiento y envasado (con y sin vacío. La vitamina E se cuantifica por HPLC (% del valor diario recomendado (VDR/100 g de pepino fresco, según la norma Colombiana. La respuesta IV alcanza niveles de 6.05±1.49%, correspondiente a 33.3±5.8 mg vitamina E y 110.5±19.1% VDR en 100 g de pepino fresco. Durante el almacenamiento en 9 días se presenta una pérdida aproximadamente del 50%, debido a la poca retención de la emulsión en el interior de la matriz. Los parámetros fisicoquímicos, el color y la textura son afectados por la IV, el tiempo y el envasado, siendo durante el almacenamiento más oscuras y más resistentes que el producto fresco. La ingeniería de matrices representa una metodología efectiva para fortificar el pepino con vitamina E.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um produto mínimamente processado fortificado com vitamina E, a partir de pepino (Cucumis sativus L, utilizando a engenharia de matrizes. Fatias de pepino foram impregnadas a vácuo (IV com DL-α- acetato de tocoferol emulsificado numa fase aquosa isotónica (NaCl a 1%, e foram avaliadas quanto às propiedades fisico-químicas, cor, textura, estabilidade da vitamina E e sensorialmente, tendo em consideração os factores: processo, tempo de armazenamento e envasado (com e sem vácuo. A vitamina E quantificou-se por HPLC (% do Valor Diario Recomendado (VDR/100 g de pepino fresco, de acordo com a norma Colombiana. A resposta à IV alcanzou niveis de 6.05±1.49%, correspondente a 33.3±5.8 mg

  14. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  15. Use of agricultural land evaluation and site assessment in Linn County, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, J. Herbert; Pease, James R.; Forrest, William G.; Hickerson, Hugh J.; Langridge, Russell W.

    1987-07-01

    Oregon state law requires each county in the state to identify agricultural land and enact policies and regulations to protect agricultural land use. State guidelines encourage the preservation of large parcels of agricultural land and discourage partitioning of agricultural land and construction of nonfarm dwellings in agricultural areas. A land evaluation and site assessment (LESA) system was developed in Linn County to aid in the identification of agricultural land and provide assistance to decision makers concerning the relative merits of requests to partition existing parcels of ricultural land and introduce nonagricultural uses. Land evaluation was determined by calculating soil potential ratings for each agricultural soil in the county based on the soil potentials for winter wheat, annual ryegrass, permanent pasture, and irrigated sweet corn. Soil potential ratings were expressed on a scale of 0 to 150 points. The land evaluation score for a parcel consists of the weighted average soil potential rating for all of the soils in the parcel, weighted by the percentage of each soil present in the parcel. Site assessment was based on the size of a parcel and on the amount of existing conflict between agricultural and nonagricultural uses, particularly rural residential uses, both adjacent to and in the vicinity of a parcel. Parcel size refers to both size in relation to a typical field and size in relation to a typical farm unit. Conflict takes into account the number of nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile (0.4 km) of a parcel, the amount of the perimeter that adjoins conflicting land uses, and the residential density adjacent to the parcel. Empirical scales were derived for assigning points to each of the site assessment factors. Both parcel size and conflict were worth 75 points in the model. For parcel size, 45 points were allocated to field size and 30 points to farm-unit size. For conflict, 30 points were allocated to nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile and 45

  16. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf solid phase extraction fraction and its anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Li Teng; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abas, Faridah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-02-24

    The aims of this study were to examine the bioactive component(s) responsible for the anticoagulant activity of M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract via bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the effect of bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. The active anticoagulant fraction of F3 was subjected to a series of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the effect of the bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway was studied through immediate and time incubation mixing studies. Through Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assay-guided fractionation, Subfraction B was considered the most potent anticoagulant fraction. Characterisation of Subfraction B indicated that anticoagulant activity could partly be due to the presence of cinnamic acid and a cinnamic acid derivative. APTT assays for both the immediate and time incubation mixing were corrected back into normal clotting time range (35.4-56.3 s). In conclusion, cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivative from Subfraction B were the first such compounds to be discovered from M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract that possess anticoagulant activity. This active anticoagulant Subfraction B prolonged blood clotting time by causing factor(s) deficiency in the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway.

  17. Radioprotective activity of Mentha piperita (Linn) against radiation induced alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, R.M.; Goyal, P.K.; Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Mentha piperita (Linn.) (RUBL 19443) against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Mentha extract (ME) (1 gm/kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (10 Gy) without ME pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 10 days post-irradiation. Conversely, animals pre-treated with ME showed 58 percent survival until 30 days after exposure. A significant decline in hematological constituents was evident until day 5, at later period of observation (day 5 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in ME pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. The results from the present study suggest that Mentha piperita (Linn.) has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral blood of mice against lethal dose of gamma radiation. (author)

  18. Effect of anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) flower as antitumoric agent against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad R; Karim, Muhammad R

    2013-01-01

    Over 60% of currently used anti-cancer agents are derived in one-way or another from natural sources, including plants, marine organisms and microorganisms. Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) (Family: Asclepiadaceae) is a perennial shrub and it is used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various health complications. But there is no report on isolation of anticancerous chemicals from the flower of Calotropis gigantea. The objective of the present study is to explore the antitumor effect of anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (A3A), isolated from the flower of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Antitumoric effect of A3A was assessed by evaluating viable tumor cell count, survival time, body weight gain due to tumor burden, hematological and biochemical (glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea, SALP, SGPT and SGOT) parameters of EAC bearing host at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with A3A decreased the viable tumor cells and body weight gain thereby increasing the life span of EAC bearing mice. A3A also brought back the altered hematological (Hb, total RBC and total WBC) and biochemical parameters more or less to normal level. Results of this study conclude that in vivo the A3A was effective in inhibiting the growth of EAC with improving in cancer induced complications.

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Imperata cylindrica (Linn. Raeusch. in rats

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    Siharat Chunlaratthanaphorn

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The water extract from root of Imperata cylindrica (Linn. Raeusch. was studied for acute and subchronic toxicities. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg was administered orally to female and male rats (5 male, 5 female. After 14 days, signs and behavioral changes, mortality, gross and histopathological changes of internal organs were examined. The extract did not produce signs of toxicity. For the subchronic toxicity test, the extract at doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to rats daily for 90 days (10 male, 10 female. The observation of signs, behavior and health status showed no abnormality in the test groups as compared with the controls. At the end of the study, necropsy and histopathology examination were performed in all animals in the control group, the test groups and the satellite group in which the extract was discontinued for another 28 days. Body and organ weights, hematological and blood clinical chemistry were also examined. The results suggest that the water extract of Imperata cylindrica (Linn. Raeusch does not cause acute and subchronic toxicities in rats.

  20. ANTIPLAQUE AND ANTIGINGIVITIS EFFECTS OF A GEL CONTAINING PUNICA GRANATUM LINN EXTRACT. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Alexandre Daher Yunes; Maia, Juliana Lemos; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract were evaluated using a 21-day partial-mouth experimental model of gingivitis. Methods: 23 volunteers participated in this cross-over, doubleblind study, carried out in 2 phases of 21 days each. For each period of the experiment, an acrylic toothshield was made for each volunteer to carry the test or placebo gel as well as to avoid brushing of the 4 experimental teeth (posterior teeth in the lower left quadrant). The subjects were randomly assigned to use either the placebo gel (control group) or the test gel (experimental group) and were instructed to brush the remaining teeth normally 3 times a day. On days 0 and 21, the visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded. Results: The results did not show statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups for either of the indices (VPI and GBI). Conclusion: The gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract was not efficient in preventing supragingival dental plaque formation and gingivitis. PMID:19089066

  1. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  2. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. leaves and their synergistic effects with antibiotics

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    Kumari Jyoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of the efforts for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by green chemistry route, here we report a facile bottom-up ‘green’ route for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaves extract of Urtica dioica (Linn.. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Zeta-sizer and Zeta-potential, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that AgNPs were in the size range of 20–30 nm and crystallized in face-centered-cubic structure. The antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial pathogens was demonstrated by synthesized nanoparticles. Further, synergistic effects of AgNPs with various antibiotics were evaluated against above mentioned bacterial pathogens. The results showed that AgNPs in combination with antibiotics have better antibacterial effect as compared with AgNPs alone and hence can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. The maximum effect, with a 17.8 fold increase in inhibition zone, was observed for amoxicillin with AgNPs against S. marcescens proving the synergistic role of AgNPs. Therefore, it may be used to augment the activities of antibiotics.

  3. Combination of aerobic exercise and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. increased nitric oxide in rats

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    Donna Adriani Kusumadewi Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension and myocardial infarction account for the high rate of mortality globally. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS Linn. is rich in antioxidants and previous studies have demonstrated its anti-hypertensive effects. Several studies show that regular physical activity is an important component to reduce cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic exercise and HS extract on nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 in rats.   Methods An experimental study was conducted on 36 male Wistar rats, aged 4 weeks and 60-70 g in weight. The interventions were aerobic exercises and HS at 400 mg/kg BW/day administered for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The rats were randomized into 12 groups: 3 control groups (C4, C8, C12, 3 aerobic exercise groups (A4, A8, A12, 3 HS groups (H4, H8, H12, and 3 combination groups [aerobic exercise and HS] (HA4, HA8, HA12. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and their abdominal aorta was collected for determination of nitric oxide and ET-1 concentrations. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data.   Results There was a significant difference in NO levels between all groups, with the 4-week aerobic exercise group (A4 showing the highest NO levels compared to the other eleven groups (p<0.05. In contrast, the ET-1 levels were not significantly different between all groups.   Conclusions This study demonstrated that the combination of HS supplementation and aerobic exercise increases NO in rats, and provided further evidence to the traditional use of the plant as an antioxidants agent.

  4. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

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    L. D. A. M. Arawwawala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and cold ethanolic extract (CEE of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b acidity (total and free, (c volume and (d pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96 and significant (P ≤ 0.05 protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05 than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05 increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.

  5. Experimental and Clinical Evaluation of Nootropic Activity of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi

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    B N Dhawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi is an annual creeper belonging to familyScrophulariaceae and growing all over the Indian sub-continent in marshy areas. It is a major Medhya Rasayana used in Ayurveda for treatment of memory disorders. Large number of saponins and glycosides has been isolated from the plant. Most of the experimental and clinical studies have been done with crude extracts or standardized preparation of the two active saponins Bacosides A and B.Extracts or saponin mixture facilitate learning, improve consolidation of learned behavior and delay extinction in several models of learnt behavior in normal rats and mice as well as in chemically induced or transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease. They also prevent or reverse amnesia produced by drugs, stress or ischemic hypoxia. Other CNS effects include anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant and analgesic activity. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the mechanism of these CNS effects.Extracts as well as the bacoside preparation have been found safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers in single dose or chronic administration for several weeks in a number of double blind placebo controlled studies in India and abroad. Chronic administration significantly improved information processing, learning and memory consolidation. It was found more effective than caffeine in a comparative study.Double blind placebo controlled studies with bacoside preparation have demonstrated beneficial effects and safety in elderly patients with Age Related Memory Impairment and in children with Attention Deficit Memory Disorder. It has also been found useful in anxiety neurosis, epilepsy and sleep disturbances in post menopausal women.The standardized preparation is marketed as a prescription drug after having obtained the necessary regulatory approval in India, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa and as an OTC product in several other south east Asian and African countries.Bacopa monniera Linn

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC 50 of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants

  7. Cissampelos pareira Linn: Natural Source of Potent Antiviral Activity against All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes.

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    Ruchi Sood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a significant global public health risk. In tropical countries such as India where periodic dengue outbreaks can be correlated to the high prevalence of the mosquito vector, circulation of all four dengue viruses (DENVs and the high population density, a drug for dengue is being increasingly recognized as an unmet public health need.Using the knowledge of traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, we developed a systematic bioassay-guided screening approach to explore the indigenous herbal bio-resource to identify plants with pan-DENV inhibitory activity. Our results show that the alcoholic extract of Cissampelos pariera Linn (Cipa extract was a potent inhibitor of all four DENVs in cell-based assays, assessed in terms of viral NS1 antigen secretion using ELISA, as well as viral replication, based on plaque assays. Virus yield reduction assays showed that Cipa extract could decrease viral titers by an order of magnitude. The extract conferred statistically significant protection against DENV infection using the AG129 mouse model. A preliminary evaluation of the clinical relevance of Cipa extract showed that it had no adverse effects on platelet counts and RBC viability. In addition to inherent antipyretic activity in Wistar rats, it possessed the ability to down-regulate the production of TNF-α, a cytokine implicated in severe dengue disease. Importantly, it showed no evidence of toxicity in Wistar rats, when administered at doses as high as 2g/Kg body weight for up to 1 week.Our findings above, taken in the context of the human safety of Cipa, based on its use in Indian traditional medicine, warrant further work to explore Cipa as a source for the development of an inexpensive herbal formulation for dengue therapy. This may be of practical relevance to a dengue-endemic resource-poor country such as India.

  8. Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn. Vill

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    Rani Neerja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content, and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ of Stellaria media (Linn. Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6 weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26 mg/g, 1.4 mg/g and 1.19 μg/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes.

  9. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Bauhinia variegata Linn. against human pathogens

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    Sonam Pandey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of hydromethanolic extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. (B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower to justify the traditional claim endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana in Ayurveda. This study thus can be further utilized to formulate the natural antioxidant which can be used as a dietary supplement to fight against several diseases such as cancer, ageing, arthrosclerosis, etc. Methods: The study showed that the number of different phytoconstituents present in the plant which makes it remarkable for its use by traditional practitioners. On the another set of experiment, the hydromethanolic extract of B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower were evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative by using disk diffusion assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of all extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponin, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and organic acids. The antibacterial activity of all the extracts (leaf, stem bark and flower of B. variegata was determined by agar well diffusion method at four different concentrations i.e., 1 000 mg/mL, 750 mg/mL, 500 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL using Gram-positive Bacillus subtilius, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Shegilla flexineria, Pseudomonas auriginosa bacteria. Conclusions: These studies show that hydromethanolic extracts of B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower inhibited the growth of microorganism ’s in dose dependently. B. variegata leaf, stem bark and flower extracts have several phytochemical constituents who possess the antimicrobial activity. A tiny amount of data is presented, as the preliminary antimicrobial properties of the B. variegata here accessed, under the urgent necessity of new antibiotics in the market and in face of the increased resistance of infectious microorganisms to antimicrobials.

