Sample records for raphidiopsis brookii d9

  1. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 431471 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  2. Re-examination of Hemidactylus tenkatei van Lidth de Jeude, 1895: Populations from Timor provide insight into the taxonomy of the H. brookii Gray, 1845 complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae). (United States)

    Kathriner, Andrew; O'shea, Mark; Kaiser, Hinrich


    Recent herpetofaunal investigations in Timor-Leste revealed populations similar to Hemidactylus brookii Gray, 1845 in four of 13 districts. In order to properly identify these populations, we examined their relationships to other H. brookii-complex populations, notably those from nearby Roti Island, Indonesia (to which the name H. tenkatei van Lidth de Jeude, 1895 has been applied) and topotypic Bornean samples. We evaluated both meristic and mensural data from a set of specimens that included the type material of H. brookii and H. tenkatei, and we generated nuclear (RAG1) and mitochondrial (ND2) DNA sequence data for Timor-Leste specimens and a topotypical Bornean specimen presumed to represent H. brookii sensu stricto. Morphologically, Timorese geckos are clearly distinct from H. brookii and identical to H. tenkatei. Our molecular data show that the Bornean specimen thought to be H. brookii is genetically congruent with Timor-Leste specimens, and this specimen is therefore identified as H. tenkatei. Our data also reveal that the Burmese species H. subtriedroides Annandale, 1905 is distinct from both H. tenkatei and H. brookii. While the current data do not allow us to determine with certainty whether H. tenkatei is the oldest available name for these widespread forms, it is the only name that can be reliably applied at this time.

  3. First report of toxic Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Raphidiopsis mediterranea (Cyanoprokaryota) in Egyptian fresh waters. (United States)

    Mohamed, Zakaria A


    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, a potentially toxic and highly adaptable freshwater cyanobacterium, was believed to have been misidentified in the Nile at the end of the 19th century. This study reports the presence of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Raphidiopsis mediterranea for the first time in Egyptian fresh waters since that time. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii appeared in the El-Dowyrat fish pond during May 2002, when bottom waters reached, as a result of climatic change, sufficiently high temperatures to allow the germination of its akinetes in the sediments. Both C. raciborskii and R. mediterranea showed seasonal variations, with highest densities recorded in August of each year. The count of the two species correlated positively with pH, temperature and conductance, and negatively with nutrients, during the study period. The densities of C. raciborskii and R. mediterranea varied significantly along the depth profile of this pond, with peaks obtained at 1 and 0.5m, respectively. Isolates of C. raciborskii and R. mediterranea from this pond exhibited toxicity to Artemia salina, Daphnia magna and mice. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii extracts had hepatotoxic effects on mice, but R. mediterranea extracts showed neurotoxic effects on mice. The identification of toxic C. raciborskii and R. mediterranea in this pond should be considered during the monitoring of cyanobacteria in drinking and recreational water sources in Egypt.

  4. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 496702237 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rane protein insertion efficiency factor Raphidiopsis brookii MKKLFIWPIQGYRLFISPLFPPSCRFQPTCSMYAIEAIERFGVFRGSWMALGRILRCHPFHPGGYDPVPEKTEKSP ... WP_009343780.1 ... 1117:21902 ... 1161:3859 ... 1162:2697 244599:1669 668331:1669 ... memb

  5. 17 CFR 240.14d-9 - Recommendation or solicitation by the subject company and others. (United States)


    ... shall mail a copy of the Schedule to each national securities exchange where the class of securities is... commenced under § 240.14d-2; and (2) The communication is filed under cover of Schedule 14D-9 (§ 240.14d-101.... The box on the front of Schedule 14D-9 (§ 240.14d-101) indicating that the filing contains pre...

  6. Evaluation of self-welding susceptibility of an austenitic stainless steel (alloy D9) in sodium (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Albert, S. K.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Amarendra, G.; Bhaduri, A. K.


    Self-welding susceptibility of a 15Cr-15Ni-2Mo titanium-modified austenitic stainless steel (alloy D9), in both annealed and 20% cold-worked conditions, have been evaluated in flowing sodium at 823 K for 2160 and 4320 h under contact stress of 9.4 MPa. Tests were performed on flat-on-flat geometry of hollow cylindrical specimens under compression. One pair of 20% cold-worked alloy D9 vs. 20% cold-worked alloy D9 specimens tested for 4320 h was self-welded for which the breakaway shear force was measured. Scanning electron micrographs of the self-welded region showed that portions of the original interface no longer existed. The paper discusses the experimental set-up installed in the sodium loop test facility and the results of self-welding susceptibility studies on this material.

  7. 42 CFR 51d.9 - What other conditions apply to these awards? (United States)


    ... HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES § 51d.9 What other conditions apply to these awards? Award funding made under this authority is to be supplemental in nature. Consistent with the... health and/or substance abuse service needs of the impacted community. ...

  8. d9jess72.pdf | feb2010 | jess | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; jess; feb2010; d9jess72.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Associates – 2017. Posted on 30 August 2017. Click here to see the list · 28th Mid Year Meeting. Posted on ...

  9. Modeling Microstructural Evolution During Dynamic Recrystallization of Alloy D9 Using Artificial Neural Network (United States)

    Mandal, Sumantra; Sivaprasad, P. V.; Dube, R. K.


    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the microstructural evolution of a 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo-Ti modified austenitic stainless steel (Alloy D9) during dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The input parameters were strain, strain rate, and temperature whereas microstructural features namely, %DRX and average grain size were the output parameters. The ANN was trained with the database obtained from various industrial scale metal-forming operations like forge hammer, hydraulic press, and rolling carried out in the temperature range 1173-1473 K to various strain levels. The performance of the model was evaluated using a wide variety of statistical indices and the predictability of the model was found to be good. The combined influence of temperature and strain on microstructural features has been simulated employing the developed model. The results were found to be consistent with the relevant fundamental metallurgical phenomena.

  10. Characterisation of a novel integrative and conjugative element ICESsD9 carrying erm(B) and tet(O) resistance determinants in Streptococcus suis, and the distribution of ICESsD9-like elements in clinical isolates. (United States)

    Huang, Kaisong; Song, Yajing; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin


    This study identified a novel integrative and conjugative element (ICESsD9) carrying erm(B) and tet(O) resistance determinants in Streptococcus suis D9 and determined its prevalence in clinical isolates. Comparative genome analysis was performed using Mauve and Artemis Comparison Tool visualisation programs. Inverse PCR was utilised to detect its circular intermediate. The transfer capacity of ICESsD9 was evaluated by mating assays using S. suis A7 and Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 as recipients. A genome walking approach was employed to analyse the characteristics of integration sites in transconjugants. A total of 118 clinical S. suis isolates were tested by PCR mapping assays to detect ICESsD9-like elements. MLST was performed on isolates containing ICESsD9 variants to determine their clonal relatedness. This 55 683-bp element can actively excise from the chromosome. Additionally, it was capable of transferring both into S. suis and E. faecalis with frequencies of 1.2×10(-4) and 5.8×10(-6) per donor, respectively. When investigating integration site features, it was found that ICESsD9 can enter S. suis and E. faecalis chromosomes by different sites, generating 15-bp and 3-bp direct repeat sequences, respectively. Twelve isolates mainly belonging to sequence types ST1, ST7 and ST28 were confirmed to harbour ICESsD9-like elements. In conclusion, this study provides the first description of an ICE in S. suis that is capable of transferring both into S. suis and E. faecalis. The presence of different ICESsD9 variants in clinical isolates suggests already wide dissemination of this family element in S. suis in China. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ulpian, Celsus and weed pollution of soil (D. 9. 2. 27. 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aličić Samir


    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the analysis of meaning of Digest text D. 9. 2. 27. 14. An overview of different theories devoted to this text has been presented here with a critical review of their argumentation, and another possible way of interpretation has been proposed. The author draws the following conclusions based on comparative source analysis. It is certain that neither Celsus nor Ulpian in the text D. 9. 2. 27. 14 doubted that in the case of weed pollution of soil, interdict quod vi aut clam can be given since all conditions for its implementation were fulfilled. With the interdict only the damage caused within a year can be claimed. For this reason this procedural means belongs to either the land owner or, if the land is leased, to the leaseholder. For the same reason along with the interdict, Aquilian claim is given, provided that only one of the two procedural means can be used. It belongs to both the land owner and the lease holder. It is given to the lease holder for the damage caused before the expiry of the lease, and to the land owner for the one caused later. Therefore, the lease holder who uses Aquilian claim has to provide a procedural guarantee that the land owner will not by any subsequent claim request compensation for damages on the same grounds. The claim is given to the lease holder on the grounds of yield owner and not on the grounds of land owner. The claim is given both to the owner and the lease holder not as a direct, but as actio in factum ex lege Aquilia. The reason for this cannot be determined with certainty, as it is possible that Ulpian quoted Celsus's opinion in a different context from the original one.

  12. Induction of the Estrogenic Marker Calbindn-D9k by Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongoh Lee


    Full Text Available Interrupting the hormonal balance of an organism by interfering with hormones and their target receptors gives rise to various problems such as developmental disorders. Collectively, these reagents are known as endocrine disruptors (EDs. Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMSs are a group of silicone polymers that including octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4. In the present study, we examined the estrogenicity of D4 through in vitro and in vivo assays that employed calcium-binding protein 9K (calbindin-D9k; CaBP-9K as a biomarker. For in vitro investigation, GH3 rat pituitary cells were exposed to vehicle, 17β-estradiol (E2, or D4 with/without ICI 182 780 (ICI. CaBP-9K and progesterone receptor (PR both were up-regulated by E2 and D4 which were completely blocked by ICI. Transcription of estrogen receptor α (ER α was decreased by E2 and D4 but increased by ICI. D4 was also administered to immature female rats for an uterotrophic (UT assay and detection of CaBP-9K. Ethinyl estradiol (EE or D4 was administered subcutaneously with or without ICI. Although uterine weight was not significant altered by D4, an effect thought to be due to cytochrome P450 (CYP, it induced CaBP-9K and PR gene expression. Based on these results we reveal that D4 has estrogenic potential proven under in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions.

  13. The dynamics of Ca2+ ions within the solvation shell of calbindin D9k.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Project

    Full Text Available The encounter of a Ca(2+ ion with a protein and its subsequent binding to specific binding sites is an intricate process that cannot be fully elucidated from experimental observations. We have applied Molecular Dynamics to study this process with atomistic details, using Calbindin D9k (CaB as a model protein. The simulations show that in most of the time the Ca(2+ ion spends within the Debye radius of CaB, it is being detained at the 1st and 2nd solvation shells. While being detained near the protein, the diffusion coefficient of the ion is significantly reduced. However, due to the relatively long period of detainment, the ion can scan an appreciable surface of the protein. The enhanced propagation of the ion on the surface has a functional role: significantly increasing the ability of the ion to scan the protein's surface before being dispersed to the bulk. The contribution of this mechanism to Ca(2+ binding becomes significant at low ion concentrations, where the intervals between successive encounters with the protein are getting longer. The efficiency of the surface diffusion is affected by the distribution of charges on the protein's surface. Comparison of the Ca(2+ binding dynamics in CaB and its E60D mutant reveals that in the wild type (WT protein the carboxylate of E60 function as a preferred landing-site for the Ca(2+ arriving from the bulk, followed by delivering it to the final binding site. Replacement of the glutamate by aspartate significantly reduced the ability to transfer Ca(2+ ions from D60 to the final binding site, explaining the observed decrement in the affinity of the mutated protein to Ca(2+.

  14. Evaluation of forensic and anthropological potential of D9S1120 in Mestizos and Amerindian populations from Mexico (United States)

    Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Viviana M; Botello-Ruiz, Miriam; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Phillips, Christopher


    Aim To carry out a deeper forensic and anthropological evaluation of the short tandem repeat (STR) D9S1120 in five Mestizo populations and eight Amerindian groups from Mexico. Methods We amplified the STR D9S1120 based on primers and conditions described by Phillips et al, followed by capillary electrophoresis in the genetic analyzer ABI Prism 310. Genotypes were analyzed with the GeneMapper ID software. In each population we estimated statistical parameters of forensic importance and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Heterozygosity and FST-values were compared with those previously obtained with nine STRs of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS-STRs). Results Amerindian and Mestizo populations showed high frequencies of the allele 9 and 16, respectively. Population structure analysis (AMOVA) showed a significant differentiation between Amerindian groups (FST = 2.81%; P anthropological potential to differentiate Mestizos and Amerindian populations. PMID:23100204

  15. Stereological estimate of the total number of neurons in spinal segment D9 of the red-eared turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Nissen, Ulla Vig; Berg, Rune W


    The red-eared turtle is an important animal model for investigating the neural activity in the spinal circuit that generates motor behavior. However, basic anatomical features, including the number of neurons in the spinal segments involved, are unknown. In the present study, we estimate the total...... number of neurons in segment D9 of the spinal cord in the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) using stereological cell counting methods. In transverse spinal cord sections stained with modified Giemsa, motoneurons (MNs), interneurons (INs), and non-neuronal cells were distinguished according...

  16. Influence of noble metal fission products and uranium on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of D9 stainless steel-zirconium metal waste form alloy (United States)

    Bairi, Lipika Rani; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.


    Metal waste form (MWF) alloys of composition D9SS-8.5Zr, D9SS-10Zr-1NMFP and D9SS-10Zr-1NMFP-10U were prepared by casting of D9SS (Ti-modified austenitic 316 stainless steel), zirconium, NMFPs (noble metal fission products) and uranium for evaluating the influence of NMFPs and U on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of MWF alloys. Gradual increase in the hardness value was observed with the addition of NMFPs and uranium. Microstructural characterisation revealed the formation of Zr-rich intermetallic phases in these alloys which act as hosts for NMFPs and U. Fe-Zr and Ni-Zr based intermetallics were identified in D9SS-Zr and D9SS-Zr-NMFP alloys by XRD technique. In the U added alloy, UZrO2 and NiU2 were observed along with Fe-Zr and Ni-Zr intermetallics. Electrochemical corrosion monitoring confirmed active corrosion potential and higher passive current density with the addition of NMFPs and U. The MWF alloy with NMFPs showed higher break down potential with high polarization resistance revealing stable passive film.

  17. Influence of noble metal fission products and uranium on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of D9 stainless steel–zirconium metal waste form alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairi, Lipika Rani, E-mail:; Mallika, C., E-mail:; Kamachi Mudali, U., E-mail:


    Highlights: • D9SS–Zr based Metal Waste Form (MWF) alloys were developed. • Microstructure of Noble Metal Fission Products (NMFPs) and U added MWF alloys was elucidated. • Zr-rich intermetallic phase hosts NMFP and U. • Leaching studies revealed the formation of stable hydrated passive film in NMFP–U–MWF alloys. - Abstract: Metal waste form (MWF) alloys of composition D9SS–8.5Zr, D9SS–10Zr–1NMFP and D9SS–10Zr–1NMFP–10U were prepared by casting of D9SS (Ti-modified austenitic 316 stainless steel), zirconium, NMFPs (noble metal fission products) and uranium for evaluating the influence of NMFPs and U on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of MWF alloys. Gradual increase in the hardness value was observed with the addition of NMFPs and uranium. Microstructural characterisation revealed the formation of Zr-rich intermetallic phases in these alloys which act as hosts for NMFPs and U. Fe–Zr and Ni–Zr based intermetallics were identified in D9SS–Zr and D9SS–Zr–NMFP alloys by XRD technique. In the U added alloy, UZrO{sub 2} and NiU{sub 2} were observed along with Fe–Zr and Ni–Zr intermetallics. Electrochemical corrosion monitoring confirmed active corrosion potential and higher passive current density with the addition of NMFPs and U. The MWF alloy with NMFPs showed higher break down potential with high polarization resistance revealing stable passive film.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer


    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. D1S1627, D3S4529, D5S2500, D6S1017, D8S1115 and D9S2157

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 14, 2012 ... Allele frequency and forensic parameters for six non-combined DNA Index System (non-CODIS). miniSTR loci: D1S1627, D3S4529, D5S2500, D6S1017, D8S1115, and D9S2157 were calculated from a sample of 226 unrelated individuals from two populations (that is, Xhosa and Cape Muslim) of South.

  20. MTHFR C677T genotype influences the isotopic enrichment of one-carbon metabolites in folate-compromised men consuming d9-choline123 (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Wang, Wei; Gregory, Jesse F; Malysheva, Olga; Brenna, J Thomas; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Caudill, Marie A


    Background: Homozygosity for the variant 677T allele in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene increases the requirement for folate and may alter the metabolic use of choline. The choline adequate intake is 550 mg/d for men, although the metabolic consequences of consuming extra choline are unclear. Objective: Deuterium-labeled choline (d9-choline) as tracer was used to determine the differential effects of the MTHFR C677T genotype and the effect of various choline intakes on the isotopic enrichment of choline derivatives in folate-compromised men. Design: Mexican American men with the MTHFR 677CC or 677TT genotype consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline chloride for total choline intakes of 550 (n = 11; 4 with 677CC and 7 with 677TT) or 1100 (n = 12; 4 with 677CC and 8 with 677TT) mg/d for 12 wk. During the last 3 wk, 15% of the total choline intake was provided as d9-choline. Results: Low but measurable enrichments of the choline metabolites were achieved, including that of d3-phosphatidylcholine (d3-PtdCho)—a metabolite produced in the de novo pathway via choline-derived methyl groups. Men with the MTHFR 677TT genotype had a higher urinary enrichment ratio of betaine to choline (P = 0.041), a higher urinary enrichment of sarcosine (P = 0.041), and a greater plasma enrichment ratio of d9-betaine to d9-PtdCho with the 1100 mg choline/d intake (P = 0.033). Conclusion: These data show for the first time in humans that choline itself is a source of methyl groups for de novo PtdCho biosynthesis and indicate that the MTHFR 677TT genotype favors the use of choline as a methyl donor. PMID:21123458

  1. MTHFR C677T genotype influences the isotopic enrichment of one-carbon metabolites in folate-compromised men consuming d9-choline. (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Wang, Wei; Gregory, Jesse F; Malysheva, Olga; Brenna, J Thomas; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Caudill, Marie A


    Homozygosity for the variant 677T allele in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene increases the requirement for folate and may alter the metabolic use of choline. The choline adequate intake is 550 mg/d for men, although the metabolic consequences of consuming extra choline are unclear. Deuterium-labeled choline (d9-choline) as tracer was used to determine the differential effects of the MTHFR C677T genotype and the effect of various choline intakes on the isotopic enrichment of choline derivatives in folate-compromised men. Mexican American men with the MTHFR 677CC or 677TT genotype consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline chloride for total choline intakes of 550 (n = 11; 4 with 677CC and 7 with 677TT) or 1100 (n = 12; 4 with 677CC and 8 with 677TT) mg/d for 12 wk. During the last 3 wk, 15% of the total choline intake was provided as d9-choline. Low but measurable enrichments of the choline metabolites were achieved, including that of d3-phosphatidylcholine (d3-PtdCho)--a metabolite produced in the de novo pathway via choline-derived methyl groups. Men with the MTHFR 677TT genotype had a higher urinary enrichment ratio of betaine to choline (P = 0.041), a higher urinary enrichment of sarcosine (P = 0.041), and a greater plasma enrichment ratio of d9-betaine to d9-PtdCho with the 1100 mg choline/d intake (P = 0.033). These data show for the first time in humans that choline itself is a source of methyl groups for de novo PtdCho biosynthesis and indicate that the MTHFR 677TT genotype favors the use of choline as a methyl donor.

  2. LaNi5-Assisted Hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the Hybrid Structures of La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Denys


    Full Text Available This work focused on the high pressure PCT and in situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the LaMg2Ni9-H2 (D2 system at pressures up to 1,000 bar. LaMg2Ni9 alloy was prepared by a powder metallurgy route from the LaNi9 alloy precursor and Mg powder. Two La3−xMgxNi9 samples with slightly different La/Mg ratios were studied, La1.1Mg1.9Ni9 (sample 1 and La0.9Mg2.1Ni9 (sample 2. In situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 deuterides were performed at 25 bar D2 (1 and 918 bar D2 (2. The hydrogenation properties of the (1 and (2 are dramatically different from those for LaNi3. The Mg-containing intermetallics reversibly form hydrides with DHdes = 24.0 kJ/molH2 and an equilibrium pressure of H2 desorption of 18 bar at 20 °C (La1.09Mg1.91Ni9. A pronounced hysteresis of H2 absorption and desorption, ~100 bar, is observed. The studies showed that LaNi5-assisted hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the LaMg2Ni9 hybrid structure takes place. In the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 (a = 5.263/5.212; c = 25.803/25.71 Å D atoms are accommodated in both Laves and CaCu5-type slabs. In the LaNi5 CaCu5-type layer, D atoms fill three types of interstices; a deformed octahedron [La2Ni4], and [La(Mg2Ni2] and [Ni4] tetrahedra. The overall chemical compositions can be presented as LaNi5H5.6/5.0 + 2*MgNi2H1.95/2.2 showing that the hydrogenation of the MgNi2 slab proceeds at mild H2/D2 pressure of just 20 bar. A partial filling by D of the four types of the tetrahedral interstices in the MgNi2 slab takes place, including [MgNi3] and [Mg2Ni2] tetrahedra.

  3. Novel method of determination of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol(THC) in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. (United States)

    Kokubun, Hideya; Uezono, Yasuhito; Matoba, Motohiro


    In Europe and the United States, D9-tetrahydrocannabinol(THC, dronabinol), one of the psychoactive constituents of cannabis, has been used for both its anti-emetic and orexigenic effects in cancer patient receiving chemotherapy.However, dronabinol has not yet been launched in the market in Japan.In the future, it is necessary to ascertain the pharmacokinetics of dronabinol in cancer paitient.Therefore, we developed an HPLC procedure using electrochemical detection(ECD)for quan- titation of the concentrations of dronabinol in blood.An eluent of 50mM KH2PO4/CH3CN(9:16)was used as the mobile phase.The column was used the XTerra®RP18, and the voltage of the electrochemical detector in dronabinol was set at 400 mV.As a result, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 10 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL(y=964.85x -3,419, r=0.997).The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL(S/N=3).The relative within-runs and between-runs standard deviations for the assay dronabinol were less than 4.7%. The method reported here is superior to previously reported methods in cancer patient.

  4. Phenotype of a calbindin-D9k gene knockout is compensated for by the induction of other calcium transporter genes in a mouse model. (United States)

    Lee, Geun-Shik; Lee, Kun-Yeong; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Ryu, Young-Han; Paik, Sang Gi; Oh, Goo Taeg; Jeung, Eui-Bae


    CaBP-9k may be involved in the active calcium absorption and embryo implantation. Although we generated CaBP-9k KO mice to explore its function, no distinct phenotypes were observed in these KO mice. It can be hypothesized that TRPV5 and 6 and plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1b may play a role in the regulation of calcium transport to compensate CaBP-9k deficiency in its KO model. Active calcium transport in the duodenum and kidney is carried in three steps: calcium entry through epithelial Ca2+ channels (TRPV5 and TRPV6), buffering and/or transport by calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) and -D28k (CaBP-28k), and extrusion through the plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1b (PMCA1b) and sodium/calcium exchanger 1. Although the molecular mechanism of calcium absorption has been studied using knockouts (KOs) of the vitamin D receptor and CaBP-28k in animals, the process is not fully understood. We generated CaBP-9k KO mice and assessed the phenotypic characterization and the molecular regulation of active calcium transporting genes when the mice were fed different calcium diets during growth. General phenotypes showed no distinct abnormalities. Thus, the active calcium transport of CaBP-9k-null mice proceeded normally in this study. Therefore, the compensatory molecular regulation of this mechanism was elucidated. Duodenal TRPV6 and CaBP-9k mRNA of wildtype (WT) mice increased gradually during preweaning. CaBP-9k is supposed to be an important factor in active calcium transport, but its role is probably compensated for by other calcium transporter genes (i.e., intestinal TRPV6 and PMCA1b) during preweaning and renal calcium transporters in adult mice. Depletion of the CaBP-9k gene in a KO mouse model had little phenotypic effect, suggesting that its depletion may be compensated for by calcium transporter genes in the intestine of young mice and in the kidney of adult mice.

  5. Hydrophobic core substitutions in calbindin D9k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Jönsson, M; Bifulco, G


    +-binding constants measured from Ca2+ titrations in the presence of chromophoric chelators. The Ca2+-dissociation rate constants were estimated from Ca2+ titrations followed by 1H NMR1 and were measured more accurately using stopped-flow fluorescence. The parameters were measured at four KCl concentrations...... that the mutation causes only very minimal perturbations in the immediate vicinity of residue 61. Substitutions of alanines or glycines for bulky residues in the center of the core were found to have significant effects on both Ca2+ affinity and dissociation rates. These substitutions caused a reduction in affinity...... and an increase in off-rate. Small effects, both increases and decreases, were observed for substitutions involving residues far from the Ca2+ sites and toward the outer part of the hydrophobic core. The mutant with the substitution Phe66 --> Trp behaved differently from all other mutants, and displayed a 25-fold...

  6. Approximate Theoretical Model for the Five Electronic States (Ω = 5/2, 3/2, 3/2, 1/2, 1/2) Arising from the Ground 3d9 Configuration in Nickel Halide Molecules and for Rotational Levels of the Two Ω = 1/2 States in that Manifold (United States)

    Cheung, Allan S.-C.


    An effective Hamiltonian for a non-rotating diatomic molecule containing only crystal-field and spin-orbit operators has been set up to describe the energies of the five spin-orbit components that arise in the ground electronic configuration of the nickel monohalides. The model assumes that bonding in the nickel halides has the approximate form Ni+X-, with an electronic 3d9 configuration plus closed shells on the Ni+ moiety and a closed shell configuration on the X&- moiety. Least-squares fits of the observed five spin-orbit components of the three lowest electronic states in NiF and NiCl are then carried out in terms of the three crystal field parameters C0, C2, C4 and the spin-orbit coupling constant A. Following this, the usual effective Hamiltonian B(J-L-S)^2 for a rotating diatomic molecule is used to derive expressions for the unusually large Ω-type doubling parameter p in the two Ω = 1/2 states in the 3d9 manifold. These expressions show (for certain sign conventions) that the sum of the two p values should be -2B, but that their difference can vary between -10B and +10B. The theoretical magnitudes for p are in good agreement with the two observed p values for both NiF and NiCl, but the signs are not. The experimental signs can be brought into agreement with the theoretical signs by a fairly massive change in +/- parity assignments in the NiF and NiCl literature. The last part of the talk will focus on the theoretical and experimental implications of these parity changes.

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D9VA-2PT1A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A ILE A 79 9.631 21.370 -7.408 1.00 19.74 C e-map> ILE THR GLN GLU...line>THR CA 3.79 ILE CA ance-map> LEU CA 334 LEU CA 398...OM 649 CA GLU A 125 -5.644 15.782 14.462 1.00 18.55 C -map> GLU L...3.81 GLU CA -map> ILE CA 386 nce-map> ASN LYS ALA T

  8. WE-D-9A-03: CSDF: A Color Extension of the Grayscale Standard Display Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimpe, T; Marchessoux, C; Rostang, J; Piepers, B [Barco N.V., Kortrijk (Belgium); Avanaki, A; Espig, K; Xthona, A [Barco, Beaverton, OR (United States)


    Purpose: Use of color images in medical imaging has increased significantly the last few years. As of today there is no agreed standard on how color information needs to be visualized on medical color displays, resulting into large variability of color appearance and it making consistency and quality assurance a challenge. This paper presents a proposal for an extension of DICOM GSDF towards color. Methods: Visualization needs for several color modalities (multimodality imaging, nuclear medicine, digital pathology, quantitative imaging applications…) have been studied. On this basis a proposal was made for desired color behavior of color medical display systems and its behavior and effect on color medical images was analyzed. Results: Several medical color modalities could benefit from perceptually linear color visualization for similar reasons as why GSDF was put in place for greyscale medical images. An extension of the GSDF (Greyscale Standard Display Function) to color is proposed: CSDF (color standard display function). CSDF is based on deltaE2000 and offers a perceptually linear color behavior. CSDF uses GSDF as its neutral grey behavior. A comparison between sRGB/GSDF and CSDF confirms that CSDF significantly improves perceptual color linearity. Furthermore, results also indicate that because of the improved perceptual linearity, CSDF has the potential to increase perceived contrast of clinically relevant color features. Conclusion: There is a need for an extension of GSDF towards color visualization in order to guarantee consistency and quality. A first proposal (CSDF) for such extension has been made. Behavior of a CSDF calibrated display has been characterized and compared with sRGB/GSDF behavior. First results indicate that CSDF could have a positive influence on perceived contrast of clinically relevant color features and could offer benefits for quantitative imaging applications. Authors are employees of Barco Healthcare.

  9. SU-D-9A-03: STAMP: Simulator for Texture Analysis in MRI/PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, S; Vallieres, M; Levesque, I R.; El Naqa, I [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)


    Purpose: To develop a convenient simulation platform to facilitate PET/MR image analysis with the prospect of gaining a better understanding of the influence of acquisition parameters on PET/MRI textural features. The simulation platform is demonstrated by showing textural variations of a representative case study using different image acquisition parameters. Methods: The simulation platform is composed of MRI simulators JEMRIS and SIMRI to achieve simulations of customized MRI sequences on sample tumor models. The PET simulator GATE is used to get 2D and 3D Monte Carlo acquisitions of voxelized PET sources using a phantom geometry and a customized scanner architecture. The platform incorporates a series of graphical user interfaces written in Matlab. Two GUIs are used to facilitate communication with the simulation executables installed on a computer cluster. A third GUI is used to collect and display the clinical and simulated images, as well as fused PET/MRI images, and perform computation of textural features.To illustrate the capabilities of this platform, one FDG-PET and T1-weighted (T1w) digitized tumor models were generated from clinical images of a soft-tissue sarcoma patient. Numerically simulated MR images were produced using 3 different echo times (TE) and 5 different repetition times (TR). PET 2D images were simulated using an OSEM algorithm with 1 to 32 iterations and a post-reconstruction Gaussian filter of 0, 2, 4 or 6 mm width. Results: STAMP was successfully used to produce numerically simulated FDG-PET and MRI images, and to calculate their corresponding textures. Three typical textures (GLCM-Contrast, GLSZM-ZSV and NGTDM-Coarseness) were found to vary by a range of 45% on average compared to reference scanning conditions in the case of FDG-PET, and by a range of 40% in the case of T1w MRI. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a Matlab-based simulation platform to facilitate PET/MRI texture image analysis for outcome prediction.

  10. TU-D-9A-01: TG176: Dosimetric Effects of Couch Tops and Immobilization Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A [Childrens Hospital of LA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices are often overlooked. These devices also increase surface dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased surface dose compared to the ‘tennis racket’ style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations we make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of skin dose and attenuation, how to report these values, and for the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top models in planning systems. Learning Objectives: What are the dosimetric effects of couch tops What are the dosimetric effects of immobilization devices How can one model couch tops in the treatment planning system How can one measure attenuation and surface dose changes due to external devices.

  11. Metaheuristic and Machine Learning Models for TFE-731-2, PW4056, and JT8D-9 Cruise Thrust (United States)

    Baklacioglu, Tolga


    The requirement for an accurate engine thrust model has a major antecedence in airline fuel saving programs, assessment of environmental effects of fuel consumption, emissions reduction studies, and air traffic management applications. In this study, utilizing engine manufacturers' real data, a metaheuristic model based on genetic algorithms (GAs) and a machine learning model based on neural networks (NNs) trained with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), delta-bar-delta (DBD), and conjugate gradient (CG) algorithms were accomplished to incorporate the effect of both flight altitude and Mach number in the estimation of thrust. For the GA model, the analysis of population size impact on the model's accuracy and effect of number of data on model coefficients were also performed. For the NN model, design of optimum topology was searched for one- and two-hidden-layer networks. Predicted thrust values presented a close agreement with real thrust data for both models, among which LM trained NNs gave the best accuracies.

  12. Reliability of offshore wind power production under extreme wind conditions. Deliverable D 9.5. Work Package 9: Electrical grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Zeni, Lorenzo

    . The aspects investigated are storm events occurrences and durations, storm control strategy impact on the capacity factor (lost production), the loss of production (power produced from wind drops below a certain threshold due to high wind speeds and storm controller) and finally, the wind power production...

  13. SU-D-9A-07: Imaging Dose and Cancer Risk in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Bai, S [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Zhang, Y [Beijing Cancer Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China); Ming, X [TianJin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Y [Tianjin University, Tianjin, Tianjin (China); Deng, J [Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States)


    Purpose: To systematically evaluate the imaging doses and cancer risks associated with various imaging procedures involving ionizing radiation during image-guided radiotherapy of an increasingly large number of cancer patients. Methods: 141 patients (52 brain cases, 47 thoracic cases, 42 abdominal cases, aged 3 to 91 years old) treated between October 2009 and March 2010 were included in this IRB-approved retrospective study. During the whole radiotherapy course, each patient underwent at least one type of imaging procedures, i.e., kV portal, MV portal and kVCBCT, besides CT simulations. Based on Monte Carlo modeling and particle transport in human anatomy of various dimensions, the correlations between the radiation doses to the various organs-at-risk (OARs) at the head, the thoracic and the abdominal regions and one's weight, circumference, scan mAs and kVp have been obtained and used to estimate the radiation dose from a specific imaging procedure. The radiation-induced excess relative risk (ERR) was then estimated with BEIR VII formulism based on one's gender, age and radiation dose. 1+ ERR was reported in this study as relative cancer risk. Results: For the whole cohort of 141 patients, the mean imaging doses from various imaging procedures were 8.3 cGy to the brain, 10.5 cGy to the lungs and 19.2 cGy to the red bone marrow, respectively. Accordingly, the cancer risks were 1.140, 1.369 and 2.671, respectively. In comparison, MV portal deposited largest doses to the lungs while kVCBCT delivered the highest doses to the red bone marrow. Conclusion: The compiled imaging doses to a patient during his/her treatment course were patient-specific and site-dependent, varying from 1.2 to 263.5 cGy on average, which were clinically significant and should be included in the treatment planning and overall decision-making. Our results indicated the necessity of personalized imaging to maximize its clinical benefits while reducing the associated cancer risks. Sichuan University Scholarship.

  14. SU-D-9A-06: 3D Localization of Neurovascular Bundles Through MR-TRUS Registration in Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X; Rossi, P; Ogunleye, T; Jani, A; Curran, W; Liu, T [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Purpose: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common complication of prostate-cancer radiotherapy (RT) and the major mechanism is radiation-induced neurovascular bundle (NVB) damage. However, the localization of the NVB remains challenging. This study's purpose is to accurately localize 3D NVB by integrating MR and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images through MR-TRUS fusion. Methods: T1 and T2-weighted MR prostate images were acquired using a Philips 1.5T MR scanner and a pelvic phase-array coil. The 3D TRUS images were captured with a clinical scanner and a 7.5 MHz biplane probe. The TRUS probe was attached to a stepper; the B-mode images were captured from the prostate base to apex at a 1-mm step and the Doppler images were acquired in a 5-mm step. The registration method modeled the prostate tissue as an elastic material, and jointly estimated the boundary condition (surface deformation) and the volumetric deformations under elastic constraint. This technique was validated with a clinical study of 7 patients undergoing RT treatment for prostate cancer. The accuracy of our approach was assessed through the locations of landmarks, as well as previous ultrasound Doppler images of patients. Results: MR-TRUS registration was successfully performed for all patients. The mean displacement of the landmarks between the post-registration MR and TRUS images was 1.37±0.42 mm, which demonstrated the precision of the registration based on the biomechanical model; and the NVB volume Dice Overlap Coefficient was 92.1±3.2%, which demonstrated the accuracy of the NVB localization. Conclusion: We have developed a novel approach to improve 3D NVB localization through MR-TRUS fusion for prostate RT, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy with ultrasound Doppler data. This technique could be a useful tool as we try to spare the NVB in prostate RT, monitor NBV response to RT, and potentially improve post-RT potency outcomes.

  15. 17 CFR 240.14d-103 - Schedule 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the... (United States)


    ... accounting principles and thus may not be comparable to financial statements of United States companies. “The enforcement by investors of civil liabilities under the federal securities laws may be affected adversely by... that any administrative subpoena may be served, or any administrative proceeding, civil suit or civil...

  16. 75 FR 62319 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9, -9A, -11, -15, -17, and -17R Turbofan Engines (United States)


    ..., -17, and -17R turbofan engines. These engines are installed on, but not limited to, Boeing 727 series, Boeing 737-200 series and McDonnell Douglas DC-9 airplanes. Unsafe Condition (d) This AD results from... flange. You can find further information on what is a lettered flange in the engine manual. Clarification...

  17. 75 FR 27972 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9, -9A, -11, -15, -17, and -17R Turbofan Engines (United States)


    ... to, Boeing 727 series, Boeing 737-200 series and McDonnell Douglas DC-9 airplanes. Unsafe Condition... Notice, MAN-JT8D-2-06 and the Engine Manual Chapter/Section 72-33-21, Inspection 00. (g) For engines... found in Pratt & Whitney JT8D Maintenance Advisory Notice, MAN-JT8D-2-06 and the Engine Manual Chapter...

  18. Physical Data and Biological Data for Algae, Aquatic Invertebrates, and Fish from Selected Reaches on the Carson and Truckee Rivers, Nevada and California, 1993-97 (United States)


    affinis X X X Anabaena oscillarioides X X X Cylindrospermum marchicum X Cylindrospermum minutum X X X Nodularia harveyana X Nostoc sp. X Nostoc pruniforme...X X X Nostoc spongiiforme X Raphidiopsis curvata X Oscillatoriaceae Hydrocoleum brebissonii X X X Lyngbya sp. X X X Lyngbya diguetii X Table 2...Nostocales Nostacaceae Anabaena sp. 190,000 15,000 Anabaena affinis 18,000 Anabaena oscillarioides 29,000 Nostoc pruniforme 730,000 Oscillatoriaceae

  19. Eco-physiological adaptation of dominant tree species at two contrasting karst habitats in southwestern China [v2; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Zhang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the eco-physiological adaptation of indigenous woody species to their habitats in karst areas of southwestern China. Two contrasting forest habitats were studied: a degraded habitat in Daxiagu and a well-developed habitat in Tianlongshan, and the eco-physiological characteristics of the trees were measured for three growth seasons. Photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, and transpiration rate (Tr of the tree species in Daxiagu were 2-3 times higher than those in Tianlongshan under ambient conditions. However, this habitat effect was not significant when measurements were taken under controlled conditions. Under controlled conditions, Pn, gs, and Tr of the deciduous species were markedly higher than those for the evergreen species. Habitat had no significant effect on water use efficiency (WUE or photochemical characteristics of PSII. The stomatal sensitivity of woody species in the degraded habitat was much higher than that in the well-developed habitat. Similarly, the leaf total nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents expressed on the basis of either dry mass or leaf area were also much higher in Daxiagu than they were in Tianlongshan. The mass-based leaf total N content of deciduous species was much higher than that of evergreen species, while leaf area-based total N and P contents of evergreens were significantly higher than those of deciduous species. The photosynthetic nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE of deciduous species were much higher than those of evergreens. Further, the PPUE of the woody species in Tianlongshan was much higher than that  of the woody species in Daxiagu. The results from three growth seasons imply that the tree species were able to adapt well to their growth habitats. Furthermore, it seems that so-called “temporary drought stress” may not occur, or may not be severe for most woody plants in karst areas of southwestern China.

  20. Ocorrência de Cianobactérias no Reservatório de Mundaú, no Estado de Pernambuco, no Período de Janeiro de 2010 a Novembro de 2011 / Occurrence of Cyanobacteria in Mundaú Reservoir, in Pernambuco State During January 2010 to November 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvani Maria da Silva


    Full Text Available As cianobactérias são organismos procariontes, assemelhando-se às bactérias, e realizam fotossíntese com produção de oxigênio, como células vegetais. As fl orações desses organismos podem causar problemas em mananciais de abastecimento público, pois algumas espécies podem produzir cianotoxinas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência e as densidades de cianobactérias no reservatório de Mundaú-PE, no período de janeiro de 2010 a novembro de 2011. Esse reservatório faz parte da bacia hidrográfica do rio Mundaú e está localizado no município de Garanhuns – PE. Foram analisadas 23 amostras de água desse reservatório no LACEN-PE. Dessas, 21 (91,3% apresentaram densidade acima do limite máximo preconizado pela legislação específica. Durante esse período ocorreram intensas florações de cianobactérias nos meses de abril, maio e entre agosto e dezembro. Estes últimos meses estão inseridos no período de estiagem dessa região, quando ocorreram elevadas densidades de determinadas espécies. Dentre as espécies destacaram-se Microcystis panniformis, Microcystis protocystis, Raphidiopsis curvata, Raphidiopsis mediterranea, Geitlerinema amphibium, Synechocystis aquatilis e Coelomoron tropicale. Concluímos, portanto, que essas fl orações de cianobactérias, potencialmente produtoras de cianotoxinas, constituem um problema de saúde pública, pois o reservatório de Mundaú abastece a cidade de Garanhuns e outras cidades. ------------------------------------------------ The cyanobacteria are prokaryotes, resembling bacteria, and carry out photosynthesis to produce oxygen as plant cells. The blooms of these organisms can cause problems in public water supply sources, because some species can produce cyanotoxins. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence and densities of cyanobacteria in reservoir Mundaú-PE, from January 2010 to November 2011. This reservoir is part of the river basin Mundaú and

  1. Diversity of Cyanobacteria in the Zasavica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Dragana


    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are ancient organisms that are capable of colonizing different habitats in various climatic zones due to their plasticity and rapid accommodation. They are a widely studied group of microorganisms due to the presence of many potentially toxic and invasive species. The aim of this research was a diversity exploration of the freshwater Cyanobacteria in the Zasavica River, which is part of the Special Nature Reserve “Zasavica” in Serbia. Organisms were sampled once a month at two study sites during one year. Phytoplankton and metaphyton analysis showed the presence of 50 freshwater cyanobacterial taxa, of which 12 are new taxa for Serbia. Three invasive and potentially toxic species (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Sphaerospermopsis aphanizomenoides and Raphidiopsis mediterranea were recorded only in metaphyton in April at one site. It can be expected that, if conditions change, this species can migrate and form phytoplankton blooms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 176020

  2. Cryopreservation of economically valuable marine micro-algae in the classes Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae, Haptophyceae, Prasinophyceae, and Rhodophyceae. (United States)

    Rhodes, Lesley; Smith, John; Tervit, Robin; Roberts, Rodney; Adamson, Janet; Adams, Serean; Decker, Marie


    The ability to routinely cryopreserve micro-algal species reduces costs associated with maintaining large culture collections and reduces the risks of losing particular strains or species through contamination and genetic drift. Cryopreservation is also a useful adjunct in aquaculture hatcheries for strains of micro-algae where the nutritional status may change as a result of continuous sub-culture. In this study, cryopreservation of isolates from seven micro-algal classes was investigated. Successful candidates included the marine dinoflagellates Amphidinium carterae, Amphidinium trulla, and Gymnodinium simplex, and the haptophytes Chrysochromulina simplex, Prymnesium parvum, Prymnesium parvum f. patelliferum, Isochrysis galbana, and Pavlova lutheri. Also successfully cryopreserved were the planktonic diatoms Chaetoceros calcitrans, Chaetoceros muelleri, Chaetoceros sp., and the benthic Nitzschia ovalis, the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas coccoides, the rhodophyte Porphyridium purpureum, the prasinophytes Tetraselmis chuii, and Tetraselmis suecica, and the cyanophytes Raphidiopsis sp., and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. All species were successfully cryopreserved using 15% Me2SO.

  3. Ensayos en laboratorio para el control de floraciones algales mediante ultrasonido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Kieffer


    Full Text Available El mayor desarrollo de Cianobacterias generado por la eutroficación de ambientes acuáticos produce, además de afloramientos y compuestos con olores y sabores desagradables, liberación de metabolitos tóxicos. El desarrollo excesivo de algas también es problema para aguas que se pueden utilizar para consumo humano o procesos industriales, pero el tratamiento para su eliminación lleva a aumentos de los costos operativos. En este trabajo se analiza la utilización en laboratorio del ultrasonido como alternativa viable para controlar el desarrollo de algas, en particular de Cianobacterias. Los resultados obtenidos (utilizando una frecuencia de 20 kHz y una potencia de 9 W muestran que los organismos pertenecientes a las Clases Chrysophyceae, Euglenophyceae y Chlorophyceae fueron eliminados a los 5 minutos de exposición, y Raphidiopsis mediterranea dentro de los primeros 10 minutos, en tanto que, luego de 60 minutos, la reducción fue del 98% para M. aeruginosa y del 99% para Dolichospermum spiroides.

  4. Temperature and nutrients are significant drivers of seasonal shift in phytoplankton community from a drinking water reservoir, subtropical China. (United States)

    Lv, Hong; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Yu, Xiaoqing; Yu, Zheng; Chiang, Penchi


    Reservoirs are an important source of water supply in many densely populated areas in southeast China. Phytoplankton plays an important role in maintaining the structure and function of these reservoir ecosystems. Understanding of seasonal succession in phytoplankton communities and its driving factors is essential for effective water quality management in drinking-water reservoirs. In this study, water samples were collected monthly at the surface layers of riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones from May 2010 to April 2011 in Tingxi Reservoir, southeast China. The phytoplankton showed distinct seasonal shifts in community structure at both taxonomic and functional levels. Cyanophyta was the dominant group in summer, especially species of Raphidiopsis in May and Aphanizomenon in June, and cyanobacterial dominance was promoted by both warmer conditions and excessive nutrients loading. Cyanophyta was gradually replaced by Cryptophyta (e.g., Chroomonas caudata) in abundance and by Bacillariophyta (Fragilaria sp. or Synedra sp. and Melosira sp.) in biomass with decreasing temperature. It appeared that seasonal shifts in phytoplankton composition were closely related to climate, nutrient status, and hydrology in this reservoir. Our partial RDA results clearly showed that water temperature and nutrients (TN and TP) were the most critical factors driving phytoplankton community shift in the abundance and biomass data, respectively. Further, with the global warming, cyanobacterial blooms may increase in distribution, duration, and intensity. In our study, the abundance and biomass of cyanobacteria had significant and positive correlations with temperature and phosphorus. Therefore, a stricter limit on nutrient input should be a priority in watershed management to protect drinking water from the effects of cyanobacterial blooms, especially in high-temperature period.

  5. Phylogenetically distant clade of Nostoc-like taxa with the description of Aliinostoc gen. nov. and Aliinostoc morphoplasticum sp. nov. (United States)

    Bagchi, Suvendra Nath; Dubey, Neelam; Singh, Prashant


    Nostoc is a complex and tough genus to differentiate, and its morphological plasticity makes it taxonomically complicated. Its cryptic diversity and almost no distinguishable morphological characteristics make this genus incredibly heterogeneous to evaluate on taxonomic scales. The strain NOS, isolated from a eutrophic water body, is being described as a new genus Aliinostoc with the strain showing motile hormogonia with gas vesicles as an atypical feature, which is currently considered as the diacritical feature of the genus but should be subjected to critical evaluation in the near future. The phylogenetic placement of Aliinostoc along with some other related sequences of Nostoc clearly separated this clade from Nostoc sensu stricto with high bootstrap support and robust topology in all the methods tested, thus providing strong proof of the taxa being representative of a new genus which morphologically appears to be Nostoc-like. Subsequent phylogenetic assessment using the rbcL, psbA, rpoC1 and tufA genes was done with the aim of facilitating future multi-locus studies on the proposed genus for better taxonomic clarity and resolution. Folding of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region and subsequent comparisons with members of the genera Nostoc, Anabaena, Aulosira, Cylindrospermum, Sphaerospermopsis, Raphidiopsis, Desmonostoc and Mojavia gave entirely new secondary structures for the D1-D1' and box-B helix. Clear and separate clustering from Nostoc sensu stricto supports the establishment of Aliinostoc gen. nov. with the type species being Aliinostoc morphoplasticum sp. nov. in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants.

  6. Analysis of 133 meioses places the genes for nevoid basal cell carcinoma (gorlin) syndrome and fanconi anemia group C in a 2.6-cM interval and contributes to the fine map of 9q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farndon, P.A.; Hardy, C.; Kilpatrick, M.W. [Birmingham Maternity Hospital, Edgbaston (United Kingdom)] [and others


    Four disease genes (NBCCS, ESS1, XPAC, FACC) map to 9q22.3-q31. A fine map of this region was produced by linkage and haplotype analysis using 12 DNA markers. The gene for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, Gorlin) has an important role in congenital malformations and carcinogenesis. Phase-known recombinants in a study of 133 meioses place NBCCS between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S176. Haplotype analysis in a two-generation family suggests that NBCCS lies in a smaller interval of 2.6 cM centromeric to D9S287. These flanking markers will be useful clinically for gene tracking. Recombinants also map FACC (Fanconi anemia, group C) to the same region, between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S287. The recombination rate between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S53 in males is 8.3% and 13.2% in females, giving a sex-specific male:female ratio of 1:1.6 and a sex-averaged map distance of 10.4 cM. No double recombinants were detected, in agreement with the apparently complete level of interference predicted from the male chiasmata map. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Gclust Server: 184334 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 184334 CEL_C05D9.9_17550162 Cluster Sequences - 93 C05D9.9 1 1.00e-45 0.0 0.0 0.0 0....0 0.0 12.5 Show 184334 Cluster ID 184334 Sequence ID CEL_C05D9.9_17550162 Link to cluster sequences Cluster... Sequences Link to related sequences - Sequence length 93 Representative annotation C05D9.9 Number of Sequences 1 Homologs 1 Clus...ngi) (8species) (%) 12.5 Number of Sequences for each species CEL: 1 Species not appearing in this clus

  8. Humanization and characterization of an anti-ricin neutralization monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Gang Hu

    Full Text Available Ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public due to its high toxicity and ease of production. Currently, there is no therapeutic or vaccine available against ricin. D9, a murine monoclonal antibody developed previously in our laboratory, can strongly neutralize ricin and is therefore a good candidate for humanization. Humanization of D9 variable regions was achieved by a complementarity-determining region grafting approach. The humanized D9 (hD9 variable regions were further grafted onto human heavy and light chain constant regions to assemble the complete antibody gene. A foot-and-mouth-disease virus-derived 2A self-processing sequence was introduced between heavy and light chain DNA sequences to cleave the recombinant protein into a functional full-length antibody molecule from a single open reading frame driven by a single promoter in an adenoviral vector. After expression in mammalian cells and purification, the hD9 was demonstrated to have equimolar expression of the full-length antibody heavy and light chains. More importantly, the hD9 exhibited high affinity to ricin with K(D of 1.63 nM, comparable to its parental murine D9 (2.55 nM. In a mouse model, intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of hD9, at a low dose of 5 µg per mouse, 4 hours after the i.p. challenge with 5×LD50 ricin was found to rescue 100% of the mice. In addition, administered 6 hours post-challenge, hD9 could still rescue 50% of the mice. The hD9 has the potential to be used for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes against ricin poisoning.

  9. Humanization and characterization of an anti-ricin neutralization monoclonal antibody. (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Gang; Yin, Junfei; Chau, Damon; Negrych, Laurel M; Cherwonogrodzky, John W


    Ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public due to its high toxicity and ease of production. Currently, there is no therapeutic or vaccine available against ricin. D9, a murine monoclonal antibody developed previously in our laboratory, can strongly neutralize ricin and is therefore a good candidate for humanization. Humanization of D9 variable regions was achieved by a complementarity-determining region grafting approach. The humanized D9 (hD9) variable regions were further grafted onto human heavy and light chain constant regions to assemble the complete antibody gene. A foot-and-mouth-disease virus-derived 2A self-processing sequence was introduced between heavy and light chain DNA sequences to cleave the recombinant protein into a functional full-length antibody molecule from a single open reading frame driven by a single promoter in an adenoviral vector. After expression in mammalian cells and purification, the hD9 was demonstrated to have equimolar expression of the full-length antibody heavy and light chains. More importantly, the hD9 exhibited high affinity to ricin with K(D) of 1.63 nM, comparable to its parental murine D9 (2.55 nM). In a mouse model, intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of hD9, at a low dose of 5 µg per mouse, 4 hours after the i.p. challenge with 5×LD50 ricin was found to rescue 100% of the mice. In addition, administered 6 hours post-challenge, hD9 could still rescue 50% of the mice. The hD9 has the potential to be used for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes against ricin poisoning.

  10. {sup 177}Lu-immunotherapy of experimental peritoneal carcinomatosis shows comparable effectiveness to {sup 213}Bi-immunotherapy, but causes toxicity not observed with {sup 213}Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Christof; Zoeckler, Christine; Beck, Roswitha; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Institute for Pathology, Tuebingen (Germany); Bruchertseifer, Frank [Institute for Transuranium Elements, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb-immunoconjugates targeting gastric cancer cells have effectively cured peritoneal carcinomatosis in a nude mouse model following intraperitoneal injection. Because the {beta}-emitter {sup 177}Lu has proven to be beneficial in targeted therapy, {sup 177}Lu-d9MAb was investigated in this study in order to compare its therapeutic efficacy and toxicity with those of {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb. Nude mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with HSC45-M2 gastric cancer cells expressing d9-E-cadherin and were treated intraperitoneally 1 or 8 days later with different activities of specific {sup 177}Lu-d9MAb immunoconjugates targeting d9-E-cadherin or with nonspecific {sup 177}Lu-d8MAb. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by monitoring survival for up to 250 days. For evaluation of toxicity, both biodistribution of {sup 177}Lu-d9MAb and blood cell counts were determined at different time points and organs were examined histopathologically. Treatment with {sup 177}Lu-immunoconjugates (1.85, 7.4, 14.8 MBq) significantly prolonged survival. As expected, treatment on day 1 after tumour cell inoculation was more effective than treatment on day 8, and specific {sup 177}Lu-d9MAb conjugates were superior to nonspecific {sup 177}Lu-d8MAb. Treatment with 7.4 MBq of {sup 177}Lu-d9MAb was most successful, with 90% of the animals surviving longer than 250 days. However, treatment with therapeutically effective activities of {sup 177}Lu-d9MAb was not free of toxic side effects. In some animals lymphoblastic lymphoma, proliferative glomerulonephritis and hepatocarcinoma were seen but were not observed after treatment with {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb at comparable therapeutic efficacy. The therapeutic efficacy of {sup 177}Lu-d9MAb conjugates in peritoneal carcinomatosis is impaired by toxic side effects. Because previous therapy with {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb revealed comparable therapeutic efficacy without toxicity it should be preferred for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. (orig.)

  11. Gclust Server: 84488 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 84488 CEL_F27D9.6_17567345 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(280) 427 dhs-29: DeHydrogenases...elated Sequences(280) Sequence length 427 Representative annotation dhs-29: DeHydrogenases

  12. Construction of exact dynamical invariants of two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Considering eqs (2.9a) and (2.9b), and with D1 = D2,D8 = D9, we find a12 = −1. 3. (. D9 − 3D10. )( z4 + ¯z4 + 6z2 ¯z2. ) + 8. 3. D2z¯z. ( z2 + ¯z2. ) . (3.4). To find the value of a0, use eqs (2.10a) and (2.10b), and we get a0 = 1. 3. (. 3D10 − D9. )( z8 + ¯z8. ) + 16. 3. D2z¯z. ( z6 + ¯z6. ) +4. 3. (. 5D9 + 9D10. ) z2 ¯z2. ( z4 + ¯z4. ).

  13. Teratogenic effect of retinoic acid in swiss mice Efeito teratogênico do ácido retinóico em camundongo swiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the types of malformations resulting from the administration of retinoic acid (RA to Swiss mice on different days of pregnancy. METHODS: Twenty-four pregnant Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. The experimental groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of RA (70 mg/kg on gestational days 7, 8 and 9 (D7, D8 and D9, while control animals (C received only saline solution. RESULTS: Were obtained: exencephaly (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0, myelomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%, D8:30.9%, D9:0, spina bifida occulta (C:0, D7:29%, D8:41.8%, D90, gastroschisis (C:0, D7:6.4% D8:5.4%, D9:0, omphalocele (C:0, D7:6.4%, D8:14.5%, D9:0, lower limb alterations (C:0, D7:74.1%, D8:80%, D9:0, imperforated anus (C:0, D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%, and tail agenesis/alteration (C: D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%. CONCLUSION: The experimental model using Swiss mice proved to be efficient in the induction of the different types of defects, with the eighth gestational day being the one that most favored the induction of neural tube defect, omphalocele, gastroschisis, lower limb defects, imperforated anus and tail agenesis/alteration. On this basis, this is a useful model for future investigation of neural development and of the formation of the appendicular skeleton.OBJETIVO: Identificar os tipos de malformação resultantes da administração do ácido retinóico (AR a camundongos Swiss em diferentes dias gestacionais. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 camundongos fêmeas, linhagem Swiss, prenhes, divididos em 4 grupos com 6 animais cada. Os grupos experimentais receberam uma única injeção intraperitoneal de AR (70mg/Kg nos dias gestacionais 7, 8 e 9 (D7, D8 e D9, enquanto que os animais do grupo controle (C receberam apenas solução salina. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados: exencefalia (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0; mielomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%; D8:30.9%; D9:0; Espina Bífida Oculta (C:0; D7:29%; D8:41.8%; D90; gastrosquise (C:0

  14. InterProScan Result: BY929273 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  15. Events i den globale bykonkurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Katrine


    Paper til ph.d. workshop, d. 9. december 2005. Dette paper beskriver, hvorfor og hvordan events kan bruges som strategi for byplanlægning og byudvikling i den globale bykonkurrence.......Paper til ph.d. workshop, d. 9. december 2005. Dette paper beskriver, hvorfor og hvordan events kan bruges som strategi for byplanlægning og byudvikling i den globale bykonkurrence....

  16. Formative Feedback - Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech

    Posterpræsentation af ph.d. projekt d. 9/9. Konference I U.S.A “School of Education Day”. State University of New York (SUNY), Albany. Afdeling for Educational Psychology and Methodology.......Posterpræsentation af ph.d. projekt d. 9/9. Konference I U.S.A “School of Education Day”. State University of New York (SUNY), Albany. Afdeling for Educational Psychology and Methodology....

  17. 77 FR 70494 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request (United States)


    ... exchange offer for a class of securities filed on Schedule 14D-1F. The information required to be filed...: Schedule 14D-9F, OMB Control No. 3235-0382, SEC File No. 270-339. Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to... extension and approval. Schedule 14D-9F (17 CFR 240.14d-103) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U...

  18. Hormonal status and age differentially affect tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC on learning in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Winsauer


    Full Text Available The effects of hormone status and age on the development of tolerance to D9-THC were assessed in sham-operated (intact or ovariectomized (OVX female rats that received either intraperitoneal saline or 5.6 mg/kg of D9-THC daily from postnatal day (PD 75 to 180 (early adulthood onward or PD 35 to 140 (adolescence onward. During this time, the 4 groups for each age (i.e., intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/THC were trained in a learning and performance procedure and dose-effect curves were established for D9-THC (0.56-56 mg/kg and the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R antagonist rimonabant (0.32-10 mg/kg. Despite the persistence of small rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects in intact and OVX females from both ages during chronic D9-THC, all of the D9-THC groups developed tolerance. However, the magnitude of tolerance, as well as the effect of hormone status, varied with the age at which chronic D9-THC was initiated. There was no evidence of dependence in any of the groups. Hippocampal protein expression of CB1R, AHA1 (a co-chaperone of CB1R and HSP90β (a molecular chaperone modulated by AHA-1 was affected more by OVX than chronic D9-THC; striatal protein expression was not consistently affected by either manipulation. Hippocampal BDNF expression varied with age, hormone status, and chronic treatment. Thus, hormonal status differentially affects the development of tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC on learning and performance behavior in adolescent, but not adult, female rats. These factors and their interactions also differentially affect cannabinoid signaling proteins in the hippocampus and striatum, and ultimately, neural plasticity.

  19. Clinical plaque removing efficacy of a new power toothbrush. (United States)

    Ernst, C P; Nauth, C; Willershausen, B; Warren, P R


    To evaluate the effect of adding a pulsating bristle action to the established oscillating/rotating action of the Braun Oral-B Ultra Plaque Remover (D9) on plaque removal. Plaque removal was evaluated using the modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index in a double blind randomized, crossover study involving 32 healthy volunteers without any dental training. After 2 weeks use of the D9 during which time subjects received training in its use, subjects abstained from oral hygiene for 48 hours. They were then assessed for plaque after which they brushed their teeth using an experimental toothbrush randomly set to either the D9 oscillating/rotating action or to the new 3D action with an additional pulsating movement of the brush head in the direction of the long axis of the bristles. After brushing, plaque was again evaluated. Following a further 2 weeks of normal home use of the D9, subjects returned and the procedure was repeated using the brush set in the second mode. Both toothbrush actions were found to be effective at removing plaque from all sites and surfaces in the mouth. The 3D action was consistently more effective than that of the D9, the difference being statistically significant for the whole mouth, the upper jaw, the lingual surfaces and for all interproximal sites, in particular in the upper jaw.

  20. Isolation and culture of embryonic stem-like cells from pig nuclear transfer blastocysts of different days. (United States)

    Tan, Guangyun; Ren, Linzhu; Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Zhou, Yang; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Song, Hongxiao; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin


    This study was conducted to establish pig embryonic stem (ES)-like cell lines from nuclear transfer blastocysts. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing cell line was used as the source of donor cells injected into the enucleated oocytes. Blastocysts were collected at D5 (the fifth day), D7 (the seventh day) and D9 (the ninth day). Differential staining was used to assay the viability and development of blastocysts from the 3 days. The number of inner cell mass (ICM) cells increased from 1.83 ± 0.8 (D5) to 5.37 ± 1.2 (D7) to 7.56 ± 1.5 (D9). The expression profiles of embryonic stem (ES) cell factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC) correlated best with the undifferentiated ES state and were identified by qPCR. The expression of the four factors was increased from D5 to D7, whereas the expression decreased from D7 to D9. We tried to isolate ES-like cells from these embryos. However, ES-like cells from the D7 blastocysts grew slowly and expressed alkaline phosphatase. The cells from the D9 blastocysts grew rapidly but did not express alkaline phosphatase. ES-like cells were not isolated from the D5 blastocysts. These results show that the cells from the D7 embryos are pluripotent but grow slowly. The cells from the D9 embryos grow rapidly but start to lose pluripotency.

  1. D-branes as solitons of an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailescu, M.; Park, I. Y.; Tran, T. A.


    We consider a Dp-brane within a D9-brane in the presence of a B field whose polarization is transverse to the Dp-brane. To be definite, we take a D3-D9 system. It is observed that the system has the same pattern of supersymmetry breaking as that of a soliton of the six-dimensional noncommutative gauge theory that is obtained by dimensional reduction of an N=1,D=10 gauge theory. These results indicate that the soliton solution is the low energy realization of a D3-brane in a D9-brane with a transverse B field and, hence, can be viewed as a generalization of the previous results in the literature where similar observations were made for lower codimensional cases.

  2. Genotypes selection of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae in vitro propagation phase/ Seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium (Orchidaceae na fase de propagação in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi


    Full Text Available The process of artificial hibridization in orchids is used to obtain new varieties. The objective of the present paper was to select genotypes of Dendrobium favourable for in vitro propagation for commercial utilization through crossings and self polinization of selected matrice plants. Fifteen different plants with contrasting colors, flower sizes and plant heighs were used; the flowers were artificially polinated and the seeds germinated in vitro on MS medium, with half concentration of nutrients. The following crossings were made D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D9 x D2; D16 x D15; D5 x D9; D14 x D7; D7 x D14; D4 x D9; D6 x D9; D3 x D8; and the self polinizations: Df22; D7; D5; D21; D2; D15; D8; D23; D3 and D6. The obtained plants were avaluated for: plant heigh, number of roots, fresh and dry matter weight. The best results was observed in the following crosses D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D16 x D15 and D14 x D7 and for self polinizations Df22 and D7.O processo de hibridação artificial em orquídeas é utilizado para obtenção de novas variedades. O trabalho teve como objetivo a seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium favoráveis à propagação in vitro em escala comercial através de cruzamentos e autofecundações de plantas matrizes selecionadas. Foram utilizadas 15 plantas com características contrastantes de coloração, tamanho das flores e altura da planta; as flores polinizadas artificialmente e as sementes germinadas in vitro em meio MS, com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Foram realizados os cruzamentos: D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D9 x D2; D16 x D15; D5 x D9; D14 x D7; D7 x D14; D4 x D9; D6 x D9; D3 x D8; e as autofecundações: Df22; D7; D5; D21; D2; D15; D8; D23; D3 e D6. As plantas resultantes do cultivo foram avaliadas para as características: altura da planta, número de raízes, peso das massas fresca e seca total. Os melhores resultados para as características analisadas foram observados nos

  3. Genetic characterization of measles viruses that circulated in Thailand from 1998 to 2008. (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Sirima; Incomserb, Patcha; Primsirikunawut, Athiwat; Lukebua, Atchariya; Rota, Paul A; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom


    During the period between 1998 and 2008, 48 representative measles viruses (MeVs) circulating in Thailand were subjected to genetic characterization. Three genotypes, G2, D5, and D9 were detected. The results suggested that measles genotype D5, which has been circulating since at least 1998, is the endemic genotype in Thailand. Genotype G2 was detected between 1998 and 2001. In addition, almost all of the MeVs detected throughout the country in 2008 were genotype D9. This is the first report of genotype D9 in Thailand. This report provides important baseline data about measles genotypes in Thailand and this information will be needed to help verify measles elimination in Thailand. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Identification and functional analysis of delta-9 desaturase, a key enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, isolated from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Muto

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of Δ9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 Δ(9 desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative Δ(9 acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical Δ(9 desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these Δ(9 desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (Δole1. All the putative Δ(9 acyl-CoA desaturases showed Δ(9 desaturation activity for C16∶0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18∶0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of Δ(9 desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain.

  5. Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of O142 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli causing black proventriculus and septicemia in broiler breeders. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cao, Chunguang; Huan, Haixia; Zhang, Liuli; Mu, Xiaohui; Gao, Qingqing; Dong, Xianglei; Gao, Song; Liu, Xiufan


    Avian colibacillosis, characterized by black proventriculus and caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) with an uncommon O142 serogroup, was diagnosed in young broiler breeders. Colonization and persistence assays performed in 7-day-old broilers showed that the bacterial load of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate in the lung was about 10-fold higher than that of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 heart blood isolate (P<0.01), and about 100-fold higher in the heart blood, livers, spleens, kidneys, and proventriculi of inoculated broilers (P<0.001). When 32 common virulence genes of APEC were tested, the two isolates had nearly identical profiles, except that only the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate carried the feoB gene. Furthermore, 100% mortality was observed in both 1-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers and 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens inoculated with 10(6) colony-forming units of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate. However, black proventriculus was only observed in the dead AA broilers, consistent with the clinical occurrence of the disease. This implies that the black proventriculi seen in the dead birds, caused by the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate, was breed-specific. Both the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular and heart blood isolates belong to phylogroup B2. However, the former was assigned to ST131 and the latter to ST2704 with multilocus sequence typing, demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of these two bacterial isolates, although they were derived from the same dead broiler. These results suggest that the O142 APEC isolate was the main pathogenic agent for black proventriculi in 7-day-old broiler breeders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. GETDB: 104285 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 104285 Link to Original w[*]; P{GawB}NP2682 / TM3, Sb[1] Ser[1] 92D9 Link to DGRC Genome Viewer: 104285...104285 CG5060 F-element{}1393 Burdock{}1394 2682 3 FlyBase Insertion: P{GawB}NP2682 NP line. Received from...abdomen (MT) semi lethal - - d1 - - - Show 104285 DGRC Number 104285 Link to Original Genotype w[*]; P{GawB}NP2682...Site 92D9 Map Viewer Link to DGRC Genome Viewer: 104285 Related Genes CG5060 F-element{}1393 Burdock{}1394

  7. Neurology Falls. Patient Falls Risk Assessment, Neurology Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Goal. 2008. Retrieved Aug. 22, from 444D-9C91-424282FF5FCD/0/2008_FAQs_NPSG_0 9. pdf ...Male) i r Any administered antiepileptics (anticonvulsants): 2 r Any administered benzodiazepines : r II. FALL RISK ASSESSMENT IN

  8. InterProScan Result: FS744758 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS744758 FS744758_4_ORF1 227931A80D9DBAD9 SUPERFAMILY SSF103473 MFS general substra...te transporter 6.7e-14 T IPR016196 Major facilitator superfamily, general substrate transporter ...

  9. InterProScan Result: FS795302 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS795302 FS795302_2_ORF2 0D6D919D9F201BBF SUPERFAMILY SSF103473 MFS general substra...te transporter 5.4e-29 T IPR016196 Major facilitator superfamily, general substrate transporter ...

  10. Unexplained spastIc paraplegia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional. Vegetarian. Western. Alcohol consumption. None. Social drinker. Heavy. Cigarette smoking. None. 1 - 10/d. > 10/d. 9. 10. 4. 21. 1. 4. 12. 8. 4. 15. 7. 2. 23. 26. 24. 24. 'Patients found to have peripheral neuropathy were excluded. Department of Medicine, University of Natal and King. Edward VIII Hospital, Durban.

  11. 49 CFR 1.46 - Delegations to the Administrator of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration. (United States)


    ... and meetings dealing with transportation R&D. (9) Manage the strategic planning process for... university participation in the planning, conduct and analysis of transportation research. (15) Manage... Council Committee on the Federal Transportation R&D Strategic Planning Process. (c) Advanced vehicle...

  12. EST Table: NM_001167716 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001167716 Vps4 10/09/29 88 %/438 aa ref|NP_001161188.1| vacuolar protein sorting...ojGI14672-PA 10/08/29 64 %/432 aa Y34D9A.10#CE39043#WBGene00021334#locus:vps- 4#status:Confirmed#UniProt:Q9B

  13. Optical Computing. Organization of the 1993 Photonics Science Topical Meetings Held in Palm Springs, California on March 16 - 19, 1993. Technical Digest Series, Volume 7 (United States)


    cosO .d9 -dip (1) the angle Ot can be obtained using Snell’s law- 0t = arc os(n2) (2) (p, and P𔃼 can be calculated numerically by computer airborne systems: Limitations due to backplane interconnections and prospects based on optical solutions" - LOnde Electrique - vol.70 - n06 - nov

  14. Type IIB 7-brane solutions from nine-dimensional domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Gran, U; Roest, D


    We investigate half-supersymmetric domain wall solutions of four maximally supersymmetric D = 9 massive supergravity theories obtained by Scherk-Schwarz reduction of D = 10 IIA and IIB supergravity. One of the theories does not have a superpotential and does not allow domain wall solutions

  15. Management Of Carcinoma Of The Bronchus By Radiotherapy In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management Of Carcinoma Of The Bronchus By Radiotherapy In Lagos, Nigeria. ... Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences ... The use of radiotherapy in the management of bronchial carcinoma was evaluated in 106 patients (mean age: 56.6 yrs, s. d. 9.10) with male:female ratio of 2:2.1 who presented at the Lagos ...

  16. Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability in acquired melanocytic nevi: towards a molecular definition of the dysplastic nevus. (United States)

    Rübben, Albert; Bogdan, Inja; Grussendorf-Conen, Elke-Ingrid; Burg, Günter; Böni, Roland


    Acquired melanocytic nevi may show signs of histological dysplasia, and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that dysplastic melanocytic nevi (DMN) are associated with an elevated melanoma risk. Nevertheless, the concept of DMN as precursors of melanoma has remained a concept, in view of the difficulty of establishing unambiguous cytological and histological criteria for DMN. Recent molecular data suggest that genetic instability is more frequent in DMN than in benign acquired melanocytic nevi. We have analyzed 54 benign melanocytic nevi and 6 DMN for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at microsatellite markers D9S171, IFNA, D9S270, D9S265. LOH at one or more loci was detected in 17 out of 54 benign nevi and in 4 out of 6 DMN. LOH was demonstrated at 26 out of 103 amplified and informative microsatellites in benign nevi and at 6 out of 11 microsatellites in DMN. In addition, 6 benign nevi and 6 DMN were microdissected in 4-15 regions per lesion and analyzed for LOH and microsatellite instability (MSI) at D9S162 and D14S53. Both LOH and MSI were detected more frequently in dysplastic nevi (LOH frequency 0.61 vs 0.18; MSI frequency 0.27 vs 0.05). These results confirm that genetic instability is more prevalent in DMN than in benign acquired melanocytic nevi. Therefore, DMN might be defined as a monoclonal and genetically unstable, but limited, melanocytic proliferation that distinguishes this entity from the benign nevus and from malignant melanoma.

  17. practice points

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gupta P]. Consulting Proetologist, Gupta Nursing Home, D/ 9, Laxminagar,. NAGPUR- 440022, INDIA. Abstract ... of distinction with other ano-perianal lesions and the best possible approach towards the treatment of the ... African Health Sciences Vol 5 No 4 December 2005 encountered anorectal tuberculous lesions are ...

