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Sample records for raphanus sativus subsp

  1. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that consumption of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has positive influence on reduction of risks of a number of cancers and cardiovascular diseases, due to its content of some beneficial phytochemicals [1-3]. In traditional Chinese medicine, Raphanus sativus seed oil, which is rich in sulforaphene, is used to improve intestinal.

  2. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane ...

  3. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  4. Characterization of Cell Wall Composition of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) and Maturation Related Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Brett, Anika; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-11-16

    Cell wall composition affects the texture of plant-based foods. In addition, the main components of plant cell walls are dietary fiber constituents and are responsible for potential physiological effects that are largely affected by the structural composition of the cell walls. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) is known to develop a woody and firm texture during maturation and ripening, most likely due to changes in the cell wall composition. To describe these changes chemically, radish was cultivated and harvested at different time points, followed by detailed chemical analysis of insoluble fiber polysaccharides and lignin. During maturation, changes in polysaccharide profiles were observed, with a decrease in the portion of neutral pectic side chains and an increase in the xylan portion being predominant. Radish lignin was characterized by unexpectedly high incorporation of p-coumaryl alcohol into the polymer. Maturation dependent increases in lignin contents were accompanied by compositional changes of the lignin polymers with sinapyl alcohol being preferentially incorporated.

  5. Polyphenolics profile and antioxidant properties of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2012-01-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological properties. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of R. sativus root extracted with solvents of varying polarity were evaluated using different model systems. Polyphenolic content was estimated to be in the range 13.18-63.54 mg g⁻¹ dry weight, with a considerable amount being obtained with polar solvents. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated the presence of an array of polyphenolics. Catechin was found to be the most abundant phenolic compound in water extract and sinapic acid, the predominant phenolic compound in methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. The methanolic extract showed significant ferric reducing ability, moderate metal chelating activity and strong radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract could be successfully utilised as an ingredient in functional foods. However, water extract could be more pertinent to human nutrition as it contained a significant amount of catechin, which was comparable to traditional sources like green and black tea.

  6. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  7. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  8. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  9. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and evolutionary analysis of flowering genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Cheng, Feng; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Duan, Mengmeng; Yang, Haohui; Li, Xixiang

    2017-12-19

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to the family Brassicaceae, and is an economically important root crop grown worldwide. Flowering is necessary for plant propagation, but it is also an important agronomic trait influencing R. sativus fleshy taproot yield and quality in the case of an imbalance between vegetative and reproductive growth. There is currently a lack of detailed information regarding the pathways regulating the flowering genes or their evolution in R. sativus. The release of the R. sativus genome sequence provides an opportunity to identify and characterize the flowering genes using a comparative genomics approach. We identified 254 R. sativus flowering genes based on sequence similarities and analyses of syntenic regions. The genes were unevenly distributed on the various chromosomes. Furthermore, we discovered the existence of R. sativus core function genes in the flowering regulatory network, which revealed that basic flowering pathways are relatively conserved between Arabidopsis thaliana and R. sativus. Additional comparisons with Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa indicated that the retained flowering genes differed among species after genome triplication events. The R. sativus flowering genes were preferentially retained, especially those associated with gibberellin signaling and metabolism. Moreover, analyses of selection pressures suggested that the genes in vernalization and autonomous pathways were more variable than the genes in other R. sativus flowering pathways. Our results revealed that the core flowering genes are conserved between R. sativus and A. thaliana to a certain extent. Moreover, the copy number variation and functional differentiation of the homologous genes in R. sativus increased the complexity of the flowering regulatory networks after genome polyploidization. Our study provides an integrated framework for the R. sativus flowering pathways and insights into the evolutionary relationships between R. sativus flowering

  10. Transcriptome analysis of leaf tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Zhang

    Full Text Available Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus.

  11. Development of genomic and EST-SSR markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsuji, Ryoichi; Hashida, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hirai, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to Brassicaceae family and is a close relative of Brassica. This species shows a wide morphological diversity, and is an important vegetable especially in Asia. However, molecular research of radish is behind compared to that of Brassica. For example, reports on SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers are limited. Here, we designed 417 radish SSR markers from SSR-enriched genomic libraries and the cDNA data. Of the 256 SSR markers succeeded in PCR, 130 showed...

  12. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE OF ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE ACTIVITY OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. VAR. CAUDATUS IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Younus, Ishrat; Siddiq, and Afshan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Currently-available antidepressant agents produce various adverse effects, and are expensive. At present, various plants are being evaluated for their possible role against numerous diseases, and no doubt, the role of traditional and complementary medicines in the development of effective therapy is incredible. The present study was designed to evaluate antidepressant-like activity of Raphanus sativus L. Var. caudatus at different doses in mice. Materials and Methods: Antidepressa...

  13. Biondication of Shartashsky forest park urban soil of Ekaterinburg using Raphanus Sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baglaeva Elena Mikhailovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ekaterinburg is a large industrial center of Russia. The pollution of the environment with heavy metals is increasing due to the industrialization and human activities. Heavy metals present a very serious problem for all living beings. The aim of this paper is to identify the pollutant content changes in the environment using Raphanus Sativus. For bioindication of urbanized soil in Shartashsky forest park of Ekaterinburg city the growth of Raphanus Sativus was investigated at ten sample plots and a control one. The element concentration in the plants and soil samples was determined by X-ray analysis. The transition of zinc, titanium, iron and calcium from the soil into the Raphanus Sativus was assessed. The results of the correlation analysis of the content of chemical elements in the samples of plants and soil can be represented as a scheme: Ti (0.94> Zn (0.68> Ca (0.53> Fe (0.45. Spearman correlation coefficients are given in brackets. Zinc content in the soil and radish samples was found to be higher than the maximum allowable concentration defined in accordance with the Russian State Standard System. It is shown that radish can be used as an indicator of soil pollution with zinc.

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Pham Thi Kim; Nguyet, Nguyen Thi Minh; Dao, Dong Thi Anh

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of flavonoid extract from white radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.). Antimicrobial activity was determined by agar diffusion method against 4 strains: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS* radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The constituent elements of flavonoid extract were identified by LC-MS. Results showed that the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L. had antibacterial activity against to all four tested bacteria strains with antibacterial ring diameters in the range 8 - 20 mm in the test concentrations from 100 to 1600 mg/ml. Minimum concentration to inhibit (MIC) in the range 20 - 40 mg/ml. In addition, the extract also has the ability to eliminate ABTS* free radical with IC50 = 7.074 µg/ml. The total antioxidant capacity of extract at concentration of 100 µg/ml was 3.424 ± 0.043 mg ascorbic acid/mg. In the extract, there are three flavonoids were found: rutin, quercetin and narigenin. This is the first time narigenin was found in Raphanus sativus L. extract.

  15. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE OF ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE ACTIVITY OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. VAR. CAUDATUS IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Ishrat; Siddiq, and Afshan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Currently-available antidepressant agents produce various adverse effects, and are expensive. At present, various plants are being evaluated for their possible role against numerous diseases, and no doubt, the role of traditional and complementary medicines in the development of effective therapy is incredible. The present study was designed to evaluate antidepressant-like activity of Raphanus sativus L. Var. caudatus at different doses in mice. Materials and Methods: Antidepressant potential of ethanolic extract of Raphanus caudatus L. was evaluated at three different doses 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg by using forced swim test and tail suspension test on albino male mice. The results were compared with control and standard mice groups administered with normal saline and Fluoxetine respectively. In both parameters immobility period was recorded two times during 60 days dosing. Results: The ethanol extract at all three tested doses (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) and standard fluoxetine demonstrated notable antidepressant-like activity (pRaphanus caudatus ameliorate depression-like behavior in rodent model, and can be used to establish newer antidepressant approaches in future. However, mechanism-based studies are needed to establish the mechanistic action of Raphanus caudatus L. List of Abbreviations: EERC Ethanol Extract of Raphanus caudatus: FST Forced swim test: TSTTail suspension test PMID:28480425

  16. Molecular characterization of a trisegmented chrysovirus isolated from the radish Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Xiwu

    2013-09-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is cultivated worldwide and is of agronomic importance. dsRNAs associated with partitiviruses were previously found in many R. sativus varieties. In this study, three large dsRNAs from radish were cloned using a modified single primer amplification technique. These three dsRNAs-of lengths 3638, 3517 and 3299 bp-shared conserved untranslated terminal regions, and each contained a major open reading frame putatively encoding the chrysoviral replicase, capsid protein and protease respectively. Isometric virus-like particles (VLP), approximately 45nm in diameter, were isolated from the infected radish plants. Northern blotting indicated that these dsRNAs were encapsidated in the VLP. The virus containing these dsRNA genome segments was named Raphanus sativus chrysovirus 1 (RasCV1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RasCV1 is a new species of the Chrysoviridae family and forms a plant taxon with another putative plant chrysovirus, Anthurium mosaic-associated virus (AmaCV). Furthermore, no fungal mycelia were observed in radish leaf tissues stained with trypan blue. These results indicated that RasCV1 is most likely a plant chrysovirus rather than a chrysovirus in symbiotic fungi. An exhaustive BLAST analysis of RasCV1 and AmaCV revealed that chrysovirus-like viruses might widely exist in eudicot and monocot plants and that endogenization of chrysovirus segments into plant genome might have ever happened. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitrogen release from differently aged Raphanus sativus L. nitrate catch crops during mineralization at autumn temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) has emerged as a promising nitrate catch crop in cereal cropping, although the course of remineralization of residue N following termination of this frost-sensitive crucifer remains obscured. We incubated radish residues of different age (different planting and harvest dates......) with a loamy sand soil; mineralization of residue N was determined after 1, 2, 4 and 7 months of incubation at 2 °C and 10 °C. Incubations with soil only and with residues of white mustard (Sinapis alba, L) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) were included as references. Using linear regression, net N...

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish.

  19. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification, expression, and functional analysis of CLE genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) storage root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Maria S; Dodueva, Irina E; Lebedeva, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Tkachenko, Alexandr A; Lutova, Ludmila A

    2016-01-27

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a widespread agricultural plant forming storage root due to extensive secondary growth which involves cambium proliferation and differentiation of secondary conductive tissues. Closely related to the model object Arabidopsis thaliana, radish is a suitable model for studying processes of secondary growth and storage root development. CLE peptides are a group of peptide phytohormones which play important role in the regulation of primary meristems such as SAM, RAM, and procambium, as well as secondary meristems. However, the role of CLE peptides in lateral growth of root during storage root formation has not been studied to date. In present work we studied the role of CLE peptides in the development of storage root in radish. We have identified 18 CLE genes of radish (RsCLEs) and measured their expression in various plant organs and also at different stages of root development in R. sativus and Raphanus raphanistrum-its close relative which does not form storage root. We observed significant decline of expression levels for genes RsCLE1, 2, 11, 13, and 16, and also multifold increase of expression levels for genes RsCLE19, and 41 during secondary root growth in R. sativus but not in R. raphanistrum. Expression of RsCLE 2, 19, and 41 in R. sativus root was confined to certain types of tissues while RsCLE1, 11, 13, and 16 expressed throughout the root. Experiments on overexpression of RsCLE2, 19 and 41 or treatment of radish plants with synthetic CLE peptides revealed that CLE19 and CLE2 increase the number of xylem elements, and CLE41 induces the formation of extra cambium foci in secondary xylem. Expression levels of RsCLE2 and 19 strongly decrease in response to exogenous cytokinin, while auxin causes dramatic increase of RsCLE19 expression level and decrease of RsCLE41 expression. Our data allow us to hypothesize about the role of RsCLE2, 19 and 41 genes in the development of storage root of Raphanus sativus, e.g. RsCLE19 may play a

  1. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  2. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  3. Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piman Pocasap

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The reproductive parts (flower, pod, and dry seed of Raphanus sativus have the greatest isothiocyanate concentration, evidenced by a sulforaphene concentration higher than the sulforaphane. This result should inform the selection of the most appropriate harvesting stage and plant part for use as a potential chemopreventive agent.

  4. Oxidative Stress Induction by Lead in Leaves of Radish (Raphanus sativus Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet BITEUR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress was induced by lead acetate (Pb in Raphanus sativus seedlings grown in a hydroponic system using sand as substrate. Thirty day old acclimated seeds were treated for 7 days with five Pb levels (0 as control, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg l-1. Parameters such as growth, oxidative damage markers (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and hydrogen peroxide contents and enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were investigated. Lead concentration in plant tissues increased with increasing of Pb levels. Shoot fresh weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration were significantly decreased at 100 mg l-1 Pb. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and H2O2 levels were increased at 500 and 1000 mg l-1 Pb compared to control treatment, in shoots. Peroxidase activity showed a straight correlation with H2O2 concentration, whereas CAT activity decreased only in shoots. These changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants showed that the Pb exposition had a significant disturbance on Raphanus sativus plantlets and affect the biochemical and physiological processes.

  5. Mutant selection in the self-incompatible plant radish (Raphanus sativusL.var. sativus) using two-step TILLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Chiba, Motoko; Nagano, Soichiro; Anai, Toyoaki; Ueda, Miki U; Oguchi, Riichi; Shirai, Kazumasa; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2017-06-01

    Radish ( Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus ), a widely cultivated root vegetable crop, possesses a large sink organ (the root), implying that photosynthetic activity in radish can be enhanced by altering both the source and sink capacity of the plant. However, since radish is a self-incompatible plant, improved mutation-breeding strategies are needed for this crop. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful method used for reverse genetics. In this study, we developed a new TILLING strategy involving a two-step mutant selection process for mutagenized radish plants: the first selection is performed to identify a BC 1 M 1 line, that is, progenies of M 1 plants crossed with wild-type, and the second step is performed to identify BC 1 M 1 individuals with mutations. We focused on Rubisco as a target, since Rubisco is the most abundant plant protein and a key photosynthetic enzyme. We found that the radish genome contains six RBCS genes and one pseudogene encoding small Rubisco subunits. We screened 955 EMS-induced BC 1 M 1 lines using our newly developed TILLING strategy and obtained six mutant lines for the six RsRBCS genes, encoding proteins with four different types of amino acid substitutions. Finally, we selected a homozygous mutant and subjected it to physiological measurements.

  6. Mutant selection in the self-incompatible plant radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) using two-step TILLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Chiba, Motoko; Nagano, Soichiro; Anai, Toyoaki; Ueda, Miki U.; Oguchi, Riichi; Shirai, Kazumasa; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2017-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus), a widely cultivated root vegetable crop, possesses a large sink organ (the root), implying that photosynthetic activity in radish can be enhanced by altering both the source and sink capacity of the plant. However, since radish is a self-incompatible plant, improved mutation-breeding strategies are needed for this crop. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful method used for reverse genetics. In this study, we developed a new TILLING strategy involving a two-step mutant selection process for mutagenized radish plants: the first selection is performed to identify a BC1M1 line, that is, progenies of M1 plants crossed with wild-type, and the second step is performed to identify BC1M1 individuals with mutations. We focused on Rubisco as a target, since Rubisco is the most abundant plant protein and a key photosynthetic enzyme. We found that the radish genome contains six RBCS genes and one pseudogene encoding small Rubisco subunits. We screened 955 EMS-induced BC1M1 lines using our newly developed TILLING strategy and obtained six mutant lines for the six RsRBCS genes, encoding proteins with four different types of amino acid substitutions. Finally, we selected a homozygous mutant and subjected it to physiological measurements. PMID:28744180

  7. Transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root and identification of genes involved in response to Lead (Pb) stress with next generation sequencing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L...

  8. Polyphenolics profile, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of leaves and stem of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Narasu, Mangamoori Lakshmi; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2010-03-01

    Aerial parts (leaves and stem) of Raphanus sativus, which are usually discarded were found to possess potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, as measured by standard antioxidant assays. Methanolic and acetone extracts of R. sativus leaves had total polyphenolic content of 86.16 and 78.77 mg/g dry extract, which were comparable to the traditional rich sources such as green tea and black tea. HPLC identification of polyphenolics indicated the presence of catechin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, myricetin, and quercetin in leaves and stem. Among the different extraction solvents, methanolic extract of leaves and stem showed potent reductive capacity, significantly inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation and displayed metal chelating activity. Further, they scavenged free radicals effectively with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 31 and 42 microg/ml for DPPH radical, 23 and 52 microg/ml for superoxide radical, 67 and 197 microg/ml for hydrogen peroxide,and 56 and 62 microg/ml for nitric oxide, respectively. Leaves showed most potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity as compared to stem, which may be accounted for the high polyphenolic content. Leaves and stem of R. sativus,often under-utilized part of this vegetable, thus possessed considerable amount of polyphenolics. Hence, it should be egarded as a potential source of natural antioxidants and could be effectively employed as an ingredient in health or in functional food.

  9. AHAS Trp-574-Leu substitution in Raphanus sativus L.: screening, enzyme activity and fitness cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellino, Roman B; Pandolfo, Claudio E; Breccia, Gabriela; Cantamutto, Miguel; Presotto, Alejandro

    2018-01-03

    Feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a problematic weed that has become resistant to AHAS (acetohydroxyacid synthase) inhibitor herbicides due to the Trp-574-Leu mutation. AHAS gene mutation that causes herbicide resistance may present negative pleiotropic effects on plant fitness. This study reports the effects of the Trp-574-Leu mutation on AHAS activity and reproductive traits of R. sativus. Eight out of 17 feral radish accessions presented resistant individuals to metsulfuron-methyl from 0.5 to up to more than 90.0 % and all the resistant individuals analyzed showed the Trp-574-Leu mutation. Without herbicide selection, the AHAS activity of a susceptible accession was 3.2-fold higher than the resistant one. The resistant accession was > 9000-fold more resistant to metsulfuron-methyl and imazethapyr than the susceptible one. Under low intraspecific competition during two growing seasons, the AHAS resistant feral radish accessions showed 22 - 38 and 21 - 47 % lower seed number and yield per plant than the susceptible ones. This is the first report of fitness cost associated with the AHAS Trp-574-Leu mutation in R. sativus populations. This fitness cost could reduce the frequency of the resistant allele without the herbicide selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

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    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  11. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes.

  12. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  14. Milk prevents the degradation of daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) isothiocyanate and enhances its absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Epidemiological and experimental researches show that isothiocyanate (ITC), a class of phytochemical compounds that imparts a characteristic biting taste and pungent odour to cruciferous vegetables, such as daikon (Japanese white radish, Raphanus sativus L. Daikon Group), broccoli, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage, possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The concentration of daikon ITC, which degrades in aqueous solution, was measured in mixtures of daikon juice and water, corn oil, or milk. Daikon juice mixed with corn oil or milk showed a higher concentration (1.4-fold) of daikon ITC than that in mixture with water; thus, corn oil and milk prevent the degradation of daikon ITC. Moreover, orally administered daikon juice with milk increased daikon ITC absorption in rats. Therefore, dishes or drinks that include raw daikon with corn oil or milk may promote the possible health benefits of daikon ITC by preventing ITC degradation and enhancing its absorption in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanism Underlying the Onset of Internal Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata; Masuda, Daisuke

    2016-09-07

    The internal blue discoloration observed in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots is a physiological phenomenon caused by storage following harvest at approximately 20 °C and poses a serious problem for farmers. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying the onset of internal blue discoloration of three cultivars: Hukuhomare, SC8-260, and Yuto. Each cultivar was maintained under the same conditions. Additionally, Hukuhomare radish roots were maintained at three different cultivation conditions in a related experiment. The blue discoloration in radish roots was caused by the oxidation of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin as a result of an increase in oxidative stress involving peroxidase. Thus, the extent of blue discoloration was influenced by the chemical balance involving 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin content, antioxidant capacity, and oxidation activity.

  16. Effects of plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Attri, Pankaj; Koga, Kazunori; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have studied the action of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on seeds of Raphanus sativus L. and analysis their growth. Our experimental data shows that Air, O2, and NO(10%)+N2 feeding gases plasma irradiation enhanced plant growth, whereas N2, He and Ar feeding gases plasma irradiation had little influence on plant growth. Moreover, humid air plasma irradiation was more effective in growth enhancement than dry one. More than 2.3 times faster growth was observed by 3 min air plasma irradiation with 40-90% relative humidity. The reactive species generated by plasma in gas phase were detected using optical emission spectroscopy and in liquid phase by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. We concluded that OH and O radicals were key species for plant growth enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using an endophytic fungal supernatant of Raphanus sativus

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    Tej Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from supernatant of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from the healthy leaves of Raphanus sativus is studied. The synthesized AgNPs are characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The structural analysis is done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The stability of AgNPs is studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS method. The size and shape of AgNPs are observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM and found to be spherical with an average particles size of 4–30 nm. Further, these AgNPs have been found to be highly toxic against human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting the possibility of using AgNPs as efficient antibacterial agents.

  18. Application of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Raphanus sativus for catalytic degradation of organic dyes

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    Singh Tej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, economical, sustainable route of synthesis of nanoparticles and ecofriendliness. Based on the search to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating biological risks in biomedical applications, the present article reports an environment friendly and unexploited methods for biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Raphanus sativus leaf extract. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The absorption spectrum of the dark brown color silver colloids showed a single and prominent peak at 431nm, indicating the presence of AgNPs. Further, catalytic degradation of methylene blue (organic dye by using AgNPs was measured spectrophotometrically. The results revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs was found to be impressive in degrading methylene blue and can be used in water purification systems.

  19. EFECTO DE INOCULACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS EN CRECIMIENTO DE RÁBANO (Raphanus sativus EFEITO DA INOCULAÇÃO MICRORGANISMOS NO CRESCIMENTO DE RABANETE (Raphanus sativus EFFECT OF INOCULATION OF MICROORGANISMS ON RADISH GROWTH (Raphanus sativus

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    LUZ INDIRA SOTELO D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la inoculación de microorganismos que pueden estimular el crecimiento en plantas, ha sido de gran interés para la producción de bioinsumos en los últimos años. Se inocularon cepas de Azotobacter sp, Bacillus pumilus y Bacillus licheniformis en un cultivo de rábano (Raphanus sativus, aisladas e identificadas de un proceso de compostaje de la empresa (GEO ®. Se realizó un diseño experimental de cinco tratamientos y un control, con 15 repeticiones para cada uno. Previo a la aplicación de los tratamientos cada cepa se sometió individualmente a crecimiento en caldo de cultivo. La aplicación de cada tratamiento se efectuó dos veces por aspersión, con un intervalo de 15 días durante el tiempo de cultivo. Las variables de respuesta que se evaluaron en el cultivo de rábano fueron: longitud de las plantas, número de hojas y peso seco del sistema radicular. Los resultados mostraron menor efectividad en la producción de biomasa radicular en el tratamiento T5 (mezcla de los tres microorganismos; además se encontró un mayor rendimiento en todas las variables de respuesta, con la utilización de la fertllización química. Sin embargo los tres microorganismos aplicados individualmente presentan resultados promisorios para la aplicación en cultivos agrícolas de ciclo corto.O efeito da inoculação de microrganismos que podem estimular o crescimento em plantas tem sido de grande interesse para a produção de bio-produtos nos últimos anos. Isolados foram inoculados Azotobacter sp, Bacillus pumilus e Bacillus licheniformis em uma cultura de rabanete (Raphanus sativus isolados e identificados em um processo de compostagem da empresa (GEO ®. Foi realizado um delineamento experimental de cinco tratamentos e controle, com 15 repetições para cada um. Antes da aplicação dos tratamentos, cada cepa foi submetida ao crescimento individual em caldo. A aplicação de cada tratamento foi realizada por aspersão duas vezes com um

  20. Biotechnological Production of Inducible Defense-Related Proteins in Edible Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Found in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Praval; Karmacharya, Anil; Sharma, Shishir; Nepal, Ashwini K.; Shrestha, Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fungal infection in plant leads to use of many hazardous antifungal chemicals. Alternative to these chemicals, defense related antifungal proteins can be used in case of fungal diseases. Aims: An experiment was done in two varieties of edible radish (Raphanus sativus var. Pyuthane Raato and Raphanus sativus var. all season) with aims to produce defense protein within the plant, to identify and perform molecular characterization of those antifungal proteins. The next aim was to compare the antifungal property of those proteins with commercially available synthetic pesticides. Methods: Both varieties of radish were infected with fungi (Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum). Protein samples were isolated from leaves following the standard protocol as described for β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and were run along with the standard protein marker of 10-250kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify and molecularly characterize them. Results: An additional band in the range of 37-50kDa was observed in the fungal infected samples, which was not seen on uninfected samples. The antifungal assay was carried out for every sample in 96 wells microtitre plate. The extracted protein samples from fungal inoculated plants showed the significant inhibition of fungal growth compared to other samples. On the basis of molecular weight and their antifungal properties, the protein samples from the fungal infected plant were found to be PR2 (Glucanase) and PR3 (Chitinase). Conclusion: Defense related proteins were successfully produced in two varieties of radish found in Nepal. The use of such biologically produced proteins may reduce the use of biologically harmful synthetic pesticides. PMID:24596739

  1. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  2. Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity

    OpenAIRE

    Piman Pocasap; Natthida Weerapreeyakul; Waraporn Tanthanuch; Kanjana Thumanu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the concentration differences of sulforaphene and sulforaphane at various ages and in different parts of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus with respect to their potential cancer preventive effect on HCT116 colon cancer cells. Methods: FTIR–ATR and GC–MS were used to characterize the isothiocyanates in the plant extracts followed by HPLC for quantification. Antiproliferation and apoptosis induction were determined by using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. ...

  3. Evaluation of the Toxic Effect of Lead on Some Parameters of Growth Radish Plant (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Houria Aoumeur,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The lead pollution has become a serious problem threatening our ecosystems with detrimental effects on crop production and biodiversity, so much research is currently focused on new environmentally friendly methods such as phytoremediation .The work undertaken registers with a view to study the physiological, biochemical behavior of the plant radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In this context, the dose (250, 500 and 1000 mg / l of lead acetate were applied to radish (Raphanus sativus L. relative to a control (absence of the Lead, for a period of two months. The results show apparent changes in various parameters studied in stressed plants compared to controls. Macroscopic (inhibition of germination rate, decreased biomass and size reduction, physiological (disruption of water status, decreased chlorophyll pigments and carotenoids content were observed. Histological changes at the level of the rods (deformation of the walls of the medullary parenchyma cells, and roots (occlusion of xylem vessels were observed. However, a strong correlation between soil Lead and plant Lead was noticed. Accordingly, lead uptake by Raphanus sativus L. is influenced by its bioavailability in soil.

  4. Insights into the species-specific metabolic engineering of glucosinolates in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) based on comparative genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Xiaowu; Yue, Zhen; Yang, Xinhua; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; He, Hongju; Li, Xixiang

    2017-11-22

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products present in Brassicales play important roles in plants against herbivores and pathogens as well as in the protection of human health. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of species-specific GSLs and their hydrolysed products in Raphanus sativus L., we performed a comparative genomics analysis between R. sativus and Arabidopsis thaliana. In total, 144 GSL metabolism genes were identified, and most of these GSL genes have expanded through whole-genome and tandem duplication in R. sativus. Crucially, the differential expression of FMOGS-OX2 in the root and silique correlates with the differential distribution of major aliphatic GSL components in these organs. Moreover, MYB118 expression specifically in the silique suggests that aliphatic GSL accumulation occurs predominantly in seeds. Furthermore, the absence of the expression of a putative non-functional epithiospecifier (ESP) gene in any tissue and the nitrile-specifier (NSP) gene in roots facilitates the accumulation of distinctive beneficial isothiocyanates in R. sativus. Elucidating the evolution of the GSL metabolic pathway in R. sativus is important for fully understanding GSL metabolic engineering and the precise genetic improvement of GSL components and their catabolites in R. sativus and other Brassicaceae crops.

  5. De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87 predicted protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the radish cp genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 protein-coding gene sequences from the 17 cp genomes of the Brassicaceae family suggested that the radish cp genome is most closely related to the cp genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassicanapus. Comparisons with the B. rapa and B. napus cp genomes revealed highly divergent intergenic sequences and introns that can potentially be developed as diagnostic cp markers. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of cp genes suggested that nucleotide substitutions have occurred at similar rates in most genes. The complete sequence of the radish cp genome would serve as a valuable resource for the development of new molecular markers and the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Raphanus species in the Brassicaceae family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Isothiocyanate profile and selective antibacterial activity of root, stem, and leaf extracts derived from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Dhand, Vivek; Ramakrishna, Damaraju Siva

    2009-01-01

    Acetone and hexane extracts derived from the root, stem, and leaf of Raphanus sativus were investigated for their antibacterial activity against foodborne and resistant pathogens, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli. Total and individual isothiocyanate (ITC) components and their relationship with the antibacterial activity of R. sativus were also evaluated. Both acetone and hexane fractions of root, stem, and leaf exhibited selective antibacterial activity against the organisms tested. Antibacterial activity was strongest in the acetone fraction of root with larger zone of inhibition and lower minimum inhibitory concentration. The results obtained were comparable to that seen with standard antibiotics. Of the different parts of R. sativus studied, root tended to be more active than the stem and leaf extracts in inhibiting the bacterial growth. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of variable amounts of five different ITCs such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate, and 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) in different parts of the plant. The low linear correlation between the total ITC content and antibacterial activity implied that bacterial growth inhibitory ability of R. sativus was not dependent on the total ITC content. However, the antibacterial activity of R. sativus was well correlated with AITC, PITC, and BITC for all organisms except for Enteroc. faecalis, whose inhibitory effect was more related to MTBITC.

  7. Stress-responsive gene RsICE1 from Raphanus sativus increases cold tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Lili; Xiang, Dianjun; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Qi, Guochao

    2017-03-01

    The ICE1 transcription factor plays a critical role in plant cold tolerance via triggering CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. In this work, a novel MYC-type ICE1-like gene, RsICE1, was isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and its function in cold tolerance was characterized in rice. The RsICE1 gene was expressed constitutively with higher transcriptional levels in the roots and stems of radish seedlings. The NaCl, cold, and ABA treatments could significantly upregulate RsICE1 expression levels, but dehydration stress had a weak effect on its expression. Ectopic expression of the RsICE1 gene in rice conferred enhanced tolerance to low-temperature stress grounded on a higher survival rate, higher accumulation of soluble sugars and free proline content, a decline in electrolyte leakage and MDA levels, and higher chlorophyll levels relative to control plants. OsDREBL and OsTPP1, downstream cold-regulated genes, were remarkably upregulated at transcription levels in rice overexpressing RsICE1 under low-temperature stress, which indicated that RsICE1 was involved in CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. Overall, the above data showed that RsICE1 played an active role in improving rice cold tolerance, most likely resulting from the upregulation of OsDREBL and OsTPP1 expression levels by interacting with the RsICE1 gene under low-temperature stress.

  8. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardali, Eleni; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papadelli, Marina; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem development and the dynamics of the lactic acid bacteria population during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine at 20 and 30 °C. In both temperatures, lactic acid bacteria prevailed the fermentation; as a result, the pH value was reduced to ca. 3.6 and total titrable acidity increased to ca. 0.4% lactic acid. Enterococci population increased and formed a secondary microbiota while pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds populations were below enumeration limit already before the middle of fermentation. Pediococcus pentosaceus dominated during the first days, followed by Lactobacillus plantarum that prevailed the fermentation until the end. Lactobacillus brevis was also detected during the final days of fermentation. A succession at sub-species level was revealed by the combination of RAPD-PCR and rep-PCR analyses. Glucose and fructose were the main carbohydrates detected in brine and were metabolized into lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol.

  9. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  10. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Potency of Lobak Leaves (Raphanus sativus L. var. hortensis Back as Anticancer and Antimicrobial Candidates

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    ESTU RETNANINGTYAS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of vegetables can preventive cancer and have been used traditionally to cure infection, such as lobak (Raphanus sativus L.. Ineffectiveness antibiotics to against microbial infections was still problem until now. Types of antibiotics and anticancer agents from natural resources should be explored and developed. This study was aimed to know toxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of active fractions from lobak leaves. Toxicity study was conducted using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST. Samples were prepared at the concentration of 100, 500, and 1000μg/mL. Antibacterial study against Staphylococcus aureus was conducted using agar-well diffusion method at concentration 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 100%. Ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract is the most active that had larger clear zone in S. aureus culture (10,64 mm and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract is the most active against A. salina (84% death A. salina at 100 µg/mL. Bioactive compounds at active fraction were identified to contain polar compounds.

  12. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh promoted the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosephate dehydrogenase (G-3-PD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-ICDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome-c oxidase (Cyt-c OD) in seedlings. Moreover, ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  13. Resistance Evaluation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. Inbred Lines against Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of twenties radish (Raphanus sativus L. inbred lines were mechanically inoculated with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV strain HY to evaluate TuMV resistance of the radish inbred lines. The inoculated radish plants were incubated at 22°C±3°C and resistance assessment was examined using symptom development for 4 weeks. Based on the reactions of differential radish inbred lines, 16 radish lines were produced mild mosaic, mottling, mosaic and severe mosaic symptoms by TuMV infection. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of TuMV coat protein gene, suggesting that TuMV is responsible for the disease symptoms. Four resistant radish lines did not induce systemic mosaic symptoms on upper leaves and chlorosis in stem tissues for 4 weeks, showing they were symptomless by 8 weeks. Further examination of TuMV infection in the 4 radish lines showed no TuMV infection in all systemic leaves. These results suggest that the 4 radish lines are highly resistant to TuMV.

  14. Anthocyanin accumulation and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Li, Xiaohua; Jang, In Hyuk; Park, Suhyoung; Ahn, Gil Hwan; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-08

    Radish [Raphanus sativus (Rs)] is an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in radish, the gene expression of enzymes directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed. These genes include phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). RsDFR and RsANS were found to accumulate in the flesh or skin of two radish cultivars (Man Tang Hong and Hong Feng No.1). Radish skin contained higher CHS, CHI, and F3H transcript levels than radish flesh in all three cultivars. In the red radish, 16 anthocyanins were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elctrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Some of them were acylated with coumaroyl, malonoyl, feruoyl, and caffeoyl moieties. Furthermore (-)-epicatechin and ferulic acid were also identified in the three cultivars.

  15. A Case of Anaphylaxis Induced by Contact with Young Radish (Raphanus sativus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyoung; Kang, Hye-Ran; Ha, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Young radish (Raphanus sativus L), a member of the mustard family (Cruciferae), is a common ingredient of Kimchi. Although few reports have described anaphylaxis to cruciferous vegetables, we report the case of anaphylaxis induced by contact with young radish. A 46-year-old female with a history of contact allergy to metal presented to our emergency room (ER) with dizziness, generalized eruption and gastrointestinal upset. Her symptoms developed after re-exposure to young radish while chopping it. Hypotensive blood pressures were noted. Three days prior, the patient had experienced generalized urticaria with pruritus immediately after chopping the fresh young radish, which resolved spontaneously. In the ER, her symptoms improved by the administration of epinephrine (0.3 mL), antihistamine (chlorpheniramine) and isotonic saline hydration. A skin prick test with young radish extract showed positive reactivity. The same skin test was negative in five adult controls. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity could be an important immunologic mechanism in the development of young radish-induced anaphylaxis.

  16. Initiation of spontaneous tumors in radish (Raphanus sativus): Cellular, molecular and physiological events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva Osipova, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Vinogradova, Alena P; Gancheva, Maria S; Azarakhsh, Mahboobeh; Ilina, Elena L; Demchenko, Kirill N; Dodueva, Irina E; Lutova, Lyudmila A

    2015-01-15

    In plant meristems, the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation is maintained by phytohormones, specifically auxin and cytokinin, as well as transcription factors. Changing of the cytokinin/auxin balance in plants may lead to developmental abnormalities, and in particular, to the formation of tumors. The examples of spontaneous tumor formation in plants include tumors formed on the roots of radish (Raphanus sativus) inbred lines. Previously, it was found that the cytokinin/auxin ratio is altered in radish tumors. In this study, a detailed histological analysis of spontaneous radish tumors was performed, revealing a possible mechanism of tumor formation, namely abnormal cambial activity. The analysis of cell proliferation patterns revealed meristematic foci in radish tumors. By using a fusion of an auxin-responsive promoter (DR5) and a reporter gene, the involvement of auxin in developmental processes in tumors was shown. In addition, the expression of the root meristem-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) gene was observed in cells adjacent to meristematic foci. Taken together, the results of the present study show that tumor tissues share some characteristics with root apical meristems, including the presence of auxin-response maxima in meristematic foci with adjacent cells expressing WOX5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of genomic and EST-SSR markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Ryoichi; Hashida, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hirai, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to Brassicaceae family and is a close relative of Brassica. This species shows a wide morphological diversity, and is an important vegetable especially in Asia. However, molecular research of radish is behind compared to that of Brassica. For example, reports on SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers are limited. Here, we designed 417 radish SSR markers from SSR-enriched genomic libraries and the cDNA data. Of the 256 SSR markers succeeded in PCR, 130 showed clear polymorphisms between two radish lines; a rat-tail radish and a Japanese cultivar, ‘Harufuku’. As a test case for evaluation of the present SSRs, we conducted two studies. First, we selected 16 SSRs to calculate polymorphism information contents (PICs) using 16 radish cultivars and four other Brassicaceae species. These markers detected 3–15 alleles (average = 9.6). PIC values ranged from 0.54 to 0.92 (average = 0.78). Second, part of the present SSRs were tested for mapping using our previously-examined mapping population. The map spanned 672.7 cM with nine linkage groups (LGs). The 21 radish SSR markers were distributed throughout the LGs. The SSR markers developed here would be informative and useful for genetic analysis in radish and its related species. PMID:23136479

  18. Florivores prefer white versus pink petal color morphs in wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Andrew C; Murphy, Stephen J; Venner, Colin; Brown, Monique

    2013-05-01

    Many hypotheses suggest that pollinators act to maintain or change floral color morph frequencies in nature, although pollinator preferences do not always match color morph frequencies in the field. Therefore, non-pollinating agents may also be responsible for color morph frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether Raphanus sativus plants with white flowers received different amounts of florivory than plants with pink flowers, and whether florivores preferred one floral color over the other. We found that white-flowered plants received significantly more floral damage than pink-flowered plants in eight populations over 4 years in northern California. Both generalists and specialists on Brassicaceae preferred white petals in choice and short-term no choice tests. In performance tests, generalists gained more weight on white versus pink petals whereas specialists gained similar amounts of weight on pink and white morphs. Because our results suggest that florivores prefer and perform better on white versus pink flowers, these insects may have the opportunity to affect the frequency of color morphs in the field.

  19. Energetic balance from biodiesel production of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Rubens [Parana Agronomical Institute (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: siqueira@iapar.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Boller, Walter [University of Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Agronomical and Veterinary College

    2008-07-01

    It was evaluated the energetic balance and the energetic efficiency of the oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) crop under the no-tillage system. The energy input totalized 6,718 MJ ha{sup -1} where the industrial processing, the fertilizer and the herbicide had participation of 30.7; 23.0 and 20.2 %, respectively. The energy production was 56,650.94 MJ ha{sup -1} and the produced grains have represented 33.2 % of the total. The energetic demand for the production of one kg of biomass of the aerial part, one kg of oil and one kg of biodiesel were respectively 1,829; 19,000 and 27,422 kJ. There was a return of 8.44 for each energy unit used in the process. The net gain of energy was 49,932 MJ ha{sup -1} which is equivalent in energy to 1,295 L diesel oil. (author)

  20. Penetapan Kadar Kalium, Kalsium dan Natrium dalam Umbi Lobak (Raphanus sativus L.)Dengan Metode Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Septiana, Falda

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a member of the cabbage family are planted in various areas, in which all parts of the plant radish can be used for various purposes in human life. Radish tubers can be eaten raw as fresh vegetables, made pickles or pickled, boiled and be cooked. The young leaves can be used raw or cooked vegetables. Besides tuber radish also has many benefits as a traditional medicine, contains a variety of nutrients that are beneficial to the body in the form of minerals that...

  1. Penetapan Kadar Mineral Magnesium, Besi, dan Tembaga pada Lobak Putih (Raphanus sativus L.) secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren, Jansen Benedict

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a member of the cabbage family are planted in various areas, in which all parts of the plant radish can be used for various purposes in human life. Radish tubers can be eaten raw as fresh vegetables, made pickles or pickled, boiled, and be cooked. Some nutrient can be decreased during the cooking process, including mineral. Radish tuber contain some minerals there are calcium, iron, sodium, magnesium, and copper. The purpose of this study was to determine the r...

  2. EVALUATION OF ESTERASE POLYMORPHISMS IN MATURE SEEDS OF RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. ACCESSIONS OF VIR COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rudakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A biochemical evaluation of 25 radish accessions (Raphanus sativus L. on esterase isozymes of mature seeds has been carried out. The results of the experiments showed a wide range of diversity among the genotypes based on electrophoretic zones of esterase isoenzymes. The revealed isoenzyme complex of esterases was represented by eight isoforms with molecular weights from 37.7 kD to 57.6 kD. All accessions were divided into 13 electrophoretic zymotypes, differing from each other by the presence or absence of definite zones. The most often observed electrophoretic zymo-type is Gr. 1, which includes 24% of the total number of accessions evaluated. There are 8 zymotypes (Gr. 6 Gr. 13 with a frequency of occurrence 4%. Three groups (Gr. 2 – Gr. 4 had the same frequency of occurrence – 12%. Zimotype of Gr. 5 containes the maximum number of zones – 8. 2 zimotypes – Gr. 3 and Gr. 12 had the smallest number of 4 zones. Two zones of esterases – zones 7 and 8 (Мr 39.7кD and Мr 37.7 kD, respectively were monomorphic. The remaining six zones were polymorphic, i.e. could be absent in some zimotypes. The frequency of occurrence of each zone in different zymotypes has varied from 6.58% to 17.11%. As results of this research the accessions that were selected can become the most promising parent forms for future genetic and selection studies of this culture.

  3. Novel glucosinolate composition lacking 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate in Japanese white radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Masahiko; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Ohara, Takayoshi; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Yoshiaki, Hitoshi; Kohori, Junna; Nishio, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    Genetic analysis and gene mapping of the 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate-less trait of white radish were performed and a white radish cultivar with new glucosinolate composition was developed. A spontaneous mutant having significantly low 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate (4MTB-GSL) content was identified from a landrace of Japanese white radish (Raphanus sativus L.) through intensive evaluation of glucosinolate profiles of 632 lines including genetic resources and commercial cultivars using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. A line lacking 4MTB-GSL was developed using the selected mutant as a gene source. Genetic analyses of F1, F2, and BC1F1 populations of this line suggested that the 4MTB-GSL-less trait is controlled by a single recessive allele. Using SNP and SCAR markers, 96 F2 plants were genotyped, and a linkage map having nine linkage groups with a total map distance of 808.3 cM was constructed. A gene responsible for the 4MTB-GSL-less trait was mapped between CL1753 and CL5895 at the end of linkage group 1. The genetic distance between these markers was 4.2 cM. By selfing and selection of plants lacking 4MTB-GSL, a new cultivar, 'Daikon parental line No. 5', was successfully developed. This cultivar was characterized by glucoerucin, which accounted for more than 90% of the total glucosinolates (GSLs). The total GSL content in roots was ca. 12 μmol/g DW, significantly lower than those in common white radish cultivars. Significance of this line in radish breeding is discussed.

  4. Ecotoxicity of halloysite nanotube-supported palladium nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgetti, Lucia; Riela, Serena; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Scialabba, Anna; Massaro, Marina

    2016-10-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are natural nanomaterials that are biocompatible and available in large amounts at low prices. They are emerging nanomaterials with appealing properties for applications like support for metal nanoparticles (NPs). The potential environmental impacts of NPs can be understood in terms of phytotoxicity. Current research has been focusing on HNT applications in cell or animal models, while their use in plants is limited so their ecotoxicological impact is poorly documented. To date there are no studies on the phytotoxic effects of functionalized halloysites (functionalized-HNTs). To develop a quantitative risk assessment model for predicting the potential impact of HNT-supported palladium nanoparticles (HNT-PdNPs) on plant life, an investigation was undertaken to explore their effects on seed germination, seedling development, and mitotic division in root tip cells of 2 lots of Raphanus sativus L. with different vigor. The results showed that exposure to 1500 mg/L of HNTs, functionalized-HNTs, and HNT-PdNPs had no significant influence on germination, seedling development, xylem differentiation, or mitotic index in both lots. Cytogenetic analyses revealed that treatments with functionalized-HNT significantly increased the number of aberrations in low-vigor seeds. These results suggest that low-vigor seeds represent a model for a stress test that would be useful to monitor the effects of NPs. Moreover the present study offers scientific evidence for the use of halloysite for environmental purposes, supporting the biological safety of HNT-PdNPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2503-2510. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant defence system in Raphanus sativus L. under chromium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have emerged as major environmental contaminants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of heavy metal like chromium (Cr) on man, animals and plants have been documented. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond critical levels generates oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by antioxidant defence system and stress shielding phytohormones. Thus, the present study has been focused to analyze the effect of one of imperative group of plant hormones, i.e., brassinosteroids (BRs) which have been reported for its protective properties for wide array of environmental stresses. Raphanus sativus L. (Pusa Chetaki) seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) were raised under various concentrations of Cr(VI). It was observed that 28-HBL treatment considerably reduced the impact of Cr-stress on seedlings which was evinced upon analysis of morphological and biochemical parameters of 7-days old radish seedlings. The toxic effects of Cr in terms of reduced growth, lowered contents of chlorophyll (Chl), protein, proline; increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and elevated metal uptake were ameliorated by applications of 28-HBL. Also, the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes except guaiacol peroxidase (POD), increased significantly when subjected to Cr stress in combination with 28-HBL. Overall, seed pre-soaking treatment of 28-HBL at 10(-7) M was most effective in ameliorating Cr stress. The present work emphasizes the protective role of 28-HBL on regulation of antioxidant enzymes and its possible link in amelioration of stress in plants.