  10. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  11. MUTU FISIK, FISIOLOGIS, DAN KANDUNGAN BIOKIMIA BENIH TREMA (Trema orientalis Linn. Blume BERDASARAN TINGKAT KEMASAKAN BUAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naning Yuniarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trema (Trema orientalis Linn. Blume merupakan tanaman serba guna karena semua bagian pohon dapat digunakan. Dalam pengembangan tanaman ini, diperlukan benih bermutu, dimana salah satu syarat untuk menentukan benih bermutu adalah benih harus berasal dari buah yang sudah masak fisiologis. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui mutu fisik, mutu fisiologis, dan kandungan biokimia (lemak, karbohidrat dan protein benih trema berdasarkan tingkat kemasakan buah. Benih trema yang digunakan berasal dari Badung, Bali. Buah trema dikelompokkan menjadi 3 warna (hijau, coklat, hitam. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan parameter yang diamati : ukuran buah dan benih, berat buah dan benih, kadar air buah dan benih, kandungan biokimia (protein, lemak, karbohidrat, daya berkecambah, dan kecepatan berkecambah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan : (1 Tingkat kemasakan buah berpengaruh nyata terhadap mutu fisik (ukuran buah dan benih, berat buah dan benih, kadar air buah dan benih, fisiologis (daya berkecambah, kecepatan berkecambah, dan kandungan biokimia (lemak, karbohidrat, protein benih trema, (2 Mutu fisik dan fisiologis benih yang berasal dari buah yang berwarna hitam lebih baik dibandingkan dengan buah berwarna hijau dan coklat, (3 Kandungan lemak, karbohidrat dan protein benih trema berbeda dari masing-masing tingkat kemasakan (hijau, coklat, hitam, (4 Buah trema yang sudah mencapai masak fisiologis adalah buah berwarna hitam, dengan kriteria yaitu : panjang buah 3,87 ± 0,05 mm dan lebar 3,41 ± 0,02 mm; panjang benih 2,10 ± 0,05 mm dan lebar 1,81 ± 0,06 mm; berat 1000 butir buah 25,6883 gr; berat 1000 butir benih 3,8288 gr; kadar air buah 54,74%; kadar air benih 12,03%; daya berkecambah 78%; kecepatan berkecambah 3,05%/Etmal; kandungan karbohidrat 20,10%; kandungan protein 2,84%; kandungan lemak 0,65%.

  12. Hepatoprotective role of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Linn. against carbon tetrachloride-induced injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdus Saboor; Khan, Rahmat Ali; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Muhammad, Nawshad

    2016-02-01

    Nicotiana plumbignifolia (Linn) is used as folk medicine in the treatment of liver dysfunction in Pakistan. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective role of N. plumbignifolia methanolice extract (NPME) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative damage in liver of chicks. Methanolic extract of N. plumbignifolia was obtained and was further evaluated as a hepatoprotective agent against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in liver of chicks. For this study, 60-day-old 50 male chicks were divided into five groups. Chicks of group 1 (control) had free access to food and water. Group II received 1 mL/kg of CCl4 (30% in olive oil v/v) via the intraperitoneal route thrice a week for 4 weeks. Group III received 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of silymarin via gavage after 48 h of CCl4 treatment, whereas group IV were given 200 mg/kg b.w. NPME after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed by measuring the activities of the antioxidant enzymes: catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)). Serum was analyzed for various biochemical parameters. The results revealed that CCl4 induced oxidative stress as evidenced by the significant decrease in the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, while an increase in the levels of TBARS in liver samples is compared with the control group. Serum levels lactate dehydrogenase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein was elevated while reducing high-density lipoprotein compared to controls. Cotreatment of NPME treatment reversed these alterations, which seems likely that NPME can protect the liver tissues against CCl4-mediated oxidative damage. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn) peel waste with additive essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti Agustina, E. S.; Elfi Susanti, V. H.

    2018-05-01

    The research aimed to produce natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa Paradisiaca Linn.) peel waste with additive essentials oils. The method used in this research was alkalization. The delignification process is done with the use of NaOH 4% at the temperature of 100°C for 1.5 hours. Additive materials in the form of essential oils are added as a preservative and aroma agent, namely cinnamon oil, lemon oil, clove oil and lime oil respectively 2% and 3%. Chemical and physical properties of the produced papers are tested included water content (dry-oven method SNI ISO 287:2010), pH (SNI ISO 6588-1.2010), grammage (SNI ISO 536:2010) and brightness (SNI ISO 2470:2010). Testing results of each paper were compared with commercial wrapping paper. The result shows that the natural paper from banana peel waste with additive essential oil meets the standard of ISO 6519:2016 about Basic Paper for Laminated Plastic Wrapping Paper within the parameter of pH and water content. The paper produced also meet the standard of ISO 8218:2015 about Food Paper and Cardboard within the grammage parameter (high-grade grammage), except the paper with 2% lemon oil. The paper which is closest to the characteristic of commercial wrapping paper is the paper with the additive of 2% cinnamon oil, with pH of 6.95, the water content of 7.14%, grammage of 347.6 gram/m2 and the brightness level of 24.68%.

  14. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn.: A review of its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

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    Alhassan Muhammad Alhassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. is principally cultivated for medicinal purposes in many tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Literature survey about this plant shows that A. bilimbi is mainly used as a folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and as an antimicrobial agent. The prime objective of this review is to accumulate and organize literature based on traditional claims and correlate those with current findings on the use of A. bilimbi in the management of different ailments. Through interpreting already published scientific manuscripts (1995 through 2015 retrieved from the different scientific search engines, namely Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct databases, published articles and reports covering traditional and scientific literature related to A. bilimbi's potential role against various ailments have been thoroughly evaluated, interpreted, and discussed. Several pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to act as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, thrombolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic agent. A. bilimbi holds great value in the complementary and alternative medicine as evidenced by the substantial amount of research on it. Therefore, we aimed to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of A. bilimbi that covers its traditional and folk medicine uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Hence, this paper presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the ethnomedicinal uses, different chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi. So far, the biologically active agents have not been isolated from this plant and this can be a good scientific study for the future antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial implications. Hence, this review targets at emphasizing the diverse traditional claims and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi with respect to carrying out more scientific studies to isolate

  15. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (θ), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

  16. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis Linn. against human pathogens

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    oorthy kannaiyan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis Linn. against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: The Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (MTCC 96, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis (MTCC 435, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis (MTCC 121, Escherichia coli (E. coli (MTCC 443, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae (MTCC 432, Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis (MTCC 1429, Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A (MTCC 735, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium (MTCC 98, Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri (MTCC 1457 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424, Candida albicans (C. albicans (MTCC 183 and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans (clinical isolate were originally obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection Centre, Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods against pathogens by using crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Results: Ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (33.20 mm, C. albicans (30.40 mm and C. neoformans (18.20 mm mean values were documented. Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against C. neoformans (19.8 mm and S. epidermidis (17.80 mm were observed. Based on broth dilution method, the ethanolic extract of crude plant material showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values against S. epidermidis, C. neoformans (256 毺 g/mL and C. albicans (512 毺 g/mL, whereas the aqueous extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (512 毺 g/mL and C. neoformans (1024 毺 g/mL were observed. Conclusions: The present result revealed that ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. possesses significant antifungal activity when compared as the antibacterial activities.

  17. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.

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    Tarandeep Kaur

    Full Text Available Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70-90%. Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3 whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(- scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements.

  18. Compensation effect of bacterium containing biofertilizer on the growth of Cucumis sativus L. under Al-stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Lévai, L; Kovács, B; Varga, Mária Borbélyné; Veres, Szilvia

    2013-03-01

    Biofertilizers are used to improve soil fertility and plant production in sustainable agriculture. However, their applicability depends on several environmental parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of free-living bacteria containing fertilizer on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Delicates) under aluminium (Al) stress. Different responses to Al stress of cucumber growth parameters were examined in terms of root elongation and physiological traits, such as Spad index (relative chlorophyll value), biomass accumulation of root and shoot, Al uptake and selected element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) of leaves and root. The applied bacteria containing biofertilizer contains Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus megaterium. The dry weights of cucumber shoots and roots decreased in line with the increasing Al concentration. Due to different Al treatments (10-3 M, 10-4 M) higher Al concentration was observed in the leaves, while the amounts of other elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) decreased. This high Al content of the leaves decreased below the control value when biofertilizer was applied. In the case of the roots the additional biofertilizer treatments compensated the effect of Al. The relative chlorophyll content was reduced during Al-stress in older plants and the biofertilizer moderated this effect. The root/shoot ratio was decreased in all the Al-treatments in comparison to the control. The living bacteria containing fertilizer also had a modifying effect. The root/shoot ratio increased at the 10-4 M Al2(SO4)2 + biofertilizer and 10-4 M Al(NO3)3 + biofertilizer treatments compared to the control and Al-treatments. According to our results the biofertilizer is an alternative nutrient supply for replacing chemical fertilizers because it enhances dry matter production. Biofertilizer usage is also offered under Al polluted environmental conditions. Although, the nutrient solution is a clean system where we can examine the main processes without

  19. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raçadefinida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (AST. Research on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de VigilânciaSanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainlytannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form.However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  20. Atividade antioxidante da polpa, casca e sementes do noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn

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    Adriana Barbosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Na busca pela identificação de novas fontes de antioxidantes naturais e de esclarecer lacunas acerca das reais propriedades benéficas atribuídas ao Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn, este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a caracterização química e avaliar a atividade antioxidante da polpa, casca e sementes do noni. Foram determinadas a composição centesimal (umidade, cinzas, proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios; os compostos bioativos (fenólicos totais, carotenoides totais e vitamina C e a atividade in vitro em extratos aquoso, etanólico e acetônico. Os resultados demonstraram que o Noni possui quantidades significativas de carboidratos (27,21%; 9,70% e 8,37% e de proteínas (2,64%; 2,23%; e 2,24% nas sementes, casca e polpa, respectivamente. A polpa apresentou maior teor de vitamina C (23,1 mg/100g e de carotenoides totais (3,90 mg/100g. No extrato acetônico da polpa, foram quantificados 109,81 mg/100g de fenólicos totais, seguidos pelos extratos acetônicos da casca (76,01 mg/100g, das sementes (28,75 mg/100g e do extrato etanólico da polpa (20,33 mg/100g. Todos os extratos avaliados apresentaram atividade antioxidante in vitro; os extratos acetônico e etanólico da casca e das sementes do Noni apresentaram maior atividade pelo método β-caroteno/ ácido linoleico, enquanto o extrato etanólico da polpa teve maior atividade antioxidante pelo ensaio DPPH e ABTS, e o extrato acetônico da polpa, pelo método ABTS. O noni é um fruto com significativo teor de compostos fenólicos totais que apresentam atividade antioxidante in vitro.

  1. Anticonvulsant properties of methanol leaf extract of Laggera Aurita Linn. F. (Asteraceae) in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malami, S; Kyari, H; Danjuma, N M; Ya'u, J; Hussaini, I M

    2016-09-15

    Preparation of Laggera aurita Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various kinds of diseases such as epilepsy, malaria, fever, pain and asthma. Its efficacy is widely acclaimed among communities in Northern Nigeria. The present study is aimed at establishing the possible anticonvulsant effects of the methanol leaf extract of Laggera aurita using acute and chronic anticonvulsant models. Median lethal dose (LD50) was determined in mice and rats via oral and intraperitoneal routes. Anticonvulsant screening of the extract was performed using maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in day-old chicks; pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models in mice. Similarly; its effects on pentylenetetrazole-induce kindling in rats as well as when co-administered with fluphenamic and cyproheptadine in mice, were evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD50) values were found to be >5000mg/kg, p.o. and 2154mg/kg, i.p., each for both rats and mice. The extract showed dose dependent protection against tonic hind limb extension (THLE) and significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean recovery from seizure in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure. In the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model, the extract offered 50% protection at 600mg/kg and also increased the mean onset of seizure at all doses with significant (p<0.05) increase at the highest dose (600mg/kg). Similarly the extract produced significant (p<0.05) increase in the onset of seizures in both strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models, at all the doses except at 150mg/kg for the picrotoxin model. Co-administration of fluphenamic acid (FFA) (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) showed an enhanced effect with percentage protection of 70% while co-administration of FFA (5mg/kg) and phenytoin (5mg/kg) as well phenytoin (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) produced an additive effect. Administration of the extract (600mg/kg), phenytoin (20mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (4mg

  2. Radioprotective effects of Mentha piperita (LINN) against radiation induced hematological injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samartha, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    lower than the respective controls and attained the normal value at day 5 (6 and 8 Gy) and day 20 (10 Gy). The present study suggests that Mentha piperita Linn have radioprotective potential in terms of survival and hematological parameters

  3. The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Asaduzzaman, Md; Morshed, Helal; Hossain, Md Monir; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Rahman, Md Rezowanur

    2013-07-30

    Experimental evidences have demonstrated that Nigella sativa Linn. seed (NS) has positive modulation effects on aged rats with memory impairments, prevents against hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and enhances consolidation of recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in rats. NS has neuroprotective, nephroprotective, lung protective, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective activities as established by previous studies on animals. Several clinical trials with NS on human have also demonstrated beneficial effect. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NS on memory, attention and cognition in healthy elderly volunteers. Furthermore, safety profile of NS was assessed during the nine-week study period. Forty elderly volunteers were recruited and divided randomly into group A and group B--each consisting of 20 volunteers. The treatment procedure for group A was 500 mg NS capsule twice daily for nine weeks and Group B received placebo instead of NS in the similar manner. All the volunteers were assessed for neuropsychological state and safety profile twice before treatment and after nine weeks. The neuropsychological tests were logical memory test, digit span test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, letter cancellation test, trail making test and stroop test. Safety profile was assessed by measuring biochemical markers of Cardiac (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase-MB); Liver (aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, bilirubin) and Kidney (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) through using commercial kits. There was significant difference (p0.05) in any of the biochemical markers of cardiac, liver, kidney function during this nine-week study period. The current study demonstrates the role of NS in enhancing memory, attention and cognition. Therefore, whether NS

  4. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

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    Chaudhary Mueen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn., whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 μM. When tested on K+ (80 mM-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 μM, caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml. The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to

  5. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendar, B.; Bharavi, K.; Rao, G. S.; Kishore, P.V.S; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C.S.V Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week). In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage) and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage), respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results: In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular

  6. Allelopathic influence of aqueous extracts from the leaves of Morus alba L. on seed germination and seedling growth of Cucumis sativus L. and Sinapsis alba L.