  18. Comparative study between two operative techniques of pilonidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research. Vol. 6, No. 1 - 2, 2004: 41 – 45. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. A comparison of two operations for pilonidal sinus disease. Pravin J. Gupta. Gupta Nursing Home, D/9, Laximinagar, NAGRPUR- 440022, India. Reprint requests ..... Eu KW, Nyam D. Pilonidal disease in Singapore: clinical features.

  19. 40 CFR 52.1677 - Compliance schedules. (United States)


    ... owner or operator of any coke oven battery subject to the requirements of Part 214, sections 214.2 and... operator of a coke oven battery subject to paragraph (d)(9) of this section shall be subject to the... Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO Access. ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK243002 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243002 J090096D02 (P24268) Cathepsin D precursor (EC [Contains: Cathepsin D 12 kDa light chain...; Cathepsin D 9 kDa light chain; Cathepsin D 34 kDa heavy chain; Cathepsin D 30 kDa heavy chain] CATD_RAT 9e-65 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK065206 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065206 J013002F13 (P24268) Cathepsin D precursor (EC [Contains: Cathepsin D 12 kDa light chain...; Cathepsin D 9 kDa light chain; Cathepsin D 34 kDa heavy chain; Cathepsin D 30 kDa heavy chain] CATD_RAT 4e-63 ...

  2. Space-time-filling branes and strings with sixteen supercharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Eyras, E; Halbersma, R; van der Schaar, JP; Hull, CM; Lozano, Y


    We discuss branes whose world-volume dimension equals the target space-time dimension, i.e. "space-time-filling branes". In addition to the D9-branes, there are 9-branes in the NS-NS sectors of both the IIA and IIB strings. The world-volume actions of these branes are constructed, via duality, from

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Mumps and Measles Virus Isolates from Three States in the United States. (United States)

    Magaña, Laura C; Espinosa, Alex; Marine, Rachel L; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Castro, Christina J; Montmayeur, Anna M; Hacker, Jill K; Scott, Samantha; Whyte, Thomas; Bankamp, Bettina; Oberste, M Steven; Rota, Paul A


    We report here the full coding sequence of nine paramyxovirus genomes, including two full-length mumps virus genomes (genotypes G and H) and seven measles virus genomes (genotypes B3 and D4, D8, and D9), from respiratory samples of patients from California, Virginia, and Alabama obtained between 2010 and 2014.

  4. InterProScan Result: FS867125 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS867125 FS867125_5_ORF2 EA8531C0D9F46F62 PRINTS PR00385 P450 6e-13 T IPR001128 Cytochrome P450 Molecular... Function: monooxygenase activity (GO:0004497)|Molecular Function: iron ion binding (GO:0005506)|Molecular... Function: electron carrier activity (GO:0009055)|Molecular Function: heme binding (GO:0020037) ...

  5. Responses to additional JAPC questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, T.M.


    The goals are to improve performance and reduce costs; the variables tested are fuel fabrication and assembly tolerances and cladding materials. Significant results are: goal lifetimes achieved; D9/HT9 alloys superior--reduced swelling potential duct mechanical attachment methods viable; test performance per design predictions.

  6. Aet Piel : oluline sisekujunduselement on viltune sein / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte


    Poolkaares ehitatud korterelamus on Aet Pieli kujundatud korteris üks sein viltu. Esmapilgul häirivana mõjunud sein sai oluliseks sisekujunduselemendiks. Eritellimusel valmistatud mööbel on tammepuidust. A. Pieli kommentaarid. Ill.: plaan enne ja nüüd, 9 värv. vaadet

  7. Acute psychomotor, memory and subjective effects of MDMA and THC (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.; Van Hasselt, J.; De Kam, M.; Van Gerven, J.; Touw, D.; Buitelaar, J.; Verkes, R.

    Introduction: In Western societies a considerable percentage of young people expose themselves to the combination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”). Cannabis (main active compound D9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC) is frequently co-used with ecstasy (Parrott et al., 2007).

  8. Ecological and Environmental Impacts of Corps of Engineers Programs (United States)


    34 was held at the Teatown Lake Reservation, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 0 ,,d9New York in December, 1973 (11). Evidence of eutrophication was clearly...Fungicide, and Rliodenticide Act (FIFRA) conflict with the Delaney Clause of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). The EPA commissioned the

  9. Gclust Server: 82394 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 82394 CEL_T28D9.2_71996546 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(255) 208 rsp-5: SR P...rotein (splicing factor) family member (rsp-5) 1 1.00e-14 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.5 Show 82394 Cluster ID 8239

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13021-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne dWX7-D9a... 48 0.003 EF584716_1( EF584716 |pid:none) Glandularia gooddingii va...r. nepeti... 48 0.003 EF584718_1( EF584718 |pid:none) Glandularia gooddingii var. nepeti... 48 0.003 CP00109

  11. Gclust Server: 19374 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 19374 CEL_F41D9.3_71989871 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(189) 452 wrk-1: Wrapper/Rega-1/Klingo...Related Sequences(189) Sequence length 452 Representative annotation wrk-1: Wrapper/Rega-1/Klingo

  12. Outcomes of Bacteremia in Burn Patients Involved in Combat Operations Overseas (United States)


    viridans and 6 group D), 9 isolates of Enterococcus spp (5 faecium and 4 faecalis), 8 isolates of Escherichia coli , 6 isolates of Proteus mirabilis, 5...Infect Dis 2006;42:657–668. 10. Sharma BR, Harish D, Singh VP, Bangar S. Septicemia as a cause of death in burns: an autopsy study. Burns 2006;32:545

  13. Diesel degradation and biosurfactant production by Gram-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All isolates were capable of degrading 70 - 80% of n-paraffin whilst isolates D2, D9, D10 and DJLB possessed better abilities of diesel degradation at 65.4 - 83.12% under the standard conditions. Diesel degradation rates and microbial cell number, increased with an increase in glucose composition. The addition of glucose ...

  14. Deciphering the role of RND efflux transporters in Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bazzini

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 is representative of a highly problematic group of cystic fibrosis (CF pathogens. Eradication of B. cenocepacia is very difficult with the antimicrobial therapy being ineffective due to its high resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents and disinfectants. RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division efflux pumps are known to be among the mediators of multidrug resistance in gram-negative bacteria. Since the significance of the 16 RND efflux systems present in B. cenocepacia (named RND-1 to -16 has been only partially determined, the aim of this work was to analyze mutants of B. cenocepacia strain J2315 impaired in RND-4 and RND-9 efflux systems, and assess their role in the efflux of toxic compounds. The transcriptomes of mutants deleted individually in RND-4 and RND-9 (named D4 and D9, and a double-mutant in both efflux pumps (named D4-D9, were compared to that of the wild-type B. cenocepacia using microarray analysis. Microarray data were confirmed by qRT-PCR, phenotypic experiments, and by Phenotype MicroArray analysis. The data revealed that RND-4 made a significant contribution to the antibiotic resistance of B. cenocepacia, whereas RND-9 was only marginally involved in this process. Moreover, the double mutant D4-D9 showed a phenotype and an expression profile similar to D4. The microarray data showed that motility and chemotaxis-related genes appeared to be up-regulated in both D4 and D4-D9 strains. In contrast, these gene sets were down-regulated or expressed at levels similar to J2315 in the D9 mutant. Biofilm production was enhanced in all mutants. Overall, these results indicate that in B. cenocepacia RND pumps play a wider role than just in drug resistance, influencing additional phenotypic traits important for pathogenesis.

  15. Non-invasive visualisation of the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis and tumour regression after 213Bi-radioimmunotherapy using bioluminescence imaging. (United States)

    Buchhorn, H Matthias; Seidl, Christof; Beck, Roswitha; Saur, Dieter; Apostolidis, Christos; Morgenstern, Alfred; Schwaiger, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard


    Non-invasive imaging of tumour development remains a challenge, especially for tumours in the intraperitoneal cavity. Therefore, the aim of this study was the visualisation of both the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis and tumour regression after radioimmunotherapy with tumour-specific 213Bi-Immunoconjugates, via in vivo bioluminescence imaging of firefly luciferase-transfected cells. Human diffuse-type gastric cancer cells expressing mutant d9-E-cadherin were stably transfected with firefly luciferase (HSC45-M2-luc). For bioluminescence imaging, nude mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1x10(7) HSC45-M2-luc cells. On days 4 and 8 after tumour cell inoculation, imaging was performed following D-luciferin injection using a cooled CCD camera with an image intensifier unit. For therapy, mice were injected with 2.7 MBq 213Bi-d9MAb targeting d9-E-cadherin on day 8 after tumour cell inoculation. Bioluminescence images were taken every 4 days to monitor tumour development. After i.p. inoculation of HSC45-M2-luc cells into nude mice, development as well as localisation of peritoneal carcinomatosis could be visualised using bioluminescence imaging. Following 213Bi-d9MAb therapy on day 8 after intraperitoneal inoculation of HSC45-M2-luc cells, small tumour nodules were totally eliminated and larger nodules showed a clear reduction in size on day 12 after tumour cell inoculation. Subsequently a recurrence of tumour mass was observed, starting from the remaining tumour spots. By measuring the mean grey level intensity, tumour development over time could be demonstrated. Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging permits visualisation of the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis, localisation of tumour in the intraperitoneal cavity and evaluation of therapeutic success after 213Bi-d9MAb treatment.

  16. Species D human adenovirus type 9 exhibits better virus-spread ability for antitumor efficacy among alternative serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Uchino

    Full Text Available Species C human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-C5 is widely used as a vector for cancer gene therapy, because it efficiently transduces target cells. A variety of HAdV-C5 vectors have been developed and tested in vitro and in vivo for cancer gene therapy. While clinical trials with HAdV-C5 vectors resulted in effective responses in many cancer patients, administration of HAdV-C5 vectors to solid tumors showed responses in a limited area. A biological barrier in tumor mass is considered to hinder viral spread of HAdV-C5 vectors from infected cells. Therefore, efficient virus-spread from an infected tumor cell to surrounding tumor cells is required for successful cancer gene therapy. In this study, we compared HAdV-C5 to sixteen other HAdV serotypes selected from species A to G for virus-spread ability in vitro. HAdV-D9 showed better virus-spread ability than other serotypes, and its viral progeny were efficiently released from infected cells during viral replication. Although the HAdV-D9 fiber protein contains a binding site for coxsackie B virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, HAdV-D9 showed expanded tropism for infection due to human CAR (hCAR-independent attachment to target cells. HAdV-D9 infection effectively killed hCAR-negative cancer cells as well as hCAR-positive cancer cells. These results suggest that HADV-D9, with its better virus-spread ability, could have improved therapeutic efficacy in solid tumors compared to HAdV-C5.

  17. Serotonin (5-HT affects expression of liver metabolic enzymes and mammary gland glucose transporters during the transition from pregnancy to lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Laporta

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to demonstrate the ability of feeding serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine precursors to increase 5-HT production during the transition from pregnancy to lactation and the effects this has on maternal energy metabolism in the liver and mammary gland. Pregnant rats (n = 45 were fed one of three diets: I control (CON, II CON supplemented with 0.2% 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP or III CON supplemented with 1.35% L-tryptophan (L-TRP, beginning on d13 of pregnancy through d9 of lactation (d9. Serum (pre and post-partum, milk (daily, liver and mammary gland tissue (d9 were collected. Serum 5-HT was increased in the 5-HTP fed dams beginning on d20 of gestation and remained elevated through d9, while it was only increased on d9 in the L-TRP fed dams. 5-HT levels were increased in mammary gland and liver of both groups. Additionally, 5-HTP fed dams had serum and milk glucose levels similar to the CON, while L-TRP had decreased serum (d9 and milk glucose (all dates evaluated. Feeding 5-HTP resulted in increased mRNA expression of key gluconeogenic and glycolytic enzymes in liver and glucose transporters 1 and 8 (GLUT-1, -8 in the mammary gland. We demonstrated the location of GLUT-8 in the mammary gland both in the epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. Finally, phosphorylated 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK, a known regulator of intracellular energy status, was elevated in mammary glands of 5-HTP fed dams. Our results suggest that increasing 5-HT production during the transition from pregnancy to lactation increases mRNA expression of enzymes involved in energy metabolism in the liver, and mRNA abundance and distribution of glucose transporters within the mammary gland. This suggests the possibility that 5-HT may be involved in regulating energy metabolism during the transition from pregnancy to lactation.

  18. Magnetic behaviour of layered Ag(II) fluorides (United States)

    McLain, Sylvia E.; Dolgos, Michelle R.; Tennant, D. Alan; Turner, John F. C.; Barnes, Ted; Proffen, Thomas; Sales, Brian C.; Bewley, Robert I.


    Fluoride phases that contain the spin-1/2 4d9 Ag(II) ion have recently been predicted to have interesting or unusual magnetochemistry, owing to their structural similarity to the 3d9 Cu(II) cuprates and the covalence associated with this unusual oxidation state of silver. Here we present a comprehensive study of structure and magnetism in the layered Ag(II) fluoride Cs2AgF4, using magnetic susceptometry, inelastic neutron scattering techniques and both X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. We find that this material is well described as a two-dimensional ferromagnet, in sharp contrast to the high-TC cuprates and a previous report in the literature. Analyses of the structural data show that Cs2AgF4 is orbitally ordered at all temperatures of measurement. Therefore, we suggest that orbital ordering may be the origin of the ferromagnetism we observe in this material.

  19. A Progressive Autosomal Recessive Cataract Locus Maps to Chromosome 9q13-q22 (United States)

    Héon, Elise; Paterson, Andrew D.; Fraser, Michael; Billingsley, Gail; Priston, Megan; Balmer, Aubin; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Verner, Andrei; Hudson, Thomas J.; Munier, Francis L.


    Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness in most countries. Although most hereditary cases appear to follow an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, autosomal recessive inheritance has been clearly documented and is probably underrecognized. We studied a large family—from a relatively isolated geographic region—whose members were affected by autosomal recessive adult-onset pulverulent cataracts. We mapped the disease locus to a 14-cM interval at a novel disease locus, 9q13-q22 (between markers D9S1123 and D9S257), with a LOD score of 4.7. The study of this progressive and age-related cataract phenotype may provide insight into the cause of the more common sporadic form of age-related cataracts. PMID:11179024

  20. Interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel vs selected cladding steels (United States)

    Keiser, D. D.; Dayananda, M. A.


    To better understand fuel-cladding compatibility issues as affected by diffusion processes in Argonne National Laboratory’s Integral Fast Reactors, interdiffusion studies were carried out with solid-solid diffusion couples assembled with a U-23 at. pct Zr alloy and cladding steels, such as 316, D9, and HT9. All diffusion couples were annealed at 700 °C and examined metallographically and by scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis for diffusion structure development. The development of diffusion layers in the couples for various cladding steels is compared and discussed in light of the relative diffusion behavior of the individual elements, intermetallic formation, and experimental diffusion paths. In the context of fuel-cladding compatibility, HT9 is considered superior to 316 and D9, as it develops the smallest diffusion zone with the fewest number of phases.

  1. BDML Metadata: 153 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 54d7-45d9-a7cb-c1274bd6942d 0.105 x 0.105 x 0.5 (micrometer), 40 (second) ...

  2. Use of the Larson-Miller parameter to study the influence of ageing on the hardness of cold-worked austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, M. (Materials Development Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)); Venkadesan, S. (Materials Development Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)); Sivaprasad, P.V. (Materials Development Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)); Mannan, S.L. (Materials Development Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India))


    The Larson-Miller parameter (L-M parameter) was used for studying the influence of thermal ageing on hardness of cold-worked titanium-modified 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo austenitic stainless steel, which is commonly referred to as alloy D-9. The samples were given 15-22.5% prior cold work and aged in the temperature range 873-1223 K for durations ranging from 0.25-4800 h. Using a non-linear regression analysis of hardness data as a function of cold-work level and ageing conditions, the optimum cold-work level for alloy D-9 has been determined to be 20%. ((orig.)). Letter-to-the-editor

  3. The role of industrial engineering in public service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Quintin


    Full Text Available ! !"##$%&'()*+,,-./012'%345'–'%645'*7'8+4*9,)'%:;62'<.=,)1.-,'!>/2'!*>45'"7).+?'@'%:;6'!"##$' ' AB::C;' ' !"#$%&'#$&($)*+,-!%).'$#*/)*##%)*/$)*$0,1')2$-#%3)2#$+#')3#%4$ 5$678$"99:;98<=$>$?$678$"99:;98@$ ;!D?4.?E'(E?//./0'?/-'!F14,G12'H>.E4'$/=.)*/G,/42'I*>/+.E'7....=,)F'*7' D>9E.+' 1,)=.+,1' 4?S,1'DE?+,'?4' ?EE' 45),,'1D5,),1'*7'0*=,)/G,/4L'!,+4.*/';T3'*7'45,'I*/14.4>4.*/'*7'45,'<,D>9E.+'*7'!*>45'"7).+?2';TTU2'),J>.),1' 45?4' 0*=,)/G,/4' 1,)=.+,' -,E.=,)F'G>14' +*GDEF'V.45' +,)4?./' -,G*+)?4.+' =?E>,1' ?/-' D...

  4. The roles of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and type 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) in the regulation of the immune complex-elicited respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Antonsen, S; Matthiesen, S H


    The binding of immune complexes (IC) to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the consequent respiratory burst (RB) were investigated in whole blood cell preparations suspended in 75% human serum, using flow cytometry. Blockade of the complement receptor (CR)1 receptor sites for C3b on whole blood...... and inhibited the IC binding to PMN in a whole blood cell preparation, with or without mAb 3D9, by approximately 40% from 15-40 min while reducing their RB over 40 min to approximately one third. Blockade of CR1 on either erythrocytes (E) or leukocytes, before mixing the populations, revealed...... that the potentiation of the RB by mAb 3D9 was associated with abrogation of E-CR1 function, whereas blockade of leukocyte-CR1 had a diminishing effect. Exposure to IC at high concentrations induced release of both specific and azurophilic granule contents from PMN. The latter was CR3 dependent in that blockade...

  5. Electrochemical Study of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol by Cyclic Voltammetry Using Screen Printed Electrode, Improvements in Forensic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio BALBINO


    Full Text Available Rapid screening of seized drugs is a continuing problem for governmental laboratories and customs agents. Recently new and cheaper methods based on electrochemical sensing have been developed for the detection of illicit drugs. Screen printed electrodes are particularly useful in this regard and can provide excellent sensitivity. In this study, a carbon screen printed electrode for the voltammetric analysis of D9-THC was developed. The analysis was performed using cyclic voltammetry with 0.15 mol×L-1 potassium nitrate as a supporting electrolyte. In the analysis, a D9-THC standard solution was added to the surface electrode by a drop coating method. A study of scan rate, time of pre-concentration, and concentration influence parameters showed versatility during the investigation. The high sensitivity, quantitative capability and low limit of detection (1.0 µmol×L-1 demonstrate that this electrochemical method should be an attractive alternative in forensic investigations of seized samples.

  6. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour – a case report


    Venkataraman, Sundar; Pandian, Chelladurai; Kumar, Suresh A.


    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) are aggressive childhood malignancies and offer a significant challenge to treatment. A two years old female child presented with weakness both lower limbs. Preoperative MRI of the spine and paravertebral regionIso – hyper intense posterior placed extradural lesion, non contrast enhancing from D11-L2 levels with cord compression D9 to L3 laminectomy done. Granulation tissue found from D11 to L2. with cord compression. The granulation tissue removed in ...

  7. Unoccupied density of states of La2–xSrxNiO4+δ studied by polarization-dependent x-ray-absorption spectroscopy and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, P.; Elp, J. van; Sawatzky, G.A.; Fujimori, A.; Hosoya, S.; Leeuw, D.M. de


    Oxygen 1s x-ray-absorption measurements of La2–xSrxNiO4+δ (0≤x≤1.15) are presented, together with O 1s polarization-dependent x-ray absorption on single-crystal La1.85Sr0.15NiO4. It is concluded that the charge-compensating holes have mainly oxygen 2p character. The Ni 3d9 final states reached

  8. FLIS Procedures Manual Multiple Application References/Instructions/Tables and Grids. (United States)



  9. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 24H. Skill Levels 1 & 2. (United States)


    PROJECT. TASK• AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Training Developments Institute ATTN: ATTC-]DOR rnrt )4vnnrn VA 9A10- ft. CONTROLLING IiFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS It...8217.10.12.01l Am Ofl JAN St....POON 540 ....7NER. 107 *DAVISSSPTSTF .......... HASP-It...ASPI11 "T1 d 9,.&iIL01 si n ISM*N UIp~U ~ HAPIS *AP * ASP..I04e

  10. Cooperation between the U.S. and Vietnamese Governments to Address the Agent Orange Issue in Vietnam (United States)


    under what was known as the “domino theory ,” U.S. President Dwight D. 9 Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A...wife gave birth to three disabled children: Le Thi Thoa (congenital amputation), Le Quang Chien ( disabled and deformed), and Le Quang Chuong ( disabled disabled children.96 The documentary compares the opportunities of Agent Orange victims to schooling and disability care within the U.S. and

  11. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests (United States)

    Song, Wei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Hou, Guojun; Shen, Zaihua; Zhang, Shuangbao


    As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE) but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST), so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE), 9–11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40), and environmental chamber method (EC) of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1) Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2) In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3) Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential) models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC—the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk

  12. Manual on Climate of the USSR. Issue 16. Armenian SSR. Part 5. Cloud Cover and Atmospheric Phenomena (United States)


    Yerevan, GMO . (52). Yerevan, agricultural . (53). Dzhrvezh. (55). Oktenberyan. (56). Yerevan. DOC = 92083807 PAGE )-d 9 Page 98. Continuation of Table...49). Karakert (Karmrashen). (50). Mazra. (51). Yerevan, GMO . (52). Yerevan, agricultural . (54). Echmiadzin. (55). Oktemberyan. (56). Yerevan. (57-57a...Mazra. (51). Yerevan, GMO . (52). Yerevan, agricultural . (54). Echmiadzin. (55). Oktemberyan. (56). Yerevan. (57-57a). Martuni I, II. (58). Garni. (59

  13. Evaluation of Manganese Phosphate Coatings. (United States)



  14. Formulation Development and Optimization of Fast Dissolving Tablets of Aceclofenac Using Natural Superdisintegrant


    Kaur, Lovleen; Bala, Rajni; Kanojia, Neha; Nagpal, Manju; Dhingra, Gitika Arora


    The current research work involves preparation of fast dissolving tablets of Aceclofenac by direct compression method using different concentrations of Lepidium sativum mucilage as natural superdisintegrant. A two-factor three-level (32) factorial design is being used to optimize the formulation. Nine formulation batches (D1–D9) were prepared accordingly. Two factors as independent variables (X 1-amount of β-cyclodextrin and X 2-amount of Lepidium sativum mucilage) were taken with three level...

  15. Site Investigation Report. 161st Air Refueling Group, Arizona National Guard, Sky Harbor International Airport and Papago Military Reservation, Phoenix, Arizona. Volume 2. Appendices A Through G (United States)


    Monitorina Revie, pD. 9l 1988, Lindorf, D., Fold , J., and Connelly , Groundwater Samolina Prpc @dure Gi elinui,% Wisconsin Department of Natural...a SRI model 8610 GC equipped with an PID and FID detector in series, purge and trap, and Peaksimple data system. The onboard integrator of the IOS50...representative of the formation water (Llndorf, Fold , Connelly, 1987). o According to the EPA Guidance, as soon as the well recovers, the order of sampling

  16. A familial {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaff, J.; Hemann, M. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)


    A child with phenotypic features of the 9p{sup {minus}} syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, as well as hypopigmentation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his phenotypically normal father. Molecular analysis showed heterozygous deletion of the TYRP (tyrosinase-related protein) locus, as well as loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267, in the child but in neither parent. FISH analysis of the proband`s father indicated that loci deleted in his son, including TYRP, were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation products but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father`s 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8 (not bearing the insertion from 9p23). Neither the deletion of these 9p23 loci from the translocation chromosomes nor their insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband`s sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis showed that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9, as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion of 9p23 material, from her father. This analysis illustrates a new mechanism to explain cases in which an apparently balanced translocation has been transmitted from a normal parent to a child with a phenotypic abnormality: submicroscopic deletion of material from the translocation breakpoint and insertion into a third chromosome in the balanced parent, with meiotic segregation leading to loss of the inserted material in the child. 36 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1128 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CF233520.1 PtaJXO0024E7E0709 Poplar cDNA library from young opposite xylem Populus x canescens cDNA 5', mRNA...|CF234179.1 PtaJXO3D9D0907 Poplar cDNA library from young opposite xylem Populus x canescens cDNA 5', mRNA

  18. Dicty_cDB: SSJ127 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CF233520.1 PtaJXO0024E7E0709 Poplar cDNA library from young opposite xylem Populus x canescens cDNA 5', mRNA...|CF234179.1 PtaJXO3D9D0907 Poplar cDNA library from young opposite xylem Populus x canescens cDNA 5', mRNA

  19. The first prototype diamond monochromator at the Institut Laue-Langevin (United States)

    Courtois, P.; Fernandez-Diaz, M. T.; Nenert, G.; Andersen, K. H.; Freund, A. K.; Gsell, S.; Fischer, M.; Schreck, M.; Link, P.; Meven, M.


    We report on the performance of the first diamond neutron monochromator built at the ILL. It has been designed for the hot neutron diffractometer D9 with the aim of improving significantly the instrument performance in particular for short wavelengths in the 0.3-0.9 Å wavelength range. Diamond crystal plates with dimensions of 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.18 cm3 an average mosaic spread of 0.15° have been synthesized at the University of Augsburg. They exhibited excellent neutron diffraction properties when examined on a neutron double-crystal test setup. Sufficiently thick diamond elements with a controlled mosaic spread of 0.25° have been obtained by stacking several of these crystals. First tests runs carried out at the ILL confirmed the predicted high reflectivity of the diamond stacks. The diamond prototype monochromator uses the (220) reflection in transmission geometry replacing the Cu (220) monochromator on D9 that has the same d-spacing. The final performance studies on D9 showed that the diamond device did not perform better than the original copper crystal. This unexpected result could be explained by significant optical aberrations caused by non- uniformities of both the angular and spatial mosaic distribution in the individual diamond crystals, as revealed by a detailed characterisation study using high-energy X-ray diffraction.

  20. Cleaning efficacy of a new electric toothbrush. (United States)

    Driesen, G M; Warren, P R; Hilfinger, P


    To evaluate the cleaning efficacy of a new electric toothbrush and new brush head design, using a robot system to simulate normal clinical toothbrush use. The study compared the new oscillating/rotating/pulsating electric toothbrush (Braun Oral-B 3D Plaque Remover) comprised of the D15 handle and new EB15 brush head, with the clinically established oscillating/rotating electric toothbrush (Braun Oral-B Ultra Plaque Remover-D9) and brush head (EB9). Plaque substitute was applied to the artificial teeth of typodonts, which were cleaned by the robot system for 2 minutes. The remaining plaque substitute was measured for buccal + lingual/palatal and occlusal surfaces, as well as gumline and interproximal sites using a computerized vision system. The new D15/EB15 combination was found to be significantly more effective than the D9/EB9 combination in removing plaque substitute at all surfaces combined and all specific sites (P toothbrush which features an additional pulsating motion (D15), combined with the new brush head design (EB15), offer improved efficacy in comparison with the established oscillating/rotating combination (D9/EB9).

  1. Comparative proteomics of contrasting maize genotypes provides insights into salt-stress tolerance mechanisms. (United States)

    Luo, Meijie; Zhao, Yanxin; Wang, Yuandong; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Yunxia; Song, Wei; Zhao, Jiuran


    Salt stress is a major abiotic factor limiting maize yield. To characterize the mechanism underlying maize salt tolerance, we compared the seedling root proteomes of salt-tolerant Jing724 and salt-sensitive D9H. The germination rate and growth parameter values (weight and length) were higher for Jing724 than for D9H under saline conditions. Using an iTRAQ-based method, we identified 513 differentially regulated proteins (DRPs), with 83 and 386 DRPs specific to Jing724 and D9H, respectively. In salt-stressed Jing724, the DRPs were primarily associated with the pentose phosphate pathway, glutathione metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Key DRPs, such as glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, NADPH-producing dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase, and glutamine synthetase, were identified based on pathway enrichment and protein-protein interaction analyses. Moreover, salt-responsive proteins in Jing724 seedlings were implicated in energy management, maintenance of redox homeostasis, detoxification of ammonia, regulation of osmotic homeostasis, stress defense and adaptation, biotic cross-tolerance, and regulation of gene expression. Quantitative analyses of superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde content, relative electrolyte leakage, and proline content were consistent with the predicted changes based on DRP functions. Furthermore, changes in the abundance of eight representative DRPs were correlated with the corresponding mRNA levels. Our results may be useful for elucidating the molecular networks mediating salt tolerance.

  2. Individual culture of in vitro produced bovine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela dos Santos Brum


    Full Text Available Embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro foram cultivados individualmente do D7 ao D9, com o intuito de avaliar o seu desenvolvimento posterior. Quarenta e nove embriões, nos estágios de blastocisto inicial, blastocisto e blastocisto expandido foram cultivados, individualmente, em 50ml de meio SOF + 5% SVE, do D7 ao D9 (D0=fecundação. Entre o D7 e D8, os blastocistos foram cultivados em palhetas (TcP ou em placas (CP e, entre o D8 e D9, foram cultivados apenas em placas. O índice de blastocistos que avançaram pelo menos um estágio de desenvolvimento, entre D7 e D8, foi de 71%, 37% e 44% no CP e de 100%, 66% e 36% no TcP, respectivamente para blastocistos iniciais, blastocistos e blastocistos expandidos. O percentual total de embriões que evoluíram do D7 para D8 foi de 50% (12/24 para o CP e de 60% (15/25 para o TcP, os quais não foram significativamente diferentes (P>;0,05. Na avaliação efetuada no D9, não foram constatadas diferenças (P>;0,05 no percentual de blastocistos eclodidos, entre os dois sistemas de cultivo (29% e 24% para CP e TcP, respectivamente. Após coloração fluorescente dos núcleos, não foi observada diferença (P>;0,05 entre o número médio de células dos blastocistos eclodidos (182,66 vs. 202,8 e expandidos (94,5 vs. 88, para o CP e TcP, respectivamente. Blastocistos bovinos produzidos in vitro podem ser cultivados individualmente do D7 ao D9, não havendo efeito do sistema de cultivo empregado (placas ou palhetas sobre a taxa de eclosão e o número de células.

  3. Taxa de prenhez de vacas Nelore lactantes tratadas com progesterona associada à remoção temporária de bezerros ou aplicação de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina Pregnancy rates in milking Nelore cows submitted to progesterone treatment associated to temporary calf removal or eCG administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Luiz Ereno


    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da remoção temporária de bezerros (RTB ou da aplicação de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina (eCG na taxa de prenhez (TP de vacas Nelore lactantes tratadas com um dispositivo intravaginal liberador de progesterona (DILP. No experimento 1, 83 vacas Nelore e 102 mestiças (Nelore × Red Angus foram distribuídas em três grupos. Em dia aleatório do ciclo estral (D0, os animais do grupo 1 foram tratados com benzoato de estradiol (BE; 2,5 mg, IM, Estrogin® e um DILP (1 g de progesterona, DIB®, removido no D9, quando também se administrou d-cloprostenol (150 µg, IM, Prolise® e aproximadamente 12 horas após identificação do estro realizou-se a inseminação artificial. No grupo 2 (IATF, o tratamento foi semelhante ao aplicado no grupo 1, porém, administrou-se uma segunda dose de benzoato de estradiol (1 mg no D10 e 30-36 horas mais tarde realizou-se a inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. No grupo 3 (IATF/RTB, os bezerros foram removidos a partir do D9 até a inseminação artificial com tempo fixo (IATF. As taxas de prenhez para as vacas Nelore e mestiças foram, respectivamente, de 7,69 e 41% (Controle; 23,52 e 59,57% (IATF; 69,44 e 55,81% (IATF/RTB. No experimento 2, 255 vacas Nelore lactantes foram distribuídas em três grupos. Os animais do grupo 4 (IATF foram tratados com benzoato de estradiol (2 mg e um DILP (1,9 g de progesterona, CIDR-B® no D0 e no D8 sofreram remoção do DILP no D8 e administração de 25 mg de dinoprost (IM, Lutalyse®. No D9, foi aplicado benzoato de estradiol (1 mg realizando-se a IATF 30-36 horas mais tarde. No grupo 5 (IATF/RTB, os bezerros foram removidos no D9 até a IATF. O grupo 6 (eCG foi semelhante ao IATF, exceto pela aplicação de eCG no D9 (400 UI, IM, Novormon®. As taxas de prenhez foram de 50,57 (IATF, 53,57 (IATF/RTB e 54,76% (eCG. A associação de RTB ao tratamento hormonal com DILP aumenta as taxas de prenhez, enquanto a adição de eCG ao tratamento n

  4. Isolation and Functional Validation of Salinity and Osmotic Stress Inducible Promoter from the Maize Type-II H+-Pyrophosphatase Gene by Deletion Analysis in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Hou

    Full Text Available Salinity and drought severely affect both plant growth and productivity, making the isolation and characterization of salinity- or drought-inducible promoters suitable for genetic improvement of crop resistance highly desirable. In this study, a 1468-bp sequence upstream of the translation initiation codon ATG of the promoter for ZmGAPP (maize Type-II H+-pyrophosphatase gene was cloned. Nine 5´ deletion fragments (D1-D9 of different lengths of the ZmGAPP promoter were fused with the GUS reporter and translocated into tobacco. The deletion analysis showed that fragments D1-D8 responded well to NaCl and PEG stresses, whereas fragment D9 and CaMV 35S did not. The D8 segment (219 bp; -219 to -1 bp exhibited the highest promoter activity of all tissues, with the exception of petals among the D1-D9 transgenic tobacco, which corresponds to about 10% and 25% of CaMV 35S under normal and NaCl or PEG stress conditions, respectively. As such, the D8 segment may confer strong gene expression in a salinity and osmotic stress inducible manner. A 71-bp segment (-219 to -148 bp was considered as the key region regulating ZmGAPP response to NaCl or PEG stress, as transient transformation assays demonstrated that the 71-bp sequence was sufficient for the salinity or osmotic stress response. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating ZmGAPP expression, and that the D8 promoter would be an ideal candidate for moderating expression of drought and salinity response genes in transgenic plants.

  5. Calbindins decreased after space flight (United States)

    Sergeev, I. N.; Rhoten, W. B.; Carney, M. D.


    Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins

  6. The growth of glioblastoma orthotopic xenografts in nude mice is directly correlated with impaired object recognition memory. (United States)

    Wasilewska-Sampaio, Ana Paula; Santos, Tiago G; Lopes, Marilene Hohmuth; Cammarota, Martin; Martins, Vilma Regina


    Cognitive dysfunction is found in patients with brain tumors and there is a need to determine whether it can be replicated in an experimental model. In the present study, the object recognition (OR) paradigm was used to investigate cognitive performance in nude mice, which represent one of the most important animal models available to study human tumors in vivo. Mice with orthotopic xenografts of the human U87MG glioblastoma cell line were trained at 9, 14, and 18days (D9, D14, and D18, respectively) after implantation of 5×10(5) cells. At D9, the mice showed normal behavior when tested 90min or 24h after training and compared to control nude mice. Animals at D14 were still able to discriminate between familiar and novel objects, but exhibited a lower performance than animals at D9. Total impairment in the OR memory was observed when animals were evaluated on D18. These alterations were detected earlier than any other clinical symptoms, which were observed only 22-24days after tumor implantation. There was a significant correlation between the discrimination index (d2) and time after tumor implantation as well as between d2 and tumor volume. These data indicate that the OR task is a robust test to identify early behavior alterations caused by glioblastoma in nude mice. In addition, these results suggest that OR task can be a reliable tool to test the efficacy of new therapies against these tumors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of the 23S rRNA A2058G point mutation and molecular subtypes in Treponema pallidum in the United States, 2007 to 2009. (United States)


    The 23S rRNA A2058G point mutation in Treponema pallidum is associated with macrolide antibiotic treatment failure. Its prevalence and potential association with a molecular subtype within the United States are unknown. During 2007 to 2009, 11 clinics across the United States sent samples from genital ulcers to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Molecular techniques were used to identify T. pallidum DNA sequences, the A2058G mutation, and subtype of T. pallidum. Accompanying epidemiologic information was abstracted from medical records. A total of 141 samples with T. pallidum were collected from individuals whose median age was 33 years (range, 13-68 years): 118 were male (69% reported as men having sex with men [MSM]). The A2058G mutation was carried in 75 samples (53%) with T. pallidum, with samples from MSM (versus women and other men) more likely carrying the A2058G mutation (65/82 samples versus 8/57 samples; prevalence ratio, 5.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-10.8). Of 98 strain-typed samples, 61 (62%) were the 14d9 subtype of T. pallidum, which was also associated with samples with T. pallidum from MSM (prevalence ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-6.5). However, among T. pallidum from MSM, the A2058G mutation was not associated with the 14d9 subtype. The A2058G mutation and 14d9 subtype of T. pallidum were present throughout the United States. Both were more commonly found in T. pallidum from MSM compared with women or other men but were not associated with each other. Treating syphilis with azithromycin should be done cautiously and only when treatment with penicillin or doxycycline is not feasible.

  8. Evolution of distinct expression patterns for engrailed paralogues in higher crustaceans (Malacostraca). (United States)

    Ahzhanov, A; Kaufman, T C


    The segment-polarity gene engrailed of Drosophila melanogaster and its homologues in other arthropods possess a highly conserved expression domain in the posterior portion of each segment. We report here that the two pan-specific antibodies, Mab4D9 and Mab4F11, reveal strikingly different accumulation patterns in both of the malacostracan crustaceans Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) and Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda), compared with insects. The signal detected with Mab4D9 resides in the posterior part of each segment, including the appendages, the ventral and lateral sides of the trunk and the CNS. However, Mab4F11 reveals a signal only in small groups of neurons in the CNS and PNS, primarily localized in the pereon. We observe similar Mab4D9 and Mab4F11 patterns in the crayfish P. clarkii, except that no Mab4F11 signal is detected in the pleon. To address the possibility of multiple engrailed paralogues, we cloned partial cDNAs of two engrailed genes, Ps-en1 and Ps-en2, from P. scaber, and studied their expression patterns using whole-mount in situ hybridization. Although the Ps-en1 and Ps-en2 patterns are comparable in early development, they become distinct in late embryogenesis. Ps-en1 is expressed in the CNS, where Mab4F11 stains, but also accumulates in the epidermis. In contrast, Ps-en2 is expressed in the lateral aspect and limbs of all segments. Phylogenetic analysis of en sequences from crustaceans and insects suggests that the two en genes from the apterygote insect Thermobia domestica (Thysanura) may be related to en1 and en2 of higher crustaceans.

  9. Pedigree with frontotemporal lobar degeneration – motor neuron disease and Tar DNA binding protein-43 positive neuropathology: genetic linkage to chromosome 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loy Clement T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD represents a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogenous neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by neurological signs such as motor neuron-related limb weakness, spasticity and paralysis, parkinsonism and gait disturbances. Linkage to chromosome 9p had been reported for pedigrees with the neurodegenerative disorder, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and motor neuron disease (MND. The objective in this study is to identify the genetic locus in a multi-generational Australian family with FTLD-MND. Methods Clinical review and standard neuropathological analysis of brain sections from affected pedigree members. Genome-wide scan using microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphism fine mapping. Examination of candidate genes by direct DNA sequencing. Results Neuropathological examination revealed cytoplasmic deposition of the TDP-43 protein in three affected individuals. Moreover, we identify a family member with clinical Alzheimer's disease, and FTLD-Ubiquitin neuropathology. Genetic linkage and haplotype analyses, defined a critical region between markers D9S169 and D9S1845 on chromosome 9p21. Screening of all candidate genes within this region did not reveal any novel genetic alterations that co-segregate with disease haplotype, suggesting that one individual carrying a meiotic recombination may represent a phenocopy. Re-analysis of linkage data using the new affection status revealed a maximal two-point LOD score of 3.24 and a multipoint LOD score of 3.41 at marker D9S1817. This provides the highest reported LOD scores from a single FTLD-MND pedigree. Conclusion Our reported increase in the minimal disease region should inform other researchers that the chromosome 9 locus may be more telomeric than predicted by published recombination boundaries. Moreover, the existence of a family member with clinical Alzheimer's disease, and who shares the disease

  10. The Effects of Anti-Hcg Monoclonal Antibodies on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirshahi M


    Full Text Available Background: Human cancer cell lines express human choriogonadotropin (hCG, its subunits and derivatives, regardless of their origin and type. It appears that hCG is a common phenotype in human cancer cell lines. In this research, the effects of hCG targeting monoclonal antibodies (7D9, T18H7 and T8B12 on human cancer cell lines were evaluated. Methods: Monoclonal antibody secreting hybridomas were proliferated and injected intraperitoneally to Balb/C mice after treatment with pristine. Two weeks later, ascites fluid was collected. Purification of aforementioned antibodies from ascites fluid was performed using G-protein affinity followed by ion exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE and ELISA confirmed the structure and functional integrity of the purified antibodies, respectively. Two human cancer cell lines "Hela" and "MDA" were treated by the purified antibodies. Three days later, different wells were imaged and the cells counted. Results: SDS-PAGE gel (None-reducing indicated consistency of band migration patterns with control antibodies. ELISA test using hCG antigens indicated that the produced antibodies could detect hCG antigens. Cell lines were cultured and treated with different concentrations of each antibody. Counting and imaging different wells of treated plates, indicated that 7D9 antibody had a more significant (P<0.01 cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines than the control cells. Conclusion: HCG targeting monoclonal antibodies can be used for targeted cancer therapy, as human cancer cells express hCG gene. 7D9 antibody that exhibits protease activity is a proper candidate for this purpose, as it possesses both antagonistic and enzymatic properties.

  11. Chromosome 9p-linked families with frontotemporal dementia associated with motor neuron disease. (United States)

    Le Ber, I; Camuzat, A; Berger, E; Hannequin, D; Laquerrière, A; Golfier, V; Seilhean, D; Viennet, G; Couratier, P; Verpillat, P; Heath, S; Camu, W; Martinaud, O; Lacomblez, L; Vercelletto, M; Salachas, F; Sellal, F; Didic, M; Thomas-Anterion, C; Puel, M; Michel, B-F; Besse, C; Duyckaerts, C; Meininger, V; Campion, D; Dubois, B; Brice, A


    Frontotemporal dementia associated with motor neuron disease (FTD-MND) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder that may be inherited by autosomal dominant trait. No major gene has been identified but a locus was mapped on chromosome 9 (9p21.3-p13.3). Ten French families with FTD-MND were tested for linkage to the 9p21.3-p13.3 region. We report extensive mutation screening in 9p-linked families and their clinical characteristics. We identified six new families with evidence for linkage to the chromosome 9p. Cumulative multipoint LOD score values were positive between markers D9S1121 and D9S301, reaching a peak of 8.0 at marker D9S248. Haplotype reconstruction defined the telomeric boundary at marker AFM218xg11, slightly narrowing the candidate interval. We found no disease-causing mutations by sequencing 29 candidate genes including IFT74 and no copy number variations in the 9p region. The mean age at onset was 57.9 +/- 10.3 years (range, 41-84), with wide heterogeneity within and among families suggesting age-dependant penetrance. The patients presented isolated FTD (32%), isolated MND (29%), or both disorders (39%). The general characteristics of the disease did not differ, except for an older age at onset and shorter disease duration in the 9p-linked compared to nonlinked families. TDP-43-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions were found in cortex and spinal cord in 3 patients. This study increases the number of 9p-linked families now reported and shows that this locus may have a major effect on frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and motor neuron disease (MND). Considering our results, the causative gene might be implicated in at least 60% of the families with FTD-MND disorder.

  12. Changes in intracellular calcium concentration in crustacean (Callinectes sapidus) Y-organs: relation to the hemolymphatic ecdysteroid titer. (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yin; Watson, R Douglas


    Secretion of ecdysteroid molting hormones by crustacean Y-organs is negatively regulated (inhibited) by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced by neurosecretory cells in eyestalk ganglia. The inhibitory effect of MIH is mediated by one or more cyclic nucleotide second messengers. In addition, available data indicate that ecdysteroidogenesis is positively regulated (stimulated) by intracellular calcium. However, despite the apparent critical role of calcium in regulating ecdysteroidogenesis, the level of Ca(2+) in Y-organs cells has not been previously determined. In studies reported here, eyestalks were ablated from blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) to remove the endogenous source of MIH and activate Y-organs. At 0, 3, 6, and 9 days after eyestalk ablation (D0, D3, D6, and D9, respectively), the level of Ca(2+) in Y-organ cells was determined using a fluorescent calcium indicator (Fluo-4), and the hemolymphatic ecdysteroid titer was determined by radioimmunoassay. Calcium fluorescence in D6 Y-organs was 3.5-fold higher than that in D0 controls; calcium fluorescence in D9 Y-organs was 3.9-fold higher than in D0 controls (P<0.05). Measurement of fluorescence along a transect drawn through representative cells indicated that the calcium fluorescence was localized to cytoplasm and not to nuclei. Associated with the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) was a significant increase in the hemolymphatic ecdysteroid titer: The level of ecdysteroids in hemolymph rose from 5.5 ng/mL on D0 to 49.6 ng/mL on D6 and 87.2 ng/mL on D9 (P<0.05). The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ecdysteroidogenesis is stimulated by an increase in intracellular Ca(2+).

  13. Gclust Server: 145821 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sted, animals roll when moving family member (rol-3) Number of Sequences 1 Homologs 1 Clustering threshold 1...145821 CEL_C16D9.2_32566642 Cluster Sequences - 2456 rol-3: ROLler: helically twisted, animals roll when family member (rol-3) 1 1.00e+00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.5 Show 145821 Cluster I...ces - Sequence length 2456 Representative annotation rol-3: ROLler: helically twi

  14. Implications of Advanced Technologies for Air and Spacecraft Escape (United States)


    Podas depuis b Vdhlea. I Is ma 5 bduns TrIcmupa 2 chil VC 20 sa 3/4 AM~re 0t Avant 2 35 100 so 3/4 AffkAm fAvmni TABLEAU 34 1 s 3!itE D9 )3SUR OPTIU... cerebral function, considered to have been caused by acceler- ation, has occurred, but where the circumstances of the accident preclude the re-interviewing the subject. A further value of using post traumatic amnesia as an index is that it is related to the degree of cerebral damage

  15. Operational Cost Analysis of Dental Emergencies for Deployed U.S. Army Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom (United States)


    not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 APR 2013 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...Pain DOI40/D9110 Dentinal Hypersensitivity D991I/D9IIO c;· D0460/D91 I 0 Hemorrha’ge NRU Herpetic Gingivostomatitis DO.I40/D9110 01204...associated with the soldiers, dental officers, and dental assistants. Treatment is calculated after categorizing the type of DE and assigning the American

  16. Operation and Maintenance of Clarks Hill Lake, Savannah River, Georgia, and South Carolina. (United States)


    I I r.0 tic A.-40 04 00 J... 1-4 r- r 0 -4 cc d) D - 9 - W p . 02 -4) -40) Wr .0 0l 0 0 0) a0 a, lid * 0 0 0 r- Q-4 - go - 0 tooo -4 to v ~ I a.. 4 04...Stizostedion canadense Sauger * S. v. vitreum Wal leye B-4 1 I . . - - - CLJ -4 -4 A u -4 0 U L,00~ 4)-4 *)4. 0 c 0 Ai 4 0 0 "a 44 -4 0 4 0 4 -4 J.J

  17. Overview of ligand versus metal centered redox reactions in tetraaza macrocyclic complexes of nickel with a focus on electron paramagnetic resonance studies




    Copper(II) (3d9, S = 1/2) complexes are stable and widely investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In contrast, isoelectronic nickel(I) is much less common and much less investigated. Nickel(I), however, is of biological interest as the active site of methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR) contains a tetraaza macrocyclic ligand, F430, which coordinates NiI in its active form, MCRred1. As result, the redox behavior and spectroscopy of tetraaza macrocyclic complexes of nic...

  18. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D


    was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...... absorption of testosterone, while the absorption velocity was unaltered. Two analytical methods were compared, direct counting versus wet ashing; results were in the same range for the three compounds. Two methods of quantifying skin absorption were compared; urine recovery corrected for incomplete urinary...

  19. Development and Use of Genetic Methods for Assessing Aquatic Environmental Condition and Recruitment Dynamics of Native Stream Fishes on Pacific Islands (United States)


    Hogan et al. (2010): Agua A4, Agua B1, Agua B2, Agua C4, Agua D3, Agua D9, Agua D103, Agua D110, and Agua D135. Of the remaining loci, Agua D106...R) GGGAGGCG AACTTTGAGAG. Locus Agua D117 exhibits a repeat motif of (TATC)9 and an optimal annealing temperature of 48°C. Primer sequences for...amplification are (F) GCCAAAACTCATACAAGAGGT and (R) GGTCTGCTTCTGAAATCTC. Locus Agua D6 exhibits a repeat motif of (TCTA)12 and an optimal annealing

  20. /D=4, /N=1 orientifolds with vector structure (United States)

    Klein, M.; Rabadán, R.


    We construct compact type IIB orientifolds with discrete groups Z4, Z6, Z6' , Z8, Z12 and Z12' . These models are N=1 supersymmetric in D=4 and have vector structure. The possibility of having vector structure in ZN orientifolds with even N arises due to an alternative Ω-projection in the twisted sectors. Some of the models without vector structure are known to be inconsistent because of uncancelled tadpoles. We show that vector structure leads to a sign flip in the twisted Klein bottle contribution. As a consequence, all the tadpoles can be cancelled by introducing D9-branes and D5-branes.

  1. Optical Communications With A Geiger Mode APD Array (United States)


    Optical Communications With A Geiger Mode APD Array by Benjamin William Horkley S.B., EECS, MIT 2014 Submitted to the Department of Electrical... William Horkley Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science on January 29, 2016, in partial fulfillment of the 9.7 M B d . F rom top to b ottom , th e th ree d ash ed lin es sh ow th e F E C error correction cu toff s for rate 1/2, 4/5, an d 9/10 co d es. 40

  2. Analysis of radial energy loss in an arc heater channel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregor, J.; Jakubová, I.; Šenk, J.; Mašláni, Alan


    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2009), s. 179-188 ISSN 1093-3611. [ European High Temperature Plasma Processes (HTPP)/10th./. Patras (Patras University), 07.07.2008-11.07.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : arc heater * argon * radiation * experiment * mathematical model Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2009,4e2a92412d8c6bb5,161d9fdc35c6e905.html

  3. Report of Investigation: Jill Vines Loftus, Senior Executive Service (Redacted) (United States)


    By memor.lln~lum dmed Decemb¢r3, 2009, the.Aclmi,lllstrativc Aicle to i:he Secretary 9f the Navy.appointed Ms. Lol \\11s as ii travelpn.1grar11...82171ower fare option, .Pltll\\se mt1dify ors or CQtitact 1 The lol !lltmris-.Atlantio 1•ou6d•ldp po1tio11 cost $1,46:1.60, whi<!h\\i~~d $9l);/;O

  4. Effects of palladium on the optical and hydrogen sensing characteristics of Pd-doped ZnO nanoparticles (United States)

    Giang, Hong Thai; Do, Thu Thi; Pham, Ngan Quang; Ho, Giang Truong


    Summary The effect of palladium doping of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the photoluminescence (PL) properties and hydrogen sensing characteristics of gas sensors is investigated. The PL intensity shows that the carrier dynamics coincides with the buildup of the Pd-related green emission. The comparison between the deep level emission and the gas sensing response characteristics allows us to suggest that the dissociation of hydrogen takes place at PdZn-vacancies ([Pd 2+(4d9)]). The design of this sensor allows for a continuous monitoring in the range of 0–100% LEL H2 concentration with high sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:25247110

  5. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of (fluoromethane + tetrafluoromethane) at the temperature 130.46 K


    Fonseca, I. M. A.; Sardinha, G. G.; Lobo, Lélio Q.


    The total vapour pressure of binary liquid mixtures of (fluoromethane+tetrafluoromethane) has been measured at the temperature 130.46 K. Two partially miscible liquid phases were found. The excess molar Gibbs energy was calculated in the region where the two liquids are mutually soluble. For the hypothetical equimolar mixture,GEm01 (x=0.5)=846 Jmol-1.

  6. Liquid Chromatography Tandem mass spectrometry method for Quantification of Buproprion and Hydroxy Buproprion in Human Plasma and its application to Bioequivalence Study


    Peeyush Jain; Nishant Paliwal; Naveen Dubey; Sandeep Sharma; Bhawani Singh


    A rapid, specific and robust assay based on solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electronspray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS-MS) has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of Buproprion (a drug used for smoking cessation) in human plasma using Buproprion D9 as internal standard (ISTD). The precursors to product ion transitions of m/z 240.20/183.90 and m/z 256.10/237.90 were used to measure the analyte (Buproprion and hydroxy Buproprion) and the...

  7. Photochemistry of Metal-Metal Bonded Transition Element Complexes (United States)


    Washington, DC 20376i i Dr . John F. Hioulihan Shenango Volley Campus H. L. R•obertson,,•Penns•ylvania State University Manager, Electrochemical Sharon ...summary, Table I, have all been shown to undergo efficient M-M bong hemoly sis upon Photo- excitatlon (Li, 25-29). Examples of d -d d,-d7, d9 -d’, d5...P.O. Box 1211 Arlington, Virginia 22217 2 Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27709 1 ONR Branch Office Naval Ocean Systems Center Attn: Dr . George Sandoz Attn

  8. Organization of projection-specific interneurons in the spinal cord of the red-eared turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulla Vig; Moldovan, Mihai; Hounsgaard, Jørn


    Using differential retrograde axonal tracing, we identified motoneurons (MNs) and projection-specific interneuron (IN) classes in lumbar segment D9 of the adult red-eared turtle spinal cord. We characterized the distribution of these neurons in the transverse plane, and estimated their numbers an...... of aIINs versus dIINs, of aCINs versus dCINs, and of adIINs versus adCINs. The findings are compared to the organization of lumbar spinal INs in other vertebrate species....

  9. A familial {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaff, J.; Hemann, M. [Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)


    Families in which a balanced translocation has been transmitted from a normal parent to a child with a phenotypic abnormality have been a longstanding puzzle for human geneticists. A child with phenotypic features of the 9p- syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his normal father. He also exhibited marked hypopigmentation of hair and skin. Analysis with a cDNA probe from the TYRP1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1) gene in 9p23 showed heterozygous deletion in the child but in neither parent. This submicroscopic deletion also included loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267. FISH analysis of the proband`s father indicated the 9p23 loci deleted in his son were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation product, but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father`s 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8. Neither the deletion from the translocation chromosomes nor the insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband`s sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis of this sister showed 3 copies of 9p23 sequences, indicating that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9 from her father as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion from 9p23. This analysis illustrates a new mechanism to explain cases of phenotypic discordance in familial balanced translocations: submicroscopic deletion of material from the translocation breakpoint and insertion into a third chromosome in the balanced parent, with meiotic segregation leading to loss of the inserted material in the child.

  10. fteated bagacillo diets for lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 3 Nitrogen balance and Cr203 recovery in lambs fed NaOH-treated and untreated bagacillo/molasses diets. Bagacillo/molasses ratio. 22170. 46/46. 70122. Observations. + NaOH - NaOH. + NaOH - NaOH. + NaOH - NaOH. Nitrogen balance". Intake, gN/day. 19,5c. 24,6d. 23,8d. 23,4d. 25,8d. 9,3e. Faecal loss, gN/day.

  11. Weapons at the battlefield of Kalkriese


    Rost, Achim; Wilbers-Rost, Susanne


    Archaeological investigations have been taking place at the Kalkriese Hill in Northern Germany since 1987. Roman coins and military equipment are the result of a battle between Romans and Germans, probably the Varus Battle (A.D. 9). It is the aim of our research project to reconstruct the course of the battle. It has become apparent that one cannot deduct the intensity of fighting by the number of finds. Instead, we have to take into account the impact of post-battle processes on the archaeol...

  12. Relationship of Interfacial Compatibility to Durability of Adhesive - Bonded Joints (United States)


    B. Z. Rosenblum, P. F. Braunlich, and L. Himmel , J. Apply. Phys. 48, 5262 (1977). D-4. R. G. Liptai and R. G. Tatro, "Proceedings of the Fourth...Publishers, John Wiley and Sons (New York, 1971). D-7. B. Z. Rosenblum, J. P. Carrico, P. Braunlich, and L. Himmel , J. Phys. E. Sci. Instr. 10 (1977). D-8...L. R. Danielson, M. J. Dresser, E. E. Donaldson, Jr., and L. Himmel , Surf. Sci. 71, 599 (1978). D-9. D. R. Arnott and J. A. Ramsey, Surf. Sci. 28, 1

  13. Effects of palladium on the optical and hydrogen sensing characteristics of Pd-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh-Thu Thi Do


    Full Text Available The effect of palladium doping of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the photoluminescence (PL properties and hydrogen sensing characteristics of gas sensors is investigated. The PL intensity shows that the carrier dynamics coincides with the buildup of the Pd-related green emission. The comparison between the deep level emission and the gas sensing response characteristics allows us to suggest that the dissociation of hydrogen takes place at PdZn-vacancies ([Pd 2+(4d9]. The design of this sensor allows for a continuous monitoring in the range of 0–100% LEL H2 concentration with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  14. Genetic Dissection of a QTL Affecting Bone Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L. Sabik


    Full Text Available Parameters of bone geometry such as width, length, and cross-sectional area are major determinants of bone strength. Although these traits are highly heritable, few genes influencing bone geometry have been identified. Here, we dissect a major quantitative trait locus (QTL influencing femur size. This QTL was originally identified in an F2 cross between the C57BL/6J-hg/hg (HG and CAST/EiJ strains and was referred to as femur length in high growth mice 2 (Feml2. Feml2 was located on chromosome (Chr. 9 at ∼20 cM. Here, we show that the HG.CAST-(D9Mit249-D9Mit133/Ucd congenic strain captures Feml2. In an F2 congenic cross, we fine-mapped the location of Feml2 to an ∼6 Mbp region extending from 57.3 to 63.3 Mbp on Chr. 9. We have identified candidates by mining the complete genome sequence of CAST/EiJ and through allele-specific expression (ASE analysis of growth plates in C57BL/6J × CAST/EiJ F1 hybrids. Interestingly, we also find that the refined location of Feml2 overlaps a cluster of six independent genome-wide associations for human height. This work provides the foundation for the identification of novel genes affecting bone geometry.

  15. Linkage analysis of the Fanconi anemia gene FACC with chromosome 9q markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, A.D.; Shin, H.T.; Kaporis, A.G. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others


    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous syndrome, with at least four different complementation groups as determined by cell fusion studies. The gene for complementation group C, FACC, has been cloned and mapped to chromosome 9q22.3 by in situ hybridization, while linkage analysis has supported the placement of another gene on chromosome 20q. We have analyzed five microsatellite markers and one RFLP on chromosome 9q in a panel of FA families from the International Fanconi Anemia Registry (IFAR) in order to place FACC on the genetic map. Polymorphisms were typed in 308 individuals from 51 families. FACC is tightly linked to both D9S151 [{Theta}{sub max}=0.025, Z{sub max}=7.75] and to D9S196 [{Theta}{sub max}=0.041, Z{sub max}=7.89]; multipoint analysis is in progress. We are currently screening a YAC clone that contains the entire FACC gene for additional microsatellite markers suitable for haplotype analysis of FA families.

  16. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola gigantica. (United States)

    Viyanant, V; Upatham, E S; Sobhon, P; Krailas, D; Ardseungnoen, P; Anatawara, S


    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were developed from BALB/c mice. Four were selected for further study, from the panel of hybridomas. The antigen specificities of these MAbs were characterized and localized by enzyme-linked immunoeletrotransfer blot (EITB) and immunoperoxidase technique. The target epitopes of these MAbs are 66 kDa protein (MAb 2D10), 66 and 27-26 kDa proteins (MAbs 5D10 and 4F5) and 27-26 kDa protein (MAb 2D9). MAb 2D9 reacted to the antigenic components of the luminal content and epithelial cell lining the cecum, whereas MAb 2D10 reacted specifically to the antigens of the tegument and surface membrane. It was found that all MAbs cross-reacted to various degrees with the antigens extracted from Schistosoma mansoni, S. mekongi, S. spindale and Paramphistomum spp. However, when MAbs were diluted to 1:100 or 1:400 significant reduction of their cross-reactivities was observed.

  17. Critical load during continuous and discontinuous training in swimming Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chimin


    Full Text Available The study aimed to verify the pattern of critical load (CL and anaerobic swim capacity (ASC during a twelve-week continuous program, after 3 and 9 days of detraining, and in a short-term retraining in swimming rats. Animals were distributed into four groups: control (CG, trained (TG, detrained 3 days (D3G and detrained 9 days (D9G. They were submitted to a CL test in a swimming exercise. TG group trained continuously during 12 weeks. D3G and D9G groups trained for five weeks, stopped for three and nine days, respectively, and came back to complete the training period. ANOVA two-way for repeated measures was used to compare data. All groups showed decline on CL during the twelve weeks of training, but TG showed higher CL values at the end of the twelve weeks (T: 7.03 ± 1.62% of body mass, p<0.05. ASC values did not have a regular pattern of change; there were no statistical difference in the end of the twelve weeks. This study showed that continuous training was able to keep CL values higher than the other groups, but detraining and a short-term retraining was not benefic for CL and ASC.

  18. COL5A1: Genetic mapping and exclusion as candidate gene in families with nail-patella syndrome, tuberous sclerosis 1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, D.S. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Northrup, H.; Au, K.S. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others


    COL5A1, the gene for the {alpha}1 chain of type V collagen, has been considered a candidate gene for certain diseases based on chromosomal location and/or disease phenotype. We have employed 3{prime}-untranslated region RFLPs to exclude COL5A1 as a candidate gene in families with tuberous sclerosis 1, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type H, and nail-patella syndrome. In addition, we describe a polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) within a COL5A1 intron. This SSR is used to exclude COL5A1 as a candidate gene in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Rendu-Weber disease) and to add COL5A1 to the existing map of {open_quotes}index{close_quotes} markers of chromosome 9 by evaluation of the COL5A1 locus on the CEPH 40-family reference pedigree set. This genetic mapping places COL5A1 between markers D9S66 and D9S67. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. COL5A1: Fine genetic mapping, intron/exon organization, and exclusion as candidate gene in families with tuberous sclerosis complex 1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, D.S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Papenberg, K.A.; Marchuk, D.A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others


    Type V collagen is the only fibrillar collagen which has yet to be implicated in the pathogenesis of genetic diseases in humans or mice. To begin examining the possible role of type V collagen in genetic disease, we have previously mapped COL5A1, the gene for the {alpha}1 chain of type V collagen, to 9q23.2{r_arrow}q34.3 and described two restriction site polymorphisms which allowed us to exclude COL5A1 as candidate gene for nail-patella syndrome. We have now used these polymorphisms to exclude COL5A1 as candidate gene for tuberous sclerosis complex 1 and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II. In addition, we describe a CA repeat, with observed heterozygosity of about 0.5, in a COL5A1 intron, which has allowed us to exclude COL5A1 as a candidate gene in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and to place COL5A1 on the CEPH family genetic map between markers D9S66 and D9S67. We have also determined the entire intron/exon organization of COL5A1, which will facilitate characterization of mutations in genetic diseases with which COL5A1 may be linked in future studies.

  20. A laboratory investigation of stain removal from enamel surface: comparative efficacy of three electric toothbrushes. (United States)

    Schemehorn, B R; Henry, G M


    To evaluate in a controlled laboratory investigation the efficacy of three electric toothbrushes with respect to removal of extrinsic dental stain from labial enamel surfaces of bovine permanent central incisors. Enamel specimens were treated to produce a uniformly stained pellicle film. Staining was assessed photometrically, before and after brushing 16 specimens per group for 4.5 minutes with either the Braun Oral-B Plaque Remover (D7), the Braun Oral-B Ultra Plaque Remover (D9) or a high frequency electric toothbrush. A manual brush with the ADA reference abrasive was used as a positive control, and this was compared with the three electric toothbrushes, using a dentifrice slurry prepared from Crest toothpaste. Tension on the enamel specimens was set at 150 g, except for the high frequency toothbrush which was set at the manufacturer's recommended tension of 50 g. Stain removal was expressed as a cleaning ratio (CR), where larger values represented greater removal of stained pellicle. Compared with the ADA control (CR = 100), the D9 was the most effective (CR = 98) removing significantly more stain (P toothbrush was found to be the least effective (CR = 48), removing significantly less stain than any of the other toothbrushes (P < 0.05).

  1. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) (United States)

    Mendoza, Agustín C.; da Rocha, Aline C. P.


    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2°C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn’t). The 68% viability for the egg–adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration. PMID:27126964

  2. Optical engineering in South Africa from 1960 to 2010 and beyond

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ



  3. Heat transfer in a channel with inclined target surface cooled by single array of centered impinging jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Mubarak Ali A.


    Full Text Available An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the heat transfer characteristics in a channel with heated target plate inclined at an angle cooled by single array of equally spaced centered impinging jets for three different jet Reynolds numbers (Re=9300, 14400 and 18800. Air ejected from an array of orifices impinges on the heated target surface The target plate forms the leading edge of a gas turbine blade cooled by jet impingement technique. The work includes the effect of jet Reynolds numbers and feed channel aspect ratios (H/d = 5, 7, 9 where H=2.5, 3.5, 4.5 cm and d=0.5 cm on the heat transfer characteristics for a given orifice jet plate configuration with equally spaced centered holes with outflow exiting in both directions (with inclined heated target surface. In general, It has been observed that, H/d=9 gives the maximum heat transfer over the entire length of the target surface as compared to all feed channel aspect ratios. H/d=9 gives 3% more heat transfer from the target surface as compared to H/d=5 (for Re=14400. Also, it has been observed that the magnitude of the averaged local Nusselt number increases with an increase in the jet Reynolds number for all the feed channel aspect ratios studied.

  4. Ovulation and conception rates according intravaginal progesterone device and hCG or GnRH to induce ovulation in buffalo during the off breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Baruselli


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravaginal progesterone device (P4; first or second use of different ovulatory inductors on ovulation and conception rates in buffaloes during the off breeding season. Two hundred and forty two buffaloes were allocated in four groups and received P4 device of first or second use plus estradiol benzoate on Day 0 (D0. The P4 device was removed and a dose of PGF2α and eCG was administered on D9. On D11, buffaloes received hCG or GnRH and 16hs after the animals were inseminated. The ultrasound examination was performed on D0 to verify the ovarian status, from D9 to D14 to establish the moment of ovulation and on D40 for pregnancy diagnosis. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Chi-square test. There was no effect of interaction. The ovulation and conception rate were similar for P4 device of first and second use, for hCG and GnRH. Results indicate that the use of P4 device for two times and the use of GnRH instead of hCG provide satisfactory ovulation and conception rate in buffalo during the off breeding season and might reduce the cost of the protocol for artificial insemination.

  5. Computational assessment of several hydrogen-free high energy compounds. (United States)

    Tan, Bisheng; Huang, Ming; Long, Xinping; Li, Jinshan; Fan, Guijuan


    Tetrazino-tetrazine-tetraoxide (TTTO) is an attractive high energy compound, but unfortunately, it is not yet experimentally synthesized so far. Isomerization of TTTO leads to its five isomers, bond-separation energies were empolyed to compare the global stability of six compounds, it is found that isomer 1 has the highest bond-separation energy (1204.6kJ/mol), compared with TTTO (1151.2kJ/mol); thermodynamic properties of six compounds were theoretically calculated, including standard formation enthalpies (solid and gaseous), standard fusion enthalpies, standard vaporation enthalpies, standard sublimation enthalpies, lattice energies and normal melting points, normal boiling points; their detonation performances were also computed, including detonation heat (Q, cal/g), detonation velocity (D, km/s), detonation pressure (P, GPa) and impact sensitivity (h50, cm), compared with TTTO (Q=1311.01J/g, D=9.228km/s, P=40.556GPa, h50=12.7cm), isomer 5 exhibites better detonation performances (Q=1523.74J/g, D=9.389km/s, P=41.329GPa, h50= 28.4cm). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. OH clock determination by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry at an environmental chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barmet


    Full Text Available The hydroxyl free radical (OH is the major oxidizing species in the lower atmosphere. Measuring the OH concentration is generally difficult and involves elaborate, expensive, custom-made experimental setups. Thus other more economical techniques, capable of determining OH concentrations at environmental chambers, would be valuable. This work is based on an indirect method of OH concentration measurement, by monitoring an appropriate OH tracer by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. 3-pentanol, 3-pentanone and pinonaldehyde (PA were used as OH tracers in α-pinene (AP secondary organic aerosol (SOA aging studies. In addition we tested butanol-d9 as a potential "universal" OH tracer and determined its reaction rate constant with OH: kbutanol-d9 = 3.4(±0.88 × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. In order to make the chamber studies more comparable among each other as well as to atmospheric measurements we suggest the use of a chemical (time dimension: the OH clock, which corresponds to the integrated OH concentration over time.

  7. Dirac $R$-matrix and Breit-Pauli distorted wave calculations of the electron-impact excitation of W$^{44+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Bluteau, M M; Badnell, N R


    With construction of ITER progressing and existing tokamaks carrying out ITER-relevant experiments, accurate fundamental and derived atomic data for numerous ionization stages of tungsten (W) is required to assess the potential effect of this species upon fusion plasmas. The results of fully relativistic, partially radiation damped, Dirac $R$-matrix electron-impact excitation calculations for the W$^{44+}$ ion are presented. These calculations use a configuration interaction and close-coupling expansion that opens-up the 3d-subshell, which does not appear to have been considered before in a collision calculation. As a result, it is possible to investigate the arrays, [3d$^{10}$4s$^2-$3d$^9$4s$^2$4f] and [3d$^{10}$4s$^2-$3d$^9$4s4p4d], which are predicted to contain transitions of diagnostic importance for the soft x-ray region. Our $R$-matrix collision data are compared with previous $R$-matrix results by Ballance and Griffin as well as our own relativistically corrected, Breit-Pauli distorted wave and plane-...

  8. The Novel Genotype D8 of Measles Virus Detected in Indonesia in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subangkit Subangkit


    Full Text Available BackgroundMeasles is one of the most infectious human diseases and can cause serious illness, lifelong complications and death. Measles is still a public health problem since the measles outbreak still occurred throughout Indonesia. Virology surveillance following molecular epidemiology investigations has a major contribution to prevent measles outbreak. Previous studies have documented the presence of measles virus genotypes G2, G3 and D9 in Indonesia, and the other genotypes such as B3, D4, D5, D8 and H1 have been detected in neighboring countries. This study aims to characterize the measles virus that causing outbreak in Indonesia in 2014. MethodsSeventy four urine specimens were collected from eight provinces and examined by one step RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing method. Sequencing analysis were conducted using Bioedit 7.1; DNA Star 7.0 and MEGA 5.0 software. ResultsThe PCR results showed 34 out of 74 clinical specimens positive of measles virus. We found the genotype of 34 measles viruses belongs to genotype D8, D9 and G3. ConclusionThe first measles genotype D8 has been detected from Indonesia in 2014 although other measles genotype still can be found in Indonesia.

  9. Distribution of Microsatellite instability in Danish ovarian tumor patients and the prognostic value in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, F.D.; Kjaer, S.K.; Blaakaer, J.


    The repeated frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI) in ovarian cancer (OC) ranges from 0% to 50%. Most MSI studies including OC patients have involved relatively small number of tumors, a wide range of different MSI markers, different patient characteristics, and varying criteria......17S250, CACNLB1, D18S58, D19S49, DXS538, DXS454, D5S117, D5S107, D6S284, D6S305, D9S171, D9S15, D11S554, D11S29, and D13S272 in tissue from patients with OC or BOT and to correlate the presence of MSI at these markers with the clinical information, such as FIGO stage, histological type, age...... specific survival was found between stage III/IV OC patients who presented MSI compared to patients being microsatellite stable (MSS) (p = 0.72). In conclusion, we found no association to any of the clinical parameters evaluated, although a tendency of a higher frequency of MSI was observed among serous OC...

  10. On the low-lying states of CuO (United States)

    Bagus, P. S.; Nelin, C. J.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.


    Self consistent field and correlated wave functions have been computed for the ground and for several low-lying states of CuO. The ground state is X(2)PI and the lowest excited state, at approximately 8,000/cm above X(2)PI, is a previously unidentified 2-sigma(+) state. The separation of these states is compared to that for the similar states of KO and is analysed in terms of integrals between orbitals of the separated free ions. A classification of the states of the molecule based on states of Cu(+) and O(-) which leads to a division into manifolds of states arising from Cu(+) 3d(10) and Cu(+) 3d(9) 4s(1) is considered. It is predicted that the state of the 3d(9) 4s(1) manifold are 10,000 to 30,000/cm above the ground state and assign the observed A2-sigma(+) state at 16,500/cm to this manifold.