  6. Dynamics of maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed development in wild radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, P. K.; Abrahamson, N. J.; Baker, R. L.; Barnes, M. G.; Koontz, T. L.; Lay, C. R.; Medeiros, J. S.; Murgel, J. L.; Shaner, M. G. M.; Simpson, H. L.; Wu, C. C.; Marshall, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Variability in embryo development can influence the rate of seed maturation and seed size, which may have an impact on offspring fitness. While it is expected that embryo development will be under maternal control, more controversial hypotheses suggest that the pollen donor and the embryo itself may influence development. These latter possibilities are, however, poorly studied. Characteristics of 10-d-old embryos and seeds of wild radish (Raphanus sativus) were examined to address: (a) the effects of maternal plant and pollen donor on development; (b) the effects of earlier reproductive events (pollen tube growth and fertilization) on embryos and seeds, and the influence of embryo size on mature seed mass; (c) the effect of water stress on embryos and seeds; (d) the effect of stress on correlations of embryo and seed characteristics with earlier and later reproductive events and stages; and (e) changes in maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed characteristics during development. Methods Eight maternal plants (two each from four families) and four pollen donors were crossed and developing gynoecia were collected at 10 d post-pollination. Half of the maternal plants experienced water stress. Characteristics of embryos and seeds were summarized and also compared with earlier and later developmental stages. Key Results In addition to the expected effects of the maternal plants, all embryo characters differed among pollen donors. Paternal effects varied over time, suggesting that there are windows of opportunity for pollen donors to influence embryo development. Water-stress treatment altered embryo characteristics; embryos were smaller and less developed. In addition, correlations of embryo characteristics with earlier and later stages changed dramatically with water stress. Conclusions The expected maternal effects on embryo development were observed, but there was also evidence for an early paternal role. The relative effects of these

  7. Bioavailability of cerium oxide nanoparticles to Raphanus sativus L. in two soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Schwab, Paul; Wang, Qiang; Ebbs, Stephen D; Ma, Xingmao

    2017-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NP) are a common component of many commercial products. Due to the general concerns over the potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), the phytotoxicity and in planta accumulation of CeO 2 NPs have been broadly investigated. However, most previous studies were conducted in hydroponic systems and with grain crops. For a few studies performed with soil grown plants, the impact of soil properties on the fate and transport of CeO 2 NPs was generally ignored even though numerous previous studies indicate that soil properties play a critical role in the fate and transport of environmental pollutants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the soil fractionation and bioavailability of CeO 2 NPs to Raphanus sativus L (radish) in two soil types. Our results showed that the silty loam contained slightly higher exchangeable fraction (F1) of cerium element than did loamy sand soil, but significantly lower reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions as CeO 2 NPs concentration increased. CeO 2 NPs associated with silicate minerals or the residue fraction (F4) dominated in both soils. The cerium concentration in radish storage root showed linear correlation with the sum of the first three fractions (r 2  = 0.98 and 0.78 for loamy sand and silty loam respectively). However, the cerium content in radish shoots only exhibited strong correlations with F1 (r 2  = 0.97 and 0.89 for loamy sand and silty loam respectively). Overall, the results demonstrated that soil properties are important factors governing the distribution of CeO 2 NPs in soil and subsequent bioavailability to plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of CO2 on growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus) in hypobaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, H. L.; Bucklin, R. A.; Correll, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Plants grown on long-term space missions will likely be grown in low pressure environments (i.e., hypobaria). However, in hypobaria the transpiration rates of plants can increase and may result in wilting if the water is not readily replaced. It is possible to reduce transpiration by increasing the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but the effects of pCO2 at high levels (>120 Pa) on the growth and transpiration of plants in hypobaria are not known. Therefore, the effects of pCO2 on the growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Cherry Bomb II) in hypobaria were studied. The fresh weight (FW), leaf area, dry weight (DW), CO2 assimilation rates (CA), dark respiration rates (DR), and transpiration rates from 26 day-old radish plants that were grown for an additional seven days at different total pressures (33, 66 or 101 kPa) and pCO2 (40 Pa, 100 Pa and 180 Pa) were measured. In general, the dry weight of plants increased with CO2 enrichment and with lower total pressure. In limiting pCO2 (40 Pa) conditions, the transpiration for plants grown at 33 kPa was approximately twice that of controls (101 kPa total pressure with 40 Pa pCO2). Increasing the pCO2 from 40 Pa to 180 Pa reduced the transpiration rates for plants grown in hypobaria and in standard atmospheric pressures. However, for plants grown in hypobaria and high pCO2 (180 Pa) leaf damage was evident. Radish growth can be enhanced and transpiration reduced in hypobaria by enriching the gas phase with CO2 although at high levels leaf damage may occur.

  9. Properties of lead deposits in cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tatai, Yuri; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Hayatsu, Manabu; Ono, Manami; Suzuki, Suechika

    2013-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in detoxification of heavy metals such as lead (Pb) in plant cells. Most of the Pb taken up by plants accumulates in their roots. However, the detailed properties of Pb complexes in roots remain unclear. We have investigated the properties of Pb deposits in root cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings grown on glass beads bed containing Pb pellets, which are the source of Pb-contamination in shooting range soils. Pb deposits were tightly bound to cell walls. Cell wall fragments containing about 50,000 ppm Pb were prepared from the roots. After extracting Pb from the cell wall fragments using HCl, Pb ions were recombined with the Pb-extracted cell wall fragments in a solution containing Pb acetate. When the cell wall fragments were treated with pectinase (E.C. 3.2.1.15) and were chemically modified with 1-ethyl-3-dimethylamino-propylcarboimide, the Pb-rebinding ability of the treated cell wall fragments decreased. When acid-treated cell wall fragments were incubated in a solution containing Pb(2+) and excess amounts of a chelating agent, Pb recombined with the cell wall fragments were measured to estimate the affinity between Pb(2+) and the cell wall fragments. Our data show that Pb(2+) binds to carboxyl groups of cell walls. The source of the carboxyl groups is suggested to be pectic compounds. A stability constant of the Pb-cell wall complex was estimated to be about 10(8). The role of root cell walls in the mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance was discussed.

  10. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract prevents cadmium-induced immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Zohra, Haous; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a known carcinogen and potent immunotoxicant in humans and animals, is dispersed throughout the environment as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract (TRE) is a known anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to help alleviate immune system disorders, including some induced by environmental toxicants. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential protective effects of TRE against Cd-induced immunotoxicities (and general toxicities) in situ. Cadmium chloride (at 2.5 mg CdCl2/kg BW) and TRE (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg BW) were given (alone or in combination [actually, in sequence of Cd and then TRE]) to rats daily by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with CdCl2 alone resulted in significant decreases in plasma levels of total protein, triglycerides, creatine kinase, creatinine, IgG and IgA, T-lymphocyte sub-types (CD4(+), CD3(+), CD56(+), and CD8(+)), and in thymic and hepatic indices (relative weights). In contrast, CdCl2 treatment caused significant increases in serum LDH, AST, and ALT, in the formation/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNFα), and in the relative weights of host spleen and kidneys. Rats treated with TRE alone had no discernable changes compared to the controls with regard to all test parameters. Combined treatment of CdCl2 and TRE-at any dose-resulted in a significant improvement of all test parameters compared to those seen with Cd alone. These results illustrated (and provided further support for a continuing belief in) the beneficial effects of TRE in reducing the harmful outcomes of commonly encountered toxicants (like Cd) on the immune system and on overall host health status.

  11. Dynamics of maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed development in wild radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, P K; Abrahamson, N J; Baker, R L; Barnes, M G; Koontz, T L; Lay, C R; Medeiros, J S; Murgel, J L; Shaner, M G M; Simpson, H L; Wu, C C; Marshall, D L

    2010-08-01

    Variability in embryo development can influence the rate of seed maturation and seed size, which may have an impact on offspring fitness. While it is expected that embryo development will be under maternal control, more controversial hypotheses suggest that the pollen donor and the embryo itself may influence development. These latter possibilities are, however, poorly studied. Characteristics of 10-d-old embryos and seeds of wild radish (Raphanus sativus) were examined to address: (a) the effects of maternal plant and pollen donor on development; (b) the effects of earlier reproductive events (pollen tube growth and fertilization) on embryos and seeds, and the influence of embryo size on mature seed mass; (c) the effect of water stress on embryos and seeds; (d) the effect of stress on correlations of embryo and seed characteristics with earlier and later reproductive events and stages; and (e) changes in maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed characteristics during development. Eight maternal plants (two each from four families) and four pollen donors were crossed and developing gynoecia were collected at 10 d post-pollination. Half of the maternal plants experienced water stress. Characteristics of embryos and seeds were summarized and also compared with earlier and later developmental stages. In addition to the expected effects of the maternal plants, all embryo characters differed among pollen donors. Paternal effects varied over time, suggesting that there are windows of opportunity for pollen donors to influence embryo development. Water-stress treatment altered embryo characteristics; embryos were smaller and less developed. In addition, correlations of embryo characteristics with earlier and later stages changed dramatically with water stress. The expected maternal effects on embryo development were observed, but there was also evidence for an early paternal role. The relative effects of these controls may change over time. Thus, there may be

  12. Effect of soil cadmium on growth, photosynthesis and quality of Raphanus sativus and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjyot; Jhanji, Shalini

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) raises serious concerns as its accumulation in the plant not only affect the growth and quality of plant but also threaten the health of consumers. In this research, two vegetables, i.e., radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L), were planted in pots having soil treated with Cd as Cd (NO3)2 at different doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil ) to investigate the influence of cadmium on their growth, photosynthetic attributes and quality. Cadmium retarded plant growth as dry weight of radish roots decline by 87% and leaves by 83% following 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application and the corresponding values for lettuce were 64 and 69% respectively. Significant reductions in various photosynthetic parameters viz., leaf area per plant, total chlorophyll, Chl a and Chl b content were also recorded with Cd applications. The Cd treatments resulted in loss of membrane integrity as revealed by significant increase in electrolyte leakage in leaves of both vegetables. There was significant increase in Cd accumulation in radish and lettuce with all applications but no visual symptoms of Cd toxicity were noticed with 25 and 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil application except for yield differences, illustrating that Cd accumulate in this crop without visual evidence of its presence. However, toxicity symptoms in the form of interveinal chlorosis of the leaf lamina, followed by necrosis and leaf rolling, were clearly evident with 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application. Apparently, Cd causes harm due to its phytotoxic effects and high accumulation in edible parts of radish and lettuce without any visible symptoms that constitutes a substantial hazard to human health.

  13. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repetitive sequence analysis and karyotyping reveals centromere-associated DNA sequences in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qunyan; Cai, Zexi; Hu, Tianhua; Liu, Huijun; Bao, Chonglai; Mao, Weihai; Jin, Weiwei

    2015-04-18

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., 2n = 2x = 18) is a major root vegetable crop especially in eastern Asia. Radish root contains various nutritions which play an important role in strengthening immunity. Repetitive elements are primary components of the genomic sequence and the most important factors in genome size variations in higher eukaryotes. To date, studies about repetitive elements of radish are still limited. To better understand genome structure of radish, we undertook a study to evaluate the proportion of repetitive elements and their distribution in radish. We conducted genome-wide characterization of repetitive elements in radish with low coverage genome sequencing followed by similarity-based cluster analysis. Results showed that about 31% of the genome was composed of repetitive sequences. Satellite repeats were the most dominating elements of the genome. The distribution pattern of three satellite repeat sequences (CL1, CL25, and CL43) on radish chromosomes was characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). CL1 was predominantly located at the centromeric region of all chromosomes, CL25 located at the subtelomeric region, and CL43 was a telomeric satellite. FISH signals of two satellite repeats, CL1 and CL25, together with 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA, provide useful cytogenetic markers to identify each individual somatic metaphase chromosome. The centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) has been used as a marker to identify centromere DNA sequences. One putative CENH3 (RsCENH3) was characterized and cloned from radish. Its deduced amino acid sequence shares high similarities to those of the CENH3s in Brassica species. An antibody against B. rapa CENH3, specifically stained radish centromeres. Immunostaining and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) tests with anti-BrCENH3 antibody demonstrated that both the centromere-specific retrotransposon (CR-Radish) and satellite repeat (CL1) are directly associated with RsCENH3 in radish. Proportions

  15. Plant Productivity and Characterization of Zeoponic Substrates after Three Successive Crops of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Douglas W.; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.; Golden, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate, termed zeoponics. The zeoponic substrate (consisting of NH4(-) and K-exchanged clinoptilolite, synthetic apatite, and dolomite) provides all of the plant-essential nutrients through mineral dissolution and ion exchange, with only the addition of water. Previous studies have shown high productivity of wheat in zeoponic substrates; however, no experiments have been conducted on other crops. The objective of this study was to determine the productivity and nutrient uptake of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) grown in zeoponic substrates with three successive crops in the same substrate. Radish was chosen because of its sensitivities to NH4(+). Average fresh weights of edible roots were similar for radish grown in zeoponic substrates watered with deionized H2O (10.97 g/plant) and in potting mix control substrate irrigated with nutrient solution (10.92 g/plant). Average fresh weight production of edible roots for radish grown in same zeoponic substrate increased in yield over time with the lowest yield in the first crop (7.10 g/plant) and highest in the third crop (13.90 g/plant). The Ca plant tissue levels in radishes (1.8-2.9 wt. %) grown in zeoponic substrates are lower than the suggested sufficient range of 3.0-4.5 wt. % Ca; however, the Ca level is highest (2.9 wt. %) in radishes grown in the third crop in the same zeoponic substrates. The higher radish yield in the third crop was attributed to a reduction in an NH4(-) induced Ca deficiency that has been previously described for wheat grown in zeoponic substrates. The P levels in plant tissues of radish grown in the zeoponic substrates ranged from 0.94-1.15 wt. %; which is slightly higher than the sufficient levels of 0.3-0.7 wt. %. With the exception of Ca and P, other macronutrient and micronutrient levels in radish grown in zeoponic substrates were well within the recommended sufficient ranges. After three

  16. Transcriptome Profiling of Taproot Reveals Complex Regulatory Networks during Taproot Thickening in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Sun, Xiaochuan; Luo, Xiaobo; Xie, Yang; Everlyne, Muleke; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%), 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24%) and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45%) reads were matched to the radish reference genes, respectively. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325, and 7392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR, and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly attributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism processes. These results could provide new insights

  17. Transcriptome profiling of taproot reveals complex regulatory networks during taproot thickening in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugang Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Radish (Raphanus sativus L., is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs involved in radish taproot thickening process and explored the molecular mechanism in underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1, cortex splitting stage (L2 and expanding stage (L3 were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, respectively, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%, 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24% and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45% reads were matched to the radish reference genes. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325 and 7,392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes that formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly contributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism possesses. These results could

  18. The role of the seed coat in the light sensivity in Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante seeds O papel do tegumento na sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Lúcia Costa Gonçalves

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of the seed coat in the light sensitivity of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante was analysed by germination tests of intact and naked seeds. Far-red light caused high inhibition of seed germination, while under white and red lights low inhibition was found. Naked seeds presented no light sensitivity with high percentage germination under light and darkness. However, incubation of naked seeds in -0.6MPa polyethylene glycol solution resulted in light inhibition as observed in intact seeds. The analysis of the seed coat transmitted light indicated that the filtered light presented the same photoequilibrium of phytochrome when compared to the white light, with a decrease of only 33% in the light irradiance which reaches the embryo.O papel do tegumento sobre a sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante foi analisado por testes de germinação de sementes intactas e nuas. A luz vermelho-extremo inibiu fortemente a germinação, enquanto as luzes branca e vermelha apresentaram baixa inibição. Por outro lado, sementes nuas não apresentaram sensibilidade à luz, com alta porcentagem de germinação tanto na luz como no escuro. Entretanto, a incubação das sementes nuas em condições de estresse em solução de polietilenoglicol a -0,6MPa, resultou em inibição na luz, como observadas em sementes intactas. A análise da luz transmitida pelo tegumento das sementes indicou que a luz filtrada apresenta o mesmo fotoequilíbrio teórico do fitocromo obtido na luz branca, com um decréscimo em apenas 33% da irradiância que atinge o embrião.

  19. Heterozygous alleles restore male fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.): a case of overdominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Wei; De Wang, Chuan; Wang, Chuan; Gao, Lei; Mei, Shi Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Chang Ping; Wang, Ting

    2013-04-01

    The practice of hybridization has greatly contributed to the increase in crop productivity. A major component that exploits heterosis in crops is the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/nucleus-controlled fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, it is shown that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are responsible for restoring fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Furthermore, it was found that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) show higher expression and RNA polymerase II occupancy in the CMS cytoplasmic background compared with their homozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-1 or RsRf3-2/RsRf3-2). These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants and illustrate a case of overdominance.

  20. Structure of a Precursor to the Blue Components Produced in the Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata

    2016-05-27

    The internal blue discoloration in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots has been reported to be a physiological phenomenon after harvest and poses a significant problem for farmers. To avoid this discoloration, the fundamental development of new radish cultivars that do not undergo discoloration and/or improved cultivation methods is required. Elucidating the chemical mechanism leading to this discoloration could help overcome these difficulties. To determine the mechanism underlying this discoloration, this study was designed to probe the structure of a precursor to the blue components generated during the discoloration process. Soaking fresh roots in aqueous H2O2 resulted in rapid blue discoloration, similar to the natural discoloration. Using a H2O2-based blue discoloration assay, the precursor was extracted and isolated from the fresh roots and identified as the glucosinolate, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, via spectroscopy and chemical synthesis.

  1. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of kinetin and a morphactin in leaf disc senescence of Raphanus sativus L. under low light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema; Khokhar, Mansee; Mukherjee, Dibakar

    2011-07-01

    The effects of exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) like kinetin and a morphactin were investigated in leaf discs obtained from detached senescent Raphanus sativus L. Chetki long leaves under continuous light with fluorescent tube of 8.12 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1) PFD. Senescence induced changes were characterized by a gradual breakdown of chlorophylls, carotenoids and protein whereas, POD (peroxidase) and protease activity; and total sugars revealed an increment. Application of kinetin (KN) and a morphactin (MOR; chlorflurenol methyl ester-CME 74050) found to be effective in senescence delay, by minimizing breakdown of chlorophylls and carotenoids; and by bringing down peroxidase and protease activity, and sugar accumulation. Although both PGR's were able to minimize senescence, their higher concentration found to be more effective than the lower one.

  3. Pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. Redondo Gigante with graphite for germination under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobel Penteado Freitas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water stress on germination of radish seeds is dependent on the presence of light. The effect of pelletization of radish seeds with powdered graphite on the tolerance to water stress under light was analysed. White light and far-red lights were filtered by graphite increasing slightly the tolerance of pelleted seeds to water stress of -0.77MPa. Although red light also inhibited seed germination the graphite had no effect. We propose the pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus, at least in cv redondo gigante with graphite as a pratice before planting to increase the tolerance to water stress.O efeito do estresse hídrico é dependente da presença de luz em sementes de rabanete. O efeito da peletização com grafite em pó foi analisado. Luz branca e vermelho-extremo são filtradas pelo grafite aumentando parcialmente a tolerância ao estresse hídrico de -0,77MPa em sementes peletizadas. Embora a luz vermelha também iniba a germinação em condições de estresse a peletização não teve efeito. Nós propomos a peletização de sementes de Raphanus saivus L. cv. redondo gigante como uma prática antes do plantio para aumentar a tolerância ao estresse hídrico.

  4. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

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    Hong Long

    Full Text Available The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins.

  5. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Bing; Feng, Yanni

    2015-01-01

    The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs) in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins.

  6. Análisis cuantitativo de la aplicación de cuatro bioestimulantes en el cultivo del rábano (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Londoño I. Jorge

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el segundo semestre de 1984 se realizó el ensayo con el fin de determinar el efecto de la aplicación de Agrostemín, Ergostím, Agrovitae y vitamina C en el cultivo del rábano Raphanus sativus L. Las variables estudiadas fueron porcentaje de germinación, velocidad de germinación, energía germinativa, altura de planta, materia verde, materia seca e índice de cosecha.The effect of four bioestimulants (Agrostemin, Ergostim, Agrovitae and vitamina C on radish Raphanus sativus L. was determined in a trial carried out in Palmira (Valle during the second semester of 1984. The variables studied were: germination percentage, germination speed, germination energy, plant height, green matter, dry matter and harvest index.

  7. Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Deng, Shi-Huai; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Ying-Jun; Peng, Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei

    2010-11-15

    Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower than the EC10, Cu concentration reducing root length by 10%), activity and isozyme expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POD) increased significantly; no significant variations in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves and toxic symptoms were observed. Under a slightly higher Cu stress (close to the EC10), activity and isozyme expression of SOD and MDA content were enhanced significantly; those of CAT and POD decreased due to an inverted U-shape dose response. Chlorophyll content remained unchanged. Thus, antioxidant enzymes and MDA content are more sensitive to Cu stress, showing significant variations ahead of chlorophyll and toxic symptoms under Cu stress (lower than about 200 mg kg(-1) soil). Thus, the joint monitoring of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content of R. sativus can be used as biomarkers of soil Cu contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and analysis of isothiocyanates and new acylated anthocyanins in the juice of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Petrillo, Gianna; Valgimigli, Luca

    2012-07-15

    The freeze-dried sprouts' juice of Raphanus sativus (L.) cv. Sango was prepared and analysed for the first time. HPLC analysis of total isothiocyanates, after protein displacement, resulted in 77.8 ± 3.0 μmol/g of dry juice while GC-MS analysis of hexane and acetone extracts showed E- and Z-raphasatin (8.9 and 0.11 μmol/g, respectively) and sulforaphene (11.7 μmol/g), summing up to 20.7 ± 1.7 μmol/g of free isothiocyanates. Sprouts' juice contained an unprecedented wealth of anthocyanins and a new fractionation methodology allowed us to isolate 34 mg/g of acylated anthocyanins (28.3 ± 1.9 μmol/g), belonging selectively to the cyanidin family. Analysis was performed by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(n) and extended to deacylated anthocyanins and aglycones, obtained, respectively, by alkaline and acid hydrolysis. This study identified 70 anthocyanins, 19 of which have never been described before and 32 of which are reported here in R. sativus for the first time. Sango radish sprouts are exceptional dietary sources of heath-promoting micronutrients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efecto fitotóxico de Baccharis ulicina sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Tucat, Guillermo; Bentivegna, Diego; Fernández, Osvaldo; Busso, Carlos; Brevedan, Roberto; Mujica, María de la Merced; Torres, Yanina; Daddario, Juan; Ithurrart, Leticia; Giorgetti, Hugo; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Montenegro, Oscar; Baioni, Sandra; Entío, José; Fioretti, María Nélida

    2013-01-01

    Baccharis ulicina es una maleza ampliamente distribuida en los pastizales de la zona semiárida argentina. A fin de evaluar sus posibles efectos alelopáticos, se utilizaron extractos acuosos de B. ulicina (hoja, tallo, raíz y planta entera) a dos concentraciones (50 y 150 g tejido/L agua) sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus. Para cada especie se regaron 100 ...

  10. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extensive Chromosome Homoeology among Brassiceae Species Were Revealed by Comparative Genetic Mapping with High-Density EST-Based SNP Markers in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Saito, Masako; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Ito, Toyoaki; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kishitani, Sachie; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction–mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another. PMID:21816873

  12. Extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species were revealed by comparative genetic mapping with high-density EST-based SNP markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Saito, Masako; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Ito, Toyoaki; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kishitani, Sachie; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-10-01

    A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction-mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another.

  13. Hexane extract of Raphanus sativus L. roots inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by modulating genes related to apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Subathra, Murugan; Edula, Jyotheeswara Reddy

    2010-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. It has been used in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various human ailments in India. This present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of different parts of R. sativus such as root, stem and leaves, extracted with solvents of varying polarity and investigated the molecular mechanism leading to growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in human cancer cell lines. Of the different parts, significant growth inhibitory effect was observed with hexane extract of R. sativus root. Analysis of hexane extract by GC-MS revealed the presence of several isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), 4-(methylthio)-3-butyl isothiocyanate (erucin), 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphene. R. sativus root extract induced cell death both in p53 proficient and p53 deficient cell lines through induction of apoptotic signaling pathway regardless of the p53 status of cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying R. sativus-induced apoptosis may involve interactions among Bcl(2) family genes, as evidenced by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes along with activation of Caspase-3. Our findings present the first evidence that hexane extract of R. sativus root exerts potential chemopreventive efficacy and induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines through modulation of genes involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.

  14. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  15. Studies on different concentration of lead (Pb and sewage water on Pb uptake and growth of Radish (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudratullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the accumulation of lead (Pb by radish (Raphanus sativus cultivars a study was carried out at Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan, during 2012. Two radish varieties i.e., exotic and local, were used. The treatments included sewage water and different concentrations of Pb @ 25, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1. The results showed that the total biomass of both the radish varieties were nonsignificantly influenced by the applied Pb concentrations and sewage water, except for root diameter which were significantly greater in the local cultivar (3.261 cm.Pb treatments significantly reduced the growth and yield of both the cultivars. While the Pb uptake by the root and leaf of radish plants was increased by the increasing the applied Pb levels, with the highest value for root (19.008 mg kg-1 and leaf (16.134 mg kg-1 in the treatment receiving the highest applied Pb concentrations. The total biomass, fresh weight of root and root diameter was found significantly higher except for Pb @ 400 mg L-1, in the plants receiving sewage water as compared to the control and different levels of Pb. The interaction amongst the varieties and treatments were found significantly different for various parameters. Thus, it can be concluded, that the use of sewage water and Pb contaminated wastewater results in higher metal concentration in the radish root and may lead to different types of health problems to consumers.

  16. Antilithiasic and hypolipidaemic effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on mice fed with a lithogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine.

  17. Effect of copper on pro- and antioxidative reactions in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatkin, Alexander; Egorova, Irina; Michailova, Irina; Malec, Przemysław; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The generation of superoxide radicals, lipid peroxidation (as measured by malone dialdehyde formation) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase) were assessed in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), in response to elevated concentrations of copper ions in the culture medium in vitro and in vivo. Experiments were performed on 7-day-old seedlings and 5-week-old calluses grown on media supplemented with CuSO4 in concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000μМ. The exposure to elevated Cu concentrations in the medium significantly reduced both callogenesis and the proliferation of radish calluses in vitro. Cu treatment resulted in the increased generation of the superoxide radical (O2(-)) in radish seedlings and calluses indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in radish cells, whereas the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) remained unchanged. Both in calluses and in radish seedlings in vivo, the relative level of oxidative stress was maximal at micromolar Cu concentrations and became attenuated with increasing Cu concentrations. Stronger oxidative stress occurred in the radish seedlings in vivo, compared with radish calluses in vitro. The observed lower sensitivity of calluses to Cu-induced oxidative stress and their ability to proliferate upon exposure to Cu concentrations of up to 1000μМ demonstrate the potential of in vitro cell-selection to obtain metal-tolerant radish plant lines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Radish (Raphanus sativus L) - a model for studying plant responses to air pollutants and other environmental stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostkarick, R.; Manning, W.J. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sudwest, Filderstadt (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Oekologie)

    1993-01-01

    The use of [ital Raphanus sativus L.] as a model crop for studies on plant response to environmental stresses is reviewed with emphasis on the effects of different atmospheric pollutants (O[sub 3], SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2], acidic precipitation) and their combinations. Responses to temperature, light supply, water stress, and atmospheric CO[sub 2] are also studied and discussed. In addition, the references reviewed are evaluated in terms of their experimental protocols on growth conditions and recommendations for optimal ranges of environmental and cultural variables, i.e. light, temperature, nutrient supply are given. Its distinct pattern of biomass partitioning, the small dimensions along with short and easy culture make radish an excellent experimental plant. The fleshy below-ground storage organ, formed by the hypocotyl and upper radicle, acts as the major sink during vegetative development. Abundant assimilate supply due to elevated levels of CO[sub 2] along with high irradiation frequently promote hypocotyl growth more than shoot growth, whereas under conditions of stress shoot growth is maintained at the expense of the hypocotyl. This makes the hypocotyl:shoot ratio of radish a very sensitive and suitable indicator for various environmental stresses. Potential weaknesses and short-comings of radish in its role as a model crop, particularly the high variability of injury and growth responses, are discussed along with possible solutions. Future research needs are derived from the summarized results presented and from some disparities among findings within the literature reviewed.

  19. Characterization of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 transcription factor genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X B; Liu, Z; Xu, L; Wang, Y; Zhu, X W; Zhang, W; Chen, W; Zhu, Y L; Su, X J; Everlyne, M; Liu, L W

    2016-09-23

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae plants. Previous studies have mainly focused on GSL contents, types, and biosynthesis-related genes, but the molecular characterization patterns of GSL biosynthesis-related transcription factors remain largely unexplored in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To isolate transcription factor genes regulating the GSL biosynthesis, genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were isolated in radish. Two R2R3-MYB domains were identified in the deduced amino acid sequences. Subcellular localization and yeast-one hybrid assays indicated that both the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were located in the nucleus and possessed transactivation activity. Reverse transcription quantitative analysis showed that the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were expressed in seeds, leaves, stems, and roots at the seedling, taproot thickening, and mature stages. Both genes were highly expressed during the seedling and taproot thickening stages. The expression level of RsMYB28 was found to be up-regulated following wounding, glucose, and abscisic acid treatments, whereas RsMYB29 was up-regulated following wounding and methyl jasmonate treatments. These results provide insights into the biological function and characterization of the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes, and facilitate further dissection of the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the GSL biosynthesis in radish.

  20. Broad resistance to acetohydroxyacid-synthase-inhibiting herbicides in feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) populations from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Claudio E; Presotto, Alejandro; Moreno, Florencia; Dossou, Ida; Migasso, Juan P; Sakima, Ernesto; Cantamutto, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Soon after the commercial release of sunflower cultivars resistant to imidazolinone herbicides, several uncontrolled feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) populations were found in south-eastern Buenos Aires, Argentina. These populations were studied in field, glasshouse and laboratory experiments aiming to characterise their resistance profile and to develop management tools. Three feral radish accessions were highly resistant to ten active ingredients of five families of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides. Sequence analysis of the AHAS gene detected a Trp574Leu mutation in all resistant accessions. One accession with an intermediate level of resistance was heterozygous for this mutation, probably owing to gene exchange with a susceptible subpopulation located in the field margin. Herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible radish could be controlled in sunflower by alternative herbicides. This is the first report of feral radish with resistance to herbicides belonging to all the AHAS-inhibiting herbicide families, conferred by Trp574Leu mutation in the AHAS gene. An appropriate herbicide rotation with alternative herbicides such as fluorochloridone or aclonifen and an increase in the diversity of cropping systems are important for minimising the prevalence of these biotypes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Regulation of growth and antioxidant enzyme activities by 28-homobrassinolide in seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2010-06-01

    28-Homobrassinolide (28-HBL), a brassinosteroid is reported to play significant role in diverse physiological processes. It induces a range of cellular and adaptive responses to a range of environmental stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which alters various physiological processes and generates ROS, which can oxidize biological macromolecules and causes oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by the internal antioxidative defense system and stress shielding phytohormones. In this study, effect of 28-HBL was studied on growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes in known hyperaccumulator Raphanus sativus L. (radish) seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. To determine the influence of 28-HBL (0, 10-(11), 10-(9), 10-(7) M) in radish seedlings subjected to Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APOX, CAT, GR, POD and SOD) were analyzed. In addition, length and biomass of radish seedlings was also recorded. Cd toxicity resulted in reduced length, biomass, protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes. 28-HBL treatments lowered the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, biomass and seedling length. The present study thus suggests a possible role of 28-HBL in amelioration of metal stress by regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes in radish.

  2. Phytochemical composition and biological activity of 8 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprouts and mature taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Paul R; Barnes, David M

    2011-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) are members of the cruciferous vegetable family that contain many classes of biologically active phytochemicals. This study determined the phytochemical composition of the sprouts and mature taproots of 8 radish varieties. Radish sprouts contained significantly greater concentrations of glucosinolates (3.8-fold) and isothiocyanates (8.2-fold) than the mature radish taproot and also contained significantly greater concentrations of phenolics (on average 6.9-fold). The anthocyanin concentrations of the mature radish taproot were significantly greater than in the sprouts of red, pink, and purple varieties. The primary anthocyanidins present in the red and pink radish varieties were pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the primary anthocyanidin in the purple radish variety was cyanidin. Radish sprouts were between 9- and 59-fold more potent than the corresponding mature taproot at activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably transfected hepatoma cell line. The ARE activity of the radish sprouts and mature taproots was significantly correlated with the total isothiocyanate concentration of the radishes. Practical Application: Understanding the influence variety and developmental stage has on the biological activity of cruciferous vegetables provides important information for further studies examining the in vivo effects of radish treatment and foundation for providing recommendations to reduce the risk of chronic disease through dietary intervention.

  3. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  4. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  5. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Cadmium availability and uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in soils applied with wheat straw or composted pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hong; Su, Shiming; Liu, Rongle; Li, Shutian

    2016-08-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) availability and uptake by cherry-red radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in Cd-contaminated soils after addition with wheat straw or composted pig manure were studied. The results indicated that wheat straw application promoted radish growth until the second harvest, while pig manure application improved radish biomass in Acid Ferralsols regardless of harvesting seasons. Application with pig manure might be more effective in lowering the Cd uptake by radish than wheat straw. Especially when pig manure of 11.9 g TOC kg(-1) amended into Acid Ferralsols, Cd contents in leaves and roots of radish decreased by 89.2 and 95.7 % at the second harvest, respectively. The changes in Cd fractions distribution in soils after application were contributed to the decline of Cd availability. Furthermore, significantly negative linear correlation (P radish. Thus, it is recommended to stabilize soil Cd and reducing plant uptake by application with composted manure without or slightly contaminated with metals.

  7. Determination of the Absolute Configuration of a Monoglyceride Antibolting Compound and Isolation of Related Compounds from Radish Leaves (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Tsuyoshi; Amano, Naruki; Mitsui, Yuki; Fujino, Kaien; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2017-04-28

    A monoglyceride (1) has been reported to possess an antibolting effect in radish (Raphanus sativus), but its absolute configuration at the C-2 position was not determined earlier. In this work, the absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be (2S), and it was also accompanied by one new (2) and two known monoglycerides (3 and 4). The chemical structure of 2 was determined as β-(7'Z,10'Z,13'Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid monoglyceride (β-16:3 monoglyceride). Qualitative and quantitative analytical methods for compounds 1-4 were developed, using two deuterium-labeled compounds (8 and 9) as internal standards. The results revealed a broader range of distribution of 1-4 in several annual winter crops. It was also found that these isolated compounds have an inhibitory effect on the root elongation of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings at concentrations of 25 and 50 μM in the medium. However, the inhibitory effect of 1 was not dependent on coronatin-insensitive 1 (COI1) protein, which may suggest the involvement of an unidentified signaling system other than jasmonic acid signaling.

  8. Green synthesis of biogenic silver nanomaterials using Raphanus sativus extract, effects of stabilizers on the morphology, and their antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Naved; Khan, Tabrez Alam; Khan, Zaheer; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    The present study explores the reducing and capping potentials of aqueous Raphanus sativus root extract for the synthesis of silver nanomaterials for the first time in the absence and presence of two stabilizers, namely, water-soluble starch and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The surface properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques. The mean size of AgNPs, ranging from 3.2 to 6.0 nm, could be facilely controlled by merely varying the initial [extract], [CTAB], [starch], and [Ag(+)] ions. The agglomeration number, average number of silver atoms per nanoparticle, and changes in the fermi potentials were calculated and discussed. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against different pathogenic organisms. The inhibition action was due to the structural changes in the protein cell wall.

  9. Antilithiasic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on Mice Fed with a Lithogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  10. Structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible and resistant radish (Raphanus sativus L., var. oleiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Grymaszewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible Raphanus sativus L. cv. "Siletina" and resistant radish cv. "Pegletta" was investigated. In the radish cultivar "Siletina" the syncytia most often appeared in the elongation zone of lateral roots. They were initiated in the procambium and pericycle but also included the parenchyma cells of vascular cylinder. In the susceptible cultivar "Siletina" the cells forming the female's syncytia were subject to hypertrophy. Their cytoplasmic density increased. The cytoplasm contained numerous organella. The proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum took place. Branched cell wall ingrowths were formed next to the vessels. In the male's syncytia the cells were only slightly increased. Their protoplasts contained few organelles. The cell wall ingrowths were poorly developed. In the syncytia of the resistant cultivar "Pegletta" there was only a slight increase of the cell volume. A well developed system of rough endoplasmic reticulum was observed in the protoplast. Distended ER cisterns contained fine fibrillar material. Material of similar structure also appeared in numerous small vacuoles. In resistant plants only some, not numerous, syncytia spreading in procambium fully developed and functioned long enough for the parasite females to mature. At an advanced stage of infection a well developed system of a rough ER was observed also in those syncytia and numerous vacuoles appeared.

  11. The allelopathic effect of the black nut leaves (Juglans nigra L. over the species of moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina CORBU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment is a research on the effect of the allelopathic substances in the leaves of the black nut (Juglans nigra L. over the species of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and the moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.. We have prepared a watery extract of a concentration of 5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the leaves in different seasons (spring, autumn and winter. The watery extract presents an inhibitory effect over the germination and growth of the plants subdued to experiments, especialy over the leaves collected in spring.

  12. Efecto fitotóxico de Baccharis ulicina sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Tucat, Guillermo; Bentivegna, Diego Javier; Fernandez, Osvaldo Alberto; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Brevedan, Roberto; Mujica, Maria de la Merced; Torres, Yanina Alejandra; Daddario, Juan Facundo Fabian; Ithurrart, Leticia Soledad; Giorgetti, Hugo Dosindo; Rodriguez, Gustavo Dionisio; Montenegro, Oscar Alberto; Baioni, Sandra Sonia; Entio, Lisandro Jose; Fioretti, Maria Nelida

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis ulicina es una maleza ampliamente distribuida en los pastizales de la zona semiárida argentina. A fin de evaluar sus posibles efectos alelopáticos, se utilizaron extractos acuosos de B. ulicina (hoja, tallo, raíz y planta entera) a dos concentraciones (50 y 150 g tejido/L agua) sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa , Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus . Para cada especie se regaron 100 semillas y se mantuvieron a 25°C y oscuridad. Se registraron la germina...

  13. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivarelli, Fabio; Canistro, Donatella; Sapone, Andrea; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Babot Marquillas, Clara; Iori, Renato; Antonazzo, Ippazio Cosimo; Gentilini, Fabio; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ), a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC) and isothiocyanates (ITCs), in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced). Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD). After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only) and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ). Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids). Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed. SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction). SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase, quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%). HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention. This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product.

  14. Microbiological investigation of Raphanus sativus L. grown hydroponically in nutrient solutions contaminated with spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, Luca; Miceli, Alessandro; Francesca, Nicola; Cruciata, Margherita; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The survival of eight undesired (spoilage/pathogenic) food related bacteria (Citrobacter freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11, Escherichia coli PSS2, Klebsiella oxytoca PSS82, Serratia grimesii PSS72, Pseudomonas putida PSS21, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PSS52 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114(T)) was investigated in mineral nutrient solution (MNS) during the crop cycle of radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated in hydroponics in a greenhouse. MNSs were microbiologically analyzed weekly by plate count. The evolution of the pure cultures was also evaluated in sterile MNS in test tubes. The inoculated trials contained an initial total mesophilic count (TMC) ranging between 6.69 and 7.78Log CFU/mL, while non-sterile and sterile control trials showed levels of 4.39 and 0.97Log CFU/mL, respectively. In general, all inoculated trials showed similar levels of TMC in MNS during the experimentation, even though the levels of the inoculated bacteria decreased. The presence of the inoculums was ascertained by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis applied on the isolates collected at 7-day intervals. At harvest, MNSs were also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The last analysis, except P. putida PSS21 in the corresponding trial, did not detect the other bacteria, but confirmed that pseudomonads were present in un-inoculated MNSs. Despite the high counts detected (6.44 and 7.24CFU/g), only C. freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11 and K. oxytoca PSS82 were detected in radishes in a living form, suggesting their internalization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. De novo transcriptome sequencing of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and analysis of major genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Pan, Yan; Liu, Zhe; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Yu, Rugang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2013-11-27

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), is an important root vegetable crop worldwide. Glucosinolates in the fleshy taproot significantly affect the flavor and nutritional quality of radish. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying glucosinolate metabolism in radish taproots. The limited availability of radish genomic information has greatly hindered functional genomic analysis and molecular breeding in radish. In this study, a high-throughput, large-scale RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots at different stages of development. Approximately 66.11 million paired-end reads representing 73,084 unigenes with a N50 length of 1,095 bp, and a total length of 55.73 Mb were obtained. Comparison with the publicly available protein database indicates that a total of 67,305 (about 92.09% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes exhibit similarity (e -value ≤ 1.0e⁻⁵) to known proteins. The functional annotation and classification including Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that the main activated genes in radish taproots are predominantly involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, biosynthesis of secondary metabolite pathways, signal transduction mechanisms and other cellular components and molecular function related terms. The majority of the genes encoding enzymes involved in glucosinolate (GS) metabolism and regulation pathways were identified in the unigene dataset by targeted searches of their annotations. A number of candidate radish genes in the glucosinolate metabolism related pathways were also discovered, from which, eight genes were validated by T-A cloning and sequencing while four were validated by quantitative RT-PCR expression profiling. The ensuing transcriptome dataset provides a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetics research in radish. It will serve as an

  16. De novo transcriptome analysis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and identification of critical genes involved in bolting and flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M; Sun, Xiaochuan; Xie, Yang; Liu, Liwang

    2016-05-23

    The appropriate timing of bolting and flowering is pivotal for reproductive success in Brassicaceae crops including radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Although several flowering regulatory pathways had been described in some plant species, no study on genetic networks of bolting and flowering regulation was performed in radish. In this study, to generate dataset of radish unigene sequences for large-scale gene discovery and functional pathway identification, a cDNA library from mixed radish leaves at different developmental stages was subjected to high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 54.64 million clean reads and 111,167 contigs representing 53,642 unigenes were obtained from the radish leaf transcriptome. Among these, 50,385 unigenes were successfully annotated by BLAST searching against the public protein databases. Functional classification and annotation indicated that 42,903 and 15,382 unique sequences were assigned to 55 GO terms and 25 COG categories, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that 25,973 unigenes were classified into 128 functional pathways, among which 24 candidate genes related to plant circadian rhythm were identified. Moreover, 142 potential bolting and flowering-related genes involved in various flowering pathways were identified. In addition, seven critical bolting and flowering-related genes were isolated and profiled by T-A cloning and RT-qPCR analysis. Finally, a schematic network model of bolting and flowering regulation and pathways was put forward in radish. This study is the first report on systematic identification of bolting and flowering-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing and assembly in radish. These results could provide a foundation for further investigating bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting molecular genetic mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering in Brassicaceae vegetable crops.

  17. Transcriptome profiling of root microRNAs reveals novel insights into taproot thickening in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ronghua; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2015-02-03

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an economically important root vegetable crop, and the taproot-thickening process is the most critical period for the final productivity and quality formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding small RNAs that play an important regulatory function in plant growth and development. However, the characterization of miRNAs and their roles in regulating radish taproot growth and thickening remain largely unexplored. A Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to identify key miRNAs involved in taproot thickening in radish. Three small RNA libraries from 'NAU-YH' taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage and expanding stage were constructed. In all, 175 known and 107 potential novel miRNAs were discovered, from which 85 known and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed during taproot thickening. Furthermore, totally 191 target genes were identified for the differentially expressed miRNAs. These target genes were annotated as transcription factors and other functional proteins, which were involved in various biological functions including plant growth and development, metabolism, cell organization and biogenesis, signal sensing and transduction, and plant defense response. RT-qPCR analysis validated miRNA expression patterns for five miRNAs and their corresponding target genes. The small RNA populations of radish taproot at different thickening stages were firstly identified by Solexa sequencing. Totally 98 differentially expressed miRNAs identified from three taproot libraries might play important regulatory roles in taproot thickening. Their targets encoding transcription factors and other functional proteins including NF-YA2, ILR1, bHLH74, XTH16, CEL41 and EXPA9 were involved in radish taproot thickening. These results could provide new insights into the regulatory roles of miRNAs during the taproot thickening and facilitate genetic improvement of

  18. De novo Taproot Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of Major Genes Involved in Sucrose Metabolism in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rugang; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Xie, Yang; Karanja, Benard; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important annual or biennial root vegetable crop. The fleshy taproot comprises the main edible portion of the plant with high nutrition and medical value. Molecular biology study of radish begun rather later, and lacks sufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in pubic databases for understanding of the molecular mechanism during the radish taproot formation. To develop a comprehensive overview of the 'NAU-YH' root transcriptome, a cDNA library, prepared from three equally mixed RNA of taproots at different developmental stages including pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage, and expanding stage was sequenced using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing. From approximately 51 million clean reads, a total of 70,168 unigenes with a total length of 50.28 Mb, an average length of 717 bp and a N50 of 994 bp were obtained. In total, 63,991 (about 91.20% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes were successfully annotated in five public databases including NR, GO, COG, KEGG, and Nt. GO analysis revealed that the majority of these unigenes were predominately involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, catalytic, binding, and cellular process. In addition, a total of 103 unigenes encoding eight enzymes involved in the sucrose metabolism related pathways were also identified by KEGG pathway analysis. Sucrose synthase (29 unigenes), invertase (17 unigenes), sucrose-phosphate synthase (16 unigenes), fructokinase (17 unigenes), and hexokinase (11 unigenes) ranked top five in these eight key enzymes. From which, two genes (RsSuSy1, RsSPS1) were validated by T-A cloning and sequenced, while the expression of six unigenes were profiled with RT-qPCR analysis. These results would be served as an important public reference platform to identify the related key genes during taproot thickening and facilitate the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying taproot formation in radish.

  19. Identification and characterization of novel and conserved microRNAs in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhai, Lulu; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Ye, Shan; Liu, Liwang

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs that play significant regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, a great number of conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been identified in many important plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and poplar. However, little is known about identification of miRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a small RNA library from radish root was constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput Solexa sequencing. Through sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction, a total of 545 conserved miRNA families as well as 15 novel (with their miRNA* strand) and 64 potentially novel miRNAs were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that both conserved and novel miRNAs were expressed in radish, and some of them were preferentially expressed in certain tissues. A total of 196 potential target genes were predicted for 42 novel radish miRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that most of the targets were involved in plant growth, development, metabolism and stress responses. This study represents a first large-scale identification and characterization of radish miRNAs and their potential target genes. These results could lead to the further identification of radish miRNAs and enhance our understanding of radish miRNA regulatory mechanisms in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can selection on a male mating character result in evolutionary change? A selection experiment on California wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Diane L; Evans, Ann S

    2016-03-01

    Whenever more pollen grains arrive on stigmas than necessary to fertilize ovules, sexual selection is possible. However, the role of sexual selection remains controversial, in part because of lack of evidence on genetic bases of traits and the response of relevant characters to selection. In an experiment with Raphanus sativus, we selected on tendency to sire seeds in the stylar or basal regions of fruits. This character is likely related to pollen tube growth rate, and seed position affects rates of abortion and seed predation. We measured differences among families in seed siring and related characters and evaluated responses to selection. All replicates showed strong effects of pollen donor family on proportion of seeds sired per fruit in mixed pollinations. Most also showed effects of pollen donor family on number of pollen grains per flower and pollen diameter. Two of four replicates showed a response to selection on position of seeds sired. In responding replicates, we found trade-offs in pollen grain size and number; plants with larger pollen grains sired more seeds in the basal region. Our data suggest a genetic basis for pollen donor ability to sire seeds in competition. The significant response to selection in two replicates shows that position of seeds sired can respond to selection. Thus, all components for sexual selection to occur and affect traits are present. Variation in results among replicates might be due to changes in greenhouse conditions. Environmental effects may contribute to the maintenance of variation in these fitness-related characters. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Molecular mapping in oil radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and QTL analysis of resistance against beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budahn, Holger; Peterka, Herbert; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Ding, Yunhua; Zhang, Shaosong; Li, Jinbin

    2009-02-01

    The beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schmidt) can be controlled biologically in highly infected soils of sugar beet rotations using resistant varieties of oil radish (Raphanus sativus L. ssp. oleiferus DC.) as a green crop. Resistant plants stimulate infective juveniles to invade roots, but prevent them after their penetration to complete the life cycle. The resistance trait has been transferred successfully to susceptible rapeseed by the addition of a complete radish chromosome. The aim of the study was to construct a genetic map for radish and to develop resistance-associated markers. The map with 545 RAPD, dpRAPD, AFLP and SSR markers had a length of 1,517 cM, a mean distance of 2.8 cM and consisted of nine linkage groups having sizes between 120 and 232 cM. Chromosome-specific markers for the resistance-bearing chromosome d and the other eight radish chromosomes, developed previously from a series of rapeseed-radish addition lines, were enclosed as anchor markers. Each of the extra chromosomes in the addition lines could be unambiguously assigned to one of the radish linkage groups. The QTL analysis of nematode resistance was realized in the intraspecific F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between varieties 'Pegletta' (nematode resistant) x 'Siletta Nova' (susceptible). A dominant major QTL Hs1( Rph ) explaining 46.4% of the phenotypic variability was detected in a proximal position of chromosome d. Radish chromosome-specific anchor markers with known map positions were made available for future recombination experiments to incorporate segments carrying desired genes as Hs1( Rph ) from radish into rapeseed by means of chromosome addition lines.

