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Sample records for raphanus raphanistrum brassicaceae

  1. Consequences of Whole-Genome Triplication as Revealed by Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum and Three Other Brassicaceae Species[W][OPEN

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    Moghe, Gaurav D.; Hufnagel, David E.; Tang, Haibao; Xiao, Yongli; Dworkin, Ian; Town, Christopher D.; Conner, Jeffrey K.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidization events are frequent among flowering plants, and the duplicate genes produced via such events contribute significantly to plant evolution. We sequenced the genome of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), a Brassicaceae species that experienced a whole-genome triplication event prior to diverging from Brassica rapa. Despite substantial gene gains in these two species compared with Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, ∼70% of the orthologous groups experienced gene losses in R. raphanistrum and B. rapa, with most of the losses occurring prior to their divergence. The retained duplicates show substantial divergence in sequence and expression. Based on comparison of A. thaliana and R. raphanistrum ortholog floral expression levels, retained radish duplicates diverged primarily via maintenance of ancestral expression level in one copy and reduction of expression level in others. In addition, retained duplicates differed significantly from genes that reverted to singleton state in function, sequence composition, expression patterns, network connectivity, and rates of evolution. Using these properties, we established a statistical learning model for predicting whether a duplicate would be retained postpolyploidization. Overall, our study provides new insights into the processes of plant duplicate loss, retention, and functional divergence and highlights the need for further understanding factors controlling duplicate gene fate. PMID:24876251

  2. Investigation of MCPA (4-Chloro-2-ethylphenoxyacetate) resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.).

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    Jugulam, Mithila; Dimeo, Natalie; Veldhuis, Linda J; Walsh, Michael; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-12-26

    The phenoxy herbicides (e.g., 2,4-D and MCPA) are used widely in agriculture for the selective control of broadleaf weeds. In Western Australia, the reliance on phenoxy herbicides has resulted in the widespread evolution of phenoxy resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) populations. In this research the inheritance and mechanism of MCPA resistance in wild radish were determined. Following classical breeding procedures, F1, F2, and backcross progeny were generated. The F1 progeny showed an intermediate response to MCPA, compared to parents, suggesting that MCPA resistance in wild radish is inherited as an incompletely dominant trait. Segregation ratios observed in F2 (3:1; resistant:susceptible) and backcross progeny (1:1; resistant to susceptible) indicated that the MCPA resistance is controlled by a single gene in wild radish. Radiolabeled MCPA studies suggested no difference in MCPA uptake or metabolism between resistant and susceptible wild radish; however, resistant plants rapidly translocated more (14)C-MCPA to roots than susceptible plants, which may have been exuded from the plant. Understanding the genetic basis and mechanism of phenoxy resistance in wild radish will help formulate prudent weed management strategies to reduce the incidence of phenoxy resistance.

  3. Identification of the first glyphosate-resistant wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations.

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    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    In Australia, glyphosate has been used routinely to control wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) for the past 40 years. This study focuses on two field-evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of wild radish collected from the grainbelt of Western Australia. Two wild radish biotypes were confirmed to be glyphosate resistant by comparing R/S of two suspected populations. Based on R/S from dose-response curves, the R1 and R2 populations were 2.3 and 3.2 times more resistant to glyphosate respectively. Dose response on glyphosate-selected progeny (>1080 g ha(-1)) demonstrated that the glyphosate resistance mechanism was heritable. When compared with the pooled mortality results of three known susceptible populations (S1, S2 and S3), the R1 and R2 subpopulations were 3.4-fold and 4.5-fold more resistant at the LD50 level respectively. Both populations were found to have multiple resistance to the phytoene desaturase inhibitor; diflufenican, the synthetic auxin; 2,4-D and the ALS inhibitors; chlorsulfuron, sulfometuron-methyl, imazethapyr and metosulam. This is the first report confirming glyphosate resistance evolution in wild radish and serves to re-emphasise the importance of diverse weed control strategies. Proactive and integrated measures for resistance management need to be developed to diversify control measures away from glyphosate and advance the use of non-herbicidal techniques. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. in northern Tunisia

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    N. Djebali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and life cycle of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. and a survey of the pathogens of this plant are reported for the northern regions of Tunisia. Wild radish is a common weed of cereal crops and legumes. It germinates in early autumn (October, develops a rosette stage in November to December after which stem growth, fl owering and pod production occur through to May, with pod maturity completed in June. Fungus isolation from the foliar tissues exhibiting disease symptoms showed that wild radish was infected with the fungi Albugo candida, Alternaria spp. including A. brassicicola, and A. raphani, Erysiphe cruciferarum, Stemphylium herbarum, Peronospora parasitica and Phoma lingam. Ascochyta spp., Cercospora armoraciae, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Colletotrichum higginsianum are here reported from wild radish for the first time. Inoculation tests of pathogens on wild radish plants showed that the most injurious fungi were Alternaria raphani and Phoma lingam. The remaining pathogens were weakly to moderately aggressive on this weed. To access the pathogenic effect of fungi spontaneously infecting natural populations of wild radish, the weed was grown in a field experiment with and without the broad-spectrum systemic fungicide Carbendazim. Results showed a statistically significant two-fold decrease in the number and weight of seed pods in the non-treated plants, indicating that the reproductive potential of wild radish was naturally reduced by fungal infection. Foliar pathogenic fungi have a potential in the integrated weed management of wild radish, this role merits further investigations.

  5. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF WHEAT IN ASSOCIATION WITH BIOTYPES OF Raphanus raphanistrum L. RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO ALS-INHIBITOR HERBICIDES

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    Leandro Oliveira da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Raphanus raphanistrum ALS herbicide-resistant in wheat crops causes crop yield losses, which makes it necessary to understand the factors that influence the interference of this weed to develop safer management strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the competitive ability of wheat in coexistence with biotypes of R. raphanistrum that are resistant (R biotype and susceptible (S biotypes to ALS herbicides and to determine whether there are differences in the competitiveness of these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments were placed in pots and arranged in replacement series for three experiments (1 - wheat with the R biotype; 2 - wheat with the S biotype; and 3 - the R biotype with the S biotype at the following ratios: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The competitiveness was analyzed through diagrams applied to replacement experiments and competitiveness indices, including the evaluation of the shoot dry matter of the plants (experiments 1, 2, and 3 and the leaf area (experiment 3. The R and S biotypes significantly decreased the shoot dry matter of the wheat cultivar and demonstrated superior competitive ability compared with the culture. The interspecific competition was more important for the wheat and for the S biotype. The competitiveness of the R biotype compared to the S biotype was similar, with synergism in the leaf area production, which indicates the predominant intraspecific competition exhibited by the R biotype.

  6. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de plantas daninhas: I - Nicandra physaloides, Solanum viarum, Solanum americanum e Raphanus raphanistrum Anatomical studies of weed leaves: I - Nicandra physaloides, Solanum viarum, Solanum americanum and Raphanus raphanistrum

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    E.A. Ferreira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a anatomia das folhas das espécies de plantas daninhas Nicandra physaloides (joá-de-capote, Solanum viarum (joá-bravo, Solanum americanum (maria-pretinha e Raphanus raphanistrum (nabiça, visando obter melhor entendimento sobre as barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas. Folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região central mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e nas observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. O principal obstáculo foliar à penetração de herbicidas constatado em N. physaloides foi a alta densidade tricomática. Já em relação a S. viarum, baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial, alta densidade tricomática, presença de placas de cera epicuticular e grande espessura das cutículas foram as principais barreiras detectadas. S. americanum apresentou como principais obstáculos foliares à penetração de herbicidas a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial, sendo esta última a única barreira constatada nas folhas de R. raphanistrum.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Nicandra physaloides, Solanum viarum, Solanum americanum and Raphanus raphanistrum to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes upon herbicide penetration. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth node were collected from plants spontaneously occurring in field. Three samples, with approximately 1 cm², were taken at the central portion of the leaves in each species. These samples were used in structural studies, clarification and observation using a scanning-electron microscope (SEM. All species

  7. Gene Introgression in Weeds Depends on Initial Gene Location in the Crop: Brassica napus-Raphanus raphanistrum Model.

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    Adamczyk-Chauvat, Katarzyna; Delaunay, Sabrina; Vannier, Anne; François, Caroline; Thomas, Gwenaëlle; Eber, Frédérique; Lodé, Maryse; Gilet, Marie; Huteau, Virginie; Morice, Jérôme; Nègre, Sylvie; Falentin, Cyril; Coriton, Olivier; Darmency, Henri; Alrustom, Bachar; Jenczewski, Eric; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Chèvre, Anne-Marie

    2017-07-01

    The effect of gene location within a crop genome on its transfer to a weed genome remains an open question for gene flow assessment. To elucidate this question, we analyzed advanced generations of intergeneric hybrids, derived from an initial pollination of known oilseed rape varieties (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38) by a local population of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18). After five generations of recurrent pollination, 307 G5 plants with a chromosome number similar to wild radish were genotyped using 105 B. napus specific markers well distributed along the chromosomes. They revealed that 49.8% of G5 plants carried at least one B. napus genomic region. According to the frequency of B. napus markers (0-28%), four classes were defined: Class 1 (near zero frequency), with 75 markers covering ∼70% of oilseed rape genome; Class 2 (low frequency), with 20 markers located on 11 genomic regions; Class 3 (high frequency), with eight markers on three genomic regions; and Class 4 (higher frequency), with two adjacent markers detected on A10. Therefore, some regions of the oilseed rape genome are more prone than others to be introgressed into wild radish. Inheritance and growth of plant progeny revealed that genomic regions of oilseed rape could be stably introduced into wild radish and variably impact the plant fitness (plant height and seed number). Our results pinpoint that novel technologies enabling the targeted insertion of transgenes should select genomic regions that are less likely to be introgressed into the weed genome, thereby reducing gene flow. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. DYNAMICS OF POLLEN TUBE GROWTH IN THE WILD RADISH, RAPHANUS RAPHANISTRUM (BRASSICACEAE). I. ORDER OF FERTILIZATION.

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    Hill, Jeffrey P; Lord, Elizabeth M

    1986-11-01

    Gametophytic competition and selection have important effects on patterns of mating in plant populations. However, the relative importance of prezygotic mechanisms is often unclear due to a paucity of observations on pollen tube growth in vivo. In this study, we present observations on pollen tube behavior in the gynoecium of wild radish. Significant variation in the order of fertilization of the linearly arranged ovules occurred within the radish ovary. This variation is evidence that prezygotic mechanisms of gamete selection operate to sort pollen tubes nonrandomly to different ovule positions in the ovary. We propose that the variation in fertilization patterns can be attributed to variance in pollen tube growth rates in the central septum of the radish gynoecium. The path of pollen tube growth and gynoecial structure deserve greater attention in future studies of gamete competition. © 1986 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Recurrent selection with reduced 2,4-D amine doses results in the rapid evolution of 2,4-D herbicide resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.).

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    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-11-01

    When used at effective doses, weed resistance to auxinic herbicides has been slow to evolve when compared with other modes of action. Here we report the evolutionary response of a herbicide-susceptible population of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) and confirm that sublethal doses of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) amine can lead to the rapid evolution of 2,4-D resistance and cross-resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Following four generations of 2,4-D selection, the progeny of a herbicide-susceptible wild radish population evolved 2,4-D resistance, increasing the LD 50 from 16 to 138 g ha -1 . Along with 2,4-D resistance, cross-resistance to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides metosulam (4.0-fold) and chlorsulfuron (4.5-fold) was evident. Pretreatment of the 2,4-D-selected population with the cytochrome P450 inhibitor malathion restored chlorsulfuron to full efficacy, indicating that cross-resistance to chlorsulfuron was likely due to P450-catalysed enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism. This study is the first to confirm the rapid evolution of auxinic herbicide resistance through the use of low doses of 2,4-D and serves as a reminder that 2,4-D must always be used at highly effective doses. With the introduction of transgenic auxinic-herbicide-resistant crops in the Americas, there will be a marked increase in auxinic herbicide use and therefore the risk of resistance evolution. Auxinic herbicides should be used only at effective doses and with diversity if resistance is to remain a minimal issue. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Polymorphism of the S-locus glycoprotein gene (SLG) and the S-locus related gene (SLR1) in Raphanus sativus L. and self-incompatible ornamental plants in the Brassicaceae.

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    Sakamoto, K; Kusaba, M; Nishio, T

    1998-05-01

    The S-locus glycoprotein gene, SLG, which participates in the pollen-stigma interaction of self-incompatibility, and its unlinked homologue, SLR1, were analyzed in Raphanus sativus and three self-incompatible ornamental plants in the Brassicaceae. Among twenty-nine inbred lines of R. sativus, eighteen S haplotypes were identified on the basis of DNA polymorphisms detected by genomic Southern analysis using Brassica SLG probes. DNA fragments of SLG alleles specifically amplified from eight S haplotypes by PCR with class I SLG-specific primers showed different profiles following polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, after digestion with a restriction endonuclease. The nucleotide sequences of the DNA fragments of these eight R. sativus SLG alleles were determined. Degrees of similarity of the nucleotide sequences to a Brassica SLG (S6SLG) ranged from 85.6% to 91.9%. Amino acid sequences deduced from these had the twelve conserved cysteine residues and the three hypervariable regions characteristic of Brassica SLGs. Phylogenetic analysis of the SLG sequences from Raphanus and Brassica revealed that the Raphanus SLGs did not form an independent cluster, but were dispersed in the tree, clustering together with Brassica SLGs. These results suggest that diversification of the SLG alleles of Raphanus and Brassica occurred before differentiation of these genera. Although SLR1 sequences from Orychophragmus violaceus were shown to be relatively closely related to Brassica and Raphanus SLR1 sequences, DNA fragments that are highly homologous to the Brassica SLG were not detected in this species. Two other ornamental plants in the Brassicaceae, which are related more distantly to Brassica than Orychophragmus, also lacked sequences highly homologous to Brassica SLG genes. The evolution of self-incompatibility in the Brassicaceae is discussed.

  11. Influência das condições climáticas no momento da aplicação de herbicidas pós-emergentes sobre a eficácia de controle de nabiça (Raphanus raphanistrum na cultura de trigo Influence of weather conditions at application of post emergence herbicides on the control efficacy of turnip (Raphanus raphanistrum in the wheat crop

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    L.H. Penckowski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As condições climáticas, no momento da aplicação, determinam em grande parte a eficácia de herbicidas pós-emergentes. Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência das condições climáticas sobre a eficácia de diferentes herbicidas, aplicados na pós-emergência da cultura de trigo, para o controle de Raphanus raphanistrum (nabiça, foi conduzido um experimento em condições de campo, na Estação Experimental da Fundação ABC, município de Tibagi-PR, na safra de 2002. A cultura de trigo foi instalada em sistema de plantio direto, utilizando o cultivar OR1. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5 x 4 (cinco herbicidas e quatro horários de aplicação, em quatro repetições. Os herbicidas utilizados foram, em g de i.a. ha-1: metsulfuron-methyl (3,6, iodosulfuron-methyl (5,0, metribuzin (144,0, 2,4-D amina (1005,0 e 2,4-D éster (400,0; os horários de aplicação durante o dia foram 7h, 10h30, 13h30 e 17h45. A aplicação dos tratamentos herbicidas foi feita com a cultura do trigo em pleno perfilhamento, e com uma infestação de 288 pl m-2 de nabiça, que possuíam em média cinco a sete folhas. As características avaliadas foram eficácia de controle da nabiça e porcentagem de fitotoxicidade na cultura aos 8, 16, 22 e 30 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F no programa SAS, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de LSD de Fishes a 5% de probabilidade. Houve interação entre os herbicidas e os horários de aplicação em relação ao controle de nabiça. Metribuzin e iodosulfuron-methyl foram os herbicidas menos influenciados pelas condições climáticas nos diferentes horários para o controle de nabiça. O metribuzin foi mais eficiente no seu controle, mas evidenciou sintomas de fitotoxicidade que desapareceram aos 30 DAA. As condições climáticas que ocorreram para os diferentes horários de aplica

  12. Artificial selection on anther exsertion in wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum.

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    Conner, Jeffrey K; Mills, Cynthia J; Koelling, Vanessa A; Karoly, Keith

    2014-01-01

    To study the genetic architecture of anther exsertion, a trait under stabilizing selection in wild radish, artificial selection on anther exsertion was applied for 11 generations. Two replicate lines each of increased and decreased exsertion plus two randomly-mated controls were included. Full pedigree information is available from generation five. To estimate correlated responses to selection, 571 plants from all lines and matrilines were grown in the greenhouse and a number of floral, growth, and phenology traits were measured. To create an outbred F2 mapping population, all possible crosses among the two high and two low exsertion lines were made, using a multiple-family design to capture the genetic variance still present after 11 generations of selection. Six floral traits were measured on 40 parents, 240 F1, and 4,868 F2 offspring. Opportunities for reuse of these data include traits not previously analyzed, other analyses, especially using the pedigree and fitness data, and seeds from all generations and photos of flowers in the later generations are available.

  13. GAMETOPHYTIC SELECTION IN RAPHANUS RAPHANISTRUM: A TEST FOR HERITABLE VARIATION IN POLLEN COMPETITIVE ABILITY.

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    Snow, Allison A; Mazer, Susan J

    1988-09-01

    Competition among many microgametophytes for a limited number of ovules can lead to both nonrandom fertilization by pollen genotypes and selection for greater sporophytic vigor. The evolutionary implications of this process depend on the extent of heritable genetic variation for pollen competitive ability. Using flower color in wild radish as a genetic marker, we demonstrate differences among pollen donors in competitive ability. Significant differences were found in four out of five pairs of donors. For three pairs of donors, competitive differences were observed in certain maternal plants but not others. To test for heritability of pollen performance, we conducted a selection experiment. We manipulated the intensity of pollen competition for two generations and then tested for differences in the performance of pollen from two selected lines. Competitive ability of pollen derived from each line was assessed relative to a standard unrelated pollen donor, using pollen mixtures on six wild maternal plants. The intensity of previous pollen competition had no overall effect on the proportion of seeds sired by each selected line. In two maternal plants, pollen from intense previous competition was actually inferior, contrary to expectation. Thus, we found no evidence for heritable variation in this trait. Other factors, such as male-female interactions, may influence the outcome of pollen competition. Prevailing theory on the genetic basis of effects of pollen competition on subsequent generations is not supported by our results. Improved protocols for future experiments are discussed. © 1988 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Development of genomic and EST-SSR markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsuji, Ryoichi; Hashida, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hirai, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to Brassicaceae family and is a close relative of Brassica. This species shows a wide morphological diversity, and is an important vegetable especially in Asia. However, molecular research of radish is behind compared to that of Brassica. For example, reports on SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers are limited. Here, we designed 417 radish SSR markers from SSR-enriched genomic libraries and the cDNA data. Of the 256 SSR markers succeeded in PCR, 130 showed...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild radish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NL.png Raphanus_raphanistrum_S.png Raphanus_raphanistrum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=NS ...

  16. The Effect of Altered Soil Moisture on Hybridization Rate in a Crop-Wild System (Raphanus spp..

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    Lesley G Campbell

    Full Text Available Since plant mating choices are flexible and responsive to the environment, rates of spontaneous hybridization may vary across ecological clines. Developing a robust and predictive framework for rates of plant gene flow requires assessing the role of environmental sensitivity on plant reproductive traits, relative abundance, and pollen vectors. Therefore, across a soil moisture gradient, we quantified pollinator movement, life-history trait variation, and unidirectional hybridization rates from crop (Raphanus sativus to wild (Raphanus raphanistrum radish populations. Both radish species were grown together in relatively dry (no rain, relatively wet (double rain, or control soil moisture conditions in Ohio, USA. We measured wild and crop radish life-history, phenology and pollinator visitation patterns. To quantify hybridization rates from crop-to-wild species, we used a simply inherited morphological marker to detect F1 hybrid progeny. Although crop-to-wild hybridization did not respond to watering treatments, the abundance of hybrid offspring was higher in fruits produced late in the period of phenological overlap, when both species had roughly equal numbers of open flowers. Therefore, the timing of fruit production and its relationship to flowering overlap may be more important to hybrid zone formation in Raphanus spp. than soil moisture or pollen vector movements.

  17. The Effect of Altered Soil Moisture on Hybridization Rate in a Crop-Wild System (Raphanus spp.)

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    Sneck, Michelle E.; Chaplin, Colleen; Mercer, Kristin L.

    2016-01-01

    Since plant mating choices are flexible and responsive to the environment, rates of spontaneous hybridization may vary across ecological clines. Developing a robust and predictive framework for rates of plant gene flow requires assessing the role of environmental sensitivity on plant reproductive traits, relative abundance, and pollen vectors. Therefore, across a soil moisture gradient, we quantified pollinator movement, life-history trait variation, and unidirectional hybridization rates from crop (Raphanus sativus) to wild (Raphanus raphanistrum) radish populations. Both radish species were grown together in relatively dry (no rain), relatively wet (double rain), or control soil moisture conditions in Ohio, USA. We measured wild and crop radish life-history, phenology and pollinator visitation patterns. To quantify hybridization rates from crop-to-wild species, we used a simply inherited morphological marker to detect F1 hybrid progeny. Although crop-to-wild hybridization did not respond to watering treatments, the abundance of hybrid offspring was higher in fruits produced late in the period of phenological overlap, when both species had roughly equal numbers of open flowers. Therefore, the timing of fruit production and its relationship to flowering overlap may be more important to hybrid zone formation in Raphanus spp. than soil moisture or pollen vector movements. PMID:27936159

  18. Identification, expression, and functional analysis of CLE genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) storage root.

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    Gancheva, Maria S; Dodueva, Irina E; Lebedeva, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Tkachenko, Alexandr A; Lutova, Ludmila A

    2016-01-27

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a widespread agricultural plant forming storage root due to extensive secondary growth which involves cambium proliferation and differentiation of secondary conductive tissues. Closely related to the model object Arabidopsis thaliana, radish is a suitable model for studying processes of secondary growth and storage root development. CLE peptides are a group of peptide phytohormones which play important role in the regulation of primary meristems such as SAM, RAM, and procambium, as well as secondary meristems. However, the role of CLE peptides in lateral growth of root during storage root formation has not been studied to date. In present work we studied the role of CLE peptides in the development of storage root in radish. We have identified 18 CLE genes of radish (RsCLEs) and measured their expression in various plant organs and also at different stages of root development in R. sativus and Raphanus raphanistrum-its close relative which does not form storage root. We observed significant decline of expression levels for genes RsCLE1, 2, 11, 13, and 16, and also multifold increase of expression levels for genes RsCLE19, and 41 during secondary root growth in R. sativus but not in R. raphanistrum. Expression of RsCLE 2, 19, and 41 in R. sativus root was confined to certain types of tissues while RsCLE1, 11, 13, and 16 expressed throughout the root. Experiments on overexpression of RsCLE2, 19 and 41 or treatment of radish plants with synthetic CLE peptides revealed that CLE19 and CLE2 increase the number of xylem elements, and CLE41 induces the formation of extra cambium foci in secondary xylem. Expression levels of RsCLE2 and 19 strongly decrease in response to exogenous cytokinin, while auxin causes dramatic increase of RsCLE19 expression level and decrease of RsCLE41 expression. Our data allow us to hypothesize about the role of RsCLE2, 19 and 41 genes in the development of storage root of Raphanus sativus, e.g. RsCLE19 may play a

  19. Habilidade competitiva relativa do trigo (Triticum aestivum em convivência com azevém (Lolium multiflorum ou nabo (Raphanus raphanistrum Relative competitive ability of wheat (Triticum aestivum intercropped with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum or wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum

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    R.P. Rigoli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos em série de substituição possibilitam o estudo da competição inter e intra-específica. A premissa desses experimentos é de que as produtividades das misturas podem ser determinadas pela comparação com a produtividade da monocultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a habilidade competitiva relativa de cultivar de trigo com as espécies daninhas azevém ou nabo. Foram realizados três experimentos em casa de vegetação na UFPel, no ano de 2006. O delineamento utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em série de substituição. As proporções de plantas de trigo e dos competidores azevém ou nabo foram: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 e 0/100, com população total de 900 plantas m-2. A análise estatística da competitividade foi realizada através de diagramas aplicados aos experimentos substitutivos e interpretações dos índices de competitividade. As relações competitivas entre plantas de trigo e azevém ou entre trigo e nabo são alteradas pela proporção de plantas que compõem a associação; a cultura do trigo apresenta habilidade competitiva superior à do azevém, mas inferior à do nabo, quando as espécies ocorrem em proporções iguais de plantas nas associações, e essas espécies ocupam o mesmo nicho ecológico.Replacement series experiments make possible the study of inter and intraspecific competition, based on the fact that the yield of the species under competition can be determined by comparing with plants in monoculture. The objective of this work was to investigate the relative competitive ability of wheat crop with the weeds Italian ryegrass or wild radish. Three experiments were conducted under greenhouse at UFPel, in 2006. The treatments were conducted in a completely randomized design, with four replications, with the treatments arranged in replacement series. The proportions of wheat plants and competitors Italian ryegrass or wild radish were: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100, always with a total population of 900 plants m-2. Competitiveness statistical analysis consisted in applying diagrams to the replacement series and interpreting the competitiveness indices. The competitive relationships between wheat and ryegrass or between wheat and wild radish plants are altered by the proportion of plants that compose the association. Wheat shows superior competitive ability to ryegrass but inferior to wild radish when the species have similar proportions of plants in the associations and when these species occur in the same ecological niche.