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    Katarzyna Możdżeń

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to elucidate impact of the aqueous extracts from leaves of Morus alba L. on germination, growth and photosynthetic activity of Cucumis sativus L. and Sinapis alba L. Plants were grown for 21 days at the temperature 25°C (day and 18°C (night, within 12/12 hours photoperiod, light intensity 150 μmol·m-2·s-1 and relative humidity 60-70% (day/night. Our experiments proved that allelopathic compounds in aqueous extracts of the leaves M. alba at high concentrations, reduce power and energy of germination. Biometric analysis of seedlings and adult plants grown showed that allelopathic substances have stimulating or inhibiting function depending on the stage of treatment. Moreover, they cause changes in chlorophyll contents and activity of photosystem II (PS II.

  7. Crocus sativus Petals: Waste or Valuable Resource? The Answer of High-Resolution and High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2015-09-30

    Intact Crocus sativus petals were studied for the first time by high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, revealing the presence of kinsenoside (2) and goodyeroside A (3), together with 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (4). These findings were confirmed by HR-NMR analysis of the ethanol extract of fresh petals and showed that, even though carried out rapidly, partial hydrolysis of glucopyranosyloxybutanolides occurs during extraction. On the other hand, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (1), which is "NMR-silent" in intact petals, is present in extracts. These results suggest to evaluate the utilization of saffron petals for phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes to exploit a waste product of massive production of commercial saffron and point to the application of HR-MAS NMR for monitoring bioactive compounds directly on intact petals, avoiding the extraction procedure and the consequent hydrolysis reaction.

  8. Co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not affect cadmium toxicity in radish seeds (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, R Roshan; Grassi, G; Bergami, E; Marques-Santos, L F; Faleri, C; Liberatori, G; Corsi, I

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments on environmental fate models indicate that as nano waste, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) could reach terrestrial ecosystems thus potentially affecting environmental and human health. Plants can be therefore exposed to ENMs but controversial data in terms of fate and toxicity are currently available. Furthermore, there is a current lack of information on complex interactions/transformations to which ENMs undergo in the natural environment as for instance interacting with existing toxic compounds. The aim of the present study was to assess the behavior and biological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO 2 ) (Aeroxide P25, Degussa Evonik) and its interaction with cadmium (CdCl 2 ) in plants using radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L. Parvus) as model species. Radish seeds were exposed to n-TiO 2 (1-1000mg/L) and CdCl 2 (1-250mg/L) alone and in combination using a seed germination and seedling growth toxicity test OECD 208. Percentage of seed germination, germination index (GI) and root elongation were calculated. Cell morphology and oxidative stress parameters as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities (CAT) were measured in radish seeds after 5 days of exposure. Z-Average, PdI and Z-potential of n-TiO 2 in Milli-Q water as exposure medium were also determined. DLS analysis showed small aggregates of n-TiO 2 , negative Z-potential and stable PdI in seed's exposure media. Germination percentage, GI and root length resulted affected by n-TiO 2 exposure compared to controls. In particular, n-TiO 2 at 1mg/L and 100mg/L did not affect radish seeds germination (100%) while at concentration of 10mg/L, 200mg/L, 500mg/L, and 1000mg/L a slight but not significant decrease of germination % was observed. Similarly root length and GI resulted significantly higher in seeds exposed to 10mg/L and 200mg/L compared to 1mg/L, 100mg/L, 500mg/L, 1000mg/L and control (p germination % and GI compared to control seeds and a concentration dependent

  9. Effects of Bed Type, Corm Weight and Lifting Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Criteria of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mollafiilabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron (Crocus sativus L. as the most important medicinal and agricultural crop of the world has therapeutic properties including laxative, stomach stimulant, anti cancer, anti inflammation and against spasm. One of the reasons of lower yield in traditional farms of Iran is using small corms of old farms. Combining the date of corm lifting and the duration of 25°C incubation, corms could be flowered from early September to mid-December. The results showed that corm weight of saffron affects significantly on flowering and yield. Soils covered by mulch or surface mulch compared with soils lack of mulch have a higher thermal adjustment so that in higher ambient temperature the soil can be warm later and at night they lose their warmth later. This research was conducted to find the effects of corm weight, planting beds under hydroponics at commercial level and determination of the best time of corm lifting from farm and its transfer for production and their interaction under controlled conditions on yield and other characters of this precious crop. Material and Methods In order to study effects of corm weight and time of its lifting from farm in planting beds an experiment was conducted as factorial in the form of RCBD in three replicates at the agric. Research complex of Fadak and Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST in 2010. Factors under study were: two corm weights (8 to 10 and more than 10 g, two planting beds (stone wool and peat moss and six lifting times (mid June, early July, mid July, early August , mid August and early October. For 40 days, 457 corms per m-2 were stored in incubation with 85% relative humidity and 25°C temperature at the darkness. Then, saffron corms were transferred in growth chamber with 17° C in 8/16 h light and dark. Characteristics such as number of flower, fresh weight of flower, dry weight of flower, fresh and dry weight of stigma, fresh and dry weight of style, fresh and dry

  10. Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

    2015-03-01

    A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  11. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2015-10-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  12. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn Terhadap Kadar Malondialdehid dan Aktivitas Katalase Tikus yang Terpapar Karbon Tetraklorida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraida ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pemberian rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn diharapkan melindung hepar tikus dari kerusakkan akibat stres oksidatif pada keracunan karbon tetraklorida (CCl 4. Senyawa yang sering dijadikan petunjuk adanya kerusakan tersebut adalah malondialdehid (MDA. Rosella mengandung vitamin C, flavonoid, polifenol dan beta karoten. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh pemberian ekstrak rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn terhadap MDA dan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan desain Post test Only Control Group Design. Sampel 24 ekor tikus Strain Wistar berumur 2-3 bulan, berat 150-200 gr. Sampel diambil secara acakdan dibagi 4 kelompok terdiri dari kelompok kontrol negatif, kontrol positif (CCl 4, perlakuan 1 (CCl 4 dan ekstrak rosella 250 mg/kg bb dan perlakuan 2 (CCl4  dan ekstrak rosella 500 mg/kg bb. Pemberian CCl 4secara oral dosis tunggal, setelah 24 jam kemudian diberi ekstrak rosella secara oral selama 14 hari. Data dianalisis dengan uji Anova, tingkatkepercayaan 95%.Pemberian ekstrak rosella secara statistik didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan rerata kadar MDA dan katalase antar kelompok (p < 0,05. Disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak rosella dapat menurunkan kadar MDA dan meningkatkan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Kata kunci: karbon tetraklorida, MDA, katalase, rosella Abstract Administering roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn is expected to protect rat liver from damage caused by oxidative stress in CCl4 poisoning. Rosella contains vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenol and beta carotene. Compounds which was often used as marker of the damage caused by free radicals wa MDA. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn on MDA and catalase activity of rats exposed to CCl4. Experimental research design with Post test Only Control Group Design. Samples of 24 male Wistar Strain rats were 2-3 months old. weighing 150-200 gr

  13. Mineral contents and their solubility on calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals from cockle shell powder (Anadara granosa Linn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, S.; Pramushinta, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    Prepared and characterized calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals improves solubility. Calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals were synthesized using precipitation method from the waste of blood clam cockle shells (Anadara granosa Linn). This study was conducted to analyze mineral composition of nanocrystals calcium carbonat calcite cockle (Anadara granosa) shell for calcium fortification of food applications and to evaluate the solubilities of Calsium and Phospor. The sample of nanocrystals from cockle shells was evaluated to determine the content of 11 macro-and micro-elements. These elements are Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Ferrum (Fe), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Zink (Zn), Boron (B) and Silica (Si)). Cockleshell powders were found to contain toxic elements below detectable levels. The solubilities of Calcium and Phospor were p<0.05.

  14. Comparative potentials of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake and biomass of Sorghum bicolor Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarawadee Sumthong Nakmee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Linn. seedlings were grown in pots using Pakchong soil from Nakhon Ratchasima province. Ten species of native Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Acaulospora longula, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora spinosa and Scutellospora sp., were used to inoculate sorghum seedlings. The sorghum growth and uptake of several major nutrients were evaluated at the harvesting stage. The results revealed that sorghum inoculated with A. scrobiculata produced the greatest biomass, grain dry weight and total nitrogen uptake in shoots. The highest phosphorus uptake in shoots was found in A. spinosa-inoculated plants, followed by Glomus sp. and A. scrobiculata, whereas Scutellospora sp.-inoculated plants showed the highest potassium uptake in shoots followed by A. scrobiculata. Overall, the most efficient AM fungi for improvement of nutrient uptake, biomass and grain dry weight in sorghum were A. scrobiculata.

  15. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans.

  16. Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, I.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe. - Highlights: ► Elemental contents of three medicinal seeds have been analyzed using INAA. ► All three seeds contain K as major element with ample contents of Fe and Na. ► This baseline data that can be used in future research for medicinal preparations.

  17. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  18. Clinical effect of a mouthwash containing Anacardium occidentale Linn. on plaque and gingivitis control: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra; Cavalcante, Dhiogo Gonçalves; Filho, José Eduardo Girão; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; da Silva Pereira, Sérgio Luís

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-associated gingivitis is a prevalent disease and research in its treatment using herbal agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range or chemotherapeutic treatment options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing 10% Anacardium occidentale (AO) Linn., a typical plant commonly found in the Northeast Region of Brazil, on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in comparison to a gold-standard chemotherapeutic agent. Thirty normosystemic adult volunteers of both genders, who had a minimum of twenty natural teeth, aging between 18 and 32 years, were enrolled in this crossover, controlled, examiner-blind clinical study. They were randomly allocated into three groups: 10% AO Linn. (n = 10); 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX, n = 10); or placebo (PB, n = 10). All volunteers were instructed to brush their teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice two times a day (12/12 h) and to rinse for 1 min with one of the mouthwashes (AO, CLX, or PB) 30 min after tooth brushing for 1 month. Plaque index (PLI) and gingival bleeding index (BLI) were recorded on days 0 and 30. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05) were performed to evaluate statistical differences among groups. There was a significant reduction (P gingivitis at day 30 just in CLX ([PLI = 0.47 ± 0.16; -30%]; [BLI = 0.15 ± 0.09; -55.8%]) and AO ([PLI = 0.49 ± 0.21; -31%]; [BLI = 0.13 ± 0.10; -56.6%]) groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (P > 0.05). Mouthwash containing 10% AO was effective as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent, in a similar manner that 0.12% CLX.

  19. TOKSISITAS AKUT (LD50 DAN UJI GELAGAT EKSTRAK DAUN TEH HIJAU (CAMELLIA SINENSIS (LINN. KUNZE PADA MENCIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sundari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Among many kind of drinks, tea is the most preferable drink for Indonesian people. Compare to other drinks, tea has a lot of benefit to our healthy. Tea are able to prevent some diseases and help for recover process from simple diseasessuch as influenza, to chronic hard disease; that could cause death such as cancer. Variety of tea can be selected referring to the flavor. Acute toxicity test (Lethal Dose has been conducted of the extract of green tea leave (Camellia sinensis (Linn., Kunze. to the safety and symptom test as well. The test used mice as an animal experiments. The acute toxicity test use Weil, C.S (1915 method for the acute toxicity test and Paget. GE and Barnes, JM (1964 method for symptom test, high dosage under LD50 value are given to the mice, while green tea leave extract is made by percolation according to the method in Indonesian Pharmacope III. One kilogram of green tea powder produced an extract of 375 g or 37.5% of rendemen (sample. The result showed, the LD50 value of green lea leave extract was 3.303 (2.10 - 5.14 mg/10 g body weight i.p. By extrapolating the value as per oral in mice based on Gleason test (1969, the extract was classified as a Practically Non Toxic (PNT. The symptom test proved that green tea leave extract in a dosage of 2,7 mg/10 g body weight influenced the nerve system.   Key words : Camelia Sibebsis (Linn, Kunze, Green Tea, Safety, Toxicology

  20. Crocus sativus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... as cow manure (Behzad et al., 1992b; Behnia et al.,. 1999; Unal and Çavuşoğlu, 2005). Similarly, McGimpsey et al. (1997) reported that application of sawdust mulch increased stigma yield. These findings suggested that natural materials improving soil structure might have more effect on saffron yield than ...

  1. Crocus sativus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    709-712. Sivanesan I, Jana S, Jeong BR (2014). In-vitro shoot regeneration and microcorm development in Crocus vernus (L.) hill. Pak. J. Bot. 46(2):693-697. Sivanesan I, Jeong BR (2012). Identification of somaclonal variants in.

  2. Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurhadis Che Omar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs. In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8 was determined.

  3. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  4. Peningkatan Aktivitas Antijamur Candida Albicans Salep Minyak Atsiri Daun Sirih (Piper Bettle Linn.) melalui Pembentukan Kompleks Inklusi dengan B-siklodekstrin

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Ika Yuni; Hartanti, Dwi; Aminiati, Ani

    2010-01-01

    Minyak atsiri daun sirih (Piper betle Linn.) memberikan aktifitas antimikroba terhadap Candida albicans (Wirna, 2006). Sifat minyak atsiri adalah kurang stabil terhadap suhu tinggi, cahaya, dan oksigen. Untuk menjaga kestabilan dan memudahkan penanganan minyak atsiri dalam pembuatan sediaan, dapat dilakukan pembuatan kompleks inklusi minyak atsri dengan b-siklodekstrin (Szejtli, 1989). Hal ini mendorong penulis untuk meneliti tentang pengaruh pembentukan kompleks inklusi minyak atsiri daun si...

  5. AN INVESTIGATION OF INSECT OVIPOSITING REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NESS, ACACIA AURICULIFORMIS AND PIPER BETLE LINN LEAVES EXTRACTS TO BATROCERA CARAMBOLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.

  6. An Investigation of Insect Ovipositing Repellent Activity of Andrographis paniculata Ness, Acacia auriculiformis and Piper betle Linn Leaves Extracts to Batrocera carambolae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf  having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.