  2. Discovery of a novel cytoplasmic male-sterility and its restorer lines in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Suhyung; Lim, Chaewan; Kim, Hyojung; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Kim, Sunggil

    2008-10-01

    A male-sterile (MS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was found in an accession collected from Uzbekistan. Unlike Ogura MS radishes in which no pollen grain is typically visible during anthesis, a small number of pollen grains stuck together in the dehiscing anthers was observed in the newly identified MS radish. Fluorescein diacetate tests and scanning electron micrographs showed that pollen grains in the new MS radish were severely deformed and non-viable. Cytological examination of pollen development stages showed a clear difference in the defective stage from that seen in Ogura male-sterility. Reciprocal cross-pollination with diverse male-fertile lines indicated that pollen grains of the new MS radish were completely sterile, and the female organs were fully fertile. When the new MS radish and Ogura MS lines were cross-pollinated with a set of eight breeding lines, all F1 progeny originating from crosses with the new MS radish were male-sterile. In contrast, most of the F1 progeny resulting from crosses with Ogura MS lines were male-fertile. These results demonstrated that factors associated with induction of the newly identified male-sterility are different from those of Ogura male-sterility. The lack of restorer lines for the newly identified male-sterility led us to predict that it might be a complete cytoplasmic male-sterility without restorer-of-fertility genes in nuclear genomes. However, cross-pollination with more diverse radish germplasm identified one accession introduced from Russia that could completely restore fertility, proving the existence of restorer-of-fertility gene(s) for the new male-sterility. Meanwhile, the PCR amplification profile of molecular markers for the classification of radish mitochondrial genome types revealed that the new MS radish contained a novel mitotype.

  3. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  4. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vivarelli

    Full Text Available Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism.The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ, a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC and isothiocyanates (ITCs, in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced.Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD. After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ. Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids. Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed.SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction. SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase,quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%. HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention.This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product.

  5. Water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus target the endoplasmic reticulum body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Aizawa, Kyoko; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-20

    Non-photosynthetic chlorophyll (Chl) proteins called water-soluble Chl-binding proteins are distributed in Brassicaceae plants. Brassica oleracea WSCP (BoWSCP) and Lepidium virginicum WSCP (LvWSCP) are highly expressed in leaves and stems, while Arabidopsis thaliana WSCP (AtWSCP) and Raphanus sativus WSCP (RshWSCP) are highly transcribed in floral organs. BoWSCP and LvWSCP exist in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body. However, the subcellular localization of AtWSCP and RshWSCP is still unclear. To determine the subcellular localization of these WSCPs, we constructed transgenic plants expressing Venus-fused AtWSCP or RshWSCP. Open reading frames corresponding to full-length AtWSCP and RshWSCP were cloned and ligated between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and Venus, a gene encoding a yellow fluorescent protein. We introduced the constructs into A. thaliana by the floral dip method. We succeeded in constructing a number of transformants expressing Venus-fused chimeric AtWSCP (AtWSCP::Venus) or RshWSCP (RshWSCP::Venus). We detected fluorescence derived from the chimeric proteins using a fluorescence microscope system. In cotyledons, fluorescence derived from AtWSCP::Venus and RshWSCP::Venus was detected in spindle structures. The spindle structures altered their shape to a globular form under blue light excitation. In true leaves, the number of spindle structures was drastically reduced. These observations indicate that the spindle structure was the ER body. AtWSCP and RshWSCP have the potential for ER body targeting like BoWSCP and LvWSCP.

  6. Growth and photosynthesis of plants in response to environmental stress. [Raphanus sativus; Glycine max; Salix nigra; Alnus serrulata; Populus tremuloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitner, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental stresses generally decrease photosynthetic rates and growth of plants, and alter biomass partitioning. Nutrient deficiency and drought cause root:shoot ratios to increase, whereas the air pollutant ozone (O[sub 3]) causes an opposite shift in carbon allocation. Plants in nature usually grow under suboptimal conditions; therefore plants were raised with O[sub 3] combined with other stresses to analyze the mechanisms whereby multiple stresses influence gas exchange and growth. Physiological and growth responses to stress were determined for radish (raphanus sativus), soybean (Glycine max) willow (Salix nigra), alder (Alnus serrulata) and aspen (Populus tremuloides) in laboratory and field trials. In willow, high-nutrient status plants had more visible injury, but a smaller decline in leaf area with O[sub 3] than did low-nutrient plants. Ultrastructure of host plant cells in alder root nodules was disrupted by O[sub 3], suggesting that this air pollutant can affect the ability of plants to acquire nutrients via symbiosis. Biomass and root:shoot ratios decreased with O[sub 3] in radish and soy-bean. Shifts in stable carbon isotope ratios were caused by O[sub 3], and this technique was used to integrate the effects of O[sub 3] on gas exchange over time. In aspen, O[sub 3] enhanced photosynthesis and foliar areas in young leaves of well-watered aspen, partially compensating for declines in older leaves. This effect was more pronounced in plants raised at a high nitrogen level than in N-deficient plants. Carboxylation efficiency decreased in older, but increased in younger leaves with O[sub 3]. Prior exposure to drought reduced effects of O[sub 3] on photosynthesis and leaf area.

  7. Development of male sterile Eruca sativa carrying a Raphanus sativus/Brassica oleracea cybrid cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, Thomas; Klocke, Evelyn; Schrader, Otto; Linke, Bettina; Budahn, Holger

    2016-02-01

    Alloplasmic male sterile breeding lines of Eruca sativa were developed by intergeneric hybridization with CMS- Brassica oleracea, followed by recurrent backcrosses and determination of the breeding value. Male sterile breeding lines of rocket salad (Eruca sativa) were developed by intergeneric hybridization with cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) followed by recurrent backcrosses. Five amphidiploid F1 plants (2n = 2x = 20, CE), achieved by manual crosses and embryo rescue, showed an intermediate habit. The plants were completely male sterile and lacked seed set after pollination with the Eruca parent. Allotetraploid F1-hybrid plants (4n = 4x = 40, CCEE) obtained after colchicine treatment were backcrossed six times with pollen of the Eruca parent to select alloplasmic diploid E. sativa lines. The hybrid status and the nucleo-cytoplasmic constellation were continuously controlled by RAPD and Southern analysis during subsequent backcrosses. The ploidy level was investigated by flow cytometry and chromosome analysis. Premeiotic (sporophytic) and postmeiotic (pollen abortive) defects during the anther development were observed in the alloplasmic E. sativus plants in comparison to the CMS-cauliflower donor. No further incompatibilities were noticed between the CMS-inducing cybrid cytoplasm and the E. sativa nuclear genome. The final alloplasmic E. sativa lines were diploid with 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes and revealed complete male sterility and restored female fertility. Plant vigor and yield potential of the CMS-E. sativa BC5 lines were comparable to the parental E. sativus line. In conclusion, the employed cybrid-cytoplasm has been proven as a vital source of CMS for E. sativa. The developed lines are directly applicable for hybrid breeding of rocket salad.

  8. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of the seeds of Raphanus sativus L. in experimental ulcerative colitis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Cho, Seong-Wan; Kook, Sung-Ho; Chun, Sa-Ra; Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kim, Min-Kook; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-02-17

    Water extract of Raphanus sativus L. (RSL) seeds was traditionally used to treat digestive inflammatory complaints in Korean culture. RSL seeds exerted antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-septic functions, suggesting their pharmacological potential for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies associated with oxidative stress such as inflammatory bowel disease. We evaluated the intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of RSL seed water extract (RWE) in experimental rat models of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)- or dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. RWE was characterized by determining the content of sinapic acid as a reference material and then assayed in the DSS and TNBS models of rat colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 10 groups (n=7/group): non-colitic control, DSS or TNBS control, DSS colitis groups treated with RWE (100mg/kg) or mesalazine (25mg/kg), and TNBS colitis groups treated with various doses (10, 40, 70, and 100mg/kg) of RWE or mesalazine (25mg/kg). RWE or mesalazine treatment started the same day of colitis induction and rats were sacrificed 24h after the last treatment followed by histological and biochemical analyses. Oral administration with RWE suppressed intestinal inflammatory damages in both DSS- and TNBS-induced colitic rats. The treatment with 100mg/kg RWE recovered intestinal damages caused by TNBS or DSS to levels similar to that of mesalazine, decreasing the activity of myeloperoxidase activity and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β. RWE treatment inhibited malondialdehyde production and glutathione reduction in colon of colitis rats. The administration of RWE at dose of 100mg/kg also suppressed the TNBS- or DSS-stimulated expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, inducible nitric oxide, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Furthermore, RWE inhibited p38 kinase and DNA-nuclear factor-κB binding activities, both of which were stimulated in the

  9. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10(-9) M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  10. Co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not affect cadmium toxicity in radish seeds (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, R Roshan; Grassi, G; Bergami, E; Marques-Santos, L F; Faleri, C; Liberatori, G; Corsi, I

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments on environmental fate models indicate that as nano waste, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) could reach terrestrial ecosystems thus potentially affecting environmental and human health. Plants can be therefore exposed to ENMs but controversial data in terms of fate and toxicity are currently available. Furthermore, there is a current lack of information on complex interactions/transformations to which ENMs undergo in the natural environment as for instance interacting with existing toxic compounds. The aim of the present study was to assess the behavior and biological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO 2 ) (Aeroxide P25, Degussa Evonik) and its interaction with cadmium (CdCl 2 ) in plants using radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L. Parvus) as model species. Radish seeds were exposed to n-TiO 2 (1-1000mg/L) and CdCl 2 (1-250mg/L) alone and in combination using a seed germination and seedling growth toxicity test OECD 208. Percentage of seed germination, germination index (GI) and root elongation were calculated. Cell morphology and oxidative stress parameters as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities (CAT) were measured in radish seeds after 5 days of exposure. Z-Average, PdI and Z-potential of n-TiO 2 in Milli-Q water as exposure medium were also determined. DLS analysis showed small aggregates of n-TiO 2 , negative Z-potential and stable PdI in seed's exposure media. Germination percentage, GI and root length resulted affected by n-TiO 2 exposure compared to controls. In particular, n-TiO 2 at 1mg/L and 100mg/L did not affect radish seeds germination (100%) while at concentration of 10mg/L, 200mg/L, 500mg/L, and 1000mg/L a slight but not significant decrease of germination % was observed. Similarly root length and GI resulted significantly higher in seeds exposed to 10mg/L and 200mg/L compared to 1mg/L, 100mg/L, 500mg/L, 1000mg/L and control (p radish seeds. Morphological alterations in nuclei, vacuoles and shape of

  11. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Expression Analysis in Radish (Raphanus sativus L. and Its Relatives Based on Expression Stability

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    Mengmeng Duan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radish (Raphanus sativus is an important cruciferous root crop with a close relationship to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa. RT-qPCR is used extensively to evaluate the expression levels of target genes, and accurate measurement of target gene expression with this method is determined by the valid reference genes used for data nomalization in different experimental conditions. Screening for appropriate reference genes with stable expression based on RT-qPCR data is important for gene expression and functional analysis research in radish and its relatives. However, many researches have thought that almost no single reference gene is widely suitable for all experimental conditions, and few researchers have paid attention to the validation of reference genes in radish gene expression analysis. In the present study, 12 candidate reference genes were selected for analysis. Their expression in 28 samples, including 20 radish samples from different organs and conditions, four Chinese cabbage organs and four organs of their distant hybrid, was assessed by RT-qPCR and then five software tools—ΔCt, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder—were used to compare their expression stability. The results showed that the most suitable reference genes were different in different organs and conditions. GAPDH, DSS1, and UP2 were optimal reference genes for gene expression analysis in all organs and conditions in radish. UPR, GSNOR1, and ACTIN2/7 were the most stable reference genes in different radish organs. UP2 and GAPDH were suitable reference genes for radish pistil development studies. RPII, UBC9, and GAPDH had the most stable expression in radish under various stresses. DSS1, UP2, and TEF2 were the optimal reference genes for Chinese cabbage organs, whereas TUA was optimal for the distant hybrid. UP2, and TEF2 were appropriate reference genes for all of the samples together. The optimal reference genes we identified, UP2, GAPDH, UPR, and GSNOR1 were

  12. Efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus L. Effects of the culture of the Barley and of periods of control on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus. Foram considerados dois tratamentos testemunha sem controle das plantas daninhas, com e sem a cultura. Nos oito demais tratamentos, a cultura esteve sempre presente, controlando-se as plantas daninhas até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 e 100 dias após a emergência da cevada. A comunidade infestante da área era composta quase exclusivamente por R. .sativus. Avaliou-se o número de plantas, acúmulos de matéria seca, número médio de frutos e sementes de nabiça por planta e por unidade de área ; foram ainda avaliados o número médio de sementes por fruto, peso médio de 1.000 sementes e a contribuição das sementes na composição da matéria se catota. A análise dos resultados evidenciou que a espécie Raphanus sativus apresenta elevado potencial reprodutivo, sendo possível concluir pela ineficiência de programas de controle de curta duração, em termos de redução do banco de sementes. A presença da cultura da cevada reduziu tanto o crescimento quanto o número de sementes produzidas pela nabiça (R. sativus. Na ausência da cultura e de práticas de controle foram produzidas 5.074 sementes/m, a partir de 125 plantas/m ainda presentes na colheita da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of barley and weed control periods on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus, the major weed in the experimental area. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Two checks, with and without the crop, were kept weedy from seeding to harvest. In other eight treatments the crop was kept weed free up to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 days after emergence. It were evaluated the number of plants, the dry matter accumulation and the number of fruits and seeds per plant and per m2, the weight of 1.000 seeds and the

  13. Viabilidade do uso de água residuária tratada na irrigação da cultura do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Iasmine Louise de Almeida Dantas; Gregorio Guirado Faccioli; Luciana Coêlho Mendonça; Tatiana Pacheco Nunes; Pedro Roberto Almeida Viegas; Larissa Oliveira Gama de Santana

    2014-01-01

    A utilização de água residuária tratada para irrigação pode se tornar uma alternativa para regiões que enfrentam escassez de água. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do reuso de efluente doméstico na cultura do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.). O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Engenharia Agronômica (DEA), localizada na Universidade Federal de Sergipe/Campus de São Cristóvão no período de agosto a setembro de 2011. O efluente foi coletado...

  14. Polymorphism of the S-locus glycoprotein gene (SLG) and the S-locus related gene (SLR1) in Raphanus sativus L. and self-incompatible ornamental plants in the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, K; Kusaba, M; Nishio, T

    1998-05-01

    The S-locus glycoprotein gene, SLG, which participates in the pollen-stigma interaction of self-incompatibility, and its unlinked homologue, SLR1, were analyzed in Raphanus sativus and three self-incompatible ornamental plants in the Brassicaceae. Among twenty-nine inbred lines of R. sativus, eighteen S haplotypes were identified on the basis of DNA polymorphisms detected by genomic Southern analysis using Brassica SLG probes. DNA fragments of SLG alleles specifically amplified from eight S haplotypes by PCR with class I SLG-specific primers showed different profiles following polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, after digestion with a restriction endonuclease. The nucleotide sequences of the DNA fragments of these eight R. sativus SLG alleles were determined. Degrees of similarity of the nucleotide sequences to a Brassica SLG (S6SLG) ranged from 85.6% to 91.9%. Amino acid sequences deduced from these had the twelve conserved cysteine residues and the three hypervariable regions characteristic of Brassica SLGs. Phylogenetic analysis of the SLG sequences from Raphanus and Brassica revealed that the Raphanus SLGs did not form an independent cluster, but were dispersed in the tree, clustering together with Brassica SLGs. These results suggest that diversification of the SLG alleles of Raphanus and Brassica occurred before differentiation of these genera. Although SLR1 sequences from Orychophragmus violaceus were shown to be relatively closely related to Brassica and Raphanus SLR1 sequences, DNA fragments that are highly homologous to the Brassica SLG were not detected in this species. Two other ornamental plants in the Brassicaceae, which are related more distantly to Brassica than Orychophragmus, also lacked sequences highly homologous to Brassica SLG genes. The evolution of self-incompatibility in the Brassicaceae is discussed.

  15. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Raphanus sativus L. var niger attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing transforming growth factor β1 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Nazarizadeh, Ali; Mikaili, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease of the lungs, which leads to death in human. It has been suggested that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) together with oxidative stress play a central role in the pathogenesis of the ailment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible curative effects of black radish, Raphanus sativus L. var niger (RSN) on bleomycine (BLM) -induced pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model. In this study, thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups, including: (I) positive (BLM) control group, (II) negative (normal saline) control group, (III) sham group (R. sativus extract 150 mg/kg), and (IV-VI) treatment groups. In order to induce pulmonary fibrosis, four groups were treated with a single dose of BLM sulfate (7.5 U/kg) through intratracheal instillation. Treatment groups (IV-VI) received RSN extract (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) orally a week before and two weeks after the administration of BLM. At the end of the treatment course, blood and lung tissue samples were taken and the measurement of TGF-β1 and histopathological examination of the lung tissues performed. The results showed that RSN, at 300 mg/kg dose, could significantly decrease the serum level of TGF-β1 and severity of the histological lesions as compared to the positive control group. The results of the current study indicate that the components present in the extract can remarkably prevent the aggravation of pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing TGF-β1 level.

  16. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  17. Leaves of Raphanus sativus L. Shows Anti-Inflammatory Activity in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages via Suppression of COX-2 and iNOS Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Song, Minjung

    2017-01-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (RS) is a cruciferous vegetable that is widely consumed in Korea. The anticancer activity of leaves of RS (RSL) extract has been investigated; however, no studies focused on its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of RSL extract. In brief, RSL powder was fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water-soluble fractions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with each fraction for initial screening. It was found that the chloroform fraction significantly inhibited nitric oxide release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 196 μg/mL. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, measured using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression decreased. Furthermore, the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the key regulator of the transcriptional activation of the inflammatory cytokine genes, was reduced by the RSL chloroform fraction. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that RSL exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated macrophages via NF-κB inactivation. PMID:28401088

  18. Leaves ofRaphanus sativusL. Shows Anti-Inflammatory Activity in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages via Suppression of COX-2 and iNOS Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Song, Minjung

    2017-03-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (RS) is a cruciferous vegetable that is widely consumed in Korea. The anticancer activity of leaves of RS (RSL) extract has been investigated; however, no studies focused on its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of RSL extract. In brief, RSL powder was fractionated into n -hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n -butanol, and water-soluble fractions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with each fraction for initial screening. It was found that the chloroform fraction significantly inhibited nitric oxide release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 196 μg/mL. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, measured using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression decreased. Furthermore, the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the key regulator of the transcriptional activation of the inflammatory cytokine genes, was reduced by the RSL chloroform fraction. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that RSL exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated macrophages via NF-κB inactivation.

  19. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  20. Synthetic peptides derived from the beta2-beta3 loop of Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 that mimic the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaper, W M; Posthuma, G A; Plasman, H H; Sijtsma, L; Fant, F; Borremans, F A; Thevissen, K; Broekaert, W F; Meloen, R H; van Amerongen, A

    2001-05-01

    Rs-AFPs are antifungal proteins, isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus) seed or leaves, which consist of 50 or 51 amino acids and belong to the plant defensin family of proteins. Four highly homologous Rs-AFPs have been isolated (Rs-AFP1-4). The structure of Rs-AFP1 consists of three beta-strands and an alpha-helix, and is stabilized by four cystine bridges. Small peptides deduced from the native sequence, still having biological activity, are not only important tools to study structure-function relationships, but may also constitute a commercially interesting target. In an earlier study, we showed that the antifungal activity of Rs-AFP2 is concentrated mainly in the beta2-beta3 loop. In this study, we synthesized linear 19-mer peptides, spanning the entire beta2-beta3 loop, that were found to be almost as potent as Rs-AFP2. Cysteines, highly conserved in the native protein, are essential for maintaining the secondary structure of the protein. Surprisingly, in the 19-mer loop peptides, cysteines can be replaced by alpha-aminobutyric acid, which even improves the antifungal potency of the peptides. Analogous cyclic 19-mer peptides, forced to adopt a hairpin structure by the introduction of one or two non-native disulfide bridges, were also found to possess high antifungal activity. The synthetic 19-mer peptides, like Rs-AFP2 itself, cause increased Ca2+ influx in pregerminated fungal hyphae.

  1. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of sulforaphene and sulforaphane by reverse phase HPLC and their content in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Sarita; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida

    2016-06-15

    A simple, rapid and precise HPLC assay was developed for the well-known anti-cancer isothiocyanates-sulforaphene (SE) and sulforaphane (SF). The analytical system comprised RP-C18 column with isocratic 5% THF-95% water. High resolution was obtained (and eluted) of two distinct HPLC peaks of similar structures SE and SF analytes (at 23.01±0.02 and 25.65±0.03 min, respectively). The respective LOD vs. LOQ for SE and SF was 0.34 and 0.36 μg/ml vs. 1.02 and 1.08 μg/ml. This assay had the best linearity and accuracy. The recoveries were in the range of 96.83-101.17%. SF and SE were quantified in the pod of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef extracts (2253.05±246.18 and 111.94±16.49 μg/g in the crude extract, respectively), while only SE was detected in the stem (1105.14±243.10 μg/g crude extract), as SF was lower than the detection limit. The validated method thus minimized and expedited simultaneous SE and SF analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  4. Instability of chromosome number and DNA methylation variation induced by hybridization and amphidiploid formation between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Distant hybridization can result genome duplication and allopolyploid formation which may play a significant role in the origin and evolution of many plant species. It is unclear how the two or more divergent genomes coordinate in one nucleus with a single parental cytoplasm within allopolyploids. We used cytological and molecular methods to investigate the genetic and epigenetic instabilities associated with the process of distant hybridization and allopolyploid formation, measuring changes in chromosome number and DNA methylation across multiple generations. Results F1 plants from intergeneric hybridization between Raphanus sativus L. (2n = 18, RR) and Brassica alboglabra Bailey (2n = 18, CC) were obtained by hand crosses and subsequent embryo rescue. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to identify the F1 hybrid plants. The RAPD data indicated that the hybrids produced specific bands similar to those of parents and new bands that were not present in either parent. Chromosome number variation of somatic cells from allotetraploids in the F4 to F10 generations showed that intensive genetic changes occurred in the early generations of distant hybridization, leading to the formation of mixopolyploids with different chromosome numbers. DNA methylation variation was revealed using MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism), which showed that cytosine methylation patterns changed markedly in the process of hybridization and amphidiploid formation. Differences in cytosine methylation levels demonstrated an epigenetic instability of the allopolyploid of Raphanobrassica between the genetically stable and unstable generations. Conclusions Our results showed that chromosome instability occurred in the early generations of allopolyploidy and then the plants were reverted to largely euploidy in later generations. During this process, DNA methylation changed markedly. These results suggest that, epigenetic mechanisms play an

  5. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2013-12-15

    Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Instability of chromosome number and DNA methylation variation induced by hybridization and amphidiploid formation between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanjie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant hybridization can result genome duplication and allopolyploid formation which may play a significant role in the origin and evolution of many plant species. It is unclear how the two or more divergent genomes coordinate in one nucleus with a single parental cytoplasm within allopolyploids. We used cytological and molecular methods to investigate the genetic and epigenetic instabilities associated with the process of distant hybridization and allopolyploid formation, measuring changes in chromosome number and DNA methylation across multiple generations. Results F1 plants from intergeneric hybridization between Raphanus sativus L. (2n = 18, RR and Brassica alboglabra Bailey (2n = 18, CC were obtained by hand crosses and subsequent embryo rescue. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to identify the F1 hybrid plants. The RAPD data indicated that the hybrids produced specific bands similar to those of parents and new bands that were not present in either parent. Chromosome number variation of somatic cells from allotetraploids in the F4 to F10 generations showed that intensive genetic changes occurred in the early generations of distant hybridization, leading to the formation of mixopolyploids with different chromosome numbers. DNA methylation variation was revealed using MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism, which showed that cytosine methylation patterns changed markedly in the process of hybridization and amphidiploid formation. Differences in cytosine methylation levels demonstrated an epigenetic instability of the allopolyploid of Raphanobrassica between the genetically stable and unstable generations. Conclusions Our results showed that chromosome instability occurred in the early generations of allopolyploidy and then the plants were reverted to largely euploidy in later generations. During this process, DNA methylation changed markedly. These results suggest that

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identification of a candidate gene responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) containing DCGMS cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Young; Lee, Young-Pyo; Lee, Jonghoon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Sunggil; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-07-01

    A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) conferred by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its restorer-of-fertility gene (Rfd1) was previously reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Its inheritance of fertility restoration and profiles of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based molecular markers were reported to be different from those of Ogura CMS, the first reported CMS in radish. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence (239,186 bp; GenBank accession No. KC193578) of DCGMS mitotype is reported in this study. Thirty-four protein-coding genes and three ribosomal RNA genes were identified. Comparative analysis of a mitochondrial genome sequence of DCGMS and previously reported complete sequences of normal and Ogura CMS mitotypes revealed various recombined structures of seventeen syntenic sequence blocks. Short-repeat sequences were identified in almost all junctions between syntenic sequence blocks. Phylogenetic analysis of three radish mitotypes showed that DCGMS was more closely related to the normal mitotype than to the Ogura mitotype. A single 1,551-bp unique region was identified in DCGMS mtDNA sequences and a novel chimeric gene, designated orf463, consisting of 128-bp partial sequences of cox1 gene and 1,261-bp unidentified sequences were found in the unique region. No other genes with a chimeric structure, a major feature of most characterized CMS-associated genes in other plant species, were found in rearranged junctions of syntenic sequence blocks. Like other known CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, the predicted gene product of orf463 contained 12 transmembrane domains. Thus, this gene product might be integrated into the mitochondrial membrane. In total, the results indicate that orf463 is likely to be a casual factor for CMS induction in radish containing the DCGMS cytoplasm.

  8. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cadmium-responsive microRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is highly toxic to living organisms. To date, a number of conserved and non-conserved miRNAs have been identified to be involved in response to Cd stress in some plant species. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) remain largely unexplored. To dissect Cd-responsive miRNAs and their targets systematically at the global level, two small RNA libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and Cd-free roots of radish seedlings. Using Solexa sequencing technology, 93 conserved and 16 non-conserved miRNAs (representing 26 miRNA families) and 28 novel miRNAs (representing 22 miRNA families) were identified. In all, 15 known and eight novel miRNA families were significantly differently regulated under Cd stress. The expression patterns of a set of Cd-responsive miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Based on the radish mRNA transcriptome, 18 and 71 targets for novel and known miRNA families, respectively, were identified by the degradome sequencing approach. Furthermore, a few target transcripts including phytochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1), iron transporter protein, and ABC transporter protein were involved in plant response to Cd stress. This study represents the first transcriptome-based analysis of miRNAs and their targets responsive to Cd stress in radish roots. These findings could provide valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs and their targets in regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish.

  10. Transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root and identification of genes involved in response to Lead (Pb) stress with next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop with fleshy taproots as the edible parts. Little is known about the mechanism by which radishes respond to Pb stress at the molecular level. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during Pb stress. A total of 68,940 assembled unique transcripts including 33,337 unigenes were obtained from radish root cDNA samples. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 4,614 DEGs were detected between the two libraries of untreated (CK) and Pb-treated (Pb1000) roots. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs under Pb stress are predominately involved in defense responses in cell walls and glutathione metabolism-related processes, while downregulated DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways. The expression patterns of 22 selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. Furthermore, many candidate genes, which were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors, metal transporters and chelate compound biosynthesis related enzymes, were successfully identified in response to heavy metal Pb. Identification of potential DEGs involved in responses to Pb stress significantly reflected alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. The molecular basis of the response to Pb stress in radishes was comprehensively characterized. Useful information and new insights were provided for investigating the molecular regulation mechanism of heavy metal Pb accumulation and

  11. Raphanus sativus L. seeds prevent LPS-stimulated inflammatory response through negative regulation of the p38 MAPK-NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Choi, Ki-Choon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Cho, Hyoung-Kwon; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2014-12-01

    The seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (RSL) have long been used as anti-inflammatory traditional medicine. However, scientific bases for the purported potential of the medicine and the associated mechanisms were barely defined. This study investigated the effects of RSL seeds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 100 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (REF), which was isolated from water extract of the seeds, significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (P < 0.001), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P < 0.001) in RAW264.7 cells. Oral supplementation with 30 mg/kg REF protected mice by 90% against LPS-induced septic death and prevented the increases of serum TNF-α and interferon-γ levels in LPS-injected mice. When REF was divided into four sub-fractions (REF-F1-F4), REF-F3 showed the greatest activity to suppress LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators. We subsequently isolated an active fraction from the REF-F3 and identified sinapic acid as the main constituent. The addition of 50 μg/ml active fraction markedly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-κB activation. Furthermore, supplementation with the active fraction (10 mg/kg) improved the survival rate of LPS-injected mice by 80% of the untreated control. Additional experiments revealed that sinapic acid was the active component responsible for the anti-inflammatory potential of RSL seeds. Collectively, our current results suggest that both RSL seeds and sinapic acid may be attractive materials for treating inflammatory disorders caused by endotoxins.

  12. Identification of highly variable chloroplast sequences and development of cpDNA-based molecular markers that distinguish four cytoplasm types in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunggil; Lee, Young-Pyo; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee

    2009-06-01

    Four types of cytoplasms (Ogura, DCGMS, DBRMF1, and DBRMF2) were identified in the previous studies using molecular markers based on mitochondrial genome variations in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). However, mtDNA markers have limitations in obtaining clear results due to complexity of radish mitochondrial genomes. To improve fidelity, molecular markers based on variation of chloroplast genome sequences were developed in this study. We searched for the sequence variations of chloroplast genome among the four cytoplasm types in 11 noncoding intergenic regions of ~8.7 kb. Highly variable intergenic regions between trnK and rps16 were identified, and a couple of 4-34 bp indels were used to develop a simple PCR-based marker that distinguished the four cytoplasm types based on the PCR product length polymorphism. Two additional cpDNA markers were developed by using a single nucleotide polymorphism and 17-bp insertion. Analysis of 90 accessions using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers showed the perfect match of results of both the markers, suggesting strict co-transmission of mitochondria and chloroplast in radish. Phylogenetic trees showed that two male-sterility inducing cytoplasms, Ogura and DCGMS, were closely related to DBRMF1 and DBRMF2, respectively. Analysis of 120 radish germplasms introduced from diverse countries showed that the frequency of male-sterility inducing mitotypes of Ogura and DCGMS was very low, and DCGMS was predominately detected in eastern European countries. Majority of accessions from Europe and Asia were shown to contain DBRMF2 and DBRMF1 mitotypes, respectively.

  13. Genome-Wide Characterization of the MADS-Box Gene Family in Radish (Raphanus sativusL.) and Assessment of Its Roles in Flowering and Floral Organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Nie, Shanshan; Chen, Yinglong; Liang, Dongyi; Sun, Xiaochuan; Karanja, Benard K; Luo, Xiaobo; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish ( Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana , all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ) and 76 type II (70 MIKC C and 6 MIKC ∗ ). Among them, 41 (28.47%) RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana , Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  14. Formation of a subero-lignified apical deposit in root tip of radish (Raphanus sativus) as a response to copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovác, Ján; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek

    2018-02-10

    Heavy metals induce changes in root metabolism and physiology, which can lead to a complex remodelling of the root system. The final morphological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots exposed to toxic concentrations of the heavy metal (Cu) include root growth inhibition, differentiation of xylem vessels close to the root tip, enhanced suberin lamellae deposition and enhanced lateral root production. Recently, we have found that such changes in root morphology and anatomy are coupled to the formation of a subero-lignified apical deposit (SLAD) very close to the root tip. To clarify the details of the formation of a SLAD in the root tip, we conducted experiments with radish roots exposed to a high Cu concentration (60 µm). Histochemical analysis of lignin and suberin as well as analysis of spatial-temporal characteristics of SLAD formation were performed by bright-field, fluorescence and confocal microscopy. This unique structure, not longer than 100 µm, consists of modified cell walls of the central cylinder that are encircled by a short cylinder of prematurely suberized endodermal cells. A SLAD starts to form, in both primary and lateral roots, after cessation of root elongation, and it is coupled with xylem differentiation and root branching close to the root apex. We noticed that deposition of phenolic substances into a SLAD, mainly suberin in the endodermis, is spatially separated from suberization or lignification in basally located endodermis. Although the main reason for formation of a SLAD is elusive, we suggest that it is a part of stress-induced responses which relate to decreased root growth or permeability in heavy metal stress.

  15. Transfer of Nickel from Polluted Soil to Pisum sativum L. and Raphanus sativus L. under Composted Green Amendment and Native Soil Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafady Nivien Allam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost, inoculation with native soil microbes and their residual effects on bioavailability of nickel by peas (Pisum sativum L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. grown on polluted soil were investigated in pot experiments. Plants were amendment with different compost levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% of soil dry weight and inoculated with different native soil microbes (4 fungal species, one bacterial species, 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the polluted soil under study. Significant increases in the biomass of pea and radish plants were observed as a result of amendment application and their residual effects. The mycorrhizal dependency (MD of pea plants was lower than of radish plants. The highest reductions of Ni levels in both plants were observed by the simultaneous applications of compost with microbes or mycorrhizal fungi to polluted soils. Soil pH increased significantly (p < 0.05 as a result of applying native microbes especially with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF alone or combined with compost. The DTPA extractability of soil Ni was significantly decreased with increasing soil pH (p < 0.05. The minimum transfer factor of Ni from polluted soil were 0.067 and 0.089 for pea and radish plants, respectively which were attained as a result of applying compost (0.6% of soil weight inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. From the results, we can conclude that the use of compost and native soil microbes as a soil remediate could be an effective strategy for soil remediation.

  16. Biocontrol Potential ofStreptomyces hydrogenansStrain DH16 towardAlternaria brassicicolato Control Damping Off and Black Leaf Spot ofRaphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhas, Rajesh K; Kaur, Talwinder

    2016-01-01

    Biocontrol agents and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to decrease the use of chemical pesticides. In light of this, the present investigation reports the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 and its metabolites towards Alternaria brassicicola , causal agent of black leaf spot and damping off of seedlings of crucifers. In vitro antibiosis of strain against pathogen revealed complete suppression of mycelial growth of pathogen, grown in potato dextrose broth supplemented with culture supernatant (20% v/v) of S. hydrogenans DH16. Microscopic examination of the fungal growth showed severe morphological abnormalities in the mycelium caused by antifungal metabolites. In vivo studies showed the efficacy of streptomycete cells and culture supernatant as seed dressings to control damping off of Raphanus sativus seedlings. Treatment of pathogen infested seeds with culture supernatant (10%) and streptomycete cells significantly improved seed germination (75-80%) and vigor index (1167-1538). Furthermore, potential of cells and culture supernatant as foliar treatment to control black leaf spot was also evaluated. Clearly visible symptoms of disease were observed in the control plants with 66.81% disease incidence and retarded growth of root system. However, disease incidence reduced to 6.78 and 1.47% in plants treated with antagonist and its metabolites, respectively. Additionally, treatment of seeds and plants with streptomycete stimulated various growth traits of plants over uninoculated control plants in the absence of pathogen challenge. These results indicate that S. hydrogenans and its culture metabolites can be developed as biofungicides as seed dressings to control seed borne pathogens, and as sprays to control black leaf spot of crucifers.

  17. Genome-wide characterization of the MADS-box gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L. and assessment of its roles in flowering and floral organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC*. Among them, 41 (28.47% RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  18. Biocontrol Potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16 Towards Alternaria brassicicola to Control Damping Off and Black Leaf Spot of Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumari Manhas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol agents and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to decrease the use of chemical pesticides. In light of this, the present investigation reports the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 and its metabolites towards Alternaria brassicicola, causal agent of black leaf spot and damping off of seedlings of crucifers. In vitro antibiosis of strain against pathogen revealed complete suppression of mycelial growth of pathogen, grown in potato dextrose broth supplemented with culture supernatant (20% v/v of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Microscopic examination of the fungal growth showed severe morphological abnormalities in the mycelium caused by antifungal metabolites. In vivo studies showed the efficacy of streptomycete cells and culture supernatant as seed dressings to control damping off of Raphanus sativus seedlings. Treatment of pathogen infested seeds with culture supernatant (10% and streptomycete cells significantly improved seed germination (75-80% and vigour index (1167-1538. Furthermore, potential of cells and culture supernatant as foliar treatment to control black leaf spot was also evaluated. Clearly visible symptoms of disease were observed in the control plants with 66.81% disease incidence and retarded growth of root system. However, disease incidence reduced to 6.78 and 1.47% in plants treated with antagonist and its metabolites, respectively. Additionally, treatment of seeds and plants with streptomycete stimulated various growth traits of plants over uninoculated control plants in the absence of pathogen challenge. These results indicate that S. hydrogenans and its culture metabolites can be developed as biofungicides as seed dressings to control seed borne pathogens, and as sprays to control black leaf spot of crucifers.

  19. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-Reyes, J. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Vilchis-Nestor, A.R. [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM—UNAM, Carretera Toluca—Atlacomulco km 14.5, San Cayetano, CP 50200 Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Majumdar, S. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Peralta-Videa, J.R. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, J.L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The citric acid capping significantly reduced the ζ potential values. • As the amount of CA increased, thicker the layer surrounding the CeO{sub 2} NPs. • CeO{sub 2}/CA NPs had better distribution and small particle size than bare CeO{sub 2} NPs. • CeO{sub 2}/CA NPs decrease the Ce uptake by radish seedlings. -- Abstract: Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO{sub 2} NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO{sub 2}:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO{sub 2} NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO{sub 2} NPs suspensions at 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, and 200 mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100 mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and −56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO{sub 2} NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO{sub 2} NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200 mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO{sub 2} NPs toxicity to plants.

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-06

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs, are

  2. Identification of novel and salt-responsive miRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory network of salt stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Yu, Rugang; Zhu, Xianwen; Luo, Xiaobo; Gong, Yiqin; Wang, Ronghua; Limera, Cecilia; Zhang, Keyun; Liu, Liwang

    2015-03-17

    Salt stress is one of the most representative abiotic stresses that severely affect plant growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well known for their significant involvement in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Although miRNAs implicated in salt stress response have been widely reported in numerous plant species, their regulatory roles in the adaptive response to salt stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), an important root vegetable crop worldwide, remain largely unknown. Solexa sequencing of two sRNA libraries from NaCl-free (CK) and NaCl-treated (Na200) radish roots were performed for systematical identification of salt-responsive miRNAs and their expression profiling in radish. Totally, 136 known miRNAs (representing 43 miRNA families) and 68 potential novel miRNAs (belonging to 51 miRNA families) were identified. Of these miRNAs, 49 known and 22 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed under salt stress. Target prediction and annotation indicated that these miRNAs exerted a role by regulating specific stress-responsive genes, such as squamosa promoter binding-like proteins (SPLs), auxin response factors (ARFs), nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (CSD1). Further functional analysis suggested that these target genes were mainly implicated in signal perception and transduction, regulation of ion homeostasis, basic metabolic processes, secondary stress responses, as well as modulation of attenuated plant growth and development under salt stress. Additionally, the expression patterns of ten miRNAs and five corresponding target genes were validated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). With the sRNA sequencing, salt-responsive miRNAs and their target genes in radish were comprehensively identified. The results provide novel insight into complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network of salt stress response in radish, and facilitate further dissection of molecular mechanism underlying plant adaptive response

  3. The uptake of Cs and Sr from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus L.)- potential for phytoextraction and remediation of contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wen, Fangping; Xu, Changhe; Tang, Yunlai; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-08-01

    The (133)Cs and (88)Sr uptake by plant Raphanus sativus L. was studied during cultivation in outdoor potted-soil. The distribution, accumulation of (133)Cs, (88)Sr and the antioxidant responses in plants were measured after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. The results showed that the uptake capacity of radish for (88)Sr was far higher than that for (133)Cs when the concentration of (88)Sr was as the same as that of (133)Cs in the soil (The concentration of (88)Sr or (133)Cs in the soil was from 2.5 mg kg(-1) to 40 mg kg(-1)). The highest (88)Sr accumulation was 239.18 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the highest (133)Cs accumulation was 151.74 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil was 40 mg kg(-1)), and the lowest (88)Sr accumulation was 131.03 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the lowest (133)Cs accumulation was 12.85 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil is 5 mg kg(-1)). The (88)Sr and (133)Cs TF values were 1.16-1.72 and 0.24-0.60, respectively. There was little influence of high concentration of (88)Sr on the total biomass of plants, so the radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance to (88)Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the (88)Sr stress than that under the (133)Cs stress, and the activities of POD and CAT were lower under the (88)Sr stress than that under (133)Cs stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Viabilidade do uso de água residuária tratada na irrigação da cultura do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmine Louise de Almeida Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de água residuária tratada para irrigação pode se tornar uma alternativa para regiões que enfrentam escassez de água. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do reuso de efluente doméstico na cultura do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Engenharia Agronômica (DEA, localizada na Universidade Federal de Sergipe/Campus de São Cristóvão no período de agosto a setembro de 2011. O efluente foi coletado na Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos (ETE Rosa Elze, localizada no Município de São Cristóvão/SE. As irrigações foram feitas utilizando-se cinco diluições diferentes. A lâmina de irrigação foi obtida pelo método do Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO 56. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado (IC, com cinco repetições e duas plantas por parcela útil. Foram avaliados altura, massa seca e fresca da parte aérea; comprimento e massa fresca da raiz; diâmetro do fruto e número de folhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, não havendo diferença significativa. Em relação à qualidade microbiológica do bulbo, realizou-se a enumeração de coliformes termotolerantes, de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas e a pesquisa de Salmonella, os resultados demonstram que o rabanete encontra-se dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação.

  5. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Expression Analysis in Radish (Raphanus sativusL.) and Its Relatives Based on Expression Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui; Wang, Haiping; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Guo, Yangdong; Li, Xixiang

    2017-01-01

    Radish ( Raphanus sativus ) is an important cruciferous root crop with a close relationship to Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ). RT-qPCR is used extensively to evaluate the expression levels of target genes, and accurate measurement of target gene expression with this method is determined by the valid reference genes used for data nomalization in different experimental conditions. Screening for appropriate reference genes with stable expression based on RT-qPCR data is important for gene expression and functional analysis research in radish and its relatives. However, many researches have thought that almost no single reference gene is widely suitable for all experimental conditions, and few researchers have paid attention to the validation of reference genes in radish gene expression analysis. In the present study, 12 candidate reference genes were selected for analysis. Their expression in 28 samples, including 20 radish samples from different organs and conditions, four Chinese cabbage organs and four organs of their distant hybrid, was assessed by RT-qPCR and then five software tools-ΔCt, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder-were used to compare their expression stability. The results showed that the most suitable reference genes were different in different organs and conditions. GAPDH, DSS1 , and UP2 were optimal reference genes for gene expression analysis in all organs and conditions in radish. UPR, GSNOR1 , and ACTIN2/7 were the most stable reference genes in different radish organs. UP2 and GAPDH were suitable reference genes for radish pistil development studies. RPII, UBC9 , and GAPDH had the most stable expression in radish under various stresses. DSS1, UP2 , and TEF 2 were the optimal reference genes for Chinese cabbage organs, whereas TUA was optimal for the distant hybrid. UP2 , and TEF 2 were appropriate reference genes for all of the samples together. The optimal reference genes we identified, UP2, GAPDH, UPR , and GSNOR1 were verified by

  6. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE IRRIGAÇÃO BASEADAS EM FRAÇÕES DO TANQUE CLASSE SOBRE A PRODUÇÃO DE RABANETE (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Angélica Alves MARQUES

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The radish (Raphanus sativus L. is a herbaceous plant which roots present high nutritious value. One of the more used methods of the cultures evapotranspiration estimative (Eto is the pan evaporation. This method integrated the effects of solar radiation, wind, temperature and relative humidity based on the water evaporation of a free surface. This work studied the effect of different irrigation levels, based on pan evaporation (ECA - 80% ECA; 100% ECA; 120% ECA and hydric stress (0% ECA, about the 'Crinson Giant' radish production cultivated in pots. The fractions of pan evaporation tested didn't cause a reduction in the radish production in relation to the total irrigation (100% ECA. However the plants submitted to the hydric stress (0% ECA had presented a reduction in dry matter of 42% and 64% in aerial part and roots, respectively, when compared to the control (100% ECA.

  7. Effects of Soil Pre-Treatment with Basamid® Granules, Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, and Tagetes patula on Bacterial and Fungal Communities at Two Apple Replant Disease Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Bunlong; Nitt, Heike; Wrede, Andreas; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J; Winkelmann, Traud; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-01-01

    Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as "replant disease (RD)". Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span. In our previous study, we showed that RD symptoms were reduced when apple rootstock M106 were grown in RD soils treated either with the soil fumigant Basamid or after biofumigation by incorporating Brassica juncea or Raphanus sativus or by growing Tagetes under field conditions compared to untreated control soil. The present study aimed at identifying potential bacterial and fungal taxa that were affected by different soil treatments and linking bacterial and fungal responders to plant performance. Miseq® Illumina® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments (bacteria) and ITS regions (fungi) amplified from total community DNA extracted from soil samples taken 4 weeks after treatments were performed. Soil properties and culture history of the two RD sites greatly influenced soil microbiomes. Several bacterial genera were identified that significantly increased in treated soils such as Arthrobacter (R. sativus, both sites), Curtobacterium (Basamid, both sites), Terrimonas (Basamid and R. sativus, site A) and Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, site K and R. sativus, site A) that were also significantly and positively correlated with growth of apple M106 plants. Only few fungal genera, such as Podospora, Monographella and Mucor, were significantly promoted in soils treated with B. juncea and R. sativus (both sites). The least pronounced changes were recorded for bacterial as well as fungal communities in the RD soils planted with Tagetes. The detection

  8. Effects of Soil Pre-Treatment with Basamid® Granules, Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, and Tagetes patula on Bacterial and Fungal Communities at Two Apple Replant Disease Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunlong Yim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as “replant disease (RD”. Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span. In our previous study, we showed that RD symptoms were reduced when apple rootstock M106 were grown in RD soils treated either with the soil fumigant Basamid or after biofumigation by incorporating Brassica juncea or Raphanus sativus or by growing Tagetes under field conditions compared to untreated control soil. The present study aimed at identifying potential bacterial and fungal taxa that were affected by different soil treatments and linking bacterial and fungal responders to plant performance. Miseq® Illumina® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments (bacteria and ITS regions (fungi amplified from total community DNA extracted from soil samples taken 4 weeks after treatments were performed. Soil properties and culture history of the two RD sites greatly influenced soil microbiomes. Several bacterial genera were identified that significantly increased in treated soils such as Arthrobacter (R. sativus, both sites, Curtobacterium (Basamid, both sites, Terrimonas (Basamid and R. sativus, site A and Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, site K and R. sativus, site A that were also significantly and positively correlated with growth of apple M106 plants. Only few fungal genera, such as Podospora, Monographella and Mucor, were significantly promoted in soils treated with B. juncea and R. sativus (both sites. The least pronounced changes were recorded for bacterial as well as fungal communities in the RD soils planted with Tagetes

  9. Effects of Soil Pre-Treatment with Basamid® Granules, Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, and Tagetes patula on Bacterial and Fungal Communities at Two Apple Replant Disease Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Bunlong; Nitt, Heike; Wrede, Andreas; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J.; Winkelmann, Traud; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-01-01

    Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as “replant disease (RD)”. Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span. In our previous study, we showed that RD symptoms were reduced when apple rootstock M106 were grown in RD soils treated either with the soil fumigant Basamid or after biofumigation by incorporating Brassica juncea or Raphanus sativus or by growing Tagetes under field conditions compared to untreated control soil. The present study aimed at identifying potential bacterial and fungal taxa that were affected by different soil treatments and linking bacterial and fungal responders to plant performance. Miseq® Illumina® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments (bacteria) and ITS regions (fungi) amplified from total community DNA extracted from soil samples taken 4 weeks after treatments were performed. Soil properties and culture history of the two RD sites greatly influenced soil microbiomes. Several bacterial genera were identified that significantly increased in treated soils such as Arthrobacter (R. sativus, both sites), Curtobacterium (Basamid, both sites), Terrimonas (Basamid and R. sativus, site A) and Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, site K and R. sativus, site A) that were also significantly and positively correlated with growth of apple M106 plants. Only few fungal genera, such as Podospora, Monographella and Mucor, were significantly promoted in soils treated with B. juncea and R. sativus (both sites). The least pronounced changes were recorded for bacterial as well as fungal communities in the RD soils planted with Tagetes. The

  10. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  11. Radish (Raphanus sativus) and Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleem Ali

    2017-09-14

    For more than three decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies have linked radishes with diabetes, though this link has not been discussed. This review systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of radishes on diabetes. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and EMBASE databases for English language articles from June 1987 through May 2017 using the key words "radish" and "diabetes," and the references from particular reports were also considered if relevant. In summary, radish has been identified as having antidiabetic effects, making it favorable for those with diabetic conditions. This may be due to its ability to enhance the antioxidant defense mechanism and reduce the accumulation of free radicals, affect hormonal-induced glucose hemostasis, promote glucose uptake and energy metabolism, and reduce glucose absorption in the intestine. However, this summary requires further confirmation in research in vivo studies and clinical trials.