  20. Genotypic effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on fecundity in an annual weed (wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, P.S.; Snow, A.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Rising atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels may lead to microevolutionary change in native plant populations. To test for within-population variation in genetic responses to elevated p(CO[sub 2]), we exposed five paternal sibships of wild radish to ambient and 2X ambient (700 [mu]bar) p(CO[sub 2]) in 3 m open top chambers for an entre growing season. Seeds were planted singly in 2.5 1 pots filled with locally derived, low fertility soil (160 plants per CO[sub 2] treatment). Net CO[sub 2] assimilation increased 25% in vegetative plants and 48% in reproductive plants growing at elevated p(CO[sub 2]). Every flower was hand-pollinated to mimic natural pollination levels. Lifetime fecundity was greater in the elevated CO[sub 2] treatment, but the magnitude of this effect differed dramatically among paternal sibships: seed production increased 13% overall, yet among paternal sibships seed production varied between 0% and 50% more seeds in elevated p(CO[sub 2]) as compared to ambient. Our results suggest that natural selection can occur due to genotypic differences in the CO[sub 2] response. This process should be considered in estimates of long-term effects of elevated p(CO[sub 2]), especially with regard to anticipated increases in primary productivity.

  1. Plastome phylogeny and early diversification of Brassicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xinyi; Liu, Jianquan; Hao, Guoqian; Zhang, Lei; Mao, Kangshan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Dan; Ma, Tao; Hu, Quanjun; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A.; Koch, Marcus A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The family Brassicaceae encompasses diverse species, many of which have high scientific and economic importance. Early diversifications and phylogenetic relationships between major lineages or clades remain unclear. Here we re-investigate Brassicaceae phylogeny with complete plastomes from 51 species representing all four lineages or 5 of 6 major clades (A, B, C, E and F) as identified in earlier studies. Results Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses using a partiti...

  2. Comprehensive analysis of expressed sequence tags from cultivated and wild radish (Raphanus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Di; Sun, Honghe; Huang, Mingyun; Zheng, Yi; Qiu, Yang; Li, Xixiang; Fei, Zhangjun

    2013-10-21

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., 2n = 2× = 18) is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. A large collection of radish expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has been generated but remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, approximately 315,000 ESTs derived from 22 Raphanus cDNA libraries from 18 different genotypes were analyzed, for the purpose of gene and marker discovery and to evaluate large-scale genome duplication and phylogenetic relationships among Raphanus spp. The ESTs were assembled into 85,083 unigenes, of which 90%, 65%, 89% and 89% had homologous sequences in the GenBank nr, SwissProt, TrEMBL and Arabidopsis protein databases, respectively. A total of 66,194 (78%) could be assigned at least one gene ontology (GO) term. Comparative analysis identified 5,595 gene families unique to radish that were significantly enriched with genes related to small molecule metabolism, as well as 12,899 specific to the Brassicaceae that were enriched with genes related to seed oil body biogenesis and responses to phytohormones. The analysis further indicated that the divergence of radish and Brassica rapa occurred approximately 8.9-14.9 million years ago (MYA), following a whole-genome duplication event (12.8-21.4 MYA) in their common ancestor. An additional whole-genome duplication event in radish occurred at 5.1-8.4 MYA, after its divergence from B. rapa. A total of 13,570 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 28,758 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. Using a subset of SNPs, the phylogenetic relationships of eight different accessions of Raphanus was inferred. Comprehensive analysis of radish ESTs provided new insights into radish genome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships of different radish accessions. Moreover, the radish EST sequences and the associated SSR and SNP markers described in this study represent a valuable resource for radish functional genomics studies and breeding.

  3. KEEFEKTIFAN LIMBAH TANAMAN BRASSICACEAE UNTUK PENGENDALI NEMATODA PURU AKAR (MELOIDOGYNE SPP. PADA MIKROPLOT DI LAPANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jabal Nur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effectivenes of Brassicaceae plant wastes to control the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. at a field microplot scale. Meloidogyne spp. is a soil borne pathogen that infects plant roots and causes root galls. Root knot nematodes can reduce crop production by 15 to 95%, so that the control measures are needed. One of the control methods is using plants as biofumigant. Plants of the family Brassicaceae were reported contain glucosinolate (GSL. During decomposition, GSL is hydrolized to isothiocyanates (ITS which is a highly toxic compound to soil organisms, including nematodes. The research objective was to determine the effectiveness of five Brassicaceous plant wastes, namely cabbage (B. oleracea var capitata, radish (Raphanus sativus, broccoli (B. oleracea var italica, chinese cabbage (B. chinensis and pakcoy (B. rapa var parachinensis to suppress root knot nematodes (RKN. The experiment was conducted on microplot scale in the field. The experimental design used was a 4x5 factorial CRD. The first factors are waste of Brassica and the second factors are the amount of Brassica wastes per microplot. The experiments were made in 6 replications. Application of 5 Brassica plant wastes at all doses tested effectively reduced the number of root knot by 45.65% to 94.43% and increased the average number of tomato fruits. Tomato plants grew better at microplots when treated with chinese cabbage and pakcoy wastes.

  4. Novel seed protection in the recently evolved invasive, California wild radish, a hybrid Raphanus sp. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Sylvia M; Ellstrand, Norman C

    2014-12-01

    • Interspecific hybridization may have considerable effects on plant structural defenses that can contribute to the success of invasive hybrid lineages. Changes in fruit structural and material properties are predicted to have key effects on predispersal granivory.• Here, we asked whether plant structure can increase the fitness of a hybrid invasive relative to its progenitors. We compared fruit traits of the hybrid-derived lineage, California wild radish, with its progenitors, cultivated radish and jointed charlock.• The hybrid lineage is significantly different from one or both ancestors in fruit length, mass, diameter, volume, shape, wall strength, and internal seed distribution. We experimentally exposed the fruits of both hybrid and wild progenitor to avian granivores and found (1) different types and degrees of damage at the different fruit sections and (2) significant differences in the inflicted damage at different sections of the fruit.• Combining our descriptive and experimental data, we conclude that the novel seed protection of the hybrid California wild radish is an important defense mechanism. It offers differential protection to its seeds and according to our findings, better protection of seeds that have been found to be better competitors. We suggest then that the fruit has enabled, at least in part, the successful replacement of the parental species by the hybrid lineage. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. Mechanisms of differential pollen donor performance in wild radish, Raphanus sativus (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D L; Diggle, P K

    2001-02-01

    In order to understand the characters on which sexual selection might operate in plants, it is critical to assess the mechanisms by which pollen competition and mate choice occur. To address this issue we measured a number of postpollination characters, ranging from pollen germination and pollen tube growth to final seed paternity, in wild radish. Crosses were performed using four pollen donors on a total of 16 maternal plants (four each from four families). Maternal plants were grown under two watering treatments to evaluate the effects of maternal tissue on the process of mating. The four pollen donors differed significantly in number of seeds sired and differed overall in the mating characters measured. However, it was difficult to associate particular mechanistic characters with ability to sire seeds, perhaps because of interactions among pollen donors within styles or among pollen donors and maternal plants. The process of pollen tube growth and fertilization differed substantially among maternal watering treatments, with many early events occurring more quickly in stressed plants. Seed paternity, however, was somewhat more even among pollen donors used on stressed maternal plants, suggesting that when maternal tissue is more competent, mating is slowed and is more selective.

  6. De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87 predicted protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the radish cp genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 protein-coding gene sequences from the 17 cp genomes of the Brassicaceae family suggested that the radish cp genome is most closely related to the cp genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassicanapus. Comparisons with the B. rapa and B. napus cp genomes revealed highly divergent intergenic sequences and introns that can potentially be developed as diagnostic cp markers. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of cp genes suggested that nucleotide substitutions have occurred at similar rates in most genes. The complete sequence of the radish cp genome would serve as a valuable resource for the development of new molecular markers and the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Raphanus species in the Brassicaceae family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosystematic studies on Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Khalik, K.N.E.

    2002-01-01

    The present work deals with a systematic investigation of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of the tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of the family Brassicaceae from Egypt. This work is largely based on herbarium material

  8. Development of genomic and EST-SSR markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Ryoichi; Hashida, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hirai, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to Brassicaceae family and is a close relative of Brassica. This species shows a wide morphological diversity, and is an important vegetable especially in Asia. However, molecular research of radish is behind compared to that of Brassica. For example, reports on SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers are limited. Here, we designed 417 radish SSR markers from SSR-enriched genomic libraries and the cDNA data. Of the 256 SSR markers succeeded in PCR, 130 showed clear polymorphisms between two radish lines; a rat-tail radish and a Japanese cultivar, ‘Harufuku’. As a test case for evaluation of the present SSRs, we conducted two studies. First, we selected 16 SSRs to calculate polymorphism information contents (PICs) using 16 radish cultivars and four other Brassicaceae species. These markers detected 3–15 alleles (average = 9.6). PIC values ranged from 0.54 to 0.92 (average = 0.78). Second, part of the present SSRs were tested for mapping using our previously-examined mapping population. The map spanned 672.7 cM with nine linkage groups (LGs). The 21 radish SSR markers were distributed throughout the LGs. The SSR markers developed here would be informative and useful for genetic analysis in radish and its related species. PMID:23136479

  9. Behavioral evidence of antidepressant-like activity of Raphanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Our results clearly show that Raphanus caudatus ameliorate depression-like behavior in rodent model, and can be used to establish newer antidepressant approaches in future. However, mechanism-based studies are needed to establish the mechanistic action of Raphanus caudatus L. Keywords: Raphanus ...

  10. Deteksi dan Identifikasi Cendawan Terbawa Benih Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoni Sulthan Harahap

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality is very critical in agricultural production, especially to gain high yield and reduce disease problems in the field. New diseases or pathogens is potentially entering a country through seed movement by import activity. This study aimed to detect and identify seed-borne fungi from Brassicaceae seeds imported from the United States and Malaysia. Seeds were incubated on 5 sheets of wet blotting paper at a temperature of 27–30 °C for 14 days following surface sterilization. Each fungus that grows on the seed was isolated on potato dextrose agar and malt extract agar for further morphological identification. The three fungi most commonly found either on the seed with or without surface-sterilization were Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia lunata and A. niger. All of the  fungi were a potential pathogen in the family Brassicaceae seeds and seedlings. Important pathogen in Brassicaceae crops, i.e. Phoma lingam was also found in small amounts and only on white pak choy seeds.

  11. Progesterone 5β-reductase genes of the Brassicaceae family as function-associated molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkert, J; Costa, C; Budeanu, O; Petersen, J; Bertolucci, S; Fischer, G; Müller-Uri, F; Kreis, W

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to define progesterone 5β-reductases (P5βR, EC 1.3.99.6, enone 1,4-reductases) as function-associated molecular markers at the plant family level. Therefore cDNAs were isolated from 25 Brassicaceae species, including two species, Erysimum crepidifolium and Draba aizoides, known to produce cardiac glycosides. The sequences were used in a molecular phylogeny study. The cladogram created is congruent to the existing molecular analyses. Recombinant His-tagged forms of the P5βR cDNAs from Aethionema grandiflorum, Draba aizoides, Nasturtium officinale, Raphanus sativus and Sisymbrium officinale were expressed in E. coli. Enone 1,4-reductase activity was demonstrated in vitro using progesterone and 2-cyclohexen-1-one as substrates. Evidence is provided that functional P5βRs are ubiquitous in the Brassicaceae. The recombinant P5βR enzymes showed different substrate preferences towards progesterone and 2-cyclohexen-1-one. Sequence comparison of the catalytic pocket of the P5βR enzymes and homology modelling using Digitalis lanata P5βR (PDB ID: 2V6G) as template highlighted the importance of the hydrophobicity of the binding pocket for substrate discrimination. It is concluded that P5βR genes or P5βR proteins can be used as valuable function-associated molecular markers to infer taxonomic relationship and evolutionary diversification from a metabolic/catalytic perspective. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Comprehensive analysis of expressed sequence tags from cultivated and wild radish (Raphanus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Radish (Raphanus sativus L., 2n = 2× = 18) is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. A large collection of radish expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has been generated but remains largely uncharacterized. Results In this study, approximately 315,000 ESTs derived from 22 Raphanus cDNA libraries from 18 different genotypes were analyzed, for the purpose of gene and marker discovery and to evaluate large-scale genome duplication and phylogenetic relationships among Raphanus spp. The ESTs were assembled into 85,083 unigenes, of which 90%, 65%, 89% and 89% had homologous sequences in the GenBank nr, SwissProt, TrEMBL and Arabidopsis protein databases, respectively. A total of 66,194 (78%) could be assigned at least one gene ontology (GO) term. Comparative analysis identified 5,595 gene families unique to radish that were significantly enriched with genes related to small molecule metabolism, as well as 12,899 specific to the Brassicaceae that were enriched with genes related to seed oil body biogenesis and responses to phytohormones. The analysis further indicated that the divergence of radish and Brassica rapa occurred approximately 8.9-14.9 million years ago (MYA), following a whole-genome duplication event (12.8-21.4 MYA) in their common ancestor. An additional whole-genome duplication event in radish occurred at 5.1-8.4 MYA, after its divergence from B. rapa. A total of 13,570 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 28,758 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. Using a subset of SNPs, the phylogenetic relationships of eight different accessions of Raphanus was inferred. Conclusion Comprehensive analysis of radish ESTs provided new insights into radish genome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships of different radish accessions. Moreover, the radish EST sequences and the associated SSR and SNP markers described in this study represent a valuable resource for radish functional genomics studies and

  13. Production of cybrids in Brassicaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylenko, Maksym; Ovcharenko, Olga; Gleba, Yuri; Kuchuk, Nikolay

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes a method of cytoplasm transfer within the brassicaceae family through Ca-PEG-mediated protoplast fusion. The method includes a protocol of nonmutagenic albinism induction based on spectinomycin-induced plastid ribosome deficiency (PRD). The proposed application of spectinomycin-mediated albinism allows speeding up creation of albino lines, as well as of hybrid production with substituted cytoplasm. According to described method cybrids between Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus, O. violaceus and Lesquerella fendleri have been produced. Methods of further molecular analysis are also presented. The time-scale and reliability of described methods are indicated.

  14. Evolution of genome size in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J Spencer; Pepper, Alan E; Hall, Anne E; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Hodnett, George; Drabek, Janice; Lopez, Rebecca; Price, H James

    2005-01-01

    Brassicaceae, with nearly 340 genera and more than 3350 species, anchors the low range of angiosperm genome sizes. The relatively narrow range of DNA content (0.16 pg Lepidium virginicum and Brassica rapa. Branches in the phylogenetic tree that represent probable evolutionary increases in genome size terminate in Arabidopsis halleri, A. lyrata, Arabis hirsuta, Capsella rubella, Caulanthus heterophyllus, Crucihimalaya, Lepidium sativum, Sisymbrium and Thlaspi arvense. Branches within one clade containing Brassica were identified that represent two ancient ploidy events (2x to 4x and 4x to 6x) that were predicted from published comparative mapping studies.

  15. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

  16. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that consumption of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has positive influence on reduction of risks of a number of cancers and cardiovascular diseases, due to its content of some beneficial phytochemicals [1-3]. In traditional Chinese medicine, Raphanus sativus seed oil, which is rich in sulforaphene, is used to improve intestinal.

  17. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane ...

  18. Florivores prefer white versus pink petal color morphs in wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Andrew C; Murphy, Stephen J; Venner, Colin; Brown, Monique

    2013-05-01

    Many hypotheses suggest that pollinators act to maintain or change floral color morph frequencies in nature, although pollinator preferences do not always match color morph frequencies in the field. Therefore, non-pollinating agents may also be responsible for color morph frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether Raphanus sativus plants with white flowers received different amounts of florivory than plants with pink flowers, and whether florivores preferred one floral color over the other. We found that white-flowered plants received significantly more floral damage than pink-flowered plants in eight populations over 4 years in northern California. Both generalists and specialists on Brassicaceae preferred white petals in choice and short-term no choice tests. In performance tests, generalists gained more weight on white versus pink petals whereas specialists gained similar amounts of weight on pink and white morphs. Because our results suggest that florivores prefer and perform better on white versus pink flowers, these insects may have the opportunity to affect the frequency of color morphs in the field.

  19. Repellency, toxicity, and oviposition inhibition of vegetable extracts against greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Eduardo Mendoza-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a search for sustainable options of greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood management, the toxic and/or repellent potential of water, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae, Comocladia engleriana Loes (Anacardiaceae, Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae, Raphanus raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae, and Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. aggr.* (Asteraceae were evaluated. Repellency was assessed by the cylinder method (olfactometer, while toxicity and oviposition inhibition were assessed by the leaf immersion method. Acetonic extracts did not cause any repellent or insecticidal effect. In contrast, 200 mg mL-1 water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and ethanolic extract of A. artemisiifolia had the highest repellent activity (76%, 72%, and 69%, respectively although their activity decreased gradually over time. Ethanolic extracts of P. auritum (66% and R. raphanistrum (56% at 200 mg mL¹ were highlighted as being toxic, while the most effective in inhibiting oviposition were water extracts of R. raphanistrum (76.1% and P. auritum (72.0% and ethanolic extract of P. auritum (69.5%; however, concentrations lower than 60 mg mL-1 caused oviposition stimulation. Our results suggest that water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and P. auritum represent a useful tool in integrated whitefly management.

  20. Molecular Resources from Transcriptomes in the Brassicaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lua Lopez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly falling costs and the increasing availability of large DNA sequence data sets facilitate the fast and affordable mining of large molecular markers data sets for comprehensive evolutionary studies. The Brassicaceae (mustards are an important species-rich family in the plant kingdom with taxa distributed worldwide and a complex evolutionary history. We performed Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs mining using de novo assembled transcriptomes from 19 species across the Brassicaceae in order to study SSR evolution and provide comprehensive sets of molecular markers for genetic studies within the family. Moreover, we selected the genus Cochlearia to test the transferability and polymorphism of these markers among species. Additionally, we annotated Cochlearia pyrenaica transcriptome in order to identify the position of each of the mined SSRs. While we introduce a new set of tools that will further enable evolutionary studies across the Brassicaceae, we also discuss some broader aspects of SSR evolution. Overall, we developed 2012 ready-to-use SSR markers with their respective primers in 19 Brassicaceae species and a high quality annotated transcriptome for C. pyrenaica. As indicated by our transferability test with the genus Cochlearia these SSRs are transferable to species within the genus increasing exponentially the number of targeted species. Also, our polymorphism results showed substantial levels of variability for these markers. Finally, despite its complex evolutionary history, SSR evolution across the Brassicaceae family is highly conserved and we found no deviation from patterns reported in other Angiosperms.

  1. De novo transcriptome analysis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and identification of critical genes involved in bolting and flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M; Sun, Xiaochuan; Xie, Yang; Liu, Liwang

    2016-05-23

    The appropriate timing of bolting and flowering is pivotal for reproductive success in Brassicaceae crops including radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Although several flowering regulatory pathways had been described in some plant species, no study on genetic networks of bolting and flowering regulation was performed in radish. In this study, to generate dataset of radish unigene sequences for large-scale gene discovery and functional pathway identification, a cDNA library from mixed radish leaves at different developmental stages was subjected to high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 54.64 million clean reads and 111,167 contigs representing 53,642 unigenes were obtained from the radish leaf transcriptome. Among these, 50,385 unigenes were successfully annotated by BLAST searching against the public protein databases. Functional classification and annotation indicated that 42,903 and 15,382 unique sequences were assigned to 55 GO terms and 25 COG categories, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that 25,973 unigenes were classified into 128 functional pathways, among which 24 candidate genes related to plant circadian rhythm were identified. Moreover, 142 potential bolting and flowering-related genes involved in various flowering pathways were identified. In addition, seven critical bolting and flowering-related genes were isolated and profiled by T-A cloning and RT-qPCR analysis. Finally, a schematic network model of bolting and flowering regulation and pathways was put forward in radish. This study is the first report on systematic identification of bolting and flowering-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing and assembly in radish. These results could provide a foundation for further investigating bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting molecular genetic mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering in Brassicaceae vegetable crops.

  2. From species to trait evolution in Aethionema (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadin, Setareh

    2017-01-01

    The plant family Brassicaceae (or crucifers) is an economically important group that includes many food crops (e.g. cabbages and radishes), horticultural species (e.g. Draba, Iberis, Lunaria), and model plant species (particularly Arabidopsis thaliana). Because of the fundamental importance of A.

  3. Signaling pathways regulated by Brassicaceae extract inhibit the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The goal of this study was identification signaling molecules mediated the formation of AGEs in brain of rats injected with CdCl2 and the role of camel whey proteins and Brassicaceae extract on formation of AGEs in brain. Methods: Ninety male rats were randomly grouped into five groups; Normal control (GpI) ...