  7. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  8. Potensi Serbuk Daun Sirih (piper betle, Linn Sebagai Larvasida Nyamuk Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betriyon Betriyon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Larvacide was compound/essence used to kill  larvae stadium. Many people used Piper betle to traditional medicine. Piper betle plant L,.has contents bioactive compound as flavonoid compound, atsiri volatile, polifenol, tannin, alkaloid and saponin which have quality as larvacide. Based on the case above, this research aim to put the experiment Piper betle of the Aedes aegypti mosquito instars IV. This was pure experiment research using complete random design. This research was done at laboratory . Larva used was  Aedes aegypti mosquito instars IV. Concentration used of this research was : 0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4; 05 percent b/v. This research has control (+ was temephos 0,0001 persen, control (- was aquades water not added anything. Observation done every hour up to all the larva death with the replication 5 times. Larva death cumulative data on 10th hour and 24 th used to calculate LC50 and LT50 used probit regression analysis than data analyzed using Levene’s test. The result of this research showed that the cost of LC50 piper betle plant L. on 10th hour was 0,54 ± 0,147 persen b/v, than on 24 hour LC50 on concentration 0,07 up to 0,28 percent b/v. the time needed to cross out 50 percent Aedes aegypti instar IV of the concentration 0,05 percent time needed 19. Based on a probit analysis of the relationship between the level of concentration with the number of larvae mortality, Piper betle have activities as larvacide of Aedes aegypti. Keywods: piper betle leaf powder, larvacide, Aedes aegyti AbstrakLarvasida adalah senyawa/zat yang digunakan untuk membunuh stadium larva. Tanaman Piper betle, Linn. (sirih hijau sudah banyak dimanfaatkan oleh kalangan masyarakat sebagai obat tradisional. Daun sirih hijau memiliki kandungan senyawa bioaktif seperti senyawa flavonoid, minyak atsiri, polifenol, tannin, alkaloid dan saponin yang dapat bersifat sebagai larvasida. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui manfaat daun sirih hijau yaitu

  9. First report of zucchini tigre mosaic virus infecting several cucurbit plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) are important crops in tropical and subtropical regions in the world, and they are popular vegetable crops in China. There are currently 59 viruses known infecting cucurbit plants which including...

  10. SENYAWA KIMIA DAN ARAH WARNA KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan Linn DAN GAMBIR (Uncaria gambir PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI EKSTRAKSI UNTUK PEWARNAAN BATIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Pujilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTumbuhan pembawa warna mengandung senyawa kimia yang berbeda beda baik jumlah maupun jenis senyawanya. Senyawa-senyawa dominan pembawa warna mempunyai ketahanan tertentu pada berbagai kondisi suhu . Suhu ekstraksi zat warna alam dari tumbuhan mempengaruhi arah warna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimia dan arah warna kayu secang dan gambir. Ekstraksi zat warna alam dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu pemanasan yaitu 50 oC, 75 oC, 100 oC dan perendaman dalam alkohol selama 7 (tujuh hari pada suhu kamar. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik pada kain katun dan sutera. Arah warna ditentukan melalui fiksasi menggunakan tawas, kapur dan tujung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh pada senyawa kimia zat warna alam kayu secang dan gambir.  Jumlah senyawa zat warna alam pada kayu secang semakin berkurang seiring dengan peningkatan suhu ekstraksi.  Pada gambir jumlah senyawa zat warna paling banyak diperoleh pada suhu ekstraksi 75 oC. Senyawa zat warna dominan pada kayu secang adalah cyclohexanone sedang pada gambir  adalah methyl 3,4 dideutero 3 nonenoate 3. Arah warna kayu secang merah sampai merah kecoklatan dan pada gambir warna kecoklatan sampai coklat tua.ABSTRACTColor bearing plant contains chemical compounds that vary both the number and types of compounds. Compounds dominant color carriers having different resistance at various temperature conditions. The temperature of the extraction of natural dyes from plants affects the direction of color. This study aims to determine the content of chemical compounds and direction color of Caesalpinia sappan Linn and Uncaria gambir. Extraction of natural dyes made at various heating temperature is 50 ° C, 75 ° C, 100 ° C and soaking in alcohol for seven (7 days at room temperature. Natural dyes obtained is applied to dye batik on cotton and silk. Directions color is determined by fixation using alum, lime and

  11. Is the Linné impact crater morphology influenced by the rheological layering on the Moon's surface? Insights from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellato, Elena; Vivaldi, Valerio; Massironi, Matteo; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marzari, Francesco; Ninfo, Andrea; Haruyama, Junichi

    2017-07-01

    Linné is a simple crater, with a diameter of 2.23 km and a depth of 0.52 km, located in northwestern Mare Serenitatis. Recent high-resolution data acquired by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera revealed that the shape of this impact structure is best described by an inverted truncated-cone. We perform morphometric measurements, including slope and profile curvature, on the Digital Terrain Model of Linné, finding the possible presence of three subtle topographic steps, at the elevation of +20, -100, and -200 m relative to the target surface. The kink at -100 m might be related to the interface between two different rheological layers. Using the iSALE shock physics code, we numerically model the formation of Linné crater to derive hints on the possible impact conditions and target physical properties. In the initial setup, we adopt a basaltic projectile impacting the Moon with a speed of 18 km s-1. For the local surface, we consider either one or two layers, in order to test the influence of material properties or composite rheologies on the final crater morphology. The one-layer model shows that the largest variations in the crater shape take place when either the cohesion or the friction coefficient is varied. In particular, a cohesion of 10 kPa marks the threshold between conical- and parabolic-shaped craters. The two-layer model shows that the interface between the two layers would be exposed at the observed depth of 100 m when an intermediate value ( 200 m) for the upper fractured layer is set. We have also found that the truncated-cone morphology of Linné might originate from an incomplete collapse of the crater wall, as the breccia lens remains clustered along the crater walls, while the high-albedo deposit on the crater floor can be interpreted as a very shallow lens of fallout breccia. The modeling analysis allows us to derive important clues on the impactor size (under the assumption of a vertical impact and collision velocity equal to the mean

  12. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  13. Effects of Planting Dates, Irrigation Management and Cover Crops on Growth and Yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    A Koocheki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron as a winter active plant with low water requirement is the most strategic medicinal plant in arid and semi-arid parts of Iran. This slow-growing plant has narrow leaves and no aerial stem, hence weeds can be overcome it. Moreover, because of its root and canopy structure an important part of different resources is not used by this low input crop. Therefore, the use of associated crops could be an effective way for increasing resources use efficiencies (Koocheki et al., 2016. Appropriate corm planting date is another important factor that affects saffron growth and yield. Results of some studies show that late spring is the best time for corm planting (Ghasemi-Rooshnavand, 2009; Koocheki et al., 2016. In addition, irrigation management has been evaluated in some studies, but irrigation immediately after corm planting has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation management, planting date and the use of some companion crops on flowering of saffron during two growth cycles. Materials and methods This experiment was carried out as a split-split plot experiment based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2011. Experimental factors included: planting date of saffron as main factor (first of June, first of August and first of October, 2009, the irrigation management as sub factor (irrigation and no irrigation after each planting date and the companion crops as sub-sub factor [Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum, Bitter vetch (Lathyrus sativus and control. Corm planting was done in 10×25 cm distances with 12 cm depth. In the second year irrigation was done again in the plots which were irrigated after planting in the first year at the same previous dates. Companion crops were sown after first flower picking (November, 2009, then their residue were returned to the soil in

  14. Assessment of General and Specific Combining Ability and Heterosis of Some Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Lines for Vegetative Traits

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    Fatemeh Moradipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables. Plant length is a quantitative trait is controlled by many genes. These traits are difficult to study due to the complex nature of their inheritance. The combining ability estimation is useful in determining the breeding value of cucumber lines by suggesting the appropriate use in a breeding program. In studying combining ability, the most commonly utilized experimental approach is the diallel design. General combining ability is a measure of additive genetic action; and specific combining ability (SCA is deviation from additivity. General combining ability is a main effect and SCA is an interaction. The aim is to determine the breeding value of the cross. Heterosis has been utilized to exploit dominance variance through production of hybrids. There are reports on positive and negative heterosis in cucumber however, there are differences between reports. This research was conducted to estimate general and specific combining ability and heterosis in cucumber inbred lines and hybrids to produce hybrids with high yield and quality. Material and Methods: In the spring of 2014, the seven parental lines and their 21 F1 hybrid were planted at the University of Guilan, in loamy sand field. Three replications were arranged in a randomized complete block design. The sandy loam soil was prepared by plowing and disking and formed into raised beds by plowed and harrow prior to plant establishment. Rows were on 1 m centers and plants were about 25 cm apart in the row. Prior to planting 150 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen from urea and 100 kg·ha-1 of phosphorous from triple superphosphate and 80 kg·ha-1 of potassium sulfate was applied. Side dressing with the same amount of nitrogen and phosphorus occurred at 50% flowering stage. Irrigation with 250 m3·ha-1, three times weekly, was begun at plant first flowering. In each replication, 12 individuals of each line or hybrid were

  15. The Effect of Different Cucurbit Rootstocks on Some Morphological and Physiological Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus

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    reihane Mesgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable crops for the local consumption and exportation. The use of grafted vegetable seedlings has been popular in many countries during recent years. Growing fruit-bearing vegetables, chiefly tomato, cucumber and watermelon through grafted seedlings become a widespread practice worldwide. Grafting is a valuable technique to avoid soil-borne diseases, provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, enhance nutrient uptake, optimize water use, and increase fruit yield and quality. Vegetable grafting is a new topic in Iran and there are a limited number of studies on grafted vegetable production. However, attention to grafting by researchers has recently increased. Suitable rootstocks should be identified and characterized for the effective utilization of grafting. The rootstock's vigorous root system increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption, and may also serve as a source of endogenous plant hormones, thus leading to increased growth and yield in addition to disease control. In the present study, we investigated the response of two Cucurbita sp. and an Iranian melon as rootstocks for cucumber. Materials and methods: In order to study the effect of cucurbit rootstocks and grafting method on growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus, an experiment was conducted as a factorial design in the base of RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse and research farm, University of Zanjan. Treatments were included three rootstocks (Cucurbita moschata L., Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis melo L. and ungrafted plants (control and two grafting method (hole insertion and splice grafting. Seeds were sown simultaneously in plastic pots. For obtaining the same stem diameter of scion and rootstocks, cucumber seeds were planted four days earlier than rootstocks seeds. The seedlings were grown in an environment-controlled greenhouse with 25/20 day

  16. PORSUK NEHRİ SUYUNUN CUCUMIS SATIVUS (L. TOHUMLARININ FİDE GELİŞİMİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİNİN BELİRLENMESİ

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    Mehmet ÇALISEKİ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Porsuk Çayı 448 km uzunluğu ile Sakarya Irmağı’nın en uzun koludur ve Bayatçık Deresi ile Kızıltaş Suyu’nun birleşmesi ile oluşur. Kütahya Ovası’ndan geçip Eskişehir’in güneybatısında yer alan Porsuk-I ve Porsuk-II barajlarında toplandıktan sonra Eskişehir Ovası’ndan ve Eskişehir ilinden geçer ve Sakarya Irmağı’na ulaşır. Porsuk Çayı, Eskişehir’de tarım arazilerinin sulama suyu olarak kullanılmaktadır. Tüm İç Anadolu’da olduğu gibi Eskişehir’de de tarımı yapılan en yaygın bahçe bitkileri arasında Cucumis sativus (L. yer almaktadır. İnsan beslenmesinde ilk bakışta önemli gibi görünmese de Cucumis sativus; vitaminler, enzimler, mineral maddeler bakımından zengin bir bitkidir. Fakat protein, karbonhidrat ve yağ bakımından fakirdir. Bu çalışmada, tohumların çimlendirilmesinde şehir şebeke suyu ve farklı oranlarda seyreltilmiş, şehir içinde ve şehir dışında belirlenen istasyonlardan alınan Porsuk nehrine ait su örnekleri kullanılmıştır. Fidelerin kök-gövde uzunlukları, kök ve gövdeye ait yaş ve kuru ağırlıklar ölçülerek şebeke suyu ve Porsuk nehrine ait suyun fide gelişimi üzerine etkileri araştırılmıştır. Elde edilen verilere göre, kök uzunluğunun nehir suyunun seyreltme oranı ile doğru orantıda arttığı ve su içeriğinin seyreltme oranı arttıkça azaldığı tespit edilmiştir

  17. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Tumor Activities of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall

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    Yu-Ting Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new p-hydroxybenzoic acid glycosides, namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid-4-O-α-d-manopyranosyl-(1 → 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (compound 1 and 4-O-α-l-rhamnopyran-osyl-(1 → 6-α-d-manopyranosyl-(1 → 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (compound 2, and seven known compounds, compound 3, 6, 7 (acid components, compound 8, 9 (flavonoids, compound 4 (a coumarin and compound 5 (an alkaloid, were isolated from the 70% ethanol aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by use of extensive spectroscopic methods Infrared Spectroscopy (IR, High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS, and 1H and 13C-NMR. Sugar residues obtained after acid hydrolysis were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The antioxidant activity of all the compounds was evaluated by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+ and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The anti-inflammatory effects of the compounds were also evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. All compounds were shown to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of all the compounds on MCF-7 cells was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 method. The results showed that compounds 1, 2, 7, 8, 9 exhibited better antioxidant activity compared to the other compounds. compounds 1–9 had different inhibitory effects on the release of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by LPS, of which compound 7 was the most effective against inflammatory factors. compounds 1 and 2 have better antitumor activity compared to other compounds. Further research to elucidate the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall is

  18. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

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    P. Konwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic. During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other short grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Andropogon ssp., Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aciculatus and tender and young shoots and twigs of Schelristechya fuesche, Saccharum spontaneum, Lagerstroemia flosreginae etc. are consumed in limited portions. The rhino consumes 11 cultivated crops and vegetables, viz., Ricinus communis, Oryza sativa, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Brassica nigra, Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and Ipomoea batatas etc. Highest density of food plant species observed in the study area were Cynodon dactylon (167.5/m2, Hemarthria compressa (73.75/m2, Vetiveria zizanioides (56/m2, Saccharum ravannae (51.5/m2, Pharagmites karka (50.75/m2, Leersia hexandra (46.75/m2, Brachiarea pseudointerrupta (40/m2 and Eichhornia crassipes (35/m2.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of short-fruit 1 (sf1) reveals new insights into the variation of fruit-related traits in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Cao, Chenxing; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Haiyang; Liu, Panjing; Ge, Qian; Li, Jinrui; Ren, Zhonghai

    2017-06-07

    Fruit size is an important quality trait in different market classes of Cucumis sativus L., an economically important vegetable cultivated worldwide, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that control fruit size are largely unknown. In this study, we isolated a natural cucumber mutant, short fruit 1 (sf1), caused by a single recessive Mendelian factor, from the North China-type inbred line CNS2. In addition to significantly decreased fruit length, other fruit-related phenotypic variations were also observed in sf1 compared to the wild-type (WT) phenotype, indicating that sf1 might have pleiotropic effects. Microscopic imaging showed that fruit cell size in sf1 was much larger than that in WT, suggesting that the short fruit phenotype in sf1 is caused by decreased cell number. Fine mapping revealed that sf1 was localized to a 174.3 kb region on chromosome 6. Similarly, SNP association analysis of bulked segregant RNA-Seq data showed increased SNP frequency in the same region of chromosome 6. In addition, transcriptomic analysis revealed that sf1 might control fruit length through the fine-tuning of cytokinin and auxin signalling, gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction in cucumber fruits. Overall, our results provide important information for further study of fruit length and other fruit-related features in cucumber.