  11. Optimizing heterosurface adsorbent synthesis for liquid chromatography (United States)

    Bogoslovskii, S. Yu.; Serdan, A. A.


    The structural and geometric parameters of a silica matrix (SM) for the synthesis of heterosurface adsorbents (HAs) are optimized. Modification is performed by shielding the external surfaces of alkyl-modified silica (AS) using human serum albumin and its subsequent crosslinking. The structural and geometric characteristics of the SM, AS, and HA are measured via low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. It is found that the structural characteristics of AS pores with diameters D 9 nm reduces significantly due to adsorption of albumin. It is concluded that silica gel with a maximum pore size distribution close to 5 nm and a minimal proportion of pores with D > 9 nm is optimal for HA synthesis; this allows us to achieve the greatest similarity between the chromatographic retention parameters for HA and AS. The suitability of the synthesized adsorbents for analyzing drugs in biological fluids through direct sample injection is confirmed by chromatography. It was found that the percentage of the protein fraction detected at the outlet of the chromatographic column is 98%.

  12. Genetic Dissection of a QTL Affecting Bone Geometry. (United States)

    Sabik, Olivia L; Medrano, Juan F; Farber, Charles R


    Parameters of bone geometry such as width, length, and cross-sectional area are major determinants of bone strength. Although these traits are highly heritable, few genes influencing bone geometry have been identified. Here, we dissect a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) influencing femur size. This QTL was originally identified in an F2 cross between the C57BL/6J-hg/hg (HG) and CAST/EiJ strains and was referred to as femur length in high growth mice 2 (Feml2). Feml2 was located on chromosome (Chr.) 9 at ∼20 cM. Here, we show that the HG.CAST-(D9Mit249-D9Mit133)/Ucd congenic strain captures Feml2 In an F2 congenic cross, we fine-mapped the location of Feml2 to an ∼6 Mbp region extending from 57.3 to 63.3 Mbp on Chr. 9. We have identified candidates by mining the complete genome sequence of CAST/EiJ and through allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis of growth plates in C57BL/6J × CAST/EiJ F1 hybrids. Interestingly, we also find that the refined location of Feml2 overlaps a cluster of six independent genome-wide associations for human height. This work provides the foundation for the identification of novel genes affecting bone geometry. Copyright © 2017 Sabik et al.

  13. 市場經濟、全球化與數位圖書館發展的反思 | Globalization, Market Economy in Developing Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳俊湘 Chun-Hsiang Chen


    Full Text Available


    數位圖書館發展的過程中,依賴市場經濟的企業經營模式似成為不可避免的趨向,然而隱身在資訊與經濟全球化背後的公共需求與資訊依賴議題,更值得資訊依賴國家在發展數位圖書館時的重視。d9d9d9; color: red; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-fareast; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-shading: white; mso-pattern: gray-15 auto;" lang="EN-US">

    The development of digital libraries has been facing budgets, human resources and technical issues. Inevitably, it tends to rely on the business model based on market economy in developing digital libraries. However, under business globalization and knowledge-based economics, issues such as public needs, information dependence, information-haves and information-have-nots are worth of attention while developing digital libraries.

  14. Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens. (United States)

    Mack, L A; Felver-Gant, J N; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W


    Genetic differences alter the type and degree of hens' responses and their ability to adapt to a stressor. This study examined the effects of genotypic variations on the productivity and behavior of laying hens following heat stress (HS). Two strains of White Leghorn hens were used: DXL (Dekalb XL), a commercial strain individually selected for egg production and KGB (kind, gentle bird), a strain selected for high group productivity and survivability. Ninety hens (48 DXL and 42 KGB) at 28 wk of age were randomly assigned to either a hot (H: mean = 32.6°C) or control (C: mean = 24.3°C) treatment and housed in pairs by strain for 9 d. Egg production and quality, behavior, body and organ weights, and circulating hormone concentrations were measured. Heat-stressed hens had lower egg production [adjusted (adj) P weight tended to be reduced at d 1 and was reduced at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), but was reduced only at d 9 among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.007). Eggshell thickness was also reduced among H hens at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), especially among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.01). Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was reduced among H-hens (adj P = 0.01), especially among H-DXL hens (adj P = 0.01). Neither temperature nor strain affected the plasma thyroxine and plasma and yolk corticosterone concentrations. Heat-stressed hens spent less time walking (adj P = 0.001) and more time drinking (adj P = 0.007) and resting (adj P = 0.001) than C-hens. The results indicate that although HS reduced production and caused behavioral changes among hens from both strains, the responses differed by genotype. The data provide evidence that genetic selection is a useful strategy for reducing HS response in laying hens. The results provide insights for conducting future studies to develop heat-resistant strains to improve hen well-being, especially under the current commercial conditions.

  15. Characterizations of 9p21 candidate genes in familial melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, G.J.; Flores, J.F.; Glendening, J.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others


    We have previously collected and characterized 16 melanoma families for the inheritance of a familial melanoma predisposition gene on 9p21. Clear evidence for genetic linkage has been detected in 8 of these families with the 9p21 markers D9S126 and 1FNA, while linkage of the remaining families to this region is less certain. A candidate for the 9p21 familial melanoma gene, the cyclin kinase inhibitor gene p16 (also known as the multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS1) gene), has been recently indentified. Notably, a nonsense mutation within the p16 gene has been detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line DNA from a dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS), or familial melanoma, patient. The p16 gene is also known to be frequently deleted or mutated in a variety of tumor cell lines (including melanoma) and resides within a region that has been defined as harboring the 9p21 melanoma predisposition locus. This region is delineated on the distal side by the marker D9S736 (which resides just distal to the p16 gene) and extends in a proximal direction to the marker D9S171. Overall, the entire distance between these two loci is estimated at 3-5Mb. Preliminary analysis of our two largest 9p21-linked melanoma kindreds (by direct sequencing of PCR products) has not yet revealed mutations within the coding region of the p16 gene. Others have reported that 8/11 unrelated 9p21-linked melanoma families do not appear to carry p16 mutations; thus the possibility exists that p16 is not a melanoma susceptibility gene per se, although it appears to play some role in melanoma tumor progression. Our melanoma kindred DNAs are currently being analyzed by SSCP using primers that amplify exons of other candidate genes from the 9p21 region implicated in familial melanoma. These novel genes reside within a distinct critical region of homozygous loss in melanoma which is located >2 Mb from the p16 gene on 9p21.

  16. The Heel Pad in Congenital Idiopathic Clubfoot: Implications of Empty Heel for Clinical Severity Assessment. (United States)

    Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O; Asuquo, J E; Joseph, Mejabi O; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Morcuende, Jose A


    Clubfoot has been evaluated in many ways, including the most common classifications of clubfoot, described by Caterrall and Piraniis based on six clinical signs. The purpose of this study was to gain better understanding of the heel pad in relation to the term "empty heel", and to propose modification of clubfoot severity scoring system based on "empty heel". A combination of prospective study of 79 clubfoot patients treated with Ponseti method and literature review of heel pad anatomy and biomechanics. The setting was a university teaching hospital. The ethical research committee approved study protocol and informed consent of patients' parent obtained. The selection criteria included patients' diagnosed congenital idiopathic clubfoot, age One hundred and thirty-two clubfeet in 79 patients (56 males, 23 females) completed Ponseti protocol. The median age at presentation was 5.2 months (range 0.1-23.7 months). The mean right foot abduction after correction 57.30 (S.D. 9.20), and for the left foot, was 56.30 (S.D. 9.40). The mean right foot dorsiflexion was -13.70 (S.D. 18.40) before correction while after correction, it was 20.00 (S.D. 4.50) and for the left, the mean was -8.50 (S.D. 9.60) before correction and 21.00 (S.D. 4.30) after correction. Eighteen (22.8%) patients (10 bilateral, 9 unilateral) had clubfeet with empty heel score above zero point at initial full correction (ppad is a solid complex structure existing in normal, moderate and severe atrophied form. Heel pad is attached tightly to calcaneus without a cavity for the calcaneus to drop. Heel pad probably could replace "empty heel" in modify Pirani scoring system. Clinical indication for repeat tenotomy should be based on equinus, not on the feeling of an empty heel, and families can be advised that the heel pad has a tendency to remodel over time to a normal shape. Level II. Empty heel feeling at initial full correction of congenital idiopathic clubfoot based on Ponseti protocol is not indication for

  17. Determination of decimal reduction time (D value of chemical agents used in hospitals for disinfection purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da S Martins Alzira M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the selection of disinfectants for low, intermediate and high (sterilizing levels, the decimal reduction time, D-value, for the most common and persistent bacteria identified at a health care facility should be determined. Methods The D-value was determined by inoculating 100 mL of disinfecting solution with 1 mL of a bacterial suspension (104 – 105 CFU/mL for vegetative and spore forms. At regular intervals, 1 mL aliquots of this mixture were transferred to 8 mL of growth media containing a neutralizing agent, and incubated at optimal conditions for the microorganism. Results The highest D-values for various bacteria were determined for the following solutions: (i 0.1% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (pH 7.0 – E. coli and A. calcoaceticus (D = 5.9 min; (ii sodium hypochlorite (pH 7.0 at 0.025% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 24 min, E. coli and E. cloacae (D = 7.5 min; at 0.05% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.4 min and E. coli (D = 6.1 min and 0.1% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 3.5 min and B. subtilis (D = 3.2 min; (iii 2.0% glutaraldehyde (pH 7.4 – B. stearothermophilus, B. subtilis (D = 25 min and E. coli (D = 7.1 min; (iv 0.5% formaldehyde (pH 6.5 – B. subtilis (D = 11.8 min, B. stearothermophilus (D = 10.9 min and A. calcoaceticus (D = 5.2 min; (v 2.0% chlorhexidine (pH 6.2 – B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.1 min, and at 0.4% for E. cloacae (D = 8.3 min; (vi 1.0% Minncare® (peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, pH 2.3 – B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.1 min and E. coli (D = 6.7 min. Conclusions The suspension studies were an indication of the disinfectant efficacy on a surface. The data in this study reflect the formulations used and may vary from product to product. The expected effectiveness from the studied formulations showed that the tested agents can be recommended for surface disinfection as stated in present guidelines and emphasizes the importance and need to develop routine and novel programs to

  18. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Converts Plant-Derived Choline to Glycine Betaine for Osmoprotection during Pre- and Post-harvest Colonization of Injured Lettuce Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A. Scott


    Full Text Available Plant injury is inherent to the production and processing of fruit and vegetables. The opportunistic colonization of damaged plant tissue by human enteric pathogens may contribute to the occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to produce. Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 responds to physicochemical stresses in cut lettuce and lettuce lysates by upregulation of several stress response pathways. We investigated the tolerance of EcO157 to osmotic stress imposed by the leakage of osmolytes from injured lettuce leaf tissue. LC-MS analysis of bacterial osmoprotectants in lettuce leaf lysates and wound washes indicated an abundant natural pool of choline, but sparse quantities of glycine betaine and proline. Glycine betaine was a more effective osmoprotectant than choline in EcO157 under osmotic stress conditions in vitro. An EcO157 mutant with a deletion of the betTIBA genes, which are required for biosynthesis of glycine betaine from imported choline, achieved population sizes twofold lower than those of the parental strain (P < 0.05 over the first hour of colonization of cut lettuce in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP. The cell concentrations of the betTIBA mutant also were 12-fold lower than those of the parental strain (P < 0.01 when grown in hypertonic lettuce lysate, indicating that lettuce leaf cellular contents provide choline for osmoprotection of EcO157. To demonstrate the utilization of available choline by EcO157 for osmoadaptation in injured leaf tissue, deuterated (D-9 choline was introduced to wound sites in MAP lettuce; LC-MS analysis revealed the conversion of D9-choline to D-9 glycine betaine in the parental strain, but no significant amounts were observed in the betTIBA mutant. The EcO157 ΔbetTIBA-ΔotsBA double mutant, which is additionally deficient in de novo synthesis of the compatible solute trehalose, was significantly less fit than the parental strain after their co-inoculation onto injured lettuce leaves and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Propagation of Coffea arabica L. through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis technique is promising for producing large number of coffee seedlings. The objectives of the research were to evaluate methods for direct and indirect somatic embryo-genesis induction of C. arabica var. Kartika. The explants were the youngest fully expanded leaves of arabica coffee. The evalu-ated medium was modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Both calli (100 mg and pre-embryos developed from the edge of leaf explants were subcultured into regeneration medium (half strength MS with modified vitamin, supplemented with kinetine 9.30 µM and adenine sulfate 40 mg L-1. The results showed coffee leaf explant cultured on medium containing 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induce direct somatic embriogenesis from explant, while that of 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induced indirect somatic embrio-genesis. The medium for calli induction from coffee by explants was medium supplemented with 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D in combination with 9.08 µM thidiazuron. On the other hand, the best medium for activation of induction of somatic embryos was MS medium supplemented with 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Based on this results, the first step for developing micropropagation for coffee has been resolved. The subsequent studies will be directed to evaluate agronomic performance of the derived planting materials.

  20. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour - a case report. (United States)

    Venkataraman, Sundar; Pandian, Chelladurai; Kumar, Suresh A


    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) are aggressive childhood malignancies and offer a significant challenge to treatment. A two years old female child presented with weakness both lower limbs. Preoperative MRI of the spine and paravertebral regionIso - hyper intense posterior placed extradural lesion, non contrast enhancing from D11-L2 levels with cord compression D9 to L3 laminectomy done. Granulation tissue found from D11 to L2. with cord compression. The granulation tissue removed in toto. The pathological findings were consistent with PNET. Post operative neurological improvement was minimal. Cranial screening ruled out any intracranialtumour. Hence a diagnosis of primary spinal PNET was made. A review of the literature shows that only 19 cases of primary intraspinal PNETs have been reported to date and the present case extradural in location. Primary intraspinal PNETs are rare tumors and carry a poor prognosis.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus in Italy during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Magurano


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In view of the goal of measles elimination, it is of great importance to assess the circulation of wild-type measles virus (MV. Genetic analysis is indispensable to understand the epidemiology of measles. A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2008, with over 4000 cases reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system introduced in 2007, 37% of which were laboratory confirmed. METHODS. Urine and saliva samples were collected during 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of measles sequences was performed in order to understand the epidemiological situation of wild-type (MV circulation in that period. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Data showed predominant circulation of the genotype D4. Genotypes A, D8, D9 and H1 were also detected in a small number of samples, probably representing imported cases.

  2. A Mononuclear Mn(II) Pseudoclathrochelate Complex Studied by Multi-Frequency Electron-Paramagnetic-Resonance Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Azarkh, Mykhailo; Penkova, Larysa V; Kats, Svitlana V; Varzatskii, Oleg A; Voloshin, Yan Z; Groenen, Edgar J J


    Knowledge of the correlation between structural and spectroscopic properties of transition-metal complexes is essential to deepen the understanding of their role in catalysis, molecular magnetism, and biological inorganic chemistry. It provides topological and, sometimes, functional insight with respect to the active site properties of metalloproteins. The electronic structure of a high-spin mononuclear Mn(II) pseudoclathrochelate complex has been investigated by electron-paramagnetic-resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at 9.5 and 275.7 GHz. A substantial, virtually axial zero-field splitting with D = -9.7 GHz (-0.32 cm(-1)) is found, which is the largest one reported to date for a Mn(II) complex with six nitrogen atoms in the first coordination sphere.

  3. Kibdelins (AAD-609), novel glycopeptide antibiotics. II. Isolation, purification and structure. (United States)

    Folena-Wasserman, G; Poehland, B L; Yeung, E W; Staiger, D; Killmer, L B; Snader, K; Dingerdissen, J J; Jeffs, P W


    A new glycopeptide antibiotic complex was isolated from the fermentation culture of Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. largum (SK&F AAD-609) by affinity chromatography on a D-alanyl-D-alanine agarose column. This major components of the complex were resolved by preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Mild acid hydrolysis showed that the new antibiotics have the same mannosyl aglycon (2) as the aridicins. FAB mass spectrometry, isoelectric focusing, potentiometric titration and carbohydrate and fatty acid analyses were used to determine the structures of the five major components of the complex. These studies showed that the kibdelins differ from the aridicins only in the oxidation level at the C-6 position of the amino sugar. Kibdelin A (5), B (6), C1 (7), C2 (8) and D (9) are a series of N-acylglucosamine analogs containing saturated straight and branched chain C10-C12 fatty acids whereas, in kibdelin D the fatty acid component is (Z)-4-decenoic acid.

  4. Reduction of the thermal conductivity in free-standing silicon nano-membranes investigated by non-invasive Raman thermometry (United States)

    Chávez-Ángel, E.; Reparaz, J. S.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Wagner, M. R.; Cuffe, J.; Graczykowski, B.; Shchepetov, A.; Jiang, H.; Prunnila, M.; Ahopelto, J.; Alzina, F.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.


    We report on the reduction of the thermal conductivity in ultra-thin suspended Si membranes with high crystalline quality. A series of membranes with thicknesses ranging from 9 nm to 1.5 μm was investigated using Raman thermometry, a novel contactless technique for thermal conductivity determination. A systematic decrease in the thermal conductivity was observed as reducing the thickness, which is explained using the Fuchs-Sondheimer model through the influence of phonon boundary scattering at the surfaces. The thermal conductivity of the thinnest membrane with d = 9 nm resulted in (9 ± 2) W/mK, thus approaching the amorphous limit but still maintaining a high crystalline quality.

  5. Reduction of the thermal conductivity in free-standing silicon nano-membranes investigated by non-invasive Raman thermometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chávez-Ángel


    Full Text Available We report on the reduction of the thermal conductivity in ultra-thin suspended Si membranes with high crystalline quality. A series of membranes with thicknesses ranging from 9 nm to 1.5 μm was investigated using Raman thermometry, a novel contactless technique for thermal conductivity determination. A systematic decrease in the thermal conductivity was observed as reducing the thickness, which is explained using the Fuchs-Sondheimer model through the influence of phonon boundary scattering at the surfaces. The thermal conductivity of the thinnest membrane with d = 9 nm resulted in (9 ± 2 W/mK, thus approaching the amorphous limit but still maintaining a high crystalline quality.

  6. Occurrence of measles genotype D8 during a 2014 outbreak in Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. (United States)

    Hartoyo, Edi; Wiyatno, Ageng; Jaya, Ungke Anton; Ma'roef, Chairin Nisa; Monagin, Corina; Myint, Khin Saw; Safari, Dodi


    An outbreak of measles symptoms occurring in children in Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia in 2014 was investigated. Nasal swabs were collected from 23 children (median age 41 months) with fever and other symptoms of measles hospitalized in Ulin General Hospital and Islamic Hospital, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan. Viral RNA was extracted for cDNA synthesis, followed by PCR and sequencing using paramyxovirus family consensus and N-gene primers. Sixteen measles-positive patients (70%) were identified. Fifteen virus strains belonged to genotype D8 and the remaining one strain was confirmed as belonging to genotype D9. Measles virus genotype D8 was detected in an outbreak of measles in South Kalimantan, Indonesia, in 2014. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. GETDB: 113715 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 113715 Link to Original w[*]; P{GawB}NP5395 / TM6, P{UAS-lacZ.UW23-1}UW23-1 84D9 Link to DGRC Genome...alpha-Est9 alpha-Est10 5395 3 FlyBase Insertion: P{GawB}NP5395 NP line. Received from the National Institute of...Number 113715 Link to Original Genotype w[*]; P{GawB}NP5395 / TM6, P{UAS-lacZ.UW23-1}UW23-1 Insertion Site...5395 Chr. 3 Comments FlyBase Insertion: P{GawB}NP5395 NP line. Received from the National Institute of

  8. Jahn-Teller and Non-Jahn-Teller Systems Involving CuF64- Units: Role of the Internal Electric Field in Ba2ZnF6:Cu2+ and Other Insulating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramburu, J. A.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; García Lastra, Juan Maria


    it is pointed out that a quasi-JT situation can however happen for a d9 ion in a cubic lattice under a strain of ∼10-3 in agreement with experimental data. The present results stress the key role played by the internal electric fields for a quantitative understanding of compounds with transition metal cations...... transitions for CuF64- units formed in Cu2+-doped the tetragonal Ba2ZnF6 host lattice. While the experimental d-d transitions cannot be reproduced through the isolated CuF64- unit at the equilibrium geometry, a reasonable agreement is reached adding in the calculation the internal electric field, ER...

  9. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo


    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Alexandrian Millenium (A.D. 2009) and the Astronomical Data (United States)

    Umlenski, V. I.


    The outset of the contemporary system of chronology (A.D.; common era; our era; new era) is connected with the year of Christ's Birth as a God-man. Dionysius Exiguus, a Roman monk calculated this year in VI century. Nowadays, it is more and more believed that Dionysius made a miscount in his computation. In the present work we make an attempt to determine this miscount through astronomical and calendar computations. For that purpose, we use data from Church tradition and St. John's Gospel. It was found that the miscount of Dionysius regarding the year of Christ's Birth is 9 years i.e. the Alexandrian chroniclers were right (according to them Jesus was born in A.D. 9). If it is so, we must celebrate 2000 years from Christ's Birth and the end of the second Alexandrian Millenium in 2009, on December 25th.

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea from the Venezuelan Andes. (United States)

    Meccia, Gina; Rojas, Luis B; Velasco, Judith; Díaz, Tulia; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Ramos, Sulymar


    The essential oil of Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Boraginaceae) that grows in Mérida-Venezuela was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of the plant, yielding 0.21%. The oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty one components which made up 94.3% of the oil were identified. The most abundant constituents found were: tricyclene (23.9%), bicyclogermacrene (11.7%), germacrene D (9.9%) and beta-caryophyllene (8.2%). Antibacterial activity determination was carried out according to the disc diffusion assay. Activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, at a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 170 microg/mL and 200 microg/mL, was found.

  12. Status of RBCB testing of LMR oxide fuel in EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, R.V.; Bottcher, J.H.; Gross, K.C.; Lambert, J.D.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Ukai, S.; Nomura, S.; Shikakura, S.; Katsuragawa, M. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center)


    The status is given of the the American-Japanese collaborative program in Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 to determine the run-beyond-cladding-breach performance of (UPu)O{sub 2} fuel pins for liquid-metal cooled reactors. Phase 1 of the collaboration involved eighteen irradiation tests over 1981--86 with 5.84-mm pins in 316 or D9 stainless steel. Emphasis in Phase 2 tests from 1989 onwards is with larger diameter (7.5mm) pins in advanced claddings. Results include delayed neutron and fission gas release data from breached pins, the impact of fuel-sodium reaction product formation on pin performance, and fuel and fission product contamination from failures. 13 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Dietary intervention induces flow of changes within biomarkers of lipids, inflammation, liver enzymes, and glycemic control. (United States)

    Golan, Rachel; Tirosh, Amir; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Shai, Iris


    To determine how changes in lipids, liver enzymes, and inflammatory and glycemia markers intercorrelate during prolonged dietary intervention in obese participants with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the dynamics and intercorrelations among changes in biomarkers during the 2-y Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) in 322 participants (including 46 with T2D; 52 y of age, body mass index 31 kg/m(2)) throughout rapid weight loss (0-6 mo) and weight-maintenance/regain (7-24 mo) phases. The 2-y increase of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was greater in participants with T2D (+9.41 versus+6.57 mg/dL, P lipids (, identifier NCT00160108). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aneurysmal bone cyst of thoracic spine: case report and brief review of literature (United States)

    Jaiswal, Anupam; Vijay, Varun; Kori, Prakash; Shukla, Rakesh


    A 16-year-old girl was admitted with insidious onset, gradually progressive spastic sensori-motor paraparesis, with a sensory level at D10 dermatome without bowel or bladder involvement for the last 2 months following trivial trauma on the lower back. MRI of the spine showed a low-to-intermediate signal intensity, heterogeneous mass with multiple fluid levels. A diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst was made. A D8-D9 laminectomy with near total excision of mass was performed. Histopathology of the mass showed cyst cavity filled with haemorrhage surrounded by bony trabeculae confirming the diagnosis. Following excision the patient had excellent recovery. We report this case owing to its rarity and to emphasise the importance of surgery if there is cord compression. PMID:23814197

  15. Seattle FWS, Washington. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F (United States)


    SSWi~ 3𔃻 7.1 1 ___ 3.3 if I--T- NW jeb ’ _ to_ *4 NNW 4,11 --. 561 -~;~’ VARBL IiZ 2 2 7 .7 TOTAL NUMBER OF ORSERVAIIONS 1 4 A a ISAU 0A 8 5 (OL-1...g-i. I ,9 ’t,’ 7𔄁. - 9j9 *’e/ 933, 9 5 91,4 T~i~ 9o. Tj I 9v.9.:5,w 9ii1965I’~ , ~)QQU’ td ii I17" .’- ’TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATONS______________...t7 1 g9 3 ., jr+ W& 3,1 L L P Is , j +’.,<* 53+1" 01 44 2 tD _9_ IF 45 , , 3 4794 : ’, 3 3 ’. J U1 4 __o____ + I. , e4 4 .,,+’,. z r

  16. Kinetics of dynamic recrystallization in Ti-modified 15Cr-15Ni-2Mo austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Marchattiwar, A. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Chakravartty, J.K., E-mail: [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kashyap, B.P. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)


    The hot working behaviour of Ti-modified 15Cr-15Ni-2Mo austenitic stainless steel (Alloy D9) was studied by hot compression test at temperatures of 900-1200 Degree-Sign C and at strain rates of 0.002-1 s{sup -1}. The progress of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) was modelled by the Avarmi kinetics equation. The flow softening was directly related to the DRX volume fraction and the DRX time was determined by strain rate. For quantification of recrystallization rate, the time corresponding to the DRX fraction of 50% was used. Analysis of the sigmoid-shaped recrystallization curves revealed that the rate of DRX increases with increasing deformation temperature and strain rate. Results of the Avrami analysis were used to predict the DRX flow curves.

  17. Mutual Coupling Analysis for Conformal Microstrip Antennas. (United States)


    Finally, boundary condition (4.17) implies 109 nh ()() [j wi, 2b n~ P2 p~ e -k P2 Hn (k P2 b)rml nh (1) (2) jwi1 b A e[Hn (k P1b) ae ni (k Pib )] j Jz (p...4.45) where k 2 )(1)(k b) E1 P2 n P (1) (2) D 9 fln (k pIb ) -t 9 H n(k Pib ) ,g~me,m (4.47) D= k [H (k b) a H ’(k b)] * ge~m (4.48)9 pI n P1 g n pi k H(1...34Eigenfunction Expansion of Dyadic Green’s Functions", Math. Note 29, Weapons Systems Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Rase, Albuquerque, New Mexico , 1973

  18. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of the Essential Oil of Chromolaena odorata from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William N. Setzer


    Full Text Available The essential oil from the dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata (L. R.M. King & H. Rob. was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major components were α-pinene (42.2%, β-pinene (10.6%, germacrene D (9.7%, β-copaen-4α-ol (9.4%, (E-caryophyllene (5.4%, and geijerene/prejeigerene (7.5%. The oil was screened for antimicrobial activity and showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus (MIC = 39 μg/mL and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 78 μg/mL. DFT (B3LYP/6-31G* and post-HF (MP2/6-311+G** indicate that pregeigerene is less stable (0.45 and 3.99 kcal/mol, respectively than its Cope rearrangement product geigerene.

  19. Heterochiral Interactions in Molecular and Macromolecular Pairs of Liquid Crystals of (R)- and (S)-2-Fluoro-4-Methylpentyl 4’-(8-Vinyloxyoctyloxy) Biphenyl-4-Carboxylate Enantiomers (United States)


    optical polarizing microscope equipped with a Mettler FP-82 hot stage and a Metiler FP-,0 central processor was used to observe the thermal... acetate 15: 1) to give a colorless liquid (5.60g, 2.’, Pu,: .’•Y TLC’,. Ilt-NMR (CDC13, TMS): 8 0.91, 0.92 (d, J=6.5Hz, 6H, (M{•:,_,i-.. :.d)9-..’( in. 11...ror,,oer,’,, siica -e,.e hexane-ethyl acetate 3:1) to give a colorless solid which was r.’-v,•taili;_d : !t e .cxane-cthvl acetate (13:1) to yield

  20. Corundum-based transparent infrared absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo


    Hypothetical corundum-based compounds are studied by electronic structure calculations. One quarter of the Al atoms in Al2O3 is replaced by a 3d transition metal from the M = Ti, ..., Zn (d1, ..., d9) series. Structure optimisations are performed for all the M-Al2O3 compounds and the electronic states are evaluated. Due to the M substitutes, narrow partially filled bands are formed at the Fermi energy. Beyond, for M = Ni and M = Cu the optical properties of Al2O3 in the visible range are conserved, while for M = Ti, ..., Co the systems form high accuracy optical filters. Since the compounds absorb the infrared radiation, the M = Ni and M = Cu systems are good candidates for heat-protective coatings. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Resolute Apt, Northwest Territories, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F. (United States)


    ITS ASHEVILLE, N. C. II POI L, TD ’ Reiew and-Approval Statement This report is approved for public release. There is no objection to unlimited...71r7IT I7I- t. - 500- w .- 1jj 6h j . j 4, 71.. 1 7. 7 ’, 4 4 ) , * , 4 88 , 7 f 741, 7A. O 700 .’ fS) h, 7*l . l... . d 9 . 9, ~ ~ ,( 9. .5 _- -- " ,I...14000 -,46 0 t* ski :ph 0 51194 TTj i-ri -T-. _T7. 40( -~677. - Td -. 7.4 12000 40’ aiNb6 5(2,7 03*1 67.0 67*9 7gT) 7Z* 9 7Z*9 70,0 77., 774 70uZ i 1

  2. Analysis of differentially expressed genes related to resistance in spinosad- and neonicotinoid-resistant Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Dorte Heidi Højland; Kristensen, Michael


    Background The housefly is a global pest that has developed resistance to most insecticides applied against it. Resistance of the spinosad-resistant strain 791spin and the neonicotinoid-resistant 766b strain is believed to be due to metabolism. We investigate differentially expressed genes...... interesting in terms of neonicotinoid resistance, while cyp4d9 was overexpressed in 791spin compared to spinosad-susceptible strains. GSTs, ESTs and UGTs were mostly overexpressed, but not to the same degree as P450s. We present a comprehensive and comparative picture of gene expression in three housefly...... strains differing significantly in their response to insecticides. High differential expression of P450s and genes coding for cuticle protein indicates a combination of factors involved in metabolic neonicotinoid and spinosad resistance. Conclusion Resistance in these strains is apparently not linked...

  3. Molecular evolution of measles viruses circulated in Taiwan 1992-2008. (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Yueh; Lee, Lili; Rota, Paul A; Yang, Dustin Chen-Fu


    Genetic analyses of viral samples from 74 laboratory confirmed measles cases occurring in Taiwan during 1992-2008 identified six viral genotypes D3, D5, D9, G2, H1 and H2. The most frequently detected genotype, H1, was associated with outbreaks in 1994 and 2002, and was the likely indigenous genotype in 1992. In response to the outbreaks, two catch-up campaigns were launched and a routine second dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at entry to elementary school was introduced. The vaccination campaigns successfully reduced the number of measles cases in Taiwan, and many of the more recent cases can be traced to importations, primarily from other Asian countries. A number of measles genotypes which were associated with outbreaks in other Asian countries were detected among the more recent cases. The more recent genotype H1 viruses had sequences that were identical to those currently circulating in China or associated with international importation of virus.

  4. Cascade emission in electron beam ion trap plasma of W$^{25+}$ ion

    CERN Document Server

    Jonauskas, V; Kučas, S; Masys, Š; Kynienė, A; Gaigalas, G; Kisielius, R; Radžiūtė, L; Rynkun, P; Merkelis, G


    Spectra of the W$^{25+}$ ion are studied using the collisional-radiative model (CRM) with an ensuing cascade emission. It is determined that the cascade emission boosts intensities only of a few lines in the $10 - 3$ nm range. The cascade emission is responsible for the disappearance of structure of lines at about 6 nm in the electron beam ion trap plasma. Emission band at 4.5 to 5.3 nm is also affected by the cascade emission. The strongest lines in the CRM spectrum correspond to $4d^{9} 4f^{4} \\rightarrow 4f^{3}$ transitions, while $4f^{2} 5d \\rightarrow 4f^{3}$ transitions arise after the cascade emission is taken into account.

  5. Evaluation of vetiver grass for radiocesium absorption ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualchavee Roongtanakiat


    The Surat Thani vetiver plantlets were cultured in 134Cs solution with a concentration of 5 MBq/L for different periods. The results of the radiographic image, PSL signals and the radioactivity levels in the vetiver samples strongly indicated that vetiver could absorb a greater amount of 134Cs when the period of culture was longer. After vetiver culture periods of 3 d, 6 d, 9 d, 12 d, 15 d and 18 d, the activity of 134Cs in the cultured solutions declined to 98.0%, 93.2%, 88.6%, 78.1%, 70.7% and 65.5%, respectively. These values indicated that vetiver could remediate 134Cs in the cultured solution by 2.0%, 6.8%, 11.4%, 21.9%, 29.3% and 34.5% for the respective durations.

  6. BISON and MARMOT Development for Modeling Fast Reactor Fuel Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williamson, Richard L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Medvedev, Pavel G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    BISON and MARMOT are two codes under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for engineering scale and lower length scale fuel performance modeling. It is desired to add capabilities for fast reactor applications to these codes. The fast reactor fuel types under consideration are metal (U-Pu-Zr) and oxide (MOX). The cladding types of interest include 316SS, D9, and HT9. The purpose of this report is to outline the proposed plans for code development and provide an overview of the models added to the BISON and MARMOT codes for fast reactor fuel behavior. A brief overview of preliminary discussions on the formation of a bilateral agreement between the Idaho National Laboratory and the National Nuclear Laboratory in the United Kingdom is presented.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul La Pointe; Claudia Rebne; Steve Dobbs


    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-02NT15451, ''Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc Area of the Paradox Basin, Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, Colorado''. Optimizing development of highly heterogeneous reservoirs where porosity and permeability vary in unpredictable ways due to facies variations can be challenging. An important example of this is in the algal mounds of the Lower and Upper Ismay reservoirs of the Paradox Basin in Utah and Colorado. It is nearly impossible to develop a forward predictive model to delineate regions of better reservoir development, and so enhanced recovery processes must be selected and designed based upon data that can quantitatively or qualitatively distinguish regions of good or bad reservoir permeability and porosity between existing well control. Recent advances in seismic acquisition and processing offer new ways to see smaller features with more confidence, and to characterize the internal structure of reservoirs such as algal mounds. However, these methods have not been tested. This project will acquire cutting edge, three-dimensional, nine-component (3D9C) seismic data and utilize recently-developed processing algorithms, including the mapping of azimuthal velocity changes in amplitude variation with offset, to extract attributes that relate to variations in reservoir permeability and porosity. In order to apply advanced seismic methods a detailed reservoir study is needed to calibrate the seismic data to reservoir permeability, porosity and lithofacies. This will be done by developing a petrological and geological characterization of the mounds from well data; acquiring and processing the 3D9C data; and comparing the two using advanced pattern recognition tools such as neural nets. In addition, should the correlation prove successful, the resulting data will be evaluated from the

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHR810 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHR810 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12208-1 CHR810E (Link to Original site) CHR...810F 594 CHR810Z 641 CHR810P 1215 CHR810E 895 Show CHR810 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHR...inal site URL Representative seq. ID CHR...810E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHR810 (CHR810Q) /CSM/CH/CHR8-A/CHR... E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHR810 (CHR810Q) /CSM/CH/CHR8-A/CHR810Q.Seq.d/ 9

  9. Orbital breathing effects in the computation of x-ray d-ion spectra in solids by ab initio wave-function-based methods. (United States)

    Bogdanov, Nikolay A; Bisogni, Valentina; Kraus, Roberto; Monney, Claude; Zhou, Kejin; Schmitt, Thorsten; Geck, Jochen; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O; Stoll, Hermann; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu


    In existing theoretical approaches to core-level excitations of transition-metal ions in solids relaxation and polarization effects due to the inner core hole are often ignored or described phenomenologically. Here we set up an ab initio computational scheme that explicitly accounts for such physics in the calculation of x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra. Good agreement is found with experimental transition-metal L-edge data for the strongly correlated d 9 cuprate Li2CuO2, for which we determine the absolute scattering intensities. The newly developed methodology opens the way for the investigation of even more complex d n electronic structures of group VI B to VIII B correlated oxide compounds.

  10. Measurement of $D*{+-}$ meson production in ep scattering at low $Q^{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Abt, I; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Allfrey, P D; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M A; Bellagamba, L; Bellan, P; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bindi, M; Bloch, I; Blohm, C; Bold, T; Bonato, A; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Boutle, S K; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brownson, E; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brzozowska, B; Brümmer, N; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Büttner, C; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cole, J E; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; Cui, Y; D'Agostini, G; Dal Corso, F; Danielson, T; De Favereau, J; De Pasquale, S; Del Peso, J; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Dossanov, A; Doyle, A T; Dunne, W; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, A; Estrada; Everett, A; Fazio, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fry, C; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gialas, I; Gil, M; Giller, I; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Goers, S; Gosau, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Gregor, I; Grigorescu, G; Grzelak, G; Gwenlan, C; Göttlicher, P; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heath, G P; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hori, R; Horn, C; Iacobucci, G; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Ingbir, R; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jechow, M; Jiménez, M; Jones, T W; Jüngst, M; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kamaluddin, B; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kind, O M; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Koffeman, E; Kollar, D; Kooijman, P; Korcsak-Gorzo, K; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kowalski, H; Kulinski, P; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Kötz, U; Labarga, L; Lee, A; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, C; Lobodzinska, E; Lohmann, W; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukasik, J; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Löhr, B; Ma, K J; Magill, S; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsumoto, T; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S; Miglioranzi, S; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Morris, J D; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nicholass, D; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Okazaki, N; Olkiewicz, K; Ota, O; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Rinaldi, L; Roberfroid, V; Robertson, A; Ron, E; Rosin, M; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Ryan, P; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Samson, U; Santamarta, R; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schonberg, V; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Shehzadi, R; Shimizu, S; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V; Spiridonov, A; Stadie, H; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutiak, J; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Theedt, T; Tiecke, H; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Uribe-, C; Vlasov, N N; Vázquez, M; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wan-Abdullah, W A T; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Wolfe, H; Wrona, K; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A


    The production of D*+-(2010) mesons in ep scattering in the range of exchanged photon virtuality 0.05 D0 pi+ with D0 -> K- pi+ and corresponding antiparticle decay were used to identify D* mesons and the ZEUS beampipe calorimeter was used to identify the scattered electron. Differential D* cross sections as functions of Q^2, inelasticity, y, transverse momentum of the D* meson, p_T(D*), and pseudorapidity of the D* meson, eta(D*), have been measured in the kinematic region 0.02 < y < 0.85, 1.5 < p_T(D*) < 9.0 GeV and |eta(D*)| < 1.5. The measured differential cross sections are in agreement with two different NLO QCD calculations. The cross sections are also compared to previous ZEUS measurements in the photoproduction and DIS regimes.

  11. The effect of differing intensities of acute cycling on preadolescent academic achievement. (United States)

    Duncan, Michael; Johnson, Andrew


    The present study examined the effects of differing intensity levels of acute exercise on preadolescent academic ability. In a repeated measures design, 18 preadolescent participants (mean age±S.D.= 9.8±1.4 years: 9 male and 9 female) completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4) following 20 minutes of rest, 20-minutes on a cycling ergometer at 50% maximal heart rate reserve (HRR), and 20-minutes on a cycling ergometer at 75% HRR on separate days. Exercise was found to improve spelling irrespective of intensity level. Moderate levels of exercise improved reading although the effect of high levels of intensity is less clear. Both intensity levels impaired arithmetic, whilst sentence comprehension was unaffected. These findings further support the past research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in preadolescent children. However, the present study finds no support for the notion that increasing the intensity of exercise accentuates benefits.

  12. Terpenoids from Euphorbia soongarica and Their Multidrug Resistance Reversal Activity. (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Aisa, Haji A


    Ten new terpenoids, including five diterpenoids (1-5), three nortriterpenoids (6-8), and two triterpenoids (9, 10), and 15 known terpenoids (11-25) were isolated from an acetone extract of Euphorbia soongarica. Sooneuphoramine (1) is the first example of a euphoractine B-type diterpenoid alkaloid, while sooneuphanones A-C (6-8) are rare nortriterpenoids from the Euphorbia genus. The isolated terpenoids were tested for their cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity, 10 of which showed moderate cytotoxicity against the KB and KBv200 cell lines, while 11 compounds exhibited P-gp modulating potential. The triterpenoid sooneuphanone D (9) possessed a remarkable MDR reversal activity much higher than the positive control, verapamil.

  13. Chemical Composition of a New Taxon, Seseli gummiferum subsp. ilgazense, and its Larvicidal Activity against Aedesaegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Kurkcuoglu


    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vectors for many pathogens and parasites that cause human diseases including dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, chikungunya, filariasis and malaria which cause high rates of human morbidity and mortality under extreme conditions. Plants are an excellent source for mosquito control agents because they constitute rich sources of bioactive chemicals. They are also biodegradable and environment-friendly. The present study reports on the larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Seseli gummiferum. subsp. ilgazense (Apiaceae against Aedes aegypti larvae. Essential oil showed 100 and 70% mortality at 125 and 62.6 ppm, respectively, with no mortality at 31.25 ppm. Aerial parts of S. gummiferum subsp. ilgazense were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield 0.6% oil. The essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The main constituents in the oil were sabinene (28.8%, germacrene D (9.5% and α -pinene (7.2%.

  14. Simultaneous determination of 11 β-agonists in human urine using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Guo, Tao; Wang, Shanshan; Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Rusong


    The misuse of β-agonists constitutes a potential risk to public health and has been forbidden in many countries. In this study, we describe a method for specific, sensitive and rapid detection of β-agonists in human urine. Urine samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, without any additional purification step, and analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) with Clenbuterol-D9 and Salbuterol-D3 as internal standards. The intra- and interday precision values of the method were all health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  15. New neoclerodane diterpenoids isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum and their binding affinities for human kappa opioid receptors. (United States)

    Lee, David Y W; Ma, Zhongze; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Yong; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce


    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the leaves of Salvia divinorum has resulted in the isolation of three new neoclerodane diterpenoids: divinatorin D (1), divinatorin E (2), and salvinorin G (3), together with 10 known terpenoids, divinatorin C (4), hardwickiic acid (5), salvinorin-A (6), -B (7), -C (8), -D (9), -E (10), and -F (11), presqualene alcohol (12), and (E)-phytol (13). The structures of these three new compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. All these compounds were evaluated for their binding affinities to the human kappa opioid receptors. In comparison with divinatorin D (1), divinatorin E (2), and salvinorin G (3), salvinorin A (6) is still the most potent kappa agonist.

  16. An ionothermally prepared S = 1/2 vanadium oxyfluoride kagome lattice. (United States)

    Aidoudi, Farida H; Aldous, David W; Goff, Richard J; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Attfield, J Paul; Morris, Russell E; Lightfoot, Philip


    Frustrated magnetic lattices offer the possibility of many exotic ground states that are of great fundamental importance. Of particular significance is the hunt for frustrated spin-1/2 networks as candidates for quantum spin liquids, which would have exciting and unusual magnetic properties at low temperatures. The few reported candidate materials have all been based on d(9) ions. Here, we report the ionothermal synthesis of [NH(4)](2)[C(7)H(14)N][V(7)O(6)F(18)], an inorganic-organic hybrid solid that contains a S = 1/2 kagome network of d(1) V(4+) ions. The compound exhibits a high degree of magnetic frustration, with significant antiferromagnetic interactions but no long-range magnetic order or spin-freezing above 2 K, and appears to be an excellent candidate for realizing a quantum spin liquid ground state in a spin-1/2 kagome network.

  17. Design, synthesis, spectral characterization and bioactivity evaluation of new sulfonamide and carbamate derivatives of 5-Nitro-1H-indazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pushpa Kumar


    Full Text Available A series of new sulfonamide and carbamate derivatives of 5-nitro-1H-indazole was synthesized in good yields. The structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H, 13C-NMR, Mass spectra and elemental analysis. The compounds 9a and 9f showed high antibacterial activity against L. bacillus and S. aureu, 9f and 9j exhibited good activity against E. coli and P. florescensa, whereas the compounds 9a, 9d. 9f and 9j showed good antifungal activity against tested fungal strains, however, compared to all the compounds 9e and 9h exhibited significant activity against A. niger and P.chrysogenum respectively.

  18. Pre-Licensing Evaluation of Legacy SFR Metallic Fuel Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacout, A. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Billone, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division


    The US sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) metallic fuel performance data that are of interest to advanced fast reactors applications, can be attributed mostly to the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program between 1984 and 1994. Metallic fuel data collected prior to the IFR program were associated with types of fuel that are not of interest to future advanced reactors deployment (e.g., previous U-Fissium alloy fuel). The IFR fuels data were collected from irradiation of U-Zr based fuel alloy, with and without Pu additions, and clad in different types of steels, including HT9, D9, and 316 stainless-steel. Different types of data were generated during the program, and were based on the requirements associated with the DOE Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program.

  19. Increasing metabolic stability via the deuterium kinetic isotope effect: An example from a proline-amide-urea aminothiazole series of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase alpha inhibitors. (United States)

    Fairhurst, Robin A; Caravatti, Giorgio; Guagnano, Vito; Aichholz, Reiner; Blanz, Joachim; Blasco, Francesca; Wipfli, Peter; Fritsch, Christine; Maira, Sauveur-Michel; Schnell, Christian; Seiler, Frank H


    In vitro metabolic identification studies with a PI3K-α inhibitor lead molecule 1 identified a single predominant site of oxidative metabolism to be occurring within a tert.butyl moiety. Modification of the tert.butyl group within the lead molecule 1, to the corresponding d9-tert.butyl analogue 2, led to an increase in both the in vitro and in vivo metabolic stability. This increase in metabolic stability resulted in a 2-fold increase in the oral bioavailability measured in the rat, and a 3-fold increase in potency in a chronic in vivo study in the mouse, for 2 when compared to 1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01510-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available from clone MTH2-31E18 o... 42 6.4 1 ( AC146972 ) Medicago truncatula clone mth2-128d9, complete se... 42...Plasmod... 42 6.4 1 ( DW015669 ) EST1224630 MTY Medicago truncatula cDNA clone MTY... 42 6.4 1 ( DB781363...AL368055 ) Medicago truncatula EST MtBA21H09F1 : T3 end of c... 42 6.4 1 ( AJ498614 ) Medicago 42 6.4 1 ( CB891185 ) EST648154 KV3 Medicago truncatula cDNA clone KV3-... 42 6.4 1 ( BI267798...herbivory Medicago trunca... 42 6.4 1 ( BI265435 ) NF082F04IN1F1043 Insect herbivory Medicago trunca..

  1. Dynamic properties of excitons in ZnO/AlGaN/GaN hybrid nanostructures. (United States)

    Forsberg, Mathias; Hemmingsson, Carl; Amano, Hiroshi; Pozina, Galia


    Hybrid samples based on ZnO colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) deposited on AlGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures with different top barrier thickness d = 3, 6 and 9 nm are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence. Thermal behavior of the QW exciton lifetime in the hybrids and in the bare QW structures has been compared and it has been found that the QW exciton recombination rate increases in the hybrid having d = 3 nm and decreases in the hybrid with d = 6 nm, while no change has been observed for the structure with d = 9 nm. It is suggested that non-radiative resonance energy transfer from the QW excitons to the ZnO NCs and a variation of the surface potential can both influence the QW exciton lifetime in the hybrids.

  2. What factors are associated with the integration of evidence retrieval technology into routine general practice settings? (United States)

    Magrabi, Farah; Westbrook, Johanna I; Coiera, Enrico W


    Information retrieval systems have the potential to improve patient care but little is known about the variables which influence clinicians' uptake and use of systems in routine work. To determine which factors influenced use of an online evidence retrieval system. Computer logs and pre- and post-system survey analysis of a 4-week clinical trial of the Quick Clinical online evidence system involving 227 general practitioners across Australia. Online evidence use was not linked to general practice training or clinical experience but female clinicians conducted more searches than their male counterparts (mean use=14.38 searches, S.D.=11.68 versus mean use=8.50 searches, S.D.=9.99; t=2.67, d.f.=157, P=0.008). Practice characteristics such as hours worked, type and geographic location of clinic were not associated with search activity. Information seeking was also not related to participants' perceived information needs, computer skills, training nor Internet connection speed. Clinicians who reported direct improvements in patient care as a result of system use had significantly higher rates of system use than other users (mean use=12.55 searches, S.D.=13.18 versus mean use=8.15 searches, S.D.=9.18; t=2.322, d.f.=154 P=0.022). Comparison of participants' views pre- and post- the trial, showed that post-trial clinicians expressed more positive views about searching for information during a consultation (chi(2)=27.40, d.f.=4, PPost-trial clinicians positively changed their views about having time to search for information and pursued more questions during clinic hours.

  3. Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk. (United States)

    Tang, W H Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S; Koeth, Robert A; Britt, Earl B; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L


    Recent studies in animals have shown a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of the choline moiety in dietary phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and coronary artery disease through the production of a proatherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine, TMAO levels, and adverse cardiovascular events in humans. We quantified plasma and urinary levels of TMAO and plasma choline and betaine levels by means of liquid chromatography and online tandem mass spectrometry after a phosphatidylcholine challenge (ingestion of two hard-boiled eggs and deuterium [d9]-labeled phosphatidylcholine) in healthy participants before and after the suppression of intestinal microbiota with oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. We further examined the relationship between fasting plasma levels of TMAO and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) during 3 years of follow-up in 4007 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Time-dependent increases in levels of both TMAO and its d9 isotopologue, as well as other choline metabolites, were detected after the phosphatidylcholine challenge. Plasma levels of TMAO were markedly suppressed after the administration of antibiotics and then reappeared after withdrawal of antibiotics. Increased plasma levels of TMAO were associated with an increased risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event (hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest TMAO quartile, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.96 to 3.28; Pphosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbiota. Increased TMAO levels are associated with an increased risk of incident major adverse cardiovascular events. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

  4. Molecular epidemiological characteristics and clonal genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus with different origins in China. (United States)

    Chao, Guoxiang; Bao, Guangyu; Jiao, Xinan


    To understand the intrinsic links and epidemic features of Staphylococcus aureus, isolates of this bacterium were collected from different origins in China. A total of 503 isolates from different sources were tested for the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. Of these isolates, 250 were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results showed that MRSA isolates account for 21.67% and have five types. SCCmec type I, II, and III isolates were all from humans, while SCCmec type IV, V, and untypeable MRSA isolates were from clinical origin, pigs, raw milk, or environments. The results by MLST showed considerable molecular heterogeneity in 52 different sequence types (STs) including 16 novel STs, which yielded 7 clonal complexes (CCs) and 5 doublets (Ds). The results from these analyses showed that hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), rather than community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA), remained the major pathogenic bacterium in the clinical setting. CA-MRSA infections have been increasing and forming new pandemic clones. CC630, CC239, D9, and D398 were important clones in this study. CC630 was a new epidemic CA clone circulating among humans, environments, and animals. CC239 was a HA-MRSA-III pandemic clone of clinical origin. The D9 clone was a livestock-associated (LA) clone, which up to now, has spread only in livestock and has not been found in humans that live in Jiangsu province. In Europe and America, there are many reports of the ST398-LA-clone in pigs and in humans who are in contact with pigs. However, various studies in China, including this one, indicate that the ST398 clone could be a CA clone rather than an LA clone. This clone also has been infecting humans for about 2 decades.

  5. Effects of suckling intensity on milk yield and piglet growth from lactation-enhanced gilts. (United States)

    Marshall, K M; Hurley, W L; Shanks, R D; Wheeler, M B


    The effects of suckling intensity on milk yield and piglet growth were determined when lactation capacity of the sow was enhanced through overexpression of a mammary-specific transgene, bovine alpha-lactalbumin. Lactational response to increased suckling stimulation was determined by fostering litters of the same age (d 1) or 7 d older (d 7) than the day of lactation to sows nontransgenic (control) or transgenic (TG) for bovine alpha-lactalbumin. Twenty first-parity gilts were allocated to 4 treatments dependent on gilt genotype and age of litter fostered (control d 1, control d 7, TG d 1, and TG d 7). Litters were standardized to 10 piglets within 24 h postpartum, and nonbirth piglets were fostered to gilts with an equal litter BW within age groups at 36 h postpartum. Milk yield was determined by the weigh-suckle-weigh method on d 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 of lactation. Mean daily milk yield was greater (P = 0.031) for TG gilts compared with control gilts and tended to be greater (P = 0.056) for all gilts with d-7 piglets compared with those with d-1 piglets. Daily milk yield of TG d 7 gilts increased rapidly to peak at d 9 and was greater than milk yield of all control gilts at d 9 (P Piglet BW gain between d 3 and 6 was greater (P piglets between the day of age at foster (d 1 vs. 7; P = 0.606) or between the control d 1 and control d 7 groups (P = 0.759). Accumulated BW gain of piglets suckling TG d 7 gilts from d 3 through 9 was greater (P piglets suckling TG d 1 gilts was no longer different (P = 0.40) from that of the TG d 7 group and was greater (P piglet growth.

  6. Results of cement augmentation and curettage in aneurysmal bone cyst of spine

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    Saumyajit Basu


    Full Text Available Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC is a vascular tumor of the spine. Management of spinal ABC still remains controversial because of its location, vascular nature and incidence of recurrence. In this manuscript, we hereby describe two cases of ABC spine treated by curettage, vertebral cement augmentation for control of bleeding and internal stabilization with two years followup. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature describing the role of cement augmentation in spinal ABC in controlling vascular bleeding in curettage of ABC of spine. Case 1: A 22 year old male patient presented with chronic back pain. On radiological investigation, there were multiple, osteolytic septite lesions at L3 vertebral body without neural compression or instability. Percutaneous transpedicular biopsy of L3 from involved pedicle was done. This was followed by cement augmentation through the uninvolved pedicle. Next, transpedicular complete curettage was done through involved pedicle. Case 2: A 15-year-old female presented with nonradiating back pain and progressive myelopathy. On radiological investigation, there was an osteolytic lesion at D9. At surgery, decompression, pedicle screw-rod fixation and posterolateral fusion from D7 to D11 was done. At D9 level, through normal pedicle cement augmentation was added to provide anterior column support and to control the expected bleeding following curettage. Transpedicular complete curettage was done through the involved pedicle with controlled bleeding at the surgical field. Cement augmentation was providing controlled bleeding at surgical field during curettage, internal stabilization and control of pain. On 2 years followup, pain was relieved and there was a stable spinal segment with well filled cement without any sign of recurrence in computed tomography scan. In selected cases of spinal ABC with single vertebral, single pedicle involvement; cement augmentation of vertebra through normal

  7. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator haplotypes in households of patients with cystic fibrosis. (United States)

    Furgeri, Daniela Tenório; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Correia, Cyntia Arivabeni Araújo; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia


    Nearly 2000 mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene have been reported. The F508del mutation occurs in approximately 50-65% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, molecular diagnosis is not always possible. Therefore, silent polymorphisms can be used to label the mutant allele in households of patients with CF. To verify the haplotypes of four polymorphisms at the CFTR locus in households of patients with CF for pre-fertilization, pre-implantation, and prenatal indirect mutation diagnosis to provide better genetic counseling for families and patients with CF and to associate the genotypes/haplotypes with the F508del mutation screening. GATT polymorphism analysis was performed using direct polymerase chain reaction amplification, and the MP6-D9, TUB09 and TUB18 polymorphism analyses were performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Nine haplotypes were found in 37 CFTR alleles, and of those, 24 were linked with the F508del mutation and 13 with other CFTR mutations. The 6 (GATT), C (MP6-D9), G (TUB09), and C (TUB18) haplotypes showed the highest prevalence (48%) of the mutant CFTR allele and were linked to the F508del mutation (64%). In 43% of households analyzed, at least one informative polymorphism can be used for the indirect diagnostic test. CFTR polymorphisms are genetic markers that are useful for identifying the mutant CFTR alleles in households of patients with CF when it is not possible to establish the complete CFTR genotype. Moreover, the polymorphisms can be used for indirect CFTR mutation identification in cases of pre-fertilization, pre-implantation and prenatal analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sexed pig embryos during post-hatching development in primiparous sows exposed to differing intermittent suckling and breeding strategies

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    Stephen Tsoi


    Full Text Available The aim of commercial pig breeding programs is to maximize the number of pigs produced per sow per year. Given that sows exhibit an estrus during lactation is a potential means of increasing productivity of a pig breeding herd without reducing in lactation length, conventionally, weaning of piglets at a relatively young age is often related to post-weaning piglet performance which compromises piglet welfare. Therefore, intermittent suckling (IS is a management technique in which lactating sows are separated from their piglets for a fixed period of the days and allowing sows to continue nursing piglets while exhibiting estrus and being breed during lactation, thereby promoting both piglet well-being and sow reproductive performance [1]. For this study, primiparous sows (PP were exposed to 28 day (D28 lactation with intermittent suckling (IS during the final week prior to weaning. The sows detected to be in estrus during lactation were either bred at this first estrus (FE during lactation (IS21FE, or were “skipped” and bred at their second estrus which occurred after final weaning at D28 (IS21SE. Despite the benefits of IS, the effects of the maternal physiology related to breeding during lactation on embryonic transcriptome are largely unknown. Recent advances in the ability to assess embryonic gene expression in both sexes have made these analyses possible. Here, we describe the experimental procedures of two color microarray analyses and annotation of differentially expressed (DE genes in detail corresponding to data deposited at NCBI in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE53576 and GSE73020 for day 9 embryos (D9E and day 30 embryos (D30E respectively. Although only a few DE genes were discovered between IS21FE and IS21SE in both sexes from D9E or D30E, the raw data are still valuable for future use to understand the gene expression profiling from two different developmental stages.

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of kshA and kshB, encoding two components of 3-ketosteroid 9alpha-hydroxylase, a class IA monooxygenase, in Rhodococcus erythropolis strain SQ1. (United States)

    van der Geize, R; Hessels, G I; van Gerwen, R; van der Meijden, P; Dijkhuizen, L


    9 alpha-Hydroxylation of 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) is catalysed by 3-ketosteroid 9 alpha-hydroxylase (KSH), a key enzyme in microbial steroid catabolism. Very limited knowledge is presently available on the KSH enzyme. Here, we report for the first time the identification and molecular characterization of genes encoding KSH activity. The kshA and kshB genes, encoding KSH in Rhodococcus erythropolis strain SQ1, were cloned by functional complementation of mutant strains blocked in AD(D) 9 alpha-hydroxylation. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of kshA and kshB showed that they contain domains typically conserved in class IA terminal oxygenases and class IA oxygenase reductases respectively. By definition, class IA oxygenases are made up of two components, thus classifying the KSH enzyme system in R. erythropolis strain SQ1 as a two-component class IA monooxygenase composed of KshA and KshB. Unmarked in frame gene deletion mutants of parent strain R. erythropolis SQ1, designated strains RG2 (kshA mutant) and RG4 (kshB mutant), were unable to grow on steroid substrates AD(D), whereas growth on 9 alpha-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (9OHAD) was not affected. Incubation of these mutant strains with AD resulted in the accumulation of ADD (30-50% conversion), confirming the involvement of KshA and KshB in AD(D) 9 alpha-hydroxylation. Strain RG4 was also impaired in sterol degradation, suggesting a dual role for KshB in both sterol and steroid degradation.

  10. Effects of the Administration of 25(OH) Vitamin D3 in an Experimental Model of Chronic Kidney Disease in Animals Null for 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase. (United States)

    Torremadé, Noelia; Bozic, Milica; Goltzman, David; Fernandez, Elvira; Valdivielso, José M


    The final step in vitamin D activation is catalyzed by 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by low levels of both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 provoking secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT). Therefore, treatments with active or native vitamin D compounds are common in CKD to restore 25(OH)D3 levels and also to decrease PTH. This study evaluates the dose of 25(OH)D3 that restores parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels in a model of CKD in CYP27B1-/- mice. Furthermore, we compare the safety and efficacy of the same dose in CYP27B1+/+ animals. The dose needed to decrease PTH levels in CYP27B1-/- mice with CKD was 50 ng/g. That dose restored blood calcium levels without modifying phosphate levels, and increased the expression of genes responsible for calcium absorption (TRPV5 and calbindinD- 28K in the kidney, TRPV6 and calbindinD-9k in the intestine). The same dose of 25(OH)D3 did not modify PTH in CYP27B1+/+ animals with CKD. Blood calcium remained normal, while phosphate increased significantly. Blood levels of 25(OH)D3 in CYP27B1-/- mice were extremely high compared to those in CYP27B1+/+ animals. CYP27B1+/+ animals with CKD showed increases in TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindinD-28K and calbindinD-9K, which were not further elevated with the treatment. Furthermore, CYP27B1+/+ animals displayed an increase in vascular calcification. We conclude that the dose of 25(OH)D3 effective in decreasing PTH levels in CYP27B1-/- mice with CKD, has a potentially toxic effect in CYP27B1+/+ animals with CKD.

  11. KLF4 is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic ductal carcinoma. (United States)

    Zammarchi, Francesca; Morelli, Mariangela; Menicagli, Michele; Di Cristofano, Claudio; Zavaglia, Katia; Paolucci, Alessandra; Campani, Daniela; Aretini, Paolo; Boggi, Ugo; Mosca, Franco; Cavazzana, Andrea; Cartegni, Luca; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria


    Ductal pancreatic carcinoma (DPC) is a deadly disease with an incidence of 9 cases in 100,000 people per year and a mortality rate close to 100%. Allelic losses in the long arm of chromosome 9 are commonly encountered in many human malignancies but no data are yet available about DPC. We screened 40 laser-microdissected DPC samples and 6 pre-invasive lesions for 9 microsatellite mapping markers of region 9q21.3 through 9q34.2. A small overlapping region of deletion, spanning 8 million base pairs, was identified between D9S127 and D9S105. Two genes, RSG3 and KLF4, mapped to 9q31.1 through 9q32, were further investigated. A highly significant association was found between KLF4 gene expression levels and genomic status. Similarly, absence of immunohistochemical expression of KLF4 protein was found in 86.8% cases of DPC (33/38). Overexpression of KLF4 in a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line induced a significant decrease in the proliferation associated with up-regulation of p21 and the down-regulation of cyclin D1. In conclusion, we identified a novel oncosuppressor region located at the 9q 31.1-3 locus that is lost in DPC at high frequency. Loss of KLF4 expression is closely related to the genomic loss, and its restoration inhibits cancer cell proliferation, suggesting a key suppressor role in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Competition between drum and quasi-planar structures in RhB18 –: motifs for metallo-boronanotubes and metallo-borophenes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The photoelectron spectrum of RhB18 – at 266 nm; the top 42 low-lying isomers of RhB18 –; the relative Gibbs free energies, valence molecular orbitals, and coordinates of the two most stable isomers of RhB18 –. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc02623k Click here for additional data file. (United States)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Wan-Lu; Chen, Xin; Chen, Teng-Teng; Lopez, Gary V.


    Metal-doped boron clusters provide new opportunities to design nanoclusters with interesting structures and bonding. A cobalt-doped boron cluster, CoB18 –, has been observed recently to be planar and can be viewed as a motif for metallo-borophenes, whereas the D 9d drum isomer as a motif for metallo-boronanotubes is found to be much higher in energy. Hence, whether larger doped boron drums are possible is still an open question. Here we report that for RhB18 – the drum and quasi-planar structures become much closer in energy and co-exist experimentally, revealing a competition between the metallo-boronanotube and metallo-borophene structures. Photoelectron spectroscopy of RhB18 – shows a complicated spectral pattern, suggesting the presence of two isomers. Quantum chemistry studies indicate that the D 9d drum isomer and a quasi-planar isomer (C s) compete for the global minimum. The enhanced stability of the drum isomer in RhB18 – is due to the less contracted Rh 4d orbitals, which can have favorable interactions with the B18 drum motif. Chemical bonding analyses show that the quasi-planar isomer of RhB18 – is aromatic with 10 π electrons, whereas the observed RhB18 – drum cluster sets a new record for coordination number of eighteen among metal complexes. The current finding shows that the size of the boron drum can be tuned by appropriate metal dopants, suggesting that even larger boron drums with 5d, 6d transition metal, lanthanide or actinide metal atoms are possible. PMID:28451138

  13. Competition between drum and quasi-planar structures in RhB18-: motifs for metallo-boronanotubes and metallo-borophenes. (United States)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Wan-Lu; Chen, Xin; Chen, Teng-Teng; Lopez, Gary V; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai-Sheng


    Metal-doped boron clusters provide new opportunities to design nanoclusters with interesting structures and bonding. A cobalt-doped boron cluster, CoB18-, has been observed recently to be planar and can be viewed as a motif for metallo-borophenes, whereas the D9d drum isomer as a motif for metallo-boronanotubes is found to be much higher in energy. Hence, whether larger doped boron drums are possible is still an open question. Here we report that for RhB18- the drum and quasi-planar structures become much closer in energy and co-exist experimentally, revealing a competition between the metallo-boronanotube and metallo-borophene structures. Photoelectron spectroscopy of RhB18- shows a complicated spectral pattern, suggesting the presence of two isomers. Quantum chemistry studies indicate that the D9d drum isomer and a quasi-planar isomer (Cs) compete for the global minimum. The enhanced stability of the drum isomer in RhB18- is due to the less contracted Rh 4d orbitals, which can have favorable interactions with the B18 drum motif. Chemical bonding analyses show that the quasi-planar isomer of RhB18- is aromatic with 10 π electrons, whereas the observed RhB18- drum cluster sets a new record for coordination number of eighteen among metal complexes. The current finding shows that the size of the boron drum can be tuned by appropriate metal dopants, suggesting that even larger boron drums with 5d, 6d transition metal, lanthanide or actinide metal atoms are possible.

  14. Feeding for larvae of catfish Pangasionodon sp. larvae in different ages

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    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sludge worm (Tubifex sp. as natural feed on catfish (Pangasionodon sp. larvae rearing is available in limited amount especially during rainy season. It becomes a constraint factor for larvae rearing sector. This research was conducted to evaluate the appropriate initial age of catfish larvae to get artificial feed as sludge worm replacement. Evaluation was conducted on the growth and survival of catfish larvae in 14 days of culture. There were four treatments of feeding in triplicates i.e. larvae were given natural feed without artificial feed, given artificial feed started from d3, d6, and d9 with three replications. The results showed that larvae fed on artificial feed on d3 had the lowest growth compared to the other treatments, whereas the survival was not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments. As a conclusion, artificial feed could be used to replace natural feed for catfish larvae started at the age of nine days. Keywords: sludge worm, catfish larvae, artificial feed  ABSTRAK Cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. tersedia dalam jumlah terbatas terutama pada musim penghujan sebagai pakan alami dalam usaha pembenihan ikan patin (Pangasionodon sp.. Ini menjadi kendala dalam usaha pembenihan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi umur larva ikan patin yang tepat untuk mulai diberi pakan buatan menggantikan cacing sutra. Evaluasi dilakukan pada pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan patin umur 14 hari. Selama pemeliharaan, larva diberi pakan dengan empat perlakuan; pemberian pakan alami tanpa pakan buatan, pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3, d6, dan d9 dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3 memiliki pertumbuhan panjang yang terkecil dibandingkan perlakuan lain, sedangkan tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 antarperlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pakan buatan dapat digunakan

  15. A case of osseous scintigraphy showing focuses of multifocal tuberculosis; Un cas de scintigraphie osseuse montrant des foyers de tuberculose multifocale

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    Faurous-Vanaud, R. [Services de Medecine Nucleaire, Clinique Clementville, Montpellier (France); Faurous, P. [CRLC, Montpellier (France); Kalfa, G.; Collet, H. [Services de Medecine Nucleaire, Clinique Clementville, Montpellier (France); Couty, H.; Artus, J.C. [CRLC, Montpellier (France)


    Incidence of tuberculosis in developed countries presents in the last years a spectacular boost. However, the osteo-articular system is afflicted by tuberculosis only in a few percent of cases and the multifocal character represents less than 5% of osseous tuberculosis. It is presented here a case of multifocal osseous tuberculosis only to stress its rarity. A woman 28 years old from Djibouti presents since 8 months an asthenia and dorsal pains long thought as psychalgia. The examination has shown a major vertebral stiffness and limitation of right haunch. The radiographs showed a scoliosis centered on D8 with modifications. The biologic data are VS = 90, CRP = 124 and the hemogram is normal. The intradermal reaction (10 U of tuberculin) is phlyctenular. The TDM indicates lytic vertebral extension on D7 - D8, the osseous scintigraphy with MDP - 99 mTc indicates no anomaly in the vascular arrival time; a few minutes after injection: dorsal and upper and of right femur hyperactivity; 2 h after injection: hyper-fixation of D7 to D9 and of the upper end of right femur. The IRM indicates para-vertebral abscess of D7 to D9 with epidural abscess; abscess in the upper part of the loge of right adductors with osseous affliction of the femur`s upper end; a bacillary infectious process was a priori evoked. The patient was then placed under quadruple antibiotic-therapy anti-tuberculous care. In case of anomalous multifocal osseous scintigraphy the tuberculous affliction is part of the differential diagnosis, particularly in the immigrant populations or in HIV+ persons

  16. [Dairy cattle pregnancy rate in fixed time artificial insemination program with and without ultrasonic gynecologic screening.

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    Gustavo Fernandes Grillo


    Full Text Available To evaluate the pregnancy rate and the importance of ultrasound gynecological screening (US performed prior to fixed time artificial insemination programs (TAI, 120 Girolando cows, over two breeding seasons (2013 and 2014, were divided into two groups: (C / T; n = 58 and without (S / T; n = 62 gynecological screening by ultrasound, using three protocols, and the same for the groups with and without screening. Protocol I - “OvSynch” (OV in which received 0.025 mg of buserelin acetate in D0; 0.15 mg d-cloprostenol on D7; 0.025 mg buserelin acetate D9; It is inseminated at fixed time in D10. Protocol II - “OvSynch” + progesterone (OP4 and III Protocol - “OvSynch” + LH + P4 (OP4LH. Protocols II and III followed the same dosages of “OvSynch” associated with the introduction of intravaginal device containing 1g first use of progesterone in D0 and D7 in withdrawal. In Protocol III, LH replaced buserelin acetate in ovulation induction (D9; 25mg. Gestation diagnosis was made by US 45 days after TAI, and the animals not pregnant were reinseminated as presented heat. Parameters pregnancy rate at TAI (TP, total pregnancy rate (TPT = TAI + Return heat were analyzed by Chi-square or Fisher’s exact with 5% significance level. The use of progesterone favored the pregnancy rate of cyclic and acyclic animals, this has not occurred with LH job as ovulation inductor, providing no increase in pregnancy rates and overall pregnancy rate of dairy cows referred to the rated protocol. The gynecological screening by ultrasonography allowed evaluating the cyclicity of the studied females, indicating that its previous execution to the TAI, can provide good results with the use of better efficiency protocols for TAI programs.

  17. Intragastric exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced nephrotoxicity in mice, assessed by physiological and gene expression modifications. (United States)

    Gui, Suxin; Sang, Xuezi; Zheng, Lei; Ze, Yuguan; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Sun, Qingqing; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Renping; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui; Tang, Meng


    Numerous studies have demonstrated that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) induced nephrotoxicity in animals. However, the nephrotoxic multiple molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. Mice were exposed to 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg TiO2 NPs by intragastric administration for 90 consecutive days, and their growth, element distribution, and oxidative stress in kidney as well as kidney gene expression profile were investigated using whole-genome microarray analysis technique. Our findings suggest that TiO2 NPs resulted in significant reduction of renal glomerulus number, apoptosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, tissue necrosis or disorganization of renal tubules, coupled with decreased body weight, increased kidney indices, unbalance of element distribution, production of reactive oxygen species and peroxidation of lipid, protein and DNA in mouse kidney tissue. Furthermore, microarray analysis showed significant alterations in the expression of 1, 246 genes in the 10 mg/kg TiO2 NPs-exposed kidney. Of the genes altered, 1006 genes were associated with immune/inflammatory responses, apoptosis, biological processes, oxidative stress, ion transport, metabolic processes, the cell cycle, signal transduction, cell component, transcription, translation and cell differentiation, respectively. Specifically, the vital up-regulation of Bcl6, Cfi and Cfd caused immune/ inflammatory responses, the significant alterations of Axud1, Cyp4a12a, Cyp4a12b, Cyp4a14, and Cyp2d9 expression resulted in severe oxidative stress, and great suppression of Birc5, Crap2, and Tfrc expression led to renal cell apoptosis. Axud1, Bcl6, Cf1, Cfd, Cyp4a12a, Cyp4a12b, Cyp2d9, Birc5, Crap2, and Tfrc may be potential biomarkers of kidney toxicity caused by TiO2 NPs exposure.