  4. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and evolutionary analysis of flowering genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Cheng, Feng; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Duan, Mengmeng; Yang, Haohui; Li, Xixiang

    2017-12-19

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to the family Brassicaceae, and is an economically important root crop grown worldwide. Flowering is necessary for plant propagation, but it is also an important agronomic trait influencing R. sativus fleshy taproot yield and quality in the case of an imbalance between vegetative and reproductive growth. There is currently a lack of detailed information regarding the pathways regulating the flowering genes or their evolution in R. sativus. The release of the R. sativus genome sequence provides an opportunity to identify and characterize the flowering genes using a comparative genomics approach. We identified 254 R. sativus flowering genes based on sequence similarities and analyses of syntenic regions. The genes were unevenly distributed on the various chromosomes. Furthermore, we discovered the existence of R. sativus core function genes in the flowering regulatory network, which revealed that basic flowering pathways are relatively conserved between Arabidopsis thaliana and R. sativus. Additional comparisons with Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa indicated that the retained flowering genes differed among species after genome triplication events. The R. sativus flowering genes were preferentially retained, especially those associated with gibberellin signaling and metabolism. Moreover, analyses of selection pressures suggested that the genes in vernalization and autonomous pathways were more variable than the genes in other R. sativus flowering pathways. Our results revealed that the core flowering genes are conserved between R. sativus and A. thaliana to a certain extent. Moreover, the copy number variation and functional differentiation of the homologous genes in R. sativus increased the complexity of the flowering regulatory networks after genome polyploidization. Our study provides an integrated framework for the R. sativus flowering pathways and insights into the evolutionary relationships between R. sativus flowering

  5. Characterization of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 transcription factor genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X B; Liu, Z; Xu, L; Wang, Y; Zhu, X W; Zhang, W; Chen, W; Zhu, Y L; Su, X J; Everlyne, M; Liu, L W

    2016-09-23

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae plants. Previous studies have mainly focused on GSL contents, types, and biosynthesis-related genes, but the molecular characterization patterns of GSL biosynthesis-related transcription factors remain largely unexplored in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To isolate transcription factor genes regulating the GSL biosynthesis, genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were isolated in radish. Two R2R3-MYB domains were identified in the deduced amino acid sequences. Subcellular localization and yeast-one hybrid assays indicated that both the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were located in the nucleus and possessed transactivation activity. Reverse transcription quantitative analysis showed that the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were expressed in seeds, leaves, stems, and roots at the seedling, taproot thickening, and mature stages. Both genes were highly expressed during the seedling and taproot thickening stages. The expression level of RsMYB28 was found to be up-regulated following wounding, glucose, and abscisic acid treatments, whereas RsMYB29 was up-regulated following wounding and methyl jasmonate treatments. These results provide insights into the biological function and characterization of the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes, and facilitate further dissection of the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the GSL biosynthesis in radish.

  6. Insights into the species-specific metabolic engineering of glucosinolates in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) based on comparative genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Xiaowu; Yue, Zhen; Yang, Xinhua; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; He, Hongju; Li, Xixiang

    2017-11-22

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products present in Brassicales play important roles in plants against herbivores and pathogens as well as in the protection of human health. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of species-specific GSLs and their hydrolysed products in Raphanus sativus L., we performed a comparative genomics analysis between R. sativus and Arabidopsis thaliana. In total, 144 GSL metabolism genes were identified, and most of these GSL genes have expanded through whole-genome and tandem duplication in R. sativus. Crucially, the differential expression of FMOGS-OX2 in the root and silique correlates with the differential distribution of major aliphatic GSL components in these organs. Moreover, MYB118 expression specifically in the silique suggests that aliphatic GSL accumulation occurs predominantly in seeds. Furthermore, the absence of the expression of a putative non-functional epithiospecifier (ESP) gene in any tissue and the nitrile-specifier (NSP) gene in roots facilitates the accumulation of distinctive beneficial isothiocyanates in R. sativus. Elucidating the evolution of the GSL metabolic pathway in R. sativus is important for fully understanding GSL metabolic engineering and the precise genetic improvement of GSL components and their catabolites in R. sativus and other Brassicaceae crops.

  7. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization and chromosomal engineering of Brassicaceae crops.

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    Kaneko, Yukio; Bang, Sang Woo

    2014-05-01

    In Brassicaceae crop breeding programs, wild relatives have been evaluated as genetic resources to develop new cultivars with biotic and abiotic stress resistance. This has become necessary because of the diversification of ecotypes of diseases and pests, changing food preferences, advances in production technology, the use of new approaches such as in vitro breeding programs, and the need for economical production of F1 seed. To produce potential new cultivars, interspecific and intergeneric hybridizations have been performed between cultivated species and between cultivated species and their wild relatives. Furthermore, interspecific and intergeneric hybrids have been successfully produced using embryo rescue techniques. In this paper, we review the interspecific and intergeneric incompatibilities between Brassicaceae crops and their wild relatives, and the production, characterization, and improvement of synthetic amphidiploid lines, alien gene introgression lines, alloplasmic lines, monosomic alien chromosome addition lines, and monosomic alien chromosome substitution lines. The goal is to provide useful materials to support practical breeding strategies and to study the genetic effects of individual chromosomes on plant traits, the number of genes that control a trait, their linkage relationships, and genetic improvement in Brassicaceae crops.

  8. Evolution of TWIN SISTER of FT (TSF Genes in Brassicaceae

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    Yunyan Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FT and its homolog, TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF, act redundantly as integrators in floral transition pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. The evolution of these key flowering regulatory genes during Brassicaceae speciation has not been well studied; therefore, we investigated their evolution in 13 sequenced Brassicaceae species. While the phylogenetic analysis indicated that FT gene evolution has followed two independent lineage-specific routes, TSF evolution does not appear to have been completely consistent within the Brassicaceae lineage I and lineage II division. The two TSF copies in the Thellungiella genus were divided into A and B groups in the phylogenetic analysis. Examination of conserved non-coding sequences and conserved domains within a 5 kb region upstream of the TSF start codon revealed the same group division inferred by the phylogenetic analysis. In addition, TSF genes retained syntenic relationships among genes in the same group, but not between group A and group B. The two copies of the TSF gene in the Thellungiella species were syntenic to the TSF genes in group A and group B, respectively. We also identified TSF-A gene residues in the syntenic region of group B species, but no TSF-B residues could be found in the group A syntenic region. Therefore, we inferred that the TSF genes in lineage II species experienced a duplication event after diversification from lineage I. Following their split from Thellungiella, Brassica species lost the ancestral TSF gene and retained the duplicated copy.

  9. Control of corolla monosymmetry in the Brassicaceae Iberis amara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrea; Zachgo, Sabine

    2007-10-16

    Establishment of morphological novelties has contributed to the enormous diversification of floral architecture. One such novelty, flower monosymmetry, is assumed to have evolved several times independently during angiosperm evolution. To date, analysis of monosymmetry regulation has focused on species from taxa where monosymmetry prevails, such as the Lamiales and Fabaceae. In Antirrhinum majus, formation of a monosymmetric corolla is specified by the activity of the TCP transcription factors CYCLOIDEA (CYC) and DICHOTOMA (DICH). It was shown that establishment of monosymmetry likely requires an early asymmetric floral expression of CYC homologs that needs to be maintained until late floral stages. To understand how CYC homologs might have been recruited during evolution to establish monosymmetry, we characterized the likely CYC ortholog IaTCP1 from Iberis amara (Brassicaceae). Species of the genus Iberis form a monosymmetric corolla, whereas the Brassicaceae are otherwise dominated by genera developing a polysymmetric corolla. Instead of four equally sized petals, I. amara produces two small adaxial and two large abaxial petals. The timing of IaTCP1 expression differs from that of its Arabidopsis homolog TCP1 and other CYC homologs. IaTCP1 lacks an asymmetric early expression but displays a very strong differential expression in the corolla at later floral stages, when the strongest unequal petal growth occurs. Analysis of occasionally occurring peloric Iberis flower variants and comparative functional studies of TCP homologs in Arabidopsis demonstrate the importance of an altered temporal IaTCP1 expression within the Brassicaceae to govern the formation of a monosymmetric corolla.

  10. Four plant defensins from an indigenous South African Brassicaceae species display divergent activities against two test pathogens despite high sequence similarity in the encoding genes

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    de Beer Abré

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant defensins are an important component of the innate defence system of plants where they form protective antimicrobial barriers between tissue types of plant organs as well as around seeds. These peptides also have other activities that are important for agricultural applications as well as the medical sector. Amongst the numerous plant peptides isolated from a variety of plant species, a significant number of promising defensins have been isolated from Brassicaceae species. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of four defensins from Heliophila coronopifolia, a native South African Brassicaceae species. Results Four defensin genes (Hc-AFP1-4 were isolated with a homology based PCR strategy. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the peptides were 72% similar and grouped closest to defensins isolated from other Brassicaceae species. The Hc-AFP1 and 3 peptides shared high homology (94% and formed a unique grouping in the Brassicaceae defensins, whereas Hc-AFP2 and 4 formed a second homology grouping with defensins from Arabidopsis and Raphanus. Homology modelling showed that the few amino acids that differed between the four peptides had an effect on the surface properties of the defensins, specifically in the alpha-helix and the loop connecting the second and third beta-strands. These areas are implicated in determining differential activities of defensins. Comparing the activities after recombinant production of the peptides, Hc-AFP2 and 4 had IC50 values of 5-20 μg ml-1 against two test pathogens, whereas Hc-AFP1 and 3 were less active. The activity against Botrytis cinerea was associated with membrane permeabilization, hyper-branching, biomass reduction and even lytic activity. In contrast, only Hc-AFP2 and 4 caused membrane permeabilization and severe hyper-branching against the wilting pathogen Fusarium solani, while Hc-AFP1 and 3 had a mild morphogenetic effect on the fungus

  11. Nasturtium officinale (Brassicaceae: nueva cita para la Flora del Paraguay

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    Rosa Degen Naumann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta la presencia de Nasturtium officinale W. T. Aiton (Brassicaceae, nuevo género y especie para la Flora del Paraguay. La misma fue encontrada en los arroyos de la ciudad de Areguá, Capital del Departamento Central en la región Oriental del Paraguay. Se incluyen en este trabajo una descripción breve, comentarios sobre su distribución, el hábitat, la fenología, el nombre vernacular y observaciones sobre su uso.

  12. Nasturtium officinale (Brassicaceae): nueva cita para la Flora del Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Degen Naumann; Fátima Mereles Haydar

    2016-01-01

    Se documenta la presencia de Nasturtium officinale W. T. Aiton (Brassicaceae), nuevo género y especie para la Flora del Paraguay. La misma fue encontrada en los arroyos de la ciudad de Areguá, Capital del Departamento Central en la región Oriental del Paraguay. Se incluyen en este trabajo una descripción breve, comentarios sobre su distribución, el hábitat, la fenología, el nombre vernacular y observaciones sobre su uso.

  13. Water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus target the endoplasmic reticulum body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Aizawa, Kyoko; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-20

    Non-photosynthetic chlorophyll (Chl) proteins called water-soluble Chl-binding proteins are distributed in Brassicaceae plants. Brassica oleracea WSCP (BoWSCP) and Lepidium virginicum WSCP (LvWSCP) are highly expressed in leaves and stems, while Arabidopsis thaliana WSCP (AtWSCP) and Raphanus sativus WSCP (RshWSCP) are highly transcribed in floral organs. BoWSCP and LvWSCP exist in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body. However, the subcellular localization of AtWSCP and RshWSCP is still unclear. To determine the subcellular localization of these WSCPs, we constructed transgenic plants expressing Venus-fused AtWSCP or RshWSCP. Open reading frames corresponding to full-length AtWSCP and RshWSCP were cloned and ligated between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and Venus, a gene encoding a yellow fluorescent protein. We introduced the constructs into A. thaliana by the floral dip method. We succeeded in constructing a number of transformants expressing Venus-fused chimeric AtWSCP (AtWSCP::Venus) or RshWSCP (RshWSCP::Venus). We detected fluorescence derived from the chimeric proteins using a fluorescence microscope system. In cotyledons, fluorescence derived from AtWSCP::Venus and RshWSCP::Venus was detected in spindle structures. The spindle structures altered their shape to a globular form under blue light excitation. In true leaves, the number of spindle structures was drastically reduced. These observations indicate that the spindle structure was the ER body. AtWSCP and RshWSCP have the potential for ER body targeting like BoWSCP and LvWSCP.

  14. Feeding preferences of Microtheca punctigera (Achard (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae for some Brassicaceae plants in multiple-choice assays Preferência alimentar de Microtheca punctigera (Achard (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae por algumas crucíferas em testes de mútipla escolha

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    Ayres Oliveira Menezes Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Host plant feeding preference is important basic information for the development of insect management strategies. Multiple-choice feeding preference assays were conducted in the laboratory for the chrysomelid beetle, Microtheca punctigera (Achard. Feeding was assessed 72 h after onset of experiments. With one larva per Petri dish, food items comprised watercress, Nasturtium officinale L., arugula, Eruca sativa L., mustard, Brassica juncea Cosson, Chinese cabbage, B. pekinensis (Lour. Rupr. and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.. Feeding ranking preferences were Chinese cabbage, mustard, wild radish, arugula and watercress (7.97, 1.85, 0.98, 0.36 and 0.11 mm², respectively. Feeding on Chinese cabbage was 4.31 times more intense than on mustard. The same experiment was repeated with one adult per dish. Responses of males and females were quite similar. Feeding was higher on mustard (87.2 and 142.8 for males and females, respectively. Feeding on arugula (51.5 and 132.7 and Chinese cabbage (51.8 and 89.0 were intermediate. Watercress (22.96 and 39.3 and wild radish (12.03 and 28.4 were the least preferred host plants. In a third experiment, ten larvae per dish were used and spinach, Tetragonia expansa Murr., radish, Raphanus sativus L. and collard, B. oleracea var. acephala L., were also included. Daily larval frequencies on each food were also measured. Feeding was similar on Chinese cabbage and mustard (47.89 and 53.78, respectively. Number of insects was greater on mustard, Chinese cabbage and wild radish. Probable explanations for results and proposals for further investigations are discussed.Preferência alimentar é informação básica importante para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de manejo. Experimentos de preferência alimentar com múltipla chance de escolha foram conduzidos em laboratório para o crisomelídeo Microtheca punctigera (Acherd. A alimentação foi avaliada 72h após o início dos experimentos. Com uma larva por placa

  15. Complex networks of self-incompatibility signaling in the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantikanjana, Titima; Nasrallah, Mikhail E; Nasrallah, June B

    2010-10-01

    The self-pollination barrier of self-incompatibility in the Brassicaceae is based on the activity of a polymorphic stigma receptor and its pollen ligand, whose allele-specific interaction triggers a signaling cascade within the stigma epidermal cell that culminates in the inhibition of pollen tube development. Recent analyses have identified signaling intermediates and revealed unexpected cross-talk between self-incompatibility signaling and pistil development. The self-incompatibility response is now thought to be based on a phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated degradation pathway that inhibits the secretion of factors required for successful pollination. Because manipulation of the identified signaling intermediates results in only partial disruption of the self-incompatibility reaction, this pathway likely functions in conjunction with other as-yet unidentified signaling pathways to effect complete inhibition of self-pollen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extensive Chromosome Homoeology among Brassiceae Species Were Revealed by Comparative Genetic Mapping with High-Density EST-Based SNP Markers in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Saito, Masako; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Ito, Toyoaki; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kishitani, Sachie; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction–mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another. PMID:21816873

  17. Extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species were revealed by comparative genetic mapping with high-density EST-based SNP markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Saito, Masako; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Ito, Toyoaki; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kishitani, Sachie; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-10-01

    A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction-mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another.

  18. Evolutionary origins of Brassicaceae specific genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background All sequenced genomes contain a proportion of lineage-specific genes, which exhibit no sequence similarity to any genes outside the lineage. Despite their prevalence, the origins and functions of most lineage-specific genes remain largely unknown. As more genomes are sequenced opportunities for understanding evolutionary origins and functions of lineage-specific genes are increasing. Results This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the origins of lineage-specific genes (LSGs) in Arabidopsis thaliana that are restricted to the Brassicaceae family. In this study, lineage-specific genes within the nuclear (1761 genes) and mitochondrial (28 genes) genomes are identified. The evolutionary origins of two thirds of the lineage-specific genes within the Arabidopsis thaliana genome are also identified. Almost a quarter of lineage-specific genes originate from non-lineage-specific paralogs, while the origins of ~10% of lineage-specific genes are partly derived from DNA exapted from transposable elements (twice the proportion observed for non-lineage-specific genes). Lineage-specific genes are also enriched in genes that have overlapping CDS, which is consistent with such novel genes arising from overprinting. Over half of the subset of the 958 lineage-specific genes found only in Arabidopsis thaliana have alignments to intergenic regions in Arabidopsis lyrata, consistent with either de novo origination or differential gene loss and retention, with both evolutionary scenarios explaining the lineage-specific status of these genes. A smaller number of lineage-specific genes with an incomplete open reading frame across different Arabidopsis thaliana accessions are further identified as accession-specific genes, most likely of recent origin in Arabidopsis thaliana. Putative de novo origination for two of the Arabidopsis thaliana-only genes is identified via additional sequencing across accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana and closely related sister species

  19. Predicting the occurrence of alate aphids in Brassicaceae

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    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to predict the occurrence of alates of Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis erysimi, and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae in Brassicaceae. The alate aphids were collected in yellow water traps from July 1997 to August 2005. Aphid population peaks were predicted using a degree‑day model. The meteorological factors, temperature, air relative humidity, rainfall, and sunshine hours, were used to provide precision indexes to evaluate the best predictor for the date of the first capture of alate aphids by the traps. The degree‑day model indicated that the peak population of the evaluated aphid species can be predicted using one of the following biofix dates: January 1st, June 1st, and the date of the first capture of the alate aphid species by the yellow water traps. The best predictor of B. brassicae occurrence is the number of days with minimum temperature >15°C, and of L. erysimi and M. persicae, the number of days with rainfall occurrence.

  20. Self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae crops: lessons for interspecific incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nasrallah, June B

    2014-05-01

    Most wild plants and some crops of the Brassicaceae express self-incompatibility, which is a mechanism that allows stigmas to recognize and discriminate against "self" pollen, thus preventing self-fertilization and inbreeding. Self-incompatibility in this family is controlled by a single S locus containing two multiallelic genes that encode the stigma-expressed S-locus receptor kinase and its pollen coat-localized ligand, the S-locus cysteine-rich protein. Physical interaction between receptor and ligand encoded in the same S locus activates the receptor and triggers a signaling cascade that results in inhibition of "self" pollen. Sequence information for many S-locus haplotypes in Brassica species has spurred studies of dominance relationships between S haplotypes and of S-locus structure, as well as the development of methods for S genotyping. Furthermore, molecular genetic studies have begun to identify genes that encode putative components of the self-incompatibility signaling pathway. In parallel, standard genetic analysis and QTL analysis of the poorly understood interspecific incompatibility phenomenon have been initiated to identify genes responsible for the inhibition of pollen from other species by the stigma. Herewith, we review recent studies of self-incompatibility and interspecific incompatibility, and we propose a model in which a universal pollen-inhibition pathway is shared by these two incompatibility systems.

  1. Cytological studies of Brassicaceae burn. (Cruciferae juss.) from Western Himalayas.

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    Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumar, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2013-01-01

    Cytological studies have been carried out on 12 species of Brassicaceae Burn. on population basis from different geographical areas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh in the Western Himalayas. Variable chromosome reports for Barbaraea intermedia (n = 16), Cardamine loxostemonoides (n = 8), Nasturtium officinale (n = 8), Sisymbrium orientale (n = 14) on world-wide basis have been added to the previous reports of these species. The chromosome numbers in seven species as Barbaraea intermedia (n = 8), B. vulgaris (n = 8), Capsella bursa-pastoris (n = 8), Descuriania sophia (n = 10), Rorippa islandica (n = 8), Sisymbrium strictum (n = 7) and Thlaspi alpestre (n = 7) have been worked out for the first time from India. The meiotic course in the populations of seven species such as Barbaraea intermedia, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Coronopus didymus, Descuriania sophia, Nasturtium officinale, Sisymbrium orientale and S. strictum varies from normal to abnormal while all the populations of two species Barbaraea vulgaris and Sisymbrium irio show abnormal meiotic course. Meiotic abnormalities are in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, inter-bivalent connections, formation of laggards and bridges, all resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. Heterogenous sized fertile pollen grains and reduced reproductive potentialities have invariably been observed in all the meiotically abnormal populations. However, the meiotic course in all the populations of Cardamine loxostemonoides, Rorippa islandica and Thalspi alpestre is found to be normal with high pollen fertility.

  2. Reproduction on orbit by plants in the Brassicaceae family

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    Musgrave, Mary E.; Kuang, Anxiu; Xiao, Ying; Matthews, Sharon W.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies on growth and development during spaceflight had indicated that the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth was particularly difficult for plants. Our objective has been to study how the spaceflight environment impacts the different steps in plant reproduction. This goal has been pursued in two general ways: by using plants that had been pre-grown to the flowering stage on earth, and by using plants that developed completely on orbit. Our objectives have been met by a combination of experiments that required essentially no crew time on orbit, and those that required an extensive commitment of crew time. The plants chosen for the studies were closely related members of the family Brassicaceae: Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. In a series of short-duration experiments with Arabidopsis on the space shuttle we found that depletion of carbon dioxide in closed chambers resulted in aborted development of both the male and female reproductive apparatus in microgravity. Normal development was restored by addition of carbon dioxide or by providing air flow. A subsequent shuttle experiment with Brassica utilizing hardware that provides a vigorous air flow confirmed embryo development following pollination on orbit. Brassica plants grown from seed on the Mir space station produced seed that germinated and grew when replanted on orbit. Future experiments will determine effects of multiple generations in space.

  3. Characterization of the lignin polymer in Brassicaceae family

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    S. Hemmati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Residues of medicinal plants after extraction and weeds are suitable candidates for bioethanol production. Significant barriers exist to make the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstock to biofuel cost effective and environmentally friendly; one of which is the lignin polymer. Brassicaceae family is one of the potential targets for biofuel production. The structural characteristics of lignin from Hirschfeldia incana, Sisymbrium altissimum and Cardaria draba were studied in comparison to that of Brassica napus. Methods: Lignin deposition was observed by phloroglucinol and Mäule staining. The total lignin content was determined by Klason method. Maximum UV absorbance and FT-IR spectra were compared. Ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl lignin (S/G ratio as a metric of lignin digestibility was determined by DFRC followed by GC-MS analysis. 1H-NMR spectra of the total lignin was compared with other spectroscopic methods. Results: Staining of thestem cross sections of C. draba showed higher G units in contrast to the higher S units in S. altissimum which was in agreement with 1H-NMR analysis. Total lignin content for H. incana, C. draba and S. altissimum was 27.10%, 23.8% and 24.5%, respectively. The specific maximum UV absorbance appeared between 230-260 nm. FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of more aromatic structures in the seed maturation stage than the flowering stage. S/G ratio was 0.26, 0.10 and 0.22 for H. incana, C. draba and S. altissimum, respectively.  Conclusion: Except Cardaria draba with the predominance of G subunits in lignin polymer, Hirschfeldia incana and Sisymbrium altissimum are suitable candidates for bioethanol production.

  4. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

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    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20". The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker and Verticillium wilt, but it had a varying effect on the occurrence of powdery mildew. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently from Brassicaceae seeds. In general, more fungi (including pathogenic to Brassicaceae were isolated from the seeds of plants grown in non-sulfur fertilized plots. Pathogens occurred primarily on the seed surface, and their number decreased after surface disinfection of seeds.

  5. Comparison in accumulation of lanthanide elements among three Brassicaceae plant sprouts.

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    Anan, Yasumi; Awaya, Yumi; Ogihara, Yurie; Yoshida, Miyuki; Yawata, Ayako; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2012-07-01

    Three kinds of sprouts in the Brassicaceae family of plants, namely, pink kale, radish and mustard were evaluated for the possibility of phytoremediation of lanthanides. The mustard sprout more efficiently accumulated lanthanides (e.g. 0.26 nmol La/g) than other Brassicaceae family plant sprouts (0.16 nmol La/g in the radish), however the radish sprout showed the fastest growth among three sprouts. Faster growth compensated for less efficiency in lanthanide accumulation (28 pmol La in the radish vs. 12 pmol La in the mustard) indicating that the radish is the most preferable sprout for the phytoremediation of lanthanides.

  6. The Brassicaceae family displays divergent, shoot-skewed NLR resistance gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, David; Gupta, Vikas; Bachmann, Asger

    2018-01-01

    ,235 NLRs from 9 plant species. We found stable NLR root/shoot expression ratios within species, suggesting organ-specific hardwiring of NLR expression patterns in anticipation of distinct challenges. Most monocot and dicot plant species preferentially expressed NLRs in roots. In contrast, Brassicaceae...... species, including oilseed rape and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, were unique in showing NLR expression skewed towards the shoot across multiple phylogenetically distinct groups of NLRs. The Brassicaceae are also outliers in the sense that they have lost the common symbiosis signaling pathway...