  20. Effect of 60Co γ-irradiation on germination rate of corms and selection of a higher temperature-tolerance mutant 'zf893' of Crocus sativus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiaosheng; Wang Zhiping; Pan Jianyong; Li Xuebing; Xu Bujin; Zou Fenglian; Lu Gang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation on germination rate of corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were studied and the results were as follows: (1) The corm germination rate raised with the corm fresh weight M (g) increasing, and the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays, the typical radiation effect of dose on germination rate were obtained, and the semi-lethal dose (D 50 ) for the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays and the stigma productivity of ZF893 was 1.3 times as that of the parent, for the field growing period, total weight of daughter corms and flower numbers of ZF893 were 22%, 27% and 30% higher than that of the parent, respectively. (4) The soluble protein SDS-PAGE patterns between ZF893 and it's parent were very similar, but the 54.8kD bands were much stronger in ZF893 and the 20.9 kD bands which were clear in ZF893, but were nearly absent in it's parent. (authors)

  1. The Two Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Genes, CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2, Are Negative Modulators in the Cucumis sativus Defense Response to Sphaerotheca fuliginea

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    Xiangnan Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen stress often significantly decreases cucumber production. However, knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism and signals of cucumber disease resistance is far from complete. Here, we report two translationally controlled tumor protein genes, CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2, that are both negative modulators in the Cucumis sativus defense response to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Subcellular localization analysis showed that CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2 were both localized in the cytoplasm. Expression analysis indicated that the transcript levels of CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2 were linked to the degree of cucumber resistance to S. fuliginea. Transient overexpression of either CsTCTP1 or CsTCTP2 in cucumber cotyledons impaired resistance to S. fuliginea, whereas silencing of either CsTCTP1 or CsTCTP2 enhanced cucumber resistance to S. fuliginea. The relationship of several defense-related genes and ABA and target of rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway-related genes to the overexpressing and silencing of CsTCTP1/CsTCTP2 in non-infested cucumber plants was investigated. The results indicated that CsTCTP1 participates in the defense response to S. fuliginea by regulating the expression of certain defense-associated genes and/or ABA signaling pathway-associated genes, and CsTCTP2 participates through regulating the expression of TOR signaling pathway-associated genes. Our findings will guide enhancing the resistance of cucumber to powdery mildew.

  2. Effects of exogenous application of CPPU, NAA and GA4+7 on parthenocarpy and fruit quality in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chunlu; Ren, Nannan; Wang, Jingye; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Xuehao; Qi, Xiaohua

    2018-03-15

    In protected vegetable fields, plant growth regulators are often used to improve cucumber fruit growth. However, the effects of plant growth regulators on the appearance and nutritional quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) remain largely unknown. In the present study, 100 mg/L N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or gibberellin A4+A7 (GA 4+7 ) was applied to the female cucumber flowers 1 day before anthesis and at anthesis. The CPPU, NAA and GA 4+7 treatments resulted in parthenocarpic fruits with similar weights, sizes and shapes as the pollinated fruits. NAA treatment did not affect the appearance and nutritional characteristics of cucumber at harvest and after storage. CPPU treatment increased the flesh firmness at harvest but decreased phenolic acid and vitamin C contents after storage. GA 4+7 treatment decreased the flesh firmness but increased total flavonoids and protein content after storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the effect of uranium and thorium on the growing of pepper (Capsicum annuum var. longum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, T.; Yildirim, Y.; Tokucu, G.; Uenak, G.; Oecal, J.; Konyali, D.; Kilic, S.

    2007-01-01

    The transportation rate of uranium and thorium to different plants grown in soils having high level of these elements varies closely with the plant characteristics. In this study, the pepper (Capsicum annuum var. longum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants were chosen as vegetables which are commonly consumed over different regions by different populations. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) High uranium concentration in the soil prevents the growing of the plants. Only the plants in the pot having the uranium concentration of about 263 ppm grew significantly. The plants in other pots having a higher concentration turned pale and died in a few weeks. (2) In the pot having thorium level of about 263 ppm, the plants were well grown and fruited in comparison to the control plants, but the increase of thorium concentration inversely influenced their growing. (3) The gross activities measured in different parts of the plants were not particularly high, however, in both cases the maximum activities were measured in the stems rather than in the fruits and leaves. (4) The plants grown in soils having thorium content lived longer than the control plants and at the greenhouse conditions indicated above, all plants lived more than one whole year flowering and fruiting. (author)

  4. Upregulation of PDZK1 by Calculus Bovis Sativus May Play an Important Role in Restoring Biliary Transport Function in Intrahepatic Cholestasis

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    Dong Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholestasis is a main cause of hepatic accumulation of bile acids leading to liver injury, fibrosis, and liver failure. Our previous studies proved that Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS can restore biliary transport function through upregulating the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP in 17α-ethynylestradiol- (EE- induced intrahepatic cholestasis rats. The regulation mechanism of CBS on these transporters, however, remains unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the possible relationship between the effect of CBS on transport activities and the regulation of CBS on the expression of PDZK1, a mainly scaffold protein which can regulate MRP2 and BCRP. Intrahepatic cholestasis model was induced in rats with injection of EE for five consecutive days and then the biliary excretion rates and cumulative biliary excretions were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PDZK1 were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. When treated with CBS, cumulative biliary excretions and mRNA and protein expressions of PDZK1 were significantly increased in intrahepatic cholestasis rats. This study demonstrated that CBS exerted a beneficial effect on EE-induced intrahepatic cholestasis rats by restoring biliary transport function, which may result from the upregulation of PDZK1 expression.

  5. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System

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    Kamal K. Panda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO2 through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich and cationic Zn2+ from Zn(CH3COO2 were tested in a dose range of 0–100 mg·L−1 for their potency (i to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2•−, H2O2 and •OH, cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; and (iii to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn2+ alone.

  6. Characterization and application of a diamine oxidase from Lathyrus sativus as component of an electrochemical biosensor for the determination of biogenic amines in wine and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fusco, Massimo; Federico, Rodolfo; Boffi, Alberto; Macone, Alberto; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we have characterized a diamine oxidase (DAO) from Lathyrus sativus and evaluated its use, for the first time, as biocatalytic component of an electrochemical biosensor for the determination of biogenic amines index in wine and beer samples. Firstly, DAO was electrokinetically characterized free in solution by means of a platinum electrode and then immobilized by using polyazetidine prepolimer on the surface of screen-printed electrodes constituted of two gold working electrodes. The amperometric measurements were carried out by using a flow system at a fixed potential of +600 mV vs the internal silver pseudo reference in phosphate buffer solution (0.1 mol l(-1), pH = 7.4). The analysis of wine and beer samples were performed in flow injection system using the dual channel transducer providing simultaneous detection of sample and blank signal, and the resulting signal (after subtraction of the blank signal) was referred to that of putrescine. The results were compared with those obtained using a modified reference method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis on the same samples. The results obtained in the analysis of Italian wines shows the better suitability of DAO-based biosensor in the determination of the biogenic amines (BAs) index expressed as putrescine equivalent in both red and white wines, being less efficient in beer samples where it underestimates by about 50% the BAs content.

  7. Effect of Corm Density on Yield and Qualitative Traits of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. under Different Urea and Biological Fertilizers in Shahr-e-Rey Region

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    Alireza pazoki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of corm density on yield and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L. under different biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized block design with 3 replications was done in 2014 at Shahr-e-Rey region (Ghomi Abad. The experimental factors were: corm density in 3 levels (60, 120 and 180 corm per square meter and biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers in 4 levels (without fertilizer application, 150 kg.ha-1 of Urea, 5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin and 75 kg.ha-1 of Urea +5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin. The results indicated that the corm density affects number of daughter corm, fresh daughter corm weight, corm diameter, dry stigma and style weight, dry and fresh flower weight significantly. Mean comparisons also indicated that by increasing corm density from 6o to 180, saffron dry yield of saffron improved by 2.7 fold. However, increasing corm density reduced corm diameter, fresh corm daughter weight and their numbers per square meter. It can be concluded that nitroxin as an organic fertilizer, increases vegetative traits and saffron dry yield (stigma + style weight to 2.08 kg.ha-1 and highly improves in qualitative traits like Safranal, Picrocrocin, and Crocin. It can be also said that combined use of nitroxin and urea would be an alternative method to reduce application of urea.

  8. Diamine Oxidase from White Pea (Lathyrus sativus) Combined with Catalase Protects the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Line from Histamine Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, Catherine; Séïde, Marilyne; Marcocci, Lucia; Pietrangeli, Paola; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2017-07-01

    Diamine oxidase (DAO) administration has been proposed to treat certain gastrointestinal dysfunctions induced by histamine, an immunomodulator, signaling, and pro-inflammatory factor. However, H 2 O 2 resulting from the oxidative deamination of histamine by DAO may be toxic. The purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent DAO from white pea (Lathyrus sativus), alone or in combination with catalase, may modulate histamine toxicity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. The results show that histamine at concentrations higher than 1 mM is toxic to the Caco-2 cells, independently of the cell differentiation status, with a LC 50 of ≅ 10 mM following a 24-h exposure. Depending on its concentration, DAO increased histamine toxicity to a greater extent in differentiated cells compared to undifferentiated cultures. In the presence of catalase, the DAO-induced increase in histamine toxicity was completely abolished in the undifferentiated cells and only partially decreased in differentiated cells, showing differences in the sensitivity of Caco-2 cells to the products resulting from histamine degradation by DAO (H 2 O 2 , NH 3 , or imidazole aldehyde). It appears that treatment of food histaminosis using a combination of vegetal DAO and catalase would protect against histamine toxicity and prevent H 2 O 2 -induced damage that may occur during histamine oxidative deamination.

  9. Impact of use of different sources of humic, bio and nano fertilizers and nitrogen levels on saffron (.Crocus sativus L flower yield

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    aliasghar armak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating the effect of using humic, bio and nano fertilizers and levels of nitrogen fertilizers in flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L. at the University of Torbat Heydarieh research farm located in Zaveh in 2014-2015. Treatments consisted of three levels of nitrogen application and use of fertilizer sources as the main factor, including Bioumik, Super Humic, combined Super Humic and Bioumik, Humi Ful, Nitrokara and no fertilizer as sub plots as split plot based on randomized complete block design with 18 treatments and three replications. Analysis of data showed that the effect of year and fertilizer sources on all traits measured was significant. The effect of nitrogen treatments was significant (at 1% except on number of flowers, dry style, mean dry weight stigma, and mean dry weight. Fertilizer sources increased all measured traits significantly. Application of Biomic increased petals and sepals dry weight (736.34 g/m2 by 46.78% in comparison with the control (464.19 g/m2. The highest dry weight stigma (524.2 g/m2 was seen in Super Humic + Bioumik treatment compared to the control group (443.1 g/m2. Super Humic treatment increased dry weight stigma by 86.49% relative to control. It seems that the use of humic, bio and nano fertilizers has a good effect on saffron performance.

  10. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  11. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  12. Growth response in radish to sequential and simultaneous exposures of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. [Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogsett, W.E.; Holman, S.R.; Gumpertz, M.L.; Tingey, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential and simultaneous exposures of radish Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle to 0.8 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/ nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) and 0.8 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/ sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) were conducted under both day- and night-time conditions to examine the effects on growth and development. Plants were exposed for 2 h per week over the four-week growing period. Frequent harvests at regular intervals were utilized for determination of the growth analysis functions. Sequential exposure to the two pollutants had no effect on growth compared with the charcoal-filtered air controls. Simultaneous exposure to the gases significantly reduced plant growth. The relative growth rate was reduced throughout the growing period apparently influenced by a reduced net assimilation rate. The partitioning of the available assimilate was altered to favor leaf growth at the expense of hypocotyl development. Night-time simultaneous exposures also altered growth progress but to a lesser degree than exposures during the day.

  13. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  14. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Kamal K; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Sahu, Hrushi K; Panda, Brahma B

    2017-05-18

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed ( Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn 2+ from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L -1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂ •- , H₂O₂ and • OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn 2+ alone.

  15. Medicinal Properties of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. in Traditional Medicine and Modern Phytotherapy: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEHDARI, Sahar; HAJIMEHDIPOOR, Homa

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn (Maidenhair fern) is an herb belonging to the family Pteridaceae. It is named as “Pare-siavashan” in medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Iranian Traditional Medicine. The fronds of Maidenhair fern were mainly administrated by ancient physicians as single medicine or in combination with other plants in multi-herbal formulations for curing different diseases. Because of different chemical compositions, the herb fronds were also assessed for its numerous pharmacological effects. Therefore, the current study was done to review the traditional usage and modern pharmacological and toxicological effects of Maidenhair fern. Methods: Scientific databases and publications including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, Cochrane Library, SID (for Persian papers) and medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of traditional medicine as well were searched for “Adiantum capillus-veneris”, “Maidenhair fern” and “Pare-siavashan” without limitation up to 2016. Results: Maidenhair fern exhibited to possess anti-diabetic, anticonvulsant, analgesic, hypocholesterolemic, goitrogenic, anti-thyroidal, antibacterial, antifungal, wound healing, antiobesity, anti hair loss, anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and antispasmodic, antioxidant as well as diuretic, anti-urolithiatic and detoxifying effects in modern medicine. Ancient physicians declared some of the confirmed pharmacological effects. Conclusion: Maidenhair fern frond can be a good candidate for clinical purpose. Therefore, future researches on the other mentioned effects in traditional medicine are recommended. PMID:29445628

  16. Effect of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf soluble solids on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Cheng, Fang-Chi; Wu, Ning-Jung

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of aqueous and ethanol soluble solid extracts of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaves on hypoglycemia and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide were injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type 2 diabetes. Acute and long-term feeding tests were carried out, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to follow the changes in plasma glucose and insulin levels was performed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extracts in diabetic rats.The results of acute and long-term feeding tests showed a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in diabetic rats fed with either the aqueous or ethanol extract of guava leaves (p guava leaf extracts increased the plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats. The results also indicated that the activities of hepatic hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats fed with aqueous extracts were higher than in the normal diabetic group (p guava leaf extract and the health function of guava leaves against type 2 diabetes.