  18. Additive effects of LPL, APOA5 and APOE variant combinations on triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemia: results of the ICARIA genetic sub-study

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    Valdivielso Pedro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG is a well-established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the influence of several genetic variants in genes related with triglyceride (TG metabolism has been described, including LPL, APOA5 and APOE. The combined analysis of these polymorphisms could produce clinically meaningful complementary information. Methods A subgroup of the ICARIA study comprising 1825 Spanish subjects (80% men, mean age 36 years was genotyped for the LPL-HindIII (rs320, S447X (rs328, D9N (rs1801177 and N291S (rs268 polymorphisms, the APOA5-S19W (rs3135506 and -1131T/C (rs662799 variants, and the APOE polymorphism (rs429358; rs7412 using PCR and restriction analysis and TaqMan assays. We used regression analyses to examine their combined effects on TG levels (with the log-transformed variable and the association of variant combinations with TG levels and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.69 mmol/L, including the covariates: gender, age, waist circumference, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results We found a significant lowering effect of the LPL-HindIII and S447X polymorphisms (p APOE-ε4 allele were significantly associated with an independent additive TG-raising effect (p p p p p p p = 0.042 and having one single raising polymorphism (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.39-2.87; p p Conclusion Our results showed a significant independent additive effect on TG levels of the LPL polymorphisms HindIII, S447X, D9N and N291S; the S19W and -1131T/C variants of APOA5, and the ε4 allele of APOE in our study population. Moreover, some of the variant combinations studied were significantly associated with the absence or the presence of hypertriglyceridemia.

  19. Produção in vitro de embriões bovinos com soro de égua ou de vaca em estro com ou sem a adição de LH/FSH

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    Figueiró Giuliano Moraes


    Full Text Available Mil duzentos e setenta e um oócitos foram divididos em 4 tratamentos com a finalidade de se avaliar a influência da adição de LH e FSH na produção in vitro de embriões bovinos com soro de vaca em estro (SVE ou soro de éguas obtido no 1masculine dia do estro (SE. Independente do tratamento os oócitos foram maturados com TCM199 + 5,95mg/ml de Hepes, 0,025mg/ml de piruvato de sódio e 2,2mg/ml de bicarbonato de sódio, sendo adicionado 10% de soro de égua (ES, 10% de SVE (VS, 10% de soro de égua + 0,5mg/ml de hormônio luteinizante bovino (LHb + 0,01UI/ml de hormônio folículo estimulante recombinante humano-rFSHh (EH e 10% SVE + LHb + rFSHh (VH. Os oócitos assim tratados, foram maturados em estufa com 5% de CO2 a 39masculineC sob umidade saturada por 22-24h. Depois, foram fecundados em TALP-FERT por 18-20h e cultivados por 8 dias em meio SOF + 5% de SE (ES e EH ou SVE (VS e VH. As taxas de clivagem de 72% obtidas no grupo VH (229/316 e 61% no grupo VS (193/315 foram significativamente menores (p<0,05 que as dos grupos ES (80% - 254/317 e EH (80% - 257/323. A produção de embriões (blastocistos iniciais, blastocistos, blastocistos expandidos e eclodidos no D7 após a inseminação para os grupos ES (32%, EH (28% e VH (27%, foi significativamente superior aos 20% obtidos no VS (p<0,05. No D9, verificou-se uma diferença significativa (p<0,05 entre os grupos ES (31% e EH (29% quando comparados com o grupo VS (22%, mas não houve diferença quando comparamos com o VH (24%. A taxa de eclosão em D9 foi de 11% (ES, 11% (EH, 10% (VS e 5% (VH. Não houve diferença entre as médias do número de células dos embriões (Blastocistos expandidos e eclodidos obtidos no D9. Conclui-se, com estes resultados que, para a obtenção de taxas regulares de blastocistos, não seja necessária a adição de hormônios quando se utilize o soro de égua, e que os hormônios devam ser adicionados quando se utilize soro de vaca.

  20. Adding a second prostaglandin F2α treatment to but not reducing the duration of a PRID-Synch protocol increases fertility after resynchronization of ovulation in lactating Holstein cows. (United States)

    Santos, V G; Carvalho, P D; Maia, C; Carneiro, B; Valenza, A; Crump, P M; Fricke, P M


    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a second PGF2α treatment and duration of an Ovsynch protocol that included a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) on progesterone (P4) concentrations and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) after resynchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination (TAI). Lactating Holstein cows (n=821) were assigned randomly at a nonpregnancy diagnosis (d 0) to 3 resynchronization protocols: (1) GnRH, d 0; PGF2α, d 7; GnRH, d 9.5 (7D1PGF); (2) GnRH, d 0; PGF2α, d 7; PGF2α, d 8; GnRH, d 9.5); (7D2PGF); or (3) GnRH, d 2; PGF2α, d 7; PGF2α, d 8; GnRH, d 9.5 (5D2PGF). All cows received a PRID at the first GnRH treatment of the resynchronization protocol, which was removed at the first PGF2α treatment, and all cows received TAI approximately 16h after the second GnRH treatment. Blood samples were collected from a subgroup of cows at each treatment of the resynchronization protocols. At 32 d after TAI, cows receiving a second PGF2α treatment (7D2PGF + 5D2PGF cows) had more P/AI (42.6 vs. 35.7%) than cows receiving a single PGF2α treatment (7D1PGF cows). For cows treated with a second PGF2α treatment, decreasing the duration of the protocol did not increase P/AI (41.4 vs. 43.8% for 7D2PGF vs. 5D2PGF cows). At 60 d after TAI, P/AI did not differ between cows treated with the 1 PGF2α (7D1PGF cows) or 2 PGF2α (7D2PGF + 5D1PGF cows) treatments (32.5 vs. 37.9%, respectively). In addition, reducing the duration of the protocol did not increase P/AI at 60 d after TAI (37.8 vs. 38.5% for 7D2PGF vs. 5D2PGF cows). Pregnancy loss from 32 to 60 d after TAI was not affected by the number of PGF2α treatments (8.5 vs. 10.6%, for 7D1PGF vs. 7D2PGF + 5D2PGF cows) or the duration of the protocol (9.1 vs. 12.1%, for 7D2PGF vs. 5D2PGF cows). The percentage of cows with incomplete luteal regression at the second GnRH treatment tended to differ among treatments and was lowest for 7D2PGF cows, intermediate for 5D2PGF

  1. Remoção temporária de bezerros em dois momentos do protocolo de sincronização da ovulação GnRH-PGF2α-BE em vacas Nelore pós-parto Temporary weaning of calves at two different times of the GnRH-PGF2α-EB synchronization protocol for ovulation in post-partum Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.M. Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available Os efeitos da remoção temporária de bezerros (RB sobre características foliculares e taxas de ovulação e de prenhez de vacas Nelore foram avaliados em dois experimentos quando da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF, utilizando-se um protocolo à base de GnRH-PGF2α-BE. No experimento 1, 139 vacas Nelore, lactantes, cíclicas ou acíclicas, receberam um protocolo hormonal envolvendo a aplicação de 100±g de análogo GnRH no dia zero (D0-GnRH, 25mg de PGF2α no dia 7 (D7-PGF2α e 1,0mg de benzoato de estradiol no dia 8 (D8-BE. Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos para serem submetidas ou não à RB (48 horas antes da aplicação de GnRH (RB1 ou após a aplicação de PGF2α (RB2. Avaliaram-se o diâmetro folicular (DF nos dias 0 (D0 e 9 (D9 do protocolo e as taxas de ovulação (T0, advindas dos tratamentos. As vacas acíclicas que receberam RB1 apresentaram maiores DF no D0 (PThe effects of temporary weaning (TW on follicular characteristics and ovulation and pregnancy rates were evaluated in Nelore cows submitted to a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI protocol using GnRH-PGF2α-EB. In Experiment 1, 139 cycling or non-cycling suckling Nelore cows received a hormonal protocol based on administration of 100±g of GnRH analog on day zero (D0-GnRH, 25mg of PGF2α on day seven (D7-PGF2α and 1.0mg of estradiol benzoate on day eight (D8-BE. Cows were randomly assigned to receive or not TW (48 hours before GnRH (TW1 or after PGF2α (TW2. Follicular diameter (FD on days zero (D0 and nine (D9 of the protocol and ovulation rates were evaluated. Noncycling cows that received TW1 had larger FD on D0 (P<0.05 and higher ovulation rate after GnRH treatment (P<0.05 than cows without TW1. No effects of TW1 on analyzed variables of cycling cows were observed. TW2 cows had larger FD on D9 (P<0.05 and higher ovulation rate after EB treatment (P<0.01 than cows without TW2. In Experiment 2, 376 suckling Nelore cows were submitted to the

  2. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the expense of betaine synthesis. (United States)

    Ganz, Ariel B; Shields, Kelsey; Fomin, Vlad G; Lopez, Yusnier S; Mohan, Sanjay; Lovesky, Jessica; Chuang, Jasmine C; Ganti, Anita; Carrier, Bradley; Yan, Jian; Taeswuan, Siraphat; Cohen, Vanessa V; Swersky, Camille C; Stover, Julie A; Vitiello, Gerardo A; Malysheva, Olga V; Mudrak, Erika; Caudill, Marie A


    Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-mediated pathways predict susceptibility to choline deficiency during severe choline deprivation, it is unknown if effects persist at recommended intakes. Thus, we used stable isotope liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methodology to examine the impact of candidate SNPs on choline metabolism in a long-term, randomized, controlled feeding trial among pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant (NP) women consuming 480 or 930 mg/d choline (22% as choline-d9, with d9 indicating a deuterated trimethyl amine group) and meeting folate-intake recommendations. Variants impairing folate metabolism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133, methionine synthase (MTR) rs1805087 [wild-type (WT)], MTR reductase (MTRR) rs1801394, and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) rs2236225, influenced choline dynamics, frequently through interactions with reproductive state and choline intake, with fewer genotypic alterations observed among pregnant women. Women with these variants partitioned more dietary choline toward phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-choline pathway at the expense of betaine synthesis even when use of betaine as a methyl donor was increased. Choline intakes of 930 mg/d restored partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and CDP-PC among NP (MTHFR rs1801133 and MTR rs1805087 WT) and lactating (MTHFD1 rs2236225) women with risk genotypes. Overall, our findings indicate that loss-of-function variants in folate-metabolizing enzymes strain cellular PC production, possibly via impaired folate-dependent phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT)-PC synthesis, and suggest that women with these risk genotypes may benefit from choline intakes exceeding current recommendations.-Ganz, A. B., Shields, K., Fomin, V. G., Lopez, Y. S., Mohan, S., Lovesky, J., Chuang, J. C

  3. Effects of crystalline menthol on blood metabolites in Holstein steers and in vitro volatile fatty acid and gas production. (United States)

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Aperce, C C; Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S


    Fifty-two Holstein steers (573 ± 9.92 kg BW) were used to determine if oral administration of crystalline menthol would induce changes in endogenous secretions of IGF-1 and circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Steers were blocked by BW and assigned within block to treatment. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% crystalline menthol (DM basis) added to the diet. Animals were housed in individual, partially covered pens equipped with feed bunks and automatic water fountains. On d 1 of the experiment, blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. Treatment administration commenced on d 2, and blood samples were again drawn at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. This blood-sampling schedule was repeated on d 9, 16, 23, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for PUN, glucose, and lactate concentrations. Serum was used to analyze IGF-1 concentration. Body weights were measured on d 1, 9, 16, 23, and 30. To accompany the live animal phase, in vitro fermentations were performed using ruminal fluid cultures. Measurements included VFA concentrations and fermentative gas production for cultures containing crystalline menthol at 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% of substrate DM. Addition of menthol to the diet of steers resulted in a treatment × day interaction ( menthol had greater serum IGF-1 concentrations on d 2 compared with steers fed 0.03% menthol. Steers fed 0% menthol had greater serum IGF-1 concentrations on d 9 compared with steers fed 0.03 and 0.3% menthol, whereas no differences were observed on d 23 or 30. Plasma glucose was similar among treatments until d 23, when steers supplemented with 0.03% menthol had lower glucose concentrations. Plasma urea nitrogen concentrations were not different among treatments; however, PUN concentrations varied by day. A linear response was detected for BW ( = 0.03), with steers consuming 0% menthol having the greatest BW and steers that consumed 0

  4. [Genotype distribution of human enteroviruses isolated from swage in Shanghai during year 2013-2014]. (United States)

    Li, Y Y; Lu, J; Wang, X Z; Yang, Y Y; Fei, J; Zhang, L P; Li, Z; Li, C S; Zuo, Y


    and show large differences compared with foreign strains isolated during the same period. ECHO6 strains comprised C6, C8, and D9 subgenotypes, which belong to three transmission chains. Moreover, ECHO6 subgenotype D9 was a dominant subgenotype in Shanghai, with broad geographical distribution both at home and abroad. Conclusion: Poliovirus was identified as a vaccine strain in environmental surveillance from June 2013 to April 2014 in Shanghai. Several transmission strains of ECHO6 and CVB5 were identified, which were the dominant serotypes.

  5. Development of materials and manufacturing technologies for Indian fast reactor programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Baldev; Jayakumar, T.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Mandal, Sumantra [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)


    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) are vital towards meeting security and sustainability of energy for the growing economy of India. The development of FBRs necessitates extensive research and development in domains of materials and manufacturing technologies in association with a wide spectrum of disciplines and their inter-twining to meet the challenging technology. The paper highlight the work and the approaches adopted for the successful deployment of materials, manufacturing and inspection technologies for the in-core and structural components of current and future Indian Fast Breeder Reactor Programme. Indigenous development of in-core materials viz. Titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (Alloy D9) and its variants, ferritic/martensitic oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels as well as structural materials viz. 316L(N) stainless steel and modified 9Cr-1Mo have been achieved through synergistic interactions between Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), education and research institutes and industries. Robust manufacturing technology has been established for forming and joining of various components of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) through 'science-based technology' approach. To achieve the strict quality standards of formed parts in terms of geometrical tolerances, residual stresses and microstructural defects, FEM-based modelling and experimental validation was carried out for estimation of spring-back during forming of multiple curvature thick plantes. Optimization of grain boundary character distribution in Alloy D9 was carried out by adopting the grain boundary engineering approach to reduce radiation induced segregation. Extensive welding is involved in the fabrication of reactor vessels, piping, steam generators, fuel sub-assemblies etc. Activated Tungsten Inert Gas Welding process along with activated flux developed at IGCAR has been successfully used in fabrication of dummy fuel subassemblies (DFSA) required

  6. Synergism of cattle and bison inoculum on ruminal fermentation and select bacterial communities in an artificial rumen (Rusitec fed barley straw

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    Daniela B Oss


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of increasing the proportion of bison relative to cattle inoculum on fermentation and microbial populations within an artificial rumen (Rusitec. The experiment was a completely randomized design with a factorial treatment structure (proportion cattle:bison inoculum; 0:100, 33:67, 67:33 and 100:0 replicated in two Rusitec apparatuses (n=8 fermenters. The experiment was 15 d with 8 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. Fermenters were fed a diet of 70:30 barley straw:concentrate (DM basis. True digestibility of DM was determined after 48 h of incubation from d 13-15, and daily ammonia (NH3 and volatile fatty acid (VFA production were measured on d 9-12. Protozoa counts were determined at d 9, 11, 13 and 15 and particle-associated bacteria (PAB from d 13-15. Select bacterial populations in the PAB were measured using RT-qPCR. Fermenter was considered the experimental unit and day of sampling as a repeated measure. Increasing the proportion of bison inoculum resulted in a quadratic effect (P0.05. Increasing bison inoculum linearly increased (P<0.05 concentrate aNDF disappearance, total and concentrate N disappearance as well as total daily VFA and acetate production. A positive quadratic response (P<0.05 was observed for daily NH3-N, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate production, as well as the acetate:propionate ratio. Increasing the proportion of bison inoculum linearly increased (P<0.05 total protozoa numbers. No effects were observed on pH, total gas and methane production, microbial N synthesis, or copies of 16S rRNA associated with total bacteria, Selenomonas ruminantium or Prevotella bryantii. Increasing bison inoculum had a quadratic effect (P<0.05 on Fibrobacter succinogenes, and tended to linearly (P<0.10 increase Ruminococcus flavefaciens and decrease (P<0.05 Ruminococcus albus copy numbers. In conclusion, bison inoculum increased the degradation of feed protein and fibre. A mixture

  7. Distribution of microsatellite instability in Danish ovarian tumor patients and the prognostic value in ovarian cancer patients. (United States)

    Begum, Farah D; Høgdall, Claus K; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakaer, Jan; Christensen, Lise; Ryan, Andy; Jacobs, Ian J; Høgdall, Estrid V


    The repeated frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI) in ovarian cancer (OC) ranges from 0% to 50%. Most MSI studies including OC patients have involved relatively small number of tumors, a wide range of different MSI markers, different patient characteristics, and varying criteria for defining tumors as MSI positive. Thus, no conclusive evidence about MSI occurrence in OC has been provided and the large variation has made interpretation of these previous studies difficult. The majority of MSI studies have been performed on OC cases with few borderline ovarian tumor (BOT) cases included. Few BOT studies showed no evidence of MSI, but in one study the frequency of MSI was 27.7% with all tumors of serous type, suggesting that MSI may play a role in the development of serous BOT. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of MSI using a panel of 16 dinucleotide markers: TP53, D17S250, CACNLB1, D18S58, D19S49, DXS538, DXS454, D5S117, D5S107, D6S284, D6S305, D9S171, D9S15, D11S554, D11S29, and D13S272 in tissue from patients with OC or BOT and to correlate the presence of MSI at these markers with the clinical information, such as FIGO stage, histological type, age, and survival in OC. The overall frequencies of MSI were within 2-10%. We observed MSI at different loci and with different extent (2.3-9.8%) in the different histopathological types. In both BOT and OC cases, we observed that all high MSI (MSI-H) were of serous type. No significant difference in disease specific survival was found between stage III/IV OC patients who presented MSI compared to patients being microsatellite stable (MSS) (p = 0.72). In conclusion, we found no association to any of the clinical parameters evaluated, although a tendency of a higher frequency of MSI was observed among serous OC.

  8. Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds. (United States)

    Pindwal, Aradhana; Yan, KaKing; Patnaik, Smita; Schmidt, Bradley M; Ellern, Arkady; Slowing, Igor I; Bae, Cheolbeom; Sadow, Aaron D


    Homoleptic tris(alkyl) rare earth complexes Ln{C(SiHMe2)3}3 (Ln = La, 1a; Ce, 1b; Pr, 1c; Nd, 1d) are synthesized in high yield from LnI3THFn and 3 equiv of KC(SiHMe2)3. X-ray diffraction studies reveal 1a-d are isostructural, pseudo-C3-symmetric molecules that contain two secondary Ln↼HSi interactions per alkyl ligand (six total). Spectroscopic assignments are supported by comparison with Ln{C(SiDMe2)3}3 and DFT calculations. The Ln↼HSi and terminal SiH exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale at room temperature, but the two motifs are resolved at low temperature. Variable-temperature NMR studies provide activation parameters for the exchange process in 1a (ΔH(⧧) = 8.2(4) kcal·mol(-1); ΔS(⧧) = -1(2) cal·mol(-1)K(-1)) and 1a-d9 (ΔH(⧧) = 7.7(3) kcal·mol(-1); ΔS(⧧) = -4(2) cal·mol(-1)K(-1)). Comparisons of lineshapes, rate constants (kH/kD), and slopes of ln(k/T) vs 1/T plots for 1a and 1a-d9 reveal that an inverse isotope effect dominates at low temperature. DFT calculations identify four low-energy intermediates containing five β-Si-H⇀Ln and one γ-C-H⇀Ln. The calculations also suggest the pathway for Ln↼HSi/SiH exchange involves rotation of a single C(SiHMe2)3 ligand that is coordinated to the Ln center through the Ln-C bond and one secondary interaction. These robust organometallic compounds persist in solution and in the solid state up to 80 °C, providing potential for their use in a range of synthetic applications. For example, reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe2)3}3 and ancillary proligands, such as bis-1,1-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)ethane (HMeC(Ox(Me2))2) give {MeC(Ox(Me2))2}Ln{C(SiHMe2)3}2, and reactions with disilazanes provide solvent-free lanthanoid tris(disilazides).

  9. Effect of micellized natural (D-α-tocopherol) vs. synthetic (DL-α-tocopheryl acetate) vitamin E supplementation given to turkeys on oxidative status and breast meat quality characteristics. (United States)

    Rey, A I; Segura, J; Olivares, A; Cerisuelo, A; Piñeiro, C; López-Bote, C J


    This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation source (micellized natural vs. the synthetic form) and dosage (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg) on α-tocopherol concentration in plasma and muscle, antioxidant capacity, and breast meat quality in turkeys. Three hundred female turkeys were randomly selected at an average live weight 63.2 g±0.5 and distributed into 7 groups. One group (control) was fed a standard diet without vitamin E supplementation and the other 6 were given mixed diets supplemented with the natural (d-α-tocopherol) or synthetic (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate) form of vitamin E in 3 dosages (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg). Following 11 wk feeding, results showed that performance parameters were not modified either by source or dosage of vitamin E supplementation to the turkeys. Plasma and muscle α-tocopherol at d 9 of refrigerated storage were higher when turkeys were supplemented with the natural form at higher doses. Losses in the concentration of α-tocopherol in meat between the beginning and the end of the 9 d refrigerated storage were greater in the groups supplemented with the synthetic form of vitamin E compared to those receiving the natural supplementation. The relationship between plasma α-tocopherol and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity followed a different trend depending on the vitamin E source. Intramuscular fat was not significantly affected by the vitamin E source supplementation; however the slope of the linear regression equation was lower for the natural form than for the synthetic form. Turkeys given the natural form had higher C18:1n-9 but lower C15:1, C17:1, C20:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in breast muscle. Meat samples from turkeys supplemented with natural vitamin E had higher deoxymyoglobin at d 3, 6, and 9 and lower metmyoglobin at d 9 of refrigerated storage than those receiving the synthetic form. Dietary supplementation with medium doses (80 mg/kg) micellized d-α-tocopherol is an interesting feeding strategy for

  10. Effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

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    Albanne Travers

    Full Text Available Testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only potential option for fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys exposed to gonadotoxic treatment. Completion of spermatogenesis after in vitro maturation is one of the future uses of harvested testicular tissue. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of fresh and frozen-thawed mouse pre-pubertal spermatogonial stem cells in an organ culture system. Pre-pubertal CD1 mouse fresh testes were cultured for 7 (D7, 9 (D9 and 11 (D11 days using an organ culture system. Basal medium was supplemented with different concentrations of retinol (Re or retinoic acid (RA alone or in combination. Seminiferous tubule morphology (tubule diameter, intra-tubular cell type, intra-tubular cell death and proliferation (PCNA antibody and testosterone level were assessed at D7, D9 and D11. Pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue were frozen after a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C and after thawing, were cultured for 9 days, using the culture medium preserving the best fresh tissue functionality. Retinoic acid at 10(-6M and retinol at 3.3.10(-7M, as well as retinol 10(-6M are favourable for seminiferous tubule growth, maintenance of intra-tubular cell proliferation and germ cell differentiation of fresh pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonia. Structural and functional integrity of frozen-thawed testicular tissue appeared to be well-preserved after soaking temperature at -8 °C, after 9 days of organotypic culture using 10(-6M retinol. RA and Re can control in vitro germ cell proliferation and differentiation. Re at a concentration of 10(-6M maintains intra-tubular cell proliferation and the ability of spermatogonia to initiate spermatogenesis in fresh and frozen pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue using a soaking temperature at -8 °C. Our data suggested a possible human application for in vitro maturation of cryopreserved pre-pubertal testicular

  11. Paleomagnetic study of Cenozoic sediments from the Zaisan basin (SE Kazakhstan) and the Chuya depression (Siberian Altai): tectonic implications for central Asia (United States)

    Thomas, J. C.; Lanza, R.; Kazansky, A.; Zykin, V.; Semakov, N.; Mitrokhin, D.; Delvaux, D.


    This paper presents new paleomagnetic results on Cenozoic rocks from northern central Asia. Eighteen sites were sampled in Pliocene to Miocene clays and sandy clays of the Zaisan basin (southeastern Kazakhstan) and 12 sites in the upper Oligocene to Pleistocene clays and sandstones of the Chuya depression (Siberian Altai). Thermal demagnetization of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) showed that hematite and magnetite are the main ferromagnetic minerals in the deposits of the Zaisan basin. Stepwise thermal demagnetization up to 640-660 °C isolated a characteristic (ChRM) component of either normal or reverse polarity at nine sites. At two other sites, the great circles convergence method yielded a definite direction. Measurements of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility showed that the hematite-bearing sediments preserved their depositional fabric. These results suggest a primary origin of the ChRM and were substantiated by positive fold and reversal tests. The mean paleomagnetic direction for the Zaisan basin ( D=9°, I=59°, k=19, α95=11°) is close to the expected direction derived from the APW path of Eurasia [J. Geophys. Res. 96 (1991) 4029] and shows that the basin did not rotated relative to stable Asia during the Tertiary. In the upper Pliocene-Pleistocene sandstones of the Chuya depression, a very stable ChRM carried by hematite was found. Its mean direction ( D=9°, I=46°, k=25, α95=7°) is characterized by declination close to the one excepted for early Quaternary, whereas inclination is lower. In the middle Miocene to lower Pliocene clays and sandstones, a stable ChRM of both normal and reverse polarities carried by magnetite was isolated. Its mean direction ( D=332°, I=63°, k=31, α95=4°) is deviated with respect to the reference direction and implies a Neogene, 39±8° counterclockwise rotation of the Chuya depression relative to stable Asia. These results and those from the literature suggest that the different amount of rotation

  12. Redução da primeira dose de GnRH em vacas holandesas de alta produção sincronizadas com Ovsynch ou Heatsynch

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    Flávio Aragon Lima


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with 10 or 20 µg of GnRH and type of FTAI protocols (Ovsynch and Heatsynch on pregnancy rate of lactating dairy cows submitted to the synchronization at FTAI (n = 581. The animals were distributed among four treatments, allocated factorial design 2x2: Treat 1- Ovsynch (20 µg GnRH on D0; PGF on D7; 10 µg GnRH on D9 and FTAI on D10; n = 141, Treat 2- ½ Ovsynch (10 µg GnRH on D0; PGF on D7; 10 µg GnRH on D9 and FTAI on D10; n = 159, Treat 3- Heatsynch (20 µg GnRH on D0; PGF on D7; 1 mg EB on D8 and FTAI on D10; n = 147 and Treat 4- ½ Heatsynch (10 µg GnRH on D0; PGF on D7; 1 mg EB on D8 and FTAI on D10; n = 134. The Group Ovsynch (Treat 1 and 2 presented greater pregnancy rate than Group Heatsynch (Treat 3 and 4 at 28 days (45.7% (137/300 and 39.9% (112/281, respectively; P = 0.07 and at 56 days of gestation (41.0% (123/300 and 34.2% (96/281, respectively; P = 0.06. There were no statistical difference (P >; 0.10 on pregnancy rate at 28 (44.4% (128/288 vs 41.3% (121/293; P = 0.50 and 56 days (38.2% (110/288 vs 37.2% (109/293; P = 0.68 between the dosages of the GnRH. The pregnancies losses (between 28 and 56 days were not different between the FTAI protocols and GnRH dosage (P >; 0.10. We concluded that the Ovsynch protocol presented greater pregnancy rate at FTAI than Heatsynch protocol and the administration of 10 µg of buserelin Acetate, at the beginning of these protocols did not decrease the efficiency of FTAI protocols in high-yielding Holstein cows.

  13. Molecular evolution of measles viruses circulated in Taiwan 1992-2008

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    Rota Paul A


    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic analyses of viral samples from 74 laboratory confirmed measles cases occurring in Taiwan during 1992-2008 identified six viral genotypes D3, D5, D9, G2, H1 and H2. The most frequently detected genotype, H1, was associated with outbreaks in 1994 and 2002, and was the likely indigenous genotype in 1992. In response to the outbreaks, two catch-up campaigns were launched and a routine second dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at entry to elementary school was introduced. The vaccination campaigns successfully reduced the number of measles cases in Taiwan, and many of the more recent cases can be traced to importations, primarily from other Asian countries. A number of measles genotypes which were associated with outbreaks in other Asian countries were detected among the more recent cases. The more recent genotype H1 viruses had sequences that were identical to those currently circulating in China or associated with international importation of virus.

  14. Development of the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence to Assess Functional Capacity in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Iwasa PhD


    Full Text Available Improvement in the health of older people and changes in their lifestyles necessitate a scale that can better measure their competence at a higher level. This study describes the development process of the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence (JST-IC by (a refining conceptual definitions and developing preliminary items and (b examining the basic properties of the items. Participants were 1,253 septuagenarians (539 men and 714 women living in communities, who were asked to judge whether they were independent via 88 items. To examine the basic properties of the preliminary items, five different analyses were conducted. Thirty-four items were considered as inappropriate (6 overlapped between the analyses: (a 9 due to very high or low ratios of responders who answered “yes,” (b 4 due to gender or regional differences, (c 5 due to their weak association with health status, (d 9 due to low communalities in factor analysis, and (e 13 due to redundancy of meaning with other items. Conceptual definitions and preliminary items were developed, and the basic properties of the items were examined to create the JST-IC. The next step would be to screen the remaining 54 items to create the final version of the scale.

  15. Theoretical investigation of spectroscopic properties of $W^{25+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Alkauskas, A; Gaigalas, G; Kynienė, A; Kisielius, R; Kučas, S; Masys, Š; Merkelis, G; Jonauskas, V


    Energy levels and emission spectra of $W^{25+}$ ion have been studied by performing the large-scale relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Configuration interaction strength is used to determine the configurations exhibiting the largest influence on the $4f^{3}$, $4d^{9}4f^{4}$, $4f^{2}5s$, $4f^{2}5p$, $4f^{2}5d$, $4f^{2}5f$, $4f^{2}5g$, and $4f^{2}6g$ configuration energies. It is shown that correlation effects are crucial for the $4f^{2}5s \\rightarrow 4f^{3}$ transition which in single-configuration approach occurs due to the weak electric octupole transitions. As well, the correlation effects affect the $4f^{2}5d \\rightarrow 4f^{3}$ transitions by increasing transition probabilities by an order. Corona model has been used to estimate the contribution of various transitions to the emission in a low-density electron beam ion trap (EBIT) plasma. Modeling in 10--30 nm wavelength range produces lines which do not form emission bands and can be observed in EBIT plasma.

  16. Genotyping of circulating measles strains in Italy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Baggieri


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. In Italy, laboratory surveillance activity is implemented by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome. The role of the National Reference Laboratory is to strengthen surveillance systems through rigorous case investigation and laboratory confirmation of suspected sporadic cases and outbreaks. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus is an essential component of the laboratory-based surveillance. This study describes the molecular characterization of measles virus strains isolated during 2010. METHODS: Dried blood spots, urine and oral fluid samples were collected from patients with a suspected measles infection. Serological tests were performed on capillary blood, and viral detection was performed on urine and oral fluid samples through molecular assay. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The phylogenetic analysis showed a co-circulation of genotypes D4 and D8, and sporadic cases associated to genotypes D9 and B3. Then, molecular epidemiology of measles cases permitted to establish that D4 and D8 were the endemic genotypes in Italy during 2010.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and fungicidal activity of binary and ternary metal(II) complexes derived from 4,4‧-((4-nitro-1,2-phenylene) bis(azanylylidene))bis(3-(hydroxyimino)pentan-2-one) (United States)

    El-Tabl, Abdou S.; Shakdofa, Mohamad M. E.; Whaba, Mohamad A.


    Ternary copper(II) and binary copper(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes derived from 4,4‧-((4-nitro-1,2-phenylene)bis(azanylylidene))bis(3-(hydroxyimino)pentan-2-one) (H2L) were synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, UV-Vis. and 1H NMR spectroscopy, conductivity and magnetic moments measurements. The analytical and spectral data showed that, the ligand acts as dibasic tetradentate or dibasic hexadentate bonding to the metal ion via the two-imine nitrogen, two nitrogen and/or oximato oxygen atoms of deprotonated oxime groups forming five and/or six rings including the metal ions. The complexes adopt either tetragonal distorted octahedral or square planar geometry around metal ions. The ESR spectra of the solid copper(II) complexes are characteristic to d9 configuration and having an axial symmetry type of a d(x2-y2) ground state. The g values confirmed the geometry is elongated tetragonal octahedral geometry with considerably ionic or covalent environment. The antifungal biological activity of the prepared compounds was studied using well diffusion method. The obtained results showed that, the ligand is biologically inactive while its metal complexes were more potent fungicides than the ligand and standard antifungal drug (Amphotericin B).

  18. Synthesis, characterization and fungicidal activity of binary and ternary metal(II) complexes derived from 4,4'-((4-nitro-1,2-phenylene) bis(azanylylidene))bis(3-(hydroxyimino)pentan-2-one). (United States)

    El-Tabl, Abdou S; Shakdofa, Mohamad M E; Whaba, Mohamad A


    Ternary copper(II) and binary copper(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes derived from 4,4'-((4-nitro-1,2-phenylene)bis(azanylylidene))bis(3-(hydroxyimino)pentan-2-one) (H2L) were synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, UV-Vis. and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, conductivity and magnetic moments measurements. The analytical and spectral data showed that, the ligand acts as dibasic tetradentate or dibasic hexadentate bonding to the metal ion via the two-imine nitrogen, two nitrogen and/or oximato oxygen atoms of deprotonated oxime groups forming five and/or six rings including the metal ions. The complexes adopt either tetragonal distorted octahedral or square planar geometry around metal ions. The ESR spectra of the solid copper(II) complexes are characteristic to d(9) configuration and having an axial symmetry type of a d(x2-y2) ground state. The g values confirmed the geometry is elongated tetragonal octahedral geometry with considerably ionic or covalent environment. The antifungal biological activity of the prepared compounds was studied using well diffusion method. The obtained results showed that, the ligand is biologically inactive while its metal complexes were more potent fungicides than the ligand and standard antifungal drug (Amphotericin B). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. NucliTrack: an integrated nuclei tracking application. (United States)

    Cooper, Sam; Barr, Alexis R; Glen, Robert; Bakal, Chris


    Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack's interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly. NucliTrack is available as a free, cross platform application and open source Python package. Installation details and documentation are at: A video guide can be viewed online: Source code is available through Github: A Matlab toolbox is also available at: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Isobutylhydroxyamides from Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Their Suppression of NO Production. (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Bo; Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Young Ho; Wei, An-Zhi; Gao, Jin-Ming


    Four new unsaturated aliphatic acid amides, named zanthoamides A-D ( 1 - 4 ), and eight known ones-tetrahydrobungeanool ( 5 ), ZP-amide A ( 6 ), ZP-amide B ( 7 ), ZP-amide C ( 8 ), ZP-amide D ( 9 ), ZP-amide E ( 10 ), bugeanumamide A ( 11 ), and (2 E ,7 E ,9 E )- N -(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-6,11-dioxo-2,7,9-dodecatrienamide ( 12 )-were isolated from the pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum . The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses and comparison with previously reported data. Compound 4 contained a rare C₆ fatty acid unit with an acetal group. Results revealed that compounds 1 , 5 , 6 , and 12 showed inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC 50 values of 48.7 ± 0.32, 27.1 ± 1.15, 49.8 ± 0.38, and 39.4 ± 0.63 µM, respectively, while the other compounds were inactive (IC 50 > 60 μM). They could contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. bungeanum by suppression of NO production.

  1. Isobutylhydroxyamides from Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Their Suppression of NO Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang


    Full Text Available Four new unsaturated aliphatic acid amides, named zanthoamides A–D (1–4, and eight known ones—tetrahydrobungeanool (5, ZP-amide A (6, ZP-amide B (7, ZP-amide C (8, ZP-amide D (9, ZP-amide E (10, bugeanumamide A (11, and (2E,7E,9E-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-6,11-dioxo-2,7,9-dodecatrienamide (12—were isolated from the pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses and comparison with previously reported data. Compound 4 contained a rare C6 fatty acid unit with an acetal group. Results revealed that compounds 1, 5, 6, and 12 showed inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC50values of 48.7 ± 0.32, 27.1 ± 1.15, 49.8 ± 0.38, and 39.4 ± 0.63 µM, respectively, while the other compounds were inactive (IC50 > 60 μM. They could contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. bungeanum by suppression of NO production.

  2. Trim28 Haploinsufficiency Triggers Bi-stable Epigenetic Obesity. (United States)

    Dalgaard, Kevin; Landgraf, Kathrin; Heyne, Steffen; Lempradl, Adelheid; Longinotto, John; Gossens, Klaus; Ruf, Marius; Orthofer, Michael; Strogantsev, Ruslan; Selvaraj, Madhan; Lu, Tess Tsai-Hsiu; Casas, Eduard; Teperino, Raffaele; Surani, M Azim; Zvetkova, Ilona; Rimmington, Debra; Tung, Y C Loraine; Lam, Brian; Larder, Rachel; Yeo, Giles S H; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Vavouri, Tanya; Whitelaw, Emma; Penninger, Josef M; Jenuwein, Thomas; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Coll, Anthony P; Körner, Antje; Pospisilik, J Andrew


    More than one-half billion people are obese, and despite progress in genetic research, much of the heritability of obesity remains enigmatic. Here, we identify a Trim28-dependent network capable of triggering obesity in a non-Mendelian, "on/off" manner. Trim28(+/D9) mutant mice exhibit a bi-modal body-weight distribution, with isogenic animals randomly emerging as either normal or obese and few intermediates. We find that the obese-"on" state is characterized by reduced expression of an imprinted gene network including Nnat, Peg3, Cdkn1c, and Plagl1 and that independent targeting of these alleles recapitulates the stochastic bi-stable disease phenotype. Adipose tissue transcriptome analyses in children indicate that humans too cluster into distinct sub-populations, stratifying according to Trim28 expression, transcriptome organization, and obesity-associated imprinted gene dysregulation. These data provide evidence of discrete polyphenism in mouse and man and thus carry important implications for complex trait genetics, evolution, and medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide b on T-lymphocytes in mice bearing sarcoma 180. (United States)

    Chen, L Z; Feng, X W; Zhou, J H


    To study immuno-antitumor action mechanism of RGP-b. RGP-b (Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccaride b) is a new component isolated from the herb, had an average molecular mass of 160 kDa and 5 kinds of monosaccharides as acid-splitting products. Its HPLC showed a main sharp peak at 162 kDa. The kinetic effects of RGP-b on IL-2 secretion, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activities and L3T4+, lyt-2+ T-lymphocyte subset in mice bearing S180 were observed. RGP-b 10 or 20 mg kg-1 ip obviously attenuated the decrease of CTL cytotoxity caused by excessive tumor growth on d 9 after the administration, but only partly ameliorated the descent of IL-2. Its effect on lyt-2+ subset was quite parallel with that on CTL cytotoxity. RGP-b kept the ratio of L3T4+ to lyt-2+ subset lower than that of control. Improving the production of lyt-2+ CTL and its cytotoxity were an essential immuno-antitumor mechanisms of RGP-b.

  4. The Potential Role of Cannabinoids in Modulating Serotonergic Signaling by Their Influence on Tryptophan Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Fuchs


    Full Text Available Phytocannabinoids present in Cannabis plants are well known to exert potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Previously, we have demonstrated that the psychoactive D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and the non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD modulate mitogen-induced Th1-type immune responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. The suppressive effect of both cannabinoids on mitogen-induced tryptophan degradation mediated by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, suggests an additional mechanism by which antidepressive effects of cannabinoids might be linked to the serotonergic system. Here, we will review the role of tryptophan metabolism in the course of cell mediated immune responses and the relevance of cannabinoids in serotonergic signaling. We conclude that in particular the non-psychotropic CBD might be useful for the treatment of mood disorders in patients with inflammatory diseases, since this cannabinoid seems to be safe and its effects on activation-induced tryptophan degradation by CBD were more potent as compared to THC.

  5. Treatment of benign cold thyroid nodule: efficacy and safety of US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Myung Joon; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Il Min [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection for the treatent of benign cold thyroid nodules. Twenty-five patients with benign cold thyroid nodules (volume of each at least 2ml proven by PCNA to be adenomatous hyperplasia, and cold nodule by thyroid scan) underwent a total of one to three percutaneous ethanol injections (PEI) at intervals of one or two months. The mean amount of ethanol used was 6.2(range, 1.5-8)ml, depending on the volume of the nodule. Follow up ultrasonography was performed one to four months after the final session. The initial volume of nodules was 11.4{+-}4.1(range, 2.5-41.4)ml, and in all cases this fell by 56.1{+-}22.3%(range, 10.9-92.1%);in all cases, follow-up ultrasonography showed that echogeneity was lower and its pattern was heterogeneous. There were no important longstanding complications;the most common side effect was acute pain at the injection site(n=3D9), and in one case, transient vocal cord palsy occurred. Our results show that US-guided percutaneous injection of ethanol is an effective and a safe procedure for the treatment of benign cold thyroid nodules, and is thus an alternative to surgery or hormone therapy.=20.

  6. Maternal iron deficiency alters essential fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism and increases locomotion in adult guinea pig offspring. (United States)

    LeBlanc, Caroline P; Fiset, Sylvain; Surette, Marc E; Turgeon O'Brien, Huguette; Rioux, France M


    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent worldwide nutritional deficiency. Groups at risk of developing ID anemia are infants and pregnant women, even in industrialized countries. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the long-term consequences of maternal ID on the offspring's fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism, behavior, and spatial memory. Female guinea pigs consumed iron-sufficient (IS) and -deficient (ID) diets for 14 d before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Dietary iron restriction resulted in ID in pregnant females. On postnatal d 9, all offspring (ID and IS) were weaned to the IS diet and at 42 d, all offspring were iron replete. Locomotion was tested in pups on postnatal d 24 and 40 and spatial memory from d 25 to 40. Pups from the ID group were significantly more active in the open field at both times of testing, whereas spatial memory, tested in a Morris water maze, was comparable in both groups. On postnatal d 42, liver, RBC, and brain fatty acid composition were measured. Dihomogammalinolenic [20:3(n-6)], docosapentaenoic [22:5(n-3)], and docosahexaenoic [22:6(n-3)] acid contents were significantly higher in brain phospholipids of offspring born to ID dams. Prostaglandin E(2) and F(2alpha) concentrations were also significantly higher in brains of offspring born to ID dams. This demonstrates that moderate ID during gestation and lactation results in alterations of brain fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism and perturbation in behavior in adult offspring.

  7. Test design description Volume 2, Part 1. IFR-1 metal fuel irradiation test (AK-181) element as-built data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds, N. E.


    The IFR-1 Test, designated as the AK-181 Test Assembly, will be the first irradiation test of wire wrapped, sodium-bonded metallic fuel elements in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The test is part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuels program conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in support of the Innovative Reactor Concepts Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). One subassembly, containing 169 fuel elements, will be irradiated for 600 full power days to achieve 10 at.% burnup. Three metal fuel alloys (U-10Zr, U-8Pu-10Zr) will be irradiated in D9 cladding tubes. The metal fuel elements have a fuel-smeared density of 75% and each contains five slugs. The enriched zone contains three slugs and is 36-in. long. One 6.5-in. long depleted uranium axial blanket slug (DU-10Zr) was loaded at each end of the enriched zone. the fuel elements were fabricated at ANL-W and delivered to Westinghouse-Hanford for wirewrapping and assembly into the test article. This Test Design Description contains relevant data on compositions, densities, dimensions and weights for the cast fuel slugs and completed fuel elements. The elements conform to the requirements in MG-22, "Users` Guide for the Irradiation of Experiments in the FTR."

  8. The correlation of differences in the ocular component values with the degree of myopic anisometropia. (United States)

    Kim, Su-Young; Cho, Soon Young; Yang, Ji Wook; Kim, Chan Su; Lee, Young Chun


    To determine the relationship between the differences in the ocular component values with the degree of anisomyopia. Refraction, corneal power (CP), and biometry were examined in 50 myopic adults with refractive differences (RD) over 1.50 diopters (D). Ocular components were measured by ultrasound biometry and keratometry. The correlation between the differences in the ocular component values with the degree of anisomyopia was analyzed by linear regression analysis. Among 50 adults with anisomyopia, 5 had RD from 1.50 to 2.99 D, 11 had RD from 3.00 to 3.99 D, 9 had RD from 4.00 to 5.99 D, 12 had RD from 6.00 to 7.99 D, 7 had RD from 8.00 to 11.99 D, and 6 had ≥12.00 D. There was no significant correlation between the ocular components (CP, crystalline lens thickness [LT], and anterior chamber depth [ACD], and the length from the cornea to the posterior surface of the lens [ACD + LT]) and the RD (p > 0.05). The RD showed a significantly positive correlation with vitreous chamber depth (VCD), and axial length (r = 0.963, p < 0.0001). The severity of anisomyopia was not correlated with the between-eye differences in the anterior chamber values of the eye (CP, ACD, LT, ACD + LT). The severity of anisomyopia was significantly correlated with the between-eye differences in VCD.

  9. Mechanism of charge transfer/disproportionation in LnCu3Fe4O12 (Ln = lanthanides) (United States)

    Rezaei, N.; Hansmann, P.; Bahramy, M. S.; Arita, R.


    The Fe-Cu intersite charge transfer and Fe charge disproportionation are interesting phenomena observed in some LnCu3Fe4O12 (Ln = lanthanides) compounds containing light and heavy Ln atoms, respectively. We show that a change in the spin state is responsible for the intersite charge transfer in the light Ln compounds. At the high-spin state, such systems prefer an unusual Cu d8 configuration, whereas at the low-spin state they retreat to the normal Cu d9 configuration through a charge transfer from Fe to the Cu 3dxy orbital. We find that the strength of the crystal-field splitting and the relative energy ordering between Cu 3dxy and Fe 3d states are the key parameters determining the intersite charge transfer (charge disproportionation) in light (heavy) Ln compounds. It is further proposed that the size of Ln affects the on-site interaction strength of Cu 3d states, leading to a strong modification of the Cu L3-edge spectrum, as observed by the x-ray-absorption spectroscopy.

  10. The optimal method for recording prosthetic heart valve sounds in clinical situations. (United States)

    Bito, Yasuyuki; Soeta, Yoshiharu; Nakagawa, Seiji; Shibata, Toshihiko; Suehiro, Shigefumi


    Valve sounds are thought to be useful in evaluating the functioning of prosthetic heart valves. In previous reports, two recording instruments have mainly been used, a condenser microphone (instrument A) and an accelerometer (instrument B), respectively. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of these conventional devices in recording mechanical heart valve sounds in daily clinical situations. In addition, two other instruments, namely, a stethoscope including a small microphone in its tube (instrument C) and an electrostethoscope (instrument D), were proposed and examined. Mechanical valve sounds were recorded from postoperative patients using each-device and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of each was calculated. Frequency characteristics of the two newly proposed instruments were also investigated by recording a sweep signal in an anechoic chamber. The SNR values of the new instruments were significantly superior to those of conventional ones (A, sound signals were not defined from noises; B, 0.97 +/- 0.59 dB; C, 11.5 +/- 4.7 dB; and D, 9.4 +/- 3.5 dB, respectively ptwo newly proposed instruments were also shown to be acceptable (under 10 kHz), though resonance frequency peaks were observed. Two newly proposed instruments can record mechanical heart valve sounds more noiselessly and with more ease than previous ones, and their frequency characteristics are acceptable.

  11. Participation as an outcome measure in psychosocial oncology: content of cancer-specific health-related quality of life instruments. (United States)

    van der Mei, Sijrike F; Dijkers, Marcel P J M; Heerkens, Yvonne F


    To examine to what extent the concept and the domains of participation as defined in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) are represented in general cancer-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments. Using the ICF linking rules, two coders independently extracted the meaningful concepts of ten instruments and linked these to ICF codes. The proportion of concepts that could be linked to ICF codes ranged from 68 to 95%. Although all instruments contained concepts linked to Participation (Chapters d7-d9 of the classification of 'Activities and Participation'), the instruments covered only a small part of all available ICF codes. The proportion of ICF codes in the instruments that were participation related ranged from 3 to 35%. 'Major life areas' (d8) was the most frequently used Participation Chapter, with d850 'remunerative employment' as the most used ICF code. The number of participation-related ICF codes covered in the instruments is limited. General cancer-specific HRQOL instruments only assess social life of cancer patients to a limited degree. This study's information on the content of these instruments may guide researchers in selecting the appropriate instrument for a specific research purpose.

  12. Allelic loss and linkage studies in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.; Bale, A.E.; Lytton, B. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others


    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in U.S. males. Many examples of familial aggregation have been reported, and segregration analysis suggests that an autosomal dominant gene with a penetrance of 88% by age 85 accounts for 9% of all cases. Because many dominant cancer predisposition syndromes are related to germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes, we analyzed a series of sporadic and hereditary tumors for allelic loss. High grade sporadic, paraffin-embedded, primary prostate tumors were obtained from the archival collection in the Department of Pathology at Yale and hereditary tumors from three families were obtained by an advertisement in the New York Times and from referrals by urologists. PCR analysis showed loss in 4/7 informative sporadic prostate tumors with NEFL (8p21), in 8/22 informative tumors with D10S169 (10q26-qter), in 2/8 informative tumors with D10S108 (10q) and in 4/23 informative tumors with D10S89 (10p) in agreement with previous studies. PYGM on chromosome 11 and D9S127 on chromosome 9 showed no loss. Linkage analysis with NEFL in 3 prostate cancer families gave strongly negative results for close linkage (Z=-2.1 at {theta}=0.01) but LOD scores were very dependent on parameters, e.g. gene frequency, phenocopy rate, and penetrance. Linkage analysis with chromosome 10 markers and systematic analysis of the genome for other area of allelic loss are underway.

  13. Serially homologous engrailed stripes are generated via different cell lineages in the germ band of amphipod crustaceans (Malacostraca, Peracarida). (United States)

    Scholtz, G; Patel, N H; Dohle, W


    A monoclonal antibody (mAb 4D9) was used to analyze engrailed expression in amphipod embryos. As in other arthropods, engrailed is expressed in iterated transverse stripes in the germ band. In the anterior region these stripes are generated without a recognizable division pattern, and their appearance and formation show some irregularities. In the posterior region of the germ band, engrailed expression is correlated with a stereotyped cell division pattern resulting in a highly ordered formation and array of stripes. The engrailed positive cells mark the anterior border of genealogical units, which therefore can be compared with parasegments in Drosophila. Expression starts in the mandibular segment and proceeds first anteriorly and subsequently in a posterior direction. Initial stripes are one cell wide. The widening of stripes is caused by both division of engrailed positive cells and recruitment of new cells that did not previously express engrailed. The widening process is related to segment formation as the intersegmental furrows are established behind the engrailed expressing cells, which are restricted to the posterior portion of the forming segments. A comparison of the modes of engrailed expression in different segments suggests that initial engrailed expression is independent of a certain cell lineage or division pattern. The comparison of the development of the early engrailed stripes in different insects and crustaceans reveals some similarities which show that early engrailed expression is not necessarily clonally inherited.

  14. Expression of the Engrailed Gene Reveals Nine Putative Segment-Anlagen in the Embryonic Pleon of the Freshwater Crayfish Cherax destructor (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda). (United States)

    Scholtz, G


    Segment formation in the embryonic pleon of the freshwater crayfish Cherax destructor was analyzed by using the monoclonal antibody mAb 4D9 against the product of the segment-polarity gene engrailed. As in other body regions, engrailed is expressed in transverse stripes in the posterior portion of segments in the pleon. Nine engrailed stripes are formed in the pleon. The anterior six stripes correspond to the six pleon segments of adult eumalacostracan crustaceans. The uropods are clearly the appendages of the sixth pleon segment. The seventh engrailed stripe marks the anlage of a seventh ganglion. Stripes eight and nine are transient and disappear before morphogenesis begins. The engrailed stripes seven to nine are interpreted as vestiges of ancestral segments. The seventh segment anlage is thus a recapitulation of the seventh pleonic segment, which is retained in recent adult leptostracans and is considered to be part of the malacostracan ground plan. The stripes eight and nine might point still further back into the phylogeny of crustaceans or even mandibulates. The use of rhodamine-labeled phalloidin reveals that the terminal ganglion of adult crayfish is the fusion product of the anlagen of the sixth and seventh pleonic ganglia and an eighth hemiganglion that is devoid of engrailed expression.

  15. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic and antileishmanial activities of extract and essential oil from leaves of Piper cernuum. (United States)

    Capello, Tabata M; Martins, Euder G A; de Farias, Camyla F; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Matsuo, Alisson L; Passero, Luiz Felipe D; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G


    Fractionation of the MeOH extract from leaves of Piper cernuum Vell. (Piperaceae) afforded six phenylpropanoid derivatives: 3',4'-dimethoxydihydrocinnamic acid (1), piplaroxide (2), methyl 4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxy cinnamate (3), 3',4',5'-trimethoxydihydrocinnamic acid (3), dihydropiplartine (5), and piplartine (6). The structures of isolated metabolites were characterized by NMR and MS spectral data analysis. The chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves was determined using GC/LREIMS followed by the determination of Kovats indexes. This procedure allowed the identification of nineteen terpenoids, with β-elemene (7), bicyclogermacrene (8), germacrene D (9), and (E)-caryophyllene (10) as the main compounds. Compounds 1 and 3-6 displayed no in vitro cytotoxicity against cancer cell lineages B16F10-Nex2, U87, HeLa, HL-60, HCT, and A2058 while 2 showed moderate activity against B16F10-Nex2 and HL-60 lines. Otherwise, compounds 7-10 displayed high cytotoxic activity. Evaluation against non-tumorigenic HFF cells indicated a reduced selectivity of compounds 7-10 to tumoral cells. No antileishmanial activity on macrophages infected with L. (L.) amnazonensis was found for the crude MeOH extract and compounds 1-6. The crude essential oil and compounds 7-10 reduced parasitism and eliminated the majority of infected and non-infected cells at 50 μg/mL.

  16. Magnetic In x Ga 1 - x N nanowires at room temperature using Cu dopant and annealing. (United States)

    Park, Youn Ho; Ha, Ryong; Park, Tea-Eon; Kim, Sung Wook; Seo, Dongjea; Choi, Heon-Jin


    Single-crystal, Cu-doped In x Ga1 - x N nanowires were grown on GaN/Al2O3 substrates via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using Ni/Au bi-catalysts. The typical diameter of the Cu:In x Ga1 - x N nanowires was 80 to 150 nm, with a typical length of hundreds of micrometers. The as-grown nanowires exhibited diamagnetism. After annealing, the nanowires exhibited ferromagnetism with saturation magnetic moments higher than 0.8 μB (1 μB × 10(-24) Am(2)) per Cu atom at room temperature by the measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. X-ray absorption and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra at Cu L 2,3-edges indicated that the doped Cu had a local magnetic moment and that its electronic configuration was mainly 3d (9). It possessed a small trivalent component, and thus, the n-type behavior of electrical property is measured at room temperature.

  17. Emission cross sections for spectral lines transiting from the In2+ lower laser 4d105pP states excited by electron impact on the In+ ion (United States)

    Gomonai, A. N.; Hutych, Yu. I.; Gomonai, A. I.


    Energy dependences of ionization-with-excitation cross sections of the λ174.9 nm and λ162.6 nm lines related to the 4d105pP → 4d105sS transitions in the In2+ ion were studied using a spectroscopic method in crossed electron and In+ ion beams. A well-defined structure related to the excitation of the 4d95s2nl autoionizing states of the In+ ion as well as 4d10nl,4d95s2 discrete states and 4d95p2,4d95s5d, and 4d9npn'l autoionizing states of the In2+ ion was observed in the excitation functions for both lines. The absolute cross section values for the lines under investigation were determined and found to be 0.7 × 10-17 cm2 and 1.4 × 10-17 cm2, respectively, at the 100 eV energy. The effective population of the In2+ ion lower 4d105pP laser levels under ionization-with-excitation is shown to result from the contribution of cascade processes as well as excitation-autoionization process related mainly to the correlation interaction between the outer s-shell and inner d-shell.

  18. Polysialic acid bioengineering of neuronal cells by N-acyl sialic acid precursor treatment. (United States)

    Pon, Robert A; Biggs, Nancy J; Jennings, Harold J


    The inherent promiscuity of the polysialic acid (PSA) biosynthetic pathway has been exploited by the use of exogenous unnatural sialic acid precursor molecules to introduce unnatural modifications into cellular PSA, and has found applications in nervous system development and tumor vaccine studies. The sialic acid precursor molecules N-propionyl- and N-butanoyl-mannosamine (ManPr, ManBu) have been variably reported to affect PSA biosynthesis ranging from complete inhibition to de novo production of modified PSA, thus illustrating the need for further investigation into their effects. In this study, we have used a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 13D9, specific to both N-propionyl-PSA and N-butanoyl-PSA (NPrPSA and NBuPSA), together with flow cytometry, to study precursor-treated tumor cells and NT2 neurons at different stages of their maturation. We report that both ManPr and ManBu sialic acid precursors are metabolized and the resultant unnatural sialic acids are incorporated into de novo surface sialylglycoconjugates in murine and human tumor cells and, for the first time, in human NT2 neurons. Furthermore, neither precursor treatment deleteriously affected endogenous PSA expression; however, with NT2 cells, PSA levels were naturally downregulated as a function of their maturation into polarized neurons independent of sialic acid precursor treatment.

  19. High efficiency resonance ionization of palladium with Ti:sapphire lasers (United States)

    Kron, T.; Liu, Y.; Richter, S.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K.


    This work presents the development and testing of highly efficient excitation schemes for resonance ionization of palladium. To achieve the highest ionization efficiencies, a high-power, high repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser system was used and 2-step, 3-step and 4-step schemes were investigated and compared. Starting from different excited steps, the frequencies of the final ionization steps were tuned across the full accessible spectral range of the laser system, revealing several autoionizing Rydberg series, which converge towards the energetically higher lying state 4{{{d}}}9{}2{{{D}}}3/2 of the Pd+ ion ground state configuration. Through proper choice of these excitation steps, we developed a highly efficient, fully resonant 3-step excitation scheme, which lead to overall efficiencies of 54.3(1.4) % and 59.7(2.1) %, measured at two independent mass separator setups. To our knowledge, these are presently the highest efficiency values ever achieved with a resonance ionization laser ion source.

  20. The fate of the type I non-BPS D7-brane

    CERN Document Server

    Loaiza-Brito, O; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Uranga, Angel M.


    We describe the fate of the Type I non-BPS D7-brane, which is tachyonic but carries a non-trivial K-theory $\\IZ_2$ charge. It decays to topologically non-trivial gauge field configurations on the background D9-branes. In the uncompactified theory the decay proceeds to infinity, while with a transverse torus the decay reaches a final state, a toron gauge configuration with vanishing Chern classes but non-trivial $\\IZ_2$ charge. A similar behaviour is obtained for the type I non-BPS D8-brane, and other related systems. We construct explicit examples of type IIB orientifolds with non-BPS D7-branes, which are hence non-supersymmetric, but for which supersymmetry is restored upon condensation of the tachyon. We also report on the interesting structure of non-BPS states of type IIA theory in the presence of an O6-plane, their M-theory lifts, the relation between string theory K-theory and M-theory cohomology, and its interplay with NS-NS charged objects. We discuss several new effects, including: i) transmutation b...

  1. A tensor product state approach to spin-1/2 square J1-J2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model: evidence for deconfined quantum criticality (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Verstraete, Frank; Wen, Xiang-Gang

    We study this model using the cluster update algorithm for tensor product states (TPSs). We find that the ground state energies at finite sizes and in the thermodynamic limit are in good agreement with the exact diagonalization study. At the largest bond dimension available D = 9 and through finite size scaling of the magnetization order near the transition point, we accurately determine the critical point J2c1 = 0 . 53 (1) J1 and the critical exponents β = 0 . 50 (4) . In the intermediate region we find a paramagnetic ground state without any static valence bond solid (VBS) order, supported by an exponentially decaying spin-spin correlation while a power law decaying dimer-dimer correlation. By fitting a universal scaling function for the spin-spin correlation we find the critical exponents ν = 0 . 68 (3) and ηs = 0 . 34 (6) , which is very close to the observed critical exponents for deconfined quantum critical point (DQCP) in other systems. Thus our numerical results strongly suggest a Landau forbidden phase transition from Neel order to VBS order at J2c1 = 0 . 53 (1) J1 . This project is supported by the EU Strep project QUEVADIS, the ERC Grant QUERG, and the FWF SFB Grants FoQuS and ViCoM; and the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter.

  2. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (United States)

    Manickam, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David


    Lipid droplet (LD) formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA) unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0) and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9) on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 microM FA during 7-day differentiation. EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARgamma, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo.

  3. Quinazolinones-Phenylquinoxaline hybrids with unsaturation/saturation linkers as novel anti-proliferative agents. (United States)

    Palem, Jyothsna Devi; Alugubelli, Gopi Reddy; Bantu, Rajashaker; Nagarapu, Lingaiah; Polepalli, Sowjanya; Jain, S Nishanth; Bathini, Raju; Manga, Vijjulatha


    A new series of novel quinazolinones with allylphenyl quinoxaline hybrids 9a-n were efficiently synthesized in good yields by the reaction of 3-allyl-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (5a-n) with bromophenyl)quinoxaline (8) utilizing Pd catalyzed Heck-cross coupling and evaluated for anti-proliferative activity against four cancer cell lines such as HeLa (cervical), MIAPACA (pancreatic), MDA-MB-231 (breast) and IMR32 (neuroblastoma). Compounds 9a, 9e, 9g and 9h exhibited promising anti-proliferative activity with GI50 values ranging from 0.06 to 0.2μM against four cell lines, while compounds 9e and 9k showed significant activity against HeLa and MIAPACA cell lines and compounds 9b, 9d, 9h and 9j showed selective potency against IMR32 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. This is the first report on the synthesis and in vitro anti-proliferative evaluation of E-2-(4-substituted)-3-(3-(4-(quinoxalin-2-yl)phenyl)allyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones (9a-n). Docking results indicate a sign of good correlation between experimental activity and calculated binding affinity (dock score), suggesting that these compounds could act as promising DNA intercalates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brown oculocutaneous albinism is allelic to tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism in southern African Negroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manga, P.; Ramsay, M.; Kromberg, J.; Jenkins, T. [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)


    Brown oculocutaneous albinism (BOCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder involving a decrease in pigment of the skin, hair and eyes as well as decreased visual acuity. Evidence from two families who have co-existent BOCA and tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA), suggests that the two conditions are allelic. Ty-pos OCA has been mapped to chromosome 15q11-q12 and the gene has been confirmed to be the human homologue (P) of the mouse pink-eyed dilute gene (p). Seven markers known to be linked to the P gene, D15S11, D15S10, MS14, GABA3, GABA5, IR10 and pCMW-1, were used to construct haplotypes in 5 families with BOCA. The haplotype data was subjected to linkage analysis and a maximum lod score of 2.85 ({theta} 0.0) was obtained. It has been reported previously that BOCA, in an Afro-American, was due to the lack of tyrosinase-protein 1 (Trp-1) in melanocytes. Trp-1 has been excluded as the disease-causing locus in the southern African families by linkage analysis with D9S43. A lod score of -2.02 was obtained at {theta} = 0.02.

  5. Measurement of D{sup *{+-}} production at low Q{sup 2} with the beam-pipe calorimeter of ZEUS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrgang, P.


    The production of D* mesons in deep-inelastic ep-scattering has been studied using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The total D* production cross-section and the differential cross-sections as functions of Q{sup 2}, y, p{sub t}(D*) and {eta}(D*) have been measured at low Q{sup 2}. The data sample used was collected during the period 1998-2000 and amounts to an integrated luminosity of 82.2 pb{sup -1}. The low Q{sup 2} region could be reached using the beam-pipe calorimeter which measures the scattered electron at very small angles. Therefore special emphasis was put on the calibration of the BPC in order to reconstruct events in the kinematic range 0.05 < Q{sup 2} < 0.7 GeV{sup 2} and 0.02 < y < 0.85. The D* mesons have been identified via the decay into lighter mesons D{sup *}+{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and the charged conjugated decay in the kinematic region 1.5D*)<9.0 GeV and -1.5<{eta}(D*)<1.5. The measured cross-sections are in agreement with the predictions from perturbative QCD calculations. Previous ZEUS D* production measurements could be extended towards lower values of Q{sup 2} in agreement with the corresponding perturbative QCD predictions. (orig.)

  6. Perceptions of the solarium ban in Australia: 'Fake it, don't bake it'. (United States)

    Prichard, Ivanka; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wilson, Carlene; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Rayner, Joanne; Makin, Jen


    The causal link between ultraviolet radiation from solarium use and skin cancer is well established. In 2012 and 2013, state governments across Australia announced plans to ban commercial solarium use from 31 December 2014. The present study examined the responses of solarium and non-solarium users to the ban on commercial solariums in Australia. Participants (n = 488; 388 females, 100 males; mean age = 26.02, s.d. = 9.95) completed an online questionnaire during the summer prior to the ban relating to solarium usage and their opinions about the ban. Overall, 49% (n = 237) of participants were aware of the impending ban; 17% (n = 83) had used a solarium at some point in their life. The response to the solarium ban was positive; however, some current solarium users intended post-ban to use privately owned sunbeds and or spend a greater amount of time sun-tanning. These findings indicate a high level of public support for the solarium ban, which has removed a risky source of ultraviolet radiation in Australia. SO WHAT? Further steps are now needed to monitor the tanning behaviours of previous solarium users post-ban and their access to private sunbed use and other potentially dangerous methods of tanning (e.g. tanning injections).

  7. Large amplitude acoustic excitation of swirling turbulent jets (United States)

    Taghavi, R.; Rice, E. J.; Farokhi, S.


    A swirling jet with a swirl number of S = 0.12 is excited by plane acoustic waves at various Strouhal numbers (St = fD/U sub alpha). The maximum forcing amplitude of excitation was at 6.88 percent of the time-mean axial velocity at a Strouhal number of St = 0.39. The maximum time-mean tangential and axial velocities at the nozzle exit were 18 and 84 m/sec respectively. It was observed that the swirling jet was excitable by plane acoustic waves and the preferred Strouhal number based on the nozzle diameter and exit axial velocity of the jet was about 0.39. As a result of excitation at this frequency, the time-mean axial velocity decayed faster along the jet centerline, reaching about 89 percent of its unexcited value at x/D = 9. Also the half velocity radius and momentum thickness, at 7 nozzle diameters downstream, increased by 13.2 and 5.8 percent respectively, indicating more jet spread and enhanced mixing. To our knowledge, this is the first reported experimental data indicating any mixing enhancement of swirling jets by acoustic excitation.

  8. Development and phytochemical content analysis of bun incorporated with Kappaphycus Alvarezii seaweed powder (United States)

    Sasue, Anita; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd


    Consumer awareness of the importance of functional foods has greatly grown in the past years. Functional foods with elevated levels of antioxidants are of high demand because of its associated health benefits. As bread is a common component in our daily diet, it may be convenient food to deliver antioxidants at a high concentration. The main approach of this study is to incorporate Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder (SWP) and white flour in the bun formulation in order to develop seaweed bun with higher level of phytochemicals. The fresh Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweeds were washed, soaked in distilled water overnight, dried in a cabinet dryer at 40°C for 24 hours and ground into fine powder using universal miller. There were five different percentages of SWP incorporated into bun that were formulation A - control (0% SWP), B (3% SWP), C (6% SWP), D (9% SWP) and E (12% SWP). All the samples were undergone texture, total phenolic content and DPPH analysis. Seaweed concentration had most significant effect on phytochemical constituents of the bun with TPC (35.07 GAE, mg/100g) and DPPH activity (49.02%) maximized when 12% SWP was incorporated into the flour (P<0.05). The incorporation of the SWP also gives significant effects towards the texture of the bun where the bun becomes harder and denser as compared to the control.

  9. Theoretical Studies of the Spin Hamiltonian Parameters and Local Distortions for Cu2+ in Alkaline Earth Lead Zinc Phosphate Glasses (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Kun; Wu, Shao-Yi; Yuan, Zi-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Jiang, Shi-Xin; Liu, Zheng; Yao, Zi-Jian; Teng, Bao-Hua; Wu, Ming-He


    The spin Hamiltonian parameters and local structures are theoretically studied for Cu2+-doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate (RPPZ, R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) glasses based on the high-order perturbation calculations for a tetragonally elongated octahedral 3d9 cluster. The relative elongation ratios are found to be ρ≈3.2%, 4.4%, 4.6%, and 3.3% for R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively, because of the Jahn-Teller effect. The whole decreasing crystal-field strength Dq and orbital reduction factor k from Mg to Sr are ascribed to the weakening electrostatic coulombic interactions and the increasing probability of productivity of nonbridge oxygen (and hence increasing Cu2+-O2- electron cloud admixtures) under PbO addition, respectively, with increasing alkali earth ionic radius. The anomalies (the largest Dq and the next highest k among the systems) for R=Ba are attributed to the cross linkage of this large cation in the network. The overall increasing order (Mg≤Bacontaining copper dopants.

  10. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thordsen, James J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Trautz, Robert C.; Thomas, Burt; Kharaka, Yousif K.


    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na–Ca–Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  11. Trim28 Haploinsufficiency Triggers Bi-stable Epigenetic Obesity (United States)

    Dalgaard, Kevin; Landgraf, Kathrin; Heyne, Steffen; Lempradl, Adelheid; Longinotto, John; Gossens, Klaus; Ruf, Marius; Orthofer, Michael; Strogantsev, Ruslan; Selvaraj, Madhan; Lu, Tess Tsai-Hsiu; Casas, Eduard; Teperino, Raffaele; Surani, M. Azim; Zvetkova, Ilona; Rimmington, Debra; Tung, Y.C. Loraine; Lam, Brian; Larder, Rachel; Yeo, Giles S.H.; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Vavouri, Tanya; Whitelaw, Emma; Penninger, Josef M.; Jenuwein, Thomas; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Coll, Anthony P.; Körner, Antje; Pospisilik, J. Andrew


    Summary More than one-half billion people are obese, and despite progress in genetic research, much of the heritability of obesity remains enigmatic. Here, we identify a Trim28-dependent network capable of triggering obesity in a non-Mendelian, “on/off” manner. Trim28+/D9 mutant mice exhibit a bi-modal body-weight distribution, with isogenic animals randomly emerging as either normal or obese and few intermediates. We find that the obese-“on” state is characterized by reduced expression of an imprinted gene network including Nnat, Peg3, Cdkn1c, and Plagl1 and that independent targeting of these alleles recapitulates the stochastic bi-stable disease phenotype. Adipose tissue transcriptome analyses in children indicate that humans too cluster into distinct sub-populations, stratifying according to Trim28 expression, transcriptome organization, and obesity-associated imprinted gene dysregulation. These data provide evidence of discrete polyphenism in mouse and man and thus carry important implications for complex trait genetics, evolution, and medicine. Video Abstract PMID:26824653

  12. Extracellular and Intracellular Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bronner


    Full Text Available An organism with an internal skeleton must accumulate calcium while maintaining body fluids at a well-regulated, constant calcium concentration. Neither calcium absorption nor excretion plays a significant regulatory role. Instead, isoionic calcium uptake and release by bone surfaces causes plasma calcium to be well regulated. Very rapid shape changes of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, in response to hormonal signals, modulate the available bone surfaces so that plasma calcium can increase when more low-affinity bone calcium binding sites are made available and can decrease when more high-affinity binding sites are exposed. The intracellular free calcium concentration of body cells is also regulated, but because cells are bathed by fluids with vastly higher calcium concentration, their major regulatory mechanism is severe entry restriction. All cells have a calcium-sensing receptor that modulates cell function via its response to extracellular calcium. In duodenal cells, the apical calcium entry structure functions as both transporter and a vitamin D–responsive channel. The channel upregulates calcium entry, with intracellular transport mediated by the mobile, vitamin D–dependent buffer, calbindin D9K, which binds and transports more than 90% of the transcellular calcium flux. Fixed intracellular calcium binding sites can, like the body's skeleton, take up and release calcium that has entered the cell, but the principal regulatory tool of the cell is restricted entry.