  7. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  8. A novel indirect defence in Brassicaceae: structure and function of extrafloral nectaries in Brassica juncea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathur, V.; Wagenaar, R.; Caissard, J.C.; Reddy, A.S.; Vet, L.E.M.; Cortesero, A.M.; Dam, van N.M.

    2013-01-01

    While nectaries are commonly found in flowers, some plants also form extrafloral nectaries on stems or leaves. For the first time in the family Brassicaceae, here we report extrafloral nectaries in Brassica juncea. The extrafloral nectar (EFN) was secreted from previously amorphic sites on stems,

  9. A novel indirect defence in Brassicaceae: Structure and function of extrafloral nectaries in Brassica juncea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathur, V.; Wagenaar, R.; Caissard, J.C.; Sankara Reddy, A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Cortesero, A.M.; Van Dam, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    While nectaries are commonly found in flowers, some plants also form extrafloral nectaries on stems or leaves. For the first time in the family Brassicaceae, here we report extrafloral nectaries in Brassica juncea. The extrafloral nectar (EFN) was secreted from previously amorphic sites on stems,

  10. Comparison of the emergence of three Brassicaceae species of different origins grown in Spain and USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thlaspi arvense, Camelina sativa, C. microcarpa and Neslia paniculata are four Brassicaceae family species that are becoming rare in North-Eastern Spain. Conversely, both T. arvense and C. sativa are being investigated as oilseed crops in North America for industrial/biofuel purposes. C. microcarpa ...

  11. Assessing the risk of Glyphosate to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the ecological risk to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species which may be growing in areas affected by off target movement of glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant canola (Brassica napus). Ten native grass and forb species were ...

  12. Distinct cell wall architectures in seed endosperms in representatives of the Brassicaceae and Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kieran J D; Dekkers, Bas J W; Steinbrecher, Tina; Walsh, Cherie T; Bacic, Antony; Bentsink, Leónie; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Knox, J Paul

    2012-11-01

    In some species, a crucial role has been demonstrated for the seed endosperm during germination. The endosperm has been shown to integrate environmental cues with hormonal networks that underpin dormancy and seed germination, a process that involves the action of cell wall remodeling enzymes (CWREs). Here, we examine the cell wall architectures of the endosperms of two related Brassicaceae, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the close relative Lepidium (Lepidium sativum), and that of the Solanaceous species, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The Brassicaceae species have a similar cell wall architecture that is rich in pectic homogalacturonan, arabinan, and xyloglucan. Distinctive features of the tobacco endosperm that are absent in the Brassicaceae representatives are major tissue asymmetries in cell wall structural components that reflect the future site of radicle emergence and abundant heteromannan. Cell wall architecture of the micropylar endosperm of tobacco seeds has structural components similar to those seen in Arabidopsis and Lepidium endosperms. In situ and biomechanical analyses were used to study changes in endosperms during seed germination and suggest a role for mannan degradation in tobacco. In the case of the Brassicaceae representatives, the structurally homogeneous cell walls of the endosperm can be acted on by spatially regulated CWRE expression. Genetic manipulations of cell wall components present in the Arabidopsis seed endosperm demonstrate the impact of cell wall architectural changes on germination kinetics.

  13. Molecular Phylogenetics, Temporal Diversification, and Principles of Evolution in the Mustard Family (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Franzke, A.; Al-Shehbaz, I.A.; Bakker, F.T.; Koch, M.A.; Mummenhoff, K.

    2010-01-01

    Brassicaceae is an important family at both the agronomic and scientific level. The family not only inlcudes several model species, but it is also becoming an evolutionary model at the family level. However, resolving the phylogenetic relationships within the family has been problematic, and a

  14. Evolution and protein interactions of AP2 proteins in Brassicaceae: Evidence linking development and environmental responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liping; Yin, Yue; You, Chenjiang; Pan, Qianli; Xu, Duo; Jin, Taijie; Zhang, Bailong; Ma, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Plants have evolved a large number of transcription factors (TF), which are enriched among duplicate genes, highlighting their roles in complex regulatory networks. The APETALA2/EREBP-like genes constitute a large plant TF family and participate in development and stress responses. To probe the conservation and divergence of AP2/EREBP genes, we analyzed the duplication patterns of this family in Brassicaceae and identified interacting proteins of representative Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP proteins. We found that many AP2/EREBP duplicates generated early in Brassicaceae history were quickly lost, but many others were retained in all tested Brassicaceae species, suggesting early functional divergence followed by persistent conservation. In addition, the sequences of the AP2 domain and exon numbers were highly conserved in rosids. Furthermore, we used 16 A. thaliana AP2/EREBP proteins as baits in yeast screens and identified 1,970 potential AP2/EREBP-interacting proteins, with a small subset of interactions verified in planta. Many AP2 genes also exhibit reduced expression in an anther-defective mutant, providing a possible link to developmental regulation. The putative AP2-interacting proteins participate in many functions in development and stress responses, including photomorphogenesis, flower development, pathogenesis, drought and cold responses, abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Our results present the AP2/EREBP evolution patterns in Brassicaceae, and support a proposed interaction network of AP2/EREBP proteins and their putative interacting proteins for further study. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Brassica database (BRAD) version 2.0: integrating and mining Brassicaceae species genomic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica database (BRAD) was built initially to assist users apply Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic data efficiently to their research. However, many Brassicaceae genomes have been sequenced and released after its construction. These genomes are rich resources for comparative genomics, gene annotation and functional evolutionary studies of Brassica crops. Therefore, we have updated BRAD to version 2.0 (V2.0). In BRAD V2.0, 11 more Brassicaceae genomes have been integrated into the database, namely those of Arabidopsis lyrata, Aethionema arabicum, Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, Capsella rubella, Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and three extremophiles Schrenkiella parvula, Thellungiella halophila and Thellungiella salsuginea. BRAD V2.0 provides plots of syntenic genomic fragments between pairs of Brassicaceae species, from the level of chromosomes to genomic blocks. The Generic Synteny Browser (GBrowse_syn), a module of the Genome Browser (GBrowse), is used to show syntenic relationships between multiple genomes. Search functions for retrieving syntenic and non-syntenic orthologs, as well as their annotation and sequences are also provided. Furthermore, genome and annotation information have been imported into GBrowse so that all functional elements can be visualized in one frame. We plan to continually update BRAD by integrating more Brassicaceae genomes into the database. Database URL: http://brassicadb.org/brad/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE OF ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE ACTIVITY OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. VAR. CAUDATUS IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Ishrat; Siddiq, and Afshan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Currently-available antidepressant agents produce various adverse effects, and are expensive. At present, various plants are being evaluated for their possible role against numerous diseases, and no doubt, the role of traditional and complementary medicines in the development of effective therapy is incredible. The present study was designed to evaluate antidepressant-like activity of Raphanus sativus L. Var. caudatus at different doses in mice. Materials and Methods: Antidepressant potential of ethanolic extract of Raphanus caudatus L. was evaluated at three different doses 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg by using forced swim test and tail suspension test on albino male mice. The results were compared with control and standard mice groups administered with normal saline and Fluoxetine respectively. In both parameters immobility period was recorded two times during 60 days dosing. Results: The ethanol extract at all three tested doses (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) and standard fluoxetine demonstrated notable antidepressant-like activity (pRaphanus caudatus ameliorate depression-like behavior in rodent model, and can be used to establish newer antidepressant approaches in future. However, mechanism-based studies are needed to establish the mechanistic action of Raphanus caudatus L. List of Abbreviations: EERC Ethanol Extract of Raphanus caudatus: FST Forced swim test: TSTTail suspension test PMID:28480425

  17. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  18. Polyphenolics profile and antioxidant properties of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2012-01-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological properties. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of R. sativus root extracted with solvents of varying polarity were evaluated using different model systems. Polyphenolic content was estimated to be in the range 13.18-63.54 mg g⁻¹ dry weight, with a considerable amount being obtained with polar solvents. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated the presence of an array of polyphenolics. Catechin was found to be the most abundant phenolic compound in water extract and sinapic acid, the predominant phenolic compound in methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. The methanolic extract showed significant ferric reducing ability, moderate metal chelating activity and strong radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract could be successfully utilised as an ingredient in functional foods. However, water extract could be more pertinent to human nutrition as it contained a significant amount of catechin, which was comparable to traditional sources like green and black tea.

  19. Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition vary in relation to nectary anatomy and location within individual flowers of several species of Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A R; Pylatuik, J D; Paradis, J C; Low, N H

    1998-06-01

    Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymology in nine species from five tribes of the Brassicaceae. In six species (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Brassica napus L., B. rapa L., Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L.) that produced nectar from both lateral nectaries (associated with the short stamens) and median nectaries (outside the long stamens), on average 95% of the total nectar carbohydrate was collected from the lateral ones. Nectar from these glands possessed a higher glucose/fructose ratio (usually 1.0-1.2) than that from the median nectaries (0.2-0.9) within the same flower. Comparatively little sucrose was detected in any nectar samples except from Matthiola bicornus (Sibth. et Sm.) DC., which possessed lateral nectaries only and produced a sucrose-dominant exudate. The anatomy of the nectarial tissue in nectar-secreting flowers of six species, Hesperis matronalis L., L. maritima, M. bicornus, R. sativus, S. arvensis, and Sisymbrium loeselii L., was studied by light and scanning-electron microscopy. Phloem alone supplied the nectaries. However, in accordance with their overall nectar-carbohydrate production, the lateral glands received relatively rich quantities of phloem that penetrated far into the glandular tissue, whereas median glands were supplied with phloem that often barely innervated them. All nectarial tissue possessed modified stomata (with the exception of the median glands of S. loeselii, which did not produce nectar); further evidence was gathered to indicate that these structures do not regulate nectar flow by guard-cell movements. The numbers of modified stomata per gland showed no relation to nectar-carbohydrate production. Taken together, the data on nectar biochemistry and nectary anatomy indicate the existence of two distinct nectary types in those Brassicacean species that possess both lateral and median nectaries

  20. Thiouracil-Forming Bacteria Identified and Characterized upon Porcine In Vitro Digestion of Brassicaceae Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebooms, Julie A. L.; Wauters, Jella; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Houf, Kurt; De Vos, Paul; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the frequent detection of the banned thyreostat thiouracil (TU) in livestock urine has been related to endogenous TU formation following digestion of glucosinolate-rich Brassicaceae crops. Recently, it was demonstrated that, upon in vitro digestion of Brassicaceae, fecal bacteria induce TU detection in livestock (porcine livestock > bovines). Therefore, the present study was intended to isolate and identify bacteria involved in this intestinal TU formation upon Brassicaceae digestion and to gain more insight into the underlying mechanism in porcine livestock. Twenty porcine fecal inocula (gilts and multiparous sows) were assessed through static in vitro colonic-digestion simulations with rapeseed. After derivatization and extraction of the fecal suspensions, TU was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS2). On average, lower TU concentrations were observed in fecal colonic simulations in gilts (8.35 ng g−1 rapeseed ± 3.42 [mean ± standard deviation]) than in multiparous sows (52.63 ng g−1 ± 16.17), which correlates with maturation of the gut microbial population with age. Further exploration of the mechanism showed cell-dependent activity of the microbial conversion and sustained TU-forming activity after subjection of the fecal inoculum to moderate heat over a time span of up to 30 min. Finally, nine TU-producing bacterial species were successfully isolated and identified by a combination of biochemical and molecular techniques as Escherichia coli (n = 5), Lactobacillus reuteri (n = 2), Enterococcus faecium (n = 1), and Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae (n = 1). This report demonstrates that endogenous formation of TU is Brassicaceae induced and occurs under colonic conditions most likely through myrosinase-like enzyme activity expressed by different common intestinal bacterial species. PMID:25261511

  1. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, white mustard (Brassica alba, Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata, Asian mustard (B. juncea, oilseed rape (B. napus, black mustard (B. nigra, rapeseed (B. rapa, white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis, ball mustard (Neslia paniculata, treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum, hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale, Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale, smooth mustard (S. erysimoides and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  2. A comparative study of flavonoid compounds, vitamin C, and antioxidant properties of baby leaf Brassicaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Gil, María I; Ferreres, Federico

    2008-04-09

    A comparative study of antioxidant compounds, flavonoids and vitamin C, and also antioxidant activity was carried out in four species of Brassicaceae vegetables used for salads: watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), mizuna [ Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica (L.H. Bailey) Haneltand], wild rocket [ Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.], and salad rocket [ Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.]. The characterization of individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI in watercress and mizuna completes the polyphenol study previously reported for wild rocket and salad rocket. The qualitative study of flavonoids in watercress leaves showed a characteristic glycosylation pattern with rhamnose at the 7 position. Isorhamnetin 3,7-di- O-glucoside was identified in mizuna leaves and may be considered a chemotaxonomical marker in some B. rapa subspecies. Brassicaceae species showed differences in the quantitative study of flavonoids, and the highest content was detected in watercress leaves. Watercress and wild rocket leaves had the highest content of vitamin C. The antioxidant activity evaluated by different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays) showed a high correlation level with the content of polyphenols and vitamin C. In conclusion, the Brassicaceae leaves studied, watercress, mizuna, wild rocket, and salad rocket, presented a large variability in the composition and content of antioxidant compounds. These baby leaf species are good dietary sources of antioxidants with an important variability of bioactive compounds.

  3. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  4. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  5. The C-terminal extension peptide of non-photoconvertible water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins (Class II WSCPs) affects their solubility and stability: comparative analyses of the biochemical and chlorophyll-binding properties of recombinant Brassica, Raphanus and Lepidium WSCPs with or without their C-terminal extension peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Uchida, Akira; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Numerous members of the Brassicaceae possess non-photoconvertible water-soluble chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins (Class II WSCPs), which function as Chl scavengers during cell disruption caused by wounding, pest/pathogen attacks, and/or environmental stress. Class II WSCPs have two extension peptides, one at the N-terminus and one at the C-terminus. The N-terminal peptide acts as a signal peptide, targeting the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum body, a unique defensive organelle found only in the Brassicaceae. However, the physiological and biochemical functions of the C-terminal extension peptide had not been characterized previously. To investigate the function of the C-terminal extension peptide, we produced expression constructs of recombinant WSCPs with or without the C-terminal extension peptide. The WSCPs used were of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea), Japanese wild radish (Raphanus sativus) and Virginia pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum). The solubility of all of the WSCPs with the C-terminal extension peptide was drastically lower than that of the recombinant WSCPs without the C-terminal extension peptide. In addition, the stability of the reconstituted WSCPs complexes with the C-terminal extension peptide was altered compared with that of the proteins without the C-terminal extension peptide. These finding indicate that the C-terminal extension peptide affects not only the solubility, but also the stability of Class II WSCP. Furthermore, we characterized the Chl-binding properties of the recombinant WSCP from Japanese wild radish (RshWSCP-His) in a 40 % methanol solution. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that RshWSCP-His required a half-molar ratio of Chls to form a tetramer.

  6. Secondary evolution of a self-incompatibility locus in the Brassicaceae genus Leavenworthia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sier-Ching Chantha

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI is the flowering plant reproductive system in which self pollen tube growth is inhibited, thereby preventing self-fertilization. SI has evolved independently in several different flowering plant lineages. In all Brassicaceae species in which the molecular basis of SI has been investigated in detail, the product of the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK gene functions as receptor in the initial step of the self pollen-rejection pathway, while that of the S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR gene functions as ligand. Here we examine the hypothesis that the S locus in the Brassicaceae genus Leavenworthia is paralogous with the S locus previously characterized in other members of the family. We also test the hypothesis that self-compatibility in this group is based on disruption of the pollen ligand-producing gene. Sequence analysis of the S-locus genes in Leavenworthia, phylogeny of S alleles, gene expression patterns, and comparative genomics analyses provide support for both hypotheses. Of special interest are two genes located in a non-S locus genomic region of Arabidopsis lyrata that exhibit domain structures, sequences, and phylogenetic histories similar to those of the S-locus genes in Leavenworthia, and that also share synteny with these genes. These A. lyrata genes resemble those comprising the A. lyrata S locus, but they do not function in self-recognition. Moreover, they appear to belong to a lineage that diverged from the ancestral Brassicaceae S-locus genes before allelic diversification at the S locus. We hypothesize that there has been neo-functionalization of these S-locus-like genes in the Leavenworthia lineage, resulting in evolution of a separate ligand-receptor system of SI. Our results also provide support for theoretical models that predict that the least constrained pathway to the evolution of self-compatibility is one involving loss of pollen gene function.

  7. Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an HTMT-coding gene from Raphanus sativus (daikon radish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuya; Toda, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Michiko; Negishi, Takashi; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru

    2009-01-01

    Background Biogenic emissions of methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br and CH3I) are the major source of these compounds in the atmosphere; however, there are few reports about the halide profiles and strengths of these emissions. Halide ion methyltransferase (HMT) and halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) enzymes concerning these emissions have been purified and characterized from several organisms including marine algae, fungi, and higher plants; however, the correlation between emission profiles of methyl halides and the enzymatic properties of HMT/HTMT, and their role in vivo remains unclear. Results Thirty-five higher plant species were screened, and high CH3I emissions and HMT/HTMT activities were found in higher plants belonging to the Poaceae family, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), as well as the Brassicaceae family, including daikon radish (Raphanus sativus). The in vivo emission of CH3I clearly correlated with HMT/HTMT activity. The emission of CH3I from the sprouting leaves of R. sativus, T. aestivum and O. sativa grown hydroponically increased with increasing concentrations of supplied iodide. A gene encoding an S-adenosylmethionine halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) was cloned from R. sativus and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. The recombinant R. sativus HTMT (RsHTMT) was revealed to possess high specificity for iodide (I-), bisulfide ([SH]-), and thiocyanate ([SCN]-) ions. Conclusion The present findings suggest that HMT/HTMT activity is present in several families of higher plants including Poaceae and Brassicaceae, and is involved in the formation of methyl halides. Moreover, it was found that the emission of methyl iodide from plants was affected by the iodide concentration in the cultures. The recombinant RsHTMT demonstrated enzymatic properties similar to those of Brassica oleracea HTMT, especially in terms of its high specificity for iodide, bisulfide, and thiocyanate ions. A survey of

  8. Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an HTMT-coding gene from Raphanus sativus (daikon radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniguchi Tomokazu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biogenic emissions of methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br and CH3I are the major source of these compounds in the atmosphere; however, there are few reports about the halide profiles and strengths of these emissions. Halide ion methyltransferase (HMT and halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT enzymes concerning these emissions have been purified and characterized from several organisms including marine algae, fungi, and higher plants; however, the correlation between emission profiles of methyl halides and the enzymatic properties of HMT/HTMT, and their role in vivo remains unclear. Results Thirty-five higher plant species were screened, and high CH3I emissions and HMT/HTMT activities were found in higher plants belonging to the Poaceae family, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., as well as the Brassicaceae family, including daikon radish (Raphanus sativus. The in vivo emission of CH3I clearly correlated with HMT/HTMT activity. The emission of CH3I from the sprouting leaves of R. sativus, T. aestivum and O. sativa grown hydroponically increased with increasing concentrations of supplied iodide. A gene encoding an S-adenosylmethionine halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT was cloned from R. sativus and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. The recombinant R. sativus HTMT (RsHTMT was revealed to possess high specificity for iodide (I-, bisulfide ([SH]-, and thiocyanate ([SCN]- ions. Conclusion The present findings suggest that HMT/HTMT activity is present in several families of higher plants including Poaceae and Brassicaceae, and is involved in the formation of methyl halides. Moreover, it was found that the emission of methyl iodide from plants was affected by the iodide concentration in the cultures. The recombinant RsHTMT demonstrated enzymatic properties similar to those of Brassica oleracea HTMT, especially in terms of its high specificity for iodide, bisulfide, and thiocyanate ions

  9. Verbreitung und Ökologie von Nasturtium x sterile (Airy Shaw) Oef. (Brassicaceae) in Mitteleuropa

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, Walter; Hurka, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Anhand der Ergebnisse von Chromosomenzählungen wird die Verbreitung der Nasturtium- Taxa (Brassicaceae) in Mitteleuropa diskutiert. Nasturtium officina/e R. Br. (2n = 32) und Nasturtium microphyllum (Boenn.) Rchb. (2n = 64) sind primär geographisch isoliert, wobei N. officinale seinen Verbreitungsschwerpunkt im südlichen Mitteleuropa hat, während N. microphyllum im nördlichen Mitteleuropa vorkommt. Die natürlichen Areale der Taxa sind durch den ehemaligen Anbau von Nasturtium als Salatpflanze...

  10. Glucosinolates in members of the family brassicaceae: separation and identification by LC/ESI-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, B; Luftmann, H

    2000-06-01

    Seeds of 14 different members of the family Brassicaceae were investigated with regard to their content and composition of glucosinolates by HPLC-UV/ESI-MS-MS coupling. The seeds were extracted with hot methanol/water (70:30 v/v) and the desulfoglucosinolates isolated by anion-exchange chromatography with solid-phase extraction columns. The desulfoglucosinolates were detected by UV and identified by ESI-MS/MS with the neutral loss method. Nineteen different glucosinolates were detected in the seeds with a wide range of contents (10-200 micromol/g) and a great variation in the composition.

  11. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE OF ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE ACTIVITY OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. VAR. CAUDATUS IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Younus, Ishrat; Siddiq, and Afshan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Currently-available antidepressant agents produce various adverse effects, and are expensive. At present, various plants are being evaluated for their possible role against numerous diseases, and no doubt, the role of traditional and complementary medicines in the development of effective therapy is incredible. The present study was designed to evaluate antidepressant-like activity of Raphanus sativus L. Var. caudatus at different doses in mice. Materials and Methods: Antidepressa...

  12. Biondication of Shartashsky forest park urban soil of Ekaterinburg using Raphanus Sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baglaeva Elena Mikhailovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ekaterinburg is a large industrial center of Russia. The pollution of the environment with heavy metals is increasing due to the industrialization and human activities. Heavy metals present a very serious problem for all living beings. The aim of this paper is to identify the pollutant content changes in the environment using Raphanus Sativus. For bioindication of urbanized soil in Shartashsky forest park of Ekaterinburg city the growth of Raphanus Sativus was investigated at ten sample plots and a control one. The element concentration in the plants and soil samples was determined by X-ray analysis. The transition of zinc, titanium, iron and calcium from the soil into the Raphanus Sativus was assessed. The results of the correlation analysis of the content of chemical elements in the samples of plants and soil can be represented as a scheme: Ti (0.94> Zn (0.68> Ca (0.53> Fe (0.45. Spearman correlation coefficients are given in brackets. Zinc content in the soil and radish samples was found to be higher than the maximum allowable concentration defined in accordance with the Russian State Standard System. It is shown that radish can be used as an indicator of soil pollution with zinc.

  13. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Pham Thi Kim; Nguyet, Nguyen Thi Minh; Dao, Dong Thi Anh

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of flavonoid extract from white radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.). Antimicrobial activity was determined by agar diffusion method against 4 strains: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS* radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The constituent elements of flavonoid extract were identified by LC-MS. Results showed that the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L. had antibacterial activity against to all four tested bacteria strains with antibacterial ring diameters in the range 8 - 20 mm in the test concentrations from 100 to 1600 mg/ml. Minimum concentration to inhibit (MIC) in the range 20 - 40 mg/ml. In addition, the extract also has the ability to eliminate ABTS* free radical with IC50 = 7.074 µg/ml. The total antioxidant capacity of extract at concentration of 100 µg/ml was 3.424 ± 0.043 mg ascorbic acid/mg. In the extract, there are three flavonoids were found: rutin, quercetin and narigenin. This is the first time narigenin was found in Raphanus sativus L. extract.