  17. Antioxidant Capacity Comparison of Ethanolic Extract of Soursop (Annona muricata Linn. Leaves and Seeds as Cancer Prevention Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widyastuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata Linn. (soursop is one of  tropical plants which have relatively complete chemical compounds. It has flavonoid, tannin, phytosterol, alkaloid, etc. The high antioxidant compound in soursop is believed as cancer prevention so the cancer threat in the world can be minimized. The antioxidant compound in soursop can be found not only in its fruit, but also in other parts like leaves, seeds, etc. Based on that potency, this study aimed to compare antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds, also to study about the utilization of soursop parts which is usually not used. This research began with maceration to extract leaves and seeds with 96% ethanol. Ethanolic extract of soursop leaves and seeds were then tested for antioxidant capacity with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The result showed that antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds are 85,66875% and 39,0166, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of leaves is higher than seeds due to seed’s extraction difficulty so its antioxidant compound could not be extracted optimally. However, either leaves or seeds extract in this study are potential as antioxidant resources because there are no significant differences between antioxidant capacity of both extract.

  18. Determination of Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa Linn. by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS: An Application in Turmeric Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Kamran; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Ahmad, Niyaz; Amir, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Cucuma longa Linn. (Fam-Zingiberaceae) is a valued medicinal plant contains curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) as major bioactive constituents. Previously reported analytical methods for analysis of curcuminoids were found to suffer from low resolution, lower sensitivity and longer analytical times. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, selective high-throughput ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of curcuminoids with an aim to reduce analysis time and enhance efficiency. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis showed large variation (1.408-5.027% w/w) of curcuminoids among different samples with respect to their occurrence of metabolite and their concentration. The results showed that Erode (south province) contains highest quantity of curcuminoids and concluded to be the superior varieties. The results obtained here could be valuable for devising strategies for cultivating this medicinal plant. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Histopathological study on the effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa linn. powdwer on renal ischemia-reperfusion injuryin rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mohajeri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is a major cause of acute renal failure (ARF, which is faced in many clinical situations. This study was designed to investigate the effect of pre-treatment with turmeric (Curcuma longa linn powder on kidney histopathology and function markers in renal ischemia / reperfusion (IR induced injury in the rats. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham, IR model and two I/R+TREE (2%and4% - treated groups (n=20 per group. I/R groups’ kidneys were subjected to 60 min of global ischemia at 37oc followed by 30min of reperfusion. After 24h of reperfusion period, the rats were sacrificed. Kidney function tests and histopathological examination were also performed. Results were compared with a group of rats with sham operation. High serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid were observed in I/R rats compared to the sham rats. Pre-treatment of turmeric powder for 30 days prior to IR operation improved renal function reduced IR induced renal inflammatory and oxidative injury. The results of this study showed that turmeric powder significantly prevented renal I/R-induced functional and histological injuries.

  20. Inhibitory effect of Piper betle Linn. leaf extract on protein glycation--quantification and characterization of the antiglycation components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Abhishek; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2013-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a Pan-Asiatic plant having several beneficial properties. Protein glycation and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation are associated with different pathophysiological conditions, including diabetes mellitus. Our study aims to find the effect of methanolic extract of P. betle leaves on in vitro protein glycation in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose model. The extract inhibits glucose-induced glycation, thiol group modification and carbonyl formation in BSA in dose-dependent manner. It inhibits different stages of protein glycation, as demonstrated by using glycation models: hemoglobin-delta-gluconolactone (for early stage, Amadori product formation), BSA-methylglyoxal (for middle stage, formation of oxidative cleavage products) and BSA-glucose (for last stage, formation of AGEs) systems. Several phenolic compounds are isolated from the extract. Considering their relative amounts present in the extract, rutin appears to be the most active antiglycating agent. The extract of P. betle leaf may thus have beneficial effect in preventing protein glycation and associated complications in pathological conditions.

  1. Optimization of Concentration and EM4 Augmentation for Improving Bio-Gas Productivity from Jatropha curcas Linn Capsule Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praptiningsih G.A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most literature suggests that two-phase digestion is more efficient than single-phase. The series of two-phase digestion studies have been conducted from 2011 to 2013 at the research farm of PT Bumimas Ekapersada, West Java, Indonesia. This paper reports on a research on optimation of concentration and augmentation of EM-4 (effective microorganism-4, a local commercial decomposer, as efforts to stabilize a biogas technology which made ​​from husk capsules of Jatropha curcas Linn (DH-JcL. The studies of increasing organic loading rate (OLR for the two-phase digestion was conducted to improve efficiency.  The concentration variable studied was 1: 8 (1 part DH-JCL and 8 parts water, compared to 1: 12 as a control. The augmentation treatment is the addition of EM-4 by 5% (v/v. It was also examined the augmentation of F2-EM4 (150 times duplication of EM-4 due to cost consideration. The studies were conducted in the laboratory which using a liter and two liters of glass digester and glass wool as immobilized growth. The results of this study support the previous studies: the optimum concentration was 1: 8, EM-4 was able to increase biogas production in two-phase digestion, yet biogas production decrease at single-phase. F2-EM4’s ability to support production of biogas were equivalent to that of EM-4.

  2. CONSTRUCTION OF LOCAL WISDOM OF THE COMMUNITY FOREST FARMERS IN THE UTILIZATION OF DUWET (SYZYGIUM CUMINI LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Palmolina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the forms of ethnoecological tradition performed for generations by the people of the Triwidadi Village, Pajangan, DI Yogyakarta is the utilization of forest resources “duwet” (Syzygium cumini Linn as a medicinal plant. However, these values and local wisdom received less recognition and appreciation from the government, especially to be considered as a basis in the formulation of forest management policies in Java. The aims of the study are to construct local wisdom in the utilization of duwet as a form of physical culture of an institutionalized knowledge system.by using cognitive ethnographic method. This semi-quantitative research is focused to seek sociological explanation of cultural knowledge systems and duwet utilization process. Duwet habitat is in natural forest, secondary forest, and garden-yard, describes the form of changes in the environmental adaptation and social processes of forest resource utilization. The results showed that there is a symbolic interaction in the utilization of duwet consisting of constitution, cognitive, assessment and disclosure feeling symbols. In the construction of local knowledge, the utilization of duwet reflects six essential elements of ethnoecology, namely local resources, local knowledge, local value, local skills, local solidarity groups, and mechanisms of local decision-making.

  3. FORMULASI PASTA GIGI INFUSA DAUN JAMBU BIJI (Psidium guajavaLinn. DENGAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI Na. CMC SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGIKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Sa’adah Daud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaves (Psidium guajava Linn. has been shown inhibiting effect against dental caries causing bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. In order to facilitate its activity in overcoming dental caries,formulation into dosage toothpaste was needed. The purpose of this study was to formulate toothpaste from infuse of guava leaves with variations concentration of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulosa as a binder to obtain the best toothpaste formula. The concentration of infuse of guava leaves was 5% and 4%, 6% and 8%for Sodium carbxymethylcellulose respectively for formula each formula. Other additives have been used, they were calcium carbonate, glycerin, sodium lauryl sulfate, α-tocopherol, propyl paraben, methyl paraben, Oleum Menthae Piperatae (OMP and distilled water.The results showed that three toothpaste formula from the organoleptic testwere white coloured, mint flavored with soft and lumpy of textur, with the mean of pH value of 6,9 to 8,3 were eligible, and the foam height value of 3,5 to 5,5 cm. Theviscosity values were increased with the increasing concentration ofSodium carbxymethylcellulose. While the preference test showedthat toothpaste formula C was the most preferred.

  4. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Petals Modulates Glycogen Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis Signalling Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Sneha S; Mini, S

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is becoming more and more serious and reaches epidemic proportions worldwide. Scientific research is constantly looking for new agents that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against diabetes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. petals on experimental diabetes at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight and it was compared with standard anti-diabetic drug metformin. The elevated levels of serum glucose (398.56 ± 35.78) and glycated haemoglobin (12.89 ± 1.89) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased (156.89 ± 14.45 and 6.12 ± 0.49, respectively) by Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals (EHRS) administration. Hepatotoxicity marker enzyme levels in serum were normalized. The fraction supplementation restored the glycogen content by regulating the activities of glycogen metabolizing enzymes. It significantly modulated the expressions of marker genes involved in glucose homeostasis signalling pathway. Histopathological analysis of liver and pancreas supported our findings. The overall effect was comparable with metformin. Hence, our study reveals the role of hibiscus petals for alleviation of diabetes complications, thus it can be propagated as a nutraceutical agent.

  5. Variation of Qingke (Hordeum vulgare linn.var.nudum Hook.f) induced by space flight treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Peng Zhengsong; Yang Jun

    2007-01-01

    108 Dry seeds of Qingke (Hordeum vulgate linn. var. nudum Hook. f) were carried into space by recoverable satellite. after wards, the seeds were germinated into 108 seedlings at room temperature, and root tips were observed with Night microscope, and results and normal mitotic division was found without microkemel at interphase or chromosome bridges at anaphase, which means that chromosomal structure change didn't occur in Qingke seeds during space flight. To investigate whether there were morphology variations taken place, the seedlings were transplanted into field and managed normal. All of plants grew as strong as normal Qingke plants (CK) by eye abservation, except two plants showed abnormal inflorescence morphology, which had two spikes on one tiller. 21 SSR markers on 7 linkage groups were used to analysis the polymorphism of genomic DNA for these Qingke plants. No polymorphism was detected with 20 SSR markers among 63 plants investigated. But varied electrophoretic bands were tested in 10 plants using the marker HVM54 on chromosome 2H, and all the 10 plants showed uniform electrophoretypes. It was concluded that the DNA of the Qingke could be changed during space flight. (authors)

  6. In-vitro propagation and antimycotic potential of extracts and essential oil of roots of Aristolochia bracteolata Linn. (Aristolochiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, I T; Egunyomi, A

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the therapeutic importance of Aristolochia bracteolata Linn. in Nigerian ethnomedicine, it is largely collected from the wild. Owing to the acclaimed potency of the plant and the difficulty in treating candidiasis, the anticandidal activity and in vitro propagation of the plant were investigated. Phytochemical screening and preparation of extracts of the roots were done using standard procedures. Clinical isolates of Candida albicans were screened against extracts and essential oil of Aristolochia bracteolata root using agar-well diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the ethanol extract was determined using broth dilution method. The nodal cuttings of A. bracteolata were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media. A. bracteolata contained alkaloids, saponins and cardenolides. The water extract was inactive on all isolates. The ethanol extract (500 mg/ml) and essential oil (undiluted) exhibited anticandidal activity on 9 out of 10 isolates at 10(1) - 10(6) cfu/ml inoculums concentration. Green growth and callus formation were observed in explants cultured on MS basal media after 30 days. A. bracteolata could be a source of anticandidal phytomedicine and the in vitro propagation confirmed its sustainability as anticandidal agent.

  7. Development of dielectric barrier discharge for reducing microbial contamination in pepper (Piper nigrum) and sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promping, J.; Prakongsil, P.; Picha, R.; Traikool, T.

    2017-09-01

    This research is designed to determine the efficacy of DBD plasma to reduce the microbial contamination of pepper and sesame powder. The AC high voltage power supply was used with voltages of up to 20 kV and the frequency of 5.5 kHz was applied to the DBD. The gap of DBD electrodes was set at 5 mm. In raw initial samples, the total aerobic count of pepper (Piper nigrum) was found at quite a high level at 5.40 × 105 CFU/g. Coliform bacteria was also found in both the sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder and pepper (Piper nigrum) powder. Both kinds of samples were treated with plasma for 2, 4, 6 and 10 minutes. Results indicated that plasma treatment at 2-10 minutes reduced the total aerobic count of pepper allowed to achieve the acceptable microbial level for spices. The plasma treatment times in this experiment were also effective in reducing faecal coliform bacteria in both pepper and sesame powders (MPN/g <3) as indicated in the standard. Plasma from dielectric barrier charge can reduce Staphylococcus epidermidis in sesame powder which was artificially contaminated with 3.50 × 102 CFU/g resulting in 0.15-0.5 log cycle reductions of microbial load.

  8. Nootropic activity of lipid-based extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. compared with traditional preparation and extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Paradkar, Anant R; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to design an alternative solvent-free extraction method using the hydrophilic lipid Gelucire (polyethylene glycol glycerides) for herbal extraction and to confirm the efficacy of extraction using biological screening. Bacopa monniera Linn. (BM) was selected for the study. Conventional methanolic extract (MEBM), Ayurvedic ghrita (AGBM) and lipid extracts (LEBM) were prepared and standardised by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Nootropic activity in rats was evaluated using the two-trial Y-maze test and the anterograde amnesia induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) determined by the conditioned avoidance response. The extracts were administered daily at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally. At the end of the conditioned avoidance response test, brain monoamine levels were estimated by HPLC. The LEBM, MEBM and AGBM contained 3.56%, 4.10% and 0.005% bacoside A, respectively. Significantly greater spatial recognition was observed with LEBM (P nootropic activity to the MEBM.

  9. Stripping voltammetry glassy carbon on the study of Cd and Pb heavy metals pollution using anadara antiquata linn bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswani, G.S.; Hidayat, F.; Zulkarnaen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of cadmium and lead in sea water and shell fish (anadara antiquata linn) bioindicator in Gresik waters by glassy carbon stripping voltammetry was studied at menu 2 parameters as follows: time and potential plating-1000V and 90 second, sweep rate: 375 mV/second, strip time 2 second, electrolyte: aquatrides, pH = 0.4 (for shell fish) and -1000 V and 120 second, 999 mV/se con, 2 second, chloracetic, pH = 5.0. It was found that the mean of Cd and Pb contents in sea water at pH = 7.0, salinity = 28-29 ppm, oxygen content = 7.1-8.1 and temperature = 27-30 o C which was monitoring at location 1.2 and location 3.4 were 0.01 and 0.17 ppm, 1.44 and 1.35 ppm respectively. Furthermore the mean of Cd and Pb contents in shell fish at location 1.2 and 3.4 (snail range and shell fish dry weight were reported) were 5.94 and 3.05 ppm, 0,03 and 0,03 ppm. The t-tes for Cd and Pb contents in sea waters and shell fish at location 1,2 compared with location 3.4 were significant and no significant. The accuracy of the method was tested with SRM coppepoda MA-A-1-A-a and W-4. (author)

  10. Medicinal Properties of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. in Traditional Medicine and Modern Phytotherapy: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2018-02-01

    Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn (Maidenhair fern) is an herb belonging to the family Pteridaceae. It is named as " Pare-siavashan " in medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Iranian Traditional Medicine. The fronds of Maidenhair fern were mainly administrated by ancient physicians as single medicine or in combination with other plants in multi-herbal formulations for curing different diseases. Because of different chemical compositions, the herb fronds were also assessed for its numerous pharmacological effects. Therefore, the current study was done to review the traditional usage and modern pharmacological and toxicological effects of Maidenhair fern. Scientific databases and publications including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, Cochrane Library, SID (for Persian papers) and medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of traditional medicine as well were searched for " Adiantum capillus-veneris ", " Maidenhair fern " and " Pare-siavashan " without limitation up to 2016. Maidenhair fern exhibited to possess anti-diabetic, anticonvulsant, analgesic, hypocholesterolemic, goitrogenic, anti-thyroidal, antibacterial, antifungal, wound healing, antiobesity, anti hair loss, anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and antispasmodic, antioxidant as well as diuretic, anti-urolithiatic and detoxifying effects in modern medicine. Ancient physicians declared some of the confirmed pharmacological effects. Maidenhair fern frond can be a good candidate for clinical purpose. Therefore, future researches on the other mentioned effects in traditional medicine are recommended.