  13. 4,5-Dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzohydrazides and 1-(1-Benzylpiperidin-4-yl)ethan-1-ones as Potential Antioxidant/Cholinergic Endowed Small Molecule Leads. (United States)

    Banu, Rukhsar; Gerding, Jason; Franklin, Cynthia; Sikazwe, Donald; Horton, William; Török, Marianna; Davis, Julian; Cheng, Kwan H; Nakazwe, Muziya; Mochona, Bereket


    The objective of this research is to generate leads for developing our ultimate poly-active molecules with utility in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Indeed, poly-active molecules capable of mitigating brain free radical damage while enhancing acetylcholine signaling (via cholinesterase inhibition) are still being sought for combating Alzheimer's disease (AD). We differentiate "poly-active" agents from "multi-target" ones by defining them as single molecular entities designed to target only specific contributory synergistic pharmacologies in a disease. For instance, in AD, free radicals either initiate or act in synergy with other pharmacologies, leading to disease worsening. For this preliminary report, a total of 14 (i.e., 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzohydrazide plus 1-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)ethan-1-one) derivatives were synthesized and screened, in silico and in vitro, for their ability to scavenge free radicals and inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) enzymes. Overall, six derivatives (4a, 4d, 4e, 4f, 4g, 9b) exhibited potent (>30%) antioxidant properties in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The antioxidant values were either comparable or more potent than the comparator molecules (ascorbic acid, resveratrol, and trolox). Only three compounds (4d, 9a, 9c) yielded modest AChE/BuChE inhibitions (>10%). Please note that a SciFinder substance data base search confirmed that most of the compounds reported herein are new, except 9a and 9c which are also commercially available.

  14. Fuel/cladding compatibility of U-10Zr and U-5Fs fuels with advanced alloy cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E. L.; Porter, D. L.


    This study was concerned with the fuel/cladding interaction observed in diffusion couples of U-10 wt % Zr, U-5 wt % Fs fuels with HT-9, T91, D9, and 316 cladding at 650{sup 0}C and U-10 wt % Zr fuel with the cladding materials at 750{sup 0}C (U-5Fs forms a eutectic with these cladding alloys at temperatures just over 700{sup 0}C). The results presented here represent complete qualitative and semiquantitative findings for diffusion couples exposed for 720 hrs along with preliminary results of 2880 h exposures. The most important result of technological importance to IFR feasibility was that U-10 wt % Zr fuel was found to not significantly interact chemically with the cladding alloys. Moreover, energy-dispersive x-ray analyses demonstrated that metallographically observed banding in the fuel near the fuel/cladding interface was not related to chemical interdiffusion, but was related to zirconium migration towards the fuel/cladding interface. The zirconium migration may be related to oxygen availability at this location. The 2880 h samples were consistent with 720 h findings, indicating that essentially no fuel/cladding interdiffusion occurred, but showing additional zirconium migration.

  15. Conserved amino acid motifs from the novel Piv/MooV family of transposases and site-specific recombinases are required for catalysis of DNA inversion by Piv. (United States)

    Tobiason, D M; Buchner, J M; Thiel, W H; Gernert, K M; Karls, A C


    Piv, a site-specific invertase from Moraxella lacunata, exhibits amino acid homology with the transposases of the IS110/IS492 family of insertion elements. The functions of conserved amino acid motifs that define this novel family of both transposases and site-specific recombinases (Piv/MooV family) were examined by mutagenesis of fully conserved amino acids within each motif in Piv. All Piv mutants altered in conserved residues were defective for in vivo inversion of the M. lacunata invertible DNA segment, but competent for in vivo binding to Piv DNA recognition sequences. Although the primary amino acid sequences of the Piv/MooV recombinases do not contain a conserved DDE motif, which defines the retroviral integrase/transposase (IN/Tnps) family, the predicted secondary structural elements of Piv align well with those of the IN/Tnps for which crystal structures have been determined. Molecular modelling of Piv based on these alignments predicts that E59, conserved as either E or D in the Piv/MooV family, forms a catalytic pocket with the conserved D9 and D101 residues. Analysis of Piv E59G confirms a role for E59 in catalysis of inversion. These results suggest that Piv and the related IS110/IS492 transposases mediate DNA recombination by a common mechanism involving a catalytic DED or DDD motif.

  16. Ramstein AB, Landstuhl, Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F (United States)


    92 7.81 7 .__ It_ 26. td 4_2_01 _ _o og-___ 318 5 3 2.-1 Z99 -14 1;i 10__ 1! 01 .~ <I_ 0 ___ 5 -17 1 3 ~ 6; 1I J 10. 6 .___! 4 .______ I) 900...8217 49.9 4c). 9 4-?9i 9 ., 49.9 49t 49.99. i 4D 9’ 49.09 49,9’ k9.91 ___4P.0 49.2! 50,31 51.u ~o 51.0 510 1JJ ,01 51.0 51-1) 51.0 5 iJ 1 Q 51 .±0 > Jilr4...CeSA--- td 91 ’u$LF ETAC 0=-g O -1= CL A’ r--m -Ke’~ t..~~ 4%R ir O ArA PR C r S I G VRAtRSC , I ~L IrAc CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY 4 AIR LAT:eR SERVTCP

  17. Brief report: changes in brain function during acute cannabis intoxication: preliminary findings suggest a mechanism for cannabis-induced violence. (United States)

    Howard, Richard C; Menkes, David B


    Recent evidence suggests that cannabis use may be associated with antisocial and violent behaviour, raising the question: What brain mechanisms mediate the disinhibiting effects of cannabis on behaviour? To examine whether an electrocortical measure of affective impulsivity, Go/No Go contingent negative variation, is affected by acute cannabis intoxication. Slow brain potentials were recorded in a Go/No Go noise avoidance task from five habitual cannabis users before, during and after they smoked a cannabis reefer containing 11 mg D-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Slow brain potentials developed normally in both Go and No Go conditions before and during cannabis smoking but were severely disrupted 20-40 minutes later, coincident with peak intoxication. Cannabis effects on Go/No Go brain activity resembled those reported to occur in patients with lateral prefrontal cortex lesions. Our findings are preliminary, calling for larger-scale studies, to confirm the present findings and to investigate whether brain responses to cannabis intoxication differentiate those who are predisposed to suffer adverse consequences of cannabis use from those who are not.

  18. High Genetic Diversity of Measles Virus, World Health Organization European Region, 2005–2006 (United States)

    Brown, Kevin E.; Jin, Li; Santibanez, Sabine; Shulga, Sergey V.; Aboudy, Yair; Demchyshyna, Irina V.; Djemileva, Sultana; Echevarria, Juan E.; Featherstone, David F.; Hukic, Mirsada; Johansen, Kari; Litwinska, Bogumila; Lopareva, Elena; Lupulescu, Emilia; Mentis, Andreas; Mihneva, Zefira; Mosquera, Maria M.; Muscat, Mark; Naumova, M.A.; Nedeljkovic, Jasminka; Nekrasova, Ljubov S.; Magurano, Fabio; Fortuna, Claudia; Rebelo de Andrade, Helena; Richard, Jean-Luc; Robo, Alma; Rota, Paul A.; Samoilovich, Elena O.; Sarv, Inna; Semeiko, Galina V.; Shugayev, Nazim; Utegenova, Elmira S.; van Binnendijk, Rob; Vinner, Lasse; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Wild, T. Fabian; Brown, David W.G.; Mankertz, Annette; Muller, Claude P.; Mulders, Mick N.


    During 2005–2006, nine measles virus (MV) genotypes were identified throughout the World Health Organization European Region. All major epidemics were associated with genotypes D4, D6, and B3. Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents. The genetic diversity of endemic D6 strains was low; genotypes C2 and D7, circulating in Europe until recent years, were no longer identified. The transmission chains of several indigenous MV strains may thus have been interrupted by enhanced vaccination. However, multiple importations from Africa and Asia and virus introduction into highly mobile and unvaccinated communities caused a massive spread of D4 and B3 strains throughout much of the region. Thus, despite the reduction of endemic MV circulation, importation of MV from other continents caused prolonged circulation and large outbreaks after their introduction into unvaccinated and highly mobile communities. PMID:18258089

  19. Gender-associated expression of tumor markers and a small gene set in breast carcinoma. (United States)

    Andres, Sarah A; Smolenkova, Irina A; Wittliff, James L


    Breast carcinomas in both genders share pathological features, although differences in incidence, prognosis and survival are reported. Expression of 33 genes was investigated in male and female breast carcinomas in association with ER, PR, HER-2/neu and EGF-receptor. Among 98 male breast cancers, 82 were ER+ and 78 were PR+. ER and PR protein levels were greater in males compared to females, although no differences were observed in ESR1 and PGR expression. A difference was observed in binding affinities of PR but not ER between genders. No differences were observed in HER-2/neu, EGFR protein, or patient age. Expression of NAT1, TBC1D9, IL6ST, RABEP1, PLK1 and LRBA was elevated in carcinomas of males compared to those of females, in which ER status appeared to be related to expression. Over-expression of protein products of these genes represents novel molecular targets for development of gender-specific therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Somatostatin-IRES-Cre Mice: Between Knockout and Wild-Type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Viollet


    Full Text Available The neuropeptide somatostatin (SOM is widely expressed in rodent brain and somatostatin-IRES-Cre (SOM-cre mouse strains are increasingly used to unravel the physiology of SOM-containing neurons. However, while knock-in targeting strategy greatly improves Cre-Lox system accuracy, recent reports have shown that genomic insertion of Cre construct per se can markedly affect physiological function. We show that Cre transgene insertion into the 3′UTR of the somatostatin gene leads to the selective and massive depletion of endogenous SOM in all tested brain regions. It also strongly impacts SOM-related neuroendocrine responses in a similar manner to what has been reported for SST KO mice: increased corticosterone levels after 30-min restraint stress, decreased amplitude and regularity of ultradian growth hormone secretory patterns accompanied by changes in sexually dimorphic liver gene expression (serpina1, Cyp2b9, Cyp2a4, Cyp2d9, and Cyp7b1. In addition to demonstrating the need for examination of the consequences of Cre transgenesis, these results also reveal how this SOM-cre strain may be a useful tool in studying the functional consequences of moderate to low SOM levels as reported in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  1. Towards measles elimination in Italy: Virological surveillance and genotypes trend (2013-2015). (United States)

    Magurano, Fabio; Baggieri, Melissa; Filia, Antonietta; Del Manso, Martina; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Amendola, Antonella; D'Agaro, Pierlanfranco; Chironna, Maria; Ansaldi, Filippo; Iannazzo, Stefania; Bucci, Paola; Marchi, Antonella; Nicoletti, Loredana


    In accordance with the goal of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, the Italian National Measles and Rubella Elimination Plan aimed to interrupt indigenous measles transmission in Italy by the end of 2015. However, from 2013 to 2015, Italy experienced high measles burden with 4902 measles cases (49.3% laboratory-confirmed) reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system (cumulative incidence in the triennium reference period: 2.4/100,000 population). The measles elimination goal was not reached. Laboratory surveillance of measles circulating genotypes is performed by the Measles and Rubella National Reference Laboratory (NRL) at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità - ISS), in Rome. Samples received from 1 January 2013-31 December 2015 were analysed. Those positive for measles genome by molecular tests were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. Phylogenetic analysis performed by NRL identified that genotypes D4 and D8 were endemic and co-circulated in 2011-2013: study results show that genotype D4 disappeared during 2013. Sporadic cases were associated to genotype B3 during 2011-2013, which became endemic in Italy during 2014 and co-circulated with D8 until 2015. Sporadic cases were found belonging to genotypes D9 and H1 all over the period in exam. Similar trend has been observed in European WHO Region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tetrakis(dimethylammonium trans-dichloridobis[5,5′-(pyrazine-2,3-diylbis(1H-tetrazol-1-ido-κN1]copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hsiou Liao


    Full Text Available The title compound, (C2H8N4[Cu(C6H2N102Cl2], consists of an anionic complex which is composed of a CuII ion surrounded by four N atoms from two pyrazine-2,3-diylbis(1H-tetrazol-1-ide ligands, and two Cl− atoms in a trans-Cl2N4 coordination geometry; the CuII atom lies on a site of symmetry 2/m. The Cu—Cl distance of 2.8719 (5 Å is long due to the Jahn–Teller distortion of the d9 electron configuration of CuII ion. The tetrazole and pyrazine rings make an N—C—C—N torsion angle of 38.25 (17°. The charge of the anionic complex is balanced by four dimethylammonium cations, which interact with the anionic complexes via N—H...N and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  3. The effect of vestibular rehabilitation supplemented by training of the breathing rhythm or proprioception exercises, in patients with chronic peripheral vestibular disease. (United States)

    Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine; Villanueva Padrón, Laura Alejandra; Cruz Gómez, Nora Silvia


    To assess the effect of performing vestibular rehabilitation using the Cawthorne & Cooksey exercises supplemented by training of the breathing rhythm or proprioception exercises on self-reported disability and postural control, in patients with chronic, peripheral, vestibular disease. Fifty one patients with peripheral vestibular disease and abnormal caloric test participated in the study (mean age 43 +/- S.D. 9 years). They were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups: I. Cawthorne &} Cooksey exercises with training of the breathing rhythm (n=17); II. Cawthorne & Cooksey exercises with proprioception exercises (n=17) and III. Cawthorne & Cooksey exercises with no additional intervention (n=17). The Dizziness Handicap Inventory and static posturography were evaluated prior to treatment and at week 8 of follow-up. Prior to treatment, composite scores on the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and static posturography were similar in the 3 groups. After treatment, a decrease of the composite score of at least 18 points was observed more frequently in patients of the respiration group (94%), compared to the proprioception group (53%) and the Cawthorne & Cooksey group (70%) (p=0.03); while the proprioception group showed a significant decrease of oscillation during all sensory conditions of static posturography (p< 0.05). The results suggest that regulation of the breathing pattern may have an influence on disability related to chronic vestibular disease, while proprioception exercises may improve postural control. However, further studies are needed to evaluate if training of the breathing rhythm could be an additional tool for vestibular rehabilitation.

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Borrelia crocidurae. (United States)

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Mediannikov, Oleg; Nappez, Claude; Azza, Saïd; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel


    Relapsing fever borreliae, produced by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species, cause mild to deadly bacteremia and miscarriage. In the perspective of developing inexpensive assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae, we produced 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Borrelia crocidurae and characterized the two exhibiting the highest titers. P3A10 MAb reacts with the 35.6-kDa flagellin B (flaB) of B. crocidurae while P6D9 MAb recognizes a 35.1-kDa variable-like protein (Vlp) in B. crocidurae and a 35.2-kDa Vlp in Borrelia duttonii. Indirect immunofluorescence assay incorporating relapsing fever and Lyme group borreliae and 11 blood-borne organisms responsible for fever in West Africa confirmed the reactivity of these two MAbs. Combining these two MAbs in indirect immunofluorescence assays detected relapsing fever borreliae including B. crocidurae in ticks and the blood of febrile Senegalese patients. Both antibodies could be incorporated into inexpensive and stable formats suited for the rapid point-of-care diagnosis of relapsing fever. These first-ever MAbs directed against African relapsing fever borreliae are available for the scientific community to promote research in this neglected field. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Homoplastic evolution and host association of Eriophyoidea (Acari, Prostigmata) conflict with the morphological-based taxonomic system. (United States)

    Li, Hao-Sen; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue


    The superfamily Eriophyoidea is exceptionally diverse and its members are highly host-specific. Currently, the taxonomy of this group is based on morphology only. However, phylogenetic relationships in this group could be incorrect if the diagnostic morphological characters are homoplastic. Therefore, the phylogeny of 112 representative taxa of Eriophyoidea from China was determined using 18S, 28S D2-5 and D9-10 rRNA. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred through Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods, and then a number of clades or major clades were defined according to robust phylogenetic topologies combined with morphological comparison. Tests of monophyly showed that two of three families of Eriophyoidea as well as one subfamily and four tribes were not monophyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction (ACSR) showed that five diagnostic morphological characters evolved several times, confounding the current taxonomy. Additionally, reconstruction of the history of host plant colonization suggested host switching occurred in a limited range of host plants. The host association data made it possible to determine taxonomic relationships more accurately. These results show that by integrating morphological and molecular information and host plant choice, it is possible to obtain a more accurate taxonomy and a deeper phylogenetic understanding of Eriophyoidea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal-organic framework: Structure and magnetic properties of [Cu3(BTC)2 (L)x·(CuO)y]n (L=H2O, DMF) (United States)

    da Silva, Gilvaldo G.; Machado, F. L. A.; Junior, S. Alves; Padrón-Hernández, E.


    The compounds [Cu3(BTC)2(L)x·(CuO)y], with BTC (benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylate) and L (H2O or DMF) were prepared using electrochemical synthesis. Structural and morphologic characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. The [Cu3(BTC)2 (L)x·(CuO)y] contain dimeric [Cu2(O2CR)]4 units with three possible spin configurations arising from Cu(II) 3d9 states and Cu-Cu δ bond. We observed an unusual very strong antiferromagnetic coupling in temperatures ranging from 100 K to 350 K for [Cu3(BTC)2.(H2O)3. (CuO)y]n. The inverse susceptibility versus temperature shows a linearity from 20 K up to 65 K fitting the Curie-Weiss law, for L = DMF. The CW X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) was important to explore the coordination state for DMF in the network. It was observed that DMF is located in an equatorial geometry of the coordination network experimenting interactions from the nitrogen and copper ions.

  7. Definition of the role of chromosome 9p21 in sporadic melanoma through genetic analysis of primary tumours and their metastases. The Melanoma Cooperative Group. (United States)

    Palmieri, G; Cossu, A; Ascierto, P A; Botti, G; Strazzullo, M; Lissia, A; Colombino, M; Casula, M; Floris, C; Tanda, F; Pirastu, M; Castello, G


    Malignant melanoma (MM) is thought to arise by sequential accumulation of genetic alterations in normal melanocytes. Previous cytogenetic and molecular studies indicated the 9p21 as the chromosomal region involved in MM pathogenesis. In addition to the CDKN genes (p16/CDKN2A, p15/CDKN2B and p19(ARF), frequently inactivated in familial MM), widely reported data suggested the presence within this region of other melanoma susceptibility gene(s). To clearly assess the role of the 9p21 region in sporadic melanoma, we evaluated the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in primary tumours as well as in synchronous or asynchronous metastases obtained from the same MM patients, using 9 polymorphic markers from a 17-cM region at 9p21. LOH and MSI were found in 27 (41%) and 11 (17%), respectively, out of 66 primary tumours analysed. In corresponding 58 metastases, MSI was found at higher rate (22; 38%), whereas a quite identical pattern of allelic deletions with 27 (47%) LOH+ cases were observed. Although the CDKN locus was mostly affected by LOH, an additional region of common allelic deletion corresponding to marker D9S171 was also identified. No significant statistical correlation between any 9p21 genetic alteration (LOH, MSI or both) and clinicopathological parameters was observed. Copyright 2000 Cancer Research Campaign.

  8. Quinazoline-1-deoxynojirimycin hybrids as high active dual inhibitors of EGFR and α-glucosidase. (United States)

    Zhang, Yaling; Gao, Hongliang; Liu, Renjie; Liu, Juan; Chen, Li; Li, Xiabing; Zhao, Lijun; Wang, Wei; Li, Baolin


    A series of novel quinazoline-1-deoxynojirimycin hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activities against two drug target enzymes, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and α-glucosidase. Some synthesized compounds exhibited significantly inhibitory activities against the tested enzymes. Comparing with reference compounds gefitinib and lapatinib, compounds 7d, 8d, 9b and 9d showed higher inhibitory activities against EGFR (IC50: 1.79-10.71nM). Meanwhile the inhibitory activities of 7d, 8d and 9c against α-glucosidase (IC50=0.14, 0.09 and 0.25µM, respectively) were obvious higher than that of miglitol (IC50=2.43µM), a clinical using α-glucosidase inhibitor. Interestingly, compound 9d as a dual inhibitor showed high inhibitory activity to EGFRwt tyrosine kinase (IC50=1.79nM), also to α-glucosidase (IC50=0.39µM). The work could be very useful starting point for developing a new series of enzyme inhibitors targeting EGFR and/or α-glucosidase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High bone density in adolescents with obesity is related to fat mass and serum leptin concentrations. (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B R; Belli, Dominique C; Puigdefabregas, Julie Wacker Bou; Rizzoli, René; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Beghetti, Maurice; McLin, Valérie A


    Obesity has been associated with increased bone mass, but the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We aimed to explore the relation between bone mineral density and factors known to influence bone formation in obese and lean adolescents. We recruited 24 obese and 25 lean adolescents in a case-control study. Total body bone mineral density (TB-BMD) z scores and body composition were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations. Physical activity (PA) level was quantified using accelerometer. TB-BMD z score was higher, whereas 25-OH-D and PA levels were lower in obese compared with lean subjects (TB-BMD z score 1.06 ± 0.96 vs 0.26 ± 0.91, P = 0.004; 25-OH-D 9.9 ± 6.4 vs 18.5 ± 7.4 ng mL, P BMD z score was not related to 25-OH-D or PA levels, but was positively correlated with leptin concentration and fat mass (P BMD was higher in adolescents with obesity and associated with higher serum leptin concentrations. Furthermore, adolescents with obesity have lower vitamin D serum concentrations than lean controls, probably owing to its distribution in adipose tissue.

  10. Phytochemical profile and ABTS cation radical scavenging, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and anticholinesterase activities of endemic Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulselam Ertaş


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the chemical compositions and biological activities of an endemic Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis. Methods: Essential oil and fatty acid composition were determined by GC/MS analysis. ABTS cation radical decolourisation and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assays were carried out to indicate the antioxidant activity. The anticholinesterase potential of the extracts were determined by Ellman method. Results: The major compounds in the fatty acid composition of the petroleum ether extract were identified as palmitic (36.0% and linoleic acids (14.3%. The major components of essential oil were 1-hexacosanol (26.7%, germacrene-D (9.3% and caryophyllene oxide (9.3%. The water extract indicated higher ABTS cation radical scavenging activity than α-tocopherol and BHT, at 100 µg/ mL. The acetone extract showed 71.58 and 44.71% inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase enzyme at 200 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The water and acetone extracts of Ballota nigra subsp. anatolica can be investigated in terms of both phytochemical and biological aspects to find natural active compounds.

  11. α-Hemolysin, not Panton-Valentine leukocidin, impacts rabbit mortality from severe sepsis with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. (United States)

    Crémieux, Anne-Claude; Saleh-Mghir, Azzam; Danel, Claire; Couzon, Florence; Dumitrescu, Oana; Lilin, Thomas; Perronne, Christian; Etienne, Jérôme; Lina, Gerard; Vandenesch, François


    Severe sepsis, combining acute osteomyelitis and lung involvement, has been described increasingly in healthy children with the spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Outcomes (mortality, hematogenous spread, lung and bone involvements) of rabbit osteomyelitis caused by CA-MRSA LAC(WT) USA300 and its Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)- and α-hemolysin (Hla)-negative isogenic derivatives (LACΔpvl and LACΔhla, respectively) were compared. Three days after inoculation (D3), all LAC(WT)- and LACΔpvl-, and 72% of LACΔhla-infected rabbits had no hematogenous spread and similar lung and bone bacterial densities. LACΔpvl and LACΔhla caused less severe histological lung lesions than LAC(WT) (P ≤ .01). Between D3 and D9, 10 (53%) LAC(WT)-, 11 (55%) LACΔpvl-, but no LACΔhla-infected rabbits (P < .005) died of severe sepsis with disseminated infection. Unlike deceased animals, most LAC(WT), LACΔpvl, and LACΔhla D14 survivors had no hematogenous spread (P < .001). LAC(WT) (88%) caused more bone abscesses than LACΔpvl (0, P = .001) or LACΔhla (30%, P = .01). In this model, both PVL and Hla seemed to be required for early lung involvement via hematogenous spread. Hla, but not PVL, significantly impacted severe sepsis-related mortality. PVL was the predominant factor determining late-stage bone abscesses.

  12. Temperature dependence of internal motions of protein side-chain NH3(+) groups: insight into energy barriers for transient breakage of hydrogen bonds. (United States)

    Zandarashvili, Levani; Iwahara, Junji


    Although charged side chains play important roles in protein function, their dynamic properties are not well understood. Nuclear magnetic resonance methods for investigating the dynamics of lysine side-chain NH3(+) groups were established recently. Using this methodology, we have studied the temperature dependence of the internal motions of the lysine side-chain NH3(+) groups that form ion pairs with DNA phosphate groups in the HoxD9 homeodomain-DNA complex. For these NH3(+) groups, we determined order parameters and correlation times for bond rotations and reorientations at 15, 22, 28, and 35 °C. The order parameters were found to be virtually constant in this temperature range. In contrast, the bond-rotation correlation times of the NH3(+) groups were found to depend strongly on temperature. On the basis of transition state theory, the energy barriers for NH3(+) rotations were analyzed and compared to those for CH3 rotations. Enthalpies of activation for NH3(+) rotations were found to be significantly higher than those for CH3 rotations, which can be attributed to the requirement of hydrogen bond breakage. However, entropies of activation substantially reduce the overall free energies of activation for NH3(+) rotations to a level comparable to those for CH3 rotations. This entropic reduction in energy barriers may accelerate molecular processes requiring hydrogen bond breakage and play a kinetically important role in protein function.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of Hsp40 J-domain mutants identifies disruption of the critical HPD-motif as the key factor for impaired curing in vivo of the yeast prion [URE3]. (United States)

    Xue, You-Lin; Wang, Hao; Riedy, Michael; Roberts, Brittany-Lee; Sun, Yuna; Song, Yong-Bo; Jones, Gary W; Masison, Daniel C; Song, Youtao


    Genetic screens using Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified an array of Hsp40 (Ydj1p) J-domain mutants that are impaired in the ability to cure the yeast [URE3] prion through disrupting functional interactions with Hsp70. However, biochemical analysis of some of these Hsp40 J-domain mutants has so far failed to provide major insight into the specific functional changes in Hsp40-Hsp70 interactions. To explore the detailed structural and dynamic properties of the Hsp40 J-domain, 20 ns molecular dynamic simulations of 4 mutants (D9A, D36A, A30T, and F45S) and wild-type J-domain were performed, followed by Hsp70 docking simulations. Results demonstrated that although the Hsp70 interaction mechanism of the mutants may vary, the major structural change was targeted to the critical HPD motif of the J-domain. Our computational analysis fits well with previous yeast genetics studies regarding highlighting the importance of J-domain function in prion propagation. During the molecular dynamics simulations several important residues were identified and predicted to play an essential role in J-domain structure. Among these residues, Y26 and F45 were confirmed, using both in silico and in vivo methods, as being critical for Ydj1p function.

  14. Caregiver burden in families of patients with depression attending Obafemi Awolowo University teaching hospitals complex Ile-Ife Nigeria. (United States)

    Olawale, Kamildeen Oladimeji; Mosaku, Kolawole Samuel; Fatoye, 'Femi Olusegun; Mapayi, Boladale Moyosore; Oginni, Olakunle Ayokunmi


    The objective of this study was to assess caregiver burden among relatives of patients on treatment for depressive disorder attending the psychiatry outpatient clinic of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile Ife, Nigeria. A cross sectional design was used. Hundred caregivers of patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of depression, on outpatient treatment for at least six months were recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic. Caregivers completed a semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, the Zarit Burden Interview and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12. Descriptive statistics were used to describe socio-demographic variables; association between dependent and independent variables were assessed using Pearson's correlation, chi squared and t test as appropriate. The mean ZBI score was 41.32 (S.D. = 9.82), 45% of respondents reported moderate to severe burden, spouses constituted 57% of caregivers. Age at onset of depression (t = 2.46, P = .02) number of hospitalization,(χ(2) = 9.82, P = 0.001), and current active symptoms (χ(2) = 36.1, P = .001) were all significantly associated with burden score. Severity of symptoms (r = 0.48, P burden scores, while GHQ score among caregivers also correlated significantly with burden scores (r = 0.52, P burden. Caring for the depressed need to change from a patient focused approach to a combined patient and caregiver approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anaerobic treatment of sugar beet pulps for biogas production in a sugar beet factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, L.; Parravicini, V.; Svardal, K.; Kroiss, H. [Institute for Water Quality, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Prendl, L. [BPE Technisches Buro Dr. Prendl, Am Kellerberg 31, 2325 Himberg-Pellendorf (Austria); Gaschler, E. [Agrana Beteiligungs-AG, Donau-City-Strasse 9, 1220 Vienna (Austria)


    Sugar beet press pulp accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufactures to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of sugar beet press pulp that would lead to savings in energy consumption, decline of treatment costs and to a more competitive production. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. In the first implementation step at a Hungarian sugar factory half of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS) was converted into biogas, which could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within a sugar campaign. Lab-scale experiments were performed to gain basic information about the suitability of sugar beet press pulp as substrate for anaerobic bacteria and the stability of the anaerobic process. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. The results of the experiments led to the implementation of a fullscale biogas plant, which has been put in operation during the sugar campaign 2007. The maximum input load of press pulp was about 925 t/d (9.3 kgCSB/m{sup 3}.d), with a biogas production of 125,000 Nm{sup 3}/d.

  16. Non-Abelian black holes in string theory (United States)

    Cano, Pablo A.; Meessen, Patrick; Ortín, Tomás; Ramírez, Pedro F.


    We study a family of 5-dimensional non-Abelian black holes that can be obtained by adding an instanton field to the well-known D1D5W Abelian black holes. Naively, the non-Abelian fields seem to contribute to the black-hole entropy but not to the mass due to their rapid fall-off at spatial infinity. By uplifting the 5-dimensional supergravity solution to 10-dimensional Heterotic Supergravity first and then dualizing it into a Type-I Supergravity solution, we show that the non-Abelian fields are associated to D5-branes dissolved into the D9-branes (dual to the Heterotic "gauge 5-branes") and that their associated RR charge does not, in fact, contribute to the entropy, which only depends on the number of D-strings and D5 branes and the momentum along the D-strings, as in the Abelian case. These "dissolved" or "gauge" D5-branes do contribute to the mass in the expected form. The correct interpretation of the 5-dimensional charges in terms of the string-theory objects solves the non-Abelian hair puzzle, allowing for the microscopic accounting of the entropy. We discuss the validity of the solution when α' corrections are taken into account.

  17. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of Clotiapine in Blood and Urine Specimens and Application to a Postmortem Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Mannocchi


    Full Text Available Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case.

  18. Reporting quality of randomised controlled trials published in prosthodontic and implantology journals. (United States)

    Kloukos, D; Papageorgiou, S N; Doulis, I; Petridis, H; Pandis, N


    The purpose of this study was to examine the reporting quality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in prosthodontic and implantology journals. Thirty issues of nine journals in prosthodontics and implant dentistry were searched for RCTs, covering the years 2005-2012: The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, The International Journal of Prosthodontics, The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, Clinical Oral Implants Research, Clinical Implant Dentistry & Related Research, The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, Implant Dentistry and Journal of Dentistry. The reporting quality was assessed using a modified Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement checklist. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics followed by univariable and multivariable examination of statistical associations (α = 0·05). A total of 147 RCTs were identified with a mean CONSORT score of 69·4 (s.d. = 9·7). Significant differences were found among journals with the Journal of Oral Rehabilitation achieving the highest score (80·6, s.d. = 5·5) followed by Clinical Oral Implants Research (73·7, s.d. = 8·3). Involvement of a statistician/methodologist was significantly associated with increased CONSORT scores. Overall, the reporting quality of RCTs in major prosthodontic and implantology journals requires improvement. This is of paramount importance considering that optimal reporting of RCTs is an important prerequisite for clinical decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Formulation development and optimization of fast dissolving tablets of aceclofenac using natural superdisintegrant. (United States)

    Kaur, Lovleen; Bala, Rajni; Kanojia, Neha; Nagpal, Manju; Dhingra, Gitika Arora


    The current research work involves preparation of fast dissolving tablets of Aceclofenac by direct compression method using different concentrations of Lepidium sativum mucilage as natural superdisintegrant. A two-factor three-level (3(2)) factorial design is being used to optimize the formulation. Nine formulation batches (D1-D9) were prepared accordingly. Two factors as independent variables (X 1-amount of β-cyclodextrin and X 2-amount of Lepidium sativum mucilage) were taken with three levels (+1, 0, -1). The levels of two factors were selected on the basis of preliminary experiments conducted and their effect on three dependent variables (disintegration time, wetting time, and in vitro drug release) was studied along with their % prediction error. All the active blends were evaluated for postcompression parameters (angle of repose, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, etc.) and the tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters (weight variation, hardness, and friability, wetting time, disintegration time, water absorption ratio, and in vitro drug release studies). The optimum batch was further used for SEM and stability studies. Formulation D5 was selected by the Design-Expert software which exhibited DT (15.5 sec), WT (18.94 sec), and in vitro drug release (100%) within 15 minutes.

  20. Variaciones morfométricas de Pseudothelphusa belliana (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae en Michoacán, México

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    María del Socorro García-Madrigal


    Full Text Available Un total de 37 ejemplares del cangrejo dulceacuícola, Pseudothelphusa belliana fueron recolectados en cuatro nuevas localidades del estado de Michoacán. La variación morfométrica, sobre todo la anchura de caparazón ( = 48.7, D.E. o = 3.3 para Chucutitán versus = 33.5, D.E. = 9.1 para el resto de los ejemplares, la forma de la quela, la coloración y las diferencias en los gonópodos de dos poblaciones separadas geográficamente, sugieren probablemente que se trate de dos subespecies o un complejo de criptoespecies. Una diagnosis, datos de hábitat y de distribución geográfica son incluidos.A total of 37 specimens of the freshwater crab Pseudothelphusa belliana were collected from four new localities in the state of Michoacan. Morphometric variation, specially carapace width ( = 48.7, S.D. or = 3.3 for Chucutitán versus = 33.5, S.D. = 9.1 for the rest of specimens, shape of chela, coloration in vivo, and differences on gonopods of two geographically separate populations, suggest two subspecies or a cryptospecies complex. Diagnosis, habitat and distributional data are also included.

  1. Quantification of 11-Carboxy-Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in Meconium Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). (United States)

    Peat, Judy; Davis, Brehon; Frazee, Clint; Garg, Uttam


    Maternal substance abuse is an ongoing concern and detecting drug use during pregnancy is an important component of neonatal care when drug abuse is suspected. Meconium is the preferred specimen for drug testing because it is easier to collect than neonatal urine and it provides a much broader time frame of drug exposure. We describe a method for quantifying 11-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in meconium. After adding a labeled internal standard (THC-COOH D9) and acetonitrile, samples are sonicated to release both free and conjugated THC-COOH. The acetonitrile/aqueous layer is removed and mixed with a strong base to hydrolyze the conjugated THC-COOH. The samples are then extracted with an organic solvent mixture as part of a sample "cleanup." The organic solvent layer is discarded and the remaining aqueous sample is acidified. Following extraction with a second organic mixture, the organic layer is removed and concentrated to dryness. The resulting residue is converted to a trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivative and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode.

  2. Partial Sleep Deprivation Reduces the Efficacy of Orexin-A to Stimulate Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure. (United States)

    DePorter, Danielle P; Coborn, Jamie E; Teske, Jennifer A


    Sufficient sleep is required for weight maintenance. Sleep deprivation due to noise exposure stimulates weight gain by increasing hyperphagia and reducing energy expenditure (EE). Yet the mechanistic basis underlying the weight gain response is unclear. Orexin-A promotes arousal and negative energy balance, and orexin terminals project to the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), which is involved in sleep-to-wake transitions. To determine whether sleep deprivation reduces orexin function in VLPO and to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation would attenuate the orexin-A-stimulated increase in arousal, physical activity (PA), and EE. Electroencephalogram, electromyogram, distance traveled, and EE were determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats following orexin-A injections into VLPO both before and after acute (12-h) and chronic (8 h/d, 9 d) sleep deprivation by noise exposure. Orexin-A in the VLPO significantly increased arousal, PA, total EE, and PA-related EE and reduced sleep and respiratory quotient before sleep deprivation. In contrast to after acute sleep deprivation in which orexin-A failed to stimulate EE during PA only, orexin-A failed to significantly increase arousal, PA, fat oxidation, total EE, and PA-related EE after chronic sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation may reduce sensitivity to endogenous stimuli that enhance EE due to PA and thus stimulate weight gain. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  3. α-K2AgF4: Ferromagnetism induced by the weak superexchange of different eg orbitals from the nearest neighbor Ag ions

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    Xiaoli Zhang


    Full Text Available We study the abnormal ferromagnetism in α-K2AgF4, which is very similar to high-TC parent material La2CuO4 in structure. We find out that the electron correlation is very important in determining the insulating property of α-K2AgF4. The Ag(II 4d9 in the octahedron crystal field has the t 2 g 6 e g 3 electron occupation with eg x2-y2 orbital fully occupied and 3z2-r2 orbital partially occupied. The two eg orbitals are very extended indicating both of them are active in superexchange. Using the Hubbard model combined with Nth-order muffin-tin orbital (NMTO downfolding technique, it is concluded that the exchange interaction between eg 3z2-r2 and x2-y2 from the first nearest neighbor Ag ions leads to the anomalous ferromagnetism in α-K2AgF4.

  4. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Lorraine Frazier


    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and the self reported somatic depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II among patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and explored the impact of gender on both. A convenience sample of 789 adults (248 women and 541 men was recruited for the study during hospital admission for ACS and participants were screened for self-reported depressive symptoms. BDI-II scores of ≥14 indicate a moderate level of depressive symptoms and this cut-off score was used to categorize patients into depressed and non-depressed groups. Pearson chi-square tests for independence (categorical variables and t tests for independent samples (continuous variables were used for gender comparisons. Results showed that depressive symptoms during ACS episodes were different between women and men. Women reported greater overall depressive symptoms (BDI-II mean = 11.89, S.D. = 9.68 than men (BDI-II mean = 9.00, S.D. = 7.93 (P<0.000. Significantly more women (7.66% were identified positive for somatic depressive symptoms (sleep and appetite disturbances and fatigue than men (2.22% (P=0.0003. Findings support that there are gender differences in depressive symptoms experienced by patients hospitalized for ACS. Somatic symptoms of depression may be important indicators of depression especially among female ACS patients.

  5. An Annotated Dictionary of Soviet Military Equipment Designators. (United States)


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  6. Direct Visualization of Orbital Flipping in Volborthite by Charge Density Analysis Using Detwinned Data (United States)

    Sugawara, Kento; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujii, Tatsuya; Higuchi, Takafumi; Katayama, Naoyuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Sawa, Hiroshi


    The distribution of d-orbital valence electrons in volborthite [Cu3V2O7(OH)2 • 2H2O] was investigated by charge density analysis of the multipole model refinement. Diffraction data were obtained by synchrotron radiation single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Data reduction by detwinning of the multiple structural domains was performed using our developed software. In this study, using high-quality data, we demonstrated that the water molecules in volborthite can be located by the hydrogen bonding in cavities that consist of Kagome lattice layers of CuO4(OH)2 and pillars of V2O7. Final multipole refinements before and after the structural phase transition directly visualized the deformation electron density of the valence electrons. We successfully directly visualized the orbital flipping of the d-orbital dx2-y2, which is the highest level of 3d orbitals occupied by d9 electrons in volborthite. The developed techniques and software can be employed for investigations of structural properties of systems with multiple structural domains.

  7. Serendipitous discovery of a faint dwarf galaxy near a Local Volume dwarf (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.; Antipova, A. V.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Tully, R. B.


    A faint dwarf irregular galaxy has been discovered in the HST/ACS field of LV J1157+5638. The galaxy is resolved into individual stars, including the brightest magnitude of the red giant branch. The dwarf is very likely a physical satellite of LV J1157+5638. The distance modulus of LV J1157+5638 using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) distance indicator is 29.82 ± 0.09 mag (D = 9.22 ± 0.38 Mpc). The TRGB distance modulus of LV J1157+5638 sat is 29.76 ± 0.11 mag (D = 8.95 ± 0.42 Mpc). The distances to the two galaxies are consistent within the uncertainties. The projected separation between them is only 3.9 kpc. LV J1157+5638 has a total absolute V magnitude of -13.26 ± 0.10 and linear Holmberg diameter of 1.36 kpc, whereas its faint satellite LV J1157+5638 sat has MV = -9.38 ± 0.13 mag and Holmberg diameter of 0.37 kpc. Such a faint dwarf was discovered for the first time beyond the nearest 4 Mpc from us. The presence of main-sequence stars in both galaxies unambiguously indicates the classification of the objects as dwarf irregulars with recent or ongoing star formation events in both galaxies.

  8. Calcium channel TRPV6 is involved in murine maternal-fetal calcium transport. (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiro; Kovacs, Christopher S; Takanaga, Hitomi; Peng, Ji-Bin; Landowski, Christopher P; Hediger, Matthias A


    Maternal-fetal calcium (Ca(2+)) transport is crucial for fetal Ca(2+) homeostasis and bone mineralization. In this study, the physiological significance of the transient receptor potential, vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) Ca(2+) channel in maternal-fetal Ca(2+) transport was investigated using Trpv6 knockout mice. The Ca(2+) concentration in fetal blood and amniotic fluid was significantly lower in Trpv6 knockout fetuses than in wildtypes. The transport activity of radioactive Ca(2+) ((45)Ca) from mother to fetuses was 40% lower in Trpv6 knockout fetuses than in wildtypes. The ash weight was also lower in Trpv6 knockout fetuses compared with wildtype fetuses. TRPV6 mRNA and protein were mainly localized in intraplacental yolk sac and the visceral layer of extraplacental yolk sac, which are thought to be the places for maternal-fetal Ca(2+) transport in mice. These expression sites were co-localized with calbindin D(9K) in the yolk sac. In wildtype mice, placental TRPV6 mRNA increased 14-fold during the last 4 days of gestation, which coincides with fetal bone mineralization. These results provide the first in vivo evidence that TRPV6 is involved in maternal-fetal Ca(2+) transport. We propose that TRPV6 functions as a Ca(2+) entry pathway, which is critical for fetal Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  9. Authentication of digital video evidence (United States)

    Beser, Nicholas D.; Duerr, Thomas E.; Staisiunas, Gregory P.


    In response to a requirement from the United States Postal Inspection Service, the Technical Support Working Group tasked The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to develop a technique tha will ensure the authenticity, or integrity, of digital video (DV). Verifiable integrity is needed if DV evidence is to withstand a challenge to its admissibility in court on the grounds that it can be easily edited. Specifically, the verification technique must detect additions, deletions, or modifications to DV and satisfy the two-part criteria pertaining to scientific evidence as articulated in Daubert et al. v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 43 F3d (9th Circuit, 1995). JHU/APL has developed a prototype digital video authenticator (DVA) that generates digital signatures based on public key cryptography at the frame level of the DV. Signature generation and recording is accomplished at the same time as DV is recorded by the camcorder. Throughput supports the consumer-grade camcorder data rate of 25 Mbps. The DVA software is implemented on a commercial laptop computer, which is connected to a commercial digital camcorder via the IEEE-1394 serial interface. A security token provides agent identification and the interface to the public key infrastructure (PKI) that is needed for management of the public keys central to DV integrity verification.

  10. Childhood exposure to constricted living space: a possible environmental threat for myopia development. (United States)

    Choi, Kai Yip; Yu, Wing Yan; Lam, Christie Hang I; Li, Zhe Chuang; Chin, Man Pan; Lakshmanan, Yamunadevi; Wong, Francisca Siu Yin; Do, Chi Wai; Lee, Paul Hong; Chan, Henry Ho Lung


    People in Hong Kong generally live in a densely populated area and their homes are smaller compared with most other cities worldwide. Interestingly, East Asian cities with high population densities seem to have higher myopia prevalence, but the association between them has not been established. This study investigated whether the crowded habitat in Hong Kong is associated with refractive error among children. In total, 1075 subjects [Mean age (S.D.): 9.95 years (0.97), 586 boys] were recruited. Information such as demographics, living environment, parental education and ocular status were collected using parental questionnaires. The ocular axial length and refractive status of all subjects were measured by qualified personnel. Ocular axial length was found to be significantly longer among those living in districts with a higher population density (F2,1072  = 6.15, p = 0.002) and those living in a smaller home (F2,1072  = 3.16, p = 0.04). Axial lengths were the same among different types of housing (F3,1071  = 1.24, p = 0.29). Non-cycloplegic autorefraction suggested a more negative refractive error in those living in districts with a higher population density (F2,1072  = 7.88, p myopia development in children. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Woman in Roman law: Subject or object of the law?

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    Bogunović Mirjana


    Full Text Available In Rome, legal status of woman and her factual possibilities of impact on public life were in serious discrepancy. General attitude of the legal status of woman in time of Romans is best shown by Papinian, 'In many provisions of our law, the position of woman is worse than of man (D.9.1.5.'. Every free Roman woman was considered a subject of law, according to classical Roman law. Nevertheless, there were extensive legislations that limited her legal and business capacity. Naturally, woman did not have legal personality in all periods of Roman state and her legal status was adjusted to the factual changes that had occurred in Roman society. What makes her position specific in Rome is progressive social role that did not exist in Greek-Asian world. From these previously mentioned views, which were confronting, it is possible to draw some doubts. Was woman really on the margins of political happenings, or was she an actual actor, even initiator, of some political events?.

  12. Spin injection at remanence into III-V spin light-emitting diodes using (Co/Pt) ferromagnetic injectors (United States)

    Zarpellon, J.; Jaffrès, H.; Frougier, J.; Deranlot, C.; George, J. M.; Mosca, D. H.; Lemaître, A.; Freimuth, F.; Duong, Quang Ha; Renucci, P.; Marie, X.


    We have studied the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Co/Pt multilayers and the electron spin injection efficiency by optical spectroscopy from a [Co(0.6 nm)/Pt(1 nm)]4/Fe(0.3 nm)/MgO perpendicular tunnel spin injector grown on AlGaAs/GaAs semiconductor light-emitting diodes. We observe a 2.5% circular polarization at low temperature close to the magnetic remanence when the 0.3 nm Fe film of the ferromagnetic injector is sufficiently thin to maintain the magnetization out of plane. The acquired squared magnetization cycle is explained by the remaining interlayer exchange coupling existing between Fe and the (Co/Pt) multilayer through Pt or possible perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the MgO/Fe interface. The corresponding spin polarization of the current is then estimated as 7%, measured by photoluminescence techniques, after the necessary up-renormalization, taking into account the electron spin-flip rate in the quantum well. In contrast, no circular polarization is observed when the thin Fe layer is removed and despite the rather high magnetic polarizability of the 5d9 electronic open shell of Pt at the interface with MgO. This emphasizes the reduced size of tunneling branching of wave functions at the interface, of the order of the atomic plane unit.

  13. Irradiation performance of PFBR MOX fuel after 112 GWd/t burn-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkiteswaran, C.N., E-mail:; Jayaraj, V.V.; Ojha, B.K.; Anandaraj, V.; Padalakshmi, M.; Vinodkumar, S.; Karthik, V.; Vijaykumar, Ran; Vijayaraghavan, A.; Divakar, R.; Johny, T.; Joseph, Jojo; Thirunavakkarasu, S.; Saravanan, T.; Philip, John; Rao, B.P.C.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.; Jayakumar, T.


    The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) which is in advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India, will use mixed oxide (MOX) fuel with a target burnup of 100 GWd/t. The fuel pellet is of annular design to enable operation at a peak linear power of 450 W/cm with the requirement of minimum duration of pre-conditioning. The performance of the MOX fuel and the D9 clad and wrapper material was assessed through Post Irradiation Examinations (PIE) after test irradiation of 37 fuel pin subassembly in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) to a burn-up of 112 GWd/t. Fission product distribution, swelling and fuel–clad gap evolution, central hole diameter variation, restructuring, fission gas release and clad wastage due to fuel–clad chemical interaction were evaluated through non-destructive and destructive examinations. The examinations have indicated that the MOX fuel can safely attain the desired target burn-up in PFBR.

  14. Screening, quantification, and confirmation of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    You, Youwen; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; Guan, Fuyu; Li, Xiaoqing; Rudy, Jeffrey A; Chen, Jinwen


    A sensitive liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for screening, quantification, and confirmation of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone in equine plasma. Analytes were recovered from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction followed by separation in a reversed-phase column and identification by mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring in negative electrospray ionization mode. Extraction recovery for both analytes was >80%. Limits of detection, quantification, and confirmation for both analytes were 0.01 microg/mL (S/N>or= 3), 0.05 microg/mL, and 0.05 microg/mL, respectively. The assay with d9-labeled phenylbutazone as internal standard (IS) was linear over a range of 0.05-20 microg/mL (r2>0.995). Intra- and interday precision in terms of coefficient of variation was less than 15%. Intra- and interday accuracy (bias%) was within 80-120%. Hemolysis of red blood cells decreased analyte signal intensity but did not affect quantification results because an isotope-labeled IS was used. Analytes were stable in plasma for 24 h at room temperature, 9 days at 4 degrees C, and 45 days at -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C. The method was successfully used in screening, quantification, and confirmation of phenylbutazone in post-competition plasma samples obtained from racehorses. The method is simple, rapid, and reliably reproducible.

  15. Higher In vitro Proliferation Rate of Rhizopus oryzae in Blood of Diabetic Individuals in Chronic Glycaemic Control Compared with Non-diabetic Individuals. (United States)

    Salazar-Tamayo, Grace; López-Jácome, Luis E; Resendiz-Sanchez, Jesús; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Rodriguez-Zulueta, Patricia; Corzo-León, Dora E


    Metabolic control improves outcomes associated with mucormycosis. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro proliferation of Rhizopus oryzae in blood of individuals with and without diabetes at different glycaemic levels. Ninety-five individuals were included. Blood samples from each participant were incubated with sporangiospores of R. oryzae. The germination, filamentation and growth of R. oryzae were compared at different time points. Four groups were defined, one without (group A, n = 30) and three with diabetes: group B (HbA1c ≤7%, N = 24), group C (HbA1c 7.1-9%, N = 20) and group D (HbA1c > 9%, N = 21). The percentage of germinated sporangiospores was higher in the group A after 6 h (group A 56% ± 3, group B 35% ± 4, group C 48% ± 4, group D 46% ± 1.4, p = 0.01), 12 h (group A 54% ± 1.4, group B 19% ± 4, group C 16% ± 1, group D 9.5% ± 5, p control, than among non-diabetic individuals.

  16. Resolved Dual-Frequency Observations of the Debris Disk Around AU Mic: Strengths of Bodies in the Collisional Cascade (United States)

    Carter, Evan; Hughes, A. Meredith; Daley, Cail; Flaherty, Kevin; Pan, Margaret; Schlichting, Hilke; Chiang, Eugene; MacGregor, Meredith Ann; Wilner, David; Dent, Bill; Carpenter, John; Andrews, Sean; Moor, Attila; Kospal, Agnes


    Debris disks are hallmarks of mature planetary systems, with second-generation dust produced via collisions between pluto-like planetesimals. The vertical structure of a debris disk encodes unique information about the dynamical state of the system, particularly at millimeter wavelengths where gravitational effects dominate over the effects of stellar radiation. We present 450 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the edge-on debris disk around AU Mic, a nearby (d = 9.91 ± 0.10 pc) M1-type star. The 0.3'' angular resolution of the data allows us to spatially resolve the scale height of the disk, complementing previous observations at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. By resolving the vertical structure of the disk at these two widely-separated frequencies, we are able to spatially resolve the spectral index and study variations in the grain size distribution as a function of disk radius. The comparison of scale heights for two different wavelengths and therefore particle sizes also constrains the velocity dispersion as a function of grain size, which allows us to probe the strengths of bodies in the collisional cascade for the first time outside the Solar System.

  17. DNA methylation of candidate genes in peripheral blood from patients with type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome.

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    Sanne D van Otterdijk

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D and the metabolic syndrome (MetS is increasing and several studies suggested an involvement of DNA methylation in the development of these metabolic diseases. This study was designed to investigate if differential DNA methylation in blood can function as a biomarker for T2D and/or MetS.Pyrosequencing analyses were performed for the candidate genes KCNJ11, PPARγ, PDK4, KCNQ1, SCD1, PDX1, FTO and PEG3 in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs from 25 patients diagnosed with only T2D, 9 patients diagnosed with T2D and MetS and 11 control subjects without any metabolic disorders.No significant differences in gene-specific methylation between patients and controls were observed, although a trend towards significance was observed for PEG3. Differential methylation was observed between the groups in 4 out of the 42 single CpG loci located in the promoters regions of the genes FTO, KCNJ11, PPARγ and PDK4. A trend towards a positive correlation was observed for PEG3 methylation with HDL cholesterol levels.Altered levels of DNA methylation in PBLs of specific loci might serve as a biomarker for T2D or MetS, although further investigation is required.

  18. Combined effect of ultrasound and essential oils to reduce Listeria monocytogenes on fresh produce. (United States)

    Özcan, Gülçin; Demirel Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer


    Salads prepared from contaminated fresh produce have a high risk of causing food-borne illnesses. Essential oils obtained from plants have antimicrobial activity and may provide a natural approach to reduce the pathogens on fresh produce. Additionally, ultrasound treatments have been shown to reduce the microbial counts on different foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of cinnamon and lemon essential oils in vitro and in food applications. Mixtures of lettuce, parsley and dill were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and then dip-treated for 5 min in one of the following treatments: sterile tap water, chlorinated water, 1% lemon essential oil, 2% cinnamon essential oil or 2% cinnamon essential oil + ultrasound. The samples were stored at 4 ℃ and collected at d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post inoculation. The 1% lemon (4 log) and 2% cinnamon (2 log) essential oil washes provided partial inhibition against L. monocytogenes by d 1. The combined application of 2% cinnamon oil and ultrasound resulted in only 0.85 log inhibition by d 1; however, the number of L. monocytogenes increased during storage and became nearly equal to the control at d 9. Therefore, different combinations of essential oils with other antimicrobials or novel technologies are required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Biomarker Genes for Detecting Estrogenic Activity of Endocrine Disruptors via Estrogen Receptors

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    Hyun Yang


    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (EDs are compounds used in various industrial products, drugs, and cosmetics. They can be found in the environment and disturb the endocrine and reproductive systems, resulting in adverse effects to humans and wildlife such as birth defects and developmental disorders. Since several EDs have a structure similar to that of endogenous steroid hormones such as estrogens, they intend to have an affinity for steroid hormone receptors and alter hormone-mediated metabolism by binding to these receptors. EDs are therefore a global concern and assays should be developed to efficiently determine whether these compounds are detrimental to biological systems. Diverse experimental methods may help determine the endocrine disrupting potential of EDs and evaluate the adverse effects of a single and/or combination of these reagents. Currently, biomarkers have been employed to objectively measure EDs potency and understand the underlying mechanisms. Further studies are required to develop ideal screening methods and biomarkers to determine EDs potency at environmentally relevant concentrations. In this review, we describe the biomarkers for estrogenicity of EDs identified both in vitro and in vivo, and introduce a biomarker, cabindin-D9k (CaBP-9k, that may be used to assess estrogenic activity of EDs.

  20. Survey of Canadian human blood plasma for ochratoxin A. (United States)

    Scott, P M; Kanhere, S R; Lau, B P; Lewis, D A; Hayward, S; Ryan, J J; Kuiper-Goodman, T


    Blood plasma samples collected from 144 healthy volunteers in 16 locations across Canada in 1994 were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA). The method of analysis included cleanup by C18 solid phase extraction and immunoaffinity columns followed by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection, which gave 86.5% (s.d. = 9.7) recovery (n = 31) of OTA (added at 2 ng/ml) with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/ml. The arithmetic mean concentration found in the plasma samples, corrected for volume of anticoagulant added, was 0.88 ng/ml with a standard deviation of 0.35 ng/ml and a range of 0.29-2.37 ng/ml. Confirmation of identity of OTA was by methyl ester formation for 65 samples and by LC-tandem mass spectrometry for 17 samples (some of which were included in pooled samples). Statistical analysis, by ANOVA of the log OTA plasma concentrations, showed a highly significant effect due to location in Canada (p = blood group of donors. The highest mean concentration was found in Winnipeg, significantly different (p = 0.05) by the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test from the lowest levels found in Toronto, Vancouver and Saint John.

  1. The anti-inflammatory effect of cherry blossom extract (Prunus yedoensis) used in soothing skincare product. (United States)

    Zhang, Y Q; Guan, L; Zhong, Z Y; Chang, M; Zhang, D K; Li, H; Lai, W


    Previous investigations suggested that cherry blossoms could provide valuable bioactive materials. However, few observations regarding the anti-inflammatory effect of cherry blossoms were reported. This study was to explore the anti-inflammatory effect of cherry blossom extract (CBE), which was used as a soothing ingredient in skincare product. In vitro study, the anti-inflammatory effect of CBE on the nitric oxide (NO) inhibition assay in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 cells was investigated. In vivo study, 40 volunteers were included in a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. 24-hour-occlusive test chambers were applied on the flexor side of the forearm with 3% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Subsequently, the test areas were treated on 9 subsequent days with a cream containing 3% CBE or a placebo. Evaluation included a visual score and determination of erythema value (E value). In vitro study, 2% CBE reduced NO production by 31.83% compared to the placebo. In the SLS irritant patch test, the visual score and erythema value of CBE were lower than that of the placebo on D5 and D9. Cherry blossom extract shows good anti-inflammatory effect in vitro and in vivo and represents a promising functional ingredient in soothing skincare product by reducing skin inflammation. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Linkage of cutaneous malignant melanoma/dysplastic Nevi to chromosome 9p, and evidence for genetic heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, A.M.; Fraser, M.C.; Tucker, M.A.; Dracopoli, N.C.; Engelstein, M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Clark, W.H. Jr. (Univ. of Pennyslvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States))


    The authors examined the relationship between cutaneous malignant melanoma/dysplastic nevi (CMM/DN) and chromosome 9p in 13 pedigrees with two or more living cases of invasive melanoma. They used two highly informative (CA)[sub n] repeats, D9S126 and IFNA, previously implicated in familial malignant melanoma (MLM), to conduct linkage analysis. Three analyses were performed: (1) CMM alone - all individuals without either confirmed melanoma or borderline lesions were considered unaffected (model A); (2) CMM/DN with both variable age at onset and sporadics (model B); and (3) CMM affecteds only - all individuals either without confirmed melanoma or with borderline lesions were designated unknown' (model C). There was significant evidence for linkage to IFNA in all three models. For CMM along, the maximum lod score (Z[sub max]) was 4.36 at 0 = .10 for model A and 3.39 at 0 = .10 for model C. For CMM/DN (model B), Z[sub max] = 3.05 at 0 = .20. There was no significant evidence for heterogeneity when a homogeneity test allowing for linkage to chromosome 9p or chromosome 1p or neither region was used. These results suggest that there is an MLM susceptibility locus on chromosome 9p but that familial melanoma is heterogeneous and not all families with CMM/DN are linked to a locus in this region. 30 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Cao, Jay J; Margolis, Lee M; Sauter, Edward R; Whigham, Leah D; McClung, James P; Rood, Jennifer C; Carbone, John W; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J


    The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on body composition and muscle protein synthesis during energy deficit (ED). A randomized controlled trial of 39 adults assigned the subjects diets providing protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance; RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g kg(-1) d(-1) for 31 d. A 10-d weight-maintenance (WM) period was followed by a 21 d, 40% ED. Body composition and postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis were assessed during WM (d 9-10) and ED (d 30-31). Volunteers lost (Pregardless of dietary protein. The proportion of weight loss due to reductions in fat-free mass was lower (P0.05) from WM for 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA, but was lower during ED than WM for those consuming RDA levels of protein (energy × protein interaction, P<0.05). To assess muscle protein metabolic responses to varied protein intakes during ED, RDA served as the study control. In summary, we determined that consuming dietary protein at levels exceeding the RDA may protect fat-free mass during short-term weight loss.

  4. The leaf essential oils of five Vietnamese Desmos species (Annonaceae). (United States)

    Dai, Do Ngoc; Hoi, Tran Minh; Thang, Tran Dinh; Ogunwande, Isiaka A


    The leaf essential oils of five Desmos species from Vietnam have been extracted by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analyses. The plant samples were Desmos cochinchinensis Lour., D. penduculosus (A. DC.) Ban, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis Ban, D. chinensis Lour., and D. dumosus (Roxb.) Saff. The oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (65.9%-88.9%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%-30.9%). The oxygenated counterparts were less common. The quantitatively significant constituents of the oils were alpha-pinene (2.4%-12.1%), beta-elemene (2.2-39.5%), beta-caryophyllene (13.9-26.3%), germacrene D (9.9-15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (2.0-11.4%) and alpha-humulene (3.8-7.5%). The studied oils could be classified into two chemical forms: oils with abundance of beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D and alpha-pinene (D. cochinchinensis, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis, D. chinensis and D. Dumosus) and oil with high amounts of beta-elemene, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D (D. penduculosus).

  5. Proceedings of the third annual fuel cells contractors review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.J. (ed.)


    The overall objective of this program is to develop the essential technology for private sector characterization of the various fuel cell electrical generation systems. These systems promise high fuel to electricity efficiencies (40 to 60 percent), distinct possibilities for cogeneration applications, modularity of design, possibilities of urban siting, and environmentally benign emissions. The purpose of this meeting was to provide the research and development (R D) participants in the DOE/Fossil Energy-sponsored Fuel Cells Program with the opportunity to present key results of their research and to establish closer business contacts. Major emphasis was on phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide technology efforts. Research results of the coal gasification and gas stream cleanup R D activities pertinent to the Fuel Cells Program were also highlighted. Two hundred seventeen attendees from industry, utilities, academia, and Government participated in this 2-day meeting. Twenty-three papers were given in three formal sessions: molten carbonate fuel cells R D (9 papers), solid oxide fuel cells (8 papers), phosphoric acid fuel cells R D (6 papers). In addition to the papers and presentations, these proceedings also include comments on the Fuel Cells Program from the viewpoint of DOE/METC Fuel Cell Overview by Rita A. Bajura, DOE/METC Perspective by Manville J. Mayfield, Electric Power Research Institute by Daniel M. Rastler, Natural Gas by Hugh D. Guthrie, and Transportation Applications by Pandit G. Patil.

  6. [Digestive burns by simultaneous oral and rectal self-administration of ingestion sulphuric acid: an unusual mode of suicide]. (United States)

    Soro, Kountélé Gona; Attia, Koffi Alain; Coulibaly, Adama; Koffi, Gnangoran Marcelin; Yapo, Patrice; Ehua, Somian Francis; Miessan, Jean-Baptiste Kanga


    The authors report an unusual mode of suicide in two patients admitted to the Teaching Hospital of Yopougon. One 26-year-old woman swallowed sulphuric acid and then self-administered more of the same product rectally. She presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, bloody diarrhoea, without fever (T=37,9 degrees C). The abdomen did not appear to require surgery. Endoscopy showed erosive cesophagitis on day 5 (D5) and ulcerated bleeding inflammation of the entire colon and rectum on D26. She died on D30, during generalized convulsions. The second patient, a 31-year-old women, ingested sulphuric acid in the same way. She presented initially with diffuse abdominopelvic pains; clinical examination showed neither guarding nor contraction. Her temperature was 37,8 degrees C. Oesogastric endoscopy observed cesophagitis stage II B and III A and gastritis III A and III B. On D9, acute and generalized peritonitis was discovered, leading to surgical exploration. The patient died at the end of the operation. This unusual mode of suicide induces grave clinical presentations despite their apparent calm. The prognosis is worse because of the double localization of the lesions, the toxicity of the product, and the underestimation of its gravity.


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    Ana Paula da Silveira


    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the influence of postpartum period (precocious - of 28 to 44 days and late - of 45 to 90 days on the bovine pregnancy rate using fixed-time AI. For that, 678 cows were divided in two groups: precocious group (G-P, n=151 and late group (G-T, n=527. The animals received CIDR® + 2 mL of estradiol benzoate (BE in the day zero (D0. After eight days (D8 the dispositive was removed and both groups received 2.5mL PGF2α, concurrent with PGF2α injection, they received either 1.5mL of eCG or temporary calf removal (RTB. In the next day (D9, the cows received 1 mL de BE and 24 hours later, the fixed-time AI was performed with Nelore bovine semen. The calves were returned to their mothers. The pregnancy rate was not different between the groups (p>0.05, G-P=40% and G-T=48%. The results indicate that females with less than 45 days of postpartum are able to hormone protocol of fixed-time IA.

  8. Quantitative gene expression profiles in real time from expressed sequence tag databases. (United States)

    Funari, Vincent A; Voevodski, Konstantin; Leyfer, Dimitry; Yerkes, Laura; Cramer, Donald; Tolan, Dean R


    An accumulation of expressed sequence tag (EST) data in the public domain and the availability of bioinformatic programs have made EST gene expression profiling a common practice. However, the utility and validity of using EST databases (e.g., dbEST) has been criticized, particularly for quantitative assessment of gene expression. Problems with EST sequencing errors, library construction, EST annotation, and multiple paralogs make generation of specific and sensitive qualitative arid quantitative expression profiles a concern. In addition, most EST-derived expression data exists in previously assembled databases. The Virtual Northern Blot (VNB) (http: // allows generation, evaluation, and optimization of expression profiles in real time, which is especially important for alternatively spliced, novel, or poorly characterized genes. Representative gene families with variable nucleotide sequence identity, tissue specificity, and levels of expression (bcl-xl, aldoA, and cyp2d9) are used to assess the quality of VNB's output. The profiles generated by VNB are more sensitive and specific than those constructed with ESTs listed in preindexed databases at UCSC and NCBI. Moreover, quantitative expression profiles produced by VNB are comparable to quantization obtained from Northern blots and qPCR. The VNB pipeline generates real-time gene expression profiles for single-gene queries that are both qualitatively and quantitatively reliable.

  9. Some nitrogen-rich heterocycles derivatives as potential explosives and propellants: A theoretical study

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    Frem Dany


    Full Text Available Four types of nitrogen-rich heterocycles substituted with -NO2, -NHNO2 and -C(NO23 explosophoric groups were explored as potential explosives and propellants materials. The calculated crystal density (ρ0and the condensed phase heat of formation (ΔH·0ffor each of the twelve structures investigated shows that all these derivatives possess high (1.834-1.980 g cm-3(ΔH·0f and (605-2130 kJ kg-1 values. Interesting properties such as detonation velocity (D, pressure (P and specific impulse (Isp were calculated using the Kamlet-Jacobs method and ISPBKW thermochemical code. Detonation velocity and pressure in excess of 8.44 km s-1 and 32.87 GPa was obtained in all cases. Furthermore, trinitromethyl substituted derivatives shows performance exceeding that of HMX with an estimated D = 9.32-9.72 km s-1 and P = 40.61-43.82 GPa. Some -NO2 and -NHNO2 substituted derivatives were shown to be impact insensitive while retaining good detonation performance and thus are regarded as potential replacement for current RDX -based explosives. Finally, the calculated specific impulse (Isp between 248 and 270 s of all investigated derivatives indicate that these energetic materials can be considered as possible ingredient in future rocket propellant compositions.

  10. Impact of body condition on pregnancy rate of cows nellore under pasture in fixed time artificial insemination (tai programImpacto da condição corporal sobre a taxa de prenhez de vacas da raça nelore sob regime de pasto em programa de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (iatf

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    Marcelle Christine Nascimento Ferreira


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of body condition on pregnancy rate of Nellore cows, commercial herd undergoing artificial insemination programs in fixed time (TAI. 181 cows were used multiparous Nellore, the coastal plains region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, with more than one hundred days after birth, kept on pasture and divided into two groups subjected to the same synchronization protocol for TAI (D0-2 , 0 mg of estradiol benzoate + device with 1.0 g bovine intravaginal progesterone implant removal D8-250?g of cloprostenol + + 300 IU of eCG, D9-Bz 1.0 mg. Estradiol, D10-TAI. The groups were divided according to body condition score (BCS with scale of 1-5 in Group I, n=96: BCS ? 3,0, Group II, n=85: BCS ? 2.5 ? 2.0. All females were exposed to bulls, from 24 hours to pass after TAI, remaining with them until the end of the breeding season. The overall pregnancy rate was 86.5% (83:96 and 65.9% (56:85 for group I and group II, respectively. Data were evaluated by chi-square analysis and the results show a statistically significant difference (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da condição corporal sobre a taxa de prenhez de vacas Nelore, rebanho comercial, submetidas a programas de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. Foram utilizadas 181 vacas multíparas da raça Nelore, na região das baixadas litorâneas do estado do RJ, com mais de cem dias decorridos do parto, mantidas em regime de pasto e divididas em dois grupos submetidos ao mesmo protocolo de sincronização para IATF (D0- 2,0mg de benzoato de estradiol + dispositivo intravaginal bovino com 1,0g de progesterona, D8- retirada do implante + 250?g de cloprostenol sódico+ 300 UI de eCG, D9- 1,0mg Bz. Estradiol, D10- IATF. Os grupos foram divididos segundo escore de condição corporal (ECC com escala de 1-5 em: grupo I, n=96: vacas com ECC ? 3,0 e grupo II, n=85: vacas com ECC ? 2,5 ? 2,0. Todas as fêmeas foram expostas aos touros, a partir

  11. Relating form and function of EF-hand calcium binding proteins. (United States)

    Chazin, Walter J


    The EF hand, a helix-loop-helix structure, is one of the most common motifs found in animal genomes, and EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins (EFCaBPs) are widely distributed throughout the cell. However, researchers remain confounded by a lack of understanding of how peptide sequences code for specific functions and by uncertainty about the molecular mechanisms that enable EFCaBPs to distinguish among many diverse cellular targets. Such knowledge could define the roles of EFCaBPs in health and disease and ultimately enable control or even design of Ca(2+)-dependent functions in medicine and biotechnology. In this Account, we describe our structural and biochemical research designed to understand the sequence-to-function relationship in EFCaBPs. The first structural goal was to define conformational changes induced by binding Ca(2+), and our group and others established that solution NMR spectroscopy is well suited for this task. We pinpointed residues critical to the differences in Ca(2+) response of calbindin D(9k) and calmodulin (CaM), homologous EFCaBPs from different functional classes, by using direct structure determination with site-directed mutagenesis and protein engineering. Structure combined with biochemistry provided the foundation for identifying the fundamental mechanism of cooperativity in the binding of Ca(2+) ions: this cooperativity provides EFCaBPs with the ability to detect the relatively small changes in concentration that constitute Ca(2+) signals. Using calbindin D(9k) as a model system, studies of the structure and fast time scale dynamics of each of the four ion binding states in a typical EF-hand domain provided direct evidence that site-site communication lowers the free energy cost of reorganization for binding the second ion. Our work has also extended models of how EFCaBPs interact with their cellular targets. We determined the unique dimeric architecture of S100 proteins, a specialized subfamily of EFCaBPs found exclusively in

  12. Administration of a GnRH analog on day 9 of a 14-day controlled internal drug release insert with timed artificial insemination in lactating beef cows. (United States)

    Giles, R L; Ahola, J K; Whittier, J C; French, J T; Repenning, P E; Kruse, S G; Seidel, G E; Peel, R K


    Many estrus synchronization protocols aim to induce a new follicular wave to improve response and enhance pregnancy rate. Our objectives were to determine the effectiveness of GnRH analog administered d 0 and 9 during an extended controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol to produce 2 follicular waves, induce cyclicity in anestrus cows, and evaluate the efficacy of a single 50-mg dose of PGF2α to initiate luteal regression on CIDR removal. Lactating beef cows (n = 779) at 3 locations (n = 247, location 1; n = 395, location 2; n = 137, location 3) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Cows in the 14-d 50 PG treatment received a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone) with 100 μg GnRH analog intramuscularly (i.m.) on d 0, 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. on d 9, and CIDR removal concurrent with 50 mg PGF2α i.m. on d 14. Cows in the 14-d 6-h PG treatment were assigned the same protocol as the 14-d 50 PG treatment except that 25 mg PGF2α i.m. was given on d 14 plus 25 mg PGF2α i.m. 6 ± 1 h later. Cows in the control treatment, 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR (5-d CO-Synch), received a CIDR concurrent with 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. on d 9, CIDR removal concurrent with 25 mg PGF2α i.m. on d 14, and 25 mg PGF2α i.m. 6 ± 1 h after first F2α injection. Cows in all treatments received 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. and timed AI (TAI) 72 ± 3 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy status to TAI was determined by ultrasonography 37 to 40 d after TAI. Averaged over all locations, pregnancy rates to TAI for 14-d 50 PG, 14-d 6-h PG, and 5-d CO-Synch treatments were 58.2%, 46.8%, and 41.9%, respectively. Pregnancy rates to TAI were greater (P 1 ng/mL at either (or both) bleeding date were considered cyclic. Averaged over the 2 locations, there was a tendency (P = 0.06) for a greater number of cyclic animals to become pregnant to TAI in the 14-d 50 PG treatment (64.4%) than 5-d CO-Synch treatment (50.2%). The 14-d CIDR with GnRH analog on d 0 and 9 and a single 50-mg dose of PG i.m. at CIDR removal was a

  13. Choice of sterilizing/disinfecting agent: determination of the Decimal ReductionTime (D-Value

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    Priscila Gava Mazzola


    Full Text Available Efforts to diminish the transmission of infections include programs in which disinfectants play a crucial role. Hospital surfaces and medical devices are potential sources of cross contamination, and each instrument, surface or area in a health care unit can be responsible for spread of infection. The decimal reduction time was used to study and compare the behavior of selected strains of microorganisms. The highest D-values for various bacteria were obtained for the following solutions: (i 0.1% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (pH 7.0 - E. coli and A. calcoaceticus (D = 5.9 min; (ii sodium hypochlorite (pH 7.0 at 0.025% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 24 min, E. coli and E. cloacae (D = 7.5 min; at 0.05% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.4 min and E. coli (D = 6.1 min. The suspension studies were an indication of the disinfectant efficacy on a surface. The data in this study reflect the formulations used and may vary from product to product. The expected effectiveness from the studied formulations shows that the tested agents can be recommended for surface disinfection as stated in present guidelines and emphasize the importance and need to develop routine and novel programs to evaluate product utility.Esforços para diminuir o risco de transmissões de infecções incluem programas nos quais os desinfetantes desempenham papel crucial. As superfícies de materiais médico-hospitalares, se não estiverem diretamente ligados à transmissão de doenças, podem contribuir, potencialmente, para uma contaminação cruzada secundária. Cada instrumento ou superfície do estabelecimento do ambiente de saúde que entra em contato com um paciente é um disseminador potencial de infecção. Para estudar e comparar o comportamento dos microrganismos selecionados foram realizados ensaios de determinação do tempo de redução decimal. Os maiores valores D determinados, foram: (i 0,1% dicloroisocianurato de sódio (NaDCC (pH 7.0 - E. coli e A. calcoaceticus (D = 5

  14. Cultivo de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro: efeito do número de embriões e da proporção de meio

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    Daniela dos Santos Brum


    Full Text Available Na última década, os produtores de leite e carne bovina incrementaram consideravelmente o uso da aspiração folicular (OPU associada à produção in vitro de embriões (IVP. Oócitos recuperados pela OPU têm qualidade diversificada e seu número reduzido requer condições diferenciadas de cultivo para a IVP. Para determinar o efeito do número de embriões e volume de meio sobre a IVP, 1428 embriões bovinos foram cultivados em grupos de 5, 10 e 20, em 1:1, 1:5 e 1:10mL de meio. Grupos de 20 oócitos foram maturados in vitro em 200mL de TCM-199+ rFSHh+10% de soro de vaca em estro (SVE, por 24h. A fecundação in vitro foi em grupos de 20 oócitos/200mL de meio Fert-Talp, por 18h com 1x10(6 espermatozóides/mL. O cultivo foi em SOFaaci+5% SVE por 8 dias. Considerando-se o dia da fecundação como D0, conduziu-se as avaliações no D2 (clivagem, D7 (blastocistos e no D9 (eclosão. A taxa de clivagem foi superior quando o cultivo foi com 20 embriões e não foi afetada quando a proporção de meio variou (1:1; 1:5 e 1:10. Com as proporções de meio de cultivo 1:5 ou 1:10, a taxa de embriões em D7 foi superior (P<0.05 à 1:1. O número de embriões cultivados influenciou a produção de blastocistos em D7 (P<0,05 com 20 embriões/gota. Estes resultados também se refletem nos percentuais de blastocistos eclodidos em D9, sendo que 1:5 e 1:10 foram superiores (P<0,05 à 1:1. Da mesma forma, a taxa de eclosão foi superior (P<0,05 com o cultivo de 10 ou 20 embriões/gota quando comparado ao grupo de 5 embriões/gota. A redução do número de embriões e da proporção de volume de meio no cultivo, afeta os índices de desenvolvimento na produção in vitro de embriões bovinos.