  14. Phytophagy of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae fed on prey and Brassicaceae

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    J. F. J. Grigolli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the development and reproduction of the zoophytophagous predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed kale, broccoli and cabbage affects its. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed on larvae of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae as prey with kale, cabbage, or broccoli. In the nymph period, the duration and prey consumption were similar with all the Brassicacea cultivar. However, nymph viability was higher for predators with broccoli leaves. The mean weight of 5th-instar nymphs, newly emerged females and the sex ratio were similar among the Brassicacea cultivars, while newly emerged males were heavier with kale and broccoli leaves. The supply of broccoli leaves resulted in greater oviposition, higher number of eggs per egg mass and longer longevity of P. nigrispinus males and females. Furthermore, the consumption of P. xylostella larvae by adult predators was higher with these cultivars. The net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T were highest for predators with prey and broccoli leaves. The reproductive parameters of P. nigrispinus were enhanced when fed on P. xylostella larvae with and broccoli leaves, which can be an alternative diet in laboratory rearing of this predator.

  15. Understanding of MYB Transcription Factors Involved in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mi-Suk; Kim, Jung Sun

    2017-09-14

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are widely known secondary metabolites that have anticarcinogenic and antioxidative activities in humans and defense roles in plants of the Brassicaceae family. Some R2R3-type MYB (myeloblastosis) transcription factors (TFs) control GSL biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. However, studies on the MYB TFs involved in GSL biosynthesis in Brassica species are limited because of the complexity of the genome, which includes an increased number of paralog genes as a result of genome duplication. The recent completion of the genome sequencing of the Brassica species permits the identification of MYB TFs involved in GSL biosynthesis by comparative genome analysis with A. thaliana. In this review, we describe various findings on the regulation of GSL biosynthesis in Brassicaceae. Furthermore, we identify 63 orthologous copies corresponding to five MYB TFs from Arabidopsis, except MYB76 in Brassica species. Fifty-five MYB TFs from the Brassica species possess a conserved amino acid sequence in their R2R3 MYB DNA-binding domain, and share close evolutionary relationships. Our analysis will provide useful information on the 55 MYB TFs involved in the regulation of GSL biosynthesis in Brassica species, which have a polyploid genome.

  16. The extracellular pollen coat in members of the Brassicaceae: composition, biosynthesis, and functions in pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D J

    2006-08-01

    I have used cellular and molecular genetic and bioinformatic approaches to characterise the components of the pollen coat in plants of the family Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana and several brassicas including Brassica napus, B. oleracea, and B. rapa. The pollen coat in these species is mostly made up of a unique mixture of lipids that is highly enriched in acylated compounds, such as sterol esters and phospholipids. These acyl lipids are characterised by an unusually high degree of saturation. The fatty acids typically contain 70-90% saturated acyl residues such as myristate, palmitate, and stearate. The major sterol components of the pollen coat are saturated fatty acyl esters of stigmasterol, campesterol, and campestdienol. In addition to lipids, the second major component of the pollen coat is a specific group of proteins that is dominated by a family of proteins that we term pollenins. Although pollenins are by far the major protein components of the pollen coat of members of the Brassicaceae, proteomic analysis reveals that there are several additional protein components, including lipases, protein kinases, a pectin esterase, and a caleosin. The biosynthesis of these lipids and proteins and their significance for overall pollen function are reviewed and discussed.

  17. Evolution of CONSTANS Regulation and Function after Gene Duplication Produced a Photoperiodic Flowering Switch in the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Samson; Rühl, Mark; de Montaigu, Amaury; Wötzel, Stefan; Coupland, George

    2015-09-01

    Environmental control of flowering allows plant reproduction to occur under optimal conditions and facilitates adaptation to different locations. At high latitude, flowering of many plants is controlled by seasonal changes in day length. The photoperiodic flowering pathway confers this response in the Brassicaceae, which colonized temperate latitudes after divergence from the Cleomaceae, their subtropical sister family. The CONSTANS (CO) transcription factor of Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of the Brassicaceae, is central to the photoperiodic flowering response and shows characteristic patterns of transcription required for day-length sensing. CO is believed to be widely conserved among flowering plants; however, we show that it arose after gene duplication at the root of the Brassicaceae followed by divergence of transcriptional regulation and protein function. CO has two close homologs, CONSTANS-LIKE1 (COL1) and COL2, which are related to CO by tandem duplication and whole-genome duplication, respectively. The single CO homolog present in the Cleomaceae shows transcriptional and functional features similar to those of COL1 and COL2, suggesting that these were ancestral. We detect cis-regulatory and codon changes characteristic of CO and use transgenic assays to demonstrate their significance in the day-length-dependent activation of the CO target gene FLOWERING LOCUS T. Thus, the function of CO as a potent photoperiodic flowering switch evolved in the Brassicaceae after gene duplication. The origin of CO may have contributed to the range expansion of the Brassicaceae and suggests that in other families CO genes involved in photoperiodic flowering arose by convergent evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Corolla monosymmetry: evolution of a morphological novelty in the Brassicaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrea; Horn, Stefanie; Mühlhausen, Andreas; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Zachgo, Sabine

    2012-04-01

    Evolution of floral monosymmetry is thought to be a major driving force of angiosperm radiation, making angiosperms the most successful land plant group in terms of species richness. Monosymmetry evolved from a polysymmetric ancestor repeatedly in different angiosperm lineages, where it likely facilitated diversification through the interaction with insects. Most monosymmetric taxa are thus dominated by monosymmetric members. However, in the Brassicaceae, only few members develop a monosymmetric corolla with two petal pairs of unequal size, making them an ideal system to study the evolution of molecular mechanisms enhancing flower complexity. Monosymmetry is controlled by the TCP transcription factors that belong to the CYC2 clade in distantly related taxa. In Iberis amara, the first crucifer analyzed in terms of monosymmetry development, unequal corolla formation is due to a stronger CYC2 clade gene expression in the smaller adaxial petals compared with the larger abaxial ones. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the crucifer family reveals that the monosymmetric genera Iberis, Calepina, and Teesdalia belong to one major crucifer lineage. Monosymmetry is most pronounced in Iberis and less so in Calepina and Teesdalia, with a positive dosage-dependent correlation between the strength of a CYC2 expression difference and the extent of monosymmetry formation. An early adaxial CYC2 expression in floral meristems, observed in many distantly related taxa, might have facilitated the repeated evolution of CYC2-controlled monosymmetry. Comparison of early and late CYC2 expression in monosymmetric and polysymmetric crucifers representative for the four major crucifer lineages reveals that an adaxial CYC2 expression in floral meristems is likely ancestral for the Brassicaceae. However, it got lost in all analyzed monosymmetric members and is, as such, not a prerequisite for the establishment of corolla monosymmetry in crucifers. Here, monosymmetry evolved via a heterochronic CYC2

  19. Repellent, antifeedant and insecticidal effects of neem oil on Microtheca punctigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Yatie Mikami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of concentrations (0.00, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica - Meliaceae oil emulsion on the behavioral and biological parameters of M. punctigera were investigated in the laboratory. Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. host plant was used. Multiple and no-choice feeding preference assays were conducted which shown multiple effects. The males were repelled by the neem oil in multiple-choice assay. The adult (multiple-choice and larvae (multiple and no-choice feeding were deterred. The larvae mortality was higher in the neem oil treated than the control leaves. Further investigations are suggested to test neem oil in the management of the pest in the field.Besouros Microtheca punctigera (Achard são pragas sérias de plantas hospedeiras da família Brassicaceae. Efeitos das concentrações (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; e 1,00% do óleo emulsionável de nim (Azadirachta indica Meliaceae sobre parâmetros de comportamento e biologia de M. punctigera foram investigados em laboratório. Nabiça (Raphanus raphanistrum L. foi a planta hospedeira utilizada. Ensaios de preferência alimentar com múltipla e sem chance de escolha foram conduzidos. Múltiplos efeitos do óleo de nim foram observados. Machos foram repelidos pelo óleo de nim em teste de múltipla escolha. Adultos (múltipla escolha e larvas (múltipla e sem chance de escolha sofreram deterrência. A mortalidade de larvas foi mais elevada nos tratamentos com óleo de nim que no tratamento controle. Futuras investigações são sugeridas para testar o óleo de nim no manejo de pragas no campo.

  20. Variation of antioxidative activity and growth enhancement of Brassicaceae induced by low-pressure oxygen plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism of growth enhancement induced by active oxygen species generated in an oxygen plasma is investigated. The plant growth enhancement induced by the active oxygen species would relate to an antioxidative activity, which is one of the biological responses. The amount of generated active oxygen species is varied by the oxygen gas pressure in a low-pressure RF glow discharge plasma. The antioxidative activity of sprouts of Brassicaceae induced by the oxygen plasma is maximized at pressures between 30 and 40 Pa, whereas the antioxidative activity becomes small at around 60 and 80 Pa. The pressure dependence of the antioxidative activity of sprout stems is opposite to that of the stem length of the sprouts. The growth enhancement would be induced by the increase in the concentration of active oxygen species in plants owing to the decrease in the amount of antioxidative substances.

  1. Biochemical and biological characterization of two Brassicaceae after their commercial expiry date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Nazzaro, Filomena; d'Acierno, Antonio; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Fratianni, Florinda

    2017-03-01

    Two Brassicaceae (Eruca sativa, Brassica oleracea var. sabauda) were stored in air and under a modified atmosphere for several days after their expiry date and then analyzed. The polyphenol content and composition, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts, were assessed, compared to the fresh products. Antimicrobial properties on tester strains (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and in vitro anti-proliferative activity were evaluated. The cabbage extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity mainly on the ninth day after the expiry date and retained significant inhibitory effects against colon carcinoma (CaCo-2) cells. The rocket salad extract exhibited antiproliferative but not antimicrobial activity. Overall, our results indicated that they might represent a good source of natural antioxidants with antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activity, also after their expiry date, suggesting their exploitation for the recovery of important biomolecules used in the food and health industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae tribe Alysseae inferred from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rešetnik, Ivana; Satovic, Zlatko; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Liber, Zlatko

    2013-12-01

    Numerous molecular systematic studies within Brassicaceae have resulted in a strongly improved classification of the family, as morphologically defined units at and above the generic level were often found to poorly reflect phylogenetic relationships. Here, we focus on tribe Alysseae, which despite its size (accounting for about 7% of all species) has only received limited coverage in previous phylogenetic studies. Specifically, we want to test phylogenetic hypotheses implied by current tribal and generic circumscriptions and to put diversification within tribe Alysseae into a temporal context. To this end, sequence data from the nrDNA ITS and two plastid regions (ndhF gene, trnL-F intergenic spacer) were obtained for 176 accessions, representing 16 out of 17 currently recognized genera of the tribe, and were phylogenetically analysed, among others, using a relaxed molecular clock. Due to large discrepancies with respect to published ages of Brassicaceae, age estimates concerning Alysseae are, however, burdened with considerable uncertainty. The tribe is monophyletic and contains four strongly supported major clades and Alyssum homalocarpum, whose relationships among each other remain uncertain due to incongruences between nuclear and plastid DNA markers. The largest genus of the tribe, Alyssum, is not monophyletic and contains, apart from A. homalocarpum, two distinct lineages, corresponding to sections Alyssum, Psilonema, Gamosepalum and to sections Odontarrhena and Meniocus, respectively. Clypeola, whose monophyly is supported only by the plastid data, is very closely related to and possibly nested within the second Alyssum lineage. Species of the genus Fibigia intermingle with those of Alyssoides, Clastopus, Degenia, and Physoptychis, rendering Fibigia polyphyletic. The monotypic genera Leptoplax and Physocardamum are embedded in Bornmuellera. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Underexplored biodiversity of Eastern Mediterranean biota: systematics and evolutionary history of the genus Aubrieta (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marcus A; Karl, Robert; German, Dmitry A

    2017-01-01

    Aubrieta is a taxonomically difficult genus from the Brassicaceae family with approximately 20 species centred in Turkey and Greece. Species boundaries and their evolutionary history are poorly understood. Therefore, we analysed bio- and phylogeographic relationships and evaluated morphological variation to study the evolution of this genus. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence variation of nuclear-encoded loci and plastid DNA were used to unravel phylogeographic patterns. Morphometric analyses were conducted to study species delimitation. DNA sequence-based mismatch distribution and climate-niche analyses were performed to explain various radiations in space and time during the last 2·5 million years. Species groups largely show non-overlapping distribution patterns in the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor. We recognized 20 species and provide evidence for overlooked species, thereby highlighting taxonomical difficulties but also demonstrating underexplored species diversity. The centre of origin of Aubrieta is probably Turkey, from which various clades expanded independently towards Asia Minor, south to Lebanon and west to Greece and the Balkans during the Pleistocene. Pleistocene climatic fluctuations had a pronounced effect on Aubrieta speciation and radiation during the last 1·1 million years in the Eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor. In contrast to many other Brassicaceae, speciation processes did not involve excessive formation of polyploids, but displayed formation of diploids with non-overlapping present-day distribution areas. Expansions from the Aubrieta centre of origin and primary centre of species diversity showed adaptation trends towards higher temperature and drier conditions. However, later expansion and diversification of taxa from within the second centre of species diversity in Greece started ∼0·19 Mya and were associated with a general transition of species adaptation towards milder temperatures and less dry conditions. © The

  4. Species-specific and leaf-age dependent effects of ultraviolet radiation on two Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenrath, Kerstin; Müller, Caroline

    2007-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation affects the chemical composition of a plant. Since young leaves are of higher value due to their increased photosynthetic activity, for these a more efficient protection and thus stronger responses to a short-term exposure to natural radiation including or excluding UV-A plus UV-B radiation ("+UV" vs. "-UV") were expected than for old leaves. Nutrients and characteristic secondary metabolites of two species of Brassicaceae were analysed after two days exposure in foil-tents with different UV filtering qualities. Contents of water, carbon, nitrogen and soluble protein were found to be affected by both UV and leaf-age in Sinapis alba L. but mainly by leaf-age in Nasturtium officinale L. Glucosinolates and myrosinases, both partners of the defence system of Brassicaceae, responded highly species-specific to UV exposure. Moreover, leaf-age mainly affected total glucosinolate concentrations in S. alba, but myrosinase activities in N. officinale. The most pronounced response to UV was found in the accumulation of flavonoids which are needed to shield the leaf interior against UV. In S. alba, relative contents of quercetin flavonols increased at the expense of kaempferols in +UV exposed leaves. In N. officinale, total flavonoid quantities were 10-fold lower in -UV exposed young leaves compared to S. alba, and flavonoid accumulation was induced by UV specifically in old leaves. Hydroxycinnamic acid concentrations were not affected in both species. In total, these herbaceous species showed a highly species-specific and age-dependent plasticity in response to short-term exposure to UV which is discussed with respect to their defence strategies.

  5. Nitrogen release from differently aged Raphanus sativus L. nitrate catch crops during mineralization at autumn temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) has emerged as a promising nitrate catch crop in cereal cropping, although the course of remineralization of residue N following termination of this frost-sensitive crucifer remains obscured. We incubated radish residues of different age (different planting and harvest dates......) with a loamy sand soil; mineralization of residue N was determined after 1, 2, 4 and 7 months of incubation at 2 °C and 10 °C. Incubations with soil only and with residues of white mustard (Sinapis alba, L) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) were included as references. Using linear regression, net N...

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish.

  7. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  8. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  9. Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piman Pocasap

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The reproductive parts (flower, pod, and dry seed of Raphanus sativus have the greatest isothiocyanate concentration, evidenced by a sulforaphene concentration higher than the sulforaphane. This result should inform the selection of the most appropriate harvesting stage and plant part for use as a potential chemopreventive agent.

  10. Isolation and sequence analysis of a chalcone synthase cDNA of Matthiola incana R. Br. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, B; Kittel, M; Ruhnau, B; Hemleben, V

    1990-06-01

    A cDNA clone (pcM12) of the chalcone synthase (CHS) of Matthiola incana R. Br. (Brassicaceae) was isolated from a cDNA library, sequenced and analysed. It comprises the complete coding sequence for the CHS and 5' and 3' untranslated regions. The deduced amino acid sequence shows that the Matthiola incana CHS consists of 394 amino acid residues. Comparison with CHS amino acid sequences of other plants indicates more than 82% homology.

  11. Oxidative Stress Induction by Lead in Leaves of Radish (Raphanus sativus Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet BITEUR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress was induced by lead acetate (Pb in Raphanus sativus seedlings grown in a hydroponic system using sand as substrate. Thirty day old acclimated seeds were treated for 7 days with five Pb levels (0 as control, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg l-1. Parameters such as growth, oxidative damage markers (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and hydrogen peroxide contents and enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were investigated. Lead concentration in plant tissues increased with increasing of Pb levels. Shoot fresh weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration were significantly decreased at 100 mg l-1 Pb. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and H2O2 levels were increased at 500 and 1000 mg l-1 Pb compared to control treatment, in shoots. Peroxidase activity showed a straight correlation with H2O2 concentration, whereas CAT activity decreased only in shoots. These changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants showed that the Pb exposition had a significant disturbance on Raphanus sativus plantlets and affect the biochemical and physiological processes.

  12. Molecular characterization of a trisegmented chrysovirus isolated from the radish Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Xiwu

    2013-09-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is cultivated worldwide and is of agronomic importance. dsRNAs associated with partitiviruses were previously found in many R. sativus varieties. In this study, three large dsRNAs from radish were cloned using a modified single primer amplification technique. These three dsRNAs-of lengths 3638, 3517 and 3299 bp-shared conserved untranslated terminal regions, and each contained a major open reading frame putatively encoding the chrysoviral replicase, capsid protein and protease respectively. Isometric virus-like particles (VLP), approximately 45nm in diameter, were isolated from the infected radish plants. Northern blotting indicated that these dsRNAs were encapsidated in the VLP. The virus containing these dsRNA genome segments was named Raphanus sativus chrysovirus 1 (RasCV1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RasCV1 is a new species of the Chrysoviridae family and forms a plant taxon with another putative plant chrysovirus, Anthurium mosaic-associated virus (AmaCV). Furthermore, no fungal mycelia were observed in radish leaf tissues stained with trypan blue. These results indicated that RasCV1 is most likely a plant chrysovirus rather than a chrysovirus in symbiotic fungi. An exhaustive BLAST analysis of RasCV1 and AmaCV revealed that chrysovirus-like viruses might widely exist in eudicot and monocot plants and that endogenization of chrysovirus segments into plant genome might have ever happened. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism.

  14. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  15. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

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    Fauteux François

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards, Fabaceae (legumes and Poaceae (grasses using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. and rice (Oryza sativa L. respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination

  16. Stem base diseases of winter wheat grown after forecrops of the family Brassicaceae

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    Barbara Majchrzak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study into the sanitary state of roots and culm base of winter wheat was carried out in 1999-2002 in the Production and Experimental Station in Bałcyny near Ostróda. Experimental wheat was cultivated after spring cross plants such as spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz., white mustard (Sinapis alba L, chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L., oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L., false flax (Camelina sativa L., crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. and after oats (Avena sativa L. as a control. The other experimental factor was the method of after-harvest residue management, i.e. ploughing in the stubble, ploughing in the stubble and straw, ploughing in the stubble and straw with nitrogen added. The occurrence of root rot and stem base diseases was affected by weather conditions and forecrop species. Winter wheat roots were attacked to the lowest degree when spring rape and radish were used as forecrops, and to the highest degree - when grown after oat. The culm base was most intensely infected with fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.. The remaining root-rot diseases occurred every year but with different intensity. The method of utilization of after-harvest residues did not have a clear effect on the intensity of infection of the roots and culm base of winter wheat.

  17. Transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root and identification of genes involved in response to Lead (Pb) stress with next generation sequencing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L...

  18. Dynamic Subcellular Localization of Iron during Embryo Development in Brassicaceae Seeds

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    Miguel A. Ibeas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants. Little is know about how iron is loaded in embryo during seed development. In this article we used Perls/DAB staining in order to reveal iron localization at the cellular and subcellular levels in different Brassicaceae seed species. In dry seeds of Brassica napus, Nasturtium officinale, Lepidium sativum, Camelina sativa, and Brassica oleracea iron localizes in vacuoles of cells surrounding provasculature in cotyledons and hypocotyl. Using B. napus and N. officinale as model plants we determined where iron localizes during seed development. Our results indicate that iron is not detectable by Perls/DAB staining in heart stage embryo cells. Interestingly, at torpedo development stage iron localizes in nuclei of different cells type, including integument, free cell endosperm and almost all embryo cells. Later, iron is detected in cytoplasmic structures in different embryo cell types. Our results indicate that iron accumulates in nuclei in specific stages of embryo maturation before to be localized in vacuoles of cells surrounding provasculature in mature seeds.

  19. Relaxed pollinator-mediated selection weakens floral integration in self-compatible taxa of Leavenworthia (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ingrid A; Busch, Jeremiah W

    2006-06-01

    Natural selection should favor the integration of floral traits that enhance pollen export and import in plant populations that rely upon pollinators. If this is true, then phenotypic correlations between floral traits should weaken in self-fertilizing groups that do not require pollinator visitation to produce seed. We tested this hypothesis in Leavenworthia, a plant genus in which there have been multiple independent losses of the sporophytic self-incompatibility system found throughout the Brassicaceae. In particular, we conducted phylogenetically independent contrasts of floral trait correlations between two pairs of self-incompatible (SI) and self-compatible (SC) sister taxa. In support of the hypothesis that pollinator-mediated selection integrates floral traits, we found that both SC Leavenworthia taxa have weaker overall floral correlations in comparison to sister taxa that rely upon pollinators. The two independently derived SC Leavenworthia flowers have significantly weaker stamen-petal or pistil-petal correlations, respectively, whereas the stamen-pistil correlation remains constant. These patterns suggest that relaxation of pollinator-mediated selection weakens the integration of traits associated with pollen export and import. The retention of high stamen-pistil correlations in the SC taxa of Leavenworthia further implies that the integration of these traits is either constrained or maintained by selection favoring the successful transfer of pollen within flowers to secure self-pollination.

  20. POT1-independent single-strand telomeric DNA binding activities in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirov, Eugene V; McKnight, Thomas D; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2009-06-01

    Telomeres define the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes and are required for genome maintenance and continued cell proliferation. The extreme ends of telomeres terminate in a single-strand protrusion, termed the G-overhang, which, in vertebrates and fission yeast, is bound by evolutionarily conserved members of the POT1 (protection of telomeres) protein family. Unlike most other model organisms, the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana encodes two divergent POT1-like proteins. Here we show that the single-strand telomeric DNA binding activity present in A. thaliana nuclear extracts is not dependent on POT1a or POT1b proteins. Furthermore, in contrast to POT1 proteins from yeast and vertebrates, recombinant POT1a and POT1b proteins from A. thaliana, and from two additional Brassicaceae species, Arabidopsis lyrata and Brassica oleracea (cauliflower), fail to bind single-strand telomeric DNA in vitro under the conditions tested. Finally, although we detected four single-strand telomeric DNA binding activities in nuclear extracts from B. oleracea, partial purification and DNA cross-linking analysis of these complexes identified proteins that are smaller than the predicted sizes of BoPOT1a or BoPOT1b. Taken together, these data suggest that POT1 proteins are not the major single-strand telomeric DNA binding activities in A. thaliana and its close relatives, underscoring the remarkable functional divergence of POT1 proteins from plants and other eukaryotes.