  12. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus

  13. Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an HTMT-coding gene from Raphanus sativus (daikon radish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuya; Toda, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Michiko; Negishi, Takashi; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru

    2009-01-01

    Background Biogenic emissions of methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br and CH3I) are the major source of these compounds in the atmosphere; however, there are few reports about the halide profiles and strengths of these emissions. Halide ion methyltransferase (HMT) and halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) enzymes concerning these emissions have been purified and characterized from several organisms including marine algae, fungi, and higher plants; however, the correlation between emission profiles of methyl halides and the enzymatic properties of HMT/HTMT, and their role in vivo remains unclear. Results Thirty-five higher plant species were screened, and high CH3I emissions and HMT/HTMT activities were found in higher plants belonging to the Poaceae family, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), as well as the Brassicaceae family, including daikon radish (Raphanus sativus). The in vivo emission of CH3I clearly correlated with HMT/HTMT activity. The emission of CH3I from the sprouting leaves of R. sativus, T. aestivum and O. sativa grown hydroponically increased with increasing concentrations of supplied iodide. A gene encoding an S-adenosylmethionine halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) was cloned from R. sativus and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. The recombinant R. sativus HTMT (RsHTMT) was revealed to possess high specificity for iodide (I-), bisulfide ([SH]-), and thiocyanate ([SCN]-) ions. Conclusion The present findings suggest that HMT/HTMT activity is present in several families of higher plants including Poaceae and Brassicaceae, and is involved in the formation of methyl halides. Moreover, it was found that the emission of methyl iodide from plants was affected by the iodide concentration in the cultures. The recombinant RsHTMT demonstrated enzymatic properties similar to those of Brassica oleracea HTMT, especially in terms of its high specificity for iodide, bisulfide, and thiocyanate ions. A survey of

  14. Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an HTMT-coding gene from Raphanus sativus (daikon radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniguchi Tomokazu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biogenic emissions of methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br and CH3I are the major source of these compounds in the atmosphere; however, there are few reports about the halide profiles and strengths of these emissions. Halide ion methyltransferase (HMT and halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT enzymes concerning these emissions have been purified and characterized from several organisms including marine algae, fungi, and higher plants; however, the correlation between emission profiles of methyl halides and the enzymatic properties of HMT/HTMT, and their role in vivo remains unclear. Results Thirty-five higher plant species were screened, and high CH3I emissions and HMT/HTMT activities were found in higher plants belonging to the Poaceae family, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., as well as the Brassicaceae family, including daikon radish (Raphanus sativus. The in vivo emission of CH3I clearly correlated with HMT/HTMT activity. The emission of CH3I from the sprouting leaves of R. sativus, T. aestivum and O. sativa grown hydroponically increased with increasing concentrations of supplied iodide. A gene encoding an S-adenosylmethionine halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT was cloned from R. sativus and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. The recombinant R. sativus HTMT (RsHTMT was revealed to possess high specificity for iodide (I-, bisulfide ([SH]-, and thiocyanate ([SCN]- ions. Conclusion The present findings suggest that HMT/HTMT activity is present in several families of higher plants including Poaceae and Brassicaceae, and is involved in the formation of methyl halides. Moreover, it was found that the emission of methyl iodide from plants was affected by the iodide concentration in the cultures. The recombinant RsHTMT demonstrated enzymatic properties similar to those of Brassica oleracea HTMT, especially in terms of its high specificity for iodide, bisulfide, and thiocyanate ions

  15. EVALUACION DEL POTENCIAL DE LOS BIOSÓLIDOS PROCEDENTES DEL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES PARA USO AGRÍCOLA Y SU EFECTO SOBRE EL CULTIVO DE RABANO ROJO (Raphanus sativus L.. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOSOLIDS OBTAINED FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL USE AND THEIR EFFECT ON CULTIVATION OF RED RADISH (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ramírez Pisco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se adelantó en predios de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales “El Salitre”, en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el propósito de evaluar el potencial del subproducto del tratamiento de aguas residuales “biosólido”, para su aplicación en la agricultura por medio de la valoración del crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano rojo, y establecer una posible alternativa al problema de disposición final de 3900 toneladas de este material generado mensualmente en las planta de tratamiento de aguas. El diseño experimental empleado correspondió a bloques completos al azar, con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones, dispuesto en parcelas de 2 m x 2 m. Los tratamientos correspondieron a mezclas de biosólidos con suelo en las siguientes proporciones: 100 % biosólido (equivalente a 294 ton ha-1, 75 % biosólido (220 ton Ha-1, 50 % biosólido (147 ton ha-1, 25 % biosólido (73 ton ha-1 y 100 % suelo como control. Se sembró rábano rojo Raphanus sativus L. Las variables evaluadas fueron: porcentaje de germinación, peso seco de hojas y raíz, longitud de la planta, área foliar y producción. Además, se midió la acumulación de elementos traza en los rábanos cosechados, para determinar su riesgo para el consumo. Los resultados evidenciaron que los tratamientos 50 % biosólido y 25 % biosólido, son los que favorecen el crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano, mientras que los tratamientos 75 % biosólido y 100% suelo presentaron un menor desarrollo, crecimiento y producción del cultivo. El tratamiento 100% biosólido provoco una baja germinación, además no presentó acumulación en la raíz, que es el producto cosechable. Los niveles de acumulación de metales pesados sobrepasaron los máximos permitidos con el tratamiento 75 % biosólido. Se evidenció como, la utilización del biosólido en la agricultura puede acarrear un gran riesgo, ya que a pesar de presentar una gran cantidad

  16. Influence of an iron-rich amendment on chemical lability and plant (Raphanus sativus L.) availability of two metallic elements (As and Pb) on mine-impacted agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhee; Kim, Yong-Seong; Hyun, Seunghun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Jun Young

    2016-10-01

    Variation of the chemical extractability and phytoavailability of two metallic elements (e.g., As and Pb) on amendment-treated soils was investigated. Four mine-impacted agricultural soils contaminated with both As (174-491 mg kg -1 ) and Pb (116-357 mg kg -1 ) were amended with an iron-rich sludge at the rate of 5 % (w/w). After a 4-, 8-, and 16-week incubation, the extractability of metallic elements was assessed by sequential extraction procedure (SEP; F1-F5). The control without amendment was also run. In amended soils, the labile element mass (i.e., F1 + F2) promptly decreased (15-48 % of As and 5-10 % of Pb) in 4 weeks, but the decrement was continued over 16 weeks up to 70 and 28 % for As and Pb, respectively. The labile mass decrement was quantitatively corresponded with the increment of F3 (bound to amorphous metal oxides). In plant test assessed by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on the 16-week soils, up to 57 % of As and 28 % of Pb accumulation was suppressed and 10-43 % of growth (i.e., shoot/root elongation and fresh weight) was improved. For both the control and amended soils, element uptake by plant was well correlated with their labile soil concentrations (r 2  = 0.799 and 0.499 for As and Pb, respectively). The results confirmed that the iron-rich material can effectively suppress element uptake during R. sativus seedling growth, most likely due to the chemical stabilization of metallic elements in growth medium.

  17. Phosphorylation of H2AX histones in response to double-strand breaks and induction of premature chromatin condensation in hydroxyurea-treated root meristem cells of Raphanus sativus, Vicia faba, and Allium porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Maszewski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Histone H2A variant H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation and hydroxyurea-mediated replication arrest, resulting in the formation of gamma-H2AX foci along megabase chromatin domains nearby the sites of incurred DNA damage. In an attempt to establish a relationship between species-specific nuclear architecture and H2AX phosphorylation in S/G(2) phase-arrested root meristem cells, immunocytochemical comparisons using an antibody raised against human gamma-H2AX were made among three plants differing with respect to DNA contents: Allium porrum, representing a reticulate type of DNA package, Vicia faba, having semireticulate cell nuclei, and Raphanus sativus, characterised by a chromocentric type of chromatin. Another approach was aimed at determining possible correlations between the extent of hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of H2AX histones and the quantities of root meristem cells induced by caffeine to enter aberrant mitotic division (premature chromosome condensation). It was concluded that the higher-order structure of chromatin may contribute to the accessibility of molecular factors engaged in the recognition and repair of genetic lesions. Consequently, in contrast to A. porrum and V. faba, a diffuse chromatin in chromocentric cell nuclei of R. sativus may become more vulnerable both to generate DNA double-strand breaks and to recruit molecular elements needed to arrange the cell cycle checkpoint functions, and thus, more resistant to factors which allow the cells to enter premature chromosome condensation spontaneously. On the other hand, however, caffeine-mediated overriding of the S-M checkpoint control system resulted in the typical appearance of premature chromosome condensation, irrespective of the genomic content of DNA.

  18. Screening, identification and quantification of glucosinolates in black radish (Raphanus sativus L. niger) based dietary supplements using liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediage, E Njumbe; Di Mavungu, J Diana; Scippo, M L; Schneider, Y J; Larondelle, Y; Callebaut, A; Robbens, J; Van Peteghem, C; De Saeger, S

    2011-07-15

    The glucosinolate profile of black radish (Raphanus sativus L. niger) based dietary supplements has been investigated by HPLC-PDA, LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-APCI-MS/MS systems. Optimization of the MS/MS parameters and LC conditions was performed using sinigrin reference standard and rapeseed certified reference material (BC190) respectively. An LC-ESI-MS/MS system was used to detect (screen) and identify the naturally occurring intact glucosinolates (GLs). The intact GLs identified were then desulfated and quantified on an HPLC-PDA system as desulfo-glucosinolates (DS-GLs). Prior to quantification, the DS-GLs were identified using an APCI-MS/MS. The HPLC-PDA method performance criteria were evaluated using glucotropaeolin potassium salt. The validated method was applied for the analysis of six dietary supplements. In total, six glucosinolates were identified and quantified in the dietary supplements; glucoraphasatin (0.2-0.48 mg/g), glucosisaustricin (0.37-0.91 mg/g), glucoraphenin (0.84-1.27 mg/g), glucoputrajivin (0.14-0.28 mg/g), glucosisymbrin (0.70-0.99 mg/g) and gluconasturtiin (0.06-0.12 mg/g). Glucoraphenin was the most abundant glucosinolate in all samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) in Raphanus sativus L. and Spinacia oleracea L. plants irrigated with industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S N

    2006-05-01

    Effluent from electroplating industry contains various heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn, which are used in electroplating process of industry. Effluent was slightly greenish in colour and pungent in odour. Physico-chemical properties like total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), alkalinity, Biological oxygen demand (BOD), and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) showed higher values in effluent with high metal contents like Cd, 0.013; Cr, 0.093; Ni, 0.935 and Zn 4.76 mg l(-1). plants of S. oleracea and R. sativus were raised in uncontaminated alluvial soil of Lucknow by soil pot culture method and irrigated with industrial effluent, showed visual toxic symptoms like stunted growth, necrosis followed by chlorosis in leaves and finally death of the plants. Severity of toxicity was less in plants treated with diluted effluent (50%). High accumulation of Cr, 302.0; Cu, 81.2; Ni, 155.1 and Zn 146.8 microg g(-1) dry weight in S. oleracea and Cr, 198.0; Cu, 41.0; Ni, 84.3 and Zn, 140.2 microg g(-1) dry weight in R. sativus were determined. Tissue concentration of metals and toxic effects was more in S. oleracea plants. The tissue concentration of metals showed much higher values in treated plants than that of their respective control.

  20. Construction of a high-resolution linkage map of Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility conferred by DCGMS cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using synteny between radish and Arabidopsis genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngcho; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Han, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sunggil

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility caused by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its nuclear restorer-of-fertility locus (Rfd1) with a linked molecular marker (A137) have been reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus, linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were screened using bulked segregant analysis. A 220-bp linked AFLP fragment sequence from radish showed homology with an Arabidopsis coding sequence. Using this Arabidopsis gene sequence, a simple PCR marker (A220) was developed. The A137 and A220 markers flanked the Rfd1 locus. Two homologous Arabidopsis genes with both marker sequences were positioned on Arabidopsis chromosome-3 with an interval of 2.4 Mb. To integrate the Rfd1 locus into a previously reported expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, the radish EST sequences located in three syntenic blocks within the 2.4-Mb interval were used to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for tagging each block. The SNP marker in linkage group-2 co-segregated with male fertility in an F(2) population. Using radish ESTs positioned in linkage group-2, five intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker were developed and used to construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus. Two closely linked markers delimited the Rfd1 locus within a 985-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3. Synteny between the radish and Arabidopsis genomes in the 985-kb interval were used to develop three ILP and three CAPS markers. Two ILP markers further delimited the Rfd1 locus to a 220-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3.

  1. Genome-wide characterization of the WRKY gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) reveals its critical functions under different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Bernard Kinuthia; Fan, Lianxue; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Tang, Mingjia; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Fei; Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Liu, Liwang

    2017-11-01

    The radish WRKY gene family was genome-widely identified and played critical roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses. The WRKY is among the largest transcription factors (TFs) associated with multiple biological activities for plant survival, including control response mechanisms against abiotic stresses such as heat, salinity, and heavy metals. Radish is an important root vegetable crop and therefore characterization and expression pattern investigation of WRKY transcription factors in radish is imperative. In the present study, 126 putative WRKY genes were retrieved from radish genome database. Protein sequence and annotation scrutiny confirmed that RsWRKY proteins possessed highly conserved domains and zinc finger motif. Based on phylogenetic analysis results, RsWRKYs candidate genes were divided into three groups (Group I, II and III) with the number 31, 74, and 20, respectively. Additionally, gene structure analysis revealed that intron-exon patterns of the WRKY genes are highly conserved in radish. Linkage map analysis indicated that RsWRKY genes were distributed with varying densities over nine linkage groups. Further, RT-qPCR analysis illustrated the significant variation of 36 RsWRKY genes under one or more abiotic stress treatments, implicating that they might be stress-responsive genes. In total, 126 WRKY TFs were identified from the R. sativus genome wherein, 35 of them showed abiotic stress-induced expression patterns. These results provide a genome-wide characterization of RsWRKY TFs and baseline for further functional dissection and molecular evolution investigation, specifically for improving abiotic stress resistances with an ultimate goal of increasing yield and quality of radish.

  2. PREDIÇÃO DOS TEORES DE COMPOSTOS FENÓLICOS E FLAVONOIDES NA PARTE AÉREA DAS ESPÉCIES Secale cereale L., Avena strigosa L. E Raphanus sativus L. POR MEIO DE ESPECTROSCOPIA NO INFRAVERMELHO PRÓXIMO (NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Souza

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy associated with chemometrics is a non-destructive method of the samples for the prediction of phenolic compounds. The objective of the work was to apply the near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for the prediction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in aerial part samples of cover crops plants Raphanus sativus L., Secale cereale L. and Avena strigosa L. Samples were collected at 60, 80 and 100 days after sowing (DAS of the plants and, after lodging (DAA, at 15 and 30 days, in an experiment implanted in the field, in the city of Ituporanga, Santa Catarina. The samples were homogenized, identified, transported on dry ice, lyophilized, crushed, sieved and stored at -20 °C for analysis. For the calibration, 84 samples were used and for the validation 10 samples. The combination of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis by partial least squares regression allowed the development of prediction models of phenolics and flavonoids with associated errors averaging 10%. NIR spectroscopy is recommended for the development of calibration models because it allows to non-destructive infer phenolic and total flavonoid contents, with high analytical frequency, without the use of reagents and other inputs required by the reference method, with results very close to those obtained in the laboratory.

  3. Forage potential of Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth rate of early plantings decreased by April, while late plantings produced poor yields because of a restricted growing season. Establishment in February provided the highest yield coupled with relatively late flowering and sustained quality.Language: English. Keywords: Flowering; Japanese radish; Nooitgedacht; ...

  4. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  5. QTL mapping of clubroot resistance in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Akito; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hayashi, Takeshi; Wang, Ning; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Hirai, Masashi

    2010-03-01

    A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F(2) population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F(3) plants obtained by selfing of F(2) plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter. The mean disease indexes of the F(3) plants were used for the phenotype of the F(2). The results of two CR tests were analyzed for the presence of QTL. A linkage map was constructed using AFLP and SSR markers; it spanned 554 cM and contained 18 linkage groups. A CR locus was observed in the top region of linkage group 1 in two tests. Therefore, the present results suggest that a large part of radish CR is controlled by a single gene or closely linked genes in this radish population, although minor effects of other genomic areas cannot be ruled out. The CR locus was named Crs1. Markers linked to Crs1 showed sequence homology to the genomic region of the top of chromosome 3 of Arabidopsis, as in the case of Crr3, a CR locus in Brassica rapa. These markers should be useful for breeding CR cultivars of radish. As Japanese radishes are known to be highly resistant or immune to clubroot, these markers may also be useful in the introgression of this CR gene to Brassica crops.

  6. Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Pablo Ferrer-Gallego; Albert J. Navarro Peris; Emilio Laguna Lumbreras; Gonzalo Mateo Sanz

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov., caracterizada por presentar un hábito postrado, tallos estoloníferos, decumbentes y radicantes, hojas muy estrechas y una floración otoñal. ABSTRACT: Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae). A new subspecies of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. is described. This new subspecies is characterized by its prost...

  7. Crocus sativus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... 25: 159-168. Mcmaster GS, Willem WW (1997). Growing degree-days: One equation, two interpretations, Agric. For. Meteorol. 87: 291-300. Molina RV, Valero M, Navarro Y, Guardiola JL, Garcia-Luis A (2005). Temperature effects on flower formation in saffron (Crocus sativus. L.), Sci. Hortic., 103: 361-379.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of expressed sequence tags from cultivated and wild radish (Raphanus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Di; Sun, Honghe; Huang, Mingyun; Zheng, Yi; Qiu, Yang; Li, Xixiang; Fei, Zhangjun

    2013-10-21

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., 2n = 2× = 18) is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. A large collection of radish expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has been generated but remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, approximately 315,000 ESTs derived from 22 Raphanus cDNA libraries from 18 different genotypes were analyzed, for the purpose of gene and marker discovery and to evaluate large-scale genome duplication and phylogenetic relationships among Raphanus spp. The ESTs were assembled into 85,083 unigenes, of which 90%, 65%, 89% and 89% had homologous sequences in the GenBank nr, SwissProt, TrEMBL and Arabidopsis protein databases, respectively. A total of 66,194 (78%) could be assigned at least one gene ontology (GO) term. Comparative analysis identified 5,595 gene families unique to radish that were significantly enriched with genes related to small molecule metabolism, as well as 12,899 specific to the Brassicaceae that were enriched with genes related to seed oil body biogenesis and responses to phytohormones. The analysis further indicated that the divergence of radish and Brassica rapa occurred approximately 8.9-14.9 million years ago (MYA), following a whole-genome duplication event (12.8-21.4 MYA) in their common ancestor. An additional whole-genome duplication event in radish occurred at 5.1-8.4 MYA, after its divergence from B. rapa. A total of 13,570 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 28,758 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. Using a subset of SNPs, the phylogenetic relationships of eight different accessions of Raphanus was inferred. Comprehensive analysis of radish ESTs provided new insights into radish genome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships of different radish accessions. Moreover, the radish EST sequences and the associated SSR and SNP markers described in this study represent a valuable resource for radish functional genomics studies and breeding.

  9. The Effect of Altered Soil Moisture on Hybridization Rate in a Crop-Wild System (Raphanus spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley G Campbell

    Full Text Available Since plant mating choices are flexible and responsive to the environment, rates of spontaneous hybridization may vary across ecological clines. Developing a robust and predictive framework for rates of plant gene flow requires assessing the role of environmental sensitivity on plant reproductive traits, relative abundance, and pollen vectors. Therefore, across a soil moisture gradient, we quantified pollinator movement, life-history trait variation, and unidirectional hybridization rates from crop (Raphanus sativus to wild (Raphanus raphanistrum radish populations. Both radish species were grown together in relatively dry (no rain, relatively wet (double rain, or control soil moisture conditions in Ohio, USA. We measured wild and crop radish life-history, phenology and pollinator visitation patterns. To quantify hybridization rates from crop-to-wild species, we used a simply inherited morphological marker to detect F1 hybrid progeny. Although crop-to-wild hybridization did not respond to watering treatments, the abundance of hybrid offspring was higher in fruits produced late in the period of phenological overlap, when both species had roughly equal numbers of open flowers. Therefore, the timing of fruit production and its relationship to flowering overlap may be more important to hybrid zone formation in Raphanus spp. than soil moisture or pollen vector movements.

  10. The Effect of Altered Soil Moisture on Hybridization Rate in a Crop-Wild System (Raphanus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneck, Michelle E.; Chaplin, Colleen; Mercer, Kristin L.

    2016-01-01

    Since plant mating choices are flexible and responsive to the environment, rates of spontaneous hybridization may vary across ecological clines. Developing a robust and predictive framework for rates of plant gene flow requires assessing the role of environmental sensitivity on plant reproductive traits, relative abundance, and pollen vectors. Therefore, across a soil moisture gradient, we quantified pollinator movement, life-history trait variation, and unidirectional hybridization rates from crop (Raphanus sativus) to wild (Raphanus raphanistrum) radish populations. Both radish species were grown together in relatively dry (no rain), relatively wet (double rain), or control soil moisture conditions in Ohio, USA. We measured wild and crop radish life-history, phenology and pollinator visitation patterns. To quantify hybridization rates from crop-to-wild species, we used a simply inherited morphological marker to detect F1 hybrid progeny. Although crop-to-wild hybridization did not respond to watering treatments, the abundance of hybrid offspring was higher in fruits produced late in the period of phenological overlap, when both species had roughly equal numbers of open flowers. Therefore, the timing of fruit production and its relationship to flowering overlap may be more important to hybrid zone formation in Raphanus spp. than soil moisture or pollen vector movements. PMID:27936159

  11. Behavioral evidence of antidepressant-like activity of Raphanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Our results clearly show that Raphanus caudatus ameliorate depression-like behavior in rodent model, and can be used to establish newer antidepressant approaches in future. However, mechanism-based studies are needed to establish the mechanistic action of Raphanus caudatus L. Keywords: Raphanus ...

  12. Cinética de secagem do nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. The drying kinetics of forage turnips (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Aparecida de Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições foi realizado um trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o modelo matemático que melhor descreve a secagem de sementes de nabo forrageiro, bem como o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação em diferentes condições de ar. Sementes colhidas com teor de água de 0,36 (decimal b.s. foram secas até 0,09 (decimal b.s. em secador experimental com as temperaturas controladas de 30; 40; 50; 60 e 70 °C e umidades relativas de 47,3; 26,2; 12,0; 10,1 e 5,1%, respectivamente. Os dados de coeficiente de difusão foram analisados por meio de análise de variância pelo teste F e regressão, adotando-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade. Conclui-se que dentre os modelos analisados, o que apresentou melhor ajuste para descrever as curvas de secagem do nabo forrageiro foi o de Midilli. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo aumenta com a elevação da temperatura, apresentando valores entre 3,23 x 10-11 e 10,42 x 10-11 m² s-1, para faixa de temperatura de 30 a 70 °C. A relação entre o coeficiente de difusão e a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, que apresenta uma energia de ativação para a difusão líquida no processo de secagem do nabo forrageiro de 24,78 kJ mol-1.A study aimed at determining the best mathematical model to describe the drying of forage-turnip seeds, along with the diffusion coefficient and activation energy under different air-conditions, was carried out in a randomized design with four replications. Seeds were harvested, having a moisture content of 0.36 (decimal bs and then dried to 0.09 (decimal bs in an experimental dryer at controlled temperatures of 30; 40; 50; 60 and 70 °C and relative humidities of 47.3; 26.2; 12.0; 10.1 and 5.1%, respectively. The effective coefficient of diffusion was calculated by F-test variance analysis and regression, adopting a 5% level of probability. The conclusion was reached that among the models analyzed, that of Midilli best fit the drying curves of forage-turnip seeds. The effective diffusion coefficient increases with temperature, with values of between 3.23 x 10-11 and 10.42 x 10-11 m² s-1 for a temperature range of from 30 to 70 °C. The relationship between the coefficient of diffusion and drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation which gives an activation energy of 24.78 kJ mol-1 for liquid diffusion in the drying process of forage-turnip seeds.

  13. The antioxidant EDU and Raphanus sativus L. - a new approach to biological indication of ozone?; Das Antioxidant EDU und Raphanus sativus L. - neue Moeglichkeiten der Bioindikation von Ozon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka-Rick, R.; Manning, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    Studies on the effects of ozone on plants repeatedly suggested to use anti-oxidant agent-like ethylene diurea (EDU) as control treatment for exposure systems like open-top chambers. Radish (`Cherry Belle`) was exposed to ozone (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d) in a controlled way in green-house tests run during three different developmental stages. Some plants received pretreatment with EDU (150 mg l{sup -1}). Up to 26% of the leaf surface was injured by ozone exposure in untreated plants; EDU-treated plants and control plants grown in filtered ais showed a maximum of 2% of leaf injury. The growth of the storage organ (hypocotyl) was significantly depressed by ozone exposure (without EDU) but compensatory processes largely redressed this loss after the exposure period. EDU caused some minor leaf injury and a nonsignificant stimulation of shoot growth. (orig.) [Deutsch] In O{sub 3}-Wirkungsuntersuchungen mit Pflanzen wurde wiederholt der Einsatz antioxidanter Wirkstoffe wie Ethylendiurea (EDU) als Kontrollbehandlung alternativ zu Expositionssystemen wie z.B. Open-Top-Kammern vorgeschlagen. Waehrend drei verschiedener Entwicklungsstadien wurden Radies (Sorte `Cherry Belle`) in einem Gewaechshausversuch kontrolliert mit O{sub 3} belastet (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d), nachdem ein Teil der Pflanzen mit EDU behandelt worden war (150 mg l{sup -1}). Bei unbehandelten Pflanzen wurden bis zu 26% der Blattflaeche durch die O{sub 3}-Exposition geschaedigt; EDU-behandelte Pflanzen und Kontrollpflanzen in gefilterter Luft zeigten maximal 2% Blattschaedigung. Das Wachstum des Speicherorgans (Hypokotyl) war durch die O{sub 3}-Belastung (ohne EDU) signifikant vermindert, kompensatorische Prozesse glichen diesen Verlust nach der Belastungsphase jedoch weitgehend aus. EDU selbst loeste leichte Blattschaedigungen aus und bewirkte eine nicht-signifikante Stimulation des Sprosswachstums. (orig.)

  14. Protective Effect of Humic acid and Chitosan on Radish (Raphanus sativus, L. var. sativus Plants Subjected to Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. EL-Gahmery

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHumic acid or chitosan has been shown to increase plant growth, yield and improving physiological processes in plant, but its roles on alleviating the harmful effect of cadmium on plant growth and some physiological processes in plants is very rare. Pot experiments were conducted to study the role of 100 and 200 mg/kg dry soil from either humic acid or chitosan on counteracted the harmful effects of cadmium levels (100 and 150 mg/kg dry soil on radish plant growth and some physiological charactersResultsCadmium at 100 and 150 mg kg-1 soil decreased significantly length, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root systems as well as leaf number per plant in both seasons. Chlorophyll, total sugars, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, relative water content, water deficit percentage and soluble proteins as well as total amino acids contents were also decreased. Meanwhile, cadmium concentration in plants was increased. On the other hand, application of chitosan or humic acid as soil addition at the concentration of 100 or 200 mg kg-1 increased all the above mentioned parameters and decreased cadmium concentrations in plant tissues. Chitosan at 200 mg kg-1 was the most effective than humic acid at both concentrations in counteracting the harmful effect of cadmium stress on radish plant growth.ConclusionIn conclusion, both natural chelators, in particular, chitosan at 200 mg/kg dry soil can increase the capacity of radish plant to survive under cadmium stress due to chelating the Cd in the soil, and then reduced Cd bio-availability.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of expressed sequence tags from cultivated and wild radish (Raphanus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Radish (Raphanus sativus L., 2n = 2× = 18) is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. A large collection of radish expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has been generated but remains largely uncharacterized. Results In this study, approximately 315,000 ESTs derived from 22 Raphanus cDNA libraries from 18 different genotypes were analyzed, for the purpose of gene and marker discovery and to evaluate large-scale genome duplication and phylogenetic relationships among Raphanus spp. The ESTs were assembled into 85,083 unigenes, of which 90%, 65%, 89% and 89% had homologous sequences in the GenBank nr, SwissProt, TrEMBL and Arabidopsis protein databases, respectively. A total of 66,194 (78%) could be assigned at least one gene ontology (GO) term. Comparative analysis identified 5,595 gene families unique to radish that were significantly enriched with genes related to small molecule metabolism, as well as 12,899 specific to the Brassicaceae that were enriched with genes related to seed oil body biogenesis and responses to phytohormones. The analysis further indicated that the divergence of radish and Brassica rapa occurred approximately 8.9-14.9 million years ago (MYA), following a whole-genome duplication event (12.8-21.4 MYA) in their common ancestor. An additional whole-genome duplication event in radish occurred at 5.1-8.4 MYA, after its divergence from B. rapa. A total of 13,570 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 28,758 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. Using a subset of SNPs, the phylogenetic relationships of eight different accessions of Raphanus was inferred. Conclusion Comprehensive analysis of radish ESTs provided new insights into radish genome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships of different radish accessions. Moreover, the radish EST sequences and the associated SSR and SNP markers described in this study represent a valuable resource for radish functional genomics studies and

  16. Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Srivastava, R; Ahmed, H; Dixit, R K; Dharamveer; Saraf, S A

    2010-01-01

    .... sativus possesses a number of medicinally important activities such as antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, antitussive, antigenototoxic and cytotoxic effects, anxiolytic aphrodisiac, antioxidant, anti...

  17. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in response to vernalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Shufen; Xu, Wenling; Liu, Xianxian

    2017-01-01

    Vernalization is a key process for premature bolting. Although many studies on vernalization have been reported, the molecular mechanism of vernalization is still largely unknown in radish. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of radish seedlings at three different time points during vernalization. More than 36 million clean reads were generated for each sample and the portions mapped to the reference genome were all above 67.0%. Our results show that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between room temperature and the early stage of vernalization (4,845) are the most in all treatments pairs. A series of vernalization related genes, including two FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) genes, were screened according to the annotations. A total of 775 genes were also filtered as the vernalization related candidates based on their expression profiles. Cold stress responsive genes were also analyzed to further confirm the sequencing result. Several key genes in vernalization or cold stress response were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). This study identified a number of genes that may be involved in vernalization, which are useful for other functional genomics research in radish.

  18. LC-PDA-EIS/MSn identification of new anthocyanins in purple radish (Raphanus sativus L. variety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An LC-PDA-ESI/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the anthocyanins of purple Bordeaux radish. This study identified 57 anthocyanins: 23 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 12 acylated cyanidin 3-(glucosylacyl) acylsophoroside-5-diglucosides, and 22 acylated cyanid...

  19. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild radish between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan, and might provide new insight into the genetic differentiation of coastal plants across islands.

  20. Dissecting Root Proteome Changes Reveals New Insight into Cadmium Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Fei; Tang, Mingjia; Chen, Yinglong; Wang, Jin; Karanja, Bernard Kinuthia; Luo, Xiaobo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Liwang

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread heavy metal of particular concern with respect to the environment and human health. Although intensive studies have been conducted on Cd-exposed transcriptome profiling, little systematic proteome information is available on the molecular mechanism of Cd stress response in radish. In this study, the radish root proteome under Cd stress was investigated using a quantitative multiplexed proteomics approach. Seedlings were grown in nutrient solution without Cd (control) or with 10 or 50 μM CdCl2 for 12 h (Cd10 and Cd50, respectively). In total, 91 up- and 66 down-regulated proteins were identified in the control vs Cd10 comparison, while 340 up- and 286 down-regulated proteins were identified in the control vs Cd50 comparison. Functional annotation indicated that these differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were mainly involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, stress and defense and signal transduction processes. Correlation analysis showed that 33 DEPs matched with their transcripts, indicating a relatively low correlation between transcript and protein levels under Cd stress. Quantitative real-time PCR evidenced the expression patterns of 12 genes encoding their corresponding DEPs. In particular, several pivotal proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism, ROS scavenging, cell transport and signal transduction were involved in the coordinated regulatory network of the Cd stress response in radish. Root exposure to Cd2+ activated several key signaling molecules and metal-containing transcription factors, and subsequently some Cd-responsive functional genes were mediated to reduce Cd toxicity and re-establish redox homeostasis in radish. This is a first report on comprehensive proteomic characterization of Cd-exposed root proteomes in radish. These findings could facilitate unraveling of the molecular mechanism underlying the Cd stress response in radish and provide fundamental insights into the development of genetically engineered low-Cd-content radish cultivars. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Han

    Full Text Available Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion, migration patterns (linear expansion, and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild radish between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan, and might provide new insight into the genetic differentiation of coastal plants across islands.

  2. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress.

  3. EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATOR MICEFIT ON YIELD OF GARDEN RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Seredin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micefit is a product developed based on mycorrhizal fungi extracted from roots of swamp ledum. For ecological purposes the Micefit is used for final stage of cleaning of contaminated and polluted land at seed sowing and seedling plating. The effect of growth regulator Micefit on seeds of garden radish depending on different concentrations and exposures. The dependence of garden radish yield on time of treatment and concentration is shown.

  4. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of cadmium accumulation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Liangju; Gong, Yiqin; Dai, Wenhao; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wen, Tiancai; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil pollutant and poses a significant threat to human health via the food chain. Large phenotypic variations in Cd concentration of radish roots and shoots have been observed. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in radish remain to be elucidated. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using an F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between a high Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Dysx and a low Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Yh. The linkage map consisted of 523 SRAP, RAPD, SSR, ISSR, RAMP, and RGA markers and had a total length of 1,678.2 cM with a mean distance of 3.4 cM between two markers. All mapped markers distributed on nine linkage groups (LGs) having sizes between 134.7 and 236.8 cM. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root Cd accumulation were mapped on LGs 1, 4, 6, and 9, which accounted for 9.86 to 48.64 % of all phenotypic variance. Two QTLs associated with shoot Cd accumulation were detected on LG1 and 3, which accounted for 17.08 and 29.53 % of phenotypic variance, respectively. A major-effect QTL, qRCd9 (QTL for root Cd accumulation on LG9), was identified on LG 9 flanked by NAUrp011_754 and EM5me6_286 markers with a high LOD value of 23.6, which accounted for 48.64 % of the total phenotypic variance in Cd accumulation of F(2) lines. The results indicated that qRCd9 is a novel QTL responsible for controlling root Cd accumulation in radish, and the identification of specific molecular markers tightly linked to the major QTL could be further applied for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in low-Cd content radish breeding program.

  5. De teelt van witte rammenas (rettich) onder glas (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Informatie over teelt van witte rammenas (rettich), waarbij aandacht voor de rassen, de teelt onder glas, bemesting, zaadkwaliteit en opkweek, oogsten, sorteren en verpakken, ziekten en ziektebestrijding en recepten.

  6. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-02-23

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were detected based on pairwise comparison in the three libraries (0_DAP, 7_DAP and 15_DAP). Results from Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implicated in numerous life processes including embryo development and phytohormones biosynthesis. Notably, some genes encoding auxin response factor (ARF ), Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK ) known to be involved in radish embryogenesis were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of 30 genes including LEC1-2, AGL9, LRR, PKL and ARF8-1 were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the cooperation between miRNA and mRNA may play a pivotal role in the radish embryogenesis process. This is the first report on identification of DEGs profiles related to radish embryogenesis and seed development. These results could facilitate further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying embryogenesis and seed development in radish.

  7. Relative susceptibilities of five fodder radish varieties (Raphanus sativus var. Oleiformis) to Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, M.G.; Schomaker, C.H.; Been, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    The fodder radish varieties Anaconda, Contra, Defender, Doublet and Terranova, known to have some partial resistance, were compared to the standard variety, Radical, to estimate their relative susceptibility (RS) for both population dynamic parameters of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and to evaluate Pi

  8. Analysis of differential gene expression during floral bud abortion in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Sun, X L; Zhang, L G; Hui, M X; Zhang, M K

    2013-07-24

    Radish floral bud abortion (FBA) is an adverse biological phenomenon that occurs during reproduction. Although FBA occurs frequently, its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying FBA, we detected gene expression differences between aborted and normal buds of radish using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). A total of 221 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected by 256 cDNA-AFLP primer combinations, of which 114 were upregulated and 107 were downregulated in the aborted buds. A total of 54 TDFs were cloned and sequenced. A BLAST search revealed that all TDFs have homologous sequences and 29 of these corresponded to known genes, whose functions were mainly related to metabolism, stimulus response, transcriptional regulation, and transportation. Expressions of 6 TDFs with different functions were further analyzed by real-time PCR yielding expression profiling results consistent with the cDNA-AFLP analysis. Our results indicated that radish FBA is related to abnormalities in various physiological and biochemical plant processes.

  9. Transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal, is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO32 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72% was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56% or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%. A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30% was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40% and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%, while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable crops.

  10. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76-98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44-1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11-99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08-80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22-77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36-39.37% and 27.35-46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb-phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable crops.

  11. Comparative transcriptomics uncovers alternative splicing and molecular marker development in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Liang; Liang, Dongyi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhu, Yuelin; Jiang, Haiyan; Tang, Mingjia; Liu, Liwang

    2017-07-03

    Alternative splicing (AS) plays important roles in gene expression and proteome diversity. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (InDel) are abundant polymorphisms and co-dominant inheritance markers, which have been widely used in germplasm identification, genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection in plants. So far, however, little information is available on utilization of AS events and development of SNP and InDel markers from transcriptome in radish. In this study, three radish transcriptome datasets were collected and aligned to the reference radish genome. A total of 56,530 AS events were identified from three radish genotypes with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS type, which accounted for 59.4% of the total expressed genes in radish. In all, 22,412 SNPs and 9436 InDels were identified with an average frequency of 1 SNP/17.9 kb and 1 InDel/42.5 kb, respectively. A total of 43,680 potential SSRs were identified in 31,604 assembled unigenes with a density of 1 SSR/2.5 kb. The ratio of SNPs with nonsynonymous/synonymous mutations was 1.05:1. Moreover, 35 SNPs and 200 InDels were randomly selected and validated by Sanger sequencing, 83.9% of the SNPs and 70% of the InDels exhibited polymorphism among these three genotypes. In addition, the 15 SNPs and 125 InDels were found to be unevenly distributed on 9 linkage groups. Furthermore, 40 informative InDel markers were successfully used for the genetic diversity analysis on 32 radish accessions. These results would not only provide new insights into transcriptome complexity and AS regulation, but also furnish large amount of molecular marker resources for germplasm identification, genetic mapping and further genetic improvement of radish in breeding programs.

  12. Formulasi Sediaan Krim Dari Ekstrak Lobak Merah (Raphanus sativus L.) Sebagai Pelembab Kulit

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Rohma Dearni

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radish is a vegetable which can be used to treat skin as it contains many substances that can rejuvenate skin. Radish contains 25% vitamin C, 9% vitamin E, 1% vitamin K, 4% iron, 2.5% magnesium, 2.5% calcium, 2.5% sodium, and 5% potassium. There are many varieties of radish such as red radish, black radish and white radish. The significant content differences between red radish and white radish is the presence of anthocyanins in red radish that is not present in white radish. Anth...

  13. Chromium phytotoxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus): effects on metabolism and nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K K; Singh, N K; Rai, U N

    2013-09-01

    In the present investigation, chromium (VI) induced toxicity on metabolic activity and translocations of nutrients in radish were evaluated under controlled glass house conditions. Chromium was found to induce toxicity and significantly affect plant growth and metabolic activity. Excess of chromium (0.4 mM) caused a decrease in the concentration of iron in leaves (from 134.3 to 71.9 μg g(-1) dw) and significant translocation of sulphur, phosphorus and zinc. Translocation of manganese, copper and boron were less affected from root to stem. After 15 days of Cr exposure, maximum accumulation of Cr was found in roots (327.6 μg g(-1) dw) followed by stems (186.8 μg g(-1) dw) and leaves (116.7 μg g(-1) dw) at 0.4 mM Cr concentration. Therefore, Cr may affect negatively not only production, but also the nutritive quality of the radish; likewise, higher Cr content may cause health hazards for humans.

  14. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Ha; Baskar, Thanislas Bastin; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-28

    A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g), phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g). Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), Pearson's correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87%) at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%), followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might provide information on the relationship between primary and secondary metabolites and a synergistic antioxidant ability derived from the secondary metabolites in the radish cultivars.

  15. Phytotoxicity of CeO2nanoparticles on radish plant (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xin; Rui, Mengmeng; Song, Youhong; Ma, Yuhui; Rui, Yukui; Zhang, Peng; He, Xiao; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) have been considered as one type of emerging contaminants that pose great potential risks to the environment and human health. The effect of CeO 2 NPs on plant-edible parts and health evaluation remains is necessary and urgently to be developed. In this study, we cultivated radish in Sigma CeO 2 NP (radish plant; especially in the treatment of 50 mg/kg CeO 2 NPs, root expansion was increased by 2.2 times as much as the control. In addition, the relative chlorophyll content enhanced by 12.5, 12.9, and 12.2% was compared to control on 40 cultivation days. CeO 2 NPs were mainly absorbed by the root and improved the activity of antioxidant enzyme system to scavenge the damage of free radicals in radish root and leaf. In addition, this study also indicated that the nanoparticles might enter the food chain through the soil into the edible part of the plant, which will be a potential threat to human health.

  16. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M.; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were det...

  17. Mechanisms of differential pollen donor performance in wild radish, Raphanus sativus (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D L; Diggle, P K

    2001-02-01

    In order to understand the characters on which sexual selection might operate in plants, it is critical to assess the mechanisms by which pollen competition and mate choice occur. To address this issue we measured a number of postpollination characters, ranging from pollen germination and pollen tube growth to final seed paternity, in wild radish. Crosses were performed using four pollen donors on a total of 16 maternal plants (four each from four families). Maternal plants were grown under two watering treatments to evaluate the effects of maternal tissue on the process of mating. The four pollen donors differed significantly in number of seeds sired and differed overall in the mating characters measured. However, it was difficult to associate particular mechanistic characters with ability to sire seeds, perhaps because of interactions among pollen donors within styles or among pollen donors and maternal plants. The process of pollen tube growth and fertilization differed substantially among maternal watering treatments, with many early events occurring more quickly in stressed plants. Seed paternity, however, was somewhat more even among pollen donors used on stressed maternal plants, suggesting that when maternal tissue is more competent, mating is slowed and is more selective.

  18. Grazing of Raphanus sativus. L (Japanese radish). | N.F.G. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of young woolled sheep was markedly better when grazing Japanese radish early in winter, when more leaf was available. Continuous grazing resulted in better performance than rotational or zero grazing. Keywords: continuous grazing; grazing; japanese radish; leaves; nooitgedacht research station; ...

  19. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L)

    OpenAIRE

    Etesami, M.; F. Tajpour; Khosravi, M.; A. Biabani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality a...

  20. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Etesami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality and quantity of the product to follow. Manure is a valuable source of biological, ecological and environmental benefits is positive and its main use is for agricultural use. Radish is an important root vegetable that belongs to the cruciferous (Brassicaceae. Value radish on high levels of dietary is related to soluble fiber and antioxidants. Radish is a native plant to Asia, China and Europe. The oral part of the botanical garden radish is important and that kind of traditional varieties have long hypocotyls include root and hypocotyls made.The purpose of this test is to evaluate the different mixture amount of animal fertilizers on the growth and yield of radish plants and compare them to each other. Materials and Methods: In order to study of different manure effect on radish growth and yield, an experiment carried out in 2012-2013 in the greenhouse of Gonbad- Kavos University with geographical characteristics 37.16 degrees north, 55.12 ° east and with a height of 45 meters above sea level in a completely randomized design with four replications. Soil and fertilizers used to this experiment were made of the soil and livestock of Gonbad- Kavos University. Soil texture was Clay loam and pH was 7.7 obtained from soil analysis. To obtain the required levels of fertilizer treatments (25, 50, 75, 100, a measure was considered as the basis of each treatment on the basis of the ratio were calculated. The treatments included control (soil, 25 percent cow manure+ 75 percent soil, 50 percent cow manure + 50 percent soil, 75 percent cow manure + 25 percent soil, 100 percent cow manure, 25 percent sheep manure+ 75 percent soil, 50 percent sheep manure + 50 percent soil, 75 percent sheep manure + 25 percent soil, 100 percent sheep manure, 25 percent poultry manure+ 75 percent soil, 50 percent poultry manure + 50 percent soil, 75 percent poultry manure + 25 percent soil, 100 percent poultry manure. Plant height, leaf length, tuber length, tuber diagonal, tuber weight, leaf weight, leaves dry weight and hollow bulb grade were studied. The experiment was conducted under weed control, lack of water restriction and control pests and diseases. To achieve maximum plant growth, we harvested on 2th April 2013 and plant height, leaf length, bulb length, diameter of the bulb, wet bulb, wet leaves and leaf dry weight was measured. After traits recorded, leaves isolated and dried in in oven at 72 degrees for 24 hours and dry matter content was determined. Statistical analysis and data analysis was performed with SAS and Excel computer programs were used to mean comparing with the LSD test at the level of 5 percent. Results and Discussion: Variance analysis results showed that measured traits affect by manure using significantly (P

  1. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    , defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K-OW. A negative correlation between BCF and log K-OW was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF...

  2. Stigma variability in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... Cytological and morphological studies showed that this characteristic is unstable and is not genetically controlled. Key words: Chromosome count, Crocus sativus, saffron, stigma, triploid. INTRODUCTION. Archeological and historical sources indicate that saffron. (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) cultivation is a ...

  3. Skin depigmentation activity of Crocus sativus extract cream | Aktar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of Crucus sativus extract and its effect on human skin using a non-invasive probe mexameter. Methods: The antioxidant activity of C. sativus extract was determined using DPPH method. Water in oil (w/o) topical cream of C. sativus extract (3 %) was formulated and compared ...

  4. Response of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and this was attributed to lack of scientific basis for advising farmers on application rates. It is also observed that information is scarce on response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to different source of animal manure. Against this background, there is need to study the effect of different organic manure source and rates in ...