  15. KARAKTERISTIK DAN PROFIL INULIN BEBERAPA JENIS UWI (Dioscorea spp. Characteristic and Inulin Profil of Wild Yam (Dioscorea spp.

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    Sri Winarti


    Full Text Available Wild yams (Dioscorea spp. grow well in Indonesia known as Uwi, is the kind of tubers that grow in the community,but they have not been used optimally. Publicity about the characteristics and types has been limited. The tubers contain inulin, but also there have been no publication related.The purpose of this study was to uncover the characteristics of wild yam and inulin profiles contained in the tubers.The yams were obtained from various regions in East Java, among others Pacet Mojokerto, Karang Ploso and Kawi Mountains in Malang, Nganjuk, and traditional markets in Surabaya.The tubers were characterized for shape and size of tubers, skin color and flesh tubers, average weight and texture of the tuber, moisture content, ash content and levels of inulin, texture and flavor. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and further test Duncan’t Multiple Range Test (DMRT.Based on the characteristics of tubers, there were 10 types of wild yams, namely D1 (Dioscororea alata/ white yam, D2 (Dioscorea pinthaphylla/frog yam, D3 (Dioscorea hispida /Gadung, D4 (Dioscorea alata /purple yam with yellow skin, D5 (Dioscorea alata /purple yam, D6 (Dioscorea esculenta/gembili, D7 (Dioscorea alata/yellow yam, D8 (Dioscorea opposita/white yam with yellow skin, D9 (Dioscorea bulbifera/gembolo and D10 (Dioscorea rotundata/ white yam with brown skin. The highest levels of inulin obtained in Dioscororea esculenta (gembili ie 14.77 % (db. The water content rangedbetween 71.89- 85.07 % (wb, ash content 0.59- 1.83 % and texture between 0.012 to 0.055 (mm/g.dt. Organoleptic score was 2.75 to 4.55 texture and taste is from 3.20 to 5.00. ABSTRAK Uwi merupakan jenis umbi-umbian yang tumbuh di Indonesia, namun belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal dan belumbanyak publikasi mengenai kharakteristik dan jenis-jenisnya. Uwi mengandung inulin, namun belum banyak publikasi yang mengungkap kadar inulin pada berbagai jenis umbi uwi tersebut.Tujuan dari penelitian ini

  16. Evaluation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone hydrogen chloride at 3 doses with prostaglandin F2α for fixed-time artificial insemination in dairy cows. (United States)

    Chenault, J R; Meeuwse, D M; LaGrow, C; Tena, J-K S; Wood-Follis, S L; Hallberg, J W


    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the efficacy and field safety of GnRH HCl administered at 3 doses in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) programs (Ovsynch) in dairy cows. A common protocol was conducted at 6 commercial dairies. Between 188 and 195 cows were enrolled at each site (total enrolled = 1,142). Cows had body condition scores ≥ 2 and ≤ 4, were between 32 to 140 d in milk, and were clinically healthy. Within pen and enrollment day (enrollment cohort), cows were assigned randomly in blocks of 4 to each of 4 treatments: (1) 25mg of PGF2α on d 7 with FTAI 72 ± 2 h later (control); (2) 100 μg of GnRH on d 0, d 7 a dose of 25mg of PGF2α, and the second administration of 100 μg of GnRH (T100) administered either at 48 ± 2 h (d 9) after PGF2α with FTAI 24 ± 2 h later or 56 ± 2 h (d 9) after PGF2α and FTAI 17 ± 2 h later; (3) same as T100 with both injections of 150 μg of GnRH (T150); and (4) same as T100 with both injections of 200 μg of GnRH (T200). Three sites selected the first option and 3 sites selected the second option for the timing of the second injection of all doses of GnRH. Cows were observed daily for signs of estrus and adverse clinical signs. Cows not returning to estrus had pregnancy diagnosis between 42 and 65 d following FTAI. Pregnancies per FTAI (P/FTAI) were analyzed as a binary variable (1 = pregnant, 0 = not pregnant) using a generalized linear mixed model with a binomial error distribution and a logit link function. The statistical model included fixed effects for treatment, random effects of site, site by treatment, enrollment cohort within site, and residual. Parity (first vs. second or greater) was included as a covariate. For demonstration of effectiveness, α=0.05 and a 2-tailed test were used. Fifty-two cows were removed from the study because of either deviation from the protocol, injury, illness, culling, or death. Among the remaining 1,090 cows, 33.9% were primiparous and 66.1% were

  17. Chemical composition, insecticidal, and antifungal activities of fruit essential oils of three colombian Zanthoxylum species Composición química, actividades insecticida y antifúngica de aceites esenciales de frutos de tres especies Zanthoxylum de Colombia

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    Juliet A Prieto


    Full Text Available This study determined the chemical composition of essential oils isolated from Zanthoxylum monophyllum (Lam. P. Wilson, Z. rhoifolium Lam., and Z. fagara (L. Sarg. fruits by steam distillation, as well as testing antifungal and insecticidal activities of essential oils as potential pesticides. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis identified 57 compounds. The main constituents in Z. rhoifolium oil were β-Myrcene (59.03%, β-phellandrene (21.47%, and germacrene D (9.28% , the major constituents of Z. monophyllum oil were sabinene (25.71%, 1,8-cineole (9.19%, and cis-4-thujanol (9.19%, whereas fruit oil of Z. fagara mainly contained germacrene D-4-ol (21.1%, elemol (8.35%, and α-cadinol (8.22%. Zanthoxylum fagara showed the highest activity on Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds (EC50 153.9 μL L-1 air, and Z. monophyllum was the most active against Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend: Fr. f. sp. lycopersici (EC50 140.1 μL L-1 air. Zanthoxylum monophyllum essential oil showed significant fumigant activity against Sitophilus oryzae (L.. This study demonstrated that Zanthoxylum essential oils exhibit important fungicidal activity on F. oxysporum and C. acutatum, which could become an alternative to synthetic fungicides to control plant fungal diseases, and Z. monophyllum oil is a potential fumigant against S. oryzae.En este estudio se determinó la composición química de los aceites esenciales de frutos de Zanthoxylum monophyllum (Lam. P. Wilson, Z. rhoifolium Lam. y Z. fagara (L. Sarg. obtenidos mediante destilación por arrastre con vapor y se evaluó la actividad antifúngica e insecticida de los aceites esenciales para estimar su uso como posibles plaguicidas. El análisis por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (CG/EM permitió la identificación de 57 compuestos. β-Mirceno (59,03%, β-felandreno (21,47% y germacreno D (9,28% fueron los componentes principales del aceite de Z. rhoifolium; los principales componentes

  18. Functional lipidomics in patients on home parenteral nutrition: Effect of lipid emulsions. (United States)

    Pironi, Loris; Guidetti, Mariacristina; Verrastro, Ornella; Iacona, Claudia; Agostini, Federica; Pazzeschi, Caterina; Sasdelli, Anna Simona; Melchiorre, Michele; Ferreri, Carla


    To investigate the fatty acid-based functional lipidomics of patients on long-term home parenteral nutrition receiving different intravenous lipid emulsions. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out on 3 groups of adults on home parenteral nutrition (HPN), receiving an HPN admixture containing an olive-soybean oil-based intravenous lipid emulsion (IVLE) (OO-IVLE; n = 15), a soybean- medium-chain triacylglycerol-olive-fish oil-based IVLE (SMOF-IVLE; n = 8) or HPN without IVLE (No-IVLE; n = 8) and 42 healthy controls (HCs). The inclusion criteria were: duration of HPN ≥ 3 mo, current HPN admixtures ≥ 2 mo and HPN infusions ≥ 2/wk. Blood samples were drawn 4-6 h after the discontinuation of the overnight HPN infusion. The functional lipidomics panel included: the red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) profile, molecular biomarkers [membrane fluidity: saturated/monounsaturated FA ratio = saturated fatty acid (SFA)/monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) index; inflammatory risk: n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio = n-6/n-3 index; cardiovascular risk: sum of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) = n-3 index; free radical stress: sum of FA trans isomers = %trans index] and FA pathway enzyme activity estimate (delta-9-desaturase = D9D; delta-6-desaturase = D6D; delta-5-desaturase = D5D; elongase = ELO). Statistics were carried out using nonparametric tests. The amount of each FA was calculated as a percentage of the total FA content (relative%). In the OO-IVLE group, the percentage of oleic acid in the RBCs was positively correlated with the weekly load of OO-IVLE (r = 0.540, P = 0.043). In the SMOF-IVLE cohort, the RBC membrane EPA and DHA were positively correlated with the daily amount of SMOF-IVLE (r = 0.751, P = 0.044) and the number of HPN infusions per week (r = 0.753; P = 0.046), respectively. The SMOF-IVLE group showed the highest EPA and DHA and the lowest arachidonic acid percentages (P < 0.001). The RBC membrane

  19. Botulismo em bovinos de corte e leite alimentados com cama de frango Botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter

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    Iveraldo S. Dutra


    Full Text Available Surtos de botulismo causados pelos tipos C e D da toxina botulínica são freqüentes no país, estando originalmente associados à osteofagia e à ingestão de alimentos e água contaminados. No presente trabalho são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de sete surtos da intoxicação em bovinos de corte e leite alimentados com cama de frango, ocorridos nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais entre 1989 e 2000. Cinco surtos ocorreram em rebanhos de corte confinados ou criados extensivamente e suplementados com o subproduto, e dois em propriedades leiteiras. De um total de 1.535 animais alimentados regularmente com a cama de frango, 455 (29,64% morreram em um período que variou de 2 a 4 semanas. A morbidade nos sete surtos estudados variou de 3,47 a 100%, da mesma forma que a mortalidade. Em uma das propriedades a letalidade foi de 60,52%, e em todos os outros surtos ela foi acima de 88,43%; em três propriedades o coeficiente foi de 100%. Os sinais clínicos de paralisia progressiva, dificuldade na locomoção, decúbito e estado mental aparentemente normal, diminuição do tônus da musculatura da língua e cauda, sialorréia e dificuldade respiratória caracterizaram o quadro clínico. À necropsia de 30 animais não foi observada qualquer alteração macroscópica digna de nota. A presença de esporos de Clostridium botulinum foi detectada em amostras de cama de frango colhidas nas sete propriedades. Nas amostras de fígado, líquido ruminal e intestinal, provenientes dos 30 animais necropsiados, foi possível detectar toxinas botulínicas tipos C (5 ou D (9, ou classificada como pertencente ao complexo CD (1, em pelos menos um dos materiais provenientes de 15 animais, confirmando assim o diagnóstico clínico-patológico e epidemiológico de botulismo.Outbreaks of botulism caused by type C and D of the botulinum toxin are frequent in Brazil, and are associated with bone chewing and ingestion of

  20. Efecto protector de la toxina botulínica en colgajos cutáneos The protective effect of botulinum toxin on skin flaps

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    C.X. Astudillo Carrera


    Full Text Available Los colgajos cutáneos de patrón vascular randomizado son de gran utilidad en Cirugía Reconstructiva; un aporte vascular adecuado es el factor más importante para la supervivencia de los mismos. Realizamos un estudio experimental levantando un total de 36 colgajos en el dorso de 9 conejos (4 en cada conejo: a 9 controles, b 9 con aplicación de toxina botulínica tipo A transoperatoria a lo largo del colgajo, c 9 con toxina botulínica tipo A aplicada 7 días antes del procedimiento quirúrgico, y, d 9 con aplicación de toxina botulínica tipo A transoperatoria más epinefrina. El análisis de los colgajos se realizó a través de imágenes digitales que se examinaron con el programa ImageJ. Efectuamos el análisis estadístico con la prueba T de Student. La evaluación final de los colgajos se realizó al séptimo día, tiempo en el cual se obtuvo: a una media de área necrótica en los controles del 72.17 ± 3.9% ; b en los que se aplicó toxina botulínica transoperatoria el porcentaje de aérea necrótica fue del 5.09 ± 1.2% p = 0.032; c en aquellos en los que la toxina botulínica se aplicó 7 días antes del procedimiento se reportó necrosis del 24.97 ± 2.7% p = 0.041 y d en los que se aplicó toxina botulínica transoperatoria más epinefrina el porcentaje de necrosis fue del 23.90 ± 3.9% p = 0.045. Concluimos que la toxina botulínica tipo A actúa como protector contra el proceso de sufrimiento-isquemia de los tejidos, debido a su acción vasodilatadora, recomendando su aplicación al inicio del procedimiento quirúrgico.Random-pattern cutaneous flaps are very useful in Reconstructive Surgery; an adequate vascular contribution is an important factor for the survival of the flaps. We designed an experimental study elevating a total of 36 dorsal flaps, divided in 4 groups: a 9 were controls, to which 0.9% physiological solution was applied, b 9 with a transoperatory application of type A botulinum toxin throughout the length of

  1. Masculinization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus by administration of bull testes meal

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    . Muslim


    Full Text Available The synthetic steroid 17α-Methyltestosteron (MT is commonly used as a feed additive to produce male population of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The use of synthetic testosterone hormone is not recommended in Indonesia. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of natural testosterone hormone in bull testes meal (BTM on the masculinization of Nile tilapia using validated aceto carmine squash method of gonads of the fish. Experimental design was utilized two factors experiments in completely randomized design. Fry kept in 40-L glass aquaria at a density of 40 fry/aquarium. Fry (7 dph received the BTM  for 7 days (T1, 14 days (T2 and 21 days (T3 and doses 0% (D1, 3% (D2, 6% (D3, and 9% (D4.  When treatment was these results, indicated that significant (P≥0.05 masculinization occurred only in the group treated of BTM and no treated of BTM. In the group treated of BTM, doses and duration treatment is not significant. The percentage of male fish 83.3% (9%-7d, 9%-21d, 6%-21d: doses and duration, respectively, higher than all group. Survival rate of fry (95-99.5% is not affected by treatment BTM (no significant P≥0.05. Fish growth was significantly affected by treatment BTM compare with no treated of BTM. The highest growth performance of fry were obtained with the 9% BTM. Key words: masculinization, nile tilapia, bull testes meal   ABSTRAK Steroid sintetik 17α-Methyltestosteron (MT umumnya digunakan sebagai aditif pakan untuk menghasilkan populasi ikan nila jantan (Oreochromis niloticus. Penggunaan hormon testosteron sintetis tidak dianjurkan di Indonesia. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh hormon testosteron alami dalam makanan testis banteng (BTM pada maskulinisasi ikan nila menggunakan metode divalidasi aceto carmine squash, dari gonad ikan. Desain eksperimental dimanfaatkan dua eksperimen faktor dalam desain benar-benar acak. Fry disimpan dalam 40-L akuarium kaca pada kepadatan 40 fry/akuarium. Fry (7 DPH

  2. Descrição anatômica do terço proximal da artéria circunflexa femoral medial: estudo em cadáver Anatomical description of the proximal third of the medial femoral circumflex artery: a cadaveric study

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    Anderson Freitas


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever através de estudo em cadáver a disposição anatômica do terço proximal da artéria cincunflexa femoral medial (ACFM. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada a disposição anatômica do terço proximal da ACFM, através de dissecção em 12 quadris de cadáver, que após terem sua altura aferida em metros (M, foram determinados alguns parâmetros: Ângulo de lateralização da ACFM (Â, Profundidade da ACFM em relação a origem superomedial do músculo quadrado femoral (P, distância da ACFM em relação a inserção superolateral do músculo quadrado femoral (D. RESULTADOS: Quando comparamos a média dos parâmetros entre os sexos notamos: Masculino Â= 43.6 graus, feminino Â= 38.3 graus. Masculino D= 6mm, feminino D= 9.5mm. Masculino P= 20.8 mm, feminino P= 18.3mm. A média dos parametros  e P são menores no sexo feminino porém o parâmetro D no sexo feminino é maior. CONCLUSÃO: Devemos ter como parâmetro superficial de segurança para o terço proximal da ACFM o ponto de inserção superolateral do músculo quadrado femoral. Que o parâmetro D da ACFM no sexo feminino é maior do que no sexo masculino. Que desinserir o músculo quadrado femoral em sua origem no ísquio pode oferecer maior segurança a ACFM do que faze-lo em sua inserção femural. Nível de evidência IV, série de casos.OBJECTIVE: To describe, in a cadaver study, the anatomical arrangement of the proximal third medial femoral circumflex artery (ACFM. METHODS: We evaluated the anatomic arrangement of the proximal third of the ACFM through dissection in 12 cadaver hips. After measuring their height in meters (M, several parameters were determined: angle of lateralization of ACFM (Â, Depth ACFM in relation to the superomedial origin of the quadratus femoris muscle (P, and distance of ACFM from the superolateral insertion of the muscle quadratus femoris (D. RESULTS: In the comparison of mean parameters between the sexes, it was noted that: Male  = 43

  3. Association of the early pregnancy diagnosis to a protocol of estrus resyncronization in zebu cows Associação do diagnóstico precoce de prenhez a um protocolo de ressincronização do estro em vacas zebuínas

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    Raul Costa Mascarenhas Santana


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a resynchronization strategy, without estrus detection, which lead a service rate of 100% for those cows that were not pregnant after the first FTAI. Thus, 40 Tabapuã cows received on D0 a CIDR and 2mg of Estradiol Benzoate (EB intramuscular (IM. On D8, the devices were removed and animals received 75mg of D-Cloprostenol intra-vulvo-submucosal (IVSM and 200IU of eCG IM. On D9, 1mg of BE IM was administered and on D10, 52 at 56 hours after the devices removal, the FTAI was accomplished. Twenty two days after inseminations (D32, 50% of the animals had CIDR reinserted and received 1mg of EB IM. On D40, the devices were removed and pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ulltrasonography, the non-pregnant cows received 75mg of D-Cloprostenol IVSM and 200IU of eCG IM. On D4, it was administered 1mg of EB IM and FTAI on D42. Pregnancy diagnosis was accomplished 30 days after the FTAI. Pregnancy rates of non-resynchronized animals and resynchronized were respectively, 50 and 75% and there was not statistics difference among groups. Despite of these results, the resynchronization increased the pregnancy rate, in a period of 42 days, without estrus etection, and offered two conception opportunities for all cows.O propósito deste estudo foi desenvolver uma estratégia de ressincronização sem observação do estro de retorno, que obtenha taxa de serviço de 100,00% para aquelas vacas que ficarem vazias após a primeira IATF. Assim, 40 vacas Tabapuã, receberam no D0 um CIDR e 2,00mg de Benzoato de Estradiol (BE via intramuscular (IM. No D8 os dispositivos foram retirados e os animais tratados com 75,00mg de D-Cloprostenol via submucosa-intravulvar (SIV juntamente com 200 UI de eCG IM. No D9 foi aplicado 1,00mg de BE IM e no D10 realizada IATF, 52 a 56 horas após a retirada dos dispositivos. Vinte e dois dias após as inseminações (D32, metade dos animais teve os CIDRs reinseridos e recebeu 1,00mg de BE IM. No D

  4. Effect of Cu2 + substitution in spin-orbit coupled Sr2Ir1 -xCuxO4 : Structure, magnetism, and electronic properties (United States)

    Bhatti, Imtiaz Noor; Dhaka, R. S.; Pramanik, A. K.


    Sr2Ir O4 is an extensively studied spin-orbit coupling induced insulator with antiferromagnetic ground state. The delicate balance between competing energy scales plays a crucial role for its low-temperature phase and the route of chemical substitution has often been used to tune these different energy scales. Here, we report an evolution of structural, magnetic, and electronic properties in doped Sr2Ir1 -xCuxO4 (x ≤0.2 ). The substitution of Cu2 + (3 d9 ) for Ir4 + (5 d5 ) acts for electron doping, though it tunes the related parameters such as spin-orbit coupling, electron correlation, and Ir charge state. Moreover, both Ir4 + and Cu2 + has single unpaired spin, though it occupies different d orbitals. With Cu substitution, the system retains its original structural symmetry but the structural parameters show systematic changes. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements show that Ir4 + equivalently converts to Ir5 + and a significant enhancement in the density of states has been observed at the Fermi level due to the contribution from the Cu 3 d orbitals, which supports the observed decrease in the resistivity with Cu substitution. While the long-range magnetic ordering is much weakened and the highest-doped sample shows almost paramagneticlike behavior, the overall system remains insulator. Analysis of the resistivity data shows a mode of charge conduction in the whole series follows a two-dimensional variable-range-hopping model, but the range of validity varies with temperature. The whole series of samples exhibits negative magnetoresistance at low temperature, which is considered to be a signature of a weak-localization effect in a spin-orbit coupled system, and its evolution with Cu appears to follow the variation of resistivity with x .

  5. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

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    Lei Pan


    Full Text Available Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P. lima, and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%–100.58% and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%. Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima. The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9–34.0 and 15.2–27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70–79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae.

  6. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Junhui; Shen, Huihui; He, Xiuping; Li, Guangjiu; Song, Xincheng; Zhou, Deshan; Sun, Chengjun


    Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P. lima), and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%-100.58%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%). Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on) were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima. The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9-34.0 and 15.2-27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70-79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae.

  7. Individual variation in sow aggressive behavior and its relationship with sow welfare. (United States)

    Verdon, M; Morrison, R S; Rice, M; Hemsworth, P H


    This study examined the relationships between individual sow aggressive behavior and sow welfare, based on aggression, skin injuries, and stress, in a total of 275 pregnant domestic sows. Over 4 time replicates, sows were randomly mixed into groups of 10 (floor space of 1.8 m/sow) within 7 d of insemination in both their first and second gestations (200 sows per gestation with 126 sows observed in both gestations). Measurements were taken on aggression (both delivered and received) at feeding, skin injuries, and plasma cortisol concentrations at d 2, 9, and 51 after mixing. Live weight gain, nonreproductive removals, litter size (born alive, total born, and stillborn piglets), and farrowing rate were also recorded. In both the first and the second gestations, sows were classified at d 2 after mixing as "submissive" (delivered little or no aggression at feeding relative to aggression received), "subdominant" (received more aggression at feeding than delivered), and "dominant" (delivered more aggression at feeding than received). In both gestations, sows classified as dominant at d 2 subsequently delivered more (gestation 1, gained the most weight (gestation 1, cortisol concentrations at d 2 of gestation 2, but there were no differences between classifications at d 9 and 51 in either gestation (gestation 1, > 0.05; gestation 2, = 0.02). There were no significant relationships between aggression classification and reproduction and nonreproductive removals ( > 0.05). In conclusion, sows classified as dominant at feeding at d 2 subsequently received less aggression at feeding, sustained fewer skin injuries, and had higher live weight gain. Submissive and subdominant sows in groups are likely to benefit from the provision of increased resources such as space and access to feed.

  8. Ammonia-Oxidizer Communities in an Agricultural Soil treated with Contrasting Nitrogen Sources.

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    Mussie Y. Habteselassie


    Full Text Available The community of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes was examined in an agricultural soil treated for 6 seasons with contrasting nitrogen (N sources. Molecular tools based on the gene encoding ammonia monooxygenase were used to characterize the ammonia oxidizer communities and their abundance. Soil DNA was extracted from soils sampled from silage corn plots that received no additional N (control, dairy waste compost (DC, liquid dairy waste (LW, and ammonium sulfate (AS treatments at approximately 100 and 200 kg available N ha-1 over 6 years. The N treatment affected the quantity of ammonia oxidizers based on estimates of amoA by real-time PCR. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB were higher in soils from the AS200, AS100, and LW200 treatments (2.5 x107, 2.5x107, and 2.1 x107 copies g-1 soil, respectively than in the control (8.1x106copies/g while the abundance of amoA encoding archaea (AOA was not significantly affected by treatment (3.8x107copies g-1 soil, average. The ratio of AOA/AOB was higher in the control and compost treated soils, both treatments have the majority of their ammonium supplied through mineralization of organic nitrogen. Clone libraries of partial amoA sequences indicated AOB related to Nitrosospira multiformis and AOA related to uncultured Nitrososphaera similar to those described by soil fosmid 54d9 were prevalent. Profiles of the amoC-amoA intergenic region indicated that both Nitrosospira- and Nitrosomonas-type AOB were present in all soils examined. In contrast to the intergenic amoC-amoA profile results, Nitrosomonas-like clones were recovered only in the LW200 treated soil-DNA. The impact of six years of contrasting nitrogen sources applications caused changes in ammonia oxidizer abundance while the community composition remained relatively stable for both AOB and AOA.

  9. Chemical composition and cytotoxicity activity of the essential oil of Pterodon emarginatus

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    Rafael C. Dutra


    Full Text Available Pterodon emarginatus Vogel, Fabaceae, is a native aromatic tree distributed by central region of Brazil. Hydroalcoholic infusions of the seeds are used in folk medicine for their anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of this work was identified the chemical components and verify the cytotoxic effect of the essential oil (EO from P. emarginatus seeds. Thus, the EO of P. emarginatus seeds was analyzed by GC/MS analysis followed by brine shrimp lethality test and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines and human peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMC. The cancer cell lines tested were C6 (rat glioma, MeWo (human melanoma, CT26.WT (mouse colon carcinoma, MDA (human breast cancer, A549 (human lung carcinoma, B16-F1 (mouse melanoma, CHO-K1 (hamster ovary cell and BHK-21 (hamster kidney fibroblast. Eleven compounds were identified by GC and CG/MS analyses. The main compounds with concentrations higher than 5% were β-elemene (15.3%, trans-caryophyllene (35.9%, α-humulene (6.8%, germacrene-D (9.8%, bicyclo germacrene (5.5% and spathulenol (5.9%. The EO of P. emarginatus seeds showed toxicity to Artemia salina (LC50 1.63 µg/mL and was active against all the cell lines tested. The potent cytotoxic activity had IC50 values ranging from 24.9 to 47 µg/mL. However, EO (1-100 µg/mL had less cytotoxicity in PBMCs isolated from a healthy subject. In summary, the present study showed the potential antiproliferative of the EO of P. emarginatus seeds.

  10. Magnetic Properties of Iron-Cobalt Oxide Nanocomposites Synthesized in Polystyrene Resin Matrix* (United States)

    Vaishnava, P. P.; Senaratne, U.; Rodak, D.; Kroll, E.; Tsoi, G.; Naik, R.; Naik, V.; Wenger, L. E.; Tao, Qu; Boolchand, P.; Suryanarayanan, R.


    Magnetic nanoparticles have potential applications in memory devices and medical technology. Magnetic iron-cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared by in situ precipitation in an ion exchange resin using the method of Ziolo et al^1. The ion exchange resin, consisting of sulfonated divinyl benzene cross linked polystyrene, was exposed to different iron and cobalt salt solutions: a) 4FeCl2 + CoCl2 b) 9FeCl2 + CoCl2 c) 4FeCl3 + CoCl2 d) 9FeCl3 + CoCl_2. The ions bound to the resin are then oxidized with hydrogen peroxide in an alkaline media with mild heat. The resulting nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fe^57 Mossbauer Spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry. It was found that the oxide composition, particle size distribution, magnetic properties including blocking temperature and the amount of superparamagnetic phases are strongly influenced by the stoichiometry of the starting FeCl_2, FeCl_3, and CoCl2 solutions. Three major phases CoFe_2O_4, Fe_3O4 and γ-Fe_2O3 have been identified. The nanocomposites prepared using Fe^2+ and Co^2+ contain larger nanoparticles (10 nm) than those prepared by Fe^3+ and Co^2+ (3 nm) . The details of the structural characterization by XRD and TEM measurements and magnetic characteristics will be presented. *Research supported by NSF grant DGE 980720 ^1Ziolo et al, Science, 257, 5067 (1992).

  11. Vitamin D supplementation in a healthy, middle-aged population: actual practices based on data from a French comprehensive regional health-care database. (United States)

    Caillet, P; Souberbielle, J C; Jaglal, S B; Reymondier, A; Van Ganse, E; Chapurlat, R; Schott, A M


    The debate surrounding recommendations for vitamin D supplementation in middle-aged patients (that is, 20-60 years of age) with low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is growing. Our aim was to describe practices regarding vitamin D supplementation in this age group, which are basically unknown. We performed an analysis using exhaustive reimbursement data from the individuals in Rhône-Alpes area, a French region regrouping more than 6 million of inhabitants. The data were collected from the French Insurance Health-care System. Patients who were 20-60 years of age, had no severe comorbidities, had a 25(OH)D assay between 1 December 2008 and 31 January 2009 were identified. Those who received a subsequent prescription for vitamin D were included in this analysis. We described patterns of vitamin D supplementation by frequency and daily dose. The sample in this study included 1311 patients. The mean age was 47.7 years (s.d.: 9.5) and the median age was 50.2 years. Most of the participants (that is, 85.9%) were women. A total of 372 distinct prescription patterns for vitamin D supplementation were observed. The two most frequent (that is, 32.6% in total) involved a unique dispensation of a high dose of either 200,000 (17.5%) or 100,000 IU (15.1%). Most prescribed supplements were based on vitamin D3 (65%), and the most prescribed forms were high dose ampoules (81.6%). Only 48.9% of the participants were given a maintenance prescription after the initial loading phase. Our results reveal a significant variability in the prescriptions for vitamin D supplementation from physicians in the French population. Moreover, less than half of the patients receive maintenance therapy after the initial loading phase of supplementation.

  12. Self-reported description of diarrhea among military populations in operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. (United States)

    Putnam, Shannon D; Sanders, John W; Frenck, Robert W; Monteville, Marshall; Riddle, Mark S; Rockabrand, David M; Sharp, Trueman W; Frankart, Carla; Tribble, David R


    Infectious diarrhea is among the most common medical problems associated with military deployments and has been reported as a frequent problem for troops currently deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Lacking is information describing clinical presentation, risk behaviors, and treatment of travelers' diarrhea in this population. An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted among 15,459 US military personnel deployed to Southwest Asia during 2003 to 2004. Overall, diarrhea was commonly reported (76.8% in Iraq and 54.4% in Afghanistan) and was frequently severe (more than six stools/d) (20.8% in Iraq and 14.0% in Afghanistan) or associated with fever (25.8%), vomiting (18% with diarrhea and 16.5% without), persistent symptoms (>14 d, 9.8%), or chronic symptoms (>30 d, 3.3%). Diarrhea was associated with time spent off military compounds and eating local food. Over 80% of respondents sought care for their symptoms, usually at the lowest echelon of care (field medic), and were most often treated with either loperamide or an antibiotic. Self-treatment with loperamide or Pepto-Bismol was also common and successful with only 9% of self-treated individuals reporting seeking further medical care. Infectious diarrhea is a common problem for US military personnel, and associated fevers and vomiting are more common than in past conflicts in the region. As with past studies, time spent off base and local food consumption, both more common in Iraq than Afghanistan, continue to be the most important risk factors for acquiring diarrhea. The majority of soldiers reported seeking care for diarrhea, but appropriate treatment, including self-treatment with over-the-counter medicines, was generally successful. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate appropriate treatment algorithms, including the use of self-treatment, for deployed military personnel.

  13. The Clearing: Heidegger’s Lichtung and The Big Scrub

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    Rob Garbutt


    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities. Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  14. Cyclosporine A induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death in rat pituitary GH3 cells. (United States)

    Kim, Han Sung; Choi, Seung-Il; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Yoo, Yeong-Min


    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a powerful immunosuppressive drug with side effects including the development of chronic nephrotoxicity. In this study, we investigated CsA treatment induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death in pituitary GH3 cells. CsA treatment (0.1 to 10 µM) decreased survival of GH3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability decreased significantly with increasing CsA concentrations largely due to an increase in apoptosis, while cell death rates due to autophagy altered only slightly. Several molecular and morphological features correlated with cell death through these distinct pathways. At concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 10 µM, CsA induced a dose-dependent increase in expression of the autophagy markers LC3-I and LC3-II. Immunofluorescence staining revealed markedly increased levels of both LC3 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2), indicating increases in autophagosomes. At the same CsA doses, apoptotic cell death was apparent as indicated by nuclear and DNA fragmentation and increased p53 expression. In apoptotic or autophagic cells, p-ERK levels were highest at 1.0 µM CsA compared to control or other doses. In contrast, Bax levels in both types of cell death were increased in a dose-dependent manner, while Bcl-2 levels showed dose-dependent augmentation in autophagy and were decreased in apoptosis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) showed a similar dose-dependent reduction in cells undergoing apoptosis, while levels of the intracellular calcium ion exchange maker calbindin-D9k were decreased in apoptosis (1.0 to 5 µM CsA), but unchanged in autophagy. In conclusion, these results suggest that CsA induction of apoptotic or autophagic cell death in rat pituitary GH3 cells depends on the relative expression of factors and correlates with Bcl-2 and Mn-SOD levels.

  15. An early feeding regime and a high-density amino acid diet on growth performance of broilers under subclinical necrotic enteritis challenge

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    Chake Keerqin


    Full Text Available Broilers that have early access to feed have been shown to have enhanced immune system and gut development and heightened resilience against necrotic enteritis (NE. This study examined the effect of early feeding a high amino acid density diet on performance of broilers under a sub-clinical NE challenge model. Ross 308 broilers (n = 576 were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 feeding regimes (feed access either within 6 h post-hatch or after 48 h post-hatch, 2 diets (control diet or the control diet with an additional 10% digestible amino acids [HAA] and either presence or absence of NE challenge. Oral administrations of Eimeria species (d 9 and a field strain of Clostridium perfringens (d 14 were used to induce NE. Broiler performance was analysed at d 13, 23, 30 and 35. Intestinal lesion score and bacterial count were analysed on d 16. The NE challenge reduced overall bird performance and induced severe intestinal lesions, without causing notable mortality. At d 23 bird weight was significantly lower (P < 0.001 in the challenged birds compared with the unchallenged birds, but by d 30 the challenged birds had recovered and challenge no longer had an impact on bird performance. Birds fed the HAA diet had greater body weight by d 35 and heightened Lactobacillus content in the ileum at d 16 (P < 0.05. Birds that were fed the HAA diet after a period of fasting performed better in terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR under challenge. The findings from this study suggest there are beneficial effects of feeding high amino acid diets to birds in response to external stresses, such as post-hatch fasting and subclinical NE.

  16. Woody plants diversity and type of vegetation in non cultivated plain of Moutourwa, Far-North, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Todou


    Full Text Available In order to valorize the wild vegetal resources for the efficient conservation and sustainable use in sahelo-sudanian zone in Cameroon, a study of non cultivated plain of Moutourwa was carry out to assess the floristic richness, the specific diversity and the type of vegetation. The inventory of all trees and shrubs (dbh ? 2.5 cm and the determination of the vegetation cover were done in five linear transects (20 m × 1000 m. In total, 27 families, 54 genera and 75 species were found. Caesalpinaceae is the most abundant family that relative abundance (pi*100 is 34.41%, the most abundant genus was Piliostigma (pi*100 = 30.66% and the most represented species was Piliostigma reticulatum (pi*100 = 29.56%; D = 53.6 stems/ha. The Simpson index (E= 0.89, the Shannon index (H= 3.2 and the equitability index of Pielou (J= 0.74 indicated that there were moderate diversity with more or less equitable species. The wild fruits species were numerous (pi*100 = 32.76%; D = 59.7 stems/ha. A. senegalensis is was the most represented (pi*100 = 9.04 ; D = 16.4 followed by Hexalobus monopetalus (pi*100 = 5.16 ; D = 9.4 and Balanites aegyptiaca (pi*100 = 3.69 ; D = 6.7. These results contribute efficaciously to valorize the wild vegetal resources for efficient conservation and sustainable use. Keywords: Woody plants diversity, conservation, sustainable use, sahelo-sudanian, Moutourwa

  17. Surfactant properties differentially influence intravascular gas embolism mechanics. (United States)

    Swaminathan, T N; Ayyaswamy, P S; Eckmann, D M


    Gas bubble motion in a blood vessel causes temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the cell surface lining the vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it and passes it by. Rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress imparted to the cell surface during this motion. These may result in injury to the cell. The presence of a soluble surfactant in the bulk medium reduces the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface as compared to an equivalent surfactant-free system and is an important therapeutic aid. This is particularly true for a very small vessel. In this study, we analyze various physical and chemical properties of any given soluble surfactant to ascertain the relative significance of the property of the surfactant on the reduction in the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface in such a vessel. While adsorption, desorption, and maximum possible monolayer interface surfactant concentration significantly impact the shear stress levels, physical properties such as the bulk or surface diffusivity do not appear to have large effects. At a given diameter, surfactants with k(a)/(k(d)d>O(10)⁻⁵ and Γ(∞)/C(0)d>9.5 x 10⁻⁴ are noted to be preferable from the point of view of an increased gap size between the bubble and vessel wall, and a corresponding reduction in the shear stress level imparted to an endothelial cell. The shear stress characteristics of nearly occluding bubbles, in contrast with smaller sized bubbles under identical conditions, are most affected by the introduction of a surfactant in regard to shear stress levels. These observations could form a basis for choosing surfactants in treating gas embolism related illnesses.

  18. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific to 16 kDa antigen of Paramphistomum gracile. (United States)

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Watthanadirek, Amaya; Chawengkirttikul, Runglawan; Sobhon, Prasert


    A number of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against the 16 kDa antigen of Paramphistomum gracile (16 kDaAgPg) were produced in vitro by hybridoma technique. Reactivity and specificity of these MoAbs were evaluated by ELISA and immunoblotting assays. Seven MoAb clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1D10, 2D7, 3B10, 3D9, 4F1, 4G4, and 5G12. It was found to be IgM and kappa light chain isotypes. By immunoblotting and ELISA, all MoAbs reacted with purified 16 kDaAgPg at molecular weight (MW) of 16 kDa and with the native 16 kDa antigen at MW of 16 kDa in the whole body (WB) and excretory-secretory (ES) fractions, but not with tegumental antigens (TA) of adult fluke. All of these MoAbs showed no cross-reactions with antigens of other parasites commonly found in ruminants, including Eurytrema pancreaticum, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Schistosoma spindale, Moniezia benedeni, Avitellina centripunctata, Haemonchus placei, Trichuris sp., and Setaria labiato-papillosa. Localization and distribution of the native 16 kDaAg in adult P. gracile by immunohistochemistry, using MoAbs as probes, showed that the native 16 kDaAg was present in high concentration in the cytoplasm of vitelline cells, eggshell globules, and the shells of eggs, but not in the tegument, muscle, parenchymal cells, and cecum of adult fluke. This finding indicated that the 16 kDaAg is a copiously expressed parasite protein that is released into the ES; thus, 16 kDaAg and its MoAb could be a good candidate for immunodiagnosis of paramphistomosis in ruminants.

  19. Simultaneous determination of clenbuterol, salbutamol and ractopamine in milk by reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution. (United States)

    Li, Cun; Wu, Yin-Liang; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Yan; Huang-Fu, Wei-Guo


    A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of clenbuterol (CLB), salbutamol (SAL) and ractopamine (RAC) in milk by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) with isotope dilution. Samples were directly purified through HLB cartridge. Then the eluate was dried under nitrogen and residues were redissolved in mobile phase. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on an Acquity UPLC(®) BEH C(18) column with gradient elution. The samples were quantified using clenbuterol-D(9), salbutamol-D(3) and ractopamine-D(6) as internal standards. The proposed method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC determining specificity, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), recovery, precision, linearity, robustness and stability. CCα values were 0.054, 0.006 and 0.008μg/kg for CLB, SAL and RAC, respectively. CCβ values were 0.058, 0.007 and 0.009μg/kg for CLB, SAL and RAC, respectively. The mean recoveries, repeatability (expressed as coefficient of variation, CV(r)), and reproducibility (CV(R)) varied from 95.8 to 106.2%, from 3.60 to 6.44% (CVr), and from 4.77 to 7.53% (CV(R)), respectively. The method is demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of clenbuterol, salbutamol and ractopamine in milk. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 45min. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased vesicular monoamine transporter binding during early abstinence in human methamphetamine users: Is VMAT2 a stable dopamine neuron biomarker? (United States)

    Boileau, Isabelle; Rusjan, Pablo; Houle, Sylvain; Wilkins, Diana; Tong, Junchao; Selby, Peter; Guttman, Mark; Saint-Cyr, Jean A; Wilson, Alan A; Kish, Stephen J


    Animal data indicate that methamphetamine can damage striatal dopamine terminals. Efforts to document dopamine neuron damage in living brain of methamphetamine users have focused on the binding of [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, as a stable dopamine neuron biomarker. Previous PET data report a slight decrease in striatal [(11)C]DTBZ binding in human methamphetamine users after prolonged (mean, 3 years) abstinence, suggesting that the reduction would likely be substantial in early abstinence. We measured striatal VMAT2 binding in 16 recently withdrawn (mean, 19 d; range, 1-90 d) methamphetamine users and in 14 healthy matched-control subjects during a PET scan with (+)[(11)C]DTBZ. Unexpectedly, striatal (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding was increased in methamphetamine users relative to controls (+22%, caudate; +12%, putamen; +11%, ventral striatum). Increased (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding in caudate was most marked in methamphetamine users abstinent for 1-3 d (+41%), relative to the 7-21 d (+15%) and >21 d (+9%) groups. Above-normal VMAT2 binding in some drug users suggests that any toxic effect of methamphetamine on dopamine neurons might be masked by an increased (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding and that VMAT2 radioligand binding might not be, as is generally assumed, a "stable" index of dopamine neuron integrity in vivo. One potential explanation for increased (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding is that VMAT2 binding is sensitive to changes in vesicular dopamine storage levels, presumably low in drug users. If correct, (+)[(11)C]DTBZ might be a useful imaging probe to correlate changes in brain dopamine stores and behavior in users of methamphetamine.

  1. Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study1234 (United States)

    Yousef, Fatimah M; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Kang, Paul T; Hakim, Iman A; Going, Scott; Yousef, Jehad M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M; Kumosani, Taha A; Thomson, Cynthia A


    Background: The role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention is equivocal. Saudi Arabian women may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because of a darker skin type and a greater likelihood of reduced ultraviolet B radiation exposure. Data regarding the vitamin D status of Saudi Arabian women and its relation to breast cancer risk are lacking. Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. Design: A case-control study was conducted among 120 breast cancer cases and 120 controls. The study population was drawn from patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from June to August 2009. Participants completed questionnaires on diet and medical history, and serum samples were collected from all women to measure circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. Results: The participants had a mean age of 47.8 y and a mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) of 30.0. Breast cancer cases had significantly lower (mean ± SD) serum concentrations of 25(OH)D (9.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL) than did controls (15.4 ± 12.3 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In comparison with those in the highest category of vitamin D status for this population (≥20 ng/mL), the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for invasive breast cancer were 6.1 (2.4, 15.1) for women with a serum 25(OH)D concentration women with a serum concentration of ≥10 to Saudi Arabian women. This trial was registered at as NCT01817231. PMID:23697705

  2. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+ was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  3. A phase I pharmacokinetic study of pulse-dose vorinostat with flavopiridol in solid tumors (United States)

    Dickson, Mark Andrew; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Carvajal, Richard D.; Grant, Steven; Roberts, John D.; Reid, Joel M.; Ames, Matthew M.; McGovern, Renee M.; Lefkowitz, Robert A.; Gonen, Mithat; Cane, Lauren M.; Dials, Heather J.


    Summary Purpose Vorinostat (V) at levels >2.5 μM enhances chemotherapy in vitro. Yet the approved oral dose of 400 mg inconsistently achieves this level in patients. We developed an intermittent oral pulse-dose schedule of V to increase serum levels. We combined V with the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol (F) which increases V-induced apoptosis. Experimental Design One week before combination treatment, V alone was given daily for 3d (cycle −1). Then V was given on d1-3 and d8-10, and F on d2 and d9, every 21-d. Due to neutropenia, this was modified to V on d1-3 and d15–17, and F on d2 and d16, every 28-d. Bolus and split-dose F schedules were studied. Results 34 patients were treated. On the 21-d schedule, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was V 600 mg/d and F 60 mg/m2 bolus. On the 28-d schedule, the MTD was V 800 mg/d and F 30 mg/m2 over 30 min and 30 mg/m2 over 4 h. V Cmax at the 800 mg dose was 4.8 μM (± 2.8). V Cmax ≥2.5 μM was achieved in 86% of patients at the MTD. F increased the Cmax of V by 27% (95% CI 11%–43%). F Cmax of ≥2 μM was achieved in 90% of patients. 8 patients had stable disease for on average 5.5 m (range 1.6–13.2 m). Conclusions Intermittent high dose oral V in combination with F is feasible and achieves target serum levels >2.5 μM. V concentrations higher than previously reported with oral dosing were achieved. PMID:20461440

  4. Volatile organic compounds obtained by in vitro callus cultivation of Plectranthus ornatus Codd. (Lamiaceae). (United States)

    Passinho-Soares, Helna C; Meira, Paloma R; David, Juceni P; Mesquita, Paulo R R; do Vale, Ademir E; de M Rodrigues, Frederico; de P Pereira, Pedro A; de Santana, José Raniere F; de Oliveira, Fabio S; de Andrade, Jailson B; David, Jorge M


    Plectranthus spp (Lamiaceae) are plants of economic importance because they are sources of aromatic essential oils and are also cultivated and several species of this genus are used as folk medicines. This paper describes the effects of different concentrations of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on the induction of callus from nodal segments of Plectranthus ornatus Codd and in the production of volatile organic compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes). The 20 and 40 day calli were subjected to solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and submitted to GCMS analysis. Variations in VOCs between the samples were observed and, a direct relationship was observed between of the major constituent detected (α-terpinyl acetate) and the monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, sabinene and α-limonene that were present in the volatile fractions. Besides α-terpinyl acetate, isobornyl acetate and α-limonene were also major constituents. Variations were observed in VOCs in the analyzed periods. The best cultivation media for the production of VOCs was found to be MS0 (control). Moderate success was achieved by treatment with 2.68 µM and 5:37 µM NAA (Group 2). With 2,4-D (9.0 µM), only the presence of α-terpinyl acetate and isocumene were detected and, with 2.26 µM of 2,4-D was produced mainly α-terpinyl acetate, α-thujene and β-caryophyllene (16.2%). The VOC profiles present in P. ornatus were interpreted using PCA and HCA. The results permitted us to determine the best cultivation media for VOC production and, the PCA and HCA analysis allowed us to recognize four groups among the different treatments from the compounds identified in this set of treatments.

  5. Volatile Organic Compounds Obtained by in Vitro Callus Cultivation of Plectranthus ornatus Codd. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio S. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Plectranthus spp (Lamiaceae are plants of economic importance because they are sources of aromatic essential oils and are also cultivated and several species of this genus are used as folk medicines. This paper describes the effects of different concentrations of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on the induction of callus from nodal segments of Plectranthus ornatus Codd and in the production of volatile organic compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The 20 and 40 day calli were subjected to solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME and submitted to GCMS analysis. Variations in VOCs between the samples were observed and, a direct relationship was observed between of the major constituent detected (α-terpinyl acetate and the monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, sabinene and α-limonene that were present in the volatile fractions. Besides α-terpinyl acetate, isobornyl acetate and α-limonene were also major constituents. Variations were observed in VOCs in the analyzed periods. The best cultivation media for the production of VOCs was found to be MS0 (control. Moderate success was achieved by treatment with 2.68 µM and 5:37 µM NAA (Group 2. With 2,4-D (9.0 µM, only the presence of α-terpinyl acetate and isocumene were detected and, with 2.26 µM of 2,4-D was produced mainly α-terpinyl acetate, α-thujene and β-caryophyllene (16.2%. The VOC profiles present in P. ornatus were interpreted using PCA and HCA. The results permitted us to determine the best cultivation media for VOC production and, the PCA and HCA analysis allowed us to recognize four groups among the different treatments from the compounds identified in this set of treatments.

  6. An Infrared Study of the Circumstellar Material Associated with the Carbon Star R Sculptoris (United States)

    Hankins, M. J.; Herter, T. L.; Maercker, M.; Lau, R. M.; Sloan, G. C.


    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star R Sculptoris (R Scl) is one of the most extensively studied stars on the AGB. R Scl is a carbon star with a massive circumstellar shell (M shell ∼ 7.3 × 10‑3 M ⊙) that is thought to have been produced during a thermal pulse event ∼2200 years ago. To study the thermal dust emission associated with its circumstellar material, observations were taken with the Faint Object InfraRed CAMera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) at 19.7, 25.2, 31.5, 34.8, and 37.1 μm. Maps of the infrared emission at these wavelengths were used to study the morphology and temperature structure of the spatially extended dust emission. Using the radiative-transfer code DUSTY, and fitting the spatial profile of the emission, we find that a geometrically thin dust shell cannot reproduce the observed spatially resolved emission. Instead, a second dust component in addition to the shell is needed to reproduce the observed emission. This component, which lies interior to the dust shell, traces the circumstellar envelope of R Scl. It is best fit by a density profile with n ∝ r α , where α ={0.75}-0.25+0.45 and a dust mass of {M}d={9.0}-4.1+2.3× {10}-6 {M}ȯ . The strong departure from an r ‑2 law indicates that the mass-loss rate of R Scl has not been constant. This result is consistent with a slow decline in the post-pulse mass loss that has been inferred from observations of the molecular gas.

  7. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam. (United States)

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A


    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

  8. Accuracy, Validity, and Reliability of an Electronic Visual Analog Scale for Pain on a Touch Screen Tablet in Healthy Older Adults: A Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Bird, Marie-Louise; Callisaya, Michele L; Cannell, John; Gibbons, Timothy; Smith, Stuart T; Ahuja, Kiran Dk


    New technology for clinical data collection is rapidly evolving and may be useful for both researchers and clinicians; however, this new technology has not been tested for accuracy, reliability, or validity. This study aims to test the accuracy of visual analog scale (VAS) for pain on a newly designed application on the iPad (iPadVAS) and measure the reliability and validity of iPadVAS compared to a paper copy (paperVAS). Accuracy was determined by physically measuring an iPad scale on screen and comparing it to the results from the program, with a researcher collecting 101 data points. A total of 22 healthy community dwelling older adults were then recruited to test reliability and validity. Each participant completed 8 VAS (4 using each tool) in a randomized order. Reliability was measured using interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and validity measured using Bland-Altman graphs and correlations. Of the measurements for accuracy, 64 results were identical, 2 results were manually measured as being 1 mm higher than the program, and 35 as 1 mm lower. Reliability for the iPadVAS was excellent with individual ICC 0.90 (95% CI 0.82-0.95) and averaged ICC 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-1.0) observed. Linear regression demonstrated a strong relationship with a small negative bias towards the iPad (-2.6, SD 5.0) with limits of agreement from -12.4 to 7.1. The iPadVAS provides a convenient, user-friendly, and efficient way of collecting data from participants in measuring their current pain levels. It has potential use in documentation management and may encourage participatory healthcare. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): 367297; (Archived by Webcite at

  9. Chemical constituents and anticancer effects of the essential oil from leaves of Xylopia laevigata. (United States)

    Quintans, Jullyana de S S; Soares, Bruno M; Ferraz, Rosana P C; Oliveira, Allan C A; da Silva, Thanany B; Menezes, Leociley R A; Sampaio, Marília F C; Prata, Ana Paula do N; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Claudia; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P


    Xylopia laevigata, popularly known as "meiú" and "pindaíba", is a medicinal plant used in the folk medicine of the Brazilian Northeast for several purposes. The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of X. laevigata, collected from wild plants growing at three different sites of the remaining Atlantic forest in Sergipe State (Brazilian Northeast), were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The effect of the essential oil samples was assessed on tumor cells in culture, as well on tumor growth in vivo. All samples of the essential oil were dominated by sesquiterpene constituents. A total of 44 compounds were identified and quantified. Although some small differences were observed in the chemical composition, the presence of γ-muurolene (0.60-17.99%), δ-cadinene (1.15-13.45%), germacrene B (3.22-7.31%), α-copaene (3.33-5.98%), germacrene D (9.09-60.44%), bicyclogermacrene (7.00-14.63%), and (E)-caryophyllene (5.43-7.98%) were verified as major constituents in all samples of the essential oil. In the in vitro cytotoxic study, the essential oil displayed cytotoxicity to all tumor cell lines tested, with the different samples displaying a similar profile; however, they were not hemolytic or genotoxic. In the in vivo antitumor study, tumor growth inhibition rates were 37.3-42.5%. The treatment with the essential oil did not significantly affect body weight, macroscopy of the organs, or blood leukocyte counts. In conclusion, the essential oil from the leaves of X. laevigata is chemically characterized by the presence of γ-muurolene, δ-cadinene, germacrene B, α-copaene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, and (E)-caryophyllene as major constituents and possesses significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer potential. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. New VVV Survey Globular Cluster Candidates in the Milky Way Bulge

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    Minniti, Dante; Gómez, Matías [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Geisler, Douglas; Fernández-Trincado, Jose G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alonso-García, Javier; Beamín, Juan Carlos; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Marcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Kurtev, Radostin; Pullen, Joyce [Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica, Santiago (Chile); Palma, Tali; Clariá, Juan J. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba (Argentina); Cohen, Roger E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 2700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore (United States); Dias, Bruno [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Hempel, Maren [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Ivanov, Valentin D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarszchild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Lucas, Phillip W. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire (United Kingdom); Moni-Bidin, Christian; Alegría, Sebastian Ramírez [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile); and others


    It is likely that a number of Galactic globular clusters remain to be discovered, especially toward the Galactic bulge. High stellar density combined with high and differential interstellar reddening are the two major problems for finding globular clusters located toward the bulge. We use the deep near-IR photometry of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey to search for globular clusters projected toward the Galactic bulge, and hereby report the discovery of 22 new candidate globular clusters. These objects, detected as high density regions in our maps of bulge red giants, are confirmed as globular cluster candidates by their color–magnitude diagrams. We provide their coordinates as well as their near-IR color–magnitude diagrams, from which some basic parameters are derived, such as reddenings and heliocentric distances. The color–magnitude diagrams reveal well defined red giant branches in all cases, often including a prominent red clump. The new globular cluster candidates exhibit a variety of extinctions (0.06 < A {sub Ks} < 2.77) and distances (5.3 < D < 9.5 kpc). We also classify the globular cluster candidates into 10 metal-poor and 12 metal-rich clusters, based on the comparison of their color–magnitude diagrams with those of known globular clusters also observed by the VVV Survey. Finally, we argue that the census for Galactic globular clusters still remains incomplete, and that many more candidate globular clusters (particularly the low luminosity ones) await to be found and studied in detail in the central regions of the Milky Way.

  11. Down-regulation of N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase-1 signaling in the developing diaphragmatic vasculature of nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia. (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Friedmacher, Florian; Zimmer, Julia; Puri, Prem


    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has been attributed to various developmental abnormalities of the underlying tissue components. N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1) is a strongly expressed biosynthetic enzyme in endothelial cells, which has recently been identified as an important factor during diaphragmatic vascularization. Loss of endothelial Ndst1 has been demonstrated to cause angiogenic defects in the developing diaphragm and disrupt normal diaphragmatic development. Furthermore, deficiency of Ndst1 diminishes the expression of slit homolog 3 (Slit3), a known CDH-related gene that has been associated with reduced vascular density and muscle defects in the diaphragm of Slit3 -/- mice. We hypothesized that expression of Ndst1 and Slit3 is decreased in the diaphragmatic vasculature of fetal rats with nitrofen-induced CDH. Time-mated rats received either nitrofen or vehicle on gestational day 9 (D9). Fetal diaphragms were microdissected on D13, D15 and D18, and divided into control and nitrofen-exposed specimens. Gene expression levels of Ndst1 and Slit3 were assessed using qRT-PCR. Immunofluorescence-double-staining for Ndst1 and Slit3 was performed to evaluate protein expression and localization. Relative mRNA expression of Ndst1 and Slit3 was significantly decreased in pleuroperitoneal folds (D13), developing diaphragms (D15) and fully muscularized diaphragms (D18) of nitrofen-exposed fetuses compared to controls. Confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy revealed markedly diminished Ndst1 and Slit3 expression in endothelial cells within the diaphragmatic vasculature on D13, D15 and D18 compared to controls. Down-regulation of Ndst1 signaling in the developing diaphragm may impair endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis, thus leading to defective diaphragmatic vascular development and CDH. Ib. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization and Conduction Mechanism of Highly Conductive Vanadate Glass

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    Tetsuaki Nishida


    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent studies of highly conductive barium iron vanadate glass with a composition of 20 BaO ∙ 10 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 (in mol %. Isothermal annealing of the vanadate glass for several ten minutes at a given temperature, higher than glass transition temperature or crystallization temperature, caused an increase in σ. Substitution of CuI (3d10, ZnII (3d10 and CuII (3d9 for FeIII (3d5 was investigated to elucidate the effect of electron configuration on the conductivity (σ. A marked decrease in the activation energy of conduction (Ea was also observed after the annealing. Values of Ea were correlated to the energy gap between the donor level and the conduction band (CB in the n-type semiconductor model. Isothermal annealing of ZnII-substituted vanadate glass (20 BaO ∙ 5 ZnO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 at 450 °C for 30 min showed an increase in σ from 2.5 × 10–6 to 2.1 × 10–1 S cm–1, which was one order of magnitude larger than that of non-substituted vanadate glass (3.4 × 10–2 S cm–1. Under the same annealing condition, σ’s of 2.0 × 10–1 and 3.2 × 10–1 S cm–1 were observed for 20 BaO ∙ 5 Cu2O ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 and 20 BaO ∙ 5 CuO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 glasses, respectively. These results demonstrate an increase in the carrier (electron density in the CB, primarily composed of anti-bonding 4s-orbitals.

  13. Chemical engineering and structural and pharmacological characterization of the α-scorpion toxin OD1. (United States)

    Durek, Thomas; Vetter, Irina; Wang, Ching-I Anderson; Motin, Leonid; Knapp, Oliver; Adams, David J; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F


    Scorpion α-toxins are invaluable pharmacological tools for studying voltage-gated sodium channels, but few structure-function studies have been undertaken due to their challenging synthesis. To address this deficiency, we report a chemical engineering strategy based upon native chemical ligation. The chemical synthesis of α-toxin OD1 was achieved by chemical ligation of three unprotected peptide segments. A high resolution X-ray structure (1.8 Å) of synthetic OD1 showed the typical βαββ α-toxin fold and revealed important conformational differences in the pharmacophore region when compared with other α-toxin structures. Pharmacological analysis of synthetic OD1 revealed potent α-toxin activity (inhibition of fast inactivation) at Nav1.7, as well as Nav1.4 and Nav1.6. In addition, OD1 also produced potent β-toxin activity at Nav1.4 and Nav1.6 (shift of channel activation in the hyperpolarizing direction), indicating that OD1 might interact at more than one site with Nav1.4 and Nav1.6. Investigation of nine OD1 mutants revealed that three residues in the reverse turn contributed significantly to selectivity, with the triple OD1 mutant (D9K, D10P, K11H) being 40-fold more selective for Nav1.7 over Nav1.6, while OD1 K11V was 5-fold more selective for Nav1.6 than Nav1.7. This switch in selectivity highlights the importance of the reverse turn for engineering α-toxins with altered selectivity at Nav subtypes.

  14. Observations of Low-Lying Electronic States of NiD, and Multi-Isotope Analysis (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahdi; Shayesteh, Alireza; Crozet, Patrick; Ross, Amanda J.


    Resolved laser induced fluorescence spectra of NiD, recorded at Doppler resolution between 11500 and 18000 {cm^{-1}}, have defined some 200 term energies in two of the three strongly-interacting, low-lying ({X ^2Δ}, {W ^2Π} and {V ^2Σ^+}) states of NiD associated with an Ni{^+(3d^9})-D^- configuration. Our observations span v = 0 - 5 in the lowest spin-orbit component of the ground state, {X_1 ^2Δ_{5/2} }, v = 0 - 3 in {X_2 ^2Δ_{3/2} } and v = 0 - 1 in {W_1 ^2Π_{3/2} }, the lower component of the {W ^2Π } state. Spin-orbit and rotation-electronic interactions are strong in NiD. Large parity splittings are seen, due to interactions with the unobserved ^2Σ^+ state. We have attempted a global, multi-isotope fit to reproduce observed term energies up to 6000 {cm^{-1}} in NiD and ^{58,60,62}NiH, in an extension of the `Supermultiplet' model proposed by Gray and co-workers, because fits with NiD term energies alone failed to converge to sensible solutions. Dunham-type parameters have been used to represent the unperturbed X ^2Δ, W ^2Π and V ^2Σ^+ states, with off-diagonal matrix elements (treating spin-orbit, L- and S-uncoupling effects) based on Ni^+ atomic properties. Some electronic Born-Oppenheimer breakdown terms were included in the model. The spectra show emission from several excited states close to the unique level populated by the single-mode laser. Bands of collisionally-induced fluorescence identify three levels (A (Ω = 5/2) v = 1, E (Ω = 3/2) v = 1 and I (Ω = 3/2) v = 0) that have not been reported before. Gray, Li, Nelis, and Field, {J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7164 (1991)

  15. [The polymorphism of ten STR loci in Chinese Han population in Chengdu]. (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Yan, Jing; Zhang, Lin; Liao, Miao; Li, Ying-Bi; Hou, Yi-Ping; Wu, Jin


    To obtain data of polymorphism distribution of 10 short tandem repeat (STR) D1S2145, D3S2433, D5S1507, D5S2502, D8S2319, D9S926, D16S767, D17S2181, GATA140E03, GATA196B10 in Chinese Han population in Chengdu and to evaluate their usefulness in the field of forensic science and their species specificity. DNA of 100 unrelated individuals of Chengdu Han population was extracted with Chelex method, amplified by PCR, then typed with silver staining after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(PAGE). Ten different animals were selected as the controls in this study for evaluating the species specificity of the ten STR loci. In the ten STR loci of Chengdu Han population, 6, 5, 8, 5, 6, 7, 7, 5, 7 and 7 alleles were found, respectively. 17, 14, 28, 15, 16, 18, 15, 14, 19 and 21 genotypes were observed in the ten loci, respectively. The allele and genotype frequency distributions of the ten loci were detected no deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium. By comparison with the data from 10 different animals, the species specificity of D3S2433, D5S1507, D5S2502, D8S2319 and GATA196B10 was good, but part of animals had amplification product at typing field of the other loci. The 10 STR loci mentioned above are highly polymorphic and can be used in the forensic personal identification and paternity testing.

  16. Effects of Maternal Zinc Glycine on Mortality, Zinc Concentration, and Antioxidant Status in a Developing Embryo and 1-Day-Old Chick. (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Yong-Xia; Zhan, Xiu-An


    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zinc glycine (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) on mortality, zinc (Zn) concentration, and antioxidant status in a developing embryo and 1-day-old chick. Six hundred 39-week-old broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each treatment including 5 replicates with 20 birds each. Six treatments received a basal diet (control, 24 mg Zn/kg diet) or a basal diet supplemented with ZnSO4 (80 mg Zn/kg) or Zn-Gly (20, 40, 60, or 80 mg Zn/kg), respectively. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-experiment with a basal diet. At the last week, 100 eggs per replicate were randomly collected for incubation. Compared with the control treatment, Zn supplementation decreased (P day-old chick, and improved (P day-old chick. Compared with the ZnSO4 treatment, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly treatment significantly decreased (P day-old chick. The 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly treatment significantly increased (P day-old chick, total superoxide dismutase activity in 1-day-old chick, and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of d9 embryo and 1-day-old chick than that in ZnSO4 treatment. The liver metallothionein concentration of the developing embryo and 1-day-old chick and its mRNA abundance of d19 embryo were also significantly increased (P day-old chick, and 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly treatment was the optimum choice.

  17. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of hallucinogenic drugs in hair of psychedelic plants and mushrooms consumers. (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Marchei, Emilia; García-Algar, Oscar; Gomez, Arelis; Di Giovannandrea, Rita; Pacifici, Roberta


    A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin, psilocybin, salvinorin A in hair of consumers of psychedelic vegetal material such peyote or trichocereus cacti, psilocybe mushrooms, Salvia divinorum or psychedelic beverage ayahuasca. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of mescaline-d9 and 3,4-methylenedioxypropylamphetamine as internal standards, hair samples were treated with 250μl VMA-T M3 reagent for 1h at 100°C. After cooling, 100μl M3 extract were diluted with 400μl water and a volume of 10μl was injected into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was achieved at ambient temperature using a reverse-phase column and a linear gradient elution with two solvents: 0.3% formic acid in acetonitrile and 5mM ammonium formate pH 3. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode, using multiple reaction monitoring via positive electrospray ionization. The method was linear from the limit of quantification (0.03-0.05ng/mg depending on analyte under investigation) to 10ng/mg hair, with an intra- and inter-assay imprecision and inaccuracy always less than 15% and an analytical recovery between 79.6% and 97.4%, depending on the considered analyte. Using the validated method, mescaline was found in concentration range of 0.08-0.13ng/mg in hair of peyote smokers, 3.2ng salvinorin A per mg hair were determined in hair from a S. divinorum smoker, 5.6ng N,N-dimethyltryptamine per mg hair from an ayahuasca user and finally 0.8ng psilocybin per ng hair of a psilocybe consumer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Andrew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3 in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0 and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9 on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 μM FA during 7-day differentiation. Results EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARγ, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo.

  19. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

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    Zachary C. DeVries


    Full Text Available Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692 ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724 ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386 ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176 ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134 ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102 ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.

  20. MR features of bursitis around the hip

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    Lee, Kyung Joo; Sung, Mi Sook; Yu, Won Jong; You, Ie Ryung; Yang, Hae Jeom; Lee, Hae Giu; Im, Jung Ik [The Catholic Univ. of Korea Holy Family Hospital, Puchun (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the usefulness of MR imaging for differentiation between infectious and non-infectious bursitis. MR images of 16 patients (18 lesions) in whom bursitis around the hip had been diagnosed were analyzed for homogeneity of the bursa, the presence of septation, the enhancement pattern, and associated findings. Clinical data (symptoms and signs, laboratory data, aspiration of the bursa, and surgical findings) were available for correlation. The location of bursitis was trochanteric (n=3D9), ischiogluteal (n=3D5), iliopsoas (n=3D3), or ischiotrochanteric (n=3D1). Etiologies included infection in seven cases (3 pyogenic; 4 tuberculous) and noninfection in 11 (6 inflammation; 3 hemorrhage; 2 metabolic disease). In seven patients with infectious bursitis, T1-weighted enhanced image revealed thick rim enhancement of the bursa (n=3D7) association with changes in bone marrow signal intensity (n=3D2), bone erosion (n=3D2), and cellulitis (n=3D1). Of 11 cases of noninfectious bursitis, three demonstrated typical signal characteristics of hematoma within the distended bursa. In six of seven patients who underwent contrast-enhancement, thick and thin peripheral enhancement of the bursa was noted. Bone erosion was found in one case of tuberculous bursitis and two of metabolic disease. Internal septation (n=3D4) and internal debris (n=3D3) were found in both infected and noninfected patients. MR imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of bursitis around the hip. MR findings of thick rim enhancement, associated cellulitis, and changes in bone marrow signal intensity are suggestive of infectious bursitis.=20.

  1. The evolution of the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus found on healthcare workers correlated with local consumption of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Roberto Busato

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Correlate the evolution of the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus collected from healthcare workers with the local consumption of antibiotics. MATERIAN AND METHODS: Open prospective research.Study Site. General Reference Hospital with 200 beds in a 700,000 inhabitant region, in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: Two collections (samples of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from healthcare-workers during an approximate four-year interval. Samples 1 (n= 200 and 2 (n= 270 had this bacterium in 63 (32% and 90 (33% of the patients, respectively. At the same time, the annual consumption of antibiotics in DDD/1,000 patient-days was determined. The variation of resistance was significantly smaller (m.s.d.=12.11 for gentamycin (p<0.01 and (m.s.d.=9.22 for Tobramycin (p<0.05. The correlation between variation in resistance and antibiotic consumption was not significant. Workers studied in the two samples showed a significant (p<0.01 frequency (c²=10.44 for persistent nasal carriage and for non carriage. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was found in 12 (6% patients of sample 1 and 11 patients (4% of sample 2. CONCLUSION: Stability of resistance allows us to maintain therapeutic outlines. The variation in bacterial resistance in the twice-sampled population (n=105 indicated the selection pressure of the hospital environment. The resistance that was found is representative of the hospital microbiota; this relationship represents a biological model, based on the healthcare-workers' interaction with colonizing bacteria and nosocomial infections. New studies could improve this model for other bacteria, to determine the tendency for resistance and help guide the antibiotic use.

  2. Cranberry extract inhibits in vitro adhesion of F4 and F18+Escherichia coli to pig intestinal epithelium and reduces in vivo excretion of pigs orally challenged with F18+verotoxigenic E. coli. (United States)

    Coddens, Annelies; Loos, Michaela; Vanrompay, Daisy; Remon, Jean Paul; Cox, Eric


    F4 + E. coli and F18 + E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4 + E. coli and F18 + E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4 + E. coli and F18 + E. coli to pig intestinal epithelium. Using the in vitro villus adhesion assay, we found that low concentrations of cranberry extract (20μg or 100μg/ml) have strong inhibitory activity on F4 + E. coli (75.3%, S.D.=9.31 or 95.8%, S.D.=2.56, respectively) and F18 + E. coli adherence (100% inhibition). This effect was not due to antimicrobial activity. Moreover, cranberry extract (10mg or 100mg) could also abolish in vivo binding of F4 and F18 fimbriae to the pig intestinal epithelium in ligated loop experiments. Finally, two challenge experiments with F18 + E. coli were performed to address the efficacy of in-feed or water supplemented cranberry extract. No effect could be observed in piglets that received cranberry extract only in feed (1g/kg or 10g/kg). However, supplementation of feed (10g/kg) and drinking water (1g/L) significantly decreased excretion and diarrhea. The decreased infection resulted in a decreased serum antibody response indicating reduced exposure to F18 + E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Sensitivity to atracurium in the lateral abdominal muscles] . (United States)

    Kirov, K; Motamed, C; Combes, X; Duvaldestin, P; Dhonneur, G


    To study the effect of atracurium on the electromyographic activity of the lateral abdominal muscles and adductor pollicis in anaesthetized subjects. Prospective, comparative, open study. Sixteen patients, ASA physical status 1 or 2, undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery under general anaesthesia were studied. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol/fentanyl and orotracheal intubation performed after glottic local anaesthesia without using muscle relaxant. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane/nitrous oxide/oxygen and fentanyl reinjections. Supramaximal percutaneous stimulations in a simple twitch mode (0.1 Hz) were applied at the 9th-10th intercostal nerve on the posterior axillary line and at the ulnar nerve at the wrist. The electromyographic responses were registered using skin surface electrodes, placed on the D9-D10 dermatome in regard of the lateral abdominal muscles and of the thenar muscles. After a single bolus dose of atracurium 0.5, the following parameters were studied: the maximum effect (Emax), the time for obtaining Emax (Delay) and the recovery time of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the control neuromuscular response (T5, T10, T25, T50, T75, T100). The dose of 0.5 of atracurium induced 100% block in both lateral abdominal muscles and adductor pollicis. Lateral abdominal muscles blockade had faster onset (136 +/- 4 s versus 205 +/- 29 s) and shorter recovery, T5, T10, T25, T50, T75 and T100 were significantly (p < 0.05) shorter than at the adductor pollicis. Lateral abdominal muscles blockade have faster onset and recovery than adductor pollicis.