  1. Species Delimitation and Interspecific Relationships of the Genus Orychophragmus (Brassicaceae) Inferred from Whole Chloroplast Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huan; Hu, Quanjun; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A; Luo, Xin; Zeng, Tingting; Guo, Xinyi; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variations from few chloroplast DNA fragments show lower discriminatory power in the delimitation of closely related species and less resolution ability in discerning interspecific relationships than from nrITS. Here we use Orychophragmus (Brassicaceae) as a model system to test the hypothesis that the whole chloroplast genomes (plastomes), with accumulation of more variations despite the slow evolution, can overcome these weaknesses. We used Illumina sequencing technology via a reference-guided assembly to construct complete plastomes of 17 individuals from six putatively assumed species in the genus. All plastomes are highly conserved in genome structure, gene order, and orientation, and they are around 153 kb in length and contain 113 unique genes. However, nucleotide variations are quite substantial to support the delimitation of all sampled species and to resolve interspecific relationships with high statistical supports. As expected, the estimated divergences between major clades and species are lower than those estimated from nrITS probably due to the slow substitution rate of the plastomes. However, the plastome and nrITS phylogenies were contradictory in the placements of most species, thus suggesting that these species may have experienced complex non-bifurcating evolutions with incomplete lineage sorting and/or hybrid introgressions. Overall, our case study highlights the importance of using plastomes to examine species boundaries and establish an independent phylogeny to infer the speciation history of plants.

  2. Dynamic Subcellular Localization of Iron during Embryo Development in Brassicaceae Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeas, Miguel A; Grant-Grant, Susana; Navarro, Nathalia; Perez, M F; Roschzttardtz, Hannetz

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants. Little is know about how iron is loaded in embryo during seed development. In this article we used Perls/DAB staining in order to reveal iron localization at the cellular and subcellular levels in different Brassicaceae seed species. In dry seeds of Brassica napus, Nasturtium officinale, Lepidium sativum, Camelina sativa, and Brassica oleracea iron localizes in vacuoles of cells surrounding provasculature in cotyledons and hypocotyl. Using B. napus and N. officinale as model plants we determined where iron localizes during seed development. Our results indicate that iron is not detectable by Perls/DAB staining in heart stage embryo cells. Interestingly, at torpedo development stage iron localizes in nuclei of different cells type, including integument, free cell endosperm and almost all embryo cells. Later, iron is detected in cytoplasmic structures in different embryo cell types. Our results indicate that iron accumulates in nuclei in specific stages of embryo maturation before to be localized in vacuoles of cells surrounding provasculature in mature seeds.

  3. Evolution of DNA methylation patterns in the Brassicaceae is driven by differences in genome organization.

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    Danelle K Seymour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an ancient molecular modification found in most eukaryotes. In plants, DNA methylation is not only critical for transcriptionally silencing transposons, but can also affect phenotype by altering expression of protein coding genes. The extent of its contribution to phenotypic diversity over evolutionary time is, however, unclear, because of limited stability of epialleles that are not linked to DNA mutations. To dissect the relative contribution of DNA methylation to transposon surveillance and host gene regulation, we leveraged information from three species in the Brassicaceae that vary in genome architecture, Capsella rubella, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the lineage-specific expansion and contraction of transposon and repeat sequences is the main driver of interspecific differences in DNA methylation. The most heavily methylated portions of the genome are thus not conserved at the sequence level. Outside of repeat-associated methylation, there is a surprising degree of conservation in methylation at single nucleotides located in gene bodies. Finally, dynamic DNA methylation is affected more by tissue type than by environmental differences in all species, but these responses are not conserved. The majority of DNA methylation variation between species resides in hypervariable genomic regions, and thus, in the context of macroevolution, is of limited phenotypic consequence.

  4. Numerical taxonomy of the genus Matthiola (Brassicaceae in Northeast of Iran based on morphological traits

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    Mozhgan Rashid Taranloo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Matthiola R. BR. (Brassicaceae consists of 48 species in the Iranian plateau, of which only seven species are distributed in northeast of Iran. Six species erre collected from the region under study including M. afghanica, M. alyssifolia, M. chenopodiifolia, M. chorassanica, M. dumulosa and M. farinose. Two species, M. flavida and M. revoluta were recorded for the first time in this study. Some specimens of an unknown taxon entitled Matthiola sp. are also collected in the region and included in the present study. In this study, we tried to use a set of morphologically informative characters which could determine species boundaries and also provide appropriate identification key to the genus in the northeast of Iran. 71 morphological features including quantitative and qualitative were examined on 68 herbarium and field-collected accessions followed by statistical analyses. The results of the univariate analysis indicated that "presence/absence of trichome on the stem and leaf" and "presence/absence of glandular trichomes on the sepal and pedicel" did not significantly differentiate the species and they were excluded from the subsequent analysis. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the species under study were grouped within three groups. First group included specimens of the species M. alyssifolia, the species M. afghanica, M. chenopodiifolia, M. dumulosa, M. farinosa, M. flavida and Matthiola sp. were placed in second group and third group included specimens of the two species M. chorassanica and M. revoluta.

  5. Effect of biofumigation with brassica pellets combined with Brassicaceae cover crops and plastic cover on the survival and infectivity of inoculum of Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Molina, M Carmen; Serrano-Pérez, Paula; Palo, Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Biofumigation with defatted seed meal of Brassicaceae in the form of pellets has several advantages over the incorporation of fresh Brassicaceae crops to control soil-borne diseases. Two field experiments were established to evaluate the effect of biofumigation with brassica pellets on the survival and infectivity of Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan inoculum introduced before treatments. In the spring experiment the incorporation of additional Brassicaceae cover crop (Brassica nigra L. and Sinapis alba L.) was tested, and in the summer experiment two brassica pellet doses were applied. Biofumigation with brassica pellets in spring (3000 kg ha(-1) with and without plastic) or in summer (3000 kg ha(-1) with or without plastic; 6000 kg ha(-1) without plastic) had no significant effect on the survival of P. nicotianae, regardless of the incorporation of additional Brassicaceae cover crop in spring. Reduction in infectivity in spring was related to the application of plastic, especially when combined with brassica pellets and Brassicaceae crop. In summer, soil temperature was the main factor in the inactivation of the inoculum, especially when plastic was applied, and no additional inactivation was achieved with brassica pellets. In spring and summer, biofumigation with brassica pellets had no effect on the survival of P. nicotianae. Application of plastic in spring may reduce infectivity. Soil temperature is the main factor in the inactivation of inoculum in summer, especially when plastic is applied. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Characterization of Cell Wall Composition of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) and Maturation Related Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Brett, Anika; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-11-16

    Cell wall composition affects the texture of plant-based foods. In addition, the main components of plant cell walls are dietary fiber constituents and are responsible for potential physiological effects that are largely affected by the structural composition of the cell walls. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) is known to develop a woody and firm texture during maturation and ripening, most likely due to changes in the cell wall composition. To describe these changes chemically, radish was cultivated and harvested at different time points, followed by detailed chemical analysis of insoluble fiber polysaccharides and lignin. During maturation, changes in polysaccharide profiles were observed, with a decrease in the portion of neutral pectic side chains and an increase in the xylan portion being predominant. Radish lignin was characterized by unexpectedly high incorporation of p-coumaryl alcohol into the polymer. Maturation dependent increases in lignin contents were accompanied by compositional changes of the lignin polymers with sinapyl alcohol being preferentially incorporated.

  7. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes.

  8. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  10. Milk prevents the degradation of daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) isothiocyanate and enhances its absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Epidemiological and experimental researches show that isothiocyanate (ITC), a class of phytochemical compounds that imparts a characteristic biting taste and pungent odour to cruciferous vegetables, such as daikon (Japanese white radish, Raphanus sativus L. Daikon Group), broccoli, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage, possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The concentration of daikon ITC, which degrades in aqueous solution, was measured in mixtures of daikon juice and water, corn oil, or milk. Daikon juice mixed with corn oil or milk showed a higher concentration (1.4-fold) of daikon ITC than that in mixture with water; thus, corn oil and milk prevent the degradation of daikon ITC. Moreover, orally administered daikon juice with milk increased daikon ITC absorption in rats. Therefore, dishes or drinks that include raw daikon with corn oil or milk may promote the possible health benefits of daikon ITC by preventing ITC degradation and enhancing its absorption in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanism Underlying the Onset of Internal Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata; Masuda, Daisuke

    2016-09-07

    The internal blue discoloration observed in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots is a physiological phenomenon caused by storage following harvest at approximately 20 °C and poses a serious problem for farmers. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying the onset of internal blue discoloration of three cultivars: Hukuhomare, SC8-260, and Yuto. Each cultivar was maintained under the same conditions. Additionally, Hukuhomare radish roots were maintained at three different cultivation conditions in a related experiment. The blue discoloration in radish roots was caused by the oxidation of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin as a result of an increase in oxidative stress involving peroxidase. Thus, the extent of blue discoloration was influenced by the chemical balance involving 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin content, antioxidant capacity, and oxidation activity.

  12. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Attri, Pankaj; Koga, Kazunori; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have studied the action of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on seeds of Raphanus sativus L. and analysis their growth. Our experimental data shows that Air, O2, and NO(10%)+N2 feeding gases plasma irradiation enhanced plant growth, whereas N2, He and Ar feeding gases plasma irradiation had little influence on plant growth. Moreover, humid air plasma irradiation was more effective in growth enhancement than dry one. More than 2.3 times faster growth was observed by 3 min air plasma irradiation with 40-90% relative humidity. The reactive species generated by plasma in gas phase were detected using optical emission spectroscopy and in liquid phase by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. We concluded that OH and O radicals were key species for plant growth enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using an endophytic fungal supernatant of Raphanus sativus

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    Tej Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from supernatant of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from the healthy leaves of Raphanus sativus is studied. The synthesized AgNPs are characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The structural analysis is done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The stability of AgNPs is studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS method. The size and shape of AgNPs are observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM and found to be spherical with an average particles size of 4–30 nm. Further, these AgNPs have been found to be highly toxic against human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting the possibility of using AgNPs as efficient antibacterial agents.

  15. Application of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Raphanus sativus for catalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Tej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, economical, sustainable route of synthesis of nanoparticles and ecofriendliness. Based on the search to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating biological risks in biomedical applications, the present article reports an environment friendly and unexploited methods for biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Raphanus sativus leaf extract. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The absorption spectrum of the dark brown color silver colloids showed a single and prominent peak at 431nm, indicating the presence of AgNPs. Further, catalytic degradation of methylene blue (organic dye by using AgNPs was measured spectrophotometrically. The results revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs was found to be impressive in degrading methylene blue and can be used in water purification systems.

  16. EFECTO DE INOCULACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS EN CRECIMIENTO DE RÁBANO (Raphanus sativus EFEITO DA INOCULAÇÃO MICRORGANISMOS NO CRESCIMENTO DE RABANETE (Raphanus sativus EFFECT OF INOCULATION OF MICROORGANISMS ON RADISH GROWTH (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ INDIRA SOTELO D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la inoculación de microorganismos que pueden estimular el crecimiento en plantas, ha sido de gran interés para la producción de bioinsumos en los últimos años. Se inocularon cepas de Azotobacter sp, Bacillus pumilus y Bacillus licheniformis en un cultivo de rábano (Raphanus sativus, aisladas e identificadas de un proceso de compostaje de la empresa (GEO ®. Se realizó un diseño experimental de cinco tratamientos y un control, con 15 repeticiones para cada uno. Previo a la aplicación de los tratamientos cada cepa se sometió individualmente a crecimiento en caldo de cultivo. La aplicación de cada tratamiento se efectuó dos veces por aspersión, con un intervalo de 15 días durante el tiempo de cultivo. Las variables de respuesta que se evaluaron en el cultivo de rábano fueron: longitud de las plantas, número de hojas y peso seco del sistema radicular. Los resultados mostraron menor efectividad en la producción de biomasa radicular en el tratamiento T5 (mezcla de los tres microorganismos; además se encontró un mayor rendimiento en todas las variables de respuesta, con la utilización de la fertllización química. Sin embargo los tres microorganismos aplicados individualmente presentan resultados promisorios para la aplicación en cultivos agrícolas de ciclo corto.O efeito da inoculação de microrganismos que podem estimular o crescimento em plantas tem sido de grande interesse para a produção de bio-produtos nos últimos anos. Isolados foram inoculados Azotobacter sp, Bacillus pumilus e Bacillus licheniformis em uma cultura de rabanete (Raphanus sativus isolados e identificados em um processo de compostagem da empresa (GEO ®. Foi realizado um delineamento experimental de cinco tratamentos e controle, com 15 repetições para cada um. Antes da aplicação dos tratamentos, cada cepa foi submetida ao crescimento individual em caldo. A aplicação de cada tratamento foi realizada por aspersão duas vezes com um

  17. Biotechnological Production of Inducible Defense-Related Proteins in Edible Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Found in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Praval; Karmacharya, Anil; Sharma, Shishir; Nepal, Ashwini K.; Shrestha, Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fungal infection in plant leads to use of many hazardous antifungal chemicals. Alternative to these chemicals, defense related antifungal proteins can be used in case of fungal diseases. Aims: An experiment was done in two varieties of edible radish (Raphanus sativus var. Pyuthane Raato and Raphanus sativus var. all season) with aims to produce defense protein within the plant, to identify and perform molecular characterization of those antifungal proteins. The next aim was to compare the antifungal property of those proteins with commercially available synthetic pesticides. Methods: Both varieties of radish were infected with fungi (Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum). Protein samples were isolated from leaves following the standard protocol as described for β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and were run along with the standard protein marker of 10-250kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify and molecularly characterize them. Results: An additional band in the range of 37-50kDa was observed in the fungal infected samples, which was not seen on uninfected samples. The antifungal assay was carried out for every sample in 96 wells microtitre plate. The extracted protein samples from fungal inoculated plants showed the significant inhibition of fungal growth compared to other samples. On the basis of molecular weight and their antifungal properties, the protein samples from the fungal infected plant were found to be PR2 (Glucanase) and PR3 (Chitinase). Conclusion: Defense related proteins were successfully produced in two varieties of radish found in Nepal. The use of such biologically produced proteins may reduce the use of biologically harmful synthetic pesticides. PMID:24596739

  18. Diversification and the evolution of dispersal ability in the tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C G; Hall, J C; Rubio de Casas, R; Wang, T Y; Donohue, K

    2014-12-01

    Dispersal and establishment ability can influence evolutionary processes such as geographic isolation, adaptive divergence and extinction probability. Through these population-level dynamics, dispersal ability may also influence macro-evolutionary processes such as species distributions and diversification. This study examined patterns of evolution of dispersal-related fruit traits, and how the evolution of these traits is correlated with shifts in geographic range size, habitat and diversification rates in the tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae). The phylogenetic analysis included 72 taxa sampled from across the Brassiceae and included both nuclear and chloroplast markers. Dispersal-related fruit characters were scored and climate information for each taxon was retrieved from a database. Correlations between fruit traits, seed characters, habitat, range and climate were determined, together with trait-dependent diversification rates. It was found that the evolution of traits associated with limited dispersal evolved only in association with compensatory traits that increase dispersal ability. The evolution of increased dispersal ability occurred in multiple ways through the correlated evolution of different combinations of fruit traits. The evolution of traits that increase dispersal ability was in turn associated with larger seed size, increased geographic range size and higher diversification rates. This study provides evidence that the evolution of increased dispersal ability and larger seed size, which may increase establishment ability, can also influence macro-evolutionary processes, possibly by increasing the propensity for long-distance dispersal. In particular, it may increase speciation and consequent diversification rates by increasing the likelihood of geographic and thereby reproductive isolation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. One or three species in Megadenia (Brassicaceae): insight from molecular studies.

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    Artyukova, E V; Kozyrenko, M M; Boltenkov, E V; Gorovoy, P G

    2014-08-01

    Megadenia Maxim. is a small genus of the Brassicaceae endemic to East Asia with three disjunct areas of distribution: the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the Eastern Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia, and Chandalaz Ridge in the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. Although distinct species (M. pygmaea Maxim., M. bardunovii Popov, and M. speluncarum Vorob., Vorosch. and Gorovoj) have been described from each area, they have lately been reduced to synonymy with M. pygmaea due to high morphological similarity. Here, we present the first molecular study of Megadenia. Using the sequences of 11 noncoding regions from the cytoplasmic (chloroplast and mitochondrial) and nuclear genomes, we assessed divergence within the genus and explored the relationships between Megadenia and Biscutella L. Although M. bardunovii, M. speluncarum, and M. pygmaea were found to be indiscernible with regard to the nuclear and mitochondrial markers studied, our data on the plastid genome revealed their distinctness and a clear subdivision of the genus into three lineages matching the three described species. All of the phylogenetic analyses of the chloroplast DNA sequences provide strong support for the inclusion of Megadenia and Biscutella in the tribe Biscutelleae. A dating analysis shows that the genus Megadenia is of Miocene origin and diversification within the genus, which has led to the three extant lineages, most likely occurred during the Early-Middle Pleistocene, in agreement with the vicariance pattern. Given the present-day distribution, differences in habitat preferences and in some anatomical traits, and lack of a direct genealogical relationship, M. pygmaea, M. bardunovii, and M. speluncarum should be treated as distinct species or at least subspecies.

  20. Review on Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. wood (Brassicaceae): ethnobotany and glucosinolate chemistry.

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    Montaut, Sabine; Bleeker, René S

    2013-09-16

    Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. Wood, commonly called toothwort, is a spring perennial herb belonging to the Brassicaceae family. This endemic plant of Eastern North America has been widely used by multiple American First Nations (i.e. indigenous people of North America) for food and medicine for centuries. The aim of the review is to describe the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and bioactivity of Cardamine diphylla. The review covers literature on Cardamine diphylla, and the alternative name Dentaria diphylla, from English and French language sources. Multiple traditional uses of Cardamine diphylla by American First Nations are well documented. Initial health studies showed that the tested concentrations of the extract were not toxic against brine shrimp larvae and the same extract had a weak free-radical scavenging activity. However, bioactive compounds in the form of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates and some indole alkaloids have been isolated from this plant. Ecological research regarding Cardamine diphylla-insect interactions (such as feeding and oviposition) is also available in the literature. The wide range of traditional uses by multiple American First Nations suggests that the antibacterial, antiviral, immunostimulant, analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant should be explored in in vitro and in vivo tests. Traditional modes of preparation of the plant suggest that some of the medicinal properties could certainly be attributed to glucosinolate degradation products (i.e. isothiocyanates), but a clear assignment of active molecules and mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. The presence of glucosinolates indicates that the plant could be probed for cancer chemopreventive properties. Overall, the review shows that more investigation is necessary to determine the possible benefits of Cardamine diphylla extracts to pharmaceutical companies as a nutraceutic specialty phytotherapeutic agent against respiratory

  1. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  2. Comparison of five major trichome regulatory genes in Brassica villosa with orthologues within the Brassicaceae.

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    Naghabushana K Nayidu

    Full Text Available Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1, GLABRA 2 (GL2, ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3, and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1 and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY, were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae.

  3. Divergence of regulatory networks governed by the orthologous transcription factors FLC and PEP1 in Brassicaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Julieta L; Tilmes, Vicky; Madrigal, Pedro; Severing, Edouard; Richter, René; Rijkenberg, Colin W M; Krajewski, Paweł; Coupland, George

    2017-12-19

    Genome-wide landscapes of transcription factor (TF) binding sites (BSs) diverge during evolution, conferring species-specific transcriptional patterns. The rate of divergence varies in different metazoan lineages but has not been widely studied in plants. We identified the BSs and assessed the effects on transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and PERPETUAL FLOWERING 1 (PEP1), two orthologous MADS-box TFs that repress flowering and confer vernalization requirement in the Brassicaceae species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabis alpina, respectively. We found that only 14% of their BSs were conserved in both species and that these contained a CArG-box that is recognized by MADS-box TFs. The CArG-box consensus at conserved BSs was extended compared with the core motif. By contrast, species-specific BSs usually lacked the CArG-box in the other species. Flowering-time genes were highly overrepresented among conserved targets, and their CArG-boxes were widely conserved among Brassicaceae species. Cold-regulated (COR) genes were also overrepresented among targets, but the cognate BSs and the identity of the regulated genes were usually different in each species. In cold, COR gene transcript levels were increased in flc and pep1-1 mutants compared with WT, and this correlated with reduced growth in pep1-1 Therefore, FLC orthologs regulate a set of conserved target genes mainly involved in reproductive development and were later independently recruited to modulate stress responses in different Brassicaceae lineages. Analysis of TF BSs in these lineages thus distinguishes widely conserved targets representing the core function of the TF from those that were recruited later in evolution. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  5. Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity

    OpenAIRE

    Piman Pocasap; Natthida Weerapreeyakul; Waraporn Tanthanuch; Kanjana Thumanu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the concentration differences of sulforaphene and sulforaphane at various ages and in different parts of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus with respect to their potential cancer preventive effect on HCT116 colon cancer cells. Methods: FTIR–ATR and GC–MS were used to characterize the isothiocyanates in the plant extracts followed by HPLC for quantification. Antiproliferation and apoptosis induction were determined by using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. ...

  6. Evaluation of the Toxic Effect of Lead on Some Parameters of Growth Radish Plant (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Houria Aoumeur,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The lead pollution has become a serious problem threatening our ecosystems with detrimental effects on crop production and biodiversity, so much research is currently focused on new environmentally friendly methods such as phytoremediation .The work undertaken registers with a view to study the physiological, biochemical behavior of the plant radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In this context, the dose (250, 500 and 1000 mg / l of lead acetate were applied to radish (Raphanus sativus L. relative to a control (absence of the Lead, for a period of two months. The results show apparent changes in various parameters studied in stressed plants compared to controls. Macroscopic (inhibition of germination rate, decreased biomass and size reduction, physiological (disruption of water status, decreased chlorophyll pigments and carotenoids content were observed. Histological changes at the level of the rods (deformation of the walls of the medullary parenchyma cells, and roots (occlusion of xylem vessels were observed. However, a strong correlation between soil Lead and plant Lead was noticed. Accordingly, lead uptake by Raphanus sativus L. is influenced by its bioavailability in soil.