  5. Genome-wide identification of microRNAs associated with taproot development in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuyan; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Xiaohua; Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Li, Xixiang

    2015-09-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. To identify the miRNAs associated with taproot development at the whole genome level, we sequenced five RNA libraries constructed from radish taproots at different developmental stages and generated a total of 148M clean reads. Using an integrative bioinformatics analysis, 494 known miRNAs belonging to 434 families and 220 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Combining the differential expression analysis and target prediction, we found that 77 miRNAs were potentially associated with taproot development. Target transcripts generated significant GO terms relating to cell proliferation, root development and hormone-mediated signaling. The KEGG analyses revealed that plant hormone signal transduction, zeatin biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, cell cycle, MAPK signaling and p53 signaling were closely associated with taproot development. These findings will provide valuable information for further functional verification of miRNAs and their targets in radish taproot development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of critical genes associated with lignin biosynthesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by de novo transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haiyang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Tang, Mingjia; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Xiaochuan; Nie, Shanshan; Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Liu, Liwang

    2017-06-30

    Radish is an important root vegetable crop with high nutritional, economic, and medicinal value. Lignin is an important secondary metabolite possessing a great effect on plant growth and product quality. To date, lignin biosynthesis-related genes have been identified in some important plant species. However, little information on characterization of critical genes involved in plant lignin biosynthesis is available in radish. In this study, a total of 71,148 transcripts sequences were obtained from radish root, of which 66 assembled unigenes and ten candidate genes were identified to be involved in lignin monolignol biosynthesis. Full-length cDNA sequences of seven randomly selected genes were isolated and sequenced from radish root, and the assembled unigenes covered more than 80% of their corresponding cDNA sequences. Moreover, the lignin content gradually accumulated in leaf during the developmental stages, and it increased from pre-cortex to cortex splitting stage, followed by a decrease at thickening stage and then increased at mature stage in root. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that all these genes except RsF5H exhibited relatively low expression level in root at thickening stage. The expression profiles of Rs4CL5, RsCCoAOMT1, and RsCOMT genes were consistent with the changes of root lignin content, implying that these candidate genes may play important roles in lignin formation in radish root. These findings would provide valuable information for identification of lignin biosynthesis-related genes and facilitate dissection of molecular mechanism underlying lignin biosynthesis in radish and other root vegetable crops.

  7. De novo sequencing of root transcriptome reveals complex cadmium-responsive regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Yu, Rugang; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metallic trace element that poses potential chronic toxicity to living organisms. To date, little is known about the Cd-responsive regulatory network in root vegetable crops including radish. In this study, 31,015 unigenes representing 66,552 assembled unique transcripts were isolated from radish root under Cd stress based on de novo transcriptome assembly. In all, 1496 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) consisted of 3579 transcripts were identified from Cd-free (CK) and Cd-treated (Cd200) libraries. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the up- and down-regulated DEGs were predominately involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis as well as cysteine and methionine-related pathways, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in consistent with results from RNA-Seq analysis. Several candidate genes encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH), zinc iron permease (ZIPs) and ABC transporter were responsible for Cd uptake, accumulation, translocation and detoxification in radish. The schematic model of DEGs and microRNAs-involved in Cd-responsive regulatory network was proposed. This study represents a first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of Cd-responsive DEGs in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into complex Cd-responsive regulatory networks and facilitate further genetic manipulation of Cd accumulation in root vegetable crops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  9. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-03

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a rapid and reliable method for gene expression studies. Normalization based on reference genes can increase the reliability of this technique; however, recent studies have shown that almost no single reference gene is universal for all possible experimental conditions. In this study, eight frequently used reference genes were investigated, including Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Actin2/7 (ACT), Tubulin alpha-5 (TUA), Tubulin beta-1 (TUB), 18S ribosomal RNA (18SrRNA), RNA polymerase-II transcription factor (RPII), Elongation factor 1-b (EF-1b) and Translation elongation factor 2 (TEF2). Expression stability of candidate reference genes was examined across 27 radish samples, representing a range of tissue types, cultivars, photoperiodic and vernalization treatments, and developmental stages. The eight genes in these sample pools displayed a wide range of Ct values and were variably expressed. Two statistical software packages, geNorm and NormFinder showed that TEF2, RPII and ACT appeared to be relatively stable and therefore the most suitable for use as reference genes. These results facilitate selection of desirable reference genes for accurate gene expression studies in radish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiology-biochemical features of the Raphanus sativus seedlings during cultivation in aqueous extracts from technogenic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shupranova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil pollution influence on functional state of the garden radish seedlings is studied. It has been shown that the variability of soil’s mineral composition from different technogenic zones entails active reorganization in a protein system and in antioxidant cell protection from the heavy metals superfluous accumulation in soil as well.

  11. Comparison of cadmium absorption, translocation, subcellular distribution and chemical forms between two radish cultivars (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Juan; Zhao, Xiaohu; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) absorption and accumulation vary greatly not only among plant species but also among cultivars within the same species. In order to better understand the mechanisms of Cd absorption, transportation and distribution, we examined the differences of Cd absorption, translocation, subcellular distribution and chemical forms between L19, a Cd-tolerant genotype, and H4, a Cd-sensitive genotype, using kinetic analysis and soil culture experiment. Kinetic assays showed that the different Cd concentrations between the two cultivars might be ascribed to root absorption and translocation from root to shoot. The investigations of subcellular distribution and chemical forms verified that Cd concentrations of all subcellular fractions in H4 were all higher than in L19. Meanwhile, most of the Cd was associated with cell walls in the root of H4, but the Cd in the root of L19 and leaf of the two cultivars was mainly stored in soluble fraction, which could be one possible mechanism of tolerance to Cd toxicity. In addition, Cd fractions extracted by 1M NaCl and 2% HAC were predominant in root and leaf of both cultivars and the concentrations and proportions extracted by water and 80% ethanol in root and 1M NaCl in leaf were all higher in H4 than in L19. These results indicate that the Cd in H4 is more active than L19, which could be responsible for the sensitivity of H4 to Cd damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptome-based gene expression profiling identifies differentially expressed genes critical for salt stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Zhu, Xianwen; Kinuthia, Karanja Benard; Nie, Shanshan; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Liu, Liwang

    2016-02-01

    Transcriptome-based gene expression analysis identifies many critical salt-responsive genes in radish and facilitates further dissecting the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response. Salt stress severely impacts plant growth and development. Radish, a moderately salt-sensitive vegetable crop, has been studied for decades towards the physiological and biochemical performances under salt stress. However, no systematic study on isolation and identification of genes involved in salt stress response has been performed in radish, and the molecular mechanism governing this process is still indistinct. Here, the RNA-Seq technique was applied to analyze the transcriptomic changes on radish roots treated with salt (200 mM NaCl) for 48 h in comparison with those cultured in normal condition. Totally 8709 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 3931 up- and 4778 down-regulated genes were identified. Functional annotation analysis indicated that many genes could be involved in several aspects of salt stress response including stress sensing and signal transduction, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and ROS scavenging. The association analysis of salt-responsive genes and miRNAs exhibited that 36 miRNA-mRNA pairs had negative correlationship in expression trends. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in line with results from the RNA-Seq analysis. Furthermore, the putative model of DEGs and miRNA-mediated gene regulation was proposed to elucidate how radish sensed and responded to salt stress. This study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome-based gene expression profiling under salt stress in radish. The outcomes of this study could facilitate further dissecting the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response and provide a valuable platform for further genetic improvement of salt tolerance in radish breeding programs.

  13. Partition uptake of a brominated diphenyl ether by the edible plant root of white radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2017-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of a class of emerging contaminants. In this study, the accumulation of 4-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-3) by different parts of a live white radish was investigated. Different cultural media (hydroponics, silica sand, and soil) were used to sustain the radish plant during its uptake and in-plant translocation of BDE-3. The results showed that BDE-3 can be translocated from the roots to the aboveground organs and the accumulated levels of BDE-3 in different parts of the white radish followed the order for the three types of cultivation: fibrous roots > peels > main roots > leaves. The results were analyzed by the aid of the partition-limited model for the plant uptake. The relevant partition coefficients (K OC and K d ) and uptake parameters of BDE-3 with plant components (K pt and K lip ) were obtained for analyzing the BDE-3 distribution. The partition-limited model offers a significant insight into the uptakes of BDE-3 by the various components of live white radishes. The types of cultivation affected the total sorption level, translocation factors (TFs), extent to equilibrium (α pt ), and root concentration factors (RCFs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic fate of [14C] chlorophenols in radish (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Despoux, Sabrina; Rathahao, Estelle; Canlet, Cécile; Debrauwer, Laurent; Laurent, François

    2008-09-24

    Chlorophenols are potentially harmful pollutants that are found in numerous natural and agricultural systems. Plants are a sink for xenobiotics, which occur either intentionally or not, as they are unable to eliminate them although they generally metabolize them into less toxic compounds. The metabolic fate of [ (14)C] 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), [ (14)C] 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), and [ (14)C] 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) was investigated in lettuce, spinach, and radish to locate putative toxic metabolites that could become bioavailable to food chains. Radish plants were grown on sand for four weeks before roots were dipped in a solution of radiolabeled chlorophenol. The leaves of six-week old lettuce and spinach were treated. Three weeks after treatments, metabolites from edible plant parts were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Characterization of compounds highlighted the presence of complex glycosides. Upon hydrolysis in the digestive tract of animals or humans, these conjugates could return to the toxic parent compound, and this should be kept in mind for registration studies.

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Associated with Bolting and Flowering in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Tang, Mingjia; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The transition of vegetative growth to bolting and flowering is an important process in the life cycle of plants, which is determined by numerous genes forming an intricate network of bolting and flowering. However, no comprehensive identification and profiling of bolting and flowering-related genes have been carried out in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to analyze the differential gene expressions during the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage in radish. A total of 5922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 779 up-regulated and 5143 down-regulated genes were isolated. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that some DEGs were involved in hormone signaling pathways and the transcriptional regulation of bolting and flowering. KEGG-based analysis identified 37 DEGs being involved in phytohormone signaling pathways. Moreover, 95 DEGs related to bolting and flowering were identified and integrated into various flowering pathways. Several critical genes including FT, CO, SOC1, FLC, and LFY were characterized and profiled by RT-qPCR analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that 24 miRNA-DEG pairs were involved in radish bolting and flowering. Finally, a miRNA-DEG-based schematic model of bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed in radish. These outcomes provided significant insights into genetic control of radish bolting and flowering, and would facilitate unraveling molecular regulatory mechanism underlying bolting and flowering in root vegetable crops.

  16. Differential proteomic analysis reveals sequential heat stress-responsive regulatory network in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) taproot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-01-24

    Differential abundance protein species (DAPS) involved in reducing damage and enhancing thermotolerance in radish were firstly identified. Proteomic analysis and omics association analysis revealed a HS-responsive regulatory network in radish. Heat stress (HS) is a major destructive factor influencing radish production and supply in summer, for radish is a cool season vegetable crop being susceptible to high temperature. In this study, the proteome changes of radish taproots under 40 °C treatment at 0 h (Control), 12 h (Heat12) and 24 h (Heat24) were analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach. In total, 2258 DAPS representing 1542 differentially accumulated uniprotein species which respond to HS were identified. A total of 604, 910 and 744 DAPS was detected in comparison of Control vs. Heat12, Control vs. Heat24, and Heat12 vs. Heat24, respectively. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that annexin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, ATP synthase, heat shock protein (HSP) and other stress-related proteins were predominately enriched in signal transduction, stress and defense pathways, photosynthesis and energy metabolic pathways, working cooperatively to reduce stress-induced damage in radish. Based on iTRAQ combined with the transcriptomics analysis, a schematic model of a sequential HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. The initial sensing of HS occurred at the plasma membrane, and then key components of stress signal transduction triggered heat-responsive genes in the plant protective metabolism to re-establish homeostasis and enhance thermotolerance. These results provide new insights into characteristics of HS-responsive DAPS and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying heat tolerance in radish and other root crops.

  17. Antifungal activity of synthetic 15-mer peptides based on the Rs-AFP2 (Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2) sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Samblanx, G W; Fernandez del Carmen, A; Sijtsma, L; Plasman, H H; Schaaper, W M; Posthuma, G A; Fant, F; Meloen, R H; Broekaert, W F; van Amerongen, A

    1996-01-01

    Plant defensins are a class of cysteine-rich peptides of which several members have been shown to be potent inhibitors of fungal growth. A series of overlapping 15-mer peptides based on the amino acid sequence of the radish antifungal protein Rs-AFP2 have been synthesized. Peptides 6, 7, 8 and 9, comprising the region from cysteine 27 to cysteine 47 of Rs-AFP2 showed substantial antifungal activity against several fungal species (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 30-60 micrograms/mL), but no activity towards bacteria (except peptide 6 at 100 micrograms/mL). The active peptides were shown to be sensitive to the presence of cations in the medium and to the composition and pH of the medium. When present at a subinhibitory concentration (20 micrograms/mL), peptides 1, 7, 8 and 10 potentiated the activity of Rs-AFP2 from 2.3-fold to 2.8-fold. By mapping the characteristics of the active peptide on the structure of Rs-AFP2 as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance, the active region of the antifungal protein appears to involve beta-strands 2 and 3 in combination with the loop connecting those strands. A cyclized synthetic mimic of the loop, cysteine 36 to cysteine 45, was shown to have antifungal activity. Substitution of tyrosine 38 by alanine in the cyclic peptide substantially reduced the antifungal activity, indicating the importance of this residue for the activity of Rs-AFP2 as demonstrated carrier by mutational analysis.

  18. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Xiaobo; Jiang, Haiyan; Liu, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops. PMID:28769938

  19. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.W.; Li, R.Q.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA

  20. in Streptococcus salivarius subsp. Thermophilus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... Micrococcus luteus cells and thereby preventing their growth on assay plates. Thermostability of these ... Growth media were supplemented with 10 µg/mL ampicillin to select recombinant S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus and L. lactis and 50 µg/ml ampicillin .... Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene 66: ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: radish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ivus_S.png Raphanus_sativus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=NS ...

  2. Assembly of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) somaclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Kuśmirek, Wiktor; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Nowak, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of next generation sequencing opens the possibility of using sequencing in various plant studies, such as finding structural changes and small polymorphisms between species and within them. Most analyzes rely on genomic sequences and it is crucial to use well-assembled genomes of high quality and completeness. Herein we compare commonly available programs for genomic assembling and newly developed software - dnaasm. Assemblies were tested on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) lines obtained by in vitro regeneration (somaclones), showing different phenotypes. Obtained results shows that dnaasm assembler is a good tool for short read assembly, which allows obtaining genomes of high quality and completeness.

  3. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification. PMID:22131743

  4. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a suspect causative agent of Crohns disease in man, is an emerging disease of international proportions affecting all ruminants. Early stage detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection would accelerate progress in control ...

  5. Saffron (Crocus sativus L., a monomorphic or polymorphic species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nemati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. which contains exceptional anti-cancer properties is presently the world's most expensive spice. Iran is known as the original habitat of Crocus L. and a significant source of high-quality cultivated saffron production and export. Considering the importance of this species, we used 27 microsatellite markers to assess molecular variability and discriminating capacity of markers regarding their effectiveness in establishing genetic relationships in Iranian Crocus ecotypes. Thirty eight Iranian cultivated saffron ecotypes and 29 wild allies were evaluated in this research. The results from molecular analyses, including a molecular phylogenetic network and RB analysis, revealed two major groups and five subgroups, regardless of their geographical origins. Also, the results showed a clear distinction between C. sativus and other species of Crocus genus, taking into account their close relationship with C. speciosus and C. hausknechtii, which are assumed to be the two closest relatives of Iranian cultivated saffron among species studied. In this paper, we observed for the first time extensive genetic diversity among Iranian C. sativus despite their asexual reproduction. Considering suitable climatic conditions in Iran for cultivating saffron and the country’s leading high-quality production of Crocus sativus worldwide, studies on great genetic variability among Iranian C. sativus ecotypes as well as wild relatives native to Iran will further highlight the value of this crop. In addition, our results provide valuable information for genetic improvement, reduction of strong genetic erosion, and conservation of costly heritable resources of C. sativus in future breeding programs.

  6. Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Isolated From Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium (MA) is divided into four subspecies based primarily on host-range and consists of MA subsp. avium (birds), MA subsp. silvaticum (wood pigeons), MA subsp. paratuberculosis (broad, poorly-defined host range), and the recently described MA subsp. hominissuis (hu...

  7. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  8. Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, J L; Rohrmann, G F; Beaudreau, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    From Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, a proteinase-resistant protein was purified which exhibited toxicity to larval mosquitoes and cultured mosquito cells, lysed erythrocytes, and was lethal to mice. To extract the protein, a sporulating culture of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was treated with alkali, neutralized, and incubated with trypsin and proteinase K. It was then purified by gel filtration and DEAE column chromatography. Up to 240 micrograms of toxic protein was purif...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Copper Resistance Genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Franklin; Canteros, Blanca I.; Minsavage, Gerald V.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Copper sprays have been widely used for control of endemic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in citrus-growing areas for more than 2 decades. Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis populations were also exposed to frequent sprays of copper for several years as a protective measure against citrus bacterial spot (CBS) in Florida citrus nurseries. Long-term use of these bactericides has led to the development of copper-resistant (Cur) strains in both X. citri subsp. citri and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, resulting in a reduction of disease control. The objectives of this study were to characterize for the first time the genetics of copper resistance in X. citri subsp. citri and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis and to compare these organisms to other Cur bacteria. Copper resistance determinants from X. citri subsp. citri strain A44(pXccCu2) from Argentina and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis strain 1381(pXacCu2) from Florida were cloned and sequenced. Open reading frames (ORFs) related to the genes copL, copA, copB, copM, copG, copC, copD, and copF were identified in X. citri subsp. citri A44. The same ORFs, except copC and copD, were also present in X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis 1381. Transposon mutagenesis of the cloned copper resistance determinants in pXccCu2 revealed that copper resistance in X. citri subsp. citri strain A44 is mostly due to copL, copA, and copB, which are the genes in the cloned cluster with the highest nucleotide homology (≥92%) among different Cur bacteria. PMID:21515725

  10. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA...... ancestral chromosomes after divergence from Cucumis melo. The sequenced cucumber genome affords insight into traits such as its sex expression, disease resistance, biosynthesis of cucurbitacin and 'fresh green' odor. We also identify 686 gene clusters related to phloem function. The cucumber genome provides...... a valuable resource for developing elite cultivars and for studying the evolution and function of the plant vascular system....

  11. Technology transfer for cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology transfer for cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) production under protected agriculture in uplands Balochistan, Pakistan. ... The cucumbers so harvested were of higher quality (no insect damage) and were sold at premium prices during the whole production cycle. Proper crop sequencing by considering the market ...

  12. Stigma variability in saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) | Ghaffari | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obstacle to improving Crocus sativus is its sterility caused by being triploid. Thus, the discovery of the new variant of saffron with increased number of stigmas was welcomed as a reason for improving its yield. The study of development and the process of budding of the corm of saffron showed that these flowers occur by ...

  13. A genetic linkage map of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L) combining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers are both simple and efficient maker systems adapted to many crops and for multiple purposes. In this study a genetic map based on SRAP and ISSR markers was constructed for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) based on ...

  14. Azafrán I (Crocus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Martín, Gema; Pérez-Urria Carril, Elena

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo muestra una recopilación sobre las características de Crocus sativus L., el azafrán, una especie, muy apreciada desde la antigüedad. Se consideran aspectos básicos botánicos y bioquímicos así como datos sobre el cultivo, y su comercialización.

  15. Interspecific hybridisation of Lathyrus sativus (Guaya) with wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lathyrus sativus is an economically important legume crop cultivated for food and forage in Asia and Africa. The use of this hardy drought ... during early stages of development. Embryo culture was attempted to rescue these immature embryos. The response of the interspecific hybrid embryos to in vitro culture varied.

  16. Iridoid Glucosides from Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayfun, Ersöz; Kaya, Duygu; Yalcin, Funda Nuray

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the above ground parts of Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum resulted in the isolation of seven iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester (1), barlerin (8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester; 2), 6-O-syringyl-8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester (3), 6β-hydroxyipola...

  17. Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedrys in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence of Teucrium chamaedrys subsp. chamaedrys in the Netherlands is discussed. Since 1905 this subspecies has been present in one locality in the dunes south-west of Haarlem. Probably it was imported there with pheasant fodder. The plants maintain themselves easily but seem to be unable to

  18. Backcross introgression of the Cucumis hystrix chakr. genome increases genetic diveristy in U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic base of commercial cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is extremely narrow (about 3 to 8% polymorphism). Wide-based crosses within C. sativus [i.e., var. sativus x var. hardwickii (R.) Alef.] and interspecific hybridization attempts prior to 1995 have not substantially increased genetic diver...

  19. Backcross introgression of the Cucumis hystrix chakr. genome increases genetic diversity in U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic base of commercial cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is extremely narrow (about 3 to 8% polymorphism). Wide-based crosses within C. sativus [i.e., var. sativus x var. hardwickii (R.) Alef.] and interspecific hybridization attempts prior to 1995 have not substantially increased genetic diver...

  20. Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus.

  1. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rezaee, Ramin; M Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50) of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  2. [Molecular identity of Crocus sativus and its misused substitutes by ITS sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian; Tang, Lin; Liu, Yan-jun; He, Wei; Chen, Fang

    2007-04-01

    To find the patterns of the rDNA ITS sequence variation of Crocus sativus, Chrysanthemum chanetii, Nelumbo nucifera, Zea mays and Garthamus tinctorius and to establish the molecular biological method for the identification of C. sativus and the others. After the total DNA of Crocus sativus, C. vernus-w and C. vernus-p were extracted, the ITS sequence was amplified by PCR with universal primer of ITS and PCR product was sequenced after purification and cloning. The ITS sequences of Chrysanthemrnum chanetii, Nelumbo nucifera, Zea mays and Garthamus tinctorius were obtained from GenBank. The complete ITS sequence of Crocus sativus, C. vernus-w and C. vernus-p, including ITSI rDNA, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2 rDNA were measured. The GenBank accession No. was DQ094185, DQ224363 and DQ224364 respectively. The similarity of ITS sequence between C. sativus and the two garden species of C. vernus was above 91%; the identity was 99.84% between C. vernus-w and C. vernus-p. The range of diversity between C. sativus and other herbs was above 46% based on ITS1 and above 41% based on ITS2. C. sativus can be distinguished from misused substitutes by the ITS sequence. The ITS sequence is an available molecular marker for identification of the C. sativus.

  3. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron and its constituents on nervous system: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50 of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  4. Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. pragensis subsp. nov., occurring in human clinical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Pavel; De Bel, Annelies; Sedláček, Ivo; Petráš, Petr; Gelbíčová, Tereza; Černohlávková, Jitka; Mašlanˇová, Ivana; Cnockaert, Margo; Varbanovová, Ivana; Echahidi, Fedoua; Vandamme, Peter; Pantuček, Roman

    2015-07-01

    Seven coagulase-negative, oxidase-negative and novobiocin-susceptible staphylococci assigned tentatively as Staphylococcus petrasii were investigated in this study in order to elucidate their taxonomic position. All strains were initially shown to form a genetically homogeneous group separated from remaining species of the genus Staphylococcus by using a repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting with the (GTG)5 primer. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, hsp60, rpoB, dnaJ, gap and tuf sequences showed that the group is closely related to Staphylococcus petrasii but separated from the three hitherto known subspecies, S. petrasii subsp. petrasii, S. petrasii subsp. croceilyticus and S. petrasii subsp. jettensis. Further investigation using automated ribotyping, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, fatty acid methyl ester analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and extensive biotyping confirmed that the analysed group represents a novel subspecies within S. petrasii, for which the name Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. pragensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NRL/St 12/356(T) ( = CCM 8529(T) = LMG 28327(T)).

  5. Transcriptome-wide analysis of chromium-stress responsive microRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Chen, Yinglong; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2015-09-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Chromium (Cr) is one of common environmental contaminants possessing potential health hazards to living organisms. To date, little is known about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in response to Cr stress in radish. To systematically identify Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish, two sRNA libraries derived from Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr200) roots were constructed. With Solexa sequencing, 81 known and 72 novel miRNAs were identified, from which 54 known and 16 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed under Cr stress. Several target genes for Cr-responsive miRNAs encode different transcription factor (TF) families, including SPLs, MYBs, ERFs and bZIPs, might regulate corresponding HM-related transcriptional processes in plants. Notably, a few key responsive enzymes or proteins, including HMA, YSL1 and ABC transporter protein were involved in Cr uptake and homeostasis process. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets were validated by RT-qPCR. This study represents the first characterization of Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish. The outcomes of this study could provide novel insights into miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms underlying plant response to Cr stress in root vegetable crops.

  6. Identification of anthocyanin biosynthesis related microRNAs in a distinctive Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuyan; Qiu, Yang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are widely distributed water-soluble phytochemical pigments belonging to the flavonoid group. To date, limited knowledge is available about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. To identify the miRNAs associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish, five small RNA (sRNA) libraries constructed from 'Xinlimei' radish roots at 11, 21, 44, 56 and 73 days (d) were examined using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 102.02 million (M) clean reads were generated, from which 483 known and 1415 novel miRNAs were identified. Combined with target prediction and annotation, 72 differentially expressed miRNAs (52 known and 20 novel miRNAs) were more likely to participate in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Several target genes for these miRNAs encode a few transcription factors, including Myb domain (MYB), basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), WD40 repeat, squamosa promoter binding protein like (SPL), auxin response factor (ARF), ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3), WRKY and MADS-box proteins. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some anthocyanin biosynthesis related miRNAs and their corresponding targets were validated by RT-qPCR. Based on the characterization of anthocyanin biosynthesis related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative miRNA-target module regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis was proposed. This study represents the first genome-wide identification of miRNAs associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish, and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish and other crops.

  7. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Mizue; Yasumoto, Keita; Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Terachi, Toru

    2012-07-31

    Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF) created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%). It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size) that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138 was found to be located at the edge of the largest unique region. Blast analysis performed to assign the unique regions showed that about 80% of the region was covered by short homologous sequences to the mitochondrial sequences of normal-type radish or other reported Brassicaceae species, although no homology was found for the remaining 20% of sequences. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome was highly rearranged compared with the normal-type genome by recombination through one large repeat and multiple short repeats. The rearrangement has produced four unique regions in Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and most of the unique regions are composed of known Brassicaceae mitochondrial sequences. This suggests that the regions unique to the Ogura-type genome were generated by integration and shuffling of pre-existing mitochondrial sequences during the evolution of Brassicaceae, and novel genes such as orf138 could have been created by the shuffling process of mitochondrial genome.

  8. Removal of off-flavours from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) anthocyanin-rich pigments using chitosan and its mechanism(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruichang; Jing, Pu; Ruan, Siyu; Zhang, Yifan; Zhao, Shujuan; Cai, Zhan; Qian, Bingjun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we examined the role of chitosan in the removal of off-flavours from radish anthocyanin-rich pigments and studied the mechanisms of the process. Four radish glucosinolates (glucoraphenin, dehydroerucin, glucobrassicin, and glucoerucin) were identified by LC-MSn from root extracts and dehydroerucin was found to be the major glucosinolate in red radish roots. Application of chitosan with 76%, 83% or 89% deacetylation in radish extracts attributed to 26%, 35% or 43% adsorption rate for glucosinolates, and 28%, 26% or 22% for anthocyanins, respectively. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the concentration of volatile compounds decreased by 70%, resulting in the loss of odorous compounds. The changes in chitosan spectra before/after adsorption and after desorption at 1590 and 3360cm(-1) and at broad bands from 2600 to 2000cm(-1) suggest that the dominant adsorption mechanisms of glucosinolates on chitosan may be electrostatic attractions, including hydrogen bonds and charge neutralisation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of low dose {gamma} radiation on early growth and physiological activities of radish (raphanus sativus L.) and the reduction of ultraviolet-B stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, H. Y.; Baek, M. H.; Yoo, J. C. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on early growth and photosynthesis in radish plant was studied. The seedling height of radish was stimulated in plants grown from seeds irradiated with the low dose of 10 Gy. The O{sub 2} evolution in the 10 Gy irradiation group was 1.2 times greater than in the control. The catalase and peroxidase activity of radish leaves grown from seeds irradiated with {gamma} radiation were increased at 10 Gy irradiation group as the superoxide dismutase activity of leaves was. To investigate the effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on response to UV-B stress, UV-B was given at the intensity of 1 W{center_dot} m{sup -2} to the detached leaves. Pmax was decreased with increasing illumination time by 76% in the control, while decreased by 75% in the 10 Gy irradiation group. The photochemical yield of PSII, estimated as Fv/Fm, was decreased with increasing illumination time by 75% after 4 hours while Fv/Fm in the 10 Gy irradiation group was decreased by 69% of inhibition, indicating that the low dose {gamma} radiation retarded the deteriorative effect of UV-B on PSII. The initial fluorescence (Fo) was slightly increased with increasing illumination time, while the maximal fluorescence (Fm) was decreased. These results showed the positive effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the seedling growth and the reduction of the deteriorative effect of UV-B stress on photosynthesis in radish plant.

  10. Genome-wide characterization of differentially expressed genes provides insights into regulatory network of heat stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-01-13

    Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways. These pathways played significant roles in reducing stress-induced damages and enhancing heat tolerance in radish. Expression patterns of 24 candidate genes were validated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Based mainly on the analysis of DEGs combining with the previous miRNAs analysis, the schematic model of HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. To counter the effects of HS, a rapid response of the plasma membrane leads to the opening of specific calcium channels and cytoskeletal reorganization, after which HS-responsive genes are activated to repair damaged proteins and ultimately facilitate further enhancement of thermotolerance in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into the regulatory network underlying heat tolerance in radish and facilitate further genetic manipulation of thermotolerance in root vegetable crops.

  11. Fodder radish cake (Raphanus sativus L. as an alternative biomass for the production of cellulases and xylanases in solid-state cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zukovski

    Full Text Available Abstract Fodder radish (FR is an oilseed crop with a high potential for biodiesel production due to its high productivity and the quality of its seed oil. FR oil extraction results in a residue that is rich in protein and fiber. In this study, FR cake (FRC was evaluated as carbon and nitrogen source for the production of cellulases and xylanases using Penicillium echinulatum S1M29 during solid-state cultivation. It was determined that it is possible to partially replace wheat bran (WB by FRC, resulting in 24.22 ± 0.25U/g Filter Paper Activity (144 hours, 210.5 ± 5.8U/g endoglucanase activity (144 hours, 22.62 ± 0.01U/g (-glucosidase activity (96 hours and 784.7 ± 70.19U/g xylanase activity (120 hours. These values are equal or higher than the enzymatic activity obtained using WB. These results may contribute to the reduction of the cost of enzymes used in the production of cellulosic ethanol or other biotechnological applications.

  12. Identification of bolting-related microRNAs and their targets reveals complex miRNA-mediated flowering-time regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shanshan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M; Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. The phase transition from vegetative growth to flowering is crucial in the life cycle of plants. To date, miRNA-mediated flowering regulatory networks remain largely unexplored in radish. In this study, two small RNA libraries from radish leaves at vegetative and reproductive stages were constructed and sequenced by Solexa sequencing. A total of 94 known miRNAs representing 21 conserved and 13 non-conserved miRNA families, and 44 potential novel miRNAs, were identified from the two libraries. In addition, 42 known and 17 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed and identified as bolting-related miRNAs. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that some miRNAs exhibited tissue- or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, 154 target transcripts were identified for 50 bolting-related miRNAs, which were predominately involved in plant development, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. Based on the characterization of bolting-related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative schematic model of miRNA-mediated bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed. These results could provide insights into bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering time regulation in vegetable crops.

  13. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138 was found to be located at the edge of the largest unique region. Blast analysis performed to assign the unique regions showed that about 80% of the region was covered by short homologous sequences to the mitochondrial sequences of normal-type radish or other reported Brassicaceae species, although no homology was found for the remaining 20% of sequences. Conclusions Ogura-type mitochondrial genome was highly rearranged compared with the normal-type genome by recombination through one large repeat and multiple short repeats. The rearrangement has produced four unique regions in Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and most of the unique regions are composed of known Brassicaceae mitochondrial sequences. This suggests that the regions unique to the Ogura-type genome were generated by integration and shuffling of pre-existing mitochondrial sequences during the evolution of Brassicaceae, and novel genes such as orf138 could have been created by the shuffling process of mitochondrial genome.

  14. The Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Cadmium Fractionation and Enzyme Activities in the Rhizosphere of Two Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Juan; Zhao, Xiaohu; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Wen, Xin; Qin, Shiyu; Hu, Chengxiao

    2017-02-01

    The effects of increasing Cd additions on plant growth and Cd fractionation and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of two radish cultivars were investigated. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoot and root of cultivar 4 were both higher than for cultivar 19 under different Cd levels. Compared with cultivar 19, the total, shoot and root biomasses of cultivar 4 were significantly reduced with increasing Cd levels. A decrease in soil pH was observed for cultivar 4. The exchangeable Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly higher than for soil from cultivar 19, while the carbonate-bound Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly lower than for cultivar 19. Enzyme activities, especially acid phosphatase activity, were more susceptible to Cd in soil from cultivar 4. These results indicated that cultivar 19 exhibits a stronger ability to adapt to Cd stress than cultivar 4.

  15. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativusL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Xiaobo; Jiang, Haiyan; Liu, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  16. Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes Confers Varied Phenotypic and Spatial-Temporal Anthocyanin Accumulation in Radish (Raphanus sativusL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Fan, Lianxue; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Yang; Karanja, Benard K; Liu, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments that have important functions in plant growth and development. Radish taproots are rich in anthocyanins which confer different taproot colors and are potentially beneficial to human health. The crop differentially accumulates anthocyanin during various stages of growth, yet molecular mechanisms underlying this differential anthocyanin accumulation remains unknown. In the present study, transcriptome analysis was used to concisely identify putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish. Spatial-temporal transcript expressions were then profiled in four color variant radish cultivars. From the total transcript sequences obtained through illumina sequencing, 102 assembled unigenes, and 20 candidate genes were identified to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Fifteen genomic sequences were isolated and sequenced from radish taproot. The length of these sequences was between 900 and 1,579 bp, and the unigene coverage to all of the corresponding cloned sequences was more than 93%. Gene structure analysis revealed that RsF3 ' H is intronless and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes (ABGs) bear asymmetrical exons, except RsSAM . Anthocyanin accumulation showed a gradual increase in the leaf of the red radish and the taproot of colored cultivars during development, with a rapid increase at 30 days after sowing (DAS), and the highest content at maturity. Spatial-temporal transcriptional analysis of 14 genes revealed detectable expressions of 12 ABGs in various tissues at different growth levels. The investigation of anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression in four color variant radish cultivars, at different stages of development, indicated that total anthocyanin correlated with transcript levels of ABGs, particularly RsUFGT, RsF3H, RsANS, RsCHS3 and RsF3 ' H1 . Our results suggest that these candidate genes play key roles in phenotypic and spatial-temporal anthocyanin accumulation in radish through coordinated regulation and the major control point in anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish is RsUFGT . The present findings lend invaluable insights into anthocyanin biosynthesis and may facilitate genetic manipulation for enhanced anthocyanin content in radish.

  17. Metabolic fate of [¹⁴C]diuron and [¹⁴C]linuron in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Alsayeda, Haifaa; Jouanin, Isabelle; Debrauwer, Laurent; Canlet, Cecile; Laurent, François

    2010-10-27

    Metabolism of xenobiotics in plants usually occurs in three phases, phase I (primary metabolism), phase II (conjugation processes), and phase III (storage). The uptake and metabolism of [(14)C]diuron and [(14)C]linuron were investigated in wheat and radish. Seeds were sown in quartz sand and irrigated with a nutrient solution of either radioactive herbicide. Plants were harvested after two weeks, and metabolites were extracted and then analyzed by radio-reverse-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Uptake of the two molecules was higher in radish compared to wheat. Translocation of parent compounds and related metabolites from roots to aerial plant parts was important, especially for radish. A large proportion of extractable residues were found in radish whereas nonextractable residues amounted to 30% in wheat, mainly associated with roots. Chemical structure of metabolites was thereafter identified by acid, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolyses followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). This study highlighted the presence of diuron and linuron metabolites conjugated to sugars in addition to N-demethylation and N-demethoxylation products.

  18. Composted slaughterhouse sludge as a substitute for chemical fertilizers in the cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juscelino de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Flotation sludge (FS is produced in huge amounts at slaughterhouses in western Santa Catarina, Brazil. This waste is rich in plant nutrients and a valuable resource for soil amendments. Five FS composts were tested as a replacement for chemical fertilizers (QF, namely T1 (75% poultry manure (PM and 25% sawdust (SD; T2 (50% PM and 50% SD; T3 (25% PM and 75% SD; T4 (100% PM and 0% SD; and T5 (0% PM x 100% SD. For lettuce plants, treatments containing composted FS resulted in an increased number of leaves, leaf area and leaf fresh weight (LFW. T1 presented the best results with increases of 1.4 fold in LFW compared to plants supplemented with QF. T2 was the most effective treatment for radish with the best results of root fresh weight and root diameter. Although T4 had the highest nitrogen content, it did not present the best results in growth performance for lettuce or radish. The presence of higher proportions of SD in composts (25% for lettuce and 50% for radish improved the physical characteristics of the soil and proved to be a more balanced compost.

  19. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed. PMID:26468456

  20. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Leger, Judy St; Chapman, Mary H; Timmerman, Arjen J; Duim, Birgitta; Foster, Geoffrey; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).

  1. Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedrys in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, van der, R.W.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence of Teucrium chamaedrys subsp. chamaedrys in the Netherlands is discussed. Since 1905 this subspecies has been present in one locality in the dunes south-west of Haarlem. Probably it was imported there with pheasant fodder. The plants maintain themselves easily but seem to be unable to make ripe seeds. As this subspecies has not yet spread, it is not included in the flora of the Netherlands.

  2. Description of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. bovis subsp. nov., isolated from cattle (Bos taurus coreanae), emended description of Mycobacterium chelonae and creation of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. chelonae subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Jun; Kim, Ga-Na; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeon, Che Ok; Jeong, Joseph; Lee, Seon Ho; Lim, Ji-Hun; Lee, Seung-Heon; Kim, Chang Ki; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2017-10-01

    Three rapidly growing mycobacterial strains, QIA-37T, QIA-40 and QIA-41, were isolated from the lymph nodes of three separate Korean native cattle, Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae). These strains were previously shown to be phylogenetically distinct but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae ATCC 35752T by taxonomic approaches targeting three genes (16S rRNA, hsp6 and rpoB) and were further characterized using a polyphasic approach in this study. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of all three strains showed 99.7 % sequence similarity with that of the M. chelonae type strain. A multilocus sequence typing analysis targeting 10 housekeeping genes, including hsp65 and rpoB, revealed a phylogenetic cluster of these strains with M. chelonae. DNA-DNA hybridization values of 78.2 % between QIA-37T and M. chelonae indicated that it belongs to M. chelonae but is a novel subspecies distinct from M. chelonae. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences revealed a 95.44±0.06 % average nucleotide identity (ANI) value with M. chelonae, slightly higher than the 95.0 % ANI criterion for determining a novel species. In addition, distinct phenotypic characteristics such as positive growth at 37 °C, at which temperature M. chelonae does not grow, further support the taxonomic status of these strains as representatives of a novel subspecies of M. chelonae. Therefore, we propose an emended description of Mycobacterium chelonae, and descriptions of M. chelonae subsp. chelonae subsp. nov. and M. chelonae subsp. bovis subsp. nov. are presented; strains ATCC 35752T(=CCUG 47445T=CIP 104535T=DSM 43804T=JCM 6388T=NCTC 946T) and QIA-37T (=KCTC 39630T=JCM 30986T) are the type strains of the two novel subspecies.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii

    OpenAIRE

    Caverly, Lindsay J.; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii isolate recovered from a sputum culture from an individual with cystic fibrosis. This sequence is the first completed whole-genome sequence of M. abscessus subsp. bolletii and adds value to studies of M.?abscessus complex genomics.

  4. Epipactis helleborine (L. Crantz subsp. moratoria A. Riechelmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipovšek Matej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The group of Epipactis helleborine s.l. includes several subspecies. A new subspecies Epipactis helleborine subsp. moratoria was determined in Slovenia in 2015. It thrives in mixed wood in a region of Gorica at Raztez. Morphologic and phenomenological comparison confirmed clear differences between E. helleborine subsp. moratoria and E. helleborine subsp. helleborine. The characteristic differences seen in E. helleborine subsp. moratoria are the stem which is more or less bent at the level of the leaf base, the plants are smaller and more slender than E. helleborine, there are also differences in the flowers and the leaves. The ovary in E. moratoria is often in a horizontal position, especially at the time of fruiting, wheras in E. helleborine ovary usually hangs down. All of the wild orchids in Slovenia are protected species and among them it is Epipactis helleborine subsp. moratoria which, up till now is only known at one site.

  5. Alkaloids from Narcissus angustifolius subsp. transcarpathicus (Amaryllidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labraña, Josep; Machocho, Alex King'ori; Kricsfalusy, Vladimir; Brun, Reto; Codina, Carles; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume

    2002-08-01

    Seven alkaloids have been isolated from fresh bulbs of Narcissus angustifolius subsp. transcarpathicus (Amaryllidaceae). Nangustine, reported here for the first time, is the first 5,11-methanomorphanthridine alkaloid with a C-3/C-4 substitution. The structure and stereochemistry of this new alkaloid, as well as those previously known, have been determined by physical and spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic data of pancracine have been completed. The in vitro assay activity against the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum was carried out with the compounds nangustine and pancracine.

  6. Genome sequencing identifies Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov., isolated from a ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Bakker, Henk C; Manuel, Clyde S; Fortes, Esther D; Wiedmann, Martin; Nightingale, Kendra K

    2013-09-01

    Twenty Listeria-like isolates were obtained from environmental samples collected on a cattle ranch in northern Colorado; all of these isolates were found to share an identical partial sigB sequence, suggesting close relatedness. The isolates were similar to members of the genus Listeria in that they were Gram-stain-positive, short rods, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive; the isolates were similar to Listeria fleischmannii because they were non-motile at 25 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for representative isolates and whole genome sequencing for one isolate was performed. The genome of the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii (strain LU2006-1(T)) was also sequenced. The draft genomes were very similar in size and the average MUMmer nucleotide identity across 91% of the genomes was 95.16%. Genome sequence data were used to design primers for a six-gene multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme. Phylogenies based on (i) the near-complete 16S rRNA gene, (ii) 31 core genes and (iii) six housekeeping genes illustrated the close relationship of these Listeria-like isolates to Listeria fleischmannii LU2006-1(T). Sufficient genetic divergence of the Listeria-like isolates from the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii and differing phenotypic characteristics warrant these isolates to be classified as members of a distinct infraspecific taxon, for which the name Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TTU M1-001(T) ( =BAA-2414(T) =DSM 25391(T)). The isolates of Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. differ from the nominate subspecies by the inability to utilize melezitose, turanose and sucrose, and the ability to utilize inositol. The results also demonstrate the utility of whole genome sequencing to facilitate identification of novel taxa within a well-described genus. The genomes of both subspecies of Listeria fleischmannii contained putative enhancin genes; the Listeria fleischmannii subsp

  7. Quality traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) produced in the Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgi Annamaria; Pentimalli Daniela; Giupponi Luca; Panseri Sara

    2017-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a perennial herbaceous geophyte in the Iridaceae family. It propagates vegetatively by corm. All saffron production processes are generally conducted by hand: from bulb implantation, harvesting of flowers to stigma separation. Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world because of the intensive hand labour required for production. The increasing interest in Crocus sativus cultivation and production in the Italian Alpine area could increase revenues for the ...

  8. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  9. Cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase from Crocus sativus stigmas involved in flavonoid glucosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrazem Oussama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonol glucosides constitute the second group of secondary metabolites that accumulate in Crocus sativus stigmas. To date there are no reports of functionally characterized flavonoid glucosyltransferases in C. sativus, despite the importance of these compounds as antioxidant agents. Moreover, their bitter taste makes them excellent candidates for consideration as potential organoleptic agents of saffron spice, the dry stigmas of C. sativus. Results Using degenerate primers designed to match the plant secondary product glucosyltransferase (PSPG box we cloned a full length cDNA encoding CsGT45 from C. sativus stigmas. This protein showed homology with flavonoid glucosyltransferases. In vitro reactions showed that CsGT45 catalyses the transfer of glucose from UDP_glucose to kaempferol and quercetin. Kaempferol is the unique flavonol present in C. sativus stigmas and the levels of its glucosides changed during stigma development, and these changes, are correlated with the expression levels of CsGT45 during these developmental stages. Conclusion Findings presented here suggest that CsGT45 is an active enzyme that plays a role in the formation of flavonoid glucosides in C. sativus.

  10. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis: two cases of tonsillitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Savini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We described two case reports of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis tonsillitis occurred from January 2005 to January 2007, among patients who come to our observation during these two years. These patients are paradigmatic of some conditions: adult age, absence of underlying diseases, outbreak of similar pharyngo-tonsillar sympyomatology, unsuccessful oral penicillin therapy, isolation of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from throat swab, complete recovery after oral beta-lattamic antibiotic therapy, but total clearance of the microorganism only after oral macrolides administrations. Thus, the intracellular localization of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equismilis, could be in charge of the failure of beta-lattamic antibiotics therapy.

  11. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-02

    Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus) commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases.

  12. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Pitsikas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases.

  13. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Semuguruka, W.D.; Kazwala, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated...

  14. Razi's Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi's Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases.

  15. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Virág, István; Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc; Záray, Gyula

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 micromol dm(-3) arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite.

  16. EVALUACION DEL POTENCIAL DE LOS BIOSÓLIDOS PROCEDENTES DEL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES PARA USO AGRÍCOLA Y SU EFECTO SOBRE EL CULTIVO DE RABANO ROJO (Raphanus sativus L.). EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOSOLIDS OBTAINED FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL USE AND THEIR EFFECT ON CULTIVATION OF RED RADISH (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiro Ramírez Pisco; Martha Inés Pérez Arenas

    2006-01-01

    El trabajo se adelantó en predios de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales “El Salitre”, en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el propósito de evaluar el potencial del subproducto del tratamiento de aguas residuales “biosólido”, para su aplicación en la agricultura por medio de la valoración del crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano rojo, y establecer una posible alternativa al problema de disposición final de 3900 toneladas de este material generado mensualmente en las plan...

  17. Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular,

  18. Description of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae sp. nov., isolated from human infections, with two subspecies, Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov., and demonstration that Klebsiella singaporensis is a junior heterotypic synonym of Klebsiella variicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisse, Sylvain; Passet, Virginie; Grimont, Patrick A D

    2014-09-01

    Strains previously classified as members of Klebsiella pneumoniae phylogroups KpI, KpII-A, KpII-B and KpIII were characterized by 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis based on rpoB, fusA, gapA, gyrA and leuS genes, average nucleotide identity and biochemical characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that KpI and KpIII corresponded to K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella variicola, respectively, whereas KpII-A and KpII-B formed two well-demarcated sequence clusters distinct from other members of the genus Klebsiella. Average nucleotide identity between KpII-A and KpII-B was 96.4 %, whereas values lower than 94 % were obtained for both groups when compared with K. pneumoniae and K. variicola. Biochemical properties differentiated KpII-A, KpII-B, K. pneumoniae and K. variicola, with acid production from adonitol and l-sorbose and ability to use 3-phenylproprionate, 5-keto-d-gluconate and tricarballylic acid as sole carbon sources being particularly useful. Based on their genetic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose the names Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. and K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov. for strains of KpII-A and KpII-B, respectively. The type strain of K. quasipneumoniae sp. nov. and of K. quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae subsp. nov. is 01A030(T) ( = SB11(T) = CIP 110771(T) = DSM 28211(T)). The type strain of K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae subsp. nov. is 07A044(T) ( = SB30(T) = CIP 110770(T) = DSM 28212(T)). Both strains were isolated from human blood cultures. This work also showed that Klebsiella singaporensis is a junior heterotypic synonym of K. variicola. © 2014 IUMS.