  4. Chemical characterisation of Nigerian red propolis and its biological activity against Trypanosoma Brucei. (United States)

    Omar, Ruwida M K; Igoli, John; Gray, Alexander I; Ebiloma, Godwin Unekwuojo; Clements, Carol; Fearnley, James; Ebel, Ru Angeli Edrada; Zhang, Tong; De Koning, Harry P; Watson, David G


    A previous study showed the unique character of Nigerian red propolis from Rivers State, Nigeria (RSN), with regards to chemical composition and activity against Trypanosoma brucei in comparison with other African propolis. To carry out fractionation and biological testing of Nigerian propolis in order to isolate compounds with anti-trypanosomal activity. To compare the composition of the RSN propolis with the composition of Brazilian red propolis. Profiling was carried out using HPLC-UV-ELSD and HPLC-Orbitrap-FTMS on extracts of two samples collected from RSN with data extraction using MZmine software. Isolation was carried out by normal phase and reversed phase MPLC. Elucidation of the compounds with a purity > 95% was performed by 1D/2D NMR HRMS and HRLC-MS(n) . Ten phenolic compounds were isolated or in the case of liquiritigenin partially purified. Data for nine of these correlated with literature reports of known compounds i.e. one isoflavanone, calycosin (1); two flavanones, liquiritigenin (2) and pinocembrin (5); an isoflavan, vestitol (3); a pterocarpan, medicarpin (4); two prenylflavanones, 8-prenylnaringenin (7) and 6-prenylnaringenin (8); and two geranyl flavonoids, propolin D (9) and macarangin (10). The tenth was elucidated as a previously undescribed dihydrobenzofuran (6). The isolated compounds were tested against Trypanosoma brucei and displayed moderate to high activity. Some of the compounds tested had similar activity against wild type T. brucei and two strains displaying pentamidine resistance. Nigerian propolis from RSN has some similarities with Brazilian red propolis. The propolis displayed anti-trypanosomal activity at a potentially useful level. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Determination of tigecycline in human plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to population pharmacokinetics study in Chinese patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia. (United States)

    Shao, Rong; Li, Xingang; Hu, Yangmin; Chen, Jinliang; Lou, Honggang; Dai, Haibin


    A selective, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of tigecycline (TGC) in human plasma, using tigecycline-d9 as an internal standard (IS). Analytical samples were prepared using a protein precipitation method coupled with a concentration process. The analyte and IS were separated on a reversed-phase Waters Acquity UPLC® BEH-C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm i.d., 1.7 μm) with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of water, containing 0.2% formic acid (v/v) with 10 mm ammonium formate (A) and acetonitrile (B). The mass spectrometer was operated in selected reaction monitoring mode through electrospray ionization ion mode using the transitions of m/z 586.2 → 513.1 and m/z 595.1 → 514.0 for TGC and IS, respectively. The linearity of the method was in the range of 10-5000 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-batch precision (CV) for TGC was <9.27%, and the accuracy ranged from 90.06 to 107.13%. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of samples from hospital-acquired pneumonia patients treated with TGC, and a validated population pharmacokinetic model was established. This developed method could be useful to predict pharmacokinetics parameters and valuable for further pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Two grid iteration with a conjugate gradient fine grid smoother applied to a groundwater flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, M.J.; Spence, A.; Cliffe, K.A.


    This talk is concerned with the efficient solution of Ax=b, where A is a large, sparse, symmetric positive definite matrix arising from a standard finite element discretisation of the groundwater flow problem {triangledown}{sm_bullet}(k{triangledown}p)=0. Here k is the coefficient of rock permeability in applications and is highly discontinuous. The discretisation is carried out using the Harwell NAMMU finite element package, using, for 2D, 9 node biquadratic rectangular elements, and 27 node biquadratics for 3D. The aim is to develop a robust technique for iterative solutions of 3D problems based on a regional groundwater flow model of a geological area with sharply varying hydrogeological properties. Numerical experiments with polynomial preconditioned conjugate gradient methods on a 2D groundwater flow model were found to yield very poor results, converging very slowly. In order to utilise the fact that A comes from the discretisation of a PDE the authors try the two grid method as is well analysed from studies of multigrid methods, see for example {open_quotes}Multi-Grid Methods and Applications{close_quotes} by W. Hackbusch. Specifically they consider two discretisations resulting in stiffness matrices A{sub N} and A{sub n}, of size N and n respectively, where N > n, for both a model problem and the geological model. They perform a number of conjugate gradient steps on the fine grid, ie using A{sub N}, followed by an exact coarse grid solve, using A{sub n}, and then update the fine grid solution, the exact coarse grid solve being done using a frontal method factorisation of A{sub n}. Note that in the context of the standard two grid method this is equivalent to using conjugate gradients as a fine grid smoothing step. Experimental results are presented to show the superiority of the two grid iteration method over the polynomial preconditioned conjugate gradient method.

  7. Ovariectomy worsens secondary hyperparathyroidism in mature rats during low-Ca diet. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Lai, Wan-Ping; Wu, Chun-Fu; Favus, Murray J; Leung, Ping-Chung; Wong, Man-Sau


    Estrogen deficiency impairs intestinal Ca absorption and induces bone loss, but its effects on the vitamin D-endocrine system are unclear. In the present study, calciotropic hormones levels, renal vitamin D metabolism, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]-dependent intestinal calcium absorption, and bone properties in 3-mo-old sham-operated (sham) or ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed either a normal-Ca (NCD; 0.6% Ca, 0.65% P) or a low-Ca (LCD; 0.1% Ca, 0.65% P) diet for 2 wk were determined. LCD increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels in both sham and OVX rats. Serum parathyroid hormone [PTH(1-84)] levels were highest in OVX rats fed LCD. Renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D1alpha-hydroxylase (1-OHase) protein expression was induced in both sham and OVX rats during LCD, while renal 1-OHase mRNA expression was highest in OVX rats fed LCD. Renal vitamin D receptor (VDR) and mRNA expressions in rats were induced by ovariectomy in rats fed NCD but suppressed by ovariectomy in rats fed LCD. The induction of intestinal calcium transporter-1 and calbindin-D9k mRNA expressions by LCD were not altered by ovariectomy. As expected, bone Ca content, cancellous bone mineral density, and bone strength index in proximal metaphysis of rat tibia were reduced by both ovariectomy and LCD (P<0.05) as analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Taken together, the data demonstrate that ovariectomy alters the responses of circulating PTH levels, renal 1-OHase mRNA expression, and renal VDR expression to LCD. These results suggest that estrogen is necessary for the full adaptive response to LCD mediated by both PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3.

  8. Time range for accumulation of shell middens from Higashimyo (western Japan) and Kimhae (southern Korea) by AMS radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsui, Akira [National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara, Nijyo-cho, Nara 630-8577 (Japan); Nishida, Iwao; Nakano, Mitsuru [Saga-City Board of Education, Sakae-machi, Saga 840-8501 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)


    Numerous large and small shell middens have been reported throughout the world. An interesting question is when the huge and thick shell middens were formed, and how many years were required to build up the whole midden. Shell middens contain not only shell fragments but also organic substances such as bones, nuts, acorn, and plant residues, which are suitable substances with which to establish {sup 14}C chronology of the middens. We have conducted {sup 14}C dating on terrestrial and marine materials collected from two lowland shell middens, the Higashimyo site in Japan (the Earliest Jomon period) and the Kimhae site in Korea (the Proto-Three Kingdom period), to establish high precision {sup 14}C chronologies and determine the time required for shell accumulation. According to Bayesian analysis of {sup 14}C ages from terrestrial samples, accumulation of Midden No. 1 at Higashimyo (altitude from -1.1 to -2.3 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 1.2 m) started at around 8050-7950 cal BP and ended at 7950-7750 cal BP, lasting for ca. 100 cal yr, while accumulation of Midden No. 2 (altitude from -0.5 to -2.0 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 1.5 m) started at around 8050-7800 cal BP and ended at 7800-7650 cal BP, lasting for ca. 200 cal yr. Thus the Midden No. 1 was abandoned a bit earlier than Midden No. 2, but the time range for sediment accumulation overlaps each other. Accumulation at the Kimhae shell midden (altitude from 5 to 14 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 9 m) started at around the middle of the 1st C cal BC and ended at around the middle of the 3rd C cal AD, lasting for ca. 250 to 300 cal yr.

  9. 4,5-Dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzohydrazides and 1-(1-Benzylpiperidin-4-ylethan-1-ones as Potential Antioxidant/Cholinergic Endowed Small Molecule Leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsar Banu


    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to generate leads for developing our ultimate poly-active molecules with utility in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Indeed, poly-active molecules capable of mitigating brain free radical damage while enhancing acetylcholine signaling (via cholinesterase inhibition are still being sought for combating Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We differentiate “poly-active” agents from “multi-target” ones by defining them as single molecular entities designed to target only specific contributory synergistic pharmacologies in a disease. For instance, in AD, free radicals either initiate or act in synergy with other pharmacologies, leading to disease worsening. For this preliminary report, a total of 14 (i.e., 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzohydrazide plus 1-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-ylethan-1-one derivatives were synthesized and screened, in silico and in vitro, for their ability to scavenge free radicals and inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE/butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE enzymes. Overall, six derivatives (4a, 4d, 4e, 4f, 4g, 9b exhibited potent (>30% antioxidant properties in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay. The antioxidant values were either comparable or more potent than the comparator molecules (ascorbic acid, resveratrol, and trolox. Only three compounds (4d, 9a, 9c yielded modest AChE/BuChE inhibitions (>10%. Please note that a SciFinder substance data base search confirmed that most of the compounds reported herein are new, except 9a and 9c which are also commercially available.

  10. Development of competitive indirect ELISA for the detection of tetrodotoxin and a survey of the distribution of tetrodotoxin in the tissues of wild puffer fish in the waters of south-east China. (United States)

    Tao, J; Wei, W J; Nan, L; Lei, L H; Hui, H C; Fen, G X; Jun, L Y; Jing, Z; Rong, J


    A monoclonal antibody against tetrodotoxin (TTX) was produced from the hybridoma cell line T6D9, which was established by the fusion of Sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from a Balb/c mouse immunized with the TTX-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugate. This monoclonal antibody belongs to the IgG1 subclass; the affinity constant of the antibody is 2.4 × 10(-8) mol l(-1). The relative cross-reactivity of the antibody with TTX was 100%, but with saxitoxin, KLH and bovine serum albumin (BSA) it was less than 1%, respectively. The titre of the antibody in ascites was 6.4 × 10(6); the reference working concentration was 1:1.2 × 10(5). By using this monoclonal antibody, a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) for the analysis of TTX was developed. The linear portion of the dose-response curve of TTX concentration was in range 5-500 ng ml(-1). The limit of detection was 5 ng ml(-1) according 10% inhibition with TTX to anti-TTX monoclonal antibody. The concentration of TTX inhibiting 50% of antibody binding was about 50 ng ml(-1). The recoveries from TTX spiked samples were 79.5-109.5%. In addition, the toxicity of some wild puffer fish specimens captured from south-east China and the Yangzi River in Jiangsu province was determined. The results indicate that the toxicity and toxin tissue distribution vary in different species of wild puffer fish.

  11. Screening single-atom catalysts for methane activation: α -A l2O3(0001 ) -supported Ni (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Shiwu; Meng, Sheng


    Methane activation is one of the biggest challenges for chemical conversion of hydrocarbons and fundamental science. We systematically screen d -block transition metal elements as potential candidates of single-atom catalysts (SACs) for methane dissociation. The adsorption of methane on free metal atoms strongly depends on the number of d electrons of SAC, where the maximum binding energy is formed with the Ni group (electronic configuration d8s2 or d9s1 ). Interestingly, the magnetic moment of the SACs decreases by 2 μB for strong interactions, suggesting that the methane-metal bond forms a spin singlet state involving two electrons of opposite spins. To examine the effect of substrates, the screened transition metals, Ni, Rh, and Pt are further put onto prototype metal oxide surfaces. The substrate dramatically modifies the discrete energy levels of a single metal and its catalytic properties. Single Ni atoms supported on an O-terminated α -A l2O3(0001 ) surface (N i1/A l2O3 ) show superior catalytic properties, with a low activation barrier of 0.4 eV (0.11 eV after zero-point energy correction) for the C-H bond dissociation and simultaneously an extreme stability with a high binding energy of ˜9.39 eV for the Ni anchor. This work identifies N i1/A l2O3 catalyst as an optimal SAC and offers new atomistic insights into the mechanism of methane activation on SACs.

  12. Surveillance and vaccination coverage of measles and rubella in Northern Italy. (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bubba, Laura; Piralla, Antonio; Binda, Sandro; Zanetti, Alessandro; Pariani, Elena; Ranghiero, Alberto; Premoli, Marta; Pellegrinelli, Laura; Coppola, Liliana; Gramegna, Maria; Baldanti, Fausto; Zanetti, Alessandro


    Measles and rubella are infectious diseases and humans are the only reservoir of these infections. Effective vaccines are available with the potential for measles (MV) and rubella (RuV) virus eradication. According to the World Health Organisation guidelines, a national plan was approved in Italy in 2013 to achieve the MV/RuV elimination by 2015, and active MV/RuV integrated surveillance initiated. Towards this purpose, a regional laboratory centre was set up on 1 September 2013 in Lombardy, Northern Italy. This paper aimed at: (1) evaluating measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine coverage and MV/RuV notified cases retrospectively; and (2) presenting the results of MV/RuV integrated surveillance (laboratory confirmed and viral genetic profiles).   The 95% target for MMR vaccine coverage was achieved in 2001, and coverage increased until 2007 (96.6%), but then a decreasing trend was observed. Since 2000 to 2014, 3026 rubella cases were notified, with nearly 58% of them in the 2002 epidemic. From 2009, less than 45 RuV cases per year were reported. From 2000 to 2014, 5024 measles cases were notified. Since 2008, three large outbreaks (in 2008, 2011, and 2013) were observed. From data obtained during our surveillance activity, there were no rubella cases, and 57.5% (46/80) collected samples were MV-positive by real-time RT-PCR. A fragment of the MV N gene was sequenced from 37 MV-positive samples; D8, D9, and B3 genotypes were detected. Data obtained retrospectively and from active surveillance underline the necessity to achieve and maintain high vaccination coverage and to improve surveillance and the effectiveness of healthcare actions.

  13. Ein «Gemeinschaftsgrab» für tote aus der Varusschlacht im Südlichen Hispanien? - Zur frühneuzeitlichen Uberleieferung Zweier Inschrifien und Grabepigramme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiegels, Rainer


    Full Text Available Two Roman inscriptions are supposed to have been discovered at "Hellerena", modern Llerena in southern Spain, to which were often, but not always added epigrams. The same inscriptions are also recorded to have been found at the Lower Rhine near Castra Vetera I/Xanten. The obvious spurious inscriptions, which are only mentioned in manuscripts, are about a polyandreîon in which soldiers of the legio V and XIX were buried, who had been killed in action while defending Castra Vetera. Furthermore they tell us about bones of the dead of the same legions in the Varus-battle A.D. 9, that Germanicus ordered to be buried. The paper tries to solve the problem of the unusual tradition of the inscriptions. The arrangement of the two legions probably goes back to a certain early version of Tacitus' acute Annals.Dos inscripciones romanas se descubrieron supuestamente en "Hellerena", la actual Llerena en el Sur de España, a las que se añadieron algunos epigramas. Estas mismas inscripciones se mencionan como hallazgos de las cercanías de Vetera I/Xanten, en el bajo Rhin. Las inscripciones, claramente espúreas y mencionadas solamente en manuscritos, tratan de los "polyandreîon" en los que los soldados de las legiones V y XIX fueron enterrados tras su muerte defendiendo los Castra Vetera. Estos manuscritos cuentan incluso que Germánico, más tarde, mandó enterrar huesos de otros soldados de esas mismas legiones caídos en la clades Variana del 9 d.C. Este artículo intenta resolver el problema de esta tradición literaria inusual de las inscripciones. El falso procede posiblemente de una antigua versión de los precisos Anales de Tácito.

  14. Tolerability of cariprazine in the treatment of acute bipolar I mania: A pooled post hoc analysis of 3 phase II/III studies. (United States)

    Earley, Willie; Durgam, Suresh; Lu, Kaifeng; Debelle, Marc; Laszlovszky, István; Vieta, Eduard; Yatham, Lakshmi N


    Atypical antipsychotics have broad-spectrum efficacy against core symptoms of acute mania/mixed states in bipolar disorder; however, they are associated with clinically significant adverse effects (AEs). This post hoc analysis evaluated the safety and tolerability of the atypical antipsychotic cariprazine in the treatment of adult patients with acute manic/mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder. Data were taken from three 3-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose trials of cariprazine 3-12mg/d. Patient subgroups categorized by modal daily dose (3-6mg/d; 9-12mg/d) were used to assess dose response. The pooled safety population comprised 1065 patients (placebo=442; cariprazine 3-6mg/d=263; cariprazine 9-12mg/d=360). More cariprazine- than placebo-treated patients reported double-blind treatment-emergent AEs; the overall AE incidence was similar among cariprazine-dose groups. AEs reported in ≥5% of cariprazine patients overall with at least twice the incidence of placebo were akathisia, extrapyramidal symptoms, restlessness, and vomiting. The incidence of SAEs was low and similar between the placebo- and cariprazine-treatment groups. Metabolic parameter changes were small and generally similar between cariprazine and placebo groups; mean increases in fasting glucose levels were greater with cariprazine (3-6mg/d=6.6mg/dL; 9-12mg/d=7.2mg/dL) than placebo (1.7mg/dL). Mean weight change was 0.54kg and 0.17kg for cariprazine and placebo, respectively; weight increase ≥7% was Post hoc analysis, flexible-dose design, short trial duration. Cariprazine was generally safe and well-tolerated in patients with manic/mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Determination of 18 pesticide residues in red wine by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry with isotope dilution technique]. (United States)

    Chen, Dawei; Lü, Bing; Ding, Hao; Zou, Jianhong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Miao, Hong


    A method for the simultaneous determination of 18 pesticide residues in red wine was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) with isotope dilution technique. The red wine samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and the extracts were cleaned up with dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using the mixture of N-propyl ethylene diamine (PSA) and C18 powder as sorbent. The extracted components were separated on a BEH C18 column by gradient elution. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were operated under full scan/data dependent MS/MS (ddms2) and targeted selective ion monitoring (tSIM) by high resolution mass spectrometry, respectively. Carbendazim-D4, chlorpyrifos-D10, imidacloprid-D4, methoxyfenozide-D9, pyrimethanil-D5 and tebuconazole-D6 were used as the internal standards to reduce the matrix effects. The response of each pesticide showed a good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 microg/kg with the correlation coefficient more than 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification for the 18 pesticides in the spiked blank red wine were 0.5 microg/kg and 1.0 microg/kg, respectively. The recovery results with spiked blank red wine samples at the levels of 1 to 40 microg/kg were satisfactory with average recoveries of 85.4% - 117.9% and the RSDs of 0.5%-6.1%. The method was applied for the determination of the red wine real samples from the market. Carbendazim, imidacloprid, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole and triadimenol were detected in the samples. The results show that the method is suitable for the rapid screening and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues in red wine.

  16. Oncolytic vaccinia virotherapy of anaplastic thyroid cancer in vivo. (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fu; Price, Daniel L; Chen, Chun-Hao; Brader, Peter; Li, Sen; Gonzalez, Lorena; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Yong A; Chen, Nanhai; Szalay, Aladar A; Fong, Yuman; Wong, Richard J


    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a fatal disease with a median survival of only 6 months. Novel therapies are needed to improve dismal outcomes. A mutated, replication-competent, vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68) has oncolytic effects on human ATC cell lines in vitro. We assessed the utility of GLV-1h68 in treating anaplastic thyroid cancer in vivo. Athymic nude mice with xenograft flank tumors of human ATCs (8505C and DRO90-1) were treated with a single intratumoral injection of GLV-1h68 at low dose (5x10(5) plaque-forming unit), high dose (5x10(6) plaque-forming unit), or PBS. Virus-mediated marker gene expression (luciferase, green fluorescent protein, and beta-galactosidase), viral biodistribution, and flank tumor volumes were measured. Luciferase expression was detected 2 d after injection. Continuous viral replication within tumors was reflected by increasing luciferase activity to d 9. At d 10, tumor viral recovery was increased more than 50-fold as compared with the injected dose, and minimal virus was recovered from the lung, liver, brain, heart, spleen, and kidneys. High-dose virus directly injected into normal tissues was undetectable at d 10. The mean volume of control 8505C tumors increased 50.8-fold by d 45, in contrast to 10.5-fold (low dose) and 2.1-fold (high dose; P=0.028) increases for treated tumors. DRO90-1 tumors also showed significant growth inhibition by high-dose virus. No virus-related toxicity was observed throughout the study. GLV-1h68 efficiently infects, expresses transgenes within, and inhibits the growth of ATC in vivo. These promising findings support future clinical trials for patients with ATC.

  17. Monitoring progress toward measles elimination by genetic diversity analysis of measles viruses in China 2009-2010. (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Wang, H; Xu, S; Mao, N; Zhu, Z; Shi, J; Huang, G; Liu, C; Bo, F; Feng, D; Lu, P; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Lei, Y; Chen, M; Chen, H; Wang, C; Fu, H; Li, C; He, J; Gao, H; Gu, S; Wang, S; Ling, H; Liu, Y; Ding, Z; Ba, Z; Feng, Y; Zheng, H; Tang, X; Lei, Y; Xiong, Y; Bellini, W J; Rota, P A; Jee, Y; Xu, W


    With the achievement of high coverage for routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), measles incidence in mainland China reached its lowest level in 2010. The proportion of measles cases in the vaccination-targeted population decreased during 2007-2010 after the SIAs. More than 60% of measles cases were in adults or infants, especially in the coastal and eastern provinces during 2009 and 2010. A total 567 isolates of measles virus were obtained from clinical specimens from 27 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2009 and 2010. Except for two vaccine-associated cases, one genotype D4 strain, two genotype D9 strains, and four genotype D11 strains, the other 558 strains were genotype H1 cluster H1a. Genotype H1 has been the only endemic genotype detected in China since surveillance began in 1993. Only genotype H1 was found in mainland China during 1993-2008, except for one detection of genotype H2. More recently, multiple genotypes of imported measles were detected even with the background of endemic genetotype H1 viruses. Analysis of the 450-nucleotide sequencing window of the measles virus N gene showed that the overall genetic diversity of the recent geneotype H1 strains decreased between 2008 and 2010. The lower genetic diversity of H1 strains suggested that enhanced vaccination may have reduced the co-circulating lineages of endemic genotype H1 strains in mainland China. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Irradiation creep and swelling of various austenitic alloys irradiated in PFR and FFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others


    In order to use data from surrogate neutron spectra for fusion applications, it is necessary to analyze the impact of environmental differences on property development. This is of particular importance in the study of irradiation creep and its interactions with void swelling, especially with respect to the difficulty of separation of creep strains from various non-creep strains. As part of an on-going creep data rescue and analysis effort, the current study focuses on comparative irradiations conducted on identical gas-pressurized tubes produced and constructed in the United States from austenitic steels (20% CW 316 and 20% CW D9), but irradiated in either the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) in the United Kingdom or the Fast Flux Test Facility in the United States. In PFR, Demountable Subassemblies (DMSA) serving as heat pipes were used without active temperature control. In FFTF the specimens were irradiated with active ({+-}{degrees}5C) temperature control. Whereas the FFTF irradiations involved a series of successive side-by-side irradiation, measurement and reinsertion of the same series of tubes, the PFR experiment utilized simultaneous irradiation at two axial positions in the heat pipe to achieve different fluences at different flux levels. The smaller size of the DMSA also necessitated a separation of the tubes at a given flux level into two groups (low-stress and high-stress) at slightly different axial positions, where the flux between the two groups varied {le}10%. Of particular interest in this study was the potential impact of the two types of separation on the derivation of creep coefficients.

  19. Slab1.0: A three-dimensional model of global subduction zone geometries (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Wald, D.J.; Johnson, R.L.


    We describe and present a new model of global subduction zone geometries, called Slab1.0. An extension of previous efforts to constrain the two-dimensional non-planar geometry of subduction zones around the focus of large earthquakes, Slab1.0 describes the detailed, non-planar, three-dimensional geometry of approximately 85% of subduction zones worldwide. While the model focuses on the detailed form of each slab from their trenches through the seismogenic zone, where it combines data sets from active source and passive seismology, it also continues to the limits of their seismic extent in the upper-mid mantle, providing a uniform approach to the definition of the entire seismically active slab geometry. Examples are shown for two well-constrained global locations; models for many other regions are available and can be freely downloaded in several formats from our new Slab1.0 website, d9ARbS. We describe improvements in our two-dimensional geometry constraint inversion, including the use of average active source seismic data profiles in the shallow trench regions where data are otherwise lacking, derived from the interpolation between other active source seismic data along-strike in the same subduction zone. We include several analyses of the uncertainty and robustness of our three-dimensional interpolation methods. In addition, we use the filtered, subduction-related earthquake data sets compiled to build Slab1.0 in a reassessment of previous analyses of the deep limit of the thrust interface seismogenic zone for all subduction zones included in our global model thus far, concluding that the width of these seismogenic zones is on average 30% larger than previous studies have suggested. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Implant R100 Predicts Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with IG-IMRT to 45 Gy and Pd-103 Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Packard


    Full Text Available Purpose. To define factors associated with rectal bleeding in patients treated with IG-IMRT followed by Pd-103 seed implant. Methods and Materials. We retrospectively reviewed 61 prostate adenocarcinoma patients from 2002 to 2008. The majority (85.2% were of NCCN intermediate risk category. All received IG-IMRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles followed by Pd-103 implant delivering a mean D90 of 100.7 Gy. Six patients received 45 Gy to the pelvic nodes and 10 received androgen deprivation. Results. Ten patients (16.4% developed rectal bleeding: 4 were CTCAE v.3 grade 1, 5 were grade 2, and 1 was grade 3. By univariate analysis, age, stage, Gleason sum, PSA, hormonal therapy, pelvic radiation, postoperative prostate volume, D9, V100, individual source activity, total implanted activity per cm3, and duration of interval before implant did not impact rectal bleeding. Implant R100 was higher in patients with rectal bleeding: on average, 0.885 versus 0.396 cm3, P=.02, odds ratio of 2.26 per .5 cm3 (95% CI, 1.16–4.82. A trend for significance was seen for prostate V200 and total implanted activity. Conclusion. Higher implant R100 was associated with development of rectal bleeding in patients receiving IG-IMRT to 45 Gy followed by Pd-103 implant. Minimizing implant R100 may reduce the rate of rectal bleeding in similar patients.

  1. Endometrial caspase 1 and interleukin-18 expression during the estrous cycle and peri-implantation period of porcine pregnancy and response to early exogenous estrogen administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Daniel R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role for endometrial secretion of cytokines during the establishment of pregnancy in a number of mammals is well established. The current study determined endometrial expression of caspase 1 (CASP1 and interleukin-18 (IL18 during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and following early estrogen administration, which induces conceptus loss during early development in pigs. Methods Gilts were hysterectomized on either D 0, 5, 10, 12, 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle, or D 10, 12, 15 or 18 of pregnancy. The abundance of endometrial CASP1 mRNA was unaffected by day of the estrous cycle, however there was a 6 and 10-fold increase in expression on D 15 and 18 of pregnancy. Endometrial expression of IL18 mRNA increased 5-fold between D 10 to 18 in cyclic and pregnant gilts. Total recoverable IL18 in uterine flushings was greater in pregnant compared to cyclic gilts on D 15 and 18. In the second experiment, mated gilts were treated with either corn oil (CO or estrogen (E on D 9 and 10 and hysterectomized on either D 10, 12, 13, 15 or 17 of pregnancy. The current study localizes the presence of CASP1 to the epithelial layer of the endometrium for the first time. Further, a day × treatment interaction was detected for endometrial CASP1 mRNA and protein abundance as E stimulated an earlier increase on D 13 compared to CO gilts. Although IL18 mRNA expression remained unaltered from the E treatment, protein abundance was significantly attenuated on D 15 and 18 in response to E treatment. Conclusions Endometrial expression of CASP1 and IL18 is associated with establishment of pregnancy in pigs. Alteration of CASP1 and IL18 following premature exposure of the uterus to estrogen during early pregnancy may contribute to conceptus loss between Days 15 to 18 of pregnancy.

  2. Ovarian function and hormone secretion of gilts actively immunized against androstenedione. (United States)

    McKinnie, M R; Britt, J H; Esbenshade, K L


    Fifty crossbred gilts immunized against bovine serum albumin (BSA) or androstenedione conjugated to BSA (AD) were used in three experiments. Primary immunizations were given at 120 d of age and boosters at 148 and 176 d. Gilts were moved to pens containing four to five animals each and exposed to boars beginning at 180 d of age. Immunization against AD did not affect age at puberty, percentage of gilts exhibiting estrus or duration of first estrous cycle. Over the three experiments, ovulation rate was 24% greater for AD-immunized gilts than for controls, and the number of corpora lutea was related positively (r = .82) to the log of the antibody titer. Number of ovulations decreased as interval from booster immunization to onset of estrus increased. During diestrus of the first estrous cycle, gilts immunized against AD had more follicles 5 to 10 mm in diameter, more total ovarian follicles and more total ovarian structures (corpora lutea plus follicles) than controls. Immunization against AD increased the frequency of LH pulses on d 16 but not on d 17 or 18, of the estrous cycle. However, average serum concentrations of LH, FSH and estradiol from 5 d before until 2 d after expected estrus were not different between treatment groups. Concentrations of AD in follicles 4 to 6 and greater than 7 mm in diameter were greater in gilts immunized against AD. Mean serum progesterone was higher on d 9 and 12 after mating in AD immunized gilts than in controls. Immunization against AD had no effect on maintenance of pregnancy or embryo survival rate.

  3. Dual-Bioaugmentation Strategy To Enhance Remediation of Cocontaminated Soil (United States)

    Roane, T. M.; Josephson, K. L.; Pepper, I. L.


    Although metals are thought to inhibit the ability of microorganisms to degrade organic pollutants, several microbial mechanisms of resistance to metal are known to exist. This study examined the potential of cadmium-resistant microorganisms to reduce soluble cadmium levels to enhance degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under conditions of cocontamination. Four cadmium-resistant soil microorganisms were examined in this study. Resistant up to a cadmium concentration of 275 μg ml−1, these isolates represented the common soil genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas. Isolates Pseudomonas sp. strain H1 and Bacillus sp. strain H9 had a plasmid-dependent intracellular mechanism of cadmium detoxification, reducing soluble cadmium levels by 36%. Isolates Arthrobacter strain D9 and Pseudomonas strain I1a both produced an extracellular polymer layer that bound and reduced soluble cadmium levels by 22 and 11%, respectively. Although none of the cadmium-resistant isolates could degrade 2,4-D, results of dual-bioaugmentation studies conducted with both pure culture and laboratory soil microcosms showed that each of four cadmium-resistant isolates supported the degradation of 500-μg ml−1 2,4-D by the cadmium-sensitive 2,4-D degrader Ralstonia eutropha JMP134. Degradation occurred in the presence of up to 24 μg of cadmium ml−1 in pure culture and up to 60 μg of cadmium g−1 in amended soil microcosms. In a pilot field study conducted with 5-gallon soil bioreactors, the dual-bioaugmentation strategy was again evaluated. Here, the cadmium-resistant isolate Pseudomonas strain H1 enhanced degradation of 2,4-D in reactors inoculated with R. eutropha JMP134 in the presence of 60 μg of cadmium g−1. Overall, dual bioaugmentation appears to be a viable approach in the remediation of cocontaminated soils. PMID:11425743

  4. Oxide Superconductivity Research at Northwestern University (United States)

    Ketterson, J. B.

    A short review was presented of a wide range of activities involving the high Tc oxide superconductors at the Northwestern University. Calculations of the charge density associated with the d9 shell of the copper atom in the Cu-O planes and the d8 shell of the copper atoms along the Cu-O lines of the unit cell of YBa2Cu3O7 performed by Freeman, Massida and Yu were presented. Results of a detailed study of the pseudoternery phase diagram involving CuO, BaO and YO1.5 were shown which verify the existence of three compounds having the Y:Ba:Cu ratios 123 (the high Tc superconductor), 211 (the so-called green phase) and 132 (a new insulating compound). This work, performed by Mason and coworkers, involved X-ray diffraction, optical spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical transport studies. Transport measurements by Poeppelmeier, Song, Hwu and coworkers on the assembledges YBaSrCu3O7 anf YBa2Cu3O5F2 were reported; no evidence of superconducting behavior at temperatures above 90K was seen in the latter. A detailed study of the magnetic and transport properties of the YBa2-xLaxCu3-xNixO7±δ system was reported. For small Ni concentration (xfilms on MgO from a stoichiometric 123 target in an argon atmosphere were shown. With proper annealing films with onset temperature of 90K and zero resistance at 68K have been prepared; this work was done by Jin, Lee, Song and coworkers. A brief report on the effect of O-stoichiometry on EPR and susceptibility measurements in the 123 compound performed by Hoffman and coworkers and NMR in the La2-xSrxCuO4 compound by Halpern and coworkers was presented.

  5. Structural elucidation of phase I and II metabolites of bupivacaine in horse urine and fungi of the Cunninghamella species using liquid chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Rydevik, Axel; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael


    Bupivacaine is a local anaesthetic prohibited in equine sports. It is highly metabolized in the horse but a thorough description of its metabolite profile is lacking. An administration study should find appropriate analytical targets for doping control. Furthermore, knowledge of an in vitro system for production of metabolites would be beneficial. Marcain® (bupivacaine hydrochloride) was administered subcutaneously to a horse and urine samples were collected. In vitro metabolic systems consisting of the fungi Cunninghamella elegans and Cunninghamella blakesleeana were incubated with bupivacaine and bupivacaine-d(9). Samples were analyzed directly after dilution or cleaned up using liquid-liquid extraction. Separation was achieved with liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using positive electrospray ionization with both a tandem quadrupole and an ion trap instrument using MS(n) and hydrogen/deuterium exchange. In horse urine, seven phase I metabolites were found: 3'- and 4'-hydroxybupivacaine, N-desbutylbupivacaine, two aliphatically hydroxylated metabolites, one N-oxide, and dihydroxybupivacaine. Sulfated hydroxybupivacaine and glucuronides of 3'- and 4'-hydroxybupivacaine and of dihydroxybupivacaine were also detected. All these metabolites were previously undescribed in the horse, except for 3'-hydroxybupivacaine. 3'- and 4'-Hydroxybupivacaine were designated as appropriate targets for doping control. Interestingly, all the equine phase I metabolites were also detected in the samples from C. elegans and C. blakesleeana. The qualitative aspects of the metabolism of bupivacaine in the horse have been investigated with many novel metabolites described. The fungi C. elegans and C. blakesleeana have proven to be relevant models for mammalian metabolism of bupivacaine and they may in the future be used to produce analytical reference materials. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The spectrum of doubly ionized silver: Ag III (United States)

    Saxena, Ankita; Ahmad, Tauheed


    Doubly ionized silver, isoelectronic with Rh I has ground configuration 4p64d9 and the excited configurations are of the type 4d8nl (n >3) and 4p54d10. The spectrum of Ag III has been studied in the wavelength region 350-2074 Å. The spectra needed for the analysis were recorded on 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at Antigonish Laboratory, Canada. The analysis of this spectrum was started by Gibbs and White establishing the ground doublet followed by Gilbert, Shadmi and lastly by Benschop et al. At present only two excited configurations 4d85p and 4d85s have been studied apart from the ground doublets. In the present work we have undertaken the study of two major configurations 4d8(5d+6s) which comprising of 83 energy levels,with the aid of Relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) method and least square fitted parametric calculations using Cowan Code. All the previously reported values for 4d85p and 4d85s have been confirmed except the two levels of 4d85p configuration. J value of one of the level at 135626.7 cm-1 has been changed from J=0.5 to J=1.5 and new level for J=0.5 is established at 135778.4 cm-1 . The work is still in progress and the new findings will be presented. Ankita Saxena would like to acknowledge the financial support through Inspire Fellowship Scheme through Department of Science and Technology (DST), India.

  7. Eleven generations of selection for the duration of fertility in the intergeneric crossbreeding of ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tai Jui-Jane


    Full Text Available Abstract A 12-generation selection experiment involving a selected line (S and a control line (C has been conducted since 1992 with the aim of increasing the number of fertile eggs laid by the Brown Tsaiya duck after a single artificial insemination (AI with pooled Muscovy semen. On average, 28.9% of the females and 17.05% of the males were selected. The selection responses and the predicted responses showed similar trends. The average predicted genetic responses per generation in genetic standard deviation units were 0.40 for the number of fertile eggs, 0.45 for the maximum duration of fertility, and 0.32 for the number of hatched mule ducklings' traits. The fertility rates for days 2–8 after AI were 89.14% in the S line and 61.46% in the C line. Embryo viability was not impaired by this selection. The largest increase in fertility rate per day after a single AI was observed from d5 to d11. In G12, the fertility rate in the selected line was 91% at d2, 94% at d3, 92% at days 3 and 4 then decreased to 81% at d8, 75% at d9, 58% at d10 and 42% at d11. In contrast, the fertility rate in the control line showed an abrupt decrease from d4 (74%. The same tendencies were observed for the evolution of hatchability according to the egg set rates. It was concluded that selection for the number of fertile eggs after a single AI with pooled Muscovy semen could effectively increase the duration of the fertile period in ducks and that research should now be focused on ways to improve the viability of the hybrid mule duck embryo.

  8. Multiplex PCR Analysis of 17 (11 Novels) STR Markers Linked to Six Autosomal Recessive Intellectual Disability Genes in Iranian Population. (United States)

    Shirin, Ghadami; Maryam, Abiri; Farideh, Zonozi Rishsefid; Javad, Tavakkoly-Bazzaz; Sirous, Zeinali


    Non-syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability (NS-ARID) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disease. More research is needed to study the NS-ARID genes. Using STR markers linked to a specific gene, we can perform homozygosity mapping and prenatal diagnosis. One approach to investigate the NS-ARID genes in large families is homozygosity mapping. In this study, we surveyed allele frequency and allele heterozygosity of 17 NS-ARID STR markers linked to the six NS-ARID genes in Iranian population. The test group consisted of 120 unrelated healthy individuals. STR markers were designed using SERV software. Also, genotyping was done using multiplex PCR. Data was analyzed by Gene Mapper software. Allele frequency and observed heterozygosity rates were estimated using PowerStatV12. Deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was performed based on the Exact test. Out of 17 STR loci, 11 were novel. In total, 166 alleles were detected for the 17 markers. According to our study, the D9MAN1B1SD7.4, D19S872, D6GRIK2SI1.7, D19TECRSDI.8, D1ST3GAL3SIO.5, and D14ZC3H14SD5.3 STR loci were found to be the most informative and polymorphic STR markers for MAN1B1, ZNF526, GRIK2, TECR, ST3GAL3, and ZC3H14 genes, respectively. We also performed other statistical analyses on these STR markers and found that all of the 17 STRs were polymorphic and met the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Finding novel STRs, with high allele heterozygosity, is one of the most significant outcomes of the present study. These findings can be useful for homozygosity mapping, PGD, and PND practices for the NS-ARID.

  9. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) for diazinon, propetamphos and cis-permethrin: implications for sheep dip disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Cindy M.; Shaw, George; Lester, John N.; Collins, Chris D


    Two groups of chemicals are currently licensed for use in sheep dip products in the UK. These are organophosphate (OP) insecticides and synthetic pyrethroid (SP) insecticides. SPs are deemed to be less toxic to human health than OPs, although they are approximately 100 times more toxic to some elements of the aquatic environment. Three insecticides were selected for experimental investigation: diazinon, propetamphos (OPs) and cis-permethrin (SP), representative of the active ingredients used in sheep dip formulations, with additional uses in insect control in crops, and for domestic control of flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, lice, ticks and spiders. The UK Government has recently reviewed agricultural practices relating to the disposal of used sheep dip, because the constituent insecticides are frequently detected in UK watercourses and the presence of these compounds is a severe hazard to the aquatic environment. Standard batch sorption experiments were carried out to investigate insecticide partitioning from water to soil, and the relationship between sorption and soil organic carbon content is discussed. Sorption isotherms and K{sub d} values showed that cis-permethrin adsorption was fastest on all five soils investigated, exhibiting the greatest total partitioning to the soil phase (83.8-94.8%) and high resistance to desorption. In comparison, the OP insecticides exhibited moderately strong soil adsorption as evidenced by their K{sub d} coefficients (diazinon K{sub d} 12-35 and propetamphos K{sub d} 9-60), with low sorption reversibility (<15%). Calculation of a hydrological retardation factor in a scenario representative of a typical UK environment suggested that SP insecticides such as cis-permethrin will not migrate in the soil profile due to their virtual immobility and strong soil retention, and thus waste sheep dip disposal to agricultural land should not pose a risk to aquatic life if applied with appropriate controls.

  10. Case-based surveillance enhanced with measles virus detection/genotyping is essential to maintain measles elimination in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. (United States)

    Minagawa, Hiroko; Yasui, Yoshihiro; Adachi, Hirokazu; Ito, Miyabi; Hirose, Emi; Nakamura, Noriko; Hata, Mami; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Yamashita, Teruo


    Japan was verified as having achieved measles elimination by the Measles Regional Verification Commission in the Western Pacific Region in March 2015. Verification of measles elimination implies the absence of continuous endemic transmission. After the last epidemic in 2007 with an estimated 18,000 cases, Japan introduced nationwide case-based measles surveillance in January 2008. Laboratory diagnosis for all suspected measles cases is essentially required by law, and virus detection tests are mostly performed by municipal public health institutes. Despite relatively high vaccination coverage and vigorous response to every case by the local health center staff, outbreak of measles is repeatedly observed in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Measles virus N and H gene detection by nested double RT-PCR was performed with all specimens collected from suspected cases and transferred to our institute. Genotyping and further molecular epidemiological analyses were performed with the direct nucleotide sequence data of appropriate PCR products. Between 2010 and 2014, specimens from 389 patients suspected for measles were tested in our institute. Genotypes D9, D8, H1 and B3 were detected. Further molecular epidemiological analyses were helpful to establish links between patients, and sometimes useful to discriminate one outbreak from another. All virus-positive cases, including 49 cases involved in three outbreaks without any obvious epidemiological link with importation, were considered as import-related based on the nucleotide sequence information. Chain of transmission in the latest outbreak in 2014 terminated after the third generations, much earlier than the 2010-11 outbreak (6th generations). Since 2010, almost all measles cases reported in Aichi Prefecture are either import or import-related, based primarily on genotypes and nucleotide sequences of measles virus detected. In addition, genotyping and molecular epidemiological analyses are indispensable to prove the interruption

  11. Mechanisms of Broad-Spectrum Antiemetic Efficacy of Cannabinoids against Chemotherapy-Induced Acute and Delayed Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissar A. Darmani


    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is a complex pathophysiological condition and consists of two phases. The conventional CINV neurotransmitter hypothesis suggests that the immediate phase is mainly due to release of serotonin (5-HT from the enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, while the delayed phase is a consequence of release of substance P (SP in the brainstem. However, more recent findings argue against this simplistic neurotransmitter and anatomical view of CINV. Revision of the hypothesis advocates a more complex, differential and overlapping involvement of several emetic neurotransmitters/modulators (e.g. dopamine, serotonin, substance P, prostaglandins and related arachidonic acid derived metabolites in both phases of emesis occurring concomitantly in the brainstem and in the GIT enteric nervous system (ENS [1]. No single antiemetic is currently available to completely prevent both phases of CINV. The standard antiemetic regimens include a 5-HT3 antagonist plus dexamethasone for the prevention of acute emetic phase, combined with an NK1 receptor antagonist (e.g. aprepitant for the delayed phase. Although NK1 antagonists behave in animals as broad-spectrum antiemetics against different emetogens including cisplatin-induced acute and delayed vomiting, by themselves they are not very effective against CINV in cancer patients. Cannabinoids such as D9-THC also behave as broad-spectrum antiemetics against diverse emetic stimuli as well as being effective against both phases of CINV in animals and patients. Potential side effects may limit the clinical utility of direct-acting cannabinoid agonists which could be avoided by the use of corresponding indirect-acting agonists. Cannabinoids (both phyto-derived and synthetic behave as agonist antiemetics via the activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in both the brainstem and the ENS emetic loci. An endocannabinoid antiemetic tone may exist since inverse CB1

  12. Sequencing of sporadic Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) identifies novel and potentially pathogenic de novo variants and excludes overlap with genes associated with autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Burt, Amber A; Ranchalis, Jane E; Wilmot, Beth; Smith, Joshua D; Patterson, Karynne E; Coe, Bradley P; Li, Yatong K; Bamshad, Michael J; Nikolas, Molly; Eichler, Evan E; Swanson, James M; Nigg, Joel T; Nickerson, Deborah A; Jarvik, Gail P


    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has high heritability; however, studies of common variation account for ADHD variance. Using data from affected participants without a family history of ADHD, we sought to identify de novo variants that could account for sporadic ADHD. Considering a total of 128 families, two analyses were conducted in parallel: first, in 11 unaffected parent/affected proband trios (or quads with the addition of an unaffected sibling) we completed exome sequencing. Six de novo missense variants at highly conserved bases were identified and validated from four of the 11 families: the brain-expressed genes TBC1D9, DAGLA, QARS, CSMD2, TRPM2, and WDR83. Separately, in 117 unrelated probands with sporadic ADHD, we sequenced a panel of 26 genes implicated in intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to evaluate whether variation in ASD/ID-associated genes were also present in participants with ADHD. Only one putative deleterious variant (Gln600STOP) in CHD1L was identified; this was found in a single proband. Notably, no other nonsense, splice, frameshift, or highly conserved missense variants in the 26 gene panel were identified and validated. These data suggest that de novo variant analysis in families with independently adjudicated sporadic ADHD diagnosis can identify novel genes implicated in ADHD pathogenesis. Moreover, that only one of the 128 cases (0.8%, 11 exome, and 117 MIP sequenced participants) had putative deleterious variants within our data in 26 genes related to ID and ASD suggests significant independence in the genetic pathogenesis of ADHD as compared to ASD and ID phenotypes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mixed-ligand copper(II) phenolate complexes: Synthesis, spectral characterization, phosphate-hydrolysis, antioxidant, DNA interaction and cytotoxic studies (United States)

    Gurumoorthy, Perumal; Mahendiran, Dharmasivam; Prabhu, Durai; Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Rahiman, Aziz Kalilur


    A series of phenol-based mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes of the type [CuL1-4(diimine)] (1-8), where L1-4 = N1,N2-bis(5-substituted-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,2-ethylene/phenylenediimine and diimine = 2,2‧-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), have been isolated and fully characterized by analytical and spectral techniques. Electronic spectra of complexes suggest Cu(II) cation has a d9 electronic configuration, adopting distorted octahedral geometry with axial elongation, due to Jahn-Teller effect. Electrochemical studies of complexes evidenced one-electron irreversible reduction wave in the cathodic region. The observed rate constant (k) values for the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) are in the range of 0.25-3.82 × 10-2 min-1. The obtained room temperature magnetic moment values (1.79-1.90 BM) lies within the range observed for octahedral copper(II) complexes. Antioxidant studies revealed that these complexes possess considerable radical scavenging potency against DPPH. The binding studies of complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) revealed intercalation with minor-groove binding, and the complex 4 exhibits highest binding activity than the other complexes. The cleavage activity on supercoiled pBR322 DNA revealed the involvement of hydroxyl radical and singlet-oxygen as reactive oxygen species, and complexes encourage binding to minor-groove. Further, the cytotoxicity of complex 4 on human hepatocellular liver carcinoma HepG2 cell line implies the cell death through apoptosis.

  14. The electronic structure of small nickel atom clusters (United States)

    Basch, Harold; Newton, M. D.; Moskowitz, J. W.


    The ground state electronic structure of small nickel atom clusters (Nin, n=1-6) has been calculated using the ab initio effective core potential self-consistent field (SCF) method in a Gaussian expansion basis. The electronic configuration of the nickel atoms in the clusters is found to be very close to 3d94s1. The ground state electronic configurations for Nin generally have n unpaired 3d electrons in molecular orbitals (MO's) spanning the same irreducible representations as the 4s atomic orbitals while the n 4s electrons fill their MO's in accord with a simple three-dimensional Hückel model with overlap. Exceptions to this description are found in the cases of linear systems where the 3d holes prefer δ over σ symmetry and in octahedral Ni6 where a different preferred set of 3d holes is obtained. The SCF ground state wave functions correspond roughly to a model in which the 3d electrons can be viewed as weakly interacting localized 3d9 units. The clusters are bound together primarily by the 4s electrons with the 4p orbital contribution increasing in importance with cluster size and dimensionality. The binding energy per nickel atom generally increases as the size of the cluster increases, although at six atoms this quantity has not yet converged with cluster size. The density of states diagram for the occupied one electron energy levels in Ni6 is found to be very different from the corresponding types of diagrams obtained in the muffin tin (MT)-Xα method for small nickel atom clusters. This difference is examined in detail, with consideration given to the effects of relaxation energy and to the different orbital level filling criteria used in the two methods.

  15. Differential neonatal testosterone imprinting of GH-dependent liver proteins and genes in female mice. (United States)

    Ramirez, María Cecilia; Luque, Guillermina María; Ornstein, Ana María; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia


    Abnormal exposure to steroid hormones within a critical developmental period elicits permanent alterations in female reproductive physiology in rodents, but the impact on the female GH axis and the underlying sexual differences in hepatic enzymes have not been described in detail. We have investigated the effect of neonatal androgenization of female mice (achieved by s.c. injection of 100 μg testosterone propionate (TP) on the day of birth: TP females) on the GHRH-somatostatin-GH axis and downstream GH targets, which included female and male predominant liver enzymes and secreted proteins. At 4 months of age, an organizational effect of neonatal testosterone was evidenced on hypothalamic Ghrh mRNA level but not on somatostatin (stt) mRNA level. Ghrh mRNA levels were higher in males than in females, but not in TP females. Increased expression in TP females correlated with increased pituitary GH content and somatotrope population, increased serum and liver IGF-I concentration, and ultimately higher body weight. Murine urinary proteins (MUPs) that were excreted at higher levels in male urine, and whose expression requires pulsatile occupancy of liver GH receptors, were not modified in TP females and neither was liver Mup 1/2/6/8 mRNA expression. Furthermore, a male predominant liver gene (Cyp2d9) was not masculinized in TP females either, whereas two female predominant genes (Cyp2b9 and Cyp2a4) were defeminized. These data support the hypothesis that neonatal steroid exposure contributes to the remodeling of the GH axis and defeminization of hepatic steroid-metabolizing enzymes, which may compromise liver physiology.

  16. Laser etching of austenitic stainless steels for micro-structural evaluation (United States)

    Baghra, Chetan; Kumar, Aniruddha; Sathe, D. B.; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Afzal, Mohd


    Etching is a key step in metallography to reveal microstructure of polished specimen under an optical microscope. A conventional technique for producing micro-structural contrast is chemical etching. As an alternate, laser etching is investigated since it does not involve use of corrosive reagents and it can be carried out without any physical contact with sample. Laser induced etching technique will be beneficial especially in nuclear industry where materials, being radioactive in nature, are handled inside a glove box. In this paper, experimental results of pulsed Nd-YAG laser based etching of few austenitic stainless steels such as SS 304, SS 316 LN and SS alloy D9 which are chosen as structural material for fabrication of various components of upcoming Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam India were reported. Laser etching was done by irradiating samples using nanosecond pulsed Nd-YAG laser beam which was transported into glass paneled glove box using optics. Experiments were carried out to understand effect of laser beam parameters such as wavelength, fluence, pulse repetition rate and number of exposures required for etching of austenitic stainless steel samples. Laser etching of PFBR fuel tube and plug welded joint was also carried to evaluate base metal grain size, depth of fusion at welded joint and heat affected zone in the base metal. Experimental results demonstrated that pulsed Nd-YAG laser etching is a fast and effortless technique which can be effectively employed for non-contact remote etching of austenitic stainless steels for micro-structural evaluation.

  17. European Society of Biomechanics S.M. Perren Award 2008: using temporal trends of 3D bone micro-architecture to predict bone quality. (United States)

    Pauchard, Yves; Mattmann, Corinne; Kuhn, Andreas; Gasser, Jürg A; Boyd, Steven K


    In longitudinal studies, three-dimensional (3D) bone images are acquired at sequential time points essentially resulting in four-dimensional (4D) data for an individual. Based on the 4D data, we propose to calculate temporal trends and project these trends to estimate future bone architecture. Multiple consecutive deformation fields, calculated with Demons deformable image registration algorithm, were extrapolated on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Test data were from in vivo micro-computed tomography (microCT) scans of the proximal tibia of Wistar rats that were either ovariectomized (OVX; N=5) or sham operated (SHAM; N=6). Measurements performed at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks were the basis to predict the 12 week data. Predicted and actual 12 week data were compared using qualitative (3D rendering) and quantitative (geometry, morphology and micro-finite element, microFE) methods. The results indicated a voxel-based linear extrapolation scheme yielded mean geometric errors that were smaller than the voxel size of 15 microm. Key morphological parameters that were estimated included bone volume ratio (BV/TV; mean error 0.4%, maximum error 9%), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th; -1.1%, 11%), connectivity density (Conn.D; 9.0%, 18.5%) and the apparent Young's modulus (E(1); 6.0%, 32%). These data demonstrated a promising and novel approach for quantitatively capturing in vivo bone dynamics at the local trabecular level. The method does not require an a priori understanding of the diseases state, and can provide information about the trends of the bone remodeling process that may be used for better monitoring and treatment of diseases such as osteoporosis.

  18. Ultra-trace analysis of 12 β₂-agonists in pork, beef, mutton and chicken by ultrahigh-performance liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Guo, Changchuan; Shi, Feng; Gong, Liping; Tan, Huijie; Hu, Defu; Zhang, Jinling


    This paper presents an application of ultrahigh-performance liquid-chromatography - quadrupole - orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) for the ultra-trace analysis of 12 β2-agonists in pork, beef, mutton and chicken meat. The mass spectrometer was operated in Full MS/dd-MS(2) (data-dependent MS(2)) mode, under which a Full MS scan was followed by a dd-MS(2) scan with a fragmentation energy. The quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves with salbutamol-d3 and clenbuterol-d9 as the internal standards. The method validation included assessment of selectivity, sensitivity, calibration curve, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect and stability. The results show an exceptional linear relationship with the concentrations of the analytes over wide concentration ranges (e.g., 0.01-50 μg/kg for clenbuterol) as all the fitting coefficients of determination r(2) are >0.9986. The detection limits (LODs) were in the range of 0.0033-0.01 μg/kg, which was much lower than the current reported methods. The recoveries were able to reach 73.0-88.7%, while the matrix effects ranged from 83.7% to 92.8%. Analysis of 400 pork, beef, mutton and chicken samples reveal that only 4.25% samples were positive for β2-agonists. The detected β2-agonists involved salbutamol, clenbuterol, ractopamine and clorprenaline. Overall, the novel Q-Orbitrap technique was demonstrated to have great performance for the screening, identification and quantification of ultra-trace β2-agonists used in food animal muscles, which helps to ensure food safety and public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multisynaptic projections from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex to the dorsal premotor cortex in macaques - anatomical substrate for conditional visuomotor behavior. (United States)

    Takahara, Daisuke; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Nambu, Atsushi; Takada, Masahiko; Hoshi, Eiji


    Lines of evidence indicate that both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) (areas 45/12) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) (rostral F2 in area 6) are crucially involved in conditional visuomotor behavior, in which it is required to determine an action based on an associated visual object. However, virtually no direct projections appear to exist between the vlPFC and PMd. In the present study, to elucidate possible multisynaptic networks linking the vlPFC to the PMd, we performed a series of neuroanatomical tract-tracing experiments in macaque monkeys. First, we identified cortical areas that send projection fibers directly to the PMd by injecting Fast Blue into the PMd. Considerable retrograde labeling occurred in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) (areas 46d/9/8B/8Ad), dorsomedial motor cortex (dmMC) (F7 and presupplementary motor area), rostral cingulate motor area, and ventral premotor cortex (F5 and area 44), whereas the vlPFC was virtually devoid of neuronal labeling. Second, we injected the rabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal tracer, into the PMd. At 3 days after the rabies injections, second-order neurons were labeled in the vlPFC (mainly area 45), indicating that the vlPFC disynaptically projects to the PMd. Finally, to determine areas that connect the vlPFC to the PMd indirectly, we carried out an anterograde/retrograde dual-labeling experiment in single monkeys. By examining the distribution of axon terminals labeled from the vlPFC and cell bodies labeled from the PMd, we found overlapping labels in the dPFC and dmMC. These results indicate that the vlPFC outflow is directed toward the PMd in a multisynaptic fashion through the dPFC and/or dmMC. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Effects of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, and turmeric oleoresin on gene expression profile of ileal mucosa in weaned pigs. (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E


    This study was conducted to characterize the effects of feeding 3 plant extracts on gene expression in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (n = 32, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens for 9 d and fed 4 different diets: a nursery basal diet as control diet, basal diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin. Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea and increased growth rate of weaning pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 9. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray. Microarray data were analyzed in R using packages from the Bioconductor project. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model equivalent to ANOVA using the limma package. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Three pairwise comparisons were used to compare each plant extract diet with the control diet. Quantitative real time PCR was applied to verify the mRNA expression detected by microarray. Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin altered (P oleoresin altered (P oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin increased [Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) < 0.05] the expression of genes related to integrity of membranes and tight junctions, indicating enhanced gut mucosa health, but decreased (EASE < 0.05) the cell cycle pathway. Feeding each of the 3 plant extracts enhanced (EASE < 0.05) the expression of genes associated with immune responses, indicating that feeding these plant extracts may stimulate the immune responses of pigs in the normal conditions. In conclusion, plant extracts regulated the expression of genes in ileal mucosa of pigs, perhaps providing benefits by enhancing the gut mucosa health and stimulating the immune system.

  1. Fermi-LAT Constraints on the Pulsar Wind Nebula Nature of HESS J1857+026 (United States)

    Rousseau, R.; Grondin, M.-H.; VanEtten, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Bogdanov, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Camilo, F.; Casandjian, J. M.; hide


    Since its launch, the Fermi satellite has firmly identified 5 pulsar wind nebulae plus a large number of candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. HESS J1857+026 is a spatially extended gamma-ray source detected by H.E.S.S. and classified as a possible pulsar wind nebula candidate powered by PSR J1856+0245. Aims. We search for -ray pulsations from PSR J1856+0245 and explore the characteristics of its associated pulsar wind nebula. Methods. Using a rotational ephemeris obtained from the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory at 1.5 GHz, we phase.fold 36 months of gamma-ray data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi. We also perform a complete gamma-ray spectral and morphological analysis. Results. No pulsation was detected from PSR J1856+0245. However, significant emission is detected at a position coincident with the TeV source HESS J1857+026. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power law with a spectral index of Gamma = 1.53 +/- 0.11(sub stat) +/- 0.55(sub syst) and an energy flux of G(0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.71 +/- 0.52(sub stat) +/- 1.51(sub syst) X 10(exp -11) ergs/ sq cm/s. This implies a gamma.ray efficiency of approx 5 %, assuming a distance of 9 kpc, the gamma-ray luminosity of L(sub gamma) (sub PWN) (0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.5 +/- 0.5(sub stat) +/- 1.5(sub syst)) X 10(exp 35)(d/(9kpc))(exp 2) ergs/s and E-dot = 4.6 X 10(exp 36) erg /s, in the range expected for pulsar wind nebulae. Detailed multi-wavelength modeling provides new constraints on its pulsar wind nebula nature.

  2. Detection and quantification of 4-ABP adducts in DNA from bladder cancer patients. (United States)

    Zayas, Beatriz; Stillwell, Sara W; Wishnok, John S; Trudel, Laura J; Skipper, Paul; Yu, Mimi C; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Wogan, Gerald N


    We analyzed bladder DNA from 27 cancer patients for dG-C8-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP) adducts using the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with a 700 attomol (1 adduct in 10(9) bases) detection limit. Hemoglobin (Hb) 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) adduct levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After isolation of dG-C8-ABP by immunoaffinity chromatography and further purification, deuterated (d9) dG-C8-ABP (MW=443 Da) was added to each sample. Structural evidence and adduct quantification were determined by selected reaction monitoring, based on the expected adduct ion [M+H+]+1, at m/z 435 with fragmentation to the product ion at m/z 319, and monitoring of the transition for the internal standard, m/z 444-->328. The method was validated by analysis of DNA (100 microg each) from calf thymus; livers from ABP-treated and untreated rats; human placentas; and TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Adduct was detected at femtomol levels in DNA from livers of ABP-treated rats and calf thymus, but not in other controls. The method was applied to 41 DNA samples (200 microg each) from 27 human bladders; 28 from tumor and 14 from surrounding non-tumor tissue. Of 27 tissues analyzed, 44% (12) contained 5-80 dG-C8-ABP adducts per 10(9) bases; only 1 out of 27 (4%) contained adduct in both tumor and surrounding tissues. The Hb adduct was detected in samples from all patients, at levels of 12-1960 pg per gram Hb. There was no correlation between levels of DNA and Hb adducts. The presence of DNA adducts in 44% of the subjects and high levels of Hb adducts in these non-smokers indicate environmental sources of exposure to 4-ABP.

  3. The -93T/G LPL Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated With Lower Third-Trimester Triglycerides in Pregnant African American Women. (United States)

    Schmella, Mandy J; Ferrell, Robert E; Gallaher, Marcia J; Lykins, David L; Althouse, Andrew D; Roberts, James M; Hubel, Carl A


    Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and several pregnancy complications. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genetic variation modulates nonpregnancy plasma triglycerides, but its effects during pregnancy are unknown. The G allele of the LPL -93T/G promoter polymorphism is 16-23 times more prevalent in Blacks than in Whites, contributing to lower triglycerides in nonpregnant African Americans by increasing LPL expression. This study investigated whether the triglyceride-lowering effect of -93G is observed in African Americans during pregnancy. Genotyping was performed on 124 African American women with uncomplicated pregnancies for common functional LPL polymorphisms/mutations (-93T/G, D9N, N291S, and S447X). Third-trimester plasma triglyceride, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured with colorimetric assays. Clinical characteristics and lipid values were compared across the -93T/G genotypes. Triglycerides were significantly lower in women with the -93GG compared to the -93TT genotype, both with (n = 124, p = .02) and without (n = 108, p = .03) inclusion of participants with other LPL variant alleles. Triglyceride differences persisted after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index, gestational age at delivery, and smoking. There were no significant differences in the other lipids or apolipoprotein B by -93T/G genotype. Despite the considerable metabolic changes accompanying pregnancy, the triglyceride-lowering effect associated with the -93GG LPL genotype in African Americans persists during late pregnancy. The -93GG genotype might protect against pregnancy complications stemming from hypertriglyceridemia, but the overall increased risk of pregnancy complications in African American women points to complex, multifactorial relationships among risk factors, race, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The −93T/G LPL Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated with Lower Third-Trimester Plasma Triglycerides in Pregnant African American Women (United States)

    Schmella, Mandy J.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Gallaher, Marcia J.; Lykins, David R.; Althouse, Andrew D.; Roberts, James M.; Hubel, Carl A.


    Background Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and several pregnancy complications. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genetic variation modulates nonpregnancy plasma triglycerides, but effects during pregnancy are unknown. The G allele of the LPL −93T/G promoter polymorphism is 16–23 times more prevalent in Blacks than in Whites, contributing to lower triglycerides in nonpregnant African Americans by increasing LPL expression. Purpose This study investigated whether the triglyceride-lowering effect of −93G in African Americans is observed during pregnancy. Methods Genotyping was performed on 124 African American women with uncomplicated pregnancies for common functional LPL polymorphisms/mutations (−93T/G, D9N, N291S, S447X). Third-trimester plasma triglyceride, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured with colorimetric assays. Clinical characteristics and lipid values were compared across the −93T/G genotypes. Results Triglycerides were significantly lower in women with the −93GG compared to the −93TT genotype, both with (n = 124, p = 0.02) and without (n = 108, p = 0.03) inclusion of participants with other LPL variant alleles. Triglyceride differences persisted after adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational age at delivery, and smoking. There were no significant differences in the other lipids or apolipoprotein B by −93T/G genotype. Conclusions Despite the considerable metabolic changes accompanying pregnancy, the triglyceride-lowering effect associated with the −93GG LPL genotype in African Americans persists during late pregnancy. The −93GG genotype might protect against pregnancy complications stemming from hypertriglyceridemia, but the overall increased risk for pregnancy complications in African American women points to complex, multifactorial relationships among risk factors, race, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25566792

  5. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization detection of chromosomal imbalances in uterine cervix carcinoma

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    García José


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH has been applied to all stages of cervical carcinoma progression, defining a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances in this tumor. However, given its limited spatial resolution, chromosomal CGH has offered only general information regarding the possible genetic targets of DNA copy number changes. Methods In order to further define specific DNA copy number changes in cervical cancer, we analyzed 20 cervical samples (3 pre-malignant lesions, 10 invasive tumors, and 7 cell lines, using the GenoSensor microarray CGH system to define particular genetic targets that suffer copy number changes. Results The most common DNA gains detected by array CGH in the invasive samples were located at the RBP1-RBP2 (3q21-q22 genes, the sub-telomeric clone C84C11/T3 (5ptel, D5S23 (5p15.2 and the DAB2 gene (5p13 in 58.8% of the samples. The most common losses were found at the FHIT gene (3p14.2 in 47% of the samples, followed by deletions at D8S504 (8p23.3, CTDP1-SHGC- 145820 (18qtel, KIT (4q11-q12, D1S427-FAF1 (1p32.3, D9S325 (9qtel, EIF4E (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, 4q24, RB1 (13q14, and DXS7132 (Xq12 present in 5/17 (29.4% of the samples. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances in cervical carcinoma and define specific targets that are suffering DNA copy number changes in this neoplasm.

  6. Effectiveness of dry needling on reducing pain intensity in patients with myofascial pain syndrome: a Meta-analysis. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-Sánchez, Blanca; De Toro García, Álvaro; Valera-Donoso, Enrique; Garrido-Ardila, Elisa María; Jiménez-Palomares, María; González López-Arza, María Victoria


    To summarize the literature about the effectiveness of dry needling (DN) on relieving pain and increasing range of motion (ROM) in individuals with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Papers published from January 2000 to January 2013 were identified through an electronic search in the databases MEDLINE, Dialnet, Cochrane Library Plus, Physiotherapy Evidence Data-base (PEDro) and Spanish Superior Council of Scientific Research (CSIC). The studies included were randomized controlled trials written in English and/or Spanish about the effectiveness of DN on pain and ROM in individuals with MPS. Out of 19 clinical trials that were potentially relevant, a total of 10 were included in the Meta-analysis. Regarding pain intensity reduction when measured before and immediately after the intervention, DN achieved improvement compared with the placebo treatment [d = - 0.49; 95% CI (- 3.21, 0.42)] and with the control group [d = - 9.13; 95% C (- 14.70, - 3.56)]. However, other treatments achieved better results on the same variable compared with DN, considering the measurements for pre-treatment and immediately after [d = 2.54; 95% CI (- 0.40, 5.48)], as well as the pre-treatment and after 3-4 weeks [d = 4.23; 95% CI (0.78, 7.68)]. DN showed a significantly increased ROM when measured before the intervention and immediately after, in comparison with the placebo [d = 2.00; 95% C (1.60, 2.41)]. However, other treatments achieved a significant better result regarding ROM when it was measured before the intervention and immediately after, as compared with DN [d = - 1.42; 95% CI (- 1.84, - 0.99)]. DN was less effective on decreasing pain comparing to the placebo group. Other treatments were more effective than DN on reducing pain after 3-4 weeks. However, on increasing ROM, DN was more effective comparing to that of placebo group, but less than other treatments.

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; van Tol, Johan; Ye, Ruquan; Tour, James M.


    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10-4 T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10-4 T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn2+ (6S5/2, 3d5) (signal width = 61 (10-4 T), g = 2.0023, Aiso = 93(10-4 T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu2+ (2D5/2, 3d9) (g⊥ = 2.048 and g‖ = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn2+ and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu2+ signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  8. Horizontally Issuing Diffusion Flames Characterized by OH-PLIF and Visualizations

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    J.J. Heffernen


    Full Text Available Planar laser induced fluorescence and flame visualizations characterized the effect of buoyancy on the behavior of the combustion zone of diffusion jet flames which issued from horizontally-oriented tubes into ambient air. The study focused on the mixing characteristics of propane and ethylene at Reynolds numbers ranging from 300 to 1500 in the near field of the jet (up to X/D=9 and Froude numbers ranging as low as 0.36, based on cold-flow gas properties and conditions. Performing the study with a variety of fuel tube diameters enabled independent control of Froude and Reynolds numbers. The PLIF visualizations revealed the presence of the hydroxyl radical in the mixing layer for all cases. The hydroxyl concentrations were consistently higher in the upper portion of the mixing layer, indicative of more vigorous mixing in this region. The visualizations also revealed the evolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which were initially spatially segregated from the portion of the reaction zone containing the hydroxyl radical. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons initiate in fuel-rich regions nearer to the jet core than the hydroxyl radical, though the two regions eventually combine well downstream of the tube exit. Both the hydroxyl radical and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were more prominent on the upper side of the jet flame. Both propane and ethylene fuels led to qualitatively similar features of the flow field, indicating the important role played by the buoyancy-influenced fluid dynamics of the combustion products. The resulting cross sectional PLIF images were used to produce a three-dimensional representation of the reaction zone, indicating the jet spread and trajectory. The data was empirically correlated and found to collapse when based on the Froude number consistent with the density and temperature of a fully-reacted stoichiometric mixture. Complementary visualizations provided additional insight into the trajectory of the jet

  9. Physicochemical properties of direct compression tablets with spray dried and ball milled solid dispersions of tadalafil in PVP-VA. (United States)

    Wlodarski, K; Tajber, L; Sawicki, W


    The aim of this research was to develop immediate release tablets comprising solid dispersion (IRSDTs) of tadalafil (Td) in a vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate block copolymer (PVP-VA), characterized by improved dissolution profiles. The solid dispersion of Td in PVP-VA (Td/PVP-VA) in a weight ratio of 1:1 (w/w) was prepared using two different processes i.e. spray drying and ball milling. While the former process has been well established in the formulation of IRSDTs the latter has not been exploited in these systems yet. Regardless of the preparation method, both Td/PVP-VA solid dispersions were amorphous as confirmed by PXRD, DSC and FTIR. However, different morphology of particles (SEM) resulted in differences in water apparent solubility and disk intrinsic dissolution rate (DIDR). Both solid dispersions and crystalline Td were successfully made into directly compressible tablets at three doses of Td, i.e. 2.5mg, 10mgand20mg, yielding nine different formulations (D1-D9). Each of the lots met the requirements set by Ph.Eur. and was evaluated with respect to appearance, diameter, thickness, mass, hardness, friability, disintegration time and content of Td. IRSDTs performed as supersaturable formulations and had significantly improved water dissolution profiles in comparison with equivalent tablets containing crystalline Td and the marketed formulations. Tablets with both spray dried and ball milled Td/PVP-VA revealed the greatest improvement in dissolution depending on the investigated doses, i.e. 2.5mgand20mg, respectively. Also, dissolution of Td from Td/PVP-VA delivered in different forms occurred in the following order: powders>tablets>capsules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil Therapy for Patients with EMAST-Positive Stage II/III Colorectal Cancer.