  11. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of 60 Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  12. Paederia foetida Linn. promoted biogenic gold and silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic and in vitro efficacy against clinically isolated pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Bishal; Paul, Arijita; Paul, Bappi; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar; Dutta, Pranab

    2017-08-01

    Development of newer improved therapeutic agents with efficient antimicrobial activities continues to draw attention of researchers till date. Moreover, abatement of polluting dyes released from industry with enhanced efficiency is currently being considered as challenging task for people working on material sciences. In the present study, we report a facile biogenic synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in which aqueous extracts of Paederia foetida Linn. was used as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized Au and Ag NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of these nanoparticles were tested against Rhodamine B (RhB). The antimicrobial activity of these biosynthesized NPs were investigated against four human pathogens viz. B. cereus, E. coli, S. aureus and A. niger. Biogenic silver nanoparticles presented a strong antimicrobial activity against B. cereus (26.13) followed by E. coli (26.02), S. aureus (25.43) and A. niger (22.69). Ag NPs owing to their small size (5-25nm) could have easily penetrate into the cell membrane, disturb the metabolism, cause irretrievable damage finally leading to the microbial cell death. Interestingly biogenic gold nanoparticles didn't show any antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuapoehuk, W.; Piadang, S.; Tinnungwattana, W.

    1998-01-01

    Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60 Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P<0.05). Replacement of irradiated sludge can decrease the cost of fish production and results in better benefit than that of control diet

  14. Wound healing effect of flavonoid rich fraction and luteolin isolated from Martynia annua Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Abhay K Singhai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate wound healing potential of flavonoid fractions of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn. leaves in diabetic rats on the basis of folkloric information and preliminary study. Methods: The flavonoid compound luteolin and apigenin were isolated from dried leaves of plant by column chromatography. The two concentrations (0.2% and 0.5% w/w) of luteolin and flavonoid fraction were selected for topically applied as ointment on diabetic wound. The Povidone Iodine Ointment USP was used as a reference. On 18th days, protein content, hydroxyproline and antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) level in granuloma tissues were determined.Results:The results showed that, percent wound contraction were observed significantly (P<0.01) greater in MAF fraction and 0.5% w/w of luteolin treatment groups. Presence of matured collagen fibres and fibroblasts with better angiogenesis were observed in histopathological studies.Conclusions:In conclusion, our findings suggest that flavonoid fraction (MAF) and luteolin (0.5%w/w) may have potential benefit in enhancing wound healing in diabetic condition, possibly due to free-radical scavenging activity of plant.

  15. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the optimum extraction conditions for maximum recovery of the content of total phenolics (TPC) and total antioxidant abilities were analyzed for Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology. The effects of ethanol percentage (X1 ,%), ultrasonic power (X2 , W) and extraction temperature (X3 , °C) on the total phenolic content (Y1 ) and antioxidant ability (Y2 ) were evaluated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.9942, P antioxidant ability (R(2) = 0.9966, P extraction temperature of 51.1°C for TPC and 60.5%, 311.4 W, 51.6°C for antioxidant ability, the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. Results implied that the major phenolic compounds in obtained extracts as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-gal/glu, quercetin-3-xyl/ara, phloretin-2-xyloside, quercetin-3- rhamnoside, and phloridzin. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of lawsonia innermis (linn) leaves ethanolic extract on blood glucose and malondialdehyde level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah Sari, Mutiara; Ilyas, Syafruddin; Widyawati, Tri; Anjelir Antika, Maya

    2018-03-01

    The case of diabetes mellitus (DM) tends to increase worldwide. DM triggers the oxidative stress condition that caused by the increasing of free radical. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of giving ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis (Linn) leaves to the glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar male rats. The powder of dry leaves of L.inermis was macerated in ethanol 96% to obtain ethanolic extract (LLEE).Thirty five of rats were divided into five groups, ie. K (normal and given 0.9% NaCl solution ), P1-P4 were induced using alloxan (120 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to get diabetic condition. Diabetic rats then were treated as follows: P1 (given 0.9% NaCl solution) P2 (LLEE (200 mg/kg BW), P3 (LLEE (400 mg/kg BW)), P4 ( LLEE (600 mg/kg BW)). All groups were treated for 28 days. The fasting blood glucose levels were measured at day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 whereas MDA levels were measured at the end of treatment. The result showed that LLEE improved blood glucose level (BGLs) of alloxan-induced diabetic rats significantly (p 0.5). The study concluded that LLEE have antihyperglycemic properties.

  17. In vitro callus culture of Heliotropium indicum Linn. for assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Muthusamy Senthil; Chaudhury, Shibani; Balachandran, Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    The total phenolic and flavonoid content and percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of callus and in vivo plant parts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. were estimated. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 2.0 mg/l with benzyladenine (BA) 0.5 mg/l showed the highest amount of callus biomass (1.87 g/tube). The morphology of callus was significantly different according to the plant growth regulators and their concentrations used in the medium. The highest amount of total phenolic (21.70 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (4.90 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g)) content and the maximum percentage (77.78 %) of radical scavenging activity were estimated in the extract of inflorescence. The synergistic effect of NAA (2.0 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l) enhances the synthesis of total phenolic (9.20 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (1.25 mg QE/g) content in the callus tissue. The callus produced by the same concentration shows 45.24 % of free radical scavenging activity. While comparing the various concentrations of NAA with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for the production of callus biomass, total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity, all the concentrations of NAA were found to be superior than those of 2,4-D.

  18. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  19. RECOVERY OF DAMAGES IN THE SKIN OF ARSENIC EXPOSED CLARIAS BATRACHUS (LINN. FOLLOWING WITHDRAWAL OF THE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh ، T. K. Banerjee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The bottom dwelling air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn. also respires via its skin (an accessory water-breathing organ. Prolonged (90 days exposure to disodium arsenate heptahydrate has caused massive damage (e.g. wear and tear of various cellular components including club cells, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the goblet mucous cells, altered staining and the slimy secretion to the epidermis of its skin. The present study investigated the recovery in architecture of the damaged epidermis following return of the 90 days disodium arsenate heptahydrate exposed fish to clean water. The significant regeneration of its different cellular components (epithelial cells, Club cells, Mucous cells took place after 24 h of withdrawal when sloughing; wear and tear and other damages of the epidermis of the skin got substantially reduced. The histopathological alterations which still continued included squeezing out of contents of the Club cells that formed a thin layer on the body surface. Regeneration of the Club cells continued throughout the epidermis even though the newly formed Club cells still showed massive sign of degeneration. Altered staining behaviour and hyperactivity of the Mucous cells continues even after prolonged withdrawal of the stress of the arsenic salt. Similarly the glycoproteins of the slime secreted by the mucous cells retained their sulphate moieties. This indicates that disodium arsenate heptahydrate induces certain permanent non-reversible damages including altered mucogenic activity in the epidermis of the skin of C. batrachus.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Olea europaea Linné extracts and their applicability as natural food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, J; Kohnen, S; Hauser, C

    2017-06-19

    The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds from Olea (O.) europaea Linné (L.) is part of the scientific discussion regarding the use of natural plant extracts as alternative food preservative agents. Although, the basic knowledge on the antimicrobial potential of certain molecules such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol or elenolic acid derivatives is given, there is still little information regarding their applicability for food preservation. This might be primarily due to the lack of information regarding the full antimicrobial spectrum of the compounds, their synergisms in natural or artificial combinations and their interaction with food ingredients. The present review accumulates available literature from the past 40 years, investigating the antimicrobial activity of O. europaea L. derived extracts and compounds in vitro and in food matrices, in order to evaluate their food applicability. In summary, defined extracts from olive fruit or leaves, containing the strongest antimicrobial compounds hydroxytyrosol, oleacein or oleacanthal in considerable concentrations, appear to be suitable for food preservation. Nonetheless there is still need for consequent research on the compounds activity in food matrices, their effect on the natural microbiota of certain foods and their influence on the sensorial properties of the targeted products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Edvane Borges da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu, E-mail: elba@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of {sup 60}Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  2. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST OF SOME COMPOUNDS FROM METHANOL EXTRACT PEEL OF BANANA (Musa paradisiaca Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Atun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these research was measured activity as antioxidant some compounds in methanol extracts of peel of banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn., isolated some compounds which had activities as antioxidant, and determined this structure. Method of this study was extracted powdered peel of banana with methanol at room temperature. Extract was concentrated in vaccuo and then successively was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol. Antioxidant test from each fractions was measured by hydroxyl radical scavenger test with Fenton reaction method. The result of this study showed activity each fractions as  hydroxyl radical scavenger activity of chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol fraction were IC50 693.15; 2347.40; and 1071.14 mg/mL respectively. The isolation of secondary metabolite compounds from chloroform fraction obtained two isolate compounds. Identification by spectroscopy IR,  MS, 1H and 13C NMR one and two dimension showed that the compounds are 5,6,7,4'-tetrahidroxy-3,4-flavan-diol and a new compound cyclohexenon derivative (2-cyclohexene-1-on-2,4,4-trimethyl-3-O-2'-hydroxypropyl ether.   Keywords: antioxidant, peel of banana, Musa paradisiaca, hydroxyl radical scavenger

  3. Study on the mechanism of the bronchodilatory effects of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) and identification of the active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maulik R; Bhalodia, Yagnik S; Pathak, Nimish L; Patel, Maulik S; Suthar, Kunal; Patel, Nilesh; Golwala, Dharmesh K; Jivani, Nurudin P

    2013-12-12

    In the traditional medicine, Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) is used in asthma, but scientific studies to provide evidence for medicinal uses are sparse. Thus this study was undertaken to provide evidence for medicinal use in asthma as a bronchodilator, and to identify active ingredient(s). In vivo, acetylcholine (Ach)-induced bronchospasm was conducted in guinea pig while isolated rat tracheal strip was suspended in organ bath to measure the concentration response curve using multichannel data acquisition system. The chloroform extract of Cynodon dactylon (CECD) protected against Ach-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs, similar to atropine. In the in vitro studies, CECD relaxed carbachol (CCh) and high K+-induced contraction of rat tracheal strip, similar to atropine and verapamil respectively, suggesting antimuscarinic and calcium channel blocking (CCB) activities, which were confirmed by right ward shifting of CCh and Ca(+2) concentration response curve (CRC). The phosphodiestrase (PDE) inhibitory activity was confirmed by potentiation of isoprenaline-induced inhibitory response, similar to papaverine. Densitometry analyses led to the identification of scopoletin as an active ingredient. Effectively, it significantly inhibited high K+, and Ca(+2) induced contractile response, similar to verapamil. The phosphodiestrase (PDE) inhibitory activity was confirmed by direct evidence of potentiation of isoprenaline-induced inhibitory response, similar to papaverine. These results suggest that the bronchodilator activity of CECD is partly due to presence of scopoletin, and mediated possibly through CCB and PDE inhibition.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of CaCO3 (calcite) nano particles from cockle shells (Anadara granosa Linn) by precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, Sri; Intan Ayu Kusuma, P.

    2017-06-01

    Calcium supplements can reduce the risk of osteoporosis, but they are not automatically absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is presumed to have a capacity in resolving this problem. The preparation and characterization of calcium carbonate nano particle to improve the solubility was performed. Calcium carbonate nano particles were synthesized using precipitation method from cockle shells (Anadara granosa Linn). Samples of the cockle shells were dried in an oven at temperature of 50°C for 7 (seven) days and subsequently they were crushed and blended into fine powder that was sieved through 125-μm sieve. The synthesis of calcium carbonate nanocrystals was done by extracting using hydro chloride acid and various concentrations of sodium hydroxide were used to precipitate the calcium carbonate nano particles. The size of the nano particles was determined by SEM, XRD data, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results of XRD indicated that the overall crystalline structure and phase purity of the typical calcite phase CaCO3 particles were approximately 300 nm in size. The method to find potential applications in industry to yield the large scale synthesis of aragonite nano particles by a low cost but abundant natural resource such as cockle shells is required.

  5. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Linn County landfill, eastern Kansas, 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falwell, R.; Bigsby, P.R.; Myers, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the hydrogeology and groundwater quality conditions near the Linn County Landfill, eastern Kansas was conducted from July 1988 through June 1989. The landfill is located in an unreclaimed coal strip-mine area near Prescott. Analysis of water levels from nine temporary wells and from strip-mine ponds indicated that groundwater flows southwest through the present landfill. A county road west of the landfill acts as a barrier to shallow westerly groundwater flow. Seasonal variations in the direction of groundwater flow may occur. Water samples from monitoring wells and a strip-mine pond were analyzed for inorganic and organic compounds. Iron, manganese, and dissolved-organic-carbon concentrations were good indicators of the presence of landfill leachate in the groundwater. Benzene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were also detected. None of the inorganic or organic compounds detected exceeded Kansas primary drinking-water standards. Chemical concentrations and water levels in some nested wells indicate there is a hydraulic connection between the strip-mine spoil material and the underlying limestone. Leachate-contaminated groundwater has the potential to migrate southwest corner of the landfill through either strip-mine spoil material or through the underlying Pawnee Limestone

  6. Dose- and time-dependent effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on sexual behaviour of normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Prakash, Seppan

    2009-04-21

    According to Indian Systems of Medicine, Mucuna pruriens Linn., belonging to the leguminous family (Papilionaceae), were used for treating male sexual disorders since ancient times. In this study, the effects of ethanolic extracts of the Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on general mating behaviour, libido and potency of normal male Wister albino rats were investigated and also compared with the standard reference drug, Sildenafil citrate. Animals were divided into one control group (Group I--received saline) and four experimental groups (Groups II-V). Experimental groups were divided on the basis of the dosage of extract to the animals as follows: 150 mg/kg body weight (Group I), 200mg/kg body weight (Group II) and 250 mg/kg body weight (Group IV) while Group V received Sildenafil citrate (5mg/kg body weight). Animals were fed PO with saline or extract or standard drug once in a day for 45 days. To analyse the mating behaviour, female rats with oestrus phase were used. The extract administered PO significantly increased the mounting frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculation latency, and decreased the mounting latency, intromission latency, post-ejaculatory interval and inter-intromission interval. The potency test significantly increased erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. Therefore, the results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats at a particular dose (200mg/kg). When compared to control, all the drug-treated groups have shown drug-induced effects for a few parameters. However in Group II, there was an obvious enhancement in all parameters, without affecting the normal behaviour. When compared with the standard drug, the net effect of extract is even less than that in Group II. Therefore, the resulting aphrodisiac activity of the extract lends support to the claim that it has traditionally been used for the treatment of sexual

  7. Linné a les aules : el sistema sexual de les plantes a l'escola d'agricultura i botànica de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Bernat i López, Pasqual

    2008-01-01

    In this article educational activity of the School of Agriculture and Botany of Barcelona during 1815 to 1821 is explained. This work focus on The teaching of the system of classification of plants created by Carl Linné and the role played by Joan Francesc Bahí, first teacher of the School, in the introduction and consolidation of this system in the botanical teaching at that time. In this sense, in this work we study and analyze the didactic tools that Bahí used to teach the linnean theories...