  7. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

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    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  8. Species delimitation and interspecific relationships of the genus Orychophragmus (Brassicaceae inferred from whole chloroplast genomes

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    Huan Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIt is rather difficult to delimit recently diverged species and construct their interspecific relationships because of insufficient informative variations of sampled DNA fragments (Schluter, 2000; Arnold, 2006. The genome-scale sequence variations were found to increase the phylogenetic resolutions of both high- and low-taxonomic groups (e.g., Yoder et al., 2013; Lamichhaney et al., 2015. It is still expensive to collect nuclear genome variations between species for most none-model genera without the reference genome. However, chloroplast genomes (plastome are relatively easy to be assembled to examine interspecific relationships for phylogenetic analyses, especially in addressing unresolved relationship at low taxonomic levels (Wu et al., 2010; Nock et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2013; Huang et al., 2014; Carbonell-Caballero et al., 2015. Plastomes are haploid with maternal inheritance in most angiosperms (Corriveau and Coleman, 1988; Zhang and Liu, 2003; Hagemann, 2004 and are highly conservative in gene order and genome structure with rare recombinations (Jansen et al., 2007; Moore et al., 2010. In this study, we aimed to examine species delimitation and interspecific relationships in Orychophragmus through assembling chloroplast genomes of multiple individuals of tentatively delimited species (Hu et al., 2015a. Orychophragmus is a small genus in the mustard family (Brassicaceae, Cruciferae distributed in northern, central, and southeastern China (Zhou et al., 2001. Its plants have been widely cultivated as ornamentals, vegetables, or source of seed oil (Sun et al., 2011. Despite controversial species delimitations in the genus (Zhou et al., 1987; Tan et al., 1998; Wu and Zhao, 2003; Al-Shehbaz and Yang, 2000; Zhou et al., 2001; Sun et al., 2012, our recent study based on nuclear (nr ITS sequence variations suggested the recognition of seven species (Hu et al., 2015a. Orychophragmus is sister to Sinalliaria, which is a genus endemic

  9. Assessment of cadmium accumulation, toxicity, and tolerance in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae plants--implications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    This study, based on a greenhouse pot culture experiment conducted with 15-day-old rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. cv. Pusa Gold; family Brassicaceae) and moong bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Pusa Ratna; family Fabaceae) plants treated with cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) soil), investigates their potential for Cd accumulation and tolerance, and dissects the underlying basic physiological/biochemical mechanisms. In both species, plant dry mass decreased, while Cd concentration of both root and shoot increased with increase in soil Cd. Roots harbored a higher amount of Cd (vs. shoot) in B. campestris, while the reverse applied to V. radiata. By comparison, root Cd concentration was higher in B. campestris than in V. radiata. The high Cd concentrations in B. campestris roots and V. radiata shoots led to significant elevation in oxidative indices, as measured in terms of electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, and lipid peroxidation. Both plants displayed differential adaptation strategies to counteract the Cd burden-caused anomalies in their roots and shoots. In B. campestris, increasing Cd burden led to a significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content but a significant increase in activities of GSH reductase (GR), GSH peroxidase (GPX), and GSH sulfotransferase (GST). However, in V. radiata, increasing Cd burden caused significant increase in GSH content and GR activity, but a significant decline in activities of GPX and GST. Cross talks on Cd burden of tissues and the adapted Cd tolerance strategies against Cd burden-accrued toxicity indicated that B. campestris and V. radiata are good Cd stabilizer and Cd extractor, respectively, wherein a fine tuning among the major components (GR, GPX, GST, GSH) of the GSH redox system helped the plants to counteract differentially the Cd load-induced anomalies in tissues. On the whole, the physiological/biochemical characterization of the B. campestris and V. radiata responses to varying Cd

  10. One-step Multiplex RT-PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection of Seed Transmissible Bacterium and Virus Occurring on Brassicaceae Crop Seeds

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    Kyusik Jeong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop specific and sensitive PCR-based procedures for simultaneous detection of economically important plant pathogenic bacteria and seed borne virus in commercial Brassicaceae crop seeds, Xanthomonns campestris pv. campestris (Xcc and Lettuce Mosaic Virus (LMV. Bacterial and virus diseases of Brassicaceae leaves are responsible for heavy losses. PCR with arbitral primers: selection of specific primers, performance of PCR with specific primers and determination of the threshold level for pathogens detection. To detect simultaneously the Xcc and LMV in commercial Brassicaceae crop seeds (lettuce, kohlrabi, radish, chinese cabbage and cabbage, two pairs of specific primer (LMV-F/R, Xcc-F/R were synthesized by using primer-blast program (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/tools/ primer-blast/. The multiplex PCR for the two pathogens in Brassicaceae crop seeds could detect specifically without interference among primers and/or cDNA of other plant pathogens. The pathogen detection limit was determined at 1 ng of RNA extracted from pathogens. In the total PCR results for pathogen detection using commercial kohlrabi (10 varieties, lettuce (50 varieties, radish (20 varieties, chinese cabbage (20 varieties and cabbage (20 varieties, LMV and Xcc were detected from 39 and 2 varieties, respectively. In the PCR result of lettuce, LMV and Xcc were simultaneously detected in 8 varieties.

  11. Stress-responsive gene RsICE1 from Raphanus sativus increases cold tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Lili; Xiang, Dianjun; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Qi, Guochao

    2017-03-01

    The ICE1 transcription factor plays a critical role in plant cold tolerance via triggering CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. In this work, a novel MYC-type ICE1-like gene, RsICE1, was isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and its function in cold tolerance was characterized in rice. The RsICE1 gene was expressed constitutively with higher transcriptional levels in the roots and stems of radish seedlings. The NaCl, cold, and ABA treatments could significantly upregulate RsICE1 expression levels, but dehydration stress had a weak effect on its expression. Ectopic expression of the RsICE1 gene in rice conferred enhanced tolerance to low-temperature stress grounded on a higher survival rate, higher accumulation of soluble sugars and free proline content, a decline in electrolyte leakage and MDA levels, and higher chlorophyll levels relative to control plants. OsDREBL and OsTPP1, downstream cold-regulated genes, were remarkably upregulated at transcription levels in rice overexpressing RsICE1 under low-temperature stress, which indicated that RsICE1 was involved in CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. Overall, the above data showed that RsICE1 played an active role in improving rice cold tolerance, most likely resulting from the upregulation of OsDREBL and OsTPP1 expression levels by interacting with the RsICE1 gene under low-temperature stress.

  12. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardali, Eleni; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papadelli, Marina; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem development and the dynamics of the lactic acid bacteria population during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine at 20 and 30 °C. In both temperatures, lactic acid bacteria prevailed the fermentation; as a result, the pH value was reduced to ca. 3.6 and total titrable acidity increased to ca. 0.4% lactic acid. Enterococci population increased and formed a secondary microbiota while pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds populations were below enumeration limit already before the middle of fermentation. Pediococcus pentosaceus dominated during the first days, followed by Lactobacillus plantarum that prevailed the fermentation until the end. Lactobacillus brevis was also detected during the final days of fermentation. A succession at sub-species level was revealed by the combination of RAPD-PCR and rep-PCR analyses. Glucose and fructose were the main carbohydrates detected in brine and were metabolized into lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol.

  13. Polyphenolics profile, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of leaves and stem of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Narasu, Mangamoori Lakshmi; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2010-03-01

    Aerial parts (leaves and stem) of Raphanus sativus, which are usually discarded were found to possess potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, as measured by standard antioxidant assays. Methanolic and acetone extracts of R. sativus leaves had total polyphenolic content of 86.16 and 78.77 mg/g dry extract, which were comparable to the traditional rich sources such as green tea and black tea. HPLC identification of polyphenolics indicated the presence of catechin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, myricetin, and quercetin in leaves and stem. Among the different extraction solvents, methanolic extract of leaves and stem showed potent reductive capacity, significantly inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation and displayed metal chelating activity. Further, they scavenged free radicals effectively with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 31 and 42 microg/ml for DPPH radical, 23 and 52 microg/ml for superoxide radical, 67 and 197 microg/ml for hydrogen peroxide,and 56 and 62 microg/ml for nitric oxide, respectively. Leaves showed most potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity as compared to stem, which may be accounted for the high polyphenolic content. Leaves and stem of R. sativus,often under-utilized part of this vegetable, thus possessed considerable amount of polyphenolics. Hence, it should be egarded as a potential source of natural antioxidants and could be effectively employed as an ingredient in health or in functional food.

  14. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

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    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  15. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Potency of Lobak Leaves (Raphanus sativus L. var. hortensis Back as Anticancer and Antimicrobial Candidates

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    ESTU RETNANINGTYAS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of vegetables can preventive cancer and have been used traditionally to cure infection, such as lobak (Raphanus sativus L.. Ineffectiveness antibiotics to against microbial infections was still problem until now. Types of antibiotics and anticancer agents from natural resources should be explored and developed. This study was aimed to know toxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of active fractions from lobak leaves. Toxicity study was conducted using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST. Samples were prepared at the concentration of 100, 500, and 1000μg/mL. Antibacterial study against Staphylococcus aureus was conducted using agar-well diffusion method at concentration 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 100%. Ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract is the most active that had larger clear zone in S. aureus culture (10,64 mm and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extract is the most active against A. salina (84% death A. salina at 100 µg/mL. Bioactive compounds at active fraction were identified to contain polar compounds.

  17. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh promoted the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosephate dehydrogenase (G-3-PD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-ICDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome-c oxidase (Cyt-c OD) in seedlings. Moreover, ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  18. Resistance Evaluation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. Inbred Lines against Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of twenties radish (Raphanus sativus L. inbred lines were mechanically inoculated with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV strain HY to evaluate TuMV resistance of the radish inbred lines. The inoculated radish plants were incubated at 22°C±3°C and resistance assessment was examined using symptom development for 4 weeks. Based on the reactions of differential radish inbred lines, 16 radish lines were produced mild mosaic, mottling, mosaic and severe mosaic symptoms by TuMV infection. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of TuMV coat protein gene, suggesting that TuMV is responsible for the disease symptoms. Four resistant radish lines did not induce systemic mosaic symptoms on upper leaves and chlorosis in stem tissues for 4 weeks, showing they were symptomless by 8 weeks. Further examination of TuMV infection in the 4 radish lines showed no TuMV infection in all systemic leaves. These results suggest that the 4 radish lines are highly resistant to TuMV.

  19. AHAS Trp-574-Leu substitution in Raphanus sativus L.: screening, enzyme activity and fitness cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellino, Roman B; Pandolfo, Claudio E; Breccia, Gabriela; Cantamutto, Miguel; Presotto, Alejandro

    2018-01-03

    Feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a problematic weed that has become resistant to AHAS (acetohydroxyacid synthase) inhibitor herbicides due to the Trp-574-Leu mutation. AHAS gene mutation that causes herbicide resistance may present negative pleiotropic effects on plant fitness. This study reports the effects of the Trp-574-Leu mutation on AHAS activity and reproductive traits of R. sativus. Eight out of 17 feral radish accessions presented resistant individuals to metsulfuron-methyl from 0.5 to up to more than 90.0 % and all the resistant individuals analyzed showed the Trp-574-Leu mutation. Without herbicide selection, the AHAS activity of a susceptible accession was 3.2-fold higher than the resistant one. The resistant accession was > 9000-fold more resistant to metsulfuron-methyl and imazethapyr than the susceptible one. Under low intraspecific competition during two growing seasons, the AHAS resistant feral radish accessions showed 22 - 38 and 21 - 47 % lower seed number and yield per plant than the susceptible ones. This is the first report of fitness cost associated with the AHAS Trp-574-Leu mutation in R. sativus populations. This fitness cost could reduce the frequency of the resistant allele without the herbicide selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Anthocyanin accumulation and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Li, Xiaohua; Jang, In Hyuk; Park, Suhyoung; Ahn, Gil Hwan; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-08

    Radish [Raphanus sativus (Rs)] is an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in radish, the gene expression of enzymes directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed. These genes include phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). RsDFR and RsANS were found to accumulate in the flesh or skin of two radish cultivars (Man Tang Hong and Hong Feng No.1). Radish skin contained higher CHS, CHI, and F3H transcript levels than radish flesh in all three cultivars. In the red radish, 16 anthocyanins were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elctrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Some of them were acylated with coumaroyl, malonoyl, feruoyl, and caffeoyl moieties. Furthermore (-)-epicatechin and ferulic acid were also identified in the three cultivars.

  1. A Case of Anaphylaxis Induced by Contact with Young Radish (Raphanus sativus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyoung; Kang, Hye-Ran; Ha, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Young radish (Raphanus sativus L), a member of the mustard family (Cruciferae), is a common ingredient of Kimchi. Although few reports have described anaphylaxis to cruciferous vegetables, we report the case of anaphylaxis induced by contact with young radish. A 46-year-old female with a history of contact allergy to metal presented to our emergency room (ER) with dizziness, generalized eruption and gastrointestinal upset. Her symptoms developed after re-exposure to young radish while chopping it. Hypotensive blood pressures were noted. Three days prior, the patient had experienced generalized urticaria with pruritus immediately after chopping the fresh young radish, which resolved spontaneously. In the ER, her symptoms improved by the administration of epinephrine (0.3 mL), antihistamine (chlorpheniramine) and isotonic saline hydration. A skin prick test with young radish extract showed positive reactivity. The same skin test was negative in five adult controls. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity could be an important immunologic mechanism in the development of young radish-induced anaphylaxis.

  2. Initiation of spontaneous tumors in radish (Raphanus sativus): Cellular, molecular and physiological events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva Osipova, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Vinogradova, Alena P; Gancheva, Maria S; Azarakhsh, Mahboobeh; Ilina, Elena L; Demchenko, Kirill N; Dodueva, Irina E; Lutova, Lyudmila A

    2015-01-15

    In plant meristems, the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation is maintained by phytohormones, specifically auxin and cytokinin, as well as transcription factors. Changing of the cytokinin/auxin balance in plants may lead to developmental abnormalities, and in particular, to the formation of tumors. The examples of spontaneous tumor formation in plants include tumors formed on the roots of radish (Raphanus sativus) inbred lines. Previously, it was found that the cytokinin/auxin ratio is altered in radish tumors. In this study, a detailed histological analysis of spontaneous radish tumors was performed, revealing a possible mechanism of tumor formation, namely abnormal cambial activity. The analysis of cell proliferation patterns revealed meristematic foci in radish tumors. By using a fusion of an auxin-responsive promoter (DR5) and a reporter gene, the involvement of auxin in developmental processes in tumors was shown. In addition, the expression of the root meristem-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) gene was observed in cells adjacent to meristematic foci. Taken together, the results of the present study show that tumor tissues share some characteristics with root apical meristems, including the presence of auxin-response maxima in meristematic foci with adjacent cells expressing WOX5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of leaf tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Zhang

    Full Text Available Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus.

  4. Energetic balance from biodiesel production of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Rubens [Parana Agronomical Institute (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: siqueira@iapar.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Boller, Walter [University of Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Agronomical and Veterinary College

    2008-07-01

    It was evaluated the energetic balance and the energetic efficiency of the oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) crop under the no-tillage system. The energy input totalized 6,718 MJ ha{sup -1} where the industrial processing, the fertilizer and the herbicide had participation of 30.7; 23.0 and 20.2 %, respectively. The energy production was 56,650.94 MJ ha{sup -1} and the produced grains have represented 33.2 % of the total. The energetic demand for the production of one kg of biomass of the aerial part, one kg of oil and one kg of biodiesel were respectively 1,829; 19,000 and 27,422 kJ. There was a return of 8.44 for each energy unit used in the process. The net gain of energy was 49,932 MJ ha{sup -1} which is equivalent in energy to 1,295 L diesel oil. (author)

  5. ADICIONES A LA FLORA DE COLOMBIA: NOVEDADES TAXONÓMICAS, COROLÓGICAS Y SINOPSIS DE LA TRIBU ARABIDEAE (BRASSICACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan novedades taxonómicas, corológicas y una sinopsis de la tribuArabideae (Brassicaceae en Colombia. Se incluye una clave para diferenciar losgéneros de la tribu presentes en el país, y claves adicionales para diferenciar lasespecies dentro de Cardamine y Rorippa. Se enumeran las especies encontradas ypara cada una se incluye información sobre su distribución geográfica y altitudinal.Se presentan ocho nuevos registros de Arabideae para Colombia, tres en Cardaminey cinco en Rorippa. Nueve taxones, descritos con base en material recolectado enColombia dentro de Cardamine, son reducidos a la sinonimia de algunas de lasespecies aquí presentadas, y se incluyen comentarios que justifican tales decisiones.

  6. Arsenic absorption by members of the Brassicacea family, analysed by neutron activation, k{sub 0}-method - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, George; Matos, Ludmila Vieira da Silva; Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Ferreira, Alexandre Santos Martorano; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: george@cdtn.br, e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Thailand and the United States of America and also in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities has been contributing to aggravate natural contamination. Brassicacea is a plant family with edible species (arugula, cabbage, cauliflower, cress, kale, mustard, radish), ornamental ones (alysssum, field pennycress, ornamental cabbages and kales) and some species are known as metal and metalloid accumulators (Indian mustard, field pennycress), like chromium, nickel, and arsenic. The present work aimed at studying other taxa of the Brassicaceae family to verify their capability in absorbing arsenic, under controlled conditions, for possible utilisation in remediation activities. The analytical method chosen was neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0} method, a routine technique at CDTN, and also very appropriate for arsenic studies. To avoid possible interference from solid substrates, like sand or vermiculite, attempts were carried out to keep the specimens in 1/4 Murashige and Skoog basal salt solution (M and S). Growth was stumped, plants withered and perished, showing that modifications in M and S had to be done. The addition of nickel and silicon allowed normal growth of the plant specimens, for periods longer than usually achieved (more than two months); yielding samples large enough for further studies with other techniques, like ICP-MS, and other targets, like speciation studies. The results of arsenic absorption are presented here and the need of nickel and silicon in the composition of M and S is discussed. (author)

  7. Penetapan Kadar Kalium, Kalsium dan Natrium dalam Umbi Lobak (Raphanus sativus L.)Dengan Metode Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Septiana, Falda

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a member of the cabbage family are planted in various areas, in which all parts of the plant radish can be used for various purposes in human life. Radish tubers can be eaten raw as fresh vegetables, made pickles or pickled, boiled and be cooked. The young leaves can be used raw or cooked vegetables. Besides tuber radish also has many benefits as a traditional medicine, contains a variety of nutrients that are beneficial to the body in the form of minerals that...

  8. Penetapan Kadar Mineral Magnesium, Besi, dan Tembaga pada Lobak Putih (Raphanus sativus L.) secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren, Jansen Benedict

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a member of the cabbage family are planted in various areas, in which all parts of the plant radish can be used for various purposes in human life. Radish tubers can be eaten raw as fresh vegetables, made pickles or pickled, boiled, and be cooked. Some nutrient can be decreased during the cooking process, including mineral. Radish tuber contain some minerals there are calcium, iron, sodium, magnesium, and copper. The purpose of this study was to determine the r...

  9. EVALUATION OF ESTERASE POLYMORPHISMS IN MATURE SEEDS OF RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. ACCESSIONS OF VIR COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rudakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A biochemical evaluation of 25 radish accessions (Raphanus sativus L. on esterase isozymes of mature seeds has been carried out. The results of the experiments showed a wide range of diversity among the genotypes based on electrophoretic zones of esterase isoenzymes. The revealed isoenzyme complex of esterases was represented by eight isoforms with molecular weights from 37.7 kD to 57.6 kD. All accessions were divided into 13 electrophoretic zymotypes, differing from each other by the presence or absence of definite zones. The most often observed electrophoretic zymo-type is Gr. 1, which includes 24% of the total number of accessions evaluated. There are 8 zymotypes (Gr. 6 Gr. 13 with a frequency of occurrence 4%. Three groups (Gr. 2 – Gr. 4 had the same frequency of occurrence – 12%. Zimotype of Gr. 5 containes the maximum number of zones – 8. 2 zimotypes – Gr. 3 and Gr. 12 had the smallest number of 4 zones. Two zones of esterases – zones 7 and 8 (Мr 39.7кD and Мr 37.7 kD, respectively were monomorphic. The remaining six zones were polymorphic, i.e. could be absent in some zimotypes. The frequency of occurrence of each zone in different zymotypes has varied from 6.58% to 17.11%. As results of this research the accessions that were selected can become the most promising parent forms for future genetic and selection studies of this culture.

  10. Novel glucosinolate composition lacking 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate in Japanese white radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Masahiko; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Ohara, Takayoshi; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Yoshiaki, Hitoshi; Kohori, Junna; Nishio, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    Genetic analysis and gene mapping of the 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate-less trait of white radish were performed and a white radish cultivar with new glucosinolate composition was developed. A spontaneous mutant having significantly low 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate (4MTB-GSL) content was identified from a landrace of Japanese white radish (Raphanus sativus L.) through intensive evaluation of glucosinolate profiles of 632 lines including genetic resources and commercial cultivars using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. A line lacking 4MTB-GSL was developed using the selected mutant as a gene source. Genetic analyses of F1, F2, and BC1F1 populations of this line suggested that the 4MTB-GSL-less trait is controlled by a single recessive allele. Using SNP and SCAR markers, 96 F2 plants were genotyped, and a linkage map having nine linkage groups with a total map distance of 808.3 cM was constructed. A gene responsible for the 4MTB-GSL-less trait was mapped between CL1753 and CL5895 at the end of linkage group 1. The genetic distance between these markers was 4.2 cM. By selfing and selection of plants lacking 4MTB-GSL, a new cultivar, 'Daikon parental line No. 5', was successfully developed. This cultivar was characterized by glucoerucin, which accounted for more than 90% of the total glucosinolates (GSLs). The total GSL content in roots was ca. 12 μmol/g DW, significantly lower than those in common white radish cultivars. Significance of this line in radish breeding is discussed.

  11. Ecotoxicity of halloysite nanotube-supported palladium nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgetti, Lucia; Riela, Serena; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Scialabba, Anna; Massaro, Marina

    2016-10-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are natural nanomaterials that are biocompatible and available in large amounts at low prices. They are emerging nanomaterials with appealing properties for applications like support for metal nanoparticles (NPs). The potential environmental impacts of NPs can be understood in terms of phytotoxicity. Current research has been focusing on HNT applications in cell or animal models, while their use in plants is limited so their ecotoxicological impact is poorly documented. To date there are no studies on the phytotoxic effects of functionalized halloysites (functionalized-HNTs). To develop a quantitative risk assessment model for predicting the potential impact of HNT-supported palladium nanoparticles (HNT-PdNPs) on plant life, an investigation was undertaken to explore their effects on seed germination, seedling development, and mitotic division in root tip cells of 2 lots of Raphanus sativus L. with different vigor. The results showed that exposure to 1500 mg/L of HNTs, functionalized-HNTs, and HNT-PdNPs had no significant influence on germination, seedling development, xylem differentiation, or mitotic index in both lots. Cytogenetic analyses revealed that treatments with functionalized-HNT significantly increased the number of aberrations in low-vigor seeds. These results suggest that low-vigor seeds represent a model for a stress test that would be useful to monitor the effects of NPs. Moreover the present study offers scientific evidence for the use of halloysite for environmental purposes, supporting the biological safety of HNT-PdNPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2503-2510. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant defence system in Raphanus sativus L. under chromium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have emerged as major environmental contaminants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of heavy metal like chromium (Cr) on man, animals and plants have been documented. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond critical levels generates oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by antioxidant defence system and stress shielding phytohormones. Thus, the present study has been focused to analyze the effect of one of imperative group of plant hormones, i.e., brassinosteroids (BRs) which have been reported for its protective properties for wide array of environmental stresses. Raphanus sativus L. (Pusa Chetaki) seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) were raised under various concentrations of Cr(VI). It was observed that 28-HBL treatment considerably reduced the impact of Cr-stress on seedlings which was evinced upon analysis of morphological and biochemical parameters of 7-days old radish seedlings. The toxic effects of Cr in terms of reduced growth, lowered contents of chlorophyll (Chl), protein, proline; increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and elevated metal uptake were ameliorated by applications of 28-HBL. Also, the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes except guaiacol peroxidase (POD), increased significantly when subjected to Cr stress in combination with 28-HBL. Overall, seed pre-soaking treatment of 28-HBL at 10(-7) M was most effective in ameliorating Cr stress. The present work emphasizes the protective role of 28-HBL on regulation of antioxidant enzymes and its possible link in amelioration of stress in plants.