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    Yasushi Hamaya

    Full Text Available Elevated Microsatellite Alterations at Selected Tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST is a genetic signature found in up to 60% of colorectal cancers (CRCs that is caused by somatic dysfunction of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR protein hMSH3. We have previously shown in vitro that recognition of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU within DNA and subsequent cytotoxicity was most effective when both hMutSα (hMSH2-hMSH6 heterodimer and hMutSβ (hMSH2-hMSH3 heterodimer MMR complexes were present, compared to hMutSα > hMutSβ alone. We tested if patients with EMAST CRCs (hMutSβ defective had diminished response to adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy, paralleling in vitro findings. We analyzed 230 patients with stage II/III sporadic colorectal cancers for which we had 5-FU treatment and survival data. Archival DNA was analyzed for EMAST (>2 of 5 markers mutated among UT5037, D8S321, D9S242, D20S82, D20S85 tetranucleotide loci. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and multivariate analysis was used to determine contribution to risk. We identified 102 (44% EMAST cancers. Ninety-four patients (41% received adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy, and median follow-up for all patients was 51 months. Patients with EMAST CRCs demonstrated improved survival with adjuvant 5FU to the same extent as patients with non-EMAST CRCs (P<0.05. We observed no difference in survival between patients with stage II/III EMAST and non-EMAST cancers (P = 0.36. There is improved survival for stage II/III CRC patients after adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy regardless of EMAST status. The loss of contribution of hMSH3 for 5-FU cytotoxicity may not adversely affect patient outcome, contrasting patients whose tumors completely lack DNA MMR function (MSI-H.

  11. Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study. (United States)

    Yousef, Fatimah M; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Kang, Paul T; Hakim, Iman A; Going, Scott; Yousef, Jehad M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M; Kumosani, Taha A; Thomson, Cynthia A


    The role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention is equivocal. Saudi Arabian women may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because of a darker skin type and a greater likelihood of reduced ultraviolet B radiation exposure. Data regarding the vitamin D status of Saudi Arabian women and its relation to breast cancer risk are lacking. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. A case-control study was conducted among 120 breast cancer cases and 120 controls. The study population was drawn from patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from June to August 2009. Participants completed questionnaires on diet and medical history, and serum samples were collected from all women to measure circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. The participants had a mean age of 47.8 y and a mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 30.0. Breast cancer cases had significantly lower (mean ± SD) serum concentrations of 25(OH)D (9.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL) than did controls (15.4 ± 12.3 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In comparison with those in the highest category of vitamin D status for this population (≥20 ng/mL), the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for invasive breast cancer were 6.1 (2.4, 15.1) for women with a serum 25(OH)D concentration cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. This trial was registered at as NCT01817231.

  12. Microsatellite instability is rare in sporadic ovarian cancer

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    Chen, S.S.; Han, H.; Schwartz, P.E. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others


    Microsatellite instability was first demonstrated to be a common underlying mechanism in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and has recently been implicated in the development of several other human cancers. Although numerous genetic changes have been documented in ovarian cancer, their molecular bases are poorly understood. In investigating the molecular genetics of ovarian cancer, we analyzed twelve short tandem repeats that were amplified by PCR from DNA of 48 tumors and their corresponding lymphocyte samples. All of the 48 cases studied have no noticeable family history and, of them, 42 are epithelial (benign/borderline, 5; grade I, 4; GII, 4; GIII, 29) and 6 are nonepithelial. A microsatellite instability has been shown to be inversely correlated with the occurrence of allelic losses, half of those cases chosen have a fractional allele loss of {le}15 (median = .18 of 50 tumors tested for 86 loci from every chromosomal arm). The loci examined included eight dinucleotide repeats (D2S123, D9S104, D10S197, D11S904, D16S408, D16S421, D17S250, and D17S579), two trinucleotide repeats (DM and AR) and two tetranucleotide repeats (DXS981 and VWF). Despite the fact that HNPCC phenotype includes ovarian cancer and that microsatellite instability has been shown in one ovarian cancer from an HNPCC family, the allele sizes of 12 loci were found to be identical in all paired tumor and normal samples we studied except for one tumor at a single locus. The band shift displayed on polyacrylamide gel representing an additional allele of VWF was only observed in one grade III tumor. Our results are thus a strong indication that the alteration of microsatellite repeats may not play a major role in the development of sporadic ovarian cancer.

  13. Elevated Microsatellite Alterations at Selected Tetranucleotide Repeats (EMAST) and Microsatellite Instability in Patients with Colorectal Cancer and Its Clinical Features. (United States)

    Lee, H S; Park, K U; Kim, D-W; Lhn, M H; Kim, W H; Seo, A N; Chang, H E; Nam, S K; Lee, S Y; Oh, H-K; Kang, S-B


    Recently, a different type of microsatellite instability (MSI) instability designated 'elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats' (EMAST) has been reported in several neoplasms, but its clinical implications remain unclear. We aimed to determine the relationships among EMAST, MSI and clinicopathologic characteristics, including oncologic outcomes, in colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated 100 sporadic CRC cases subjected to surgery using five markers (MYCL1, D9S242, D20S85, D8S321, and D20S82) for EMAST and the Bethesda panel for MSI status. Immunohistochemical detection of hMSH3, c-erbB2, EGFR and thymidylate synthase was performed. Clinical characteristics and prognostic relevance were assessed. We identified 22 EMAST-positive tumors (22.0%) and 32 MSI-high (MSI-H) tumors (32.0%). EMAST was more frequent in colon cancer than rectal cancer (p=0.033), and associated with MSI-H phenotype (p<0.001), low expression of hMSH3 (p=0.004), and overexpression of thymidylate synthase (p=0.006). Among the 38 MSI-L tumors, only one (4.5%) showed EMAST. Long-term oncologic results in terms of overall and disease-free survival were similar between EMAST and non-EMAST tumors. EMAST is more closely related to MSI-H than MSI-L or MSS status. The clinical and molecular characteristics of EMAST were distinct in terms of tumor location, thymidylate synthase expression, MSI status and hMSH3 expression. Our preliminary findings support the utility of EMAST as a new potential classifier in CRC. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  14. Microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats are associated with morphologies of colorectal neoplasias. (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Chung, Heekyung; Devaraj, Bikash; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Han, Hye Seung; Hwang, Dae-Yong; Seong, Moo Kyung; Jung, Barbara H; Carethers, John M


    Elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST) occurs during microsatellite instability (MSI) that is not associated with major defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) but rather the reduced (heterogenous) expression of the MMR protein hMSH3; it occurs in sporadic colorectal tumors. We examined the timing of development of EMAST during progression of colorectal neoplasias and looked for correlations between EMAST and clinical and pathology features of tumors. We evaluated tumor samples from a cohort of patients that had 24 adenomas and 84 colorectal cancers. EMAST were analyzed after DNA microdissection of matched normal and tumor samples using the polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers MYCL1, D9S242, D20S85, D8S321, and D20S82; data were compared with clinical and pathology findings. Traditional MSI analysis was performed and hMSH3 expression was measured. Moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas had higher frequencies of EMAST (56.9% and 40.0%, respectively) than well-differentiated adenocarcinomas (12.5%) or adenomas (33.3%) (P = .040). In endoscopic analysis, ulcerated tumors had a higher frequency of EMAST (52.3%) than flat (44.0%) or protruded tumors (20.0%) (P = .049). In quantification, all tumors with >3 tetranucleotide defects lost MSH3 (>75% of cells); nuclear heterogeneity of hMSH3 occurred more frequently in EMAST-positive (40.0%) than in EMAST-negative tumors (13.2%) (P = .010). EMAST is acquired during progression of adenoma and well-differentiated carcinomas to moderately and poorly differentiated carcinomas; it correlates with nuclear heterogeneity for hMSH3. Loss of hMSH3 corresponds with multiple tetranucleotide frameshifts. The association between EMAST and ulcerated tumors might result from increased inflammation. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CT findings of ganglioneuroma

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    Jeon, Tae Joo; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Myung Jun; Kim, Sang Jin; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Ganglioneuroma is a relatively uncommon benign tumor and has no pathognomonic radiological findings;diagnosis is therefore difficult. In order to better diagnose this tumor we analysed its CT findings and pathologic correlation. Seventeen tumors in 16 patients(M:F=3D9:7) diagnosed as ganglioneuroma between 1992 and 1996 were retrospectively analysed with regard to location, size, contour, long axis of the mass, enhancement pattern, calcification, necrosis and capsulation, all as seen on CT, and compared with histo-pathologic findings. Tumors were 1.5 to 10(mean, 5.6) cm in size, and their location was mediastinal(n=3D12), cervical(n=3D2), retroperitoneal (n=3D2) or adrenal(n=3D1). Fifteen had an oval or round contour and two were dumb-bell-shaped. The long axis of the lesion was craniocaudal in 14 cases and non-specific in three. Thirteen lesions showed heterogeneous enhancement, and four homogeneous. Capsule-like enhancement was noted on CT scans in eight cases;there was no definite correlation between enhancement pattern and pathologic findings. Calcification was seen in six cases and an inner low-density lesion in two. Ganglioneuroma is a benign neurogenic tumor, occurring most frequently at the posterior mediastinum. General CT findings of this tumor are a well-defined oval shape with a variable enhancement pattern, but several cases showed focal calcification or inner low density. For accurate diagnosis of ganglioneuroma both common and uncommon findings must therefore be considered.=20.

  16. Larval development and allometric growth of the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi. (United States)

    Solomon, F N; Rodrigues, D; Gonçalves, E J; Serrão, E A; Borges, R


    Larval development and allometric growth patterns of the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi are described from a larval series (body length, LB  = 3·30-12·10 mm) caught by light traps at the Arrábida Marine Park, Portugal. Larvae of T. delaisi possess distinctive morphometric and meristic characteristics which can be used to identify this species from related taxa. Pigmentation is sparse but characteristic, consisting of pigmented eyes, gas bladder pigmentation in the dorsal region, anal pigmentation and a row of regularly spaced postanal ventral melanophores. This pattern is present from as early as the yolk-sac stage and persists throughout all stages with just the addition of head and caudal pigmentation during the flexion and postflexion stages, respectively. The majority of fin development (with the exception of the caudal fin), occurs in the later stages of development. Myomere counts range between 37 and 45 for all stages. Growth is allometric during larval development. When inflexion points of growth were detected, growth was found to be biphasic with the inflexion points occurring within a very narrow range of LB (8·70-8·90 mm) close to the mean ± s.d. (9·44 ± 1·48 mm LB ) of postflexion larvae. Considering allometric growth patterns and ontogenetic descriptions together, the first developmental phase includes the preflexion and flexion stage larvae, while the second phase characterises the postflexion larvae prior to the transition from larvae to juvenile. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Growth and mortality of black bass, Micropterus salmoides (Pisces, Centrachidae; Lacapède, 1802 in a reservoir in southern Brazil

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    U. H. Schulz

    Full Text Available The black bass, Micropterus salmoides, was introduced to Brazil from North America in 1922. Since then the species has been reared in aquaculture facilities intended to stock reservoirs as additions to native stocks available for angling. At present no scientific information on the biology of black bass in Brazilian waters is available. Since black bass dispersion may cause severe impacts on native Brazilian fish fauna, information on the basic biological parameters of this species is necessary. The objective of the present study is to provide information on the growth, age structure, and mortality of the species in a small reservoir in southern Brazil, where the species reproduces regularly. Based on scale readings, the von Bertalanffy growth curve was calculated and compared to the length-frequency distribution of the population. Both methods showed similar results. Maximum length was about 44 cm. The mean length at the end of the first year was 23.1 cm (s.d. = 13.88; at that of the second, 37.3 cm (s.d. = 12.52; and 41.4 cm (s.d. = 9.92 at the third. Oldest fish were three years old. The growth performance index ø' was 3.28 cm year-1. Mortality increased from 0.16 year-1 between the first and the second cohort, to 0.8 year-1 between the second and third. The results show that black bass in Brazil grows faster than in its area of origin, but longevity is shorter and body shape, stouter. The cause of high mortality at a relatively early age may be connected with the loss of genetic diversity due to inbreeding of the Brazilian stocks, which originated from few introduced individuals a long time ago. The fact that black bass reproduces in reservoirs and grows rapidly may be considered a threat to conserving fish diversity in Brazilian ecosystems.

  18. The long-term lasting effectiveness on self-efficacy, attribution style, expression of emotions and quality of life of a body awareness program for chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms. (United States)

    Landsman-Dijkstra, Jeanet J A; van Wijck, Ruud; Groothoff, Johan W


    A 3-day residential body awareness program (BAP) was developed to teach people with chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms (CAPS) to react adequately to disturbances of the balance between a daily workload and the capacity to deal with it. The long-term effects of the program on body awareness, psychological factors, psychosomatic symptoms and quality of life for people with CAPS are presented in this study. A pre-post design is used with post-measures 2 and 12 months after the program, without controls (n = 122). Mean age is 42.5 (S.D. = 9.0) and 60% is female. The results showed an increase of body awareness, self-efficacy, expression of emotions and quality of life. Stress-related symptoms decreased and the attribution style was found to be less depressive. Participants achieved significantly higher levels of functioning at 2 months which increased significantly more at 12 months. The majority of the measured changes can be interpreted as clinically relevant outcomes with medium-to-large effect sizes. Spouses of the participants also confirm the found effects. Evaluation of the BAP gives evidence to conclude that this program leads to the theoretically expected long-term effects in CAPS. Participants react more adequately to disturbances between daily workload and the capacity to deal with this load. Two and 12 months after the 3-day program, they are more capable of self-management in coping with stress and psychosomatic symptoms. This article sheds new light on the difficulties that individuals with psychosomatic symptoms and their professional interventionists encounter when attempting to manage the chronicity of the problems. By paying more attention to learning self-management by increasing body awareness and self-efficacy, patient educators may be able to increase their effectiveness.

  19. [Profile of use of anti tumor necrosis factor in Colombian patients]. (United States)

    Machado, Jorge; Moncada, Juan Carlos; Pineda, Ricardo


    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists (anti-TNFα) have shown an increasing consumption and generate a significant economic burden on health systems. The prescribing patterns of tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists were determined in a patient population associated with the Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud in Colombia. A descriptive observational study was conducted in 316 patients with respect to use of tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists during a treatment period from January 2008 to June 2009. The database examined contained indications of use, inclusion criteria to medication, duration of illness, co-morbidities and adverse reactions. The data were retrieved from the clinical histories. Student's t test was used for the comparison of quantitative variables, and the chi-square test was used to establish associations between categorical variables and multivariate analysis were used. Mean age was 44.613.9 years; 63.9% of participants were female. Of the 316 patients, 17.1% received monotherapy. The order of prescription drugs was as follows: adalimumab (37.3%), infliximab (37.3%) and etanercept (25.4%), all were prescribed in appropriately defined daily doses. Co-medication drugs most frequently prescribed were: disease-modifying anti-rheumatic (82.9%), NSAIDs (29.1%), omeprazole (22.5%), antihypertensives (21.2%), folic acid (19.9%) calcium plus vitamin D (9.8%), calcitriol (6.0%). 10.4% of patients had a record of some adverse drug reaction. The average cost of therapy per patient per year was US$23,464. Anti-TNFα are being used at recommended doses, particularly in rheumatoid arthritis and in combination with other anti-rheumatic drugs. The direct cost of therapy was high for the country's health system.

  20. Intra-extramedullary drainage as an effective option for treatment of intramedullary ependymal cyst of thoracic spine: technical note. (United States)

    Landi, Alessandro; Pietrantonio, Andrea; Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Delfini, Roberto


    Intramedullary neuroepithelial cysts are extremely rare and only 15 cases have been reported in the literature. Clinico-radiological features are not indicative of a specific diagnosis; for this reason, diagnosis is based mainly on the histological features. In the literature, total surgical removal is considered the treatment of choice. The risk of recurrence is higher after partial removal and in cases of occlusion of intra-extramedullary shunt. For this reason, a surgical strategy that ensures the shunt patency in case of incomplete removal of the cyst becomes a very safe option for treatment of this pathology. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who was found to have a dorsal (D9) intramedullary neuroepithelial cyst. She underwent surgical treatment with partial removal and placement of a Nelaton drainage device (8 French) inside the intra-extramedullary shunt. The patient experienced a complete regression of preoperative symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up showed no radiological evidence of recurrence 24 months after surgical treatment. Spinal ependymal cysts show a high frequency of recurrence, especially in cases of partial removal of the cyst wall. Unfortunately, the cyst walls are often closely adherent to the spinal cord, making total removal impossible. Intra-extramedullary shunting is a viable option, although there is a high frequency of recurrence in cases of obstruction of the shunt. Placing an 8 Ch Nelaton drain between the dorsal columns is a reliable technique, especially in cases of partial removal. In fact, it allows continuous drainage of cyst fluid and subsequent resolution of symptoms, and it decreases the incidence of recurrences due to obstruction of the shunt. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Testing the efficacy of fermented wheat germ extract against Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of chickens. (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Lapis, K; Hidvégi, M; Kósa, E; Glávits, R; Resetár, A


    The effect of fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE, Immunovet-HBM) was studied in chickens challenged with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Ninety M. gallisepticum- and M. synoviae-free 3-wk-old chickens were exposed to aerosol infection of M. gallisepticum. One group (30 birds) was treated with FWGE, a second group with tiamulin, and a third group was untreated. The fourth group was exposed to PBS aerosol as a negative control. On d 9, all chickens were slaughtered and examined for the presence of gross and histological lesions, the presence of the challenge strain in the organs and specific antibodies in the serum. Body weight gains and feed conversion rates were recorded. In the groups treated with FWGE and with tiamulin, the chickens remained clinically healthy: their BW gains were 441.7 g and 446.8 g, respectively. Feed conversion ratios were 1.72 and 1.71 for FWGE- and tiamulin-treated birds, respectively. Control birds had BW gain of 480.8 g, and feed conversion ratio of 1.78. The numbers of birds with gross lesions (15 and 11, respectively) and lesion scores (25 and 25, respectively) of the FWGE- and tiamulin-treated groups were significantly lower than in the infected untreated group (25 birds, lesion score of 190). No mycoplasma was reisolated from brain, liver, spleen, heart, or kidneys of the FWGE-treated birds, and the number of mycoplasma isolations from the respiratory tract samples was less frequent (10) than from the infected untreated group (64). In addition, 35 samples from other internal organs were also positive. Twenty percent of the birds treated with FWGE showed serological response with a 5.0% reaction score, whereas in the infected untreated group, 83.3% of birds were reactors, with a 62.5% reaction score.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Massao Taira


    Full Text Available The aim of this present work was to evaluate, the use of LH (luteinizing hormone in the FTAI protocol, as inducer of ovulation and the follicular diameter influence in the moment of AI over the pregnancy rate of Nelore heifers. For that, 118 heifers of Nelore breed were utilized, they aged 20 to 28 months and their medium weight was 362 Kg and the corporal score was 3.0 (1-5. First of all, the animals with unknown state of estrous cycle were randomically divided in two groups: G-C (control, n=58 and G-LH (n=60. In the D0 in the morning, each animal received a vaginal implant of progestogen and 2 mg of IM BE. In both groups, the implants were removed in the D9, concomitant with the application of de prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α – 112.5 g and 10 mg of FSHp. Only G-LH animals received 0.5 mg de BE. In the morning of D10, the animals of GLH received 1.0 mg de BE. In the morning of D11, only the G-LH animals received 3.125 mg of LH and in the afternoon of the same Day, both groups were inseminated at fixed time. There were no differences (p>0.05 between the pregnancy rate of G-C and G-LH, they were respectively 38% and 43%, despite of a 5% increase in pregnancy rate in group G-LH. There was effect (P<0.05 of follicular diameter in the pregnance.

  3. Estrogen deficiency-induced Ca balance impairment is associated with decrease in expression of epithelial Ca transport proteins in aged female rats. (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Yan; Wong, Man-Sau


    The study is designed to determine whether estrogen and vitamin D endocrine systems interact to regulate calcium (Ca) balance as well as changes in mRNA expression of epithelial Ca transport proteins involved in intestinal and renal Ca transport in aging animals in response to ovariectomy and low dietary Ca intake. Eleven-month-old female sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided into four groups and fed with either a low-Ca (LCD; 0.1% Ca, 0.65% P) or a high-Ca (HCD; 1.2% Ca, 0.65% P) diet for 12weeks. Ca balance and mRNA expression of Ca transport proteins in the intestine and kidney from rats were systematically studied. OVX rats fed with LCD resulted in a negative Ca balance. LCD suppressed serum Ca in OVX but not sham rats, resulting in an induction of serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels. The surge in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels in LCD-fed OVX rats was associated with an increase in mRNA expression of intestinal transient receptor potential cation channel (TRPV6) and calbindin D9k (CaBP9k) as well as renal vitamin D receptor (VDR), but such an induction was unable to restore Ca balance in vivo. In contrast, the negative Ca balance was associated with suppression of intestinal plasma membrane Ca pump (PMCA1b) and renal transient receptor potential cation channel (TRPV5), calbindin D28k (CaBP28k) and PMCA1b mRNA expression in aged OVX rats. Negative Ca balance in aged female OVX rats is associated with estrogen-dependent and vitamin D-independent downregulation of epithelial Ca transport protein mRNA expression. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Précipitation d'altitude du nord-Chili, origine des sources de vapeur et données isotopiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Des échantillons de précipitations ont été recueillis sur les Altiplanos arides du nord-Chili et du sud-Bolivie entre juillet 1994 et mars 1997. Une station météorologique automatique a été installée à 4 300 m d’altitude (Quisquiro, 23,21°S et 67,25°O. Les événements pluvieux sont plus nombreux de décembre à mars pendant l’été austral. Les 126 analyses en isotopes stables (18O et 2H des événements pluvieux, mettent en évidence un large domaine de variations pour la période considérée (210 ‰ en  2H et 25 ‰ en  18O. La droite météorique locale calculée à Quisquiro s’écarte de la droite mondiale ( 2H = 8,2  18O + 16,6 ‰, r2=0,98. Les valeurs moyennes de l’excès en deutérium sont très différentes pour les événements sporadiques de l’hiver austral (d=9,7 ‰ et pour les précipitations de l’été (d=15,2 ‰. Outre la source de vapeur d’origine atlantique et afin d’expliquer la nature isotopique des précipitations de cette région, on peut envisager la contribution d’eau évaporée localement et/ou de vapeur originaire de l’océan Pacifique tropical. PRECIPITACIONES EN ALTITUD DEL NORTE DE CHILE, ORIGEN DE LAS FUENTES DE HUMEDAD Y DATOS ISOTÓPICOS. Se recolectaron muestras de precipitaciones en los Altiplanos áridos del norte de Chile y del sur de Bolivia entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1997. Se montó una estación meteorológica automática a 4 360 m de altura (Quisquiro, 23,21°S et 67,25°O. Los análisis de isótopos estables (18O et 2H de los eventos lluviosos, que occuren principalmente durante el verano austral (esencialmente entre diciembre y marzo, ponen en evidencia un amplio campo de variaciones durante la época considerada (210 ‰ en  2H et 25 ‰ en  18O. La recta meteórica local calculada en Quisquiro ( 2H = 8,2  18O + 16,6 ‰, r2=0,98 se aparta de la recta mundial. El promedio del excedente de deuterio es muy diferente para los

  5. Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc area of the Paradox Basin, UTE Mountain UTE Reservation, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Hachey


    The goals of this project were: (1) To enhance recovery of oil contained within algal mounds on the Ute Mountain Ute tribal lands. (2) To promote the use of advanced technology and expand the technical capability of the Native American Oil production corporations by direct assistance in the current project and dissemination of technology to other Tribes. (3) To develop an understanding of multicomponent seismic data as it relates to the variations in permeability and porosity of algal mounds, as well as lateral facies variations, for use in both reservoir development and exploration. (4) To identify any undiscovered algal mounds for field-extension within the area of seismic coverage. (5) To evaluate the potential for applying CO{sub 2} floods, steam floods, water floods or other secondary or tertiary recovery processes to increase production. The technical work scope was carried out by: (1) Acquiring multicomponent seismic data over the project area; (2) Processing and reprocessing the multicomponent data to extract as much geological and engineering data as possible within the budget and time-frame of the project; (3) Preparing maps and data volumes of geological and engineering data based on the multicomponent seismic and well data; (4) Selecting drilling targets if warranted by the seismic interpretation; (5) Constructing a static reservoir model of the project area; and (6) Constructing a dynamic history-matched simulation model from the static model. The original project scope covered a 6 mi{sup 2} (15.6 km{sup 2}) area encompassing two algal mound fields (Towaoc and Roadrunner). 3D3C seismic data was to acquired over this area to delineate mound complexes and image internal reservoir properties such as porosity and fluid saturations. After the project began, the Red Willow Production Company, a project partner and fully-owned company of the Southern Ute Tribe, contributed additional money to upgrade the survey to a nine-component (3D9C) survey. The purpose

  6. Predictors of Adult E-Cigarette Users Vaporizing Cannabis Using E-Cigarettes and Vape-Pens. (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Lipshie, Noah; Josephson, Margo; Foster, Dawn


    Given limited extant research, we assessed the use of portable, battery-powered cannabis vaporizers by adult e-cigarette users. 522 adult vapers completed an online survey. Demographics; lifetime and past-month cannabis vaporization via e-cigarettes/vape-pens; preferences for hash oil, D-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) wax, or dried buds; and cannabis vaporization beliefs and motives were examined. Demographics, age of e-cigarette onset, e-cigarette use frequency, state-level legal status of cannabis, cannabis vaping beliefs/motives, and impulsivity were examined as predictors of lifetime cannabis vaporization, past-month cannabis vaporization, and cannabis vaping frequency. E-cigarette users reported lifetime (17.8%) and past-month (11.5%) cannabis vaporization. Vapers preferred hash oil (LT/PM 45.5/47.5%), THC wax (15.2/32.2%), and dried buds (39.4/35.6%). Motivations to vape cannabis included: it tastes better (39.3/37.9%), is healthier (42.9/39.7%), is easier to conceal/hide (35.7/46.6%), does not smell as strong (42.9/39.7%), is more convenient (42.9/27.6%), and produces a stronger/better high (58.1/40.7%) than smoking cannabis. Lifetime and past-month cannabis vaporization, respectively, were associated with initiating e-cigarette use at an earlier age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.09/0.88), being impulsive (OR = 2.25/3.23), having poor self-control (OR = 2.23/1.85), and vaporizing cannabis because it is easier to conceal/hide (OR = 2.45/2.48) or is more convenient than smoking cannabis (OR = 5.02/2.83). Frequency of vaping cannabis was associated with heavier e-cigarette use (ηp2 = 0.10) and impulsivity (ηp2 = 0.09). Adult e-cigarette users are vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes/vape-pens. Efforts to curb cannabis vaporization may benefit from targeting impulsivity in users and regulating device features that facilitate or promote convenient, inconspicuous cannabis use.

  7. Conformational response of the phosphatidylcholine headgroup to bilayer surface charge: torsion angle constraints from dipolar and quadrupolar couplings in bicelles. (United States)

    Semchyschyn, Darlene J; Macdonald, Peter M


    The effects of bilayer surface charge on the conformation of the phosphocholine group of phosphatidylcholine were investigated using a torsion angle analysis of quadrupolar and dipolar splittings in, respectively, (2)H and (13)C NMR spectra of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) labelled in the phosphocholine group with either deuterons (POPC-alpha-d(2), POPC-beta-d(2) and POPC-gamma-d(9)) or carbon-13 (POPC-alpha-(13)C and POPC-alphabeta-(13)C(2)) and incorporated into magnetically aligned bicelles containing various amounts of either the cationic amphiphile 1,2-dimyristoyl-3-trimethylammoniumpropane (DMTAP) or the anionic amphiphile 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG). Three sets of quadrupolar splittings, one from each of the three deuteron labelling positions, and three sets of dipolar splittings ((13)C(alpha)-(31)P, (13)C(alpha)-(13)C(beta), (13)C(beta)-(14)N), were measured at each surface charge, along with the (31)P residual chemical shift anisotropy. The torsion angle analysis assumed fast anisotropic rotation of POPC about its long molecular axis, thus projecting all NMR interactions onto that director axis of motion. Dipolar, quadrupolar and chemical shift anisotropies were calculated as a function of the phosphocholine internal torsion angles by first transforming into a common reference frame affixed to the phosphocholine group prior to motional averaging about the director axis. A comparison of experiment and calculation provided the two order parameters specifying the director orientation relative to the molecule, plus the torsion angles alpha(3), alpha(4) and alpha(5). Surface charge was found to have little effect on the torsion angle alpha(5) (rotations about C(alpha)-C(beta)), but to have large and inverse effects on torsion angles alpha(3) [rotations about P-O(11)] and alpha(4) [rotations about O(11)-C(alpha)], yielding a net upwards tilt of the P-N vector in the presence of cationic surface charge, and a

  8. Future Flows Hydrology: an ensemble of daily river flow and monthly groundwater levels for use for climate change impact assessment across Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme


    . Limitations associated with the dataset are provided, along with practical recommendation of use. Future Flows Hydrology is freely available for non-commercial use under certain licensing conditions. For each study site, catchment averages of daily precipitation and monthly potential evapotranspiration, used to drive the hydrological models, are made available, so that hydrological modelling uncertainty under climate change conditions can be explored further. doi:10.5285/f3723162-4fed-4d9d-92c6-dd17412fa37b

  9. AMA Conferences 2015. SENSOR 2015. 17th international conference on sensors and measurement technology. IRS{sup 2} 2015. 14th international conference on infrared sensors and systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This meeting paper contains presentations of two conferences: SENSOR 2015 and IRS{sup 2} (= International conference on InfraRed Sensors and systems). The first part of SENSOR 2015 contains the following chapters: (A) SENSOR PRINCIPLES: A.1: Mechanical sensors; A.2: Optical sensors; A.3: Ultrasonic sensors; A.4: Microacoustic sensors; A.5: Magnetic sensors; A.6: Impedance sensors; A.7: Gas sensors; A.8: Flow sensors; A.9: Dimensional measurement; A.10: Temperature and humidity sensors; A.11: Chemosensors; A.12: Biosensors; A.13: Embedded sensors; A.14: Sensor-actuator systems; (B) SENSOR TECHNOLOGY: B.1: Sensor design; B.2: Numerical simulation of sensors; B.3: Sensor materials; B.4: MEMS technology; B.5: Micro-Nano-Integration; B.6: Packaging; B.7: Materials; B.8: Thin films; B.9: Sensor production; B.10: Sensor reliability; B.11: Calibration and testing; B.12: Optical fibre sensors. (C) SENSOR ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION: C.1: Sensor electronics; C.2: Sensor networks; C.3: Wireless sensors; C.4: Sensor communication; C.5: Energy harvesting; C.6: Measuring systems; C.7: Embedded systems; C.8: Self-monitoring and diagnosis; (D) APPLICATIONS: D.1: Medical measuring technology; D.2: Ambient assisted living; D.3: Process measuring technology; D.4: Automotive; D.5: Sensors in energy technology; D.6: Production technology; D.7: Security technology; D.8: Smart home; D.9: Household technology. The second part with the contributions of the IRS{sup 2} 2015 is structured as follows: (E) INFRARED SENSORS: E.1: Photon detectors; E.2: Thermal detectors; E.3: Cooled detectors; E.4: Uncooled detectors; E.5: Sensor modules; E.6: Sensor packaging. (G) INFRARED SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS: G.1: Thermal imaging; G.2: Pyrometry / contactless temperature measurement; G.3: Gas analysis; G.4: Spectroscopy; G.5: Motion control and presence detection; G.6: Security and safety monitoring; G.7: Non-destructive testing; F: INFRARED SYSTEM COMPONENTS: F.1: Infrared optics; F.2: Optical

  10. The Fit Matters: Influence of Accelerometer Fitting and Training Drill Demands on Load Measures in Rugby League Players. (United States)

    McLean, Blake D; Cummins, Cloe; Conlan, Greta; Duthie, Grant; Coutts, Aaron J


    Determine the relationship between drill type and accelerometer-derived loads during various team sport activities, and examine the influence of unit fitting on these loads. Sixteen rugby league players were fitted with microtechnology devices in either manufacturer vests or playing jerseys before completing standardised running, agility and tackling drills. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) accelerometer loads (BodyLoad TM ) per km were compared across drills and fittings (i.e. vest and jersey). When fitted in a vest, 2D BodyLoad TM was higher during tackling (21.5±14.8 AU/km) compared with running (9.5±2.5 AU/km) and agility (10.3±2.7 AU/km). Jersey fitting resulted in more than two-fold higher BodyLoad TM during running (2D 9.5±2.7 vs 29.3±14.8 AU/km; 3D 48.5±14.8 vs 111.5±45.4) and agility (2D 10.3±2.7 vs 21.0±8.1 AU/km; 3D 40.4±13.6 vs 77.7±26.8 AU/km), compared with a vest fitting. Jersey fitting also produced higher BodyLoad TM during tackling drills (2D = 21.5±14.8 vs 27.8±18.6 AU/km; 3D = 42.0±21.4 vs 63.2±33.1 AU/km). This study provides evidence supporting the construct validity of 2D BodyLoad TM for assessing collision/tackling load in rugby league training drills. Conversely, the large values obtained from 3D BodyLoad TM (which includes the vertical load vector) appear to mask small increases in load during tackling drills, rendering 3D BodyLoad TM insensitive to changes in contact load. Unit fitting has a large influence on accumulated accelerometer loads during all drills, which is likely related to greater incidental unit movement when units are fitted in jerseys. Therefore, it is recommended that athletes wear microtechnology units in manufacturer provided vests to provide valid and reliable information.

  11. Ward-based interventions for patients with hemispatial neglect in stroke rehabilitation: a systematic literature review. (United States)

    Klinke, Marianne E; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Hjaltason, Haukur; Jónsdóttir, Helga


    To identify rehabilitation interventions that can be integrated into ward-based nursing for patients with hemispatial neglect following stroke in the right brain hemisphere. A systematic review of interdisciplinary literature. A preliminary literature search without time limits was conducted in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. We then searched the PubMed, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases for relevant articles published between January 2006 and June 2014. Selected journals were searched manually. Additional resources were explored by scrutinizing reference lists and tracking citations of the selected articles. Titles and abstracts were matched with the inclusion criteria. Articles were read in their entirety if the abstracts adhered to inclusion criteria or if there was any uncertainty. Two reviewers evaluated the risk of methodological bias independently by using quantitative appraisal forms from the Johanna Briggs Institute (JBI). Any disagreements were resolved by consensus. Authors of nine studies were contacted to acquire additional information. The JBI Reviewers' Manual was used to guide the overall procedure of the review. We used the PRISMA statement to ensure precise reporting of the results. The selected studies were graded according to the strength of their evidence (Levels 1-5); the proposed interventions were given recommendation grades (Grades A-D). Using 41 original studies, 11 interventions were identified. These comprise: (1) contralesional neck vibration (Grade C); (2) emotionally salient stimuli and reward (Grade D); (3) family participation and intensity of training (Grade C); (4) limb activation training (Grade C); (5) mental imagery training, (Grade D); (6) mirror therapy (Grade C); (7) music therapy (Grade D); (8) right half-field eye patching (Grade D); (9) smooth pursuit eye-movement training (Grade B); (10) virtual reality and computer-based training (Grade C); and (11) visual scanning training (Grade D). A total of 11 promising

  12. Cyclosporine A induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Sung Kim

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine A (CsA is a powerful immunosuppressive drug with side effects including the development of chronic nephrotoxicity. In this study, we investigated CsA treatment induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death in pituitary GH3 cells. CsA treatment (0.1 to 10 µM decreased survival of GH3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability decreased significantly with increasing CsA concentrations largely due to an increase in apoptosis, while cell death rates due to autophagy altered only slightly. Several molecular and morphological features correlated with cell death through these distinct pathways. At concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 10 µM, CsA induced a dose-dependent increase in expression of the autophagy markers LC3-I and LC3-II. Immunofluorescence staining revealed markedly increased levels of both LC3 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2, indicating increases in autophagosomes. At the same CsA doses, apoptotic cell death was apparent as indicated by nuclear and DNA fragmentation and increased p53 expression. In apoptotic or autophagic cells, p-ERK levels were highest at 1.0 µM CsA compared to control or other doses. In contrast, Bax levels in both types of cell death were increased in a dose-dependent manner, while Bcl-2 levels showed dose-dependent augmentation in autophagy and were decreased in apoptosis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD showed a similar dose-dependent reduction in cells undergoing apoptosis, while levels of the intracellular calcium ion exchange maker calbindin-D9k were decreased in apoptosis (1.0 to 5 µM CsA, but unchanged in autophagy. In conclusion, these results suggest that CsA induction of apoptotic or autophagic cell death in rat pituitary GH3 cells depends on the relative expression of factors and correlates with Bcl-2 and Mn-SOD levels.

  13. Analysis of recurring sinking events of armored tracked vehicles along dirt roads in the agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip (United States)

    Roskin, Joel


    The second (Al-Aqsa) intifada (Arab violent uprising) which erupted across Israel in 2000 eventually led the Israel Defense Forces to deploy armored tracked vehicles (ATVs) (tanks, armored personal carriers, and D-9 bulldozers) within Israel's agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip, following daily attempts by Arab terrorists and guerillas to penetrate Israel. Combat movement of the ATVs was mainly concentrated to dirt roads, between agricultural fields, wherever possible. As a result of semi-arid Mediterranean (climate) winter rains, annually averaging 250 - 350 mm, it was reported that ATVs often sank in muddy terrain. This study investigated what caused ATVs to sink. The main data collected concerning the types of vehicles that sank related to: land-use characteristics, soil type, and daily rainfall. Interviews with commanders were also conducted for additional details. Between the fall and spring, surveys and weekly / bi-weekly field soil cone penetrometer tests were conducted at ten sites with different pedological and land-use characteristics. The loess soils, especially in agricultural fields, were generally found to be conducive to ATV traffic, even shortly after rainstorms of 10-30 mm. However, following several rainfall events exceeding 10 mm, ATVs and tanks regularly sank into local topographic depressions in the undulating landscape. These consisted of short segments of dirt roads where runoff and suspended sediment collected. After the early rains in late fall, tank ruts fossilize and become conduits of concentrated runoff and fine particles eroded by ATV activity during the summer months. Tank track ruts that formed in mud, compacted the soil, drastically altered drainage patterns by directing significant surface flow, and suspended sediment into these depressions, creating "tank-traps" whose trafficability ranged from "untrafficable" to "trafficable with constraints." This study shows that intense, routine, defensive military activity operated

  14. Screening of marine bacteria with bacteriocin-like activities and probiotic potential for ornate spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) juveniles. (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Duy; Pham, Thu Thuy; Nguyen, Thi Hai Thanh; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Xuan; Hoj, Lone


    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, which have been found in diverse bacterial species of terrestrial origins and some from the sea. New bacteriocins with new characteristics, new origins and new applications are likely still awaiting discovery. The present study screened bacteria isolated from marine animals of interest to the aquaculture industry for antimicrobial and bacteriocin-like activities in order to uncover biodiversity of bacteriocin producers, and explore the potential application in aquaculture. In total, 24 of 100 screened isolates showed antimicrobial activities and 7 of these exerted bacteriocin-like activities. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes identified the isolates as members of the six genera Proteus, Providencia, Klebsiella, Alcaligenes, Bacillus and Enterococcus. In some cases, further analysis of housekeeping genes, rpoB for Proteus and recA for Klebsiella, as well as biochemical tests was necessary for identification to species level, and some of the Proteus isolates may represent novel species. The seven bacteriocinogenic isolates showed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against foodborne and animal pathogens, which opens the way to their potential use as marine drugs and probiotics in food, aquaculture, livestock and clinical settings. As a case study, the protective effect of shortlisted bacteriocinogenic isolates were tested in aquaculture-raised spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) juveniles. A single-strain (Bacillus pumilus B3.10.2B) and a three-strain (B. pumilus B3.10.2B, Bacillus cereus D9, Lactobacillus plantarum T13) probiotic preparation were added to the feed of Panulirus ornatus juveniles, which were subsequently challenged with the pathogen Vibrio owensii DY05. Juveniles in the probiotic treatments displayed increased growth and reduced feed conversion rates after 60 days, and increased survival rate after pathogen challenge relative to the control. This study represents the first evidence of bacteriocin

  15. Short communication: Rumination and feeding behaviors differ between healthy and sick dairy cows during the transition period. (United States)

    Schirmann, K; Weary, D M; Heuwieser, W; Chapinal, N; Cerri, R L A; von Keyserlingk, M A G


    The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the rumination and feeding behavior of freestall-housed Holstein dairy cows in the weeks around parturition, and (2) to determine the relationship between postpartum disease and precalving rumination and feeding behavior. Eighty cows were enrolled at approximately 2wk (18±7d, mean ± standard deviation) before calving. Using automatic monitoring systems, rumination and feeding behavior were recorded continuously from 10d before until 3wk after calving. Postpartum health checks were performed each day, and metritis assessment was conducted 2 times/wk. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate was measured 3 times/week, and cows with ≥1.2mmol/L during the first 14d postpartum were diagnosed as having subclinical ketosis. The final data set included 64 cows in 5 groups: healthy (n=20), metritis (n=18), subclinical ketosis (SCK; n=9), metritis+SCK (n=9), and >1 health problem and not included before (MULT, n=8). We compared rumination and feeding data between healthy cows and the 4 categories of ill animals in each of 4 periods relative to calving: precalving (d -7 to -2), period 1 (d 3 to 8 postpartum), period 2 (d 9 to 14 postpartum), and period 3 (d 15 to 20 postpartum). Cows with SCK spent less time ruminating during the precalving period. Compared with healthy cows, those with SCK and metritis+SCK had lower dry matter intake during the precalving period and continued to eat less until d 14 and d 20 postpartum, respectively. Cows with metritis and MULT cows had lower dry matter intake during the first 2wk postpartum. Precalving feeding time was lower for SCK, metritis+SCK, and MULT cows compared with healthy cows. The difference in feeding time between healthy and metritis+SCK cows had disappeared by period 2 and between all health categories except MULT by period 3. MULT cows visited the feed bins less often and were less often replaced at the feed bin throughout all 4 periods of the study. Automatic monitoring of intake and

  16. The dopamine antagonist domperidone increases prolactin concentration and enhances milk production in dairy cows. (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S


    In previous studies, our team showed that the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion by the dopamine agonist quinagolide reduces milk production in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of a dopamine antagonist on basal and milking-induced PRL concentrations in blood and on milk production during positive energy balance and feed restriction in dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein cows received daily s.c. injections of either domperidone (300 mg, DOMP, n=9) or the vehicle, canola oil (CTL, n=9), for 5 wk. During wk 5, all cows were fed at 65% of their dry matter intake in the previous week. Blood and milk samples were collected before (for blood) and during (for milk) the a.m. milking thrice weekly from d -9 to 41 (8d after the last injection). In addition, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d -1 (before the first injection), and on d 1, 28, and 34. Basal PRL concentration was similar in both groups before the start of the treatments. Domperidone injections caused a gradual increase in basal PRL concentration. Feed restriction reduced basal PRL concentration in both the CTL and DOMP cows, but PRL concentration remained higher in the DOMP cows. Prolactin concentration remained elevated in the DOMP cows 7d after the last injection. The milk concentration of PRL increased during the DOMP treatment, but the increase was smaller than that observed in serum. In the CTL cows, the milking-induced PRL release above the premilking concentration was similar on d -1, 1, and 28 but was reduced during feed restriction. In the DOMP cows, the milking-induced PRL release was similar on d -1 and 1 but was reduced on d 28 and 34. Milk production was similar for both groups before the treatments started but was greater in the DOMP cows during the treatment period, at 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.6 kg/d greater during wk 3 and 4 of treatment, respectively. Milk production declined in both groups during feed

  17. Active video games and energy balance in male adolescents: a randomized crossover trial. (United States)

    Gribbon, Aidan; McNeil, Jessica; Jay, Ollie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe


    Active video games (AVGs) have been shown to acutely increase energy expenditure when compared with seated video games; however, the influence of AVGs on compensatory adjustments in energy intake and expenditure is largely unknown. The aim was to examine the acute effects of AVGs on energy intake and expenditure. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 26 male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 1.4 y) completed three 1-h experimental conditions: resting control, seated video game play (Xbox 360; Microsoft), and AVG play (Kinect Adventures on Xbox 360) followed by an ad libitum lunch. A validated food menu was used to assess food intake immediately after the conditions and for the remainder of the day, and a dietary record was used for the subsequent 3-d period. Energy expenditure was measured by using portable indirect calorimetry throughout each experimental condition, and an accelerometer was used to assess the subsequent 3-d period. Appetite sensations were assessed by using visual analog scales at different time points during the testing day. The primary outcomes were acute (immediately after the conditions and 24-h) and short-term (3-d) energy intake and expenditure. Energy expenditure was significantly higher (~145%; P video game conditions; however, no significant differences in energy expenditure were observed 24 h (~6%; P > 0.49) and 3 d after the experimental conditions (~3%; P > 0.82). No significant differences were observed in absolute energy intake immediately after the conditions (~2%; P > 0.94) or in absolute energy intake 24 h (~5%; P > 0.63) and 3 d (~9%; P > 0.53) after the experimental conditions. Finally, appetite sensations were similar between conditions at all time points (P > 0.05). The increase in energy expenditure promoted by a single session of Kinect AVG play is not associated with increased food intake but is compensated for after the intervention, resulting in no measurable change in energy balance after 24 h. These results

  18. Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) as a proxy for GPP: Complications derived from studies on the impact of CO2, soil humidity and sterilization on the OCS exchange between soils and atmosphere (United States)

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Behrendt, Thomas; Yi, Zhigang; Kesselmeier, Jürgen


    Carbonyl sulfide is discussed to be used as a proxy for gross primary productivity (GPP) of forest ecosystems. However, soils may interfere. Soils play an important role in budgeting global and local carbonyl sulfide (OCS) fluxes, yet the available data on the uptake and emission behavior of soils in conjunction with environmental factors is limited. The work of many authors has shown that the OCS exchange of soils depends on various factors, such as soil type, atmospheric OCS concentrations, temperature or soil water content (Kesselmeier et al., J. Geophys. Res., 104, No. D9, 11577-11584, 1999; Van Diest & Kesselmeier, Biogeosciences, 5, 475-483, 2008; Masyek et al., PNAS, 111, No 25, 9064-9069, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1319132111, 2014; Whelan and Rhew, J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosciences., 120, 54-62, doi: 10.1002/2014JG002661, 2015) and the light dependent and obviously abiotic OCS production as reported by Whelan and Rhew (2015). To get a better constraint on the impact of some environmental factors on the OCS exchange of soils we used a new laser based integrated cavity output spectroscopy instrument (LGR COS/CO Analyzer Model 907-0028, Los Gatos, Mountain View, California, USA) in conjunction with an automated soil chamber system (as described in Behrendt et al, Biogeosciences, 11, 5463-5492, doi: 10.5194/bg-11-5463-2014, 2014). The OCS exchange of various soils under the full range of possible soil humidity and various CO2 mixing ratios was examined. Additionally OCS exchange of chloroform sterilized subsamples was compared to their live counterparts to illuminate the influence of microorganisms. Results were quite heterogeneous between different soils. With few exceptions, all examined soils show dependence between OCS exchange and soil humidity, usually with strongest uptake at a certain humidity range and less uptake or even emission at higher and lower humidity. Differences in CO2 mixing ratio also clearly impacts on OCS exchange, but trends for different soils

  19. Impact of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Associated with Temporary Weaning, Estradiol Benzoate, or Estradiol Cypionate on Timed Artificial Insemination in Primiparous Bos Indicus Cows

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    Andre Luis Bastos Souza

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the impact of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG associated with different timed artificial insemination (TAI protocols on the pregnancy rate (PR in Bos indicus cows previously treated with progesterone. Five hundred and fifty-seven primiparous cows were subjected to the following treatments: on day 0 (d0, GeCGTW (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Temporary Weaning;n=178 received 0,558 g intravaginal progesterone (P4+1.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (IM; on d8 (P4 removal+0,075 mg D-cloprostenol + 400 IU eCG + TW for 48 h; on d10, TAI + calves return to dam; GeCGEB (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol benzoate; n=176 the same as GeCGTW without TW + application of 1.0 mg of EB on d9; GeCGEC (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol Cypionate; n=203, the same as GeCGTW without TW+1.5 mg EC (IM. On d35, post TAI, pregnancy diagnosis (PD was performed. Non-pregnant animals remained under clean-up bulls for 90 days. After this period, the animals were subjected to PD using ultrasound. The PR of TAI was 51.1%, 47.1%, and 47.8% for GeCGTW, GeCGEB24, and GeCGEC (P>0.05 respectively. The PR under clean-up bulls was 88.3%, 47.3%, and 31.1% (P<0.05. The final PR (TAI+clean-up bulls of the groups was 94.4%, 72.1%, and 64.0%, respectively (P<0.05. It was concluded that no differences in PR among the protocols related to TAI were detected; PR in the GeCGTW protocol under clean-up bulls was higher compared to others (P<0.05; the overall PR of cows subjected to TAI+clean-up bulls was significantly higher in GeCGTW than in the other groups.

  20. Cyto-, myelo- and chemoarchitecture of the prefrontal cortex of the Cebus monkey. (United States)

    Cruz-Rizzolo, Roelf J; De Lima, Miguel A X; Ervolino, Edilson; de Oliveira, José A; Casatti, Claudio A


    According to several lines of evidence, the great expansion observed in the primate prefrontal cortex (PfC) was accompanied by the emergence of new cortical areas during phylogenetic development. As a consequence, the structural heterogeneity noted in this region of the primate frontal lobe has been associated with diverse behavioral and cognitive functions described in human and non-human primates. A substantial part of this evidence was obtained using Old World monkeys as experimental model; while the PfC of New World monkeys has been poorly studied. In this study, the architecture of the PfC in five capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was analyzed based on four different architectonic tools, Nissl and myelin staining, histochemistry using the lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and immunohistochemistry using SMI-32 antibody. Twenty-two architectonic areas in the Cebus PfC were distinguished: areas 8v, 8d, 9d, 12l, 45, 46v, 46d, 46vr and 46dr in the lateral PfC; areas 11l, 11m, 12o, 13l, 13m, 13i, 14r and 14c in the orbitofrontal cortex, with areas 14r and 14c occupying the ventromedial corner; areas 32r, 32c, 25 and 9m in the medial PfC, and area 10 in the frontal pole. This number is significantly higher than the four cytoarchitectonic areas previously recognized in the same species. However, the number and distribution of these areas in Cebus were to a large extent similar to those described in Old World monkeys PfC in more recent studies. The present parcellation of the Cebus PfC considerably modifies the scheme initially proposed for this species but is in line with previous studies on Old World monkeys. Thus, it was observed that the remarkable anatomical similarity between the brains of genera Macaca and Cebus may extend to architectonic aspects. Since monkeys of both genera evolved independently over a long period of time facing different environmental pressures, the similarities in the architectonic maps of PfC in both genera are issues of interest

  1. Cyto-, myelo- and chemoarchitecture of the prefrontal cortex of the Cebus monkey

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    Casatti Claudio A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to several lines of evidence, the great expansion observed in the primate prefrontal cortex (PfC was accompanied by the emergence of new cortical areas during phylogenetic development. As a consequence, the structural heterogeneity noted in this region of the primate frontal lobe has been associated with diverse behavioral and cognitive functions described in human and non-human primates. A substantial part of this evidence was obtained using Old World monkeys as experimental model; while the PfC of New World monkeys has been poorly studied. In this study, the architecture of the PfC in five capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella was analyzed based on four different architectonic tools, Nissl and myelin staining, histochemistry using the lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and immunohistochemistry using SMI-32 antibody. Results Twenty-two architectonic areas in the Cebus PfC were distinguished: areas 8v, 8d, 9d, 12l, 45, 46v, 46d, 46vr and 46dr in the lateral PfC; areas 11l, 11m, 12o, 13l, 13m, 13i, 14r and 14c in the orbitofrontal cortex, with areas 14r and 14c occupying the ventromedial corner; areas 32r, 32c, 25 and 9m in the medial PfC, and area 10 in the frontal pole. This number is significantly higher than the four cytoarchitectonic areas previously recognized in the same species. However, the number and distribution of these areas in Cebus were to a large extent similar to those described in Old World monkeys PfC in more recent studies. Conclusions The present parcellation of the Cebus PfC considerably modifies the scheme initially proposed for this species but is in line with previous studies on Old World monkeys. Thus, it was observed that the remarkable anatomical similarity between the brains of genera Macaca and Cebus may extend to architectonic aspects. Since monkeys of both genera evolved independently over a long period of time facing different environmental pressures, the similarities in the architectonic

  2. Comprehensive molecular mechanics model for oxidized type I copper proteins: active site structures, strain energies, and entatic bulging. (United States)

    Deeth, Robert J


    The ligand field molecular mechanics (LFMM) model has been applied to the oxidized Type 1 copper center. In conjunction with the AMBER94 force field implemented in DommiMOE, the ligand field extension of the molecular operating environment (MOE), LFMM parameters for Cu-N(imidazole), Cu-S(thiolate), Cu-S(thioether), and Cu-O(carbonyl) interactions were developed on the basis of experimental and theoretical data for homoleptic model systems. Subsequent LFMM optimizations of the active site model complex [Cu(imidazole)2(SMe)(SMe2]+ agree with high level quantum results both structurally and energetically. Stable trigonal and tetragonal structures are located with the latter about 1.5 kcal mol-1 lower in energy. Fully optimized unconstrained structures were computed for 24 complete proteins containing T1 centers spanning four-coordinate, plastocyanin-like CuN2SS' and stellacyanin-like CuN2SO sites, plus the five-coordinate CuN2SS'O sites of the azurins. The initial structures were based on PDB coordinates augmented by a 10 A layer of water molecules. Agreement between theory and experiment is well within the experimental uncertainties. Moreover, the LFMM results for plastocyanin (Pc), cucumber basic protein (CBP) and azurin (Az) are at least as good as previously reported QM/MM structures and are achieved several orders of magnitude faster. The LFMM calculations suggest the protein provides an entatic strain of about 10 kcal mol-1. However, when combined with the intrinsic 'plasticity' of d9 Cu(II), different starting protein/solvent configurations can have a significant effect on the final optimized structure. This 'entatic bulging' results in relatively large fluctuations in the calculated metal-ligand bond lengths. For example, simply on the basis of 25 different starting configurations of the solvent molecules, the optimized Cu-S(thiolate) bond lengths in Pc vary by 0.04 A while the Cu-S(thioether) distance spans over 0.3 A. These variations are the same order of

  3. Conserved N-terminal negative charges support optimally efficient N-type inactivation of Kv1 channels.

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    Alison Prince

    Full Text Available N-type inactivation is produced by the binding of a potassium channel's N-terminus within the open pore, blocking conductance. Previous studies have found that introduction of negative charges into N-terminal inactivation domains disrupts inactivation; however, the Aplysia AKv1 N-type inactivation domain contains two negatively charged residues, E2 and E9. Rather than being unusual, sequence analysis shows that this N-terminal motif is highly conserved among Kv1 sequences across many phyla. Conservation analysis shows some tolerance at position 9 for other charged residues, like D9 and K9, whereas position 2 is highly conserved as E2. To examine the functional importance of these residues, site directed mutagenesis was performed and effects on inactivation were recorded by two electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes. We find that inclusion of charged residues at positions 2 and 9 prevents interactions with non-polar sites along the inactivation pathway increasing the efficiency of pore block. In addition, E2 appears to have additional specific electrostatic interactions that stabilize the inactivated state likely explaining its high level of conservation. One possible explanation for E2's unique importance, consistent with our data, is that E2 interacts electrostatically with a positive charge on the N-terminal amino group to stabilize the inactivation domain at the block site deep within the pore. Simple electrostatic modeling suggests that due to the non-polar environment in the pore in the blocked state, even a 1 Å larger separation between these charges, produced by the E2D substitution, would be sufficient to explain the 65× reduced affinity of the E2D N-terminus for the pore. Finally, our studies support a multi-step, multi-site N-type inactivation model where the N-terminus interacts deep within the pore in an extended like structure placing the most N-terminal residues 35% of the way across the electric field in the pore blocked

  4. Genome-wide linkage analysis of von Willebrand factor plasma levels: results from the GAIT project. (United States)

    Souto, Juan Carlos; Almasy, Laura; Soria, Jose Manuel; Buil, Alfonso; Stone, William; Lathrop, Mark; Blangero, John; Fontcuberta, Jordi


    High plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) have been associated with the risk of thromboembolic disease. As a complex trait, this phenotype must be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Among the genetic factors, only the ABO gene located on chromosome 9q34 has been clearly linked to the plasma levels of vWF. This locus explains about 30-40% of the genetic variability. Therefore, the source of the majority of the genetic component remains to be identified. To search for these unknown loci, we conducted a genomewide linkage screen for genes affecting normal variation in vWF levels in 21 Spanish families as part of the GAIT (Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia) Project. The results showed that the strongest linkage signal (LOD =3.46, p = 0.00003) for vWF was found on chromosome 9q34 at the DNA marker D9S290, where the ABO gene is located. Additional suggestive linkage signals were found on chromosomes 2q23.2 (LOD = 1.65, p = 0.003) and 1p36.13 (LOD =1.32, p = 0.007). After refining the linkage analysis, conditional to the ABO genotype, three additional loci on chromosomes 5, 6 and 22 showed LOD scores higher than 1, suggesting the presence of other genes linked to vWF levels. Curiously, no linkage signals were detected in other chromosome regions previously associated with vWF levels (like the structural VWF gene on 12p13.2 or Lewis blood group gene on 19q13). These results indicate that these loci are not important genetic determinants of the normal variation of vWF levels. Our results indicate that the ABO locus is the major genetic determinant of the plasma levels of the vWF in Spanish population. It is possible that there are other potential regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 6 and 22 that influence this thrombosis risk factor. However, the structural vWF gene itself has a very low influence (if any) on the plasma levels of vWF.

  5. Desenvolvimento embrionário in vitro de oócitos bovinos mantidos em líquido folicular ou TCM-hepes

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    Denis Faustino Alves


    Full Text Available Complexos Cumulus-Oócito (CCO bovinos foram divididos em 4 grupos para avaliar o seu comportamento durante a manutenção em LFb e maturação in vitro (MIV em TCM-199 com ou sem Hepes. CCO MIV por 24h em TCM-199 em estufa a 39°C com 5,00% de CO2 (Controle tiveram o seu desenvolvimento comparado ao de CCO MIV em tubos repletos de TCM-HEPES (5,95 mg/mL, em banho-maria (BM a 39ºC por 24h (Grupo 1 - BM24h, ao de CCO mantidos em líquido folicular bovino (LFb, por 6h a 30ºC seguido de maturação por 18h nas mesmas condições que o grupo Controle (Grupo 2 - LFb6C18h e ao de CCO mantidos em LFb seguido da maturação por 18h sob as mesmas condições que o grupo 1 (Grupo 3 - LFb6BM18h. A fecundação foi realizada em FERT-TALP por 18h. Os zigotos foram cultivados em SOFaaci, sob óleo mineral, em bolsas plásticas gaseificadas. A taxa de clivagem no Grupo Controle foi superior a do Grupo 3 (P<0,05, mas não houve diferença no percentual de blastocistos no D7 e D9 e no de blastocistos eclodidos entre os 4 grupos. Portanto, oócitos podem ser mantidos por 6h em LFb, a 30ºC, antes da maturação em TCM-HEPES por 18h ou ser maturados por 24h, em TCM-HEPES, em banho-maria a 39ºC, sem atmosfera gasosa controlada. A simplificação da MIV aqui introduzida através do preenchimento de tubos de 1,0mL com TCM-HEPES e manutenção em banho-maria a 39ºC, poderá ser uma opção viável e prática para os programas de OPU/PIV em bovinos.

  6. Produção in vitro de embriões bovinos em tubos sem controle da atmosfera gasosa

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    Mario Kurtz Filho


    Full Text Available Com a maior utilização da OPU existe a necessidade de encontrar alternativas para iniciar as primeiras fases da PIV sem controle da atmosfera. O desenvolvimento de um método prático e simples de transporte/maturação/fecundação permitiria maior eficiência do laboratório e diminuição dos custos de produção. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um método de maturação e fecundação para complexos cumulus oócitos (CCO em tubos de polipropileno sem gaseificação, mantidos em banho-maria. A maturação in vitro em estufa foi conduzida em TCM-199 modificado (controle enquanto que para os tratamentos em banho-maria, em tubos, o meio foi acrescido de 25mM de N-2-hidroxietilpiperazina-N'-2-ácido etanosulfônico (HEPES. Na fecundação in vitro dos oócitos em tubos, os CCO foram mantidos em banho-maria a 39°C em Talp-Fert, acrescido de HEPES em concentrações entre 10mM a 28,7 mM por 10 a 18 horas, sob óleo mineral. O cultivo realizou-se em placas em bolsas gaseificadas com meio SOFaaci com soro de vaca em estro (SVE, sob óleo mineral, em estufa com 5,00%CO2 , 5,00%O2 e 90,00% de N2 a 39°C, por 9 dias. Verificou-se que CCO maturados por 24h em tubos não gaseificados, mantidos em banho-maria também podem ser fecundados em meio Talp-Fert com 25 mM de HEPES, em tubos não gaseificados, mantidos em banho-maria durante 10 horas. As taxas de clivagem, blastocistos em D7 e D9 em tubos não gaseificados foram semelhantes (P>;0,05 aos procedimentos em estufa. A fecundação em Talp-Fert com 10 mM a 28,7 mM de HEPES em tubos mantidos em banho-maria prejudica o desenvolvimento embrionário quando conduzida por 18 horas.

  7. Intra-Amniotic Administration (Gallus gallus) of Cicer arietinum and Lens culinaris Prebiotics Extracts and Duck Egg White Peptides Affects Calcium Status and Intestinal Functionality. (United States)

    Hou, Tao; Kolba, Nikolai; Glahn, Raymond P; Tako, Elad


    Calcium (Ca) is one of the most abundant inorganic elements in the human body and has many important physiological roles. Prebiotics and bioactive peptides are two important substances used to promote calcium uptake. However, the difference in mechanisms of the calcium uptake from these two supplements is not clear. By using the Gallus gallus model and the intra-amniotic administration procedure, the aim of this study was to investigate whether Ca status, intestinal functionality, and health-promoting bacterial populations were affected by prebiotics extracted from chickpea and lentil, and duck egg white peptides (DPs). Eleven groups (non-injected; 18 MΩ H₂O; 4 mmol/L CaCl₂; 50 mg/mL chickpea + 4 mmol/L CaCl₂; 50 mg/mL lentil + 4 mmol/L CaCl₂; 40 mg/mL DPs + 4 mmol/L CaCl₂; 5 mg/mL Val-Ser-Glu-Glu (VSEE) + 4 mmol/L CaCl₂; 50 mg/mL chickpea; 50 mg/mL lentil; 40 mg/mL DPs; 5 mg/mL VSEE) were utilized. Upon hatch, blood, cecum, small intestine, liver and bone were collected for assessment of serum bone alkaline phosphate level (BALP), the relative abundance of intestinal microflora, expression of Ca-related genes, brush border membrane (BBM) functional genes, and liver and bone mineral levels, respectively. The BALP level increased in the presence of lentil, DPs and VSEE (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of probiotics increased significantly (p < 0.05) by VSEE + Ca and chickpea. The expression of CalbindinD9k (Ca transporter) increased (p < 0.05) in Ca, chickpea + Ca and lentil + Ca groups. In addition, the brush border membrane functionality genes expressions increased (p < 0.05) by the chickpea or lentil extracts. Prebiotics and DPs beneficially affected the intestinal microflora and duodenal villus surface area. This research expands the understanding of the prebiotics' properties of chickpea and lentil extracts, and peptides' effects on calcium metabolism and gut health.

  8. Hepatic insulin sensitivity in healthy and prediabetic subjects: from a dual- to a single-tracer oral minimal model. (United States)

    Visentin, Roberto; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Rizza, Robert A; Cobelli, Claudio


    Recently, a model was proposed to assess hepatic insulin sensitivity during a meal, i.e., the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production (EGP), SI (P). The model was developed on EGP data obtained from a triple-tracer meal and the tracer-to-tracee clamp technique and validated against the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The aim of this study was to assess whether SI (P) can be obtained from plasma concentrations measured after a single-tracer meal by incorporating the above EGP model into the oral glucose minimal model by describing both glucose production and disposal (OMM(PD)). Triple-tracer meal data of two databases (20 healthy and 60 healthy and prediabetic subjects) were used. Virtually model-independent EGP estimates were calculated. OMM(PD) was identified on exogenous and endogenous glucose concentrations, providing indices of SI (P), disposal insulin sensitivity (SI (D)), and EGP. The model fitted the data well, and SI (P) and SI (D) were estimated with precision in both databases (SI (P) = 5.48 ± 0.54 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml and SI (D) = 9.93 ± 2.18 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml in healthy; SI (P) = 5.41 ± 3.55 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml and SI (D) = 5.34 ± 6.17 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml, in healthy and prediabetic subjects). Estimated SI (P) and that derived from the triple-tracer EGP model were very similar on average. Moreover, the time course of EGP normalized to basal EGP (EGPb), and EGP/EGPb agreed with the results obtained using the triple-tracer method. In this study, we have demonstrated that SI (P), SI (D), and EGP/EGPb time course can be estimated reliably from a single-tracer meal protocol in both healthy and prediabetic subjects. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Development of a GnRH-PGF2α-progesterone-based synchronization protocol with eCG for inducing single and double ovulations in beef cattle. (United States)

    Martinez, M F; Tutt, D; Quirke, L D; Tattersfield, G; Juengel, J L


    Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of different doses and timing of an eCG treatment given during GnRH-based synchronization protocols on follicular dynamics and fertility in cattle. In Exp. 1, Angus heifers (n = 50) received a 7-d Ovsynch + progesterone protocol (on d 0, GnRH and progesterone insert were administered; on d 7, progesterone insert was removed and PGF2α was injected; and on d 9.5, GnRH was injected 56 h after progesterone removal) with eCG (0, 300, 500, 700, or 1,000 IU) administered on d 7. In Exp. 2, Angus cows (n = 27) received the same protocol as Exp. 1 and were assigned randomly to receive 0 or 400 IU eCG i.m. on d 2 or 7. In Exp. 3, Angus cows (n = 18) received a 6-d Ovsynch + progesterone protocol and were randomly assigned to receive 0 or 800 IU eCG on d 3 of the protocol (Exp. 3a). A pilot field trial was also performed using the same treatments in suckled Angus-cross cows (n = 72; Exp. 3b). In Exp. 4, beef heifers (n = 200) were assigned randomly to the same treatments as in Exp. 3, but the second GnRH was not given, with Holstein bulls introduced on d 6. In Exp. 5, Angus cows (n = 12) received the same treatment as in Exp. 3, but were not inseminated. Progesterone concentrations were assessed in plasma collected during the estrous cycle following synchronization. Ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian dynamics and to diagnose pregnancy. In Exp. 1, the mean number of ovulations was affected (P synchronization. Thus, the mechanism by which administration of eCG on d 3 of the synchronization increased pregnancy rates may be through supporting development of a healthy follicle and subsequent corpus luteum capable of secreting increased concentrations of progesterone during early pregnancy. In conclusion, strategic administration of eCG during a synchronization protocol can be used to improve reproductive performance through increased pregnancy rates in single ovulating animals as well as the induction of twin ovulations

  10. Resynchronizing estrus and ovulation after not-pregnant diagnosis and various ovarian states including cysts. (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Tiffany, S M


    We compared outcomes of 2 protocols used to resynchronize estrus and ovulation in dairy females after a not-pregnant diagnosis. Nulliparous heifers and lactating cows in which artificial insemination (AI) occurred 41 +/- 1 d earlier were presented every 2 to 3 wk for pregnancy diagnosis by using ultrasonography. Ovaries were scanned, follicles were mapped and sized, presence of corpus luteum was noted, and GnRH was injected (d 0). Females were assigned randomly to receive PGF(2alpha) 7 d later (d 7) and then either received estradiol cypionate (ECP) 24 h after PGF(2alpha) (d 8; Heatsynch; n = 230) or a second GnRH injection 48 h after PGF(2alpha) (d 9; Ovsynch; n = 224). Those detected in estrus since their not-pregnant diagnosis were inseminated, whereas the remainder received a timed AI (TAI) between 65 and 74 h after PGF(2alpha). Ovarian scans and blood collected before injections for progesterone analysis were used to classify 4 ovarian status groups: anestrus, follicular cysts, luteal cysts, and cycling, plus an unknown group of females in which no blood sampling or ovarian scans were made. Few females (5.1%) were inseminated between not-pregnant diagnosis and d 8. On d 10, more ECP- than GnRH-treated females were inseminated after detected estrus (24 vs. 6%). Overall, more Ovsynch than Heatsynch females received a TAI (82 vs. 62%). Conception rates tended to be greater for females inseminated after estrus (37%) than after TAI (29%), particularly for those treated with Heatsynch (41 vs. 27%) than with Ovsynch (33 vs. 31%). Those inseminated after estrus conceived 31 +/- 8 d sooner than those receiving the TAI. Conception rates for females having elevated progesterone 7 d after the not-pregnant diagnosis were greater than those having low progesterone in Heatsynch (42%; n = 133 vs. 25%; n = 55) and Ovsynch protocols (33%; n = 142 vs. 15%; n = 45), respectively. Conception rates were greater in nulliparous heifers than in lactating cows (43 vs. 28%) regardless

  11. Combined effects of chitosan and microencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis CG1.0007 probiotic supplementation on performance and diarrhea incidences in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+ challenged piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole Aluko


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS and a microencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis CG1.0007 probiotic (PRO on growth performance and diarrhea incidences in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC K88+ challenged piglets in a 14-d study. Thirty piglets, 7.19 ± 0.52 kg initial BW weaned at 21 ± 1 d, were allotted to 5 treatment groups (n = 6 consisting of a corn–soybean meal diet with no additive (negative control, NC, NC + 0.25% chlortetracycline (positive control, PC, NC + 400 mg/kg COS (COS, NC + 100 mg/kg PRO (PRO and NC + a combination of COS and PRO (CPRO. Pigs were individually housed in cages, acclimated to treatments for a 7-d period and had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the study. On d 8, pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and then orally challenged with 6 mL (1 × 1011 cfu/mL of freshly grown ETEC inoculum. During post-challenge period, blood was sampled at 24 and 48 h to determine plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, and diarrhea incidences and fecal consistency scores were recorded from d 9 to 12. On d 14, all pigs were weighed and then euthanized to obtain intestinal tissue samples for histomorphometric measurements. Growth performance responses were similar among treatments during the pre- and post-challenge periods. There were no significant differences in PUN content, incidences of diarrhea, and fecal consistency scores among treatments. The intestinal histomorphology results did not differ significantly among treatments except for PC with increased (P = 0.0001 villus:crypt ratio compared with the NC. Under the conditions of the present study, it can be concluded that supplementation of piglet diets with 400 mg/kg COS, 100 mg/kg microencapsulated PRO or their combination did not significantly improve piglet growth performance both during the pre- and post-ETEC K88+ oral inoculation. Also, there were no significant reduction

  12. Platelets contain tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 derived from megakaryocytes and inhibits fibrinolysis. (United States)

    Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Ponnuraj, Sathya-Moorthy; Kumar, Yogesh; Zaiss, Anne K; Bunce, Matthew W; Camire, Rodney M; Wu, Ling; Evseenko, Denis; Herschman, Harvey R; Bajaj, Madhu S; Bajaj, S Paul


    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is a homologue of TFPI-1 and contains three Kunitz-type domains and a basic C terminus region. The N-terminal domain of TFPI-2 is the only inhibitory domain, and it inhibits plasma kallikrein, factor XIa, and plasmin. However, plasma TFPI-2 levels are negligible (≤20 pM) in the context of influencing clotting or fibrinolysis. Here, we report that platelets contain significant amounts of TFPI-2 derived from megakaryocytes. We employed RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy to determine that platelets, MEG-01 megakaryoblastic cells, and bone marrow megakaryocytes contain TFPI-2. ELISA data reveal that TFPI-2 binds factor V (FV) and partially B-domain-deleted FV (FV-1033) with K(d) ~9 nM and binds FVa with K(d) ~100 nM. Steady state analysis of surface plasmon resonance data reveal that TFPI-2 and TFPI-1 bind FV-1033 with K(d) ~36-48 nM and bind FVa with K(d) ~252-456 nM. Further, TFPI-1 (but not TFPI-1161) competes with TFPI-2 in binding to FV. These data indicate that the C-terminal basic region of TFPI-2 is similar to that of TFPI-1 and plays a role in binding to the FV B-domain acidic region. Using pull-down assays and Western blots, we show that TFPI-2 is associated with platelet FV/FVa. TFPI-2 (~7 nM) in plasma of women at the onset of labor is also, in part, associated with FV. Importantly, TFPI-2 in platelets an