  8. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunpanich, Vilasinee; Utaipat, Anocha; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Sato, Hitoshi; Herunsalee, Angkana; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee

    2005-03-01

    The present study quantitatively investigated the antioxidant effects of the aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa LINN. (roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Formations of the conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were monitored as markers of the early and later stages of the oxidation of LDL, respectively. Thus, we demonstrated that the dried calyx extracts of roselle exhibits strong antioxidant activity in Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL (proselle inhibited TBARs-formation with greater potency than 100 microM of vitamin E. In conclusion, this study provides a quantitative insight into the potent antioxidant effect of roselle in vitro.

  9. Starch-Glycerol Based Edible Film and Effect of Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn Extract and Surimi Dumbo Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Addition on Its Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endaruji Sedyadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn Extract and Surimi Dumbo catfish (Clarias gariepinus addition on Starch-Based Edible Film-Glycerol Mechanical Properties has been done. The purpose of this study is to create an active environment-friendly packaging material. Surimi additions are intended to improve the mechanical properties of bioplastics and additions of Rosella extract intended as a bio-indicator of acidity. The method used was Solvent Casting. An amount of surimi and rosella extract varied to obtain the best mechanical properties. The results shows that the addition of surimi and rosella flower extract significantly effect the elongation of Edible films produced up to 27%.

  10. UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT FRAKSI ETIL ASETAT BATANG DAN DAUN PACAR AIR (Impatiens balsamina Linn TERHADAP TIKUS PUTIH BETINA GALUR SPRAGUE DAWLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Anzini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens balsamina Linn has been proven through various studies to have pharmacological benefits. Yet there was no research data regarding the toxicity of these plants. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of symptoms that occur after oral administration of ethyl acetate fraction from stems and leaves of Impatiens balsamina Linn, determine the LD50 values ​​and toxicity category compounds in the fraction. This study employed OECD (Organization for Economic, Cooperation and Development 425 method. Parameters observed qualitatively through the observations of the food and drink intakes and change of body everyday weight during a period of 14 days and microscopic examination of liver and kidney. The results of the study showed no symptoms of toxicity arising from qualitative observations. LD50 value of ethyl acetate fraction of stems and leaves of Impatiens balsamina Linn was more than 2000 mg/kg body weight, which belongs to moderately toxic. Also, a paired t-test concluded that there was no significant differences occuring among the amount of food and drink intakes and body weight changes before and after treatment. Likewise, based on statistical test using One Way ANOVA showed no significant difference in food intakes and body weight changes in the treatment group and control animals (p>0,05, and no significant difference of daily drinking intakes between control group and treatment group with distilled water (p>0,05. While, there was a significant difference between the control rats and the CMC treatment (p 2000 mg/kg BB yang termasuk kategori toksik sedang. Berdasarkan uji beda disimpulkan tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan terhadap jumlah konsumsi makan, minum dan perubahan bobot badan sebelum dan setelah perlakuan. Berdasarkan uji statistik menggunakan One Way ANOVA menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan terhadap konsumsi makan dan perubahan bobot badan hewan kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol (p>0

  11. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  12. Análise morfoanatômica comparativa da folha de Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae Comparative morphogical and anatomycal analyses of Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makeli Garibotti Lusa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho foi desenvolvido com o propósito de subsidiar o controle de qualidade das espécies medicinais Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. Essas foram coletadas em jardins e terrenos baldios de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. As amostras do limbo, pecíolo e pulvino foram fixadas em F.A.A. 50 e conservadas em etanol 70%. O seccionamento do material foi feito em micrótomo de rotação (material incluído em historresina ou a mão livre e as lâminas foram montadas de forma permanente ou semipermanente. Foram realizadas análises em microscopia fotônica e eletrônica de varredura. A folha de B. forficata é alongada, com folíolos unidos em torno da metade do limbo, ápices agudos, superfície adaxial lisa e mucro entre os folíolos. Enquanto que, B. variegata possui folha mais larga que longa, com folíolos unidos na porção terminal do limbo e ápices obtusos. Nos pulvinos de B. variegata ocorrem camadas de colênquima, ausentes em B. forficata. O formato e a bainha de fibras dos pecíolos, em secção transversal, são distintos entre as espécies, assim como a distribuição dos estômatos e tricomas no limbo e a forma do bordo em secção transversal. B. variegata possui maior quantidade de idioblastos com drusas e compostos fenólicos. As características morfológicas e anatômicas de B. forficata e B. variegata contribuem para a identificação e diferenciação das espécies, sendo importantes para o controle de qualidade do material destinado à pesquisa e à indústria farmacêutica.This work has been developed with the purpose of helping the quality control of the medicinal species Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn., which were collected in gardens and vacant lots in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The samples of leaf blade, petiole and pulvinus were fixed in FAA 50 and preserved in alcohol 70. The sectioning of the material was made in rotational microtome (with the material included in historesine or manually and

  13. Antiamnesic evaluation of C. phlomidis Linn. bark extract in mice Avaliação da atividade antiamnésica da casca de C. phlomidis Linn. em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    anumanthachar Joshi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae is known as Agnimantha in sanskrit. Bark of the plant is used in treating various nervous disorders. In the present study C. phlomidis was investigated for its potential as a nootropic agent in mice. The aqueous extract of the C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. was administered for 6 successive days to both young and aged mice. Exteroceptive behavioral models such as elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate short term and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p. were employed to induce amnesia in mice. To delineate the mechanism by which C. phlomidis exerts nootropic action, its effect on brain acetyl cholinesterase levels were determined. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. Pretreatment with C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. for 6 successive days significantly improved learning and memory in mice. It reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine, diazepam and natural ageing. It also decreased the acetyl cholinesterase levels in the whole brain. The bark of C. phlomidis can be of enormous use in the management of treatment of cognitive disorders such as amnesia and Alzheimer's disease.Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae é conhecida como Agnimantha em sânscrito. A casca da planta é utilizada no tratamento de várias disfunções neurológicas. No presente estudo, C. phlomidis foi investigada pelo seu potencial como agente nootrópico em camundongos. O extrato aquoso de C. phlomidis (100 e 200 mg/kg, p.o. foi administrado por seis dias consecutivos tanto para camundongos jovens quanto para idosos. Modelos comportamentais exteroceptivos, tais como labirinto em cruz elevada e paradigma de esquiva passiva foram empregados para avaliar memória recente e tardia, respectivamente. Escopolamina (0,4 mg/kg i.p., diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p. foram empregados para induzir amnésia em camundongos. A

  14. Strong resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds for ionizing radiation as studied by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement: Effect of long-lived and super-long-lived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Jun E-mail: kumagai@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiromi; Kumada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tano, Shigemitsu; Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Resistance of seeds for ionizing radiation effects on Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds were investigated by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement. Two types of free radicals, such as long-lived (LL) and super-long-lived (SL) radicals, were produced by the {gamma}-irradiation in the seeds. More than 90% of the 1 kGy-irradiated-seeds can germinate probably by decreasing the LL radicals by absorbing water. 10 kGy-irradiated-seeds cannot germinate at all probably due to the existence of significant amounts of the SL radicals even after absorbing water. (author)

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao antioxidante de extratos brutos de folhas de Anacardium occidentale Linn.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2014-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC{sub 50} of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants.

  16. Phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and the released Zn(II) ion to corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on organisms is of concern worldwide due to their extensive use and unique properties. The impacts of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on seed germination and root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in this study. The role of seed coats of corn in the mitigation toxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated. ZnO NPs (1,000 mg L(-1)) reduced root length of corn and cucumber by 17 % (p < 0.05) and 51 % (p < 0.05), respectively, but exhibited no effects on germination. In comparison with Zn(2+), toxicity of ZnO NPs on the root elongation of corn could be attributed to the nanoparticulate ZnO, while released Zn ion from ZnO could solely contribute to the inhibition of root elongation of cucumber. Zn uptake in corn exposed to ZnO NPs during germination was much higher than that in corn exposed to Zn(2+), whereas Zn uptake in cucumber was significantly correlated with soluble Zn in suspension. It could be inferred that Zn was taken up by corn and cucumber mainly in the form of ZnO NPs and soluble Zn, respectively. Transmission electron microscope confirmed the uptake of ZnO NPs into root of corn. Although isolation of the seed coats might not be the principal factor that achieved avoidance from toxicity on germination, seed coats of corn were found to mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs on root elongation and prevent approximately half of the Zn from entering into root and endosperm.

  17. Genome-wide characterization of the MADS-box gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L. and assessment of its roles in flowering and floral organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC*. Among them, 41 (28.47% RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  18. Biocontrol Potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16 Towards Alternaria brassicicola to Control Damping Off and Black Leaf Spot of Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumari Manhas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol agents and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to decrease the use of chemical pesticides. In light of this, the present investigation reports the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 and its metabolites towards Alternaria brassicicola, causal agent of black leaf spot and damping off of seedlings of crucifers. In vitro antibiosis of strain against pathogen revealed complete suppression of mycelial growth of pathogen, grown in potato dextrose broth supplemented with culture supernatant (20% v/v of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Microscopic examination of the fungal growth showed severe morphological abnormalities in the mycelium caused by antifungal metabolites. In vivo studies showed the efficacy of streptomycete cells and culture supernatant as seed dressings to control damping off of Raphanus sativus seedlings. Treatment of pathogen infested seeds with culture supernatant (10% and streptomycete cells significantly improved seed germination (75-80% and vigour index (1167-1538. Furthermore, potential of cells and culture supernatant as foliar treatment to control black leaf spot was also evaluated. Clearly visible symptoms of disease were observed in the control plants with 66.81% disease incidence and retarded growth of root system. However, disease incidence reduced to 6.78 and 1.47% in plants treated with antagonist and its metabolites, respectively. Additionally, treatment of seeds and plants with streptomycete stimulated various growth traits of plants over uninoculated control plants in the absence of pathogen challenge. These results indicate that S. hydrogenans and its culture metabolites can be developed as biofungicides as seed dressings to control seed borne pathogens, and as sprays to control black leaf spot of crucifers.

  19. Genome-wide characterization of the WRKY gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) reveals its critical functions under different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Bernard Kinuthia; Fan, Lianxue; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Tang, Mingjia; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Fei; Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Liu, Liwang

    2017-11-01

    The radish WRKY gene family was genome-widely identified and played critical roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses. The WRKY is among the largest transcription factors (TFs) associated with multiple biological activities for plant survival, including control response mechanisms against abiotic stresses such as heat, salinity, and heavy metals. Radish is an important root vegetable crop and therefore characterization and expression pattern investigation of WRKY transcription factors in radish is imperative. In the present study, 126 putative WRKY genes were retrieved from radish genome database. Protein sequence and annotation scrutiny confirmed that RsWRKY proteins possessed highly conserved domains and zinc finger motif. Based on phylogenetic analysis results, RsWRKYs candidate genes were divided into three groups (Group I, II and III) with the number 31, 74, and 20, respectively. Additionally, gene structure analysis revealed that intron-exon patterns of the WRKY genes are highly conserved in radish. Linkage map analysis indicated that RsWRKY genes were distributed with varying densities over nine linkage groups. Further, RT-qPCR analysis illustrated the significant variation of 36 RsWRKY genes under one or more abiotic stress treatments, implicating that they might be stress-responsive genes. In total, 126 WRKY TFs were identified from the R. sativus genome wherein, 35 of them showed abiotic stress-induced expression patterns. These results provide a genome-wide characterization of RsWRKY TFs and baseline for further functional dissection and molecular evolution investigation, specifically for improving abiotic stress resistances with an ultimate goal of increasing yield and quality of radish.

  20. Evaluation of the potential for biosolids obtained from wastewater treatment for agricultural use and their effect on cultivation of red radish (Raphanus sativus L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Pisco, Ramiro; Perez Arenas, Martha Ines

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted in waste water treatment plant The Salitre, in Bogota, to evaluate the potential of the waste water treatment subproduct biosolids for application in agriculture by means of quantifying growth, development and production of cultivation of red radish, and to establish a possible alternative to the problem of final disposition of 3900 tons of this material generated monthly in the waste water treatment plant. The experimental design employed was a random blocks design, with five treatments and three replications, arranged in 2 m x 2 m plots. the treatments corresponded to mixtures of biosolids with soil in the following proportions: 100 % biosolid (equivalent to 294 ton ha-1), 75 % biosolid (220 ton ha-1), 50 % biosolid (147 ton ha-1), 25 % biosolid (73 ton ha-1) and. 100 % soil. Red radish raphanus sativus l. was planted. the variables evaluated were: germination percentage, dry weight of leaves and. roots, plant length, foliar area and production. Also, the accumulation of trace was measured in the harvested radishes, to determine risks of consumption. The results showed that the 50 % biosolid and 25 % biosolid, treatments were those that most favored growth, development and. production of cultivation radish, while the 75 % biosolid and 100 % biosolid treatments, showed lower development growth and production of the cultivar. The 100 % biosolid treatment resulted in low germination and also did not show root accumulation, that is the harvested product. The levels of accumulation of heavy metals surpassed the maximum levels with the 75 % biosolid and 100 % biosolid treatment. It was shown that the use of the biosolids in agriculture can produce a great risk, because despite having high nutrient (C,N, P, Ca, Na, Fe y Zn) and organic matter content, it also may slow growth and production of radish plants