  19. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  20. Prevalence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in a sample of healthy dogs, cats and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acke, E; Midwinter, A C; Lawrence, K; Gordon, S J G; Moore, S; Rasiah, I; Steward, K; French, N; Waller, A

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of β-haemolytic Lancefield group C streptococci in healthy dogs, cats and horses; to determine if frequent contact with horses was associated with isolation of these species from dogs and cats; and to characterise recovered S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates by multilocus sequence typing. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 197 dogs and 72 cats, and nasopharyngeal swabs from 93 horses. Sampling was carried out at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, on sheep and beef farms or on premises where horses were present. All animals were healthy and were categorised as Urban dogs and cats (minimal contact with horses or farm livestock), Farm dogs (minimal contact with horses) and Stable dogs and cats (frequent contact with horses). Swabs were cultured for β-haemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Lancefield group C streptococcal subspecies were confirmed by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Of the 197 dogs sampled, 21 (10.7 (95% CI= 4.0-25.4)%) tested positive for S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and 4 (2.0 (95% CI=0.7-5.5)%) tested positive for S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. All these isolates, except for one S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolate in an Urban dog, were from Stable dogs. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was isolated from one Stable cat. Of the 93 horses, 22 (23.7 (95% CI=12.3-40.6)%) and 6 (6.5 (95% CI=2.8-14.1)%) had confirmed S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolation respectively. Isolation of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from dogs was associated with frequent contact with horses (OR=9.8 (95% CI=2.6-72.8)). Three different multilocus sequence type profiles of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus that have not been previously reported in dogs were recovered. Subclinical infection or colonisation by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis occurs in dogs and further research on inter-species transmission and the pathogenic potential of these

  1. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Francis , Stewart; Kearney, Michael T.; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  2. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Simmonds, Iona; Francis, Stewart; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D

    2015-12-31

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC) and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon(®), bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in the iglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New phenylethanoids from Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, L; Martínez, E; Castañeda, P; Franzblau, S; Timmermann, B N; Linares, E; Bye, R; Mata, R

    2000-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude extract of the stem bark of Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata with significant antimycobacterial activity led to the isolation of a mixture composed by ten new long-chain esters of 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethanol (1-10), along with the lichen metabolites methyl beta-orcinolcarboxylate (11) and beta-orcinolcarboxylate (12). Extensive HPLC allowed the separation of the major components of the mixture, which were characterized by spectral means as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl stearate (3), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl behenate (6), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl lignocerate (8). The minor esters were identified as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl palmitate (1), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl heptadecanoate (2), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl nonadecanoate (4), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl arachidate (5), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl tricosanoate (7), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl pentacosanoate (9), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl hexacosanoate (10) by GC-MS analysis of the methyl esters derivatives of the fatty acids obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of the mixture. Compound 8 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC = 64 micrograms/ml).

  4. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Javed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra, characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi.

  5. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul-Guven, Reyhan; Guven, Kemal; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2008-12-01

    A new thermophilic spore-forming strain KG8(T) was isolated from the mud of Taslidere hot spring in Batman. Strain KG8(T) was aerobe, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, occurring in pairs or filamentous. Growth was observed from 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). It was capable of utilizing starch, growth was observed until 3% NaCl (w/v) and it was positive for nitrate reduction. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KG8(T) was shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone-menaquinone-7; major fatty acid-iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0) supported the affiliation of strain KG8(T) to the genus Anoxybacillus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain KG8(T). Based on these results we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis, to be named Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov. with the type strain KG8(T) (DSM 18475(T)=CIP 109280(T)).

  6. Potential Transmission Pathways of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessika Dumke

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a member of group D streptococci, is an inhabitant of the animal and human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen which causes e.g. endocarditis, septicemia and mastitis. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between animals and humans. However, the transmission routes are an unsolved issue. In this study, we present systematic analyses of an S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolate of an infective endocarditis patient in relation to isolates of his laying hen flock. Isolates from pooled droppings of laying hens, pooled dust samples and human blood culture were characterized by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST and DNA fingerprinting. MLST revealed the same allelic profile of isolates from the human blood culture and from the droppings of laying hens. In addition, these isolates showed clonal identity regarding a similar DNA fingerprinting pattern. For the first time, we received a hint that transmission of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus between poultry and humans may occur. This raises the question about the zoonotic potential of isolates from poultry and should be considered in future studies.

  7. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  8. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt

    2014-01-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. PMID:24761112

  9. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Prasan R

    2015-04-01

    Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era. Among the spices, Crocus sativus L. (saffron; fān hóng huā) has generated interest because pharmacological experiments have established numerous beneficial properties including radical scavenging, anti-mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. This review provides a brief insight into the anticancer properties of saffron and its components.

  10. Safety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi; Shahabian, Masoud; Esmaeili, Habib-Allah; Rajbai, Omid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2008-12-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) stigma tablets were evaluated for short-term safety and tolerability in healthy adult volunteers. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled design consisting of a 1 week treatment of saffron tablets. Volunteers were divided into 3 groups of 10 each (5 males and 5 females). Group I received placebo; groups 2 and 3 received 200 and 400mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days. General measures of health were recorded during the study such as hematological, biochemical and electrocardiographic parameters done in pre- and post-treatment periods. Clinical examination showed no gross changes in all volunteers after intervention. Saffron with higher dose (400mg) decreased standing systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures significantly. Saffron decreased slightly some hematological parameters such as red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets. Saffron increased sodium, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. This study showed that saffron tablets may change some hematological and biochemical parameters. However, these alterations were in normal ranges and they were not important clinically.

  11. Chemical investigation of gamma-irradiated saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareena, A V; Variyar, P S; Gholap, A S; Bongirwar, D R

    2001-02-01

    Changes in aroma and coloring properties of saffron (Crocus sativus) after gamma-irradiation at doses of 2.5 and 5 kGy (necessary for microbial decontamination) were investigated. The volatile essential oil constituents responsible for aroma of the spice were isolated by steam distillation and then subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). No significant qualitative changes were observed in these constituents upon irradiation, although a trained sensory panel could detect slight quality deterioration at a dose of 5 kGy. Carotene glucosides that impart color to the spice were isolated by solvent extraction and then subjected to thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractionation of the above pigments into aglycon and glucosides was achieved by using ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. Analysis of these fractions by HPLC revealed a decrease in glucosides and an increase in aglycon content in irradiated samples. The possibility of degradation of pigments during gamma irradiation is discussed.

  12. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  13. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus Invades and Survives in Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skive, Bolette; Rohde, Manfred; Molinari, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen of several species including humans. S. zooepidemicus is found on mucus membranes of healthy horses, but can cause acute and chronic endometritis. Recently S. zooepidemicus was found able to reside in the endo......Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen of several species including humans. S. zooepidemicus is found on mucus membranes of healthy horses, but can cause acute and chronic endometritis. Recently S. zooepidemicus was found able to reside...

  14. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...

  15. Role of cucurbitacin C in resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema-Boomstra, A.G.; Zijlstra, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Inggamer, H.; Mercke, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are bitter triterpenoid compounds that are toxic to most organisms and occur widely in wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae. The only cucurbitacin identified in Cucumis sativus is cucurbitacin C. The bitter taste of cucumber has been correlated with resistance to the spider mite

  16. Can Saffron (Crocus sativus) be effective in the treatment of leishmaniasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherani, Nooshin

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of some sandfly species. It is endemic in 88 countries throughout the world. Pentavalent antimonials are the standard therapy for leismaniasis. Saffron (crocus sativus) belongs to the iridaceae family. This paper will outline the benefits and challenges of repurposing saffron for treating leishmaniasis.

  17. Crocins transport in Crocus sativus: the long road from a senescent stigma to a newborn corm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2010-09-01

    Saffron, the desiccated stigmas of Crocus sativus, is highly appreciated by its peculiar colour, flavour and aroma. The main compounds that accumulated throughout stigma development in C. sativus are crocetin, its glucoside derivatives, crocins, and picrocrocin, all of which increased as stigmas reached a fully developed stage. After anthesis, and in the absence of fertilization, the flower enters in a senescence programme, which represents the ultimate stage of floral development and results in wilting of whole flower. The programmed senescence of flowers allows the removal of a metabolically active tissue. We studied the composition of saffron apocarotenoids during the senescence of C. sativus flowers, and observed that changes in crocins were due to their transport from the senescent stigma to the ovaries and the developing corm. Afterwards, deglucosylation of crocins in these tissues results in crocetin accumulation. This mobilization mimics the export to storage cells (resorbed) of different compounds during leaf senescence avoiding loss of nutrients in leaves that would otherwise be cycled back into the soil system through leaf litter decomposition. In C. sativus, the resorbed apocarotenoids are stored within the developing corm, where they are not further detected in the advanced stages of development, suggesting that they are metabolized during the early and active phases of corm development, where the glucose molecules from crocins might contribute to cell initiation and elongation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional characterization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Clade V MLO genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Jeroen A.; Appiano, Michela; Bijsterbosch, Gerard; Visser, Richard G.F.; Schouten, Henk J.; Bai, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    Background: Powdery mildew (PM) causing fungi are well-known pathogens, infecting over 10.000 plant species, including the economically important crop cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Loss-of-function mutations in clade V MLO genes have previously been shown to lead to recessively inherited

  19. Complete genome sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus (Cmi) causes bacterial wilt disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and can also infect the model legume plant M. truncatula. The virulence mechanisms of Cmi are yet to be identified, hampered by the lack of efficient mutagenesis tools as well as by the la...

  20. Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa: an alternative model for bacterial cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, G P; Laurie, J I; Ferreira, L M; Gilbert, H J

    1992-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa, a Gram-negative soil bacterium, can utilize crystalline cellulose or xylan as main sources of carbon and energy. Synthesis of endoglucanases and xylanases is induced by Avicel, filter paper, carboxymethylcellulose or xylan and is repressed by cellobiose, glucose or xylose. These enzymes are secreted into the culture supernatant fluid and do not form aggregates or associate with the cell surface. Cells of Ps. fluorescens subsp. cellulosa do not adhere to cellulose. In cultures containing Avicel or filter paper, a significant proportion of the secreted cellulase and xylanase activities becomes tightly bound to the insoluble cellulose. Western blotting has revealed that endoglucanase B, xylanase A and a cellodextrinase encoded by genes previously isolated from Ps. fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and expressed in Escherichia coli, are synthesized by the pseudomonad under a variety of conditions. These enzymes appear to be post-translationally modified, probably through glycosylation. Overall, it appears that the cellulase/hemicellulase system of Ps. fluorescens subsp. cellulosa differs from the model established for celluloytic anaerobes such as Clostridium thermocellum.

  1. Factors affecting survival of Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The survival of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, was studied in water, to assess the risks for dissemination of Cms via surface water and infection of potato crops by irrigation. Cms was able to survive for a maximum period of 7

  2. (Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae) associated with red stripe disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-24

    Jun 24, 2011 ... 8°C after 150 days storage, only shyness appeared and after 90 and 120 days storage it showed positive re- isolation result. Phenotypic characterization. Isolate of A. avenae subsp. avenae was tested for some confirmatory physiological and biochemical tests (Table. 3). The isolate was tested for gram ...

  3. Sensitive and rapid detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set of four specific primers was designed by targeting the H2 gene sequences of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (MCCP). Using Bst DNA polymerase, the products were amplified for 60 min at 65°C in a simple water bath. Compared with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test that targets the H2 gene ...

  4. Function and safety assessment of Lactococus lactis subsp. lactis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... The effect of yogurt fermented by Lactococus lactis subsp. lactis LB12 isolated from traditional Chinese pickled cabbage on serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were investigated in mice. In the same, the characterizations of the strain, such as acid-tolerance, bile-tolerance, antimicrobial activity,.

  5. Comparative genomics of extrachromosomal elements in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Alexandre; Gillis, Annika; Sanchis, Vincent; Nielsen-LeRoux, Christina; Mahillon, Jacques; Lereclus, Didier; Sorokin, Alexei

    2017-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is one of the most important microorganisms used against mosquitoes. It was intensively studied following its discovery and became a model bacterium of the B. thuringiensis species. Those studies focused on toxin genes, aggregation-associated conjugation, linear genome phages, etc. Recent announcements of genomic sequences of different strains have not been explicitly related to the biological properties studied. We report data on plasmid content analysis of four strains using ultra-high-throughput sequencing. The strains were commercial product isolates, with their putative ancestor and type B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain sequenced earlier. The assembled contigs corresponding to published and novel data were assigned to plasmids described earlier in B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and other B. thuringiensis strains. A new 360 kb plasmid was identified, encoding multiple transporters, also found in most of the earlier sequenced strains. Our genomic data show the presence of two toxin-coding plasmids of 128 and 100 kb instead of the reported 225 kb plasmid, a co-integrate of the former two. In two of the sequenced strains, only a 100 kb plasmid was present. Some heterogeneity exists in the small plasmid content and structure between strains. These data support the perception of active plasmid exchange among B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains in nature. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: a summary: part 2: commercial use, tenure and policy, domestication, intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing: review paper.

  7. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cai

    Full Text Available Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3 had the highest (P<0.05 antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%, esters (5.24%, acids (4.87% and alcohols (2.21%. Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum.

  8. (PCR) for the identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... sodium pyruvate) in a high security laboratory. The DNA of. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica was maintained in the State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology. Clinical samples. 28 samples from 14 artificially infected animals with M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae were ...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii Genotype III▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, Maria B.; Bradley, Julie; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Takara, Matt; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular characterization of a Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III strain (NCSU strain 06-CO1) isolated from the blood of a military working dog diagnosed with endocarditis is reported in this study. Several genes were amplified and sequenced for comparative sequence similarity with other strains. PMID:18367567

  10. Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: a summary: Part 1: ... potentially high fruit production and use of S. birrea it has frequently been identified as a key species to support the development of rural enterprises based on the ...

  11. The effects of aqueous root extract of Senna italica subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... The effects of aqueous root extracts of Senna italica subsp. arachoides on the feeding performance of adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes in three consecutive infestations of rabbits were studied under laboratory conditions. Rabbits were divided into treatment group (n = 3), fed aqueous root extracts ...

  12. Function and safety assessment of Lactococus lactis subsp. lactis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of yogurt fermented by Lactococus lactis subsp. lactis LB12 isolated from traditional Chinese pickled cabbage on serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were investigated in mice. In the same, the characterizations of the strain, such as acid-tolerance, bile-tolerance, antimicrobial activity, antibiotic sensitivity ...

  13. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-07-23

    Jul 23, 2008 ... Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana (Fabaceae) plays an important role in the life of desert animals and is a major source of livestock feed and firewood for the native Bedouin people in Southern Sinai, Egypt. High mortality and low juvenile recruitment has been reported in recent years leading to decline in.

  14. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originated from Crescent Fertile region as detected by seed storage proteins. RIM MZID FARHAT CHIBANI RAYDA BEN AYED MOHSEN HANANA JOELLE BREIDI RABIH KABALAN SAMIH EL-HAJJ HASSAN MACHLAB AHMED REBAI LAMIS ...

  15. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originated from Crescent Fertile region as detected by seed storage proteins. RIM MZID1∗, FARHAT CHIBANI2, RAYDA BEN AYED3, MOHSEN HANANA1, JOELLE BREIDI4,. RABIH KABALAN4, SAMIH EL-HAJJ5, HASSAN MACHLAB6, AHMED ...

  16. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana (Fabaceae) plays an important role in the life of desert animals and is a major source of livestock feed and firewood for the native Bedouin people in Southern Sinai, Egypt. High mortality and low juvenile recruitment has been reported in recent years leading to decline in population size and ...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N-2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  18. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, immunology and pathology of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...

  19. Genetic Basis of Tetracycline Resistance in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueimonde, M.; Florez, A.B.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Stuer-Lauridsen, B.; Stroman, P.; Reyes-Gavilan, de los C.G.; Margolles, A.

    2010-01-01

    All strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis described to date show medium level resistance to tetracycline. Screening of 26 strains from a variety of sources revealed the presence of tet(W) in all isolates. A transposase gene upstream of tet(W) was found in all strains, and both genes were

  20. Emended description of Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus and Mycobacteriumabscessus subsp. bolletii and designation of Mycobacteriumabscessus subsp. massiliense comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortoli, Enrico; Kohl, Thomas A; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Trovato, Alberto; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Garcia, Maria Jesus; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Turenne, Christine Y; Griffith, David E; Philley, Julie V; Baldan, Rossella; Campana, Silvia; Cariani, Lisa; Colombo, Carla; Taccetti, Giovanni; Teri, Antonio; Niemann, Stefan; Wallace, Richard J; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex has been the subject of intensive investigation and, in some aspects confusion, in recent years as a result of varying approaches to genetic data interpretation. Currently, the former species Mycobacterium massiliense and Mycobacterium bolletii are grouped together as Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii. They differ greatly, however, as the former M. bolletii has a functional erm(41) gene that confers inducible resistance to macrolides, the primary therapeutic antimicrobials for M. abscessus, while in the former M. massiliense the erm(41) gene is non-functional. Furthermore, previous whole genome studies of the M. abscessus group support the separation of M. bolletii and M. massiliense. To shed further light on the population structure of Mycobacterium abscessus, 43 strains and three genomes retrieved from GenBank were subjected to pairwise comparisons using three computational approaches: verage ucleotide dentity, enome to enome istance and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The three methods produced overlapping results, each demonstrating three clusters of strains corresponding to the same number of taxonomic entities. The distances were insufficient to warrant distinction at the species level, but met the criteria for differentiation at the subspecies level. Based on prior erm(41)-related phenotypic data and current genomic data, we conclude that the species M. abscessus encompasses, in adjunct to the presently recognized subspecies M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii, a third subspecies for which we suggest the name M. abscessus subsp. massiliense comb. nov. (type strain CCUG 48898T=CIP 108297T=DSM 45103T=KCTC 19086T).

  1. Novel Temperate Phages of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and subsp. diarizonae and Their Activity against Pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Mikalová

    Full Text Available Forty strains of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica subspecies salamae (II, arizonae (IIIa, diarizonae (IIIb, and houtenae (IV were isolated from human or environmental samples and tested for bacteriophage production. Production of bacteriophages was observed in 15 S. enterica strains (37.5% belonging to either the subspecies salamae (8 strains or diarizonae (7 strains. Activity of phages was tested against 52 pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates and showed that phages produced by subsp. salamae had broader activity against pathogenic salmonellae compared to phages from the subsp. diarizonae. All 15 phages were analyzed using PCR amplification of phage-specific regions and 9 different amplification profiles were identified. Five phages (SEN1, SEN4, SEN5, SEN22, and SEN34 were completely sequenced and classified as temperate phages. Phages SEN4 and SEN5 were genetically identical, thus representing a single phage type (i.e. SEN4/5. SEN1 and SEN4/5 fit into the group of P2-like phages, while the SEN22 phage showed sequence relatedness to P22-like phages. Interestingly, while phage SEN34 was genetically distantly related to Lambda-like phages (Siphoviridae, it had the morphology of the Myoviridae family. Based on sequence analysis and electron microscopy, phages SEN1 and SEN4/5 were members of the Myoviridae family and phage SEN22 belonged to the Podoviridae family.

  2. Identification of Bartonella Species Isolated from Rodents from Yucatan, Mexico, and Isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte Fischedick, Frederique B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Arechiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Overgaauw, Paul A M; Kasten, Rickie W; Chomel, Bruno B

    2016-10-01

    Bartonella species are highly endemic among wild rodents in many parts of the world. Blood and/or blood clot cultures from 38 rodents, including 27 Yucatan deer mouse (Peromyscus yucatanicus), 7 Gaumer's spiny pocket mouse (Heteromys gaumeri), 2 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 2 big-eared climbing rats (Ototylomys phyllotis) captured near Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, led to the isolation in 3-4 days of small gram-negative bacilli, which were identified as Bartonella spp. based on colony morphology. DNA extraction and PCR testing were also performed from heart samples of 35 of these 38 rodents. Overall, Bartonella spp. were isolated from the blood/blood clots of 22 (58%) rodents. All Bartonella-positive rodents were Yucatán deer mice from San José Pituch. Sequencing of a fragment of the gltA gene showed that all but one rodent isolates were closest to B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii and one isolate was intermediate between B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Further analysis of concatenated housekeeping genes (gltA, ftsZ, rpoB, and 16S rRNA) suggests that this outlier isolate is a new subspecies within the B. vinsonii genogroup, for which we proposed the name B. vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis.

  3. Antioxidant activity profiling by spectrophotometric methods of aqueous methanolic extracts of Helichrysum stoechas subsp. rupestre and Phagnalon saxatile subsp. saxatile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouchi, Farah; Chaouche, Tarik Mohammed; Ksouri, Riadh; Medini, Faten; Sekkal, Fatima Zohra; Benmansour, Abdelhafid

    2014-06-01

    The aqueous methanolic extracts of two plants from Algeria, Helichrysum stoechas subsp. rupestre and Phagnalon saxatile subsp. saxatile, were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Total phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. In vitro antioxidant and radical scavenging profiling was determined by spectrophotometric methods, through: Total antioxidant capacity, and radical scavenging effects by the DPPH and ABTS methods, reducing and chelating power, and blanching inhibition of the β-carotene. All of the extracts showed interesting antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. The highest contents in phenolics, tannins, and the highest total antioxidant capacity as gallic acid equivalents of 97.5 ± 0.33 mg GAE/g DW was obtained for the flowers of H. stoechas subsp. rupestre extract in the phosphomolybdenum assay. An extract of the leafy stems of P. saxatile subsp. saxatile revealed the highest content of flavonoids, and the highest antioxidant activity by the radical scavenging and β-carotene assays when compared with standards. The best activity was by the scavenging radical DPPH with an IC50 value of 5.65 ± 0.10 μg·mL(-1). The studied medicinal plants could provide scientific evidence for some traditional uses in the treatment of diseases related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of MCPA (4-Chloro-2-ethylphenoxyacetate) resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugulam, Mithila; Dimeo, Natalie; Veldhuis, Linda J; Walsh, Michael; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-12-26

    The phenoxy herbicides (e.g., 2,4-D and MCPA) are used widely in agriculture for the selective control of broadleaf weeds. In Western Australia, the reliance on phenoxy herbicides has resulted in the widespread evolution of phenoxy resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) populations. In this research the inheritance and mechanism of MCPA resistance in wild radish were determined. Following classical breeding procedures, F1, F2, and backcross progeny were generated. The F1 progeny showed an intermediate response to MCPA, compared to parents, suggesting that MCPA resistance in wild radish is inherited as an incompletely dominant trait. Segregation ratios observed in F2 (3:1; resistant:susceptible) and backcross progeny (1:1; resistant to susceptible) indicated that the MCPA resistance is controlled by a single gene in wild radish. Radiolabeled MCPA studies suggested no difference in MCPA uptake or metabolism between resistant and susceptible wild radish; however, resistant plants rapidly translocated more (14)C-MCPA to roots than susceptible plants, which may have been exuded from the plant. Understanding the genetic basis and mechanism of phenoxy resistance in wild radish will help formulate prudent weed management strategies to reduce the incidence of phenoxy resistance.

  5. Identification of the first glyphosate-resistant wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    In Australia, glyphosate has been used routinely to control wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) for the past 40 years. This study focuses on two field-evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of wild radish collected from the grainbelt of Western Australia. Two wild radish biotypes were confirmed to be glyphosate resistant by comparing R/S of two suspected populations. Based on R/S from dose-response curves, the R1 and R2 populations were 2.3 and 3.2 times more resistant to glyphosate respectively. Dose response on glyphosate-selected progeny (>1080 g ha(-1)) demonstrated that the glyphosate resistance mechanism was heritable. When compared with the pooled mortality results of three known susceptible populations (S1, S2 and S3), the R1 and R2 subpopulations were 3.4-fold and 4.5-fold more resistant at the LD50 level respectively. Both populations were found to have multiple resistance to the phytoene desaturase inhibitor; diflufenican, the synthetic auxin; 2,4-D and the ALS inhibitors; chlorsulfuron, sulfometuron-methyl, imazethapyr and metosulam. This is the first report confirming glyphosate resistance evolution in wild radish and serves to re-emphasise the importance of diverse weed control strategies. Proactive and integrated measures for resistance management need to be developed to diversify control measures away from glyphosate and advance the use of non-herbicidal techniques. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. in northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Djebali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and life cycle of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. and a survey of the pathogens of this plant are reported for the northern regions of Tunisia. Wild radish is a common weed of cereal crops and legumes. It germinates in early autumn (October, develops a rosette stage in November to December after which stem growth, fl owering and pod production occur through to May, with pod maturity completed in June. Fungus isolation from the foliar tissues exhibiting disease symptoms showed that wild radish was infected with the fungi Albugo candida, Alternaria spp. including A. brassicicola, and A. raphani, Erysiphe cruciferarum, Stemphylium herbarum, Peronospora parasitica and Phoma lingam. Ascochyta spp., Cercospora armoraciae, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Colletotrichum higginsianum are here reported from wild radish for the first time. Inoculation tests of pathogens on wild radish plants showed that the most injurious fungi were Alternaria raphani and Phoma lingam. The remaining pathogens were weakly to moderately aggressive on this weed. To access the pathogenic effect of fungi spontaneously infecting natural populations of wild radish, the weed was grown in a field experiment with and without the broad-spectrum systemic fungicide Carbendazim. Results showed a statistically significant two-fold decrease in the number and weight of seed pods in the non-treated plants, indicating that the reproductive potential of wild radish was naturally reduced by fungal infection. Foliar pathogenic fungi have a potential in the integrated weed management of wild radish, this role merits further investigations.

  7. The C-terminal extension peptide of non-photoconvertible water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins (Class II WSCPs) affects their solubility and stability: comparative analyses of the biochemical and chlorophyll-binding properties of recombinant Brassica, Raphanus and Lepidium WSCPs with or without their C-terminal extension peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Uchida, Akira; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Numerous members of the Brassicaceae possess non-photoconvertible water-soluble chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins (Class II WSCPs), which function as Chl scavengers during cell disruption caused by wounding, pest/pathogen attacks, and/or environmental stress. Class II WSCPs have two extension peptides, one at the N-terminus and one at the C-terminus. The N-terminal peptide acts as a signal peptide, targeting the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum body, a unique defensive organelle found only in the Brassicaceae. However, the physiological and biochemical functions of the C-terminal extension peptide had not been characterized previously. To investigate the function of the C-terminal extension peptide, we produced expression constructs of recombinant WSCPs with or without the C-terminal extension peptide. The WSCPs used were of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea), Japanese wild radish (Raphanus sativus) and Virginia pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum). The solubility of all of the WSCPs with the C-terminal extension peptide was drastically lower than that of the recombinant WSCPs without the C-terminal extension peptide. In addition, the stability of the reconstituted WSCPs complexes with the C-terminal extension peptide was altered compared with that of the proteins without the C-terminal extension peptide. These finding indicate that the C-terminal extension peptide affects not only the solubility, but also the stability of Class II WSCP. Furthermore, we characterized the Chl-binding properties of the recombinant WSCP from Japanese wild radish (RshWSCP-His) in a 40 % methanol solution. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that RshWSCP-His required a half-molar ratio of Chls to form a tetramer.

  8. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

    1981-12-01

    Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01).

  9. Early stages of somatic embryogenesis in root callus of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Piwowarczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures from root explants of Lathyrus sativus L. Derek were tested for their morphogenic capacity. Primary explants (fragments of roots were cultivated on three induction media. We obtained three lines of callus tissue among which we identified two non-embryogenic lines and one embryogenic line. Callus originally cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg*L-1 picloram, formed embryo-like structures upon transfer to media containing 0.1 mg*L-1 picloram or 0.9 mg*L-12,4-D. Histological examinations confirmed embryogenity of obtained structures. Previous studies had revealed that, notwithstanding efficient callus induction and proliferation, its capacity to differentiate shoots or somatic embryos is limited. Consequently, rhizogenesis was only form of complete organogenesis obtained in our experiments. However attempts to develop the methods for indirect plant regeneration in L. sativus would allow creation of new genetic variations required to improvement of this species.

  10. SELF INCOMPATIBILITY MECHANISMS IN THE CROCUS SATIVUS AGGREGATE (IRIDACEAE: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. ZANIER

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two molecular mechanisms responsible for SI (Self-Incompatibility in dicotyledons were tested in the C. sativus L. aggregate. RNase and peroxidase activity assays were carried out on crude extract from un-, self- and cross-pollinated styles of C. sativus (male-sterile, C. thomasii Ten. (outfertile and C. cartwrightianus Herb (out-fertile. Results on RNase activity indicate that in the Crocus species studied the rejection mechanism of SI is not based on stylar RNase. Data on peroxidase activity indicate a relationship between pollen tube presence in the style and stylar peroxidase activity. Stylar peroxidase activity increase is related to pollen tube presence but does not stop tube growth. Compatible and incompatible pollen tubes grow along the style and their discrimination occurs in another region of the gynoecium.

  11. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Østergaard, Stine; Buhl, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within...... this species, this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies are reported, compared to previous findings...

  12. Russian isolates enlarge the known geographic diversity of Francisella tularensis subsp. mediasiatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Timofeev

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, a small Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of infecting a wide range of animals, including humans, and causes a plague-like disease called tularemia-a highly contagious disease with a high mortality rate. Because of these characteristics, F. tularensis is considered a potential agent of biological terrorism. Currently, F. tularensis is divided into four subspecies, which differ in their virulence and geographic distribution. Two of them, subsp. tularensis (primarily found in North America and subsp. holarctica (widespread across the Northern Hemisphere, are responsible for tularemia in humans. Subsp. novicida is almost avirulent in humans. The fourth subspecies, subsp. mediasiatica, is the least studied because of its limited distribution and impact in human health. It is found only in sparsely populated regions of Central Asia. In this report, we describe the first focus of naturally circulating F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica in Russia. We isolated and characterized 18 strains of this subspecies in the Altai region. All strains were highly virulent in mice. The virulence of subsp. mediasiatica in a vaccinated mouse model is intermediate between that of subsp. tularensis and subsp. holarctica. Based on a multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA, we show that the Altaic population of F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica is genetically distinct from the classical Central Asian population, and probably is endemic to Southern Siberia. We propose to subdivide the mediasiatica subspecies into three phylogeographic groups, M.I, M.II and M.III.

  13. Thermal Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Artificially Contaminated Milk by Direct Steam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butot, Sophie; Jagadeesan, Balamurugan; Bakker, Douwe; Donaghy, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The efficiency of direct steam injection (DSI) at 105°C for 3 s to inactivate Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at a pilot-plant scale was investigated. Milk samples were artificially contaminated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and also with cow fecal material naturally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We also tested milk artificially contaminated with Mycobacterium smegmatis as a candidate surrogate to compare thermal inactivation between M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Following the DSI process, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. smegmatis was recovered using culture methods for both strains. For pure M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures, a minimum reduction of 5.6 log10 was achieved with DSI, and a minimum reduction of 5.7 log10 was found with M. smegmatis. The minimum log10 reduction for wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally present in feces was 3.3. In addition, 44 dairy and nondairy powdered infant formula (PIF) ingredients used during the manufacturing process of PIF were tested for an alternate source for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and were found to be negative by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In conclusion, the results obtained from this study indicate that a >7-fold-log10 reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk can be achieved with the applied DSI process. IMPORTANCE M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in dairy herds in many countries. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, and infected animals can directly or indirectly (i.e., fecal contamination) contaminate milk. Despite much research and debate, there is no conclusive evidence that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a zoonotic bacterium, i.e., one that causes disease in humans. The presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or its DNA has been reported in dairy products, including pasteurized milk, cheese, and infant formula

  14. Thermal Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Artificially Contaminated Milk by Direct Steam Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterz, Mats; Butot, Sophie; Jagadeesan, Balamurugan; Bakker, Douwe; Donaghy, John

    2016-05-01

    The efficiency of direct steam injection (DSI) at 105 °C for 3 s to inactivate Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at a pilot-plant scale was investigated. Milk samples were artificially contaminated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and also with cow fecal material naturally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We also tested milk artificially contaminated with Mycobacterium smegmatis as a candidate surrogate to compare thermal inactivation between M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Following the DSI process, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. smegmatis was recovered using culture methods for both strains. For pure M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures, a minimum reduction of 5.6 log10 was achieved with DSI, and a minimum reduction of 5.7 log10 was found with M. smegmatis. The minimum log10 reduction for wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally present in feces was 3.3. In addition, 44 dairy and nondairy powdered infant formula (PIF) ingredients used during the manufacturing process of PIF were tested for an alternate source for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and were found to be negative by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In conclusion, the results obtained from this study indicate that a >7-fold-log10 reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk can be achieved with the applied DSI process. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in dairy herds in many countries. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, and infected animals can directly or indirectly (i.e., fecal contamination) contaminate milk. Despite much research and debate, there is no conclusive evidence that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a zoonotic bacterium, i.e., one that causes disease in humans. The presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or its DNA has been reported in dairy products, including pasteurized milk, cheese, and infant formula. In light of this

  15. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SUBSP. plantarum PROBIOTIC STRAINS AS PROTEASE PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Маtseliukh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases from probiotic strains of the genus Bacillus, just like the antibiotics, bacteriocins and other hydrolytic enzymes, are one of the main factors that determine their biological activity. The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and biochemical properties of proteases from two strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5139 and UCM B-5140 that included in the probiotic Endosporin. The cultivation of strains was carried out in flasks under rotating for two days. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of the reaction medium on proteolytic activity was studied on partially purified protease preparations. Lytic activity was determined by turbidimetric method. On the second day of cultivation B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM В-5139 and UCM В-5140 synthesized the metal-dependent peptidase and serine protease, respectively. The optimum conditions of their action were the following: temperature 37–40 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. Isolated proteases are able to lyse the living cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Thus we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5140 and UCM B-5139, included in the probiotic veterinary preparation Endosporin, produced proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the native insoluble proteins (elastin, fibrin and collagen. These enzymes belong to the group of neutral metal-dependent and serine proteases. They are active under physiological conditions against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The application of these proteases in biotechnology is considered.

  16. Lessons from neurolathyrism: A disease of the past & the future of Lathyrus sativus (Khesari dal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya S Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurolathyrism is past history in India since Lathyrus sativus (khesari dal is no longer used as a staple. A consensus has evolved that khesari dal is harmless as part of a normal diet. L-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α-diamino propionic acid the neurotoxic amino acid, from this pulse, is detoxified in humans but not in animals but still no laboratory animal is susceptible to it under acceptable feeding regimens. L-ODAP is an activator of protein kinase C and consequential crucial downstream effects such as stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 could be extremely conducive to humans under a variety of situations. ODAP is gradually finding a place in several patents for this reason. Homoarginine the second amino acid from L. sativus can be a better substrate for endogenous generation of nitric oxide, a crucial signaling molecule associated with the cardiovasculature and control of hypertension. These features could make L. sativus a prized commodity as a functional food for the general cardiovasculature and overcome hypoxic events and is set to change the entire perception of this pulse and neurolathyrism.

  17. Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, V C; Gopala Krishna, B; Viswanatha, G L; Satya Prasad, V; Vinay Babu, S N

    2011-07-01

    Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine.

  18. Relationship between Presence of Cows with Milk Positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibody by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dust in Cattle Barns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000380; Chuchaisangrat, R.; Nielen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123535298; Koets, A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194306992

    2013-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne’s disease, in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which has recently been suspected to be transmitted through dust. This longitudinal study on eight commercial M. avium subsp. paratuberculosispositive dairy farms studied the relationship

  19. Discrimination of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Rinosh J; Thachil, Anil J; Ramachandran, Akhilesh

    2017-09-01

    Accurate and timely identification of infectious etiologies is of great significance in veterinary microbiology, especially for critical diseases such as strangles, a highly contagious disease of horses caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) platform for use in species- and subspecies-level identification of S. equi isolates from horses and compared it with an automated biochemical system. We used 25 clinical isolates each of S. equi subsp. equi and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Using the MALDI-TOF MS platform, it was possible to correctly identify all 50 isolates to the species level. Unique mass peaks were identified in the bacterial peptide mass spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS, which can be used for accurate subspecies-level identification of S. equi. Mass peaks (mass/charge, m/ z) 6,751.9 ± 1.4 (mean ± standard deviation) and 5,958.1 ± 1.3 were found to be unique to S. equi subsp. equi and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus, respectively. The automated biochemical system correctly identified 47 of 50 of the isolates to the species level as S. equi, whereas at the subspecies level, 24 of 25 S. equi subsp. equi isolates and 22 of 25 S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates were correctly identified. Our results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS can be used for accurate species- and subspecies-level identification of S. equi.

  20. The origin of the serpentine endemic Minuartia laricifolia subsp. ophiolitica by vicariance and competitive exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Abigail J; Merges, Dominik; Kadereit, Joachim W

    2013-04-01

    Serpentine soils harbour a unique flora that is rich in endemics. We examined the evolution of serpentine endemism in Minuartia laricifolia, which has two ecologically distinct subspecies with disjunct distributions: subsp. laricifolia on siliceous rocks in the western Alps and eastern Pyrenees and subsp. ophiolitica on serpentine in the northern Apennines. We analysed AFLPs and chloroplast sequences from 30 populations to examine their relationships and how their current distributions and ecologies were influenced by Quaternary climatic changes. Minuartia laricifolia was divided into four groups with a BAPS cluster analysis of the AFLP data, one group consisted only of subsp. ophiolitica, while three groups were found within subsp. laricifolia: Maritime Alps, north-western Alps and central Alps. The same groups were recovered in a neighbour-joining tree, although subsp. ophiolitica was nested within the Maritime Alps group of subsp. laricifolia. Subspecies ophiolitica contained three different chloroplast haplotypes, which were also found in the Maritime Alps group of subsp. laricifolia. Given its high genetic diversity, subsp. ophiolitica appears to have arisen from subsp. laricifolia by vicariance instead of by long-distance dispersal. Genetic and geographic evidence point to the Maritime Alps populations of subsp. laricifolia as the closest relatives of subsp. ophiolitica. We hypothesize that M. laricifolia was also able to grow on nonserpentine rocks in the northern Apennines during glacial periods when the vegetation was more open, but that only the serpentine-adapted populations were able to persist until the present due to their competitive exclusion from more favourable habitats. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a Longitudinal Study of Three Dairy Herds▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abani K.; Mitchell, Rebecca M.; Kramer, Aagje J.; Zurakowski, Michael J.; Fyock, Terry L.; Whitlock, Robert H.; Smith, Julia M.; Hovingh, Ernest; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Schukken, Ynte H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cows that were low shedders of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were passively shedding or truly infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We also investigated whether it is possible that these M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected animals could have been infected as adults by contemporary high-shedding animals (supershedders). The M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates were obtained from a longitudinal study of three dairy herds in the northeastern United States. Isolates were selected from fecal samples and tissues at slaughter from all animals that were culture positive at the same time that supershedders were present in the herds. Shedding levels (CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis/g of feces) for the animals at each culture-positive occasion were determined. Using a multilocus short-sequence-repeat technique, we found 15 different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from a total of 142 isolates analyzed. Results indicated herd-specific infection patterns; there was a clonal infection in herd C, with 89% of isolates from animals sharing the same strain, whereas herds A and B showed several different strains infecting the animals at the same time. Tissues from 80% of cows with at least one positive fecal culture (other than supershedders) were culture positive, indicating a true M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. The results of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain typing and observed shedding levels showed that at least 50% of low shedders have the same strain as that of a contemporary supershedder. Results of this study suggest that in a dairy herd, more of the low-shedding cows are truly infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis than are passively shedding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The sharing of strains between low shedders and the contemporary supershedders suggests that low shedders may have been infected by environmental exposure of M. avium

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly and comprehensive expression profiling in Crocus sativus to gain insights into apocarotenoid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukesh; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Verma, Mohit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini

    2016-03-03

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is commonly known as world's most expensive spice with rich source of apocarotenoids and possesses magnificent medicinal properties. To understand the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis/accumulation, we performed transcriptome sequencing from five different tissues/organs of C. sativus using Illumina platform. After comprehensive optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 105, 269 unique transcripts (average length of 1047 bp and N50 length of 1404 bp) were obtained from 206 million high-quality paired-end reads. Functional annotation led to the identification of many genes involved in various biological processes and molecular functions. In total, 54% of C. sativus transcripts could be functionally annotated using public databases. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativus revealed the presence of 16721 SSRs and 3819 transcription factor encoding transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed preferential/specific expression of many transcripts involved in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in stigma. We have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, MYB related, WRKY, C2C2-YABBY and bHLH) involved in secondary metabolism. Overall, these results will pave the way for understanding the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis and other aspects of stigma development in C. sativus.

  3. Complete Genomic Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 Strain RM1285 Isolated from Packaged Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Craig; Huynh, S; Heikema, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPoultry products serve as the main source of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections in humans. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and are a prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome. This study describes the genome of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 strain RM1285, isolated from packaged chicken in California.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, isolated from human breast milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease. We report the draft genome sequences of six M. avium subsp paratuberculosis isolates obtained from diverse hosts including bison, cattle and sheep. These sequences will deepen our understanding of host association ...

  5. First isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis from commercial pasteurized milk in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Paolicchi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis was isolated from two out of seventy samples (2.86 % of pasteurized and ultra-pasteurized milk. The isolates were positives to IS900 PCR and showed a C17 RFLP pattern, the most prevalent in Argentina. The present study is the first report of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis culture from pasteurized milk in Argentina.

  6. MAO-A inhibition profiles of some benzophenone glucosides from Gentiana verna subsp. pontica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Duygu; Jäger, Anna; Yalçin, Funda N

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana verna L. subsp. pontica (Soltok.) Hayek, G. pyrenaica L., and G. verna L. subsp. balcanica Pritchard from Turkey were tested for their MAO-A inhibitory effects. A photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay performed on the H20 extracts prepared from the methanolic extracts of the title...

  7. Neonatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Shigeo; Ogihara, Tohru; Yasui, Masako; Hasegawa, Masashi; Hira, Seigo; Oue, Shinya; Ubukata, Kimiko; Watanabe, Haruo; Takahashi, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    We report a neonatal infection with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis occurring through maternal transmission and presenting as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome 12 hours after birth. Pediatricians and obstetricians should be aware of the possibility of this infectious disease when examining newborns with fever. These observations suggest that antenatal maternal screening for S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis should be considered.

  8. Preliminary investigation of a mice model of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae induced pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renois, Fanny; Jacques, Jérôme; Guillard, Thomas; Moret, Hélène; Pluot, Michel; Andreoletti, Laurent; de Champs, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, we comparatively assessed the pathophysiological mechanisms developed during lung infection of BALB/C female mice infected by an original wild type Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae strain (CH137) or by a referent subspecies K. pneumoniae. subsp. pneumoniae strain (ATCC10031). The mice infected with 2.10⁶ CFU K. p. subsp. pneumoniae (n = 10) showed transient signs of infection and all of them recovered. All of those infected with 1.10⁶ CFU K. p. subsp. ozaenae (n = 10) developed pneumonia within 24 h and died between 48 and 72 h. Few macrophages, numerous polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes were observed in their lungs in opposite to K. p. subsp. pneumoniae. In bronchoalveolar lavage, a significant increase in MIP-2, IL-6, KC and MCP-1 levels was only observed in K. p. subsp. ozaenae infected mice whereas high levels of TNF-α were evidenced with the two subspecies. Our findings indicated a lethal effect of a wild type K. p. subsp. ozaenae strain by acute pneumonia reflecting an insufficient alveolar macrophage response. This model might be of a major interest to comparatively explore the pathogenicity of K. p. subsp ozaenae strains and to further explore the physiopathological mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria induced human pneumonia. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Draft genome sequence of the first human isolate of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum...

  10. Valorization of traditional foods: nutritional and bioactive properties of Cicer arietinum L. and Lathyrus sativus L. pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Alzira; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Ângela; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional foods can enrich our diet, perpetuating important elements of local knowledge and cultural inheritance. Raw, soaked and cooked samples of two Fabaceae species (Cicer arietinum L. and Lathyrus sativus L.) were characterized regarding nutritional and bioactive properties. L. sativus gave the highest carbohydrate, protein, ash, saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and lowest fat and energy value. Furthermore, it also showed the highest concentration of flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Cicer arietinum gave the highest concentration of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The soaking process did not significantly affect macronutrients, but cooking (boiling) decreased protein, ash, sugars and organic acids, and increased carbohydrates, fat, tocopherols, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. No differences were obtained for fatty acid composition. The present study highlights the nutritional profile and bioactive properties of these agricultural varieties of C. arietinum and L. sativus pulses, and valorizes their traditional consumption and the use in modern diets. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Hospedeiros alternativos de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Alternative hosts of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa P. Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afeta o meloeiro é a mancha-aquosa, causada pela bactéria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Visando conhecer hospedeiros alternativos de Aac, plantas no estágio de primeiras folhas definitivas, de várias espécies/cultivares, incluindo cucurbitáceas, solanáceas, gramíneas, leguminosas e caricáceas, foram inoculadas pela atomização da parte aérea com suspensão dos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13, oriundos de melão e melancia, respectivamente. A suscetibilidade das plantas aos isolados foi avaliada pelo período de incubação (PI e incidência da doença (INC. Caupi, feijão, fumo e milho não apresentaram sintomas. Os menores PIs foram observados em cucurbitáceas (3,0 d, com exceção da bucha (6,83 d. Incidências da doença acima de 90% foram observadas em cucurbitáceas, excetuando a bucha e em solanáceas, para ambos os isolados de Aac. Em outro experimento, frutos de abóbora, abobrinha, berinjela, mamão, maxixe, melancia, melão, pepino, pimentão e tomate foram analisados quanto à suscetibilidade aos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Os frutos foram inoculados pelo método de injeção subepidérmica, determinando-se PI, INC e severidade, avaliada pelo diâmetro da lesão externa (DLE e profundidade da lesão (PL. Menores PIs (2,0 d foram detectados em frutos de mamão, melancia, melão e pimentão. Incidência de 100% foi observada em todos os frutos inoculados, com exceção da abobrinha (93,75% e da abóbora (34,37%. Maiores DLEs foram observados em pepino (1,47 cm para o isolado Aac 1.49 e em melancia (1,60 cm e melão (1,07 cm para Aac 12.13. As maiores PL foram constatadas em melancia (1,72 e 0,75 cm respectivamente para Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Frutos de berinjela não apresentaram sintomas externos embora as lesões internas tenham sido profundas.One of the most important melon diseases is the bacterial blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Alternative hosts of this

  12. Genetic diversity and phylogeography in two diploid ferns, Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum and A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens, in the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, H V; Ansell, S W; Russell, S J; Schneider, H; Vogel, J C

    2009-12-01

    Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum and A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens are diploid rock ferns of limestone outcrops of the western Mediterranean region. Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum occurs from Valencia through northeastern Spain to the Alpes-Maritimes and Swiss Jura. Asplenium petrarchae subsp. bivalens occurs only on Majorca, in Valencia and possibly in southern Spain. We analysed allozyme and chloroplast genetic marker diversity in 75 populations of A. fontanum subsp. fontanum and 12 populations of A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens sampled from across their respective ranges. The two species show similar levels of species and population genetic diversity to one another and to other diploid European Asplenium taxa. Both are predominantly outbreeding, as indicated by F(IS) = 0.108 and 0.167 respectively. Substantial between-population differentiation results largely from differentiation between regions. Isolation by distance operates over limited geographic ranges, up to 50 km. In A. fontanum subsp. fontanum, the major geographical differentiation between Valencia and the rest of the taxon range probably represents an ancient range fragmentation. A less pronounced differentiation divides populations in the SW from those in the NE of the range, with evidence for a biogeographic link between the eastern Pyrenees and southeastern France. High diversity in the Pyrenees may either represent ancient population differentiation, or a suture zone. In A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens, populations on Majorca exhibit a subset of the genetic diversity present in Valencia, although the two regions are strongly differentiated by differing allele frequencies. Dispersal from the mainland may have founded Majorcan populations, although a role for in situ island survival cannot be excluded.

  13. Assessing the Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Composting of Livestock Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Krause, Denis O.; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle

  14. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wóycicki

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10 and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth

  15. Sixteenth to eightteenth century depictions of cole crops (Brassica oleracea L.), turnip (B. rapa L. cultivar group Vegetable turnip) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in Flandres and the present-day Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Cole and neep crops are old crops in the Low Countries. The first archival records date from the 14th century. The crops have been described in herbals of the 16th and 17th century. During the 16th to 18th century they have also been depicted on paintings. In a herbal of 1554 by Dodonaeus white, red

  16. QTL analysis using SNP markers developed by next-generation sequencing for identification of candidate genes controlling 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate contents in roots of radish, Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhongwei; Ishida, Masahiko; Li, Feng; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Sho; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    SNP markers for QTL analysis of 4-MTB-GSL contents in radish roots were developed by determining nucleotide sequences of bulked PCR products using a next-generation sequencer. DNA fragments were amplified from two radish lines by multiplex PCR with six primer pairs, and those amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were mixed and sequenced. By assembling sequence data, 1,953 SNPs in 750 DNA fragments, 437 of which have been previously mapped in a linkage map, were identified. A linkage map of nine linkage groups was constructed with 188 markers, and five QTLs were detected in two F(2) populations, three of them accounting for more than 50% of the total phenotypic variance being repeatedly detected. In the identified QTL regions, nine SNP markers were newly produced. By synteny analysis of the QTLs regions with Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa genome sequences, three candidate genes were selected, i.e., RsMAM3 for production of aliphatic glucosinolates linked to GSL-QTL-4, RsIPMDH1 for leucine biosynthesis showing strong co-expression with glucosinolate biosynthesis genes linked to GSL-QTL-2, and RsBCAT4 for branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase linked to GSL-QTL-1. Nucleotide sequences and expression of these genes suggested their possible function in 4MTB-GSL biosynthesis in radish roots.

  17. A high-resolution linkage map of the Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) produced by a combination of bulked segregant analysis and RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Pyo; Cho, Youngcho; Kim, Sunggil

    2014-10-01

    We utilized a combination of BSA and RNA-Seq to identify SNPs linked to the Rfd1 locus, a restorer-of-fertility gene in radish. A high-density linkage map was constructed using this approach. Male fertility of cytoplasmic male sterility conditioned by the Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility cytoplasm can be restored by a restorer-of-fertility locus, Rfd1, in radish. To construct a high-density linkage map and to identify a candidate gene for the Rfd1 locus, bulked segregant analysis and RNA-seq approaches were combined. A total of 26 and 28 million reads produced from male-fertile and male-sterile bulked RNA were mapped to the radish reference unigenes. After stringent screening of SNPs, 327 reliable SNPs of 109 unigenes were selected. Arabidopsis homologs for 101 of the 109 genes were clustered around the 4,000 kb region of Arabidopsis chromosome 3, which was syntenic to the Rfd1 flanking region. Since the reference unigene set was incomplete, the contigs were de novo assembled to identify 134 contigs harboring SNPs. Most of SNP-containing contigs were also clustered on the same syntenic region in Arabidopsis chromosome. A total of 21 molecular markers positioned within a 2.1 cM interval including the Rfd1 locus were developed, based on the selected unigenes and contigs. A segregating population consisting of 10,459 individuals was analyzed to identify recombinants containing crossovers within this interval. A total of 284 identified recombinants were then used to construct a high-density map, which delimited the Rfd1 locus into an 83-kb syntenic interval of Arabidopsis chromosome 3. Since no candidate gene, such as a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR)-coding gene, was found in this interval, 231 unigenes and 491 contigs containing putative PPR motifs were analyzed further, but no PPR gene in linkage disequilibrium with the Rfd1 locus could be found.

  18. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line 'WA' and its maintainer line 'WB' by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops.

  19. Evaluación del potencial de los biosólidos procedentes del tratamiento de aguas residuales para uso agrícola y su efecto sobre el cultivo de rabano rojo (raphanus sativus l.).

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Pisco, Ramiro; Pérez Arenas, Martha Inés

    2011-01-01

    El trabajo se adelantó en predios de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales “El Salitre”, en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el propósito de evaluar el potencial del subproducto del tratamiento de aguas residuales “biosólido”, para su aplicación en la agricultura por medio de la valoración del crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano rojo, y establecer una posible alternativa al problema de disposición final de 3900 toneladas de este material generado mensualmente en las plan...

  20. Review of Mycobacteriumavium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen candidates with diagnostic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a slow growing bacterium that can infect ruminants and remain latent for years without development of any clinical signs or disease. Diagnosis is often based on detection of MAP antibodies in milk or serum samples or culture of bacteria from...... faeces; however, these diagnostic tools are often not applicable until years after infection. Detection of MAP specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses can serve as an alternative and be implemented in a diagnostic tool. CMI responses can be measured at an early stage of infection, prior...

  1. Triterpenes from the flowers of Gochnatia polymorpha subsp. floccosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana B. Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical study of the flowers of Gochnatia polymorpha subsp. floccosa, Asteraceae, yielded eleven known triterpenes identified as lupeol, lupeyl acetate, lupeyl palmitate, taraxasterol, taraxasteryl acetate, pseudotaraxasterol, pseudotaraxasterol acetate, α-amyrin, α-amyryl palmitate, β-amyrin and β-amyryl palmitate, along with sitosterol, stigmasterol, palmitic and stearic acids. These compounds are been reported for the first time in the species. The compounds were identified by analysis of NMR spectra (¹H, 13C and DEPT, GC-MS and comparison with literature data. Previous work have reported the isolation of triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, coumarins and phenolic compounds from aerial parts and roots from G. polymorpha.

  2. Triterpenes from the flowers of Gochnatia polymorpha subsp. floccosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana B. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical study of the flowers of Gochnatia polymorpha subsp. floccosa, Asteraceae, yielded eleven known triterpenes identified as lupeol, lupeyl acetate, lupeyl palmitate, taraxasterol, taraxasteryl acetate, pseudotaraxasterol, pseudotaraxasterol acetate, α-amyrin, α-amyryl palmitate, β-amyrin and β-amyryl palmitate, along with sitosterol, stigmasterol, palmitic and stearic acids. These compounds are been reported for the first time in the species. The compounds were identified by analysis of NMR spectra (¹H, 13C and DEPT, GC-MS and comparison with literature data. Previous work have reported the isolation of triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, coumarins and phenolic compounds from aerial parts and roots from G. polymorpha.

  3. Micromorphology of the halophyte Juncus gerardii Loisel. subsp. gerardii (Juncaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Futorna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that anatomical structure of vegetative organs of the halophyte Juncus gerardiisubsp. gerardiicombines xeromorphic and halomophic features. Such features as parenchyma lining, good development of bulliform cells, and weak development of mechanical tissue are typically halomophic. However, plants also have features considered as xeromorphic: e.g. smaller cells of the tissues, the high length of the cells in palisade mesophyll (in the leaves, and length of the cells in chlorenchyma (in the stem. The seeds of J. gerardii subsp. gerardiihave not special morphological or anatomical adaptations to germination at the high level of salinity.

  4. Subspeciation of Bifidobacterium longum by multilocus approaches and amplified fragment length polymorphism: Description of B. longum subsp. suillum subsp. nov., isolated from the faeces of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanokura, Emiko; Oki, Kaihei; Makino, Hiroshi; Modesto, Monica; Pot, Bruno; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno; Watanabe, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    The species Bifidobacterium longum is currently divided into three subspecies, B. longum subsp. longum, B. longum subsp. infantis and B. longum subsp. suis. This classification was based on an assessment of accumulated information on the species' phenotypic and genotypic features. The three subspecies of B. longum were investigated using genotypic identification [amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)]. By using the AFLP and the MLSA methods, we allocated 25 strains of B. longum into three major clusters corresponding to the three subspecies; the cluster comprising the strains of B. longum subsp. suis was further divided into two subclusters differentiable by the ability to produce urease. By using the MLST method, the 25 strains of B. longum were divided into eight groups: four major groups corresponding to the results obtained by AFLP and MLSA, plus four minor disparate groups. The results of AFLP, MLSA and MLST analyses were consistent and revealed a novel subspeciation of B. longum, which comprised three known subspecies and a novel subspecies of urease-negative B. longum, for which the name B. longum subsp. suillum subsp. nov. is proposed, with type strain Su 851(T)=DSM 28597(T)=JCM 19995(T). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. In Vitro Antioxidant and In Vivo Hepatoprotective Activity of Leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Raphanus sativus is reported to have a variety of biological activities. This work screened the hepato-protective and antioxidant activity of ethanol (ERS), and aqueous (ARS), extracts of leaves of Raphanus sativus in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), model in rats. Material and Methods: The extracts were subjected ...

  6. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efeito alelopático de folhas de bamburral [Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit.] sobre a germinação de sementes de sorgo (Sorghum vulgare Pers., rabanete (Raphanus sativus L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. Allelopathic effects of leaves of "bamburral" [Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit.] on the germination of seeds of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers. , radish (Raphanus sativus L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi à verificação do efeito alelopático de Hyptis. suaveolens na germinação de sorgo, alface e rabanete, bem como, a comprovação da existência de compostos com potencial alelopático. Sementes de sorgo, alface e rabanete foram semeadas em substrato constituído de areia, terra e adubo orgânico contendo folhas de H. suaveolens. As análises da germinação foram feitas considerando a protrusão da radícula para o término do evento germinativo. Foi calculado o IVG (índice de velocidade de germinação e %G (porcentagem de germinação. Os resultados mostraram que sorgo e a alface foram mais susceptíveis ao potencial alelopático de H. suaveolens, sendo que para o rabanete foi observado um efeito benéfico. Entre os tratamentos, o substrato esterilizado e não esterilizado mostraram diferenças entre si. A análise cromatográfica do óleo essencial presente nas folhas de H. suaveolens revelou a presença de compostos com potencial alelopático. Portanto, H. suaveolens, pode apresentar efeito alelopático positivo no IVG de sementes de rabanete e a presença de microorganismos pode ser necessária para que esse efeito alelopático aconteça.The aim of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of H. suaveolens on the germination of sorghum, lettuce and radish, as well as to prove the existence of compounds with allelopathic potential. Seeds of sorghum, lettuce and radish were sown in substrate consisting of sand, soil and organic fertilizer containing leaves of H. suaveolens. The germination tests were performed considering the protrusion of the radicle for the conclusion of the germinative event. GSI (germination speed index and G% (percentage of germination were calculated. The results showed that sorghum and lettuce were more susceptible to the allelopathic potential of H. suaveolens, while for radishes a beneficial effect was observed. Between treatments, the sterilized and unsterilized substrate showed differences. The chromatographic analysis of essential oil present in the leaves of H. suaveolens revealed the presence of compounds with allelopathic potential. Therefore, H. suaveolens may have positive allelopathic effect on the GSI of radish seeds, and the presence of microorganisms may be necessary for such an allelopathic effect to occur.

  8. Identification of safranal as the main allelochemical from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, Hossein; Sekine, Takayuki; Azizi, Majid; Mishyna, Maryia; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Dried parts of 75 medicinal plant species collected from different regions in Iran were assayed by the Dish Pack Method for volatile allelopathic activity, using Lactuca sativa (lettuce) as the test plant. The highest (60%) inhibition was observed for saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus), followed by Dracocephalum kotschyi, Solanum nigrum and Artemisia aucheri. Safranal was identified as the main chemical by Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS- GC-MS) analyses of saffron. Moreover, the EC50 of safranal was evaluated as 1.2 μg/L (ppb). This is the first report on allelopathic activity of safranal as a bioactive compound identified from saffron.

  9. Pengaruh Ekstrak Nenas (Ananas Sativus) Sebagai Koagulan Terhadap Kualitas Lembaran Karet

    OpenAIRE

    Hulu, Temali

    2013-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas sativus) extract kept for 1 day (N-5), 3 days (N-4), 5 days (N-3), 7 days (N-2), and 9 days (N-1) as coagulant of natural rubber have been carried out. Coagulation rate of each coagulant has been tested and they have been compared to formic acid. The impurity, ash, nitrogen, and organic volatile content, as well as retention plasticity index and Mooney viscosity of the rubber sheets produced have been analysed follow the Standard Indonesia Rubber (SIR). Those results were c...

  10. Functional characterization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Clade V MLO genes

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Jeroen A.; Appiano, Michela; Bijsterbosch, Gerard; Visser, Richard G.F.; Schouten, Henk J.; Bai, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    Background Powdery mildew (PM) causing fungi are well-known pathogens, infecting over 10.000 plant species, including the economically important crop cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Loss-of-function mutations in clade V MLO genes have previously been shown to lead to recessively inherited broad-spectrum resistance to PM in several species. In cucumber, one clade V MLO homolog (CsaMLO8) was previously identified as being a susceptibility factor to PM. Two other closely related homologs (CsaMLO1...

  11. Safety Assessment of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of 6 Cucumis sativus (cucumber)-derived ingredients and found them safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. These ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents. Cucumber is a commonly consumed food with no history of significant adverse effects, suggesting that its ingredients should not pose any major safety issues following oral exposure. This assessment focused on the dermal exposure to the low concentrations of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Some of the constituents of cucumbers have been assessed previously for safe use as cosmetic ingredients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Capsular exopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Falentin, Hélène; Dols-Lafargue, Marguerite; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2008-07-31

    In the dairy industry, exopolysaccharides (EPS) contribute to improving the texture and viscosity of cheese and yoghurt and also receive increasing attention because of their beneficial properties for health. For lactic acid bacteria, the production of EPS is well studied. However, for dairy propionibacteria the biosynthesis of EPS is poorly documented. A polysaccharide synthase-encoding gene was identified in the genome of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii TL 34 (CIP 103027). This gene best aligns with Tts, the polysaccharide synthase gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 37 that is responsible for the production of a beta-glucan capsular polysaccharide. PCR amplification showed the presence of an internal fragment of this gene in twelve strains of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii with a ropy phenotype in YEL+ medium. The gene sequence is highly conserved, as less than 1% of nucleotides differed among the 10 strains containing the complete gtf gene. The same primers failed to detect the gene in Propionibacterium acidipropionici strain TL 47, which is known to excrete exopolysaccharides in milk. The presence of (1-->3, 1-->2)-beta-d-glucan capsule was demonstrated for 7 out of 12 strains by agglutination with a S. pneumoniae-type 37-specific antiserum. The presence of mRNA corresponding to the gene was detected by RT-PCR in three strains at both exponential and stationary growth phases. This work represents the first identification of a polysaccharide synthase gene of P. freudenreichii, and further studies will be undertaken to elucidate the role of capsular EPS.

  13. Análisis comparativo del cariotipo en poblaciones de Alstroemeria ligtu subsp. ligtu y A. ligtu subsp. simsii (Alstroemeriaceae de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Baeza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de América del Sur. En Chile, este género se distribuye desde el extremo norte hasta la Patagonia, y la mayor diversidad de especies se encuentra en la zona central. Precisamente en esta zona crece Alstroemeria ligtu con sus 3 subespecies: A. ligtu subsp. ligtu, A. ligtu subsp. incarnata, A. ligtu subsp. simsii. Se realizó un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de individuos provenientes de 5 poblaciones de A. ligtu subsp. ligtu de la VIII Región, y de una población de A. ligtu subsp. simsii de la V Región, mediante tinción de los cromosomas con DAPI u orceína acética. Las seis poblaciones estudiadas presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n=2x=16 cromosomas. Las poblaciones de A. ligtu subsp. ligtu presentaron una fórmula haploide conformada por cuatro cromosomas metacéntricos (los pares 1 y 2 con microsatélites, uno submetacéntrico con microsatélite y tres telocéntricos con microsatélites. La población de A. ligtu subsp. simsii se caracterizó por poseer cinco cromosomas metacéntricos (el par 2 con un microsatélite y el par 6 con una constricción secundaria y tres cromosomas telocéntricos con satélite. Estos resultados indican que el cariotipo en A. ligtu es variable, y es probable que cambios a nivel cromosómico hayan contribuido en la diversificación de esta especie.

  14. Proposal to reclassify Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand and Schroth 1967) Hauben et al. 1999 into a new genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov., descriptions of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina comb. nov., Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov., emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov., and emendation of the description of Dickeya dadantii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Denman, Sandra; Venter, Stephanus N; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial isolates from oak trees in Spain and Britain, showing symptoms of bark canker and Acute Oak Decline (AOD), respectively, were examined by a polyphasic approach. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD genes, revealed that the isolates were separated into two genetic groups according to their origin. Their closest phylogenetic relative was Brenneria quercina, the causal agent of drippy nut disease of oak, which clustered distant to the other species of the genus Brenneria. MLSA data for species of the genera Brenneria, Pectobacterium, Dickeya, Erwinia, Pantoea and Samsonia confirmed the polyphyletic nature of the genus Brenneria and indicated synonymy of Dickeya dadantii and Dickeya dieffenbachiae. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed this synonymy and also revealed DNA-DNA relatedness values of 58-73% between the new oak isolates and B. quercina. Phenotypic and/or chemotaxonomic methods allowed B. quercina and the two genetic groups of new oak isolates to be discriminated from other recognized species of the genus Brenneria and from members of the closely related genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Samsonia. Based on the data obtained, the following taxonomic proposals are made: (1) reclassification of B. quercina as the type species of a novel genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)=CCUG 48867(T)=CFBP 3617(T)=CIP 105201(T)=DSM 4561(T)=ICMP 1845(T)), (2) classification of the oak isolates as Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG26264(T)=NCPPB 4490(T)) and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 26267(T)=NCPPB 4481(T)) and leading to the automatic creation of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)), (3) emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, and (4) reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as

  15. The Karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta Ehr. Bayer subsp. chrysantha (Alstroemeriaceae Karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta Ehr. Bayer subsp. chrysantha (Alstroemeriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Baeza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer from Chile was examined. The species has 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, with 4m + 4sm + 2st-sat + 4t + 2t-sat. The reported karyotype is very asymmetrical (AsK % = 71.4 and Syi = 40.0%. This karyotype is similar to that published previously for Alstroemeria graminea Phil.Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer (Alstroemeriaceae fue examinada citológicamente. Esta especie presenta un número cromosómico somático de 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, con una fórmula haploide constituida por 4m + 4sm + 2st-sat + 4t + 2t-sat cromosomas. El cariotipo es muy asimétrico, con valores de AsK % = 71,4 y Syi = 40,0%. Estos resultados se compararon con los de Alstroemeria graminea Phil., especie que presenta un cariotipo muy similar.

  16. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  17. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  18. Screening of Cucumis sativus as a new arsenic-accumulating plant and its arsenic accumulation in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Choi, Sun Ah; Yoon, Hyeon; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Phytoextraction is a remediation technology with a promising application for removing arsenic (As) from soils and waters. Several plant species were evaluated for their As accumulation capacity in hydroponic culture amended with As. Cucumis sativus (cucumber) displayed the highest tolerance against As among 4 plants tested in this study (corn, wheat, sorghum and cucumber). The germination ratio of Cucumis sativus was more than 50% at the high concentration of 5,000 mg-As/l. In Cucumis sativus grown in a solution contaminated with 25 mg-As/l, the accumulated As concentrations in the shoot and root were 675.5 ± 11.5 and 312.0 ± 163.4 mg/kg, respectively, and the corresponding values of the translocation and bioaccumulation factors for As were 1.9 ± 0.9 and 21.1 ± 8.4, respectively. These results indicate Cucumis sativus is to be a candidate plant for phytoextraction of As from soils and water.

  19. Identification and possible role of a MYB transcription factor from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Gómez, Maria Dolores; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2012-03-15

    The MYB family is the most abundant group of transcription factors described for plants. Plant MYB genes have been shown to be involved in the regulation of many aspects of plant development. No MYB genes are described for saffron, the dried stigma of Crocus sativus, utilized as a colorant for foodstuffs. In this study, we used RACE-PCR to isolate a full length cDNA of 894bp with a 591bp open reading frame, encoding a putative CsMYB1 from C. sativus. Comparison between gDNA and cDNA revealed no introns. Homology studies indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence is similar to members of the R2R3 MYB subfamily. Expression analysis showed the presence of high transcript levels in stigma tissue and low levels in tepals, whereas no signal was detected in either anthers or leaves. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that CsMYB1 expression is developmentally regulated during stigma development. Furthermore, expression analysis in stigmas from different Crocus species showed a correlation with stigma morphology. No transcripts were found in stigma tissues of Crocus species characterized by branched stigma morphology. Taken together, these results suggest that CsMYB1 may be involved in the regulation of stigma morphology in Crocus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical Applications of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and its Constituents: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, M; Vahabzadeh, M; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-06-01

    Commonly known as saffron, Crocus sativus L and its active components have shown several useful pharmacological effects such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, radical scavenger effects, learning and memory improving effects, etc. There has been an increasing body of data on saffron use in medical databases within the last 20 years. In the current review, the strengths and weaknesses of some of the clinical trials about different pharmacological effects of saffron will be discussed C. sativus extract has been studied in 8 anti-depressant clinical trials in comparison to placebo or some antidepressant drugs, in which saffron showed effectiveness as an antidepressant drug. Clinical trials on anti-Alzheimer effect of saffron demonstrated that it was more effective than the placebo, and as effective as donepezil. 2 clinical trials on antipruritic and complexion promoter in skin care effects of saffron both confirmed that saffron was more efficient than the placebo. In another clinical trial, it was proved that in addition to the weight loss treatment, saffron could reduce snacking frequency. Clinical trials conducted on women with premenstrual syndrome showed that saffron could reduce suffering symptoms more than the placebo and similar to standard treatments.Furthermore, additional clinical trials on effects of saffron on erection dysfunction, allergies, cardiovascular and immune system as well as its safety, toxicity and human pharmacokinetics are reviewed herein. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Quality traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L. produced in the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Annamaria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is a perennial herbaceous geophyte in the Iridaceae family. It propagates vegetatively by corm. All saffron production processes are generally conducted by hand: from bulb implantation, harvesting of flowers to stigma separation. Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world because of the intensive hand labour required for production. The increasing interest in Crocus sativus cultivation and production in the Italian Alpine area could increase revenues for the rural farming economy. Twenty eight dried saffron samples were collected from different farmers of the Italian Alpine area (Lombardia, Trentino Alto Adige, Piemonte and Veneto between November 2015 and March 2016. Each sample was processed to determine their moisture content and amount of picrocrocin, crocins and safranal using the methods established by the International Organization for Standardization for saffron (ISO 3632 1,2:2010-2011. Over 82.1 % of the samples analyzed were ranked in the highest quality category of the ISO 3632. A high quality saffron product can be produced in the Italian Alpine area suggesting that this crop could serve as a sustainable source of economic revenues to diversified farms in the Alps.

  2. Identification of Crocus sativus and its Adulterants from Chinese Markets by using DNA Barcoding Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Juan; Li, Fei-Fei; Liu, Yu-Jing; Long, Chun-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a common but very expensive herbal medicine. As an important traditional medicine, it has an outstanding effect in treating irregular and painful menstruation. Recently, the over-demand tendency of saffron results in an unusual phenomenon in the medicinal markets. Adulterants and saffron-like substitutes are intentionally mixed into medicinal markets and pharmacies or online stores, affecting drug safety and food quality. Our study aimed to identify saffron from its adulterants via DNA barcoding. Samples (13 saffron + 4 others containing Carthamus tinctorius or Chrysanthemum x morifolium) obtained from 12 different provinces of China. Through DNA barcoding, samples were compared using three candidate markers, trnH-psbA, rbcL-a and ITS2. trnH-psbA and rbcL-a were capable of distinguishing different accessions. ITS2 could identify samples even at intra-specific level. According to these three barcodes, four samples were identified saffron-like substitutes. The adulterant rate in Chinese markets reaches as high as 33.33% that may cause health risks and further may reduce saffron efficacy once is being used as herbal remedy. In order to make a distinction between C. sativus with other genera as adulterants, DNA barcoding is suggested.

  3. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the MLO gene family in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S J; Jing, Z; Shi, J L

    2013-12-11

    Mildew resistance locus o (MLO) is a plant-specific seven-transmembrane (TM) gene family. Several studies have revealed that certain members of the MLO gene family mediate powdery mildew susceptibility in three plant species, namely, Arabidopsis, barley, and tomato. The sequenced cucumber genome provides an opportunity to conduct a comprehensive overview of the MLO gene family. Fourteen genes (designated CsMLO01 through CsMLO14) have been identified within the Cucumis sativus genome by using an in silico cloning method with the MLO amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice as probes. Sequence alignment revealed that numerous features of the gene family, such as TMs, a calmodulin-binding domain, peptide domains I and II, and 30 important amino acid residues for MLO function, are well conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the MLO genes from cucumber and other plant species reveals seven different clades (I through VII). Three of these clades comprised MLO genes from A. thaliana, rice, maize, and cucumber, suggesting that these genes may have evolved after the divergence of monocots and dicots. In silico mapping showed that these CsMLOs were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 without any obvious clustering, except CsMLO01. To our knowledge, this paper is the first comprehensive report on MLO genes in C. sativus. These findings will facilitate the functional characterization of the MLOs related to powdery mildew susceptibility and assist in the development of disease resistance in cucumber.

  4. Purulent pericarditis and pneumonia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Jürgen; Schmitz, Roland; van der Linden, Mark; Nührenberg, Thomas; Häcker, Georg; Neumann, Franz-Josef

    2014-02-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a life-threatening disease that usually manifests following bacteraemia or through spreading from an intrathoracic focus. Only a few cases of this disease have been reported with Lancefield group C streptococci as aetiological agents, and the primary focus in these infections remains unknown. We report a case of purulent pericarditis with septic and cardiogenic shock, caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (group C) in a 51-year-old patient. The pathogen was possibly contracted through contact with horses. Most probably, it caused initially pneumonia before spreading to the pericardium, either directly or via the bloodstream. A combined therapeutic approach, consisting of antibiotic therapy and repeated pericardial drainage, was necessary to ensure a clinical cure. After discharge, long-term follow-up for development of constrictive pericarditis is considered mandatory.

  5. The cellodextrinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa consists of multiple functional domains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferreira, L M; Hazlewood, G P; Barker, P J; Gilbert, H J

    1991-01-01

    A genomic library of Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa DNA was constructed in pUC18 and Escherichia coli recombinants expressing 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-cellobioside-hydrolysing activity (MUCase) were isolated...

  6. Comparative Genomics of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Reveals a Strict Monophyletic Bifidobacterial Taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Bottacini, Francesca; Strati, Francesco; Arioli, Stefania; Foroni, Elena; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are extensively exploited by the food industry as health-promoting bacteria, although the genetic variability of members belonging to this taxon has so far not received much scientific attention. In this article, we describe the complete genetic makeup of the B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl12 genome and discuss the genetic relatedness of this strain with other sequenced strains belonging to this taxon. Moreover, a detailed comparative genomic analysis of B. animalis subsp. lactis genomes was performed, which revealed a closely related and isogenic nature of all currently available B. animalis subsp. lactis strains, thus strongly suggesting a closed pan-genome structure of this bacterial group. PMID:23645200

  7. Composition and potency characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis purified protein derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) purified protein derivatives (PPDs) are immunologic reagents prepared from cultured filtrates of the type strain ATCC 19698. Traditional production consists of floating culture incubation at 37oC, organism inactivation by autoclaving, coarse filtrat...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae?subsp.?pneumoniae ATCC 9621

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlein, Anja; Najdenski, Hristo; Simeonova, Diliana D

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the 5.561-Mbp assembled draft genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae?subsp.?pneumoniae ATCC 9621, a phosphite- and organophosphonate-assimilating Gammaproteobacterium. The genome harbors 5,179 predicted protein-coding genes.

  9. Klebsiella alba is a later heterotypic synonym of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Yan; Zhou, Yuan Liang; Ji, Jing; Gu, Chun Tao

    2016-06-01

    The taxonomic position of Klebsiella alba was re-examined. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree based on multilocus sequence analysis showed that Klebsiella alba LMG 24441T (=KCTC 12878T) was closely related to Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae 07A044T, showing 99.5-100 % similarities for fusA, gapA, gyrA, leuS, pyrG, rpoB, rpoB2, atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and concatenated partial fusA, gapA, gyrA, leuS, pyrG, rpoB2, atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences. High sequence similarities between Klebsiella alba LMG 24441T and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae 07A044T indicated that they have the same taxonomic position. Klebsiellaalba was reclassified as Klebsiellaquasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae and Klebsiella alba is a later heterotypic synonym of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae.

  10. Colorectal neoplasm in cases of Clostridium septicum and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus bacteraemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corredoira, J.; Grau, I.; Garcia-Rodriguez, J.F.; Garcia-Pais, M.J.; Rabunal, R.; Ardanuy, C.; Garcia-Garrote, F.; Coira, A.; Alonso, M.P.; Boleij, A.; Pallares, R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteremia with Clostridium septicum (CS) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (SGG) have both been associated with colorectal neoplasms (CRN) and colonoscopic examination is advised, however the differences and similarities in colorectal findings are not well known.

  11. Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd

    OpenAIRE

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Several plants traditionally used in treatment of a variety of infections in South Africa are reported in ethnobotanical surveys. Many of these plants including Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata lack scientific reports to support their medicinal importance. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the stems of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. The total phenol, tot...

  12. Decreased Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to Mosquito Larvae after Contact with Leaf Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphane; Després, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, a 60% decrease in the amount of Cyt toxin detectable by immunology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]) was observed, while the respective proportions of Cry toxins were not affected. The toxicity of Cry toxins toward Aedes aegypti larvae was not affected by leaf litter, while the synergistic effect of Cyt toxins on all B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins was decreased by about 20% when mixed with leaf litter. The toxicity of two commercial B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains (VectoBac WG and VectoBac 12AS) and a laboratory-produced B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain decreased by about 70% when mixed with leaf litter. Taken together, these results suggest that Cyt toxins interact with leaf litter, resulting in a decreased toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in litter-rich environments and thereby dramatically reducing the efficiency of mosquitocidal treatments. PMID:22610426

  13. Adaptation and Response of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis to Bile: a Proteomic and Physiological Approach▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Borja; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Anglade, Patricia; Baraige, Fabienne; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Johansen, Eric; Zagorec, Monique; Margolles, Abelardo

    2007-01-01

    Bile salts are natural detergents that facilitate the digestion and absorption of the hydrophobic components of the diet. However, their amphiphilic nature makes them very inhibitory for bacteria and strongly influences bacterial survival in the gastrointestinal tract. Adaptation to and tolerance of bile stress is therefore crucial for the persistence of bacteria in the human colonic niche. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, a probiotic bacterium with documented health benefits, is applied largely in fermented dairy products. In this study, the effect of bile salts on proteomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA 4549 and its bile-resistant derivative B. animalis subsp. lactis 4549dOx was analyzed, leading to the identification of proteins which may represent the targets of bile salt response and adaptation in B. animalis subsp. lactis. The comparison of the wild-type and the bile-resistant strain responses allowed us to hypothesize about the resistance mechanisms acquired by the derivative resistant strain and about the bile salt response in B. animalis subsp. lactis. In addition, significant differences in the levels of metabolic end products of the bifid shunt and in the redox status of the cells were also detected, which correlate with some differences observed between the proteomes. These results indicate that adaptation and response to bile in B. animalis subsp. lactis involve several physiological mechanisms that are jointly dedicated to reduce the deleterious impact of bile on the cell's physiology. PMID:17827318

  14. Adaptation and response of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis to bile: a proteomic and physiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Borja; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Anglade, Patricia; Baraige, Fabienne; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Johansen, Eric; Zagorec, Monique; Margolles, Abelardo

    2007-11-01

    Bile salts are natural detergents that facilitate the digestion and absorption of the hydrophobic components of the diet. However, their amphiphilic nature makes them very inhibitory for bacteria and strongly influences bacterial survival in the gastrointestinal tract. Adaptation to and tolerance of bile stress is therefore crucial for the persistence of bacteria in the human colonic niche. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, a probiotic bacterium with documented health benefits, is applied largely in fermented dairy products. In this study, the effect of bile salts on proteomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA 4549 and its bile-resistant derivative B. animalis subsp. lactis 4549dOx was analyzed, leading to the identification of proteins which may represent the targets of bile salt response and adaptation in B. animalis subsp. lactis. The comparison of the wild-type and the bile-resistant strain responses allowed us to hypothesize about the resistance mechanisms acquired by the derivative resistant strain and about the bile salt response in B. animalis subsp. lactis. In addition, significant differences in the levels of metabolic end products of the bifid shunt and in the redox status of the cells were also detected, which correlate with some differences observed between the proteomes. These results indicate that adaptation and response to bile in B. animalis subsp. lactis involve several physiological mechanisms that are jointly dedicated to reduce the deleterious impact of bile on the cell's physiology.

  15. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria

    2016-03-17

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791). Copyright © 2016 Yao et al.

  16. Altered Toll-Like Receptor 9 Signaling in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Infected Bovine Monocytes Reveals Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Ryan J.; Li, Yue; Maattanen, Pekka; Scruten, Erin; Doig, Kimberley; Potter, Andrew; Griebel, Philip; Kusalik, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle. The complex, multifaceted interaction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with its host includes dampening the ability of infected cells to respond to stimuli that promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. By disrupting host defenses, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis creates an intracellular environment that favors the establishment and maintenance of infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors that initiate innate immune responses to microbial challenge and are also immunotherapeutic targets. For example, TLR9 contributes to host defense against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and its agonists (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides [ODNs]) are under investigation for treatment of Johne's disease and other infections. Here we demonstrate that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection changes the responsiveness of bovine monocytes to TLR9 stimulation. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis inhibits classical TLR9-mediated responses despite a 10-fold increase in TLR9 expression and maintained uptake of CpG ODNs. Other TLR9-mediated responses, such as oxidative burst, which occur through noncanonical signaling, remain functional. Kinome analysis verifies that classic TLR9 signaling is blocked by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and that signaling instead proceeds through a Pyk2-mediated mechanism. Pyk2-mediated signaling does not hinder infection, as CpG ODNs fail to promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. Indeed, Pyk2 signaling appears to be an important aspect of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, as Pyk2 inhibitors significantly reduce the number of intracellular M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria. The actions of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on TLR9 signaling may represent a strategy to generate a host environment which is better suited for infection, revealing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID

  17. Structural similarity between the lepidoptera- and diptera-specific insecticidal endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" and "israelensis".

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, L; Garduno, F; Thompson, T; Decker, D.; Zounes, M; Wild, M.; Walfield, A M; Pollock, T J

    1986-01-01

    A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" was cloned from the large plasmids of this subspecies and was shown to code for a mosquitocidal polypeptide. The gene could be expressed in either Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, or B. thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" to produce the larvicidal activity. Similarly, a Lepidoptera-specific toxin gene from B. thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" was also cloned and expressed in E. coli and B. subtilis. Both cloned genes were sequenced and ...

  18. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a preliminary study for the detection of adulterated saffron and the identification of the adulterant used by means of (1)H NMR and chemometrics is reported. Authentic Greek saffron and four typical plant-derived materials utilised as bulking agents in saffron, i.e., Crocus sativus stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia were investigated. A two-step approach, relied on the application of both OPLS-DA and O2PLS-DA models to the (1)H NMR data, was adopted to perform authentication and prediction of authentic and adulterated saffron. Taking into account the deficiency of established methodologies to detect saffron adulteration with plant adulterants, the method developed resulted reliable in assessing the type of adulteration and could be viable for dealing with extensive saffron frauds at a minimum level of 20% (w/w). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on male erectile dysfunction: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsa, Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Molaei, Mahmood; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Rajabi, Omid

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) was studied on male erectile dysfunction (ED). Twenty male patients with ED were followed for ten days in which each morning they took a tablet containing 200mg of saffron. Patients underwent the nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) test and the international index of erectile function questionnaire (IIEF-15) at the start of the treatment and at the end of the ten days. After the ten days of taking saffron there was a statistically significant improvement in tip rigidity and tip tumescence as well as base rigidity and base tumescence. ILEF-15 total scores were significantly higher in patients after saffron treatment (before treatment 22.15+/-1.44; after treatment 39.20+/-1.90, pSaffron showed a positive effect on sexual function with increased number and duration of erectile events seen in patients with ED even only after taking it for ten days.

  20. Razi’s Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi’s Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi’s Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases. PMID:26877844

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Sphingolipids Isolated from the Stems of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three antimicrobial sphingolipids were separated by bioassay-guided isolation from the chloroform fraction of the crude methanol extract of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. stems and identified as (2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxytetra-cosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (1, 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxy-tetracosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (2 and soya-cerebroside I (3 by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. They were evaluated to show antifungal and antibacterial activity on test microorganisms including four fungal and three bacterial species. Among them, compound 1, a relatively low polarity aglycone,  exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than its corresponding glycoside 2. The results indicated that sphingolipids could be the main antimicrobial compounds in the crude methanol extract of cucumber stems.

  2. In vitro variation in antibacterial activity plant extracts on Glaucium elegans and saffron (Crocus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Heidari Soureshjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in antibiotic resistance has resulted in decreasing number active antimicrobial agents available to treat infections by multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of Glaucium elegans and saffron (Crocus sativus onios plant species against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Bacillus anthracis and Proteus by disc diffusion method. The methanol extract of G. elegans was found to have a significant antibacterial efficiency (p≤0.05 as compared to the methanol extract of onios plant. These finding pinpoint the efficiency of these extracts to inhibit microbial growth. The bactericidal activity described here represents an added safety value for G. elegans possesses the significant antibacterial activity.

  3. Razi’s Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi’s Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases.

  4. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  5. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  6. Desulfovibrio oceani subsp. oceani sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Desulfovibrio oceani subsp. galateae subsp. nov., novel sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from the oxygen minimum zone off the coast of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Kai W; Kjeldsen, Kasper U

    2010-03-01

    Two deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers, designated strain I.8.1(T) and I.9.1(T), were isolated from the oxygen minimum zone water column off the coast of Peru at 400 and 500 m water depth. The strains were Gram-negative, vibrio-shaped and motile. Both strains were psychrotolerant, grew optimally at 20 degrees C at pH 7.0-8.0 and at 2.5-3.5% NaCl (w/v). The strains grew by utilizing hydrogen/acetate, C(3-4) fatty acids, amino acids and glycerol as electron acceptors for sulfate reduction. Fumarate, lactate and pyruvate supported fermentative growth. Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and taurin supported growth as electron acceptors. Both strains were catalase-positive and highly oxygen-tolerant, surviving 24 days of exposure to atmospheric concentrations. MK6 was the only respiratory quinone. The most prominent cellular fatty acid was iso-17:1-omega9c (18%) for strain I.8.1(T) and iso-17:0-omega9c (14%) for strain I.9.1(T). The G+C contents of their genomic DNA were 45-46 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and dsrAB gene sequences showed that both strains belong to the genus Desulfovibrio. Desulfovibrio acrylicus DSM 10141(T) and Desulfovibrio marinisediminis JCM 14577(T) represented their closest validly described relatives with pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence identities of 98-99%. The level of DNA-DNA hybridization between strains I.8.1(T) and I.9.1(T) was 30-38%. The two strains shared 10-26% DNA-DNA relatedness with D. acrylicus. Based on a polyphasic investigation it is proposed that strains I.8.1(T) and I.9.1(T) represent a novel species for which the name Desulfovibrio oceani sp. nov. is proposed with the two subspecies D. oceani subsp. oceani (type strain, I.8.1(T) = DSM 21390(T) = JCM 15970(T)) and D. oceani subsp. galateae (type strain, I.9.1(T) = DSM 21391(T) = JCM 15971(T)).

  7. Effects of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Rezaie, Sassan; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Baghdadi, Elham; Sharifynia, Somayeh; Aala, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. This species can contaminate a wide range of agricultural commodities, including cereals, peanuts, and crops in the field. In recent years, research on medicinal herbs, such as Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica, have led to reduced microbial growth, and these herbs also have a particular effect on the production of aflatoxins as carcinogenic compounds. Objectives In this study, we to examine P. atlantica subsp. kurdica as a natural compound used to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus and to act as an anti-mycotoxin. Materials and Methods In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of P. atlantica subsp. kurdica for A. parasiticus was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2. The rate of aflatoxin production was determined using the HPLC technique after exposure to different concentrations (62.5 - 125 mg/mL) of the gum. The changes in expression levels of the aflR gene were analyzed with a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Results The results showed that P. atlantica subsp. kurdica can inhibit A. parasiticus growth at a concentration of 125 mg/mL. HPLC results revealed a significant decrease in aflatoxin production with 125 mg/mL of P. atlantica subsp. kurdica, and AFL-B1 production was entirely inhibited. Based on quantitative real-time PCR results, the rate of aflR gene expression was significantly decreased after treatment with P. atlantica subsp. kurdica. Conclusions Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica has anti-toxic properties in addition to an inhibitory effect on A. parasiticus growth, and is able to decrease aflatoxin production effectively in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, this herbal extract maybe considered a potential anti-mycotoxin agent in medicine or industrial agriculture. PMID:27800127

  8. In vitro anti-biofilm activity of Quercus brantii subsp. persica on human pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Quercus brantii subsp. persica is used in folk medicine to treat infections in Iran. There is not available report on the anti-biofilm activity of Quercus brantii subsp.  persica. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Quercus brantii subsp. persica against bacterial biofilms. Methods: Eighty biofilm producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected. Quercus brantii subsp. persica fruits aqueous extraction (QBAE was prepared though maceration method. Chemical analysis to distinguish the main components of the QBAE was carried out using thin-layer chromatography. The antibacterial effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and broth microdilution methods. The antibiofilm effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined using a microtiter assay. Results: The Quercus brantii subsp. persica exhibited bacterial growth inhibition and bactericidal activity on the majority of the strains at concentrations between 0.2 and 1.2 mg/mL. The average of biofilm formation inhibition by Quercus brantii subsp. persica at a minimum inhibitory concentration MIC50 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus strains were 35%, 45%, 57% and 61%, respectively. coumarins, phenols, terpenes and steroids were found in the QBAE by TLC. Conclusion: The results showed that Quercus brantii subsp. persica aqueous extraction was effective against the tested microorganisms and showed anti-biofilm activity which can be a basis for future studies to investigate for new anti-biofilm drugs.

  9. Microbiota of Minas cheese as influenced by the nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Dal Bello, Barbara; Belviso, Simona; Zeppa, Giuseppe; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Cocolin, Luca; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-12-02

    Minas cheese is a popular dairy product in Brazil that is traditionally produced using raw or pasteurized cow milk. This study proposed an alternative production of Minas cheese using raw goat milk added of a nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. An in situ investigation was carried on to evaluate the interactions between the L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 and the autochthonous microbiota of a Minas cheese during the ripening; production of biogenic amines (BAs) was assessed as a safety aspect. Minas cheese was produced in two treatments (A, by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05, and B, without adding this strain), in three independent repetitions (R1, R2, and R3). Culture dependent (direct plating) and independent (rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE) methods were employed to characterize the microbiota and to assess the possible interferences caused by L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. BA amounts were measured using HPLC. A significant decrease in coagulase-positive cocci was observed in the cheeses produced by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 (cheese A). The rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE highlighted the differences in the microbiota of both cheeses, separating them into two different clusters. Lactococcus sp. was found as the main microorganism in both cheeses, and the microbiota of cheese A presented a higher number of species. High concentrations of tyramine were found in both cheeses and, at specific ripening times, the BA amounts in cheese B were significantly higher than in cheese A (pnisin producer L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 was demonstrated in situ, by demonstration of its influence in the complex microbiota naturally present in a raw goat milk cheese and by controlling the growth of coagulase-positive cocci. L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 influenced also the production of BA determining that their amounts in the cheeses were maintained at acceptable levels for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of a novel host-specific IgG protease in Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungelrath, Viktoria; Wohlsein, Jan Christian; Siebert, Ursula; Stott, Jeffrey; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Baums, Christoph G; Seele, Jana

    2017-03-01

    Streptococcus (S.) phocae subsp. phocae causes bronchopneumonia and septicemia in a variety of marine mammals. Especially in harbor seals infected with phocine distemper virus it plays an important role as an opportunistic pathogen. This study was initiated by the detection of IgG cleavage products in Western blot analysis after incubation of bacterial supernatant with harbor seal serum. Hence, the objectives of this study were the identification and characterization of a secreted IgG cleaving protease in S. phocae subsp. phocae isolated from marine mammals. To further identify the responsible factor of IgG cleavage a protease inhibitor profile was generated. Inhibition of the IgG cleaving activity by iodoacetamide and Z-LVG-CHN2 indicated that a cysteine protease is involved. Moreover, an anti-IdeS antibody directed against the IgG endopeptidase IdeS of S. pyogenes showed cross reactivity with the putative IgG protease of S. phocae subsp. phocae. The IgG cleaving factor of S. phocae subsp. phocae was identified through an inverse PCR approach and designated IdeP (Immunoglobulin G degrading enzyme of S. phocae subsp. phocae) in analogy to the cysteine protease IdeS. Notably, recombinant (r) IdeP is a host and substrate specific protease as it cleaves IgG from grey and harbor seals but not IgG from harbor porpoises or non-marine mammals. The identification of IdeP represents the first description of a protein in S. phocae subsp. phocae involved in immune evasion. Furthermore, the fact that IdeP cleaves solely IgG of certain marine mammals reflects functional adaption of S. phocae subsp. phocae to grey and harbor seals as its main hosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dose-response study of probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CRL-341 in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.N.; Nielsen, S.; Kaestel, P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to investigate the dose-response effects of supplementation with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (CRL-431) on blood lipids, recovery from feces and bowel habits. Changes of the fecal microflora was analy......Objective: This study was performed to investigate the dose-response effects of supplementation with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (CRL-431) on blood lipids, recovery from feces and bowel habits. Changes of the fecal microflora...... weeks intervention and 2 weeks wash-out. Diary reporting bowel habits and well being (abdominal bloating, flatulence and headache) was kept for all 7 weeks and blood lipids, fecal recovery of BB-12 and CRL-431, as well as fecal microflora was tested before, immediately and 2 weeks after intervention....... Results: The fecal recovery of BB-12 increased significantly (P BB-12 was recovered from 13 out of 15 volunteers. CRL-431 was not recovered in any of the fecal samples. Supplementation with probiotics did not change the fecal bacterial...

  12. Compositions of essential oils and trichomes of Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. trapezunticum Rech. fil. and subsp. syspirense (C. Koch) Rech. fil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayla; Demirci, Betül; Başer, K Hüsnü C

    2009-01-01

    Teucrium chamaedrys L. is a member of the Lamiaceae family and is represented in the Flora of Turkey by six subspecies. The aerial organs of T. chamaedrys L. subsp. trapezunticum Rech. fil. and subsp. syspirense (C. Koch) Rech. fil. bears numerous eglandular and glandular trichomes. Eglandular trichomes are simple, long-multicellular with cuticular micropapillae, and glandular hairs are of peltate and capitate types. The peltate hairs consist of a basal cell, a short unicellular stalk, and multicellular secretory head, and the capitate ones possess 1-2 stalk cells and one glandular head cell. The aerial parts were subjected to microdistillation for the isolation of volatiles. The analysis was simultaneously performed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were characterized as beta-caryophyllene (18%), nonacosane (12%), germacrene D (11%), caryophyllene oxide (7%), and alpha-pinene (7%) for subsp. trapezunticum, and caryophyllene oxide (23%), alpha-pinene (11%), and caryophyllenol II (5%) for subsp. syspirense.

  13. Allelopathic potentials of residues of 6 brassica species on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnsongrass ( Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.) is a troublesome weed species of many crops in Turkey as well as worldwide. Allelopathic potential of residues of some brassica species, which are round white radish (Raphanus sativus L.), garden radish (R. sativus L.), black radish (R. sativus L. var. niger), little radish (R.

  14. Lead accumulation in the roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): a novel plant for phytoremediation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Judicaëlle; Repellin, Anne; Varrault, Gilles; Terryn, Nancy; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine

    2008-11-01

    Eleven day-old grass pea plants (Lathyrus sativus L.) were grown hydroponically for 96 h in the presence of 0.5 mM lead nitrate (Pb(NO(3))(2)). The survival rate was 100%. The mean lead content (measured by ICP-OES) in root tissues was 153 mg Pb g(-1) dry matter. Over three quarters of the lead was not labile. Compared with control plants, lead-exposed plants showed a six-fold, two-fold and three and a half-fold reduction in their root calcium, zinc and copper contents, respectively. Together, these results suggested that Lathyrus sativus L. was tolerant to a deficiency in essential nutrients and able to store large amounts of lead in its root tissues. Therefore, it could be used for the development of new rhizofiltration systems.

  15. Flow Cytometric Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibodies in Experimentally Infected and Naturally Exposed Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, P. S.; Bulun, H.; Fischer, M.; Akineden, Ö.; Seeger, T.; Barth, S.; Henrich, M.; Doll, K.; Bülte, M.; Menge, C.; Bauerfeind, R.

    2013-01-01

    A desirable test to diagnose infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis facilitates identification of infected cattle prior to the state of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. This study aimed at adjusting a flow cytometry (FC)-based assay, using intact M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria as the antigen, for diagnosis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections in calves. Serum samples were collected from experimentally infected (n = 12) and naturally exposed (n = 32) calves. Samples from five calves from positive dams were analyzed to determine the dynamics of maternal antibodies. Samples from adult cattle with defined infection status served as the standard (18 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedders, 22 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free). After preadsorption with Mycobacterium phlei, sera were incubated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium bacterial suspensions, respectively, followed by the separate detection of bovine IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM attached to the bacterial surface. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sample/positive (S/P) ratios were compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) S/P ratios. In adult cattle, the FC assay for IgG1 had a sensitivity of 78% at a specificity of 100%. Maternally acquired antibodies could be detected in calves up to 121 days of life. While all but two sera taken at day 100 ± 10 postnatum from naturally exposed calves tested negative, elevated S/P ratios (IgG and IgG1) became detectable from 44 and 46 weeks postinoculation onwards in two calves infected experimentally. Even with the optimized FC assay, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibodies can only occasionally be detected in infected calves less than 12 months of age. The failure to detect such antibodies apparently reflects the distinct immunobiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections rather than methodological constraints. PMID:23885032

  16. Responses of vegetative and reproductive traits to elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen in Raphanus varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, L.M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between the vegetative and reproductive responses to increased CO{sub 2} and N fertilization in different varieties of Raphanus (radish) was studied to determine if an increase in nonfoliar vegetative storage capacity promotes reproductive output. Another objective was to determine if the capacity for nonfoliar carbon storage would be beneficial for reproductive output in an elevated CO{sub 2} environment. Three cultivars of radish were grown under two levels of CO{sub 2} and two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Growth conditions were discussed. The methodology included biomass allocation and growth analysis, reproductive characteristics, photosynthesis measurements, metabolite measurements, starch analysis and statistical analyses. Results showed that in the vegetative phase, there were several correlations between source leaf physiological and plant mass traits in the response to high CO{sub 2}. The reproductive response to CO{sub 2} cannot be inferred from increases in total vegetative mass. It was concluded that vegetative responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and N differed with ontogeny and with variations in the hypocotyl to shoot ratios. 55 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF WHEAT IN ASSOCIATION WITH BIOTYPES OF Raphanus raphanistrum L. RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO ALS-INHIBITOR HERBICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Oliveira da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Raphanus raphanistrum ALS herbicide-resistant in wheat crops causes crop yield losses, which makes it necessary to understand the factors that influence the interference of this weed to develop safer management strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the competitive ability of wheat in coexistence with biotypes of R. raphanistrum that are resistant (R biotype and susceptible (S biotypes to ALS herbicides and to determine whether there are differences in the competitiveness of these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments were placed in pots and arranged in replacement series for three experiments (1 - wheat with the R biotype; 2 - wheat with the S biotype; and 3 - the R biotype with the S biotype at the following ratios: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The competitiveness was analyzed through diagrams applied to replacement experiments and competitiveness indices, including the evaluation of the shoot dry matter of the plants (experiments 1, 2, and 3 and the leaf area (experiment 3. The R and S biotypes significantly decreased the shoot dry matter of the wheat cultivar and demonstrated superior competitive ability compared with the culture. The interspecific competition was more important for the wheat and for the S biotype. The competitiveness of the R biotype compared to the S biotype was similar, with synergism in the leaf area production, which indicates the predominant intraspecific competition exhibited by the R biotype.

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Its Dipteran-Specific Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Ben-Dov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six δ-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come.

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Its Dipteran-Specific Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dov, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa) and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa) polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six δ-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III) and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come. PMID:24686769

  20. Utilization of galactooligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Daniel; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Jimenez-Espinoza, Rogelio; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Block, David E.; Mills, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible substrates that stimulate the growth of beneficial microbial populations in the intestine, especially Bifidobacterium species. Among them, fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides are commonly used in the food industry, especially as a supplement for infant formulas. Mechanistic details on the enrichment of bifidobacteria by these prebiotics are important to understand the effects of these dietary interventions. In this study the consumption of galactooligosaccharides was studied for 22 isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, one of the most representative species in the infant gut microbiota. In general all isolates showed a vigorous growth on these oligosaccharides, but consumption of larger galactooligosaccharides was variable. Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697 has five genes encoding β-galactosidases, and three of them were induced during bacterial growth on commercial galactooligosaccharides. Recombinant β-galactosidases from B. infantis ATCC 15697 displayed different preferences for β-galactosides such as 4′ and 6′-galactobiose, and four β-galactosidases in this strain released monosaccharides from galactooligosaccharides. Finally, we determined the amounts of short chain fatty acids produced by strain ATCC 15697 after growth on different prebiotics. We observed that biomass and product yields of substrate were higher for lactose and galactooligosaccharides, but the amount of acids produced per cell was larger after growth on human milk oligosaccharides. These results provide a molecular basis for galactooligosaccharide consumption in B. infantis, and also represent evidence for physiological differences in the metabolism of prebiotics that might have a differential impact on the host. PMID:23200660

  1. Metabolic engineering of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii for xylose fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peilian; Lin, Meng; Wang, Zhongqiang; Fu, Hongxin; Yang, Hopen; Jiang, Wenyan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-11-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii cannot use xylose, the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic biomass. Although Propionibacterium acidipropionici can use xylose as a carbon source, it is difficult to genetically modify, impeding further improvement through metabolic engineering. This study identified three xylose catabolic pathway genes encoding for xylose isomerase (xylA), xylose transporter (xylT), and xylulokinase (xylB) in P. acidipropionici and overexpressed them in P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii via an expression plasmid pKHEM01, enabling the mutant to utilize xylose efficiently even in the presence of glucose without glucose-induced carbon catabolite repression. The mutant showed similar fermentation kinetics with glucose, xylose, and the mixture of glucose and xylose, respectively, as carbon source, and with or without the addition of antibiotic for selection pressure. The engineered P. shermanii thus can provide a novel cell factory for industrial production of propionic acid and other value-added products from lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, Takeaki; Morozumi, Miyuki; Hanada, Shigeo; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Chiba, Naoko; Iwata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We collected β-hemolytic streptococci (1,611 isolates) from patients with invasive streptococcal infections in Japan during April 2010–March 2013. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) was most common (n = 693); 99% of patients with SDSE infections were elderly (mean age 75 years, SD ±15 years). We aimed to clarify molecular and epidemiologic characteristics of SDSE isolates and features of patient infections. Bacteremia with no identified focus of origin and cellulitis were the most prevalent manifestations; otherwise, clinical manifestations resembled those of S. pyogenes infections. Clinical manifestations also differed by patient’s age. SDSE isolates were classified into 34 emm types; stG6792 was most prevalent (27.1%), followed by stG485 and stG245. Mortality rates did not differ according to emm types. Multilocus sequence typing identified 46 sequence types and 12 novel types. Types possessing macrolide- and quinolone-resistance genes were 18.4% and 2.6%, respectively; none showed β-lactam resistance. Among aging populations, invasive SDSE infections are an increasing risk. PMID:26760778

  3. Immunological response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and culture are 2 common diagnostic tests for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in Johne’s disease, but they are not as sensitive as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, inhibitors can coextract with the target DNA and cause interference in PCR. Development of an immune capture assay followed by PCR amplification can alleviate this problem. In this study, we were able to induce an immune response in chickens using heat or formalin inactivated Map. The purified immunoglobulin (Ig)Y has a molecular weight of 160 kDa. The titers were at 1:6400 and 1:12 800 at weeks 5 to 6 and 8 to 9, respectively, as determined by the IDEXX modified ELISA kit for Johne’s disease. The IgY produced from inactivated bacterial cells had no effect on its ability to recognize live Map cells as illustrated by immunofluorescence assay and immune capture PCR results. PMID:15581226

  4. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-11-01

    Crocus sativus L. (saffron), which belongs to the Iridaceae family, is widely cultivated in Iran. Cardiovascular effects of saffron has been established in some studies but the effects of chronic administration of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure has not been investigated. In this study the effects of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertensive rats, in chronic exposure was evaluated. Five weeks administration of three doses saffron aqueous extract (10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of the effect of saffron on systolic blood pressure (SBP), was also evaluated. Our results indicated that chronic administration of saffron aqueous extract could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. This compound did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of saffron did not persist. It is concluded that saffron aqueous extract possesses antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration.

  5. Epidemiology of Danish Aeromonas salmonicida subsp salmonicida in Fish Farms Using Whole Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Simona; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    Furunculosis, a serious infection caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is common in sea-reared rainbow trout production in Denmark. Developing an effective control strategy requires knowledge of the epidemiology, as well as the genomic and virulent variability of the D......Furunculosis, a serious infection caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is common in sea-reared rainbow trout production in Denmark. Developing an effective control strategy requires knowledge of the epidemiology, as well as the genomic and virulent variability...... of the Danish A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates. To obtain this, the genomes of 101 A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, including 99 Danish isolates, one Scottish strain and the type strain NCIMB 1102, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform. Isolates were de novo assembled, examined...... for presence of plasmids, virulence and iron acquisition proteins, genomic islands, and antibiotic resistance genes. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms were aligned and subjected to Bayesian temporal phylogenetic and maximum likelihood tree reconstruction using the published genome of A. salmonicida subsp...

  6. Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in Urban Environments following Spraying▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Deshpande, Alina; Hollander, Attelia; Duval, Nathan; Ticknor, Lawrence; Layshock, Julie; Gallegos-Graves, LaVerne; Omberg, Kristin M.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki is applied extensively in North America to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Since B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki shares many physical and biological properties with Bacillus anthracis, it is a reasonable surrogate for biodefense studies. A key question in biodefense is how long a biothreat agent will persist in the environment. There is some information in the literature on the persistence of Bacillus anthracis in laboratories and historical testing areas and for Bacillus thuringiensis in agricultural settings, but there is no information on the persistence of Bacillus spp. in the type of environment that would be encountered in a city or on a military installation. Since it is not feasible to release B. anthracis in a developed area, the controlled release of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki for pest control was used to gain insight into the potential persistence of Bacillus spp. in outdoor urban environments. Persistence was evaluated in two locations: Fairfax County, VA, and Seattle, WA. Environmental samples were collected from multiple matrices and evaluated for the presence of viable B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki at times ranging from less than 1 day to 4 years after spraying. Real-time PCR and culture were used for analysis. B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was found to persist in urban environments for at least 4 years. It was most frequently detected in soils and less frequently detected in wipes, grass, foliage, and water. The collective results indicate that certain species of Bacillus may persist for years following their dispersal in urban environments. PMID:21926205

  7. Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoar, B R; Chomel, B B; Rolfe, D L; Chang, C C; Fritz, C L; Sacks, B N; Carpenter, T E

    2003-01-15

    Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight into the natural history of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and to characterize the spatial distribution of the two agents. We found 11.7% of specimens positive to Y. pestis and 35.5% positive to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The two pathogens had distinct spatial clusters: Y. pestis was more prevalent in eastern portions of the state and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coastal regions. Prevalence of Y. pestis increased with increasing elevation, whereas prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii decreased with increasing elevation. There were differences in the proportions of positive animals on a yearly basis to both pathogens.

  8. Optimization of a plasmid electroporation protocol for Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Attéré, Sabrina A; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Mélanie V; Frenette, Michel; Charette, Steve J

    2014-03-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a major fish pathogen. Molecular tools are required to study the virulence and genomic stability of this bacterium. An efficient electroporation-mediated transformation protocol for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida would make genetic studies faster and easier. In the present study, we designed the 4.1-kb pSDD1 plasmid as a tool for optimizing an electroporation protocol for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We systematically tested the electroporation conditions to develop a protocol that generates the maximum number of transformants. Under these optimal conditions (25 kV/cm, 200 Ω, 25 μF), we achieved an electroporation efficiency of up to 1×10(5) CFU/μg DNA. The electroporation protocol was also tested using another plasmid of 10.6-kb and three different strains of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The strains displayed significant differences in their electro-transformation competencies. Strain 01-B526 was the easiest to electroporate, especially with the pSDD1 plasmid. This plasmid was stably maintained in the 01-B526 transformants, as were the native plasmids, but could be easily cured by removing the selection conditions. This is the first efficient electroporation protocol reported for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and offers new possibilities for studying this bacterium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synergy between toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Jiannino, Joshua A; Federici, Brian A; Walton, William E

    2004-09-01

    Synergistic interactions among the multiple endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis de Barjac play an important role in its high toxicity to mosquito larvae and the absence of insecticide resistance in populations treated with this bacterium. A lack of toxin complexity and synergism are the apparent causes of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus Neide in particular Culex field populations. To identify endotoxin combinations of the two Bacillus species that might improve insecticidal activity and manage mosquito resistance to B. sphaericus, we tested their toxins alone and in combination. Most combinations of B. sphaericus and B. t. subsp. israelensis toxins were synergistic and enhanced toxicity relative to B. sphaericus, particularly against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae resistant to B. sphaericus and Aedes aegypti (L.), a species poorly susceptible to B. sphaericus. Toxicity also improved against susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus. For example, when the CytlAa toxin from B. t. subsp. israelensis was added to Bin and Cry toxins, or when native B. t. subsp. israelensis was combined with B. sphaericus, synergism values as high as 883-fold were observed and combinations were 4-59,000-fold more active than B. sphaericus. These data, and previous studies using cytolytic toxins, validate proposed strategies for improving bacterial larvicides by combining B. sphaericus with B. t. subsp. israelensis or by engineering recombinant bacteria that express endotoxins from both strains. These combinations increase both endotoxin complexity and synergistic interactions and thereby enhance activity and help avoid insecticide resistance.

  10. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri type IV Pilus is required for twitching motility, biofilm development, and adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunger, German; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Andrade, Maxuel O; Jones, Jeffrey B; Farah, Chuck S

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial type IV pili (T4P) are long, flexible surface filaments that consist of helical polymers of mostly pilin subunits. Cycles of polymerization, attachment, and depolymerization mediate several pilus-dependent bacterial behaviors, including twitching motility, surface adhesion, pathogenicity, natural transformation, escape from immune system defense mechanisms, and biofilm formation. The Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 genome codes for a large set of genes involved in T4P biogenesis and regulation and includes several pilin homologs. We show that X. citri subsp. citri can exhibit twitching motility in a manner similar to that observed in other bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xylella fastidiosa and that this motility is abolished in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri knockout strains in the genes coding for the major pilin subunit PilAXAC3241, the ATPases PilBXAC3239 and PilTXAC2924, and the T4P biogenesis regulators PilZXAC1133 and FimXXAC2398. Microscopy analyses were performed to compare patterns of bacterial migration in the wild-type and knockout strains and we observed that the formation of mushroom-like structures in X. citri subsp. citri biofilm requires a functional T4P. Finally, infection of X. citri subsp. citri cells by the bacteriophage (ΦXacm4-11 is T4P dependent. The results of this study improve our understanding of how T4P influence Xanthomonas motility, biofilm formation, and susceptibility to phage infection.

  11. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium.

  12. Complete genomic sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS: 19 strain RM1285 isolated from packaged chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Parker (Craig); Huynh, S. (Steven); A.P. Heikema (Astrid)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPoultry products serve as the main source of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections in humans. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and are a prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome. This study describes the genome of C.

  13. Rapid and Sensitive Method To Identify Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cow's Milk by DNA Methylase Genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, Silvia Leonor; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Hoffman, Federico José

    2013-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, and incurable disease that affects ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This bacterium is shed primarily through feces of infected cows but can be also excreted in colostrum and milk and might survive pasteurization. Since an association of genomic sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease has been described; it is of interest to rapidly detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk for human consumption. IS900 insertion is used as a target for PCR amplification to identify the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biological samples. Two target sequences were selected: IS1 (155 bp) and IS2 (94 bp). These fragments have a 100% identity among all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains sequenced. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was specifically concentrated from milk samples by immunomagnetic separation prior to performing PCR. The amplicons were characterized using DNA methylase Genotyping, i.e., the amplicons were methylated with 6-methyl-adenine and digested with restriction enzymes to confirm their identity. The methylated amplicons from 100 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be visualized in a Western blot format using an anti-6-methyl-adenine monoclonal antibody. The use of DNA methyltransferase genotyping coupled to a scintillation proximity assay allows for the detection of up to 10 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml of milk. This test is rapid and sensitive and allows for automation and thus multiple samples can be tested at the same time. PMID:23275511

  14. Rapid and sensitive method to identify Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cow's milk by DNA methylase genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, Silvia Leonor; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Hoffman, Federico José; Lopez, Osvaldo Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Paratuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, and incurable disease that affects ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This bacterium is shed primarily through feces of infected cows but can be also excreted in colostrum and milk and might survive pasteurization. Since an association of genomic sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease has been described; it is of interest to rapidly detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk for human consumption. IS900 insertion is used as a target for PCR amplification to identify the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biological samples. Two target sequences were selected: IS1 (155 bp) and IS2 (94 bp). These fragments have a 100% identity among all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains sequenced. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was specifically concentrated from milk samples by immunomagnetic separation prior to performing PCR. The amplicons were characterized using DNA methylase Genotyping, i.e., the amplicons were methylated with 6-methyl-adenine and digested with restriction enzymes to confirm their identity. The methylated amplicons from 100 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be visualized in a Western blot format using an anti-6-methyl-adenine monoclonal antibody. The use of DNA methyltransferase genotyping coupled to a scintillation proximity assay allows for the detection of up to 10 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml of milk. This test is rapid and sensitive and allows for automation and thus multiple samples can be tested at the same time.

  15. Local genetic diversity of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in citrus orchards in northwest Paraná state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, is an important pathogen of citrus in Brazil and elsewhere. The genetic diversity of X. citri subsp. citri pathtype ‘A’ has not been studied in Brazil at a local scale (up to 300 km). A total of 40 isolates were collected from le...

  16. Microsatellite development for an endangered riparian inhabitant, Lilaeopsis schaffneriana subsp. recurva (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Jessica M; Lance, Stacey L; Jones, Kenneth L; Fehlberg, Shannon D

    2012-04-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure in Lilaeopsis schaffneriana subsp. recurva, an endangered species endemic to wetlands dispersed throughout southeastern Arizona, USA, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Eight loci (one of which was monomorphic) were developed and characterized in 48 individuals from two populations. The total number of alleles was 35, ranging from one to 10 per locus. Many of the primers amplified in L. carolinensis, L. chinensis, L. masonii, L. occidentalis, L. schaffneriana subsp. schaffneriana, Oxypolis fendleri, and Eryngium lemmonii. Development of these novel microsatellite loci will facilitate a deeper understanding of genetic diversity, mode of reproduction, and population structure not only in L. schaffneriana subsp. recurva, but also in apiaceous relatives.

  17. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de plantas daninhas: I - Nicandra physaloides, Solanum viarum, Solanum americanum e Raphanus raphanistrum Anatomical studies of weed leaves: I - Nicandra physaloides, Solanum viarum, Solanum americanum and Raphanus raphanistrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a anatomia das folhas das espécies de plantas daninhas Nicandra physaloides (joá-de-capote, Solanum viarum (joá-bravo, Solanum americanum (maria-pretinha e Raphanus raphanistrum (nabiça, visando obter melhor entendimento sobre as barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas. Folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região central mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e nas observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. O principal obstáculo foliar à penetração de herbicidas constatado em N. physaloides foi a alta densidade tricomática. Já em relação a S. viarum, baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial, alta densidade tricomática, presença de placas de cera epicuticular e grande espessura das cutículas foram as principais barreiras detectadas. S. americanum apresentou como principais obstáculos foliares à penetração de herbicidas a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial, sendo esta última a única barreira constatada nas folhas de R. raphanistrum.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Nicandra physaloides, Solanum viarum, Solanum americanum and Raphanus raphanistrum to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes upon herbicide penetration. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth node were collected from plants spontaneously occurring in field. Three samples, with approximately 1 cm², were taken at the central portion of the leaves in each species. These samples were used in structural studies, clarification and observation using a scanning-electron microscope (SEM. All species

  18. Culture Phenotypes of Genomically and Geographically Diverse Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates from Different Hosts▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Richard J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Saunders, Vanessa; Grant, Irene R.; Juste, Ramon; Sevilla, Iker A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Whitlock, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants in most countries. Historical data suggest substantial differences in culturability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants and cattle; however, a systematic comparison of culture media and isolates from different countries and hosts has not been undertaken. Here, 35 field isolates from the United States, Spain, Northern Ireland, and Australia were propagated in Bactec 12B medium and Middlebrook 7H10 agar, genomically characterized, and subcultured to Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), Herrold's egg yolk (HEY), modified Middlebrook 7H10, Middlebrook 7H11, and Watson-Reid (WR) agars, all with and without mycobactin J and some with sodium pyruvate. Fourteen genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were represented as determined by BstEII IS900 and IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was no correlation between genotype and overall culturability, although most S strains tended to grow poorly on HEY agar. Pyruvate was inhibitory to some isolates. All strains grew on modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar but more slowly and less prolifically on LJ agar. Mycobactin J was required for growth on all media except 7H11 agar, but growth was improved by the addition of mycobactin J to 7H11 agar. WR agar supported the growth of few isolates. The differences in growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that have historically been reported in diverse settings have been strongly influenced by the type of culture medium used. When an optimal culture medium, such as modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar, is used, very little difference between the growth phenotypes of diverse strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was observed. This optimal medium is recommended to remove bias in the isolation and cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:21430104

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis isolated from feces, water and fish in Mediterranean Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, María Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004-2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8-100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993-1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD(50) of 3.3×10(6) CFU fish(-1)) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries.

  20. Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Michael T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698, which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25°C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25°C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1–1.5 log10 increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 μg/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log10 reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log10 reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p Conclusion This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters.

  1. Characterization of free exopolysaccharides secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

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    Clothilde Bertin

    Full Text Available Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm. In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS, also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical β(1->6-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan and associated

  2. Characterization of Free Exopolysaccharides Secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Tardy, Florence; Le Grand, Dominique; Poumarat, François; Gaurivaud, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS), also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical β(1−>6)-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan) and associated with an

  3. Molecular subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R; Prieto, E; Aguas, M J; Manata, M J; Botas, J; Pereira, F Martins

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens were distributed as follows: genital ulcers (n = 9), skin and mucosal lesions (n = 7), blood (n = 82), plasma (n = 82), and ear lobe scrapings (n = 32). The samples were assayed by a PCR technique to amplify a segment of the polymerase gene I (polA). Positive samples were typed on the basis of the analysis of two variable genes, tpr and arp. Sixty-two of the 90 samples positive for polA yielded typeable Treponema pallidum DNA. All skin lesions in which T. pallidum was identified (six of six [100%]) were found to contain enough DNA for typing of the organism. It was also possible to type DNA from 7/9 (77.7%) genital ulcer samples, 13/22 (59.1%) blood samples, 20/32 (62.5%) plasma samples, and 16/21 (76.2%) ear lobe scrapings. The same subtype was identified in all samples from the same patient. Five molecular subtypes (subtypes 10a, 14a, 14c, 14f, and 14g) were identified, with the most frequently found subtype being subtype 14a and the least frequently found subtype being subtype 10a. In conclusion, the subtyping technique used in this study seems to have good reproducibility. To our knowledge, subtype 10a was identified for the first time. Further studies are needed to explain the presence of this subtype in Portugal, namely, its relationship to the Treponema pallidum strains circulating in the African countries where Portuguese is spoken.

  4. Virulence differences among Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis clades in mice.

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    Claudia R Molins

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A and holarctica (type B are of clinical importance in causing tularemia. Molecular typing methods have further separated type A strains into three genetically distinct clades, A1a, A1b and A2. Epidemiological analyses of human infections in the United States suggest that A1b infections are associated with a significantly higher mortality rate as compared to infections caused by A1a, A2 and type B. To determine if genetic differences as defined by molecular typing directly correlate with differences in virulence, A1a, A1b, A2 and type B strains were compared in C57BL/6 mice. Here we demonstrate significant differences between survival curves for infections caused by A1b versus A1a, A2 and type B, with A1b infected mice dying earlier than mice infected with A1a, A2 or type B; these results were conserved among multiple strains. Differences were also detected among type A clades as well as between type A clades and type B with respect to bacterial burdens, and gross anatomy in infected mice. Our results indicate that clades defined within F. tularensis subsp. tularensis by molecular typing methods correlate with virulence differences, with A1b strains more virulent than A1a, A2 and type B strains. These findings indicate type A strains are not equivalent with respect to virulence and have important implications for public health as well as basic research programs.

  5. Clonal Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus post breeding endometritis in thoroughbred broodmares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Söderlind, Maja; Rydemann Rudefalk, Sofia

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is one of the most commonly isolated pathogens from the uterus of mares with infectious endometritis. Its ability to cause chronic latent infection by residing deep within the endometrial tissue has previously been described. The aim of the study was to inv......Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is one of the most commonly isolated pathogens from the uterus of mares with infectious endometritis. Its ability to cause chronic latent infection by residing deep within the endometrial tissue has previously been described. The aim of the study...

  6. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Letícia C; Saraiva, Tessália D L; Soares, Siomar C

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity.......Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity....

  7. Characteristics of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strains from fresh vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Gordana R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains synthesizing extracellular polysaccharide dextran on a medium with 10% sucrose were isolated from different kind of vegetables (cabbage, cucumber, cauliflower, kohlrabi, carrot, green beans, red beet, pepper, eggplant, radish. Carbohydrate fermentation was examined using a bioMerieux API 50 CHL test system. Among micropopulations with characteristic spherical cell morphology, 94.9% belonged to Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and 5.1% were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum. According to fermentation of pentoses L. mesenteroides strains were divided into three groups with a certain number of biotypes; 10 strains were tested on acid production. .

  8. Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Plasminogen Binding Activity in the Human Gastrointestinal Microenvironment ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21821753

  9. Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis plasminogen binding activity in the human gastrointestinal microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2011-10-01

    Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Determination of antioxidant properties of Rumex crispus and Scrophularia canina subsp. bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Serhat; Bozkurt, Buket; Önür, Mustafa Ali; Kaya, İrem Gülen; Ünver Somer, Nehir

    2017-01-01

    Methanoland ethyl acetate extracts of Rumex crispus L. and Scrophularia canina L. subsp. bicolor (SM.) Greuter were tested fortheir antioxidant activity using the DPPH method. Extracts were prepared fromthe above-ground parts of these plants. Significant antioxidant activity wasdetermined for methanol (IC50: 4.16 µg/mL) and ethyl acetate (IC50:8.71 µg/mL) extracts of Rumex crispus.Moreover, methanol (IC50: 60.78 µg/mL) and ethyl acetate (IC50:149.33 µg/mL) extracts of Scrophulariacanina subsp...

  11. Essential oil composition of the fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae - Periplocoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Senatore, Felice; Formisano, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    The essential oil of the fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition was analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 64 volatile compounds belonging to different classes. The most abundant compounds were nonacosane, heptacosane, hentriacontane and δ-cadinene. Among the volatile compounds identified in the fruits of P. laevigata subsp. angustifolia, 31 are present in other taxa of Apocynaceae, 19 have antimicrobial activity and four are pheromones for the butterfly Danaus chrysippus. The possible ecological role of the volatile compounds found is briefly discussed.

  12. Gene Introgression in Weeds Depends on Initial Gene Location in the Crop: Brassica napus-Raphanus raphanistrum Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk-Chauvat, Katarzyna; Delaunay, Sabrina; Vannier, Anne; François, Caroline; Thomas, Gwenaëlle; Eber, Frédérique; Lodé, Maryse; Gilet, Marie; Huteau, Virginie; Morice, Jérôme; Nègre, Sylvie; Falentin, Cyril; Coriton, Olivier; Darmency, Henri; Alrustom, Bachar; Jenczewski, Eric; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Chèvre, Anne-Marie

    2017-07-01

    The effect of gene location within a crop genome on its transfer to a weed genome remains an open question for gene flow assessment. To elucidate this question, we analyzed advanced generations of intergeneric hybrids, derived from an initial pollination of known oilseed rape varieties (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38) by a local population of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18). After five generations of recurrent pollination, 307 G5 plants with a chromosome number similar to wild radish were genotyped using 105 B. napus specific markers well distributed along the chromosomes. They revealed that 49.8% of G5 plants carried at least one B. napus genomic region. According to the frequency of B. napus markers (0-28%), four classes were defined: Class 1 (near zero frequency), with 75 markers covering ∼70% of oilseed rape genome; Class 2 (low frequency), with 20 markers located on 11 genomic regions; Class 3 (high frequency), with eight markers on three genomic regions; and Class 4 (higher frequency), with two adjacent markers detected on A10. Therefore, some regions of the oilseed rape genome are more prone than others to be introgressed into wild radish. Inheritance and growth of plant progeny revealed that genomic regions of oilseed rape could be stably introduced into wild radish and variably impact the plant fitness (plant height and seed number). Our results pinpoint that novel technologies enabling the targeted insertion of transgenes should select genomic regions that are less likely to be introgressed into the weed genome, thereby reducing gene flow. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Arabis soyeri Reuter ex Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae en el Pirineo aragonés [Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae, in the Aragonese Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente FERRÁNDEZ PALACIO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En esta nota confirmamos la presencia de Arabis soyeri subsp. soyeri en el Pirineo aragonés (provincia de Huesca. Esta cita oscense se sitúa en el límite SW de su área de distribución endémica. Además, comentamos algunos aspectos sobre su autoecología y conservación.SUMMARY: Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri is confirmed for the flora of the Aragonese Pyrenees (Huesca province, Spain. Moreower, this new station is located on the south-western border of its endemic range. Some aspects on its autecology and conservation are discussed as well.

  14. Isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (O:4,5:i and Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhimurium from free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Rocha-e-Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the isolation of Salmonella enterica in organs of free-living domestic pigeons. In the clinic examination, the presence of feces in the peri-cloacal and abdominal regions were observed, as well as symptoms such as cachexy, incoordination and opisthotonos. Before any therapeutic protocol was applied the bird died and a necropsy was then performed for the removal of spleen, liver, kidney and intestine for bacteriological examination and antibiotic sensitivity test. Salmonella enterica subsp.enterica (O:4,5:i- and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium were isolated from the liver and intestine and the sensitivity test demonstrated that these strains are sensitive to several antibiotics.

  15. Cloning and expression of the allergen Cro s 2 profilin from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varasteh, Abdol-Reza; Moghadam, Maliheh; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Kermani, Tayyebeh; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2009-09-01

    Profilin is a panallergen that is recognized by IgE in allergic patients. Allergy to saffron (Crocus sativus) pollen has been described in people exposed to its pollen. Saffron contains a profilin that may cause allergic reactions in atopic subjects. The aim of this study was to describe the cloning, expression and purification of saffron profilin from pollen. Cloning of saffron profilin was performed by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers from saffron pollen RNA. Expression was carried out in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using a vector pET-102- TOPO. A recombinant fusion protein was expressed and the recombinant profilin was purified by metal precipitation. Immunological characterization was performed by immunoblotting experiments. The 34kDa- recombinant saffron profilin, Cro s 2, as a fusion protein was purified. Immunoblotting tested with the sera of allergic patients showed a specific reaction with the recombinant Cro s 2 band. The sequence of Cro s 2 showed a high degree of identity and similarity to other plant profilins and the recombinant saffron profilin, Cro s 2, may be used for target-specific diagnosis and structural analyses and investigation of cross reactivity of Cro s 2 with other plant profilins.

  16. Mechanism behind the anti-tumour potential of saffron (Crocus sativus L.): The molecular perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sweta; Sarwat, Maryam; Khan, Tajdar H

    2017-07-01

    Cancer is a disorder which has noted a significant rise in incidence worldwide and continues to be the largest cause of mortality. It has a dramatic impact on human life expectancy and quality of life in spite of the increase in technology and the treatments available for cancer patients. These new therapeutic options being chemotherapy, radiotherapy, photolytic therapy and catalytic therapy are known to have many adverse reactions and also no better positive outcomes than before. Hence, research is now focused more on utilizing the vast repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge i.e. the use of flora for treatment of cancer rather than the use of chemicals. One such herb is the Crocus sativus L., commonly known as Saffron, rich in carotenoids - crocin, crocetin and safranal. Various studies have been carried out over the past few years to confirm the anti-cancer properties of saffron, both in vivo using animal models and in vitro using human malignant cell lines on various types of cancers with positive results. The proposed mechanism of actions has also been worked upon. This review is aimed to provide a brief overview on the anti-tumor potential of saffron focusing on the molecular mechanism involved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Saponins from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus are efficient adjuvants for protein-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Díaz, Nathaly; Salaun, Bruno; Perret, Rachel; Sierro, Sophie; Romero, Jackeline F; Fernández, Jose-Antonio; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Romero, Pedro

    2012-01-05

    Protein and peptide-based vaccines provide rigorously formulated antigens. However, these purified products are only weakly immunogenic by themselves and therefore require the addition of immunostimulatory components or adjuvants in the vaccine formulation. Various compounds derived from pathogens, minerals or plants, possess pro-inflammatory properties which allow them to act as adjuvants and contribute to the induction of an effective immune response. The results presented here demonstrate the adjuvant properties of novel saponins derived from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus. In vivo immunization studies and tumor protection experiments unambiguously establish the value of saffron saponins as candidate adjuvants. These saponins were indeed able to increase both humoral and cellular immune responses to protein-based vaccines, ultimately providing a significant degree of protection against tumor challenge when administered in combination with a tumor antigen. This preclinical study provides an in depth immunological characterization of a new saponin as a vaccine adjuvant, and encourages its further development for use in vaccine formulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacillus subtilis FZB24® Affects Flower Quantity and Quality of Saffron (Crocus sativus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24® on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. subtilis FZB24®. Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24® may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12%. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required. PMID:18622904

  19. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  20. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2013-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Bentolhoda; Bathaie, Seyedeh Zahra; Fadai, Farbod; Ashtari, Zabihollah; Ali Beigi, Neda; Farhang, Sara; Hashempour, Sara; Shahhamzei, Nasim; Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent) in adult patients with schizophrenia. The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE) and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily), crocin (15 mg twice daily) or placebo. A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE), but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  2. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changkeun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Seyedian, Ramin; Jo, MiNa; Kim, Jehein; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2012-12-15

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) has been an important subject of research in the past two decades because of its various biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities. On the other hand, the molecular bases of its actions have been scarcely understood. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of the hypoglycemic actions of saffron through investigating its signaling pathways associated with glucose metabolism in C(2)C(12) skeletal muscle cells. Saffron strongly enhanced glucose uptake and the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)/ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), but not PI 3-kinase (Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt. Interestingly, the co-treatment of saffron and insulin further improved the insulin sensitivity via both insulin-independent (AMPK/ACC and MAPKs) and insulin-dependent (PI 3-kinase/Akt and mTOR) pathways. It also suggested that there is a crosstalk between the two signaling pathways of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. These results could be confirmed from the findings of GLUT4 translocation. Taken together, AMPK plays a major role in the effects of saffron on glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. Our study provides important insights for the possible mechanism of action of saffron and its potential as a therapeutic agent in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduces stress-induced anorexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halataei, Bahar-al-Sadat; Khosravi, Maryam; Arbabian, Sedigheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Golmanesh, Leila; Zardooz, Homeira; Jalili, Cyrus; Ghoshooni, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, the effects of an ethanol and aqueous extract of saffron Crocus sativus and its constituents safranal and crocin on the stress-induced reduction in food intake, weight gain and anorexic time in mice were investigated. Male albino mice (20-25 g) were irregularly exposed to a trial of electroshock stress for 7 days. Then, the anorexic time as well as the animal's food intake and weight were recorded. In addition, blood samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for corticosterone determination. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the aqueous but not the ethanol extract (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the anorexic time. The results were similar for crocin (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg; i.p.). In addition, a reduction in weight gain was observed in the controls as well as in the groups that received alcohol extract or safranal. However, this was not observed in animals treated with aqueous extract or crocin. The plasma corticosterone level did not increase in the aqueous extract and crocin treated animals. It can be concluded that the saffron aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduce side effects of electroshock stress in mice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Bacillus subtilis FZB24 affects flower quantity and quality of saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2008-08-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24 on saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. SUBTILIS FZB24(R). Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15 min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24 may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12 %. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required.

  5. Flavonoid Determination in the Quality Control of Floral Bioresidues from Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Díaz, Jéssica; Sánchez, Ana M; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Winterhalter, Peter; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2014-04-09

    A high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection method (HPLC-DAD) was validated for the analysis of floral bioresidues obtained in saffron spice production by using three different solvent mixtures [water/hydrochloric acid (HCl) (100:1, v/v), water/acetonitrile/trifluoroacetic acid (47:50:3, v/v/v), and water/acetonitrile/HCl (50:50:1, v/v/v)]. Fifteen phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside being the main ones. The extracts showed very different phenolic profiles obtained by HPLC-DAD coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn), and several experiments were carried out to explain this. The use of acetonitrile as solvent causes the chromatographic splitting of the peak of the delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside into two peaks. Results obtained in this paper show that the extract prepared with water/HCl (100:1, v/v) would be the best suited for determining phenolic compounds in the quality control of the floral bioresidues from Crocus sativus L.

  6. An integrated molecular cytogenetic map of Cucumis sativus L. chromosome 2

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    Huang Sanwen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of molecular, genetic and cytological maps is still a challenge for most plant species. Recent progress in molecular and cytogenetic studies created a basis for developing integrated maps in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.. Results In this study, eleven fosmid clones and three plasmids containing 45S rDNA, the centromeric satellite repeat Type III and the pericentriomeric repeat CsRP1 sequences respectively were hybridized to cucumber metaphase chromosomes to assign their cytological location on chromosome 2. Moreover, an integrated molecular cytogenetic map of cucumber chromosomes 2 was constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH mapping of 11 fosmid clones together with the cucumber centromere-specific Type III sequence on meiotic pachytene chromosomes. The cytogenetic map was fully integrated with genetic linkage map since each fosmid clone was anchored by a genetically mapped simple sequence repeat marker (SSR. The relationship between the genetic and physical distances along chromosome was analyzed. Conclusions Recombination was not evenly distributed along the physical length of chromosome 2. Suppression of recombination was found in centromeric and pericentromeric regions. Our results also indicated that the molecular markers composing the linkage map for chromosome 2 provided excellent coverage of the chromosome.

  7. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L. Aqueous extract in rat

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    Nabi Shariatifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally, a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  8. [Role of phytochrome in organ formation processes in Cucumis sativus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, M I; Marovskaia, E F

    2013-01-01

    The role of phytochrome B in the organogenesis process in the apical and axillary shoot meristems during early ontogenesis stages in cucumber Cucumis sativus L. at photoperiods (day/night) 10/14, 16/8 h, and continuous light in comparison with wild type plants and phytochrome B-deficient mutant (lh-mutant) was investigated. In mutant phytochrome B, deficiency caused inhibition of initiation of leaves both in the leading shoot and off-shoots and increased the number of flower buds (IV stage of organogenesis). With continuous light, the number of off-shoots and flowers during stage IV of organogenesis in wild-type plants increased twofold in comparison with the mutant. Short-term temperature drops did not induce floral ontogenesis in mutants but increased the number of off-shoots in both experimental variants during a long photoperiod and continuous light situations. We propose that phytochrome B, by increasing the compactness of chromatin, may facilitate coordination of ontogenesis processes with changing environmental conditions.

  9. Herbivory differentially affects male and female reproductive traits of Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, V P; Nicotra, A B; Cunningham, S A

    2004-09-01

    Herbivory is an important selection pressure in the life history of plants. Most studies use seed or fruit production as an indication of plant fitness, but the impact of herbivory on male reproductive success is usually ignored. It is possible that plants compensate for resources lost to herbivory by shifting the allocation from seed production to pollen production and export, or vice versa. This study examined the impact of herbivory by Helix aspersa on both male and female reproductive traits of a monoecious plant, Cucumis sativus. The effects of herbivory on the relative allocation to male and female flowers were assessed through measurements of the number and size of flowers of both sexes, and the amount of pollinator visitation. We performed two glasshouse experiments; the first looked at the impact of three levels of pre-flowering herbivory, and the second looked at four levels of herbivory after the plants had started to flower. We found that herbivory during the flowering phase led to a significant increase in the number of plants without male flowers. As a consequence there was significantly less pollen export from this population, as estimated by movement of a pollen analog. The size of female flowers was reduced by severe herbivory, but there was no affect on pollen receipt by the female flowers of damaged plants. The decrease in allocation to male function after severe herbivory may be adaptive when male reproductive success is very unpredictable.

  10. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Somayeh Tajik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L., the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. The stigmas contain three major compounds, crocins (carotenoid compound responsible for color, picrocrocin (responsible for taste and safranal (responsible for odor. It has been used for medicinal purposes, as a spice and condiment for food and as a dye since ancient times. Numerous studies have shown crocins as main carotenoids of saffron to be capable of a variety of pharmacological effects, such as protection against cardiovascular diseases, inhibition of cancer cell development. Salicylic acid (SA is a signaling molecule and a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the plant physiological processes. In order of importance of saffron as valuable product, the aim of this study is to investigate effects of salicylic acid application (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM on crocin and safranal content and antioxidant activity of stigma. Results showed that SA application at 1 mM were the most effective treatments in increase of crocin content and stronger antioxidant activity, but SA had a negative effect on safranal content and the highest quantity of this compound was observed in control plants.

  11. Attraction of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to four varieties of Lathyrus sativus L. seed volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A

    2015-04-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.

  12. INFLUENCIA DE LA DENSIDAD DE SIEMBRA Y LA PODA EN EL CULTIVO DEL PEPINO (Cucumis sativus

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    Paublo Javier Bravo Bravo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la influencia de la densidad de siembra y el número de poda de ejes en el cultivo de pepino (Cucumis sativus. Se estudiaron tres distancias de siembra 1.0x0.2, 1.0x0.4 y 1.0x 0.6 m y la poda de ejes productivos dejando 1, 2 y 3 ejes por planta. La poda se realizó a los 30 días después del trasplante. Se evaluaron las características del fruto de diámetro (cm, longitud (cm, peso (g, fruto por planta y rendimiento por hectárea. Los tratamientos se distribuyeron en un diseño de bloques al azar y los datos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza. Se obtuvo diferencias para la variable rendimiento/hectárea con respecto al resto de las variables evaluadas.

  13. Crocins, the active constituents of Crocus Sativus L., counteracted ketamine-induced behavioural deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Georgia; Grivas, Vasilios; Tarantilis, Petros A; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine impairs cognition and can mimic certain aspects of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents. Crocins are among the active components of the plant Crocus sativus L. and were found to be effective in different models of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of crocins to counteract schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits produced by ketamine in rats. Crocin's ability to counteract hypermotility, stereotypies and ataxia induced by ketamine was evaluated in a motor activity cage. The ability of crocins to reverse ketamine-induced memory deficits was assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT). The social interaction test was used in order to examine the effects of crocins on ketamine-induced social withdrawal. Crocins (50 but not 30 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated ketamine (25 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hypermotility, stereotypies and ataxia. In a subsequent study, post-training administration of crocins (15 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed ketamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced performance deficits in the NORT. Finally, crocins (50 but not 30 mg/kg, i.p.) counteracted the ketamine (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced social isolation in the social interaction test. Our findings show that crocins attenuated schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits induced by the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine in rats.

  14. Protective Effect of Calculus Bovis Sativus on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

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    Xiping Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which has been reported to exhibit antispasmodic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory, and gallbladder-repairing effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of CBS on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS- induced ulcerative colitis (UC in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 5% DSS in drinking water. CBS was given orally at 50 and 150 mg/kg once per day for 7 days. Body weight, disease activity index (DAI, colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured. Administration of CBS significantly reserved these changes, decreased the MPO activity and MDA and NO level, and increased the SOD activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation suggested that CBS alleviated edema, mucosal damage, and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by DSS in the colon. Moreover, CBS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 1β and IL-6 in the colon tissue. Our data suggested that CBS exerted protective effect on DSS-induced UC partially through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  15. Hormone and Microorganism Treatments in the Cultivation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Plants

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    Aynur Ozkul Acikgoz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The difficult cultivation of the saffron plant (Crocus Sativus L. make the spice of the same name made from its dried stigmas very valuable. It is estimated that some 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas are required to make a single pound of saffron, which explains why it is the world’s most expensive spice. The aim of this study was to identify ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron. For this purpose, the treatment of saffron bulbs with a synthetic growth hormone – a mixture of Polystimulins A6 and K – and two different microorganism based materials – biohumus or vermicompost and Effective Microorganisms™ (EM – in four different ways (hormone alone, biohumus alone, EM alone and EM+biohumus was investigated to determine whether these treatments have any statistically meaningful effects on corms and stigmas. It has been shown that EM + biohumus was the most effective choice for improved saffron cultivation.

  16. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenological growth stages of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.) according to the BBCH Scale

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    Lopez-Corcoles, H.; Brasa-Ramos, A.; Montero-Garcia, F.; Romero-Valverde, M.; Montero-Riquelme, F.

    2015-07-01

    Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of climate dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on plants and can be used in many scientific subjects, such as Agronomy, Botany and Plant Biology, but also Climatology as a result of the current global interest in climate change monitoring. The purpose of the detailed specific culture descriptions of the principal growth stages in plants is to provide an instrument for standardization of data recording. To date, there was no coding method to describe developmental stages on saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Because of the increasing world-wide interest on this crop, a novel growth development code based on the BBCH extended scale is proposed in this paper. Six principal growth stages were set up, starting from sprouting, cataphylls and flowers appearance, plant appearance and development, replacement corms development, plant senescence and corm dormancy. Each principal growth stage is subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are included to make effective use of the system. (Author)

  18. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in digestive disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaee Khorasany

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  19. Influence of culinary processing time on saffron's bioactive compounds (Crocus sativus L.).