  13. Dynamics of maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed development in wild radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, P. K.; Abrahamson, N. J.; Baker, R. L.; Barnes, M. G.; Koontz, T. L.; Lay, C. R.; Medeiros, J. S.; Murgel, J. L.; Shaner, M. G. M.; Simpson, H. L.; Wu, C. C.; Marshall, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Variability in embryo development can influence the rate of seed maturation and seed size, which may have an impact on offspring fitness. While it is expected that embryo development will be under maternal control, more controversial hypotheses suggest that the pollen donor and the embryo itself may influence development. These latter possibilities are, however, poorly studied. Characteristics of 10-d-old embryos and seeds of wild radish (Raphanus sativus) were examined to address: (a) the effects of maternal plant and pollen donor on development; (b) the effects of earlier reproductive events (pollen tube growth and fertilization) on embryos and seeds, and the influence of embryo size on mature seed mass; (c) the effect of water stress on embryos and seeds; (d) the effect of stress on correlations of embryo and seed characteristics with earlier and later reproductive events and stages; and (e) changes in maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed characteristics during development. Methods Eight maternal plants (two each from four families) and four pollen donors were crossed and developing gynoecia were collected at 10 d post-pollination. Half of the maternal plants experienced water stress. Characteristics of embryos and seeds were summarized and also compared with earlier and later developmental stages. Key Results In addition to the expected effects of the maternal plants, all embryo characters differed among pollen donors. Paternal effects varied over time, suggesting that there are windows of opportunity for pollen donors to influence embryo development. Water-stress treatment altered embryo characteristics; embryos were smaller and less developed. In addition, correlations of embryo characteristics with earlier and later stages changed dramatically with water stress. Conclusions The expected maternal effects on embryo development were observed, but there was also evidence for an early paternal role. The relative effects of these

  14. Bioavailability of cerium oxide nanoparticles to Raphanus sativus L. in two soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Schwab, Paul; Wang, Qiang; Ebbs, Stephen D; Ma, Xingmao

    2017-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NP) are a common component of many commercial products. Due to the general concerns over the potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), the phytotoxicity and in planta accumulation of CeO 2 NPs have been broadly investigated. However, most previous studies were conducted in hydroponic systems and with grain crops. For a few studies performed with soil grown plants, the impact of soil properties on the fate and transport of CeO 2 NPs was generally ignored even though numerous previous studies indicate that soil properties play a critical role in the fate and transport of environmental pollutants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the soil fractionation and bioavailability of CeO 2 NPs to Raphanus sativus L (radish) in two soil types. Our results showed that the silty loam contained slightly higher exchangeable fraction (F1) of cerium element than did loamy sand soil, but significantly lower reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions as CeO 2 NPs concentration increased. CeO 2 NPs associated with silicate minerals or the residue fraction (F4) dominated in both soils. The cerium concentration in radish storage root showed linear correlation with the sum of the first three fractions (r 2  = 0.98 and 0.78 for loamy sand and silty loam respectively). However, the cerium content in radish shoots only exhibited strong correlations with F1 (r 2  = 0.97 and 0.89 for loamy sand and silty loam respectively). Overall, the results demonstrated that soil properties are important factors governing the distribution of CeO 2 NPs in soil and subsequent bioavailability to plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of CO2 on growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus) in hypobaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, H. L.; Bucklin, R. A.; Correll, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Plants grown on long-term space missions will likely be grown in low pressure environments (i.e., hypobaria). However, in hypobaria the transpiration rates of plants can increase and may result in wilting if the water is not readily replaced. It is possible to reduce transpiration by increasing the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but the effects of pCO2 at high levels (>120 Pa) on the growth and transpiration of plants in hypobaria are not known. Therefore, the effects of pCO2 on the growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Cherry Bomb II) in hypobaria were studied. The fresh weight (FW), leaf area, dry weight (DW), CO2 assimilation rates (CA), dark respiration rates (DR), and transpiration rates from 26 day-old radish plants that were grown for an additional seven days at different total pressures (33, 66 or 101 kPa) and pCO2 (40 Pa, 100 Pa and 180 Pa) were measured. In general, the dry weight of plants increased with CO2 enrichment and with lower total pressure. In limiting pCO2 (40 Pa) conditions, the transpiration for plants grown at 33 kPa was approximately twice that of controls (101 kPa total pressure with 40 Pa pCO2). Increasing the pCO2 from 40 Pa to 180 Pa reduced the transpiration rates for plants grown in hypobaria and in standard atmospheric pressures. However, for plants grown in hypobaria and high pCO2 (180 Pa) leaf damage was evident. Radish growth can be enhanced and transpiration reduced in hypobaria by enriching the gas phase with CO2 although at high levels leaf damage may occur.

  16. Properties of lead deposits in cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tatai, Yuri; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Hayatsu, Manabu; Ono, Manami; Suzuki, Suechika

    2013-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in detoxification of heavy metals such as lead (Pb) in plant cells. Most of the Pb taken up by plants accumulates in their roots. However, the detailed properties of Pb complexes in roots remain unclear. We have investigated the properties of Pb deposits in root cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings grown on glass beads bed containing Pb pellets, which are the source of Pb-contamination in shooting range soils. Pb deposits were tightly bound to cell walls. Cell wall fragments containing about 50,000 ppm Pb were prepared from the roots. After extracting Pb from the cell wall fragments using HCl, Pb ions were recombined with the Pb-extracted cell wall fragments in a solution containing Pb acetate. When the cell wall fragments were treated with pectinase (E.C. 3.2.1.15) and were chemically modified with 1-ethyl-3-dimethylamino-propylcarboimide, the Pb-rebinding ability of the treated cell wall fragments decreased. When acid-treated cell wall fragments were incubated in a solution containing Pb(2+) and excess amounts of a chelating agent, Pb recombined with the cell wall fragments were measured to estimate the affinity between Pb(2+) and the cell wall fragments. Our data show that Pb(2+) binds to carboxyl groups of cell walls. The source of the carboxyl groups is suggested to be pectic compounds. A stability constant of the Pb-cell wall complex was estimated to be about 10(8). The role of root cell walls in the mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance was discussed.

  17. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract prevents cadmium-induced immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Zohra, Haous; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a known carcinogen and potent immunotoxicant in humans and animals, is dispersed throughout the environment as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract (TRE) is a known anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to help alleviate immune system disorders, including some induced by environmental toxicants. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential protective effects of TRE against Cd-induced immunotoxicities (and general toxicities) in situ. Cadmium chloride (at 2.5 mg CdCl2/kg BW) and TRE (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg BW) were given (alone or in combination [actually, in sequence of Cd and then TRE]) to rats daily by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with CdCl2 alone resulted in significant decreases in plasma levels of total protein, triglycerides, creatine kinase, creatinine, IgG and IgA, T-lymphocyte sub-types (CD4(+), CD3(+), CD56(+), and CD8(+)), and in thymic and hepatic indices (relative weights). In contrast, CdCl2 treatment caused significant increases in serum LDH, AST, and ALT, in the formation/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNFα), and in the relative weights of host spleen and kidneys. Rats treated with TRE alone had no discernable changes compared to the controls with regard to all test parameters. Combined treatment of CdCl2 and TRE-at any dose-resulted in a significant improvement of all test parameters compared to those seen with Cd alone. These results illustrated (and provided further support for a continuing belief in) the beneficial effects of TRE in reducing the harmful outcomes of commonly encountered toxicants (like Cd) on the immune system and on overall host health status.

  18. Dynamics of maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed development in wild radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, P K; Abrahamson, N J; Baker, R L; Barnes, M G; Koontz, T L; Lay, C R; Medeiros, J S; Murgel, J L; Shaner, M G M; Simpson, H L; Wu, C C; Marshall, D L

    2010-08-01

    Variability in embryo development can influence the rate of seed maturation and seed size, which may have an impact on offspring fitness. While it is expected that embryo development will be under maternal control, more controversial hypotheses suggest that the pollen donor and the embryo itself may influence development. These latter possibilities are, however, poorly studied. Characteristics of 10-d-old embryos and seeds of wild radish (Raphanus sativus) were examined to address: (a) the effects of maternal plant and pollen donor on development; (b) the effects of earlier reproductive events (pollen tube growth and fertilization) on embryos and seeds, and the influence of embryo size on mature seed mass; (c) the effect of water stress on embryos and seeds; (d) the effect of stress on correlations of embryo and seed characteristics with earlier and later reproductive events and stages; and (e) changes in maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed characteristics during development. Eight maternal plants (two each from four families) and four pollen donors were crossed and developing gynoecia were collected at 10 d post-pollination. Half of the maternal plants experienced water stress. Characteristics of embryos and seeds were summarized and also compared with earlier and later developmental stages. In addition to the expected effects of the maternal plants, all embryo characters differed among pollen donors. Paternal effects varied over time, suggesting that there are windows of opportunity for pollen donors to influence embryo development. Water-stress treatment altered embryo characteristics; embryos were smaller and less developed. In addition, correlations of embryo characteristics with earlier and later stages changed dramatically with water stress. The expected maternal effects on embryo development were observed, but there was also evidence for an early paternal role. The relative effects of these controls may change over time. Thus, there may be

  19. Effect of soil cadmium on growth, photosynthesis and quality of Raphanus sativus and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjyot; Jhanji, Shalini

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) raises serious concerns as its accumulation in the plant not only affect the growth and quality of plant but also threaten the health of consumers. In this research, two vegetables, i.e., radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L), were planted in pots having soil treated with Cd as Cd (NO3)2 at different doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil ) to investigate the influence of cadmium on their growth, photosynthetic attributes and quality. Cadmium retarded plant growth as dry weight of radish roots decline by 87% and leaves by 83% following 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application and the corresponding values for lettuce were 64 and 69% respectively. Significant reductions in various photosynthetic parameters viz., leaf area per plant, total chlorophyll, Chl a and Chl b content were also recorded with Cd applications. The Cd treatments resulted in loss of membrane integrity as revealed by significant increase in electrolyte leakage in leaves of both vegetables. There was significant increase in Cd accumulation in radish and lettuce with all applications but no visual symptoms of Cd toxicity were noticed with 25 and 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil application except for yield differences, illustrating that Cd accumulate in this crop without visual evidence of its presence. However, toxicity symptoms in the form of interveinal chlorosis of the leaf lamina, followed by necrosis and leaf rolling, were clearly evident with 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application. Apparently, Cd causes harm due to its phytotoxic effects and high accumulation in edible parts of radish and lettuce without any visible symptoms that constitutes a substantial hazard to human health.

  20. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus

  1. Pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. Redondo Gigante with graphite for germination under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobel Penteado Freitas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water stress on germination of radish seeds is dependent on the presence of light. The effect of pelletization of radish seeds with powdered graphite on the tolerance to water stress under light was analysed. White light and far-red lights were filtered by graphite increasing slightly the tolerance of pelleted seeds to water stress of -0.77MPa. Although red light also inhibited seed germination the graphite had no effect. We propose the pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus, at least in cv redondo gigante with graphite as a pratice before planting to increase the tolerance to water stress.O efeito do estresse hídrico é dependente da presença de luz em sementes de rabanete. O efeito da peletização com grafite em pó foi analisado. Luz branca e vermelho-extremo são filtradas pelo grafite aumentando parcialmente a tolerância ao estresse hídrico de -0,77MPa em sementes peletizadas. Embora a luz vermelha também iniba a germinação em condições de estresse a peletização não teve efeito. Nós propomos a peletização de sementes de Raphanus saivus L. cv. redondo gigante como uma prática antes do plantio para aumentar a tolerância ao estresse hídrico.

  2. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Long

    Full Text Available The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins.

  3. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Bing; Feng, Yanni

    2015-01-01

    The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs) in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins.

  4. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília P. Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC and sulforaphane (SFN. Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential.

  5. Additions to the type collection of Cruciferae Juss. (Brassicaceae Burnett) of Siberia and Russian Far East kept in Herbarium of V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute (LE)

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Dorofeyev

    2017-01-01

    A complete set of the type specimens of Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) of Siberia and Far East stored in the Komarov Botanical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences was investigated. Previously uncounted samples of 130 taxa from 23 genera have been identified. Lectotypification of 119 taxa is done in the paper. Most valuable contribution into the study of Siberian and the Far Eastern Cruciferae biodiversity was made by the works of N. A. Busch (genera Arabis, Draba, Erysimum, Nasturtium), E. Re...

  6. Possibilities of direct introgression from Brassica napus to B. juncea and indirect introgression from B. napus to related Brassicaceae through B. juncea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Mai; Ohsawa, Ryo; Tabei, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The impact of genetically modified canola (Brassica napus) on biodiversity has been examined since its initial stage of commercialization. Various research groups have extensively investigated crossability and introgression among species of Brassicaceae. B. rapa and B. juncea are ranked first and second as the recipients of cross-pollination and introgression from B. napus, respectively. Crossability between B. napus and B. rapa has been examined, specifically in terms of introgression from B. napus to B. rapa, which is mainly considered a weed in America and European countries. On the other hand, knowledge on introgression from B. napus to B. juncea is insufficient, although B. juncea is recognized as the main Brassicaceae weed species in Asia. It is therefore essential to gather information regarding the direct introgression of B. napus into B. juncea and indirect introgression of B. napus into other species of Brassicaceae through B. juncea to evaluate the influence of genetically modified canola on biodiversity. We review information on crossability and introgression between B. juncea and other related Brassicaseae in this report. PMID:24987292

  7. Duplication and adaptive evolution of the COR15 genes within the highly cold-tolerant Draba lineage (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dangwei; Zhou, Jie; Meng, Lihua; Wang, Qingbiao; Xie, He; Guan, Yucheng; Ma, Zeyang; Zhong, Yang; Chen, Fan; Liu, Jianquan

    2009-07-15

    Plants have evolved diverse adaptive mechanisms that enable them to tolerate abiotic stresses, to varying degrees, and such stresses may have strongly influenced evolutionary changes at levels ranging from molecular to morphological. Previous studies on these phenomena have focused on the adaptive evolution of stress-related orthologous genes in specific lineages. However, heterogenetic evolution of the paralogous genes following duplication has only been examined in a very limited number of stress-response gene families. The COR15 gene encodes a low molecular weight protein that plays an important role in protecting plants from cold stresses. Although two different copies of this gene have been found in the model species, Arabidopsis thaliana, evolutionary patterns of this small gene family in plants have not been previously explored. In this study, we cloned COR15-like sequences and performed evolutionary analyses of these sequences (including those previously reported) in the highly cold-tolerant Draba lineage and related lineages of Brassicaceae. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that all COR15-like sequences clustered into four clades that corresponded well to the morphological lineages. Gene conversions were found to have probably occurred before/during the divergence of Brassica and Draba lineage. However, repeated, independent duplications of this gene have occurred in different lineages of Brassicaceae. Further comparisons of all sequences suggest that there have been significant inter-lineage differences in evolutionary rates between the duplicated and original genes. We assessed the likelihood that the differences between two well-supported gene subfamilies that appear to have originated from a single duplication, COR15a and COR15b, within the Draba lineage have been driven by adaptive evolution. Comparisons of their non-synonymous/synonymous substitution ratios and rates of predicted amino acid changes indicate that these two gene groups are evolving

  8. Repetitive sequence analysis and karyotyping reveals centromere-associated DNA sequences in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qunyan; Cai, Zexi; Hu, Tianhua; Liu, Huijun; Bao, Chonglai; Mao, Weihai; Jin, Weiwei

    2015-04-18

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., 2n = 2x = 18) is a major root vegetable crop especially in eastern Asia. Radish root contains various nutritions which play an important role in strengthening immunity. Repetitive elements are primary components of the genomic sequence and the most important factors in genome size variations in higher eukaryotes. To date, studies about repetitive elements of radish are still limited. To better understand genome structure of radish, we undertook a study to evaluate the proportion of repetitive elements and their distribution in radish. We conducted genome-wide characterization of repetitive elements in radish with low coverage genome sequencing followed by similarity-based cluster analysis. Results showed that about 31% of the genome was composed of repetitive sequences. Satellite repeats were the most dominating elements of the genome. The distribution pattern of three satellite repeat sequences (CL1, CL25, and CL43) on radish chromosomes was characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). CL1 was predominantly located at the centromeric region of all chromosomes, CL25 located at the subtelomeric region, and CL43 was a telomeric satellite. FISH signals of two satellite repeats, CL1 and CL25, together with 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA, provide useful cytogenetic markers to identify each individual somatic metaphase chromosome. The centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) has been used as a marker to identify centromere DNA sequences. One putative CENH3 (RsCENH3) was characterized and cloned from radish. Its deduced amino acid sequence shares high similarities to those of the CENH3s in Brassica species. An antibody against B. rapa CENH3, specifically stained radish centromeres. Immunostaining and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) tests with anti-BrCENH3 antibody demonstrated that both the centromere-specific retrotransposon (CR-Radish) and satellite repeat (CL1) are directly associated with RsCENH3 in radish. Proportions

  9. Plant Productivity and Characterization of Zeoponic Substrates after Three Successive Crops of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Douglas W.; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.; Golden, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate, termed zeoponics. The zeoponic substrate (consisting of NH4(-) and K-exchanged clinoptilolite, synthetic apatite, and dolomite) provides all of the plant-essential nutrients through mineral dissolution and ion exchange, with only the addition of water. Previous studies have shown high productivity of wheat in zeoponic substrates; however, no experiments have been conducted on other crops. The objective of this study was to determine the productivity and nutrient uptake of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) grown in zeoponic substrates with three successive crops in the same substrate. Radish was chosen because of its sensitivities to NH4(+). Average fresh weights of edible roots were similar for radish grown in zeoponic substrates watered with deionized H2O (10.97 g/plant) and in potting mix control substrate irrigated with nutrient solution (10.92 g/plant). Average fresh weight production of edible roots for radish grown in same zeoponic substrate increased in yield over time with the lowest yield in the first crop (7.10 g/plant) and highest in the third crop (13.90 g/plant). The Ca plant tissue levels in radishes (1.8-2.9 wt. %) grown in zeoponic substrates are lower than the suggested sufficient range of 3.0-4.5 wt. % Ca; however, the Ca level is highest (2.9 wt. %) in radishes grown in the third crop in the same zeoponic substrates. The higher radish yield in the third crop was attributed to a reduction in an NH4(-) induced Ca deficiency that has been previously described for wheat grown in zeoponic substrates. The P levels in plant tissues of radish grown in the zeoponic substrates ranged from 0.94-1.15 wt. %; which is slightly higher than the sufficient levels of 0.3-0.7 wt. %. With the exception of Ca and P, other macronutrient and micronutrient levels in radish grown in zeoponic substrates were well within the recommended sufficient ranges. After three

  10. Transcriptome Profiling of Taproot Reveals Complex Regulatory Networks during Taproot Thickening in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Sun, Xiaochuan; Luo, Xiaobo; Xie, Yang; Everlyne, Muleke; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%), 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24%) and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45%) reads were matched to the radish reference genes, respectively. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325, and 7392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR, and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly attributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism processes. These results could provide new insights

  11. Transcriptome profiling of taproot reveals complex regulatory networks during taproot thickening in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugang Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Radish (Raphanus sativus L., is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs involved in radish taproot thickening process and explored the molecular mechanism in underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1, cortex splitting stage (L2 and expanding stage (L3 were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, respectively, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%, 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24% and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45% reads were matched to the radish reference genes. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325 and 7,392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes that formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly contributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism possesses. These results could

  12. Do plants and animals differ in phenotypic plasticity?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A transgenerational effect was also reported in the radish Raphanus raphanistrum wherein F1 ... tire brain regions under the influence of the photoperiod and its consequent impact on circulating levels of sex ... stimulated. Unlike animals, plants are known to have many isoforms of calmodulin, e.g. 13 isoforms in wheat.

  13. The molecular phylogeny of Matthiola R. Br. (Brassicaceae) inferred from ITS sequences, with special emphasis on the Macaronesian endemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Reyes-Betancort, Jorge Alfredo; Akhani, Hossein; Fernández-Palacios, Olga; de Paz, Julia Pérez; Febles-Hernández, Rosa; Marrero-Rodríguez, Aguedo

    2009-12-01

    Matthiola (Brassicaceae) is a genus that is widespread in the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian regions and includes two species that are endemic to the archipelagos of Madeira and the Canaries in Macaronesia, which is an insular oceanic hotspot of biodiversity harboring many radiating endemic plant lineages. Sequence analyses of the nuclear ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions in a comprehensive geographical sample of Matthiola, encompassing all the endemic Macaronesian populations known to date, suggest independent Mediterranean and NW African origins of the taxa in Madeira and the Canaries, respectively. These molecular data reveal a complex evolutionary landscape that converges with morphological analyses in the recognition of two new Madeiran species. The data also suggest that the Canarian infra-specific endemic taxa described thus far have high (but non-diagnostic) levels of morphological and genetic diversity, and should be included in the single endemic Matthiola bolleana. In agreement with earlier investigations that revealed a high genetic differentiation between the populations of Matthiola in Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, our phylogeny supports independent founder events from the same mainland congener to either island. The consistently derived position of the Moroccan populations within a mostly Canarian clade suggests a further back-colonization of the continent. Notably, the ITS sequence resolution offered by Matthiola is higher than that found in many of the radiating Canarian endemic lineages for which molecular phylogenetic studies abound. Hence, our research discovers largely unexplored pathways to understand plant diversification in this oceanic insular hotspot through the investigation of non-speciose endemics.

  14. The role of the seed coat in the light sensivity in Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante seeds O papel do tegumento na sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Lúcia Costa Gonçalves

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of the seed coat in the light sensitivity of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante was analysed by germination tests of intact and naked seeds. Far-red light caused high inhibition of seed germination, while under white and red lights low inhibition was found. Naked seeds presented no light sensitivity with high percentage germination under light and darkness. However, incubation of naked seeds in -0.6MPa polyethylene glycol solution resulted in light inhibition as observed in intact seeds. The analysis of the seed coat transmitted light indicated that the filtered light presented the same photoequilibrium of phytochrome when compared to the white light, with a decrease of only 33% in the light irradiance which reaches the embryo.O papel do tegumento sobre a sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante foi analisado por testes de germinação de sementes intactas e nuas. A luz vermelho-extremo inibiu fortemente a germinação, enquanto as luzes branca e vermelha apresentaram baixa inibição. Por outro lado, sementes nuas não apresentaram sensibilidade à luz, com alta porcentagem de germinação tanto na luz como no escuro. Entretanto, a incubação das sementes nuas em condições de estresse em solução de polietilenoglicol a -0,6MPa, resultou em inibição na luz, como observadas em sementes intactas. A análise da luz transmitida pelo tegumento das sementes indicou que a luz filtrada apresenta o mesmo fotoequilíbrio teórico do fitocromo obtido na luz branca, com um decréscimo em apenas 33% da irradiância que atinge o embrião.

  15. Heterozygous alleles restore male fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.): a case of overdominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Wei; De Wang, Chuan; Wang, Chuan; Gao, Lei; Mei, Shi Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Chang Ping; Wang, Ting

    2013-04-01

    The practice of hybridization has greatly contributed to the increase in crop productivity. A major component that exploits heterosis in crops is the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/nucleus-controlled fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, it is shown that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are responsible for restoring fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Furthermore, it was found that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) show higher expression and RNA polymerase II occupancy in the CMS cytoplasmic background compared with their homozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-1 or RsRf3-2/RsRf3-2). These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants and illustrate a case of overdominance.

  16. Structure of a Precursor to the Blue Components Produced in the Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata

    2016-05-27

    The internal blue discoloration in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots has been reported to be a physiological phenomenon after harvest and poses a significant problem for farmers. To avoid this discoloration, the fundamental development of new radish cultivars that do not undergo discoloration and/or improved cultivation methods is required. Elucidating the chemical mechanism leading to this discoloration could help overcome these difficulties. To determine the mechanism underlying this discoloration, this study was designed to probe the structure of a precursor to the blue components generated during the discoloration process. Soaking fresh roots in aqueous H2O2 resulted in rapid blue discoloration, similar to the natural discoloration. Using a H2O2-based blue discoloration assay, the precursor was extracted and isolated from the fresh roots and identified as the glucosinolate, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, via spectroscopy and chemical synthesis.

  17. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of kinetin and a morphactin in leaf disc senescence of Raphanus sativus L. under low light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema; Khokhar, Mansee; Mukherjee, Dibakar

    2011-07-01

    The effects of exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) like kinetin and a morphactin were investigated in leaf discs obtained from detached senescent Raphanus sativus L. Chetki long leaves under continuous light with fluorescent tube of 8.12 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1) PFD. Senescence induced changes were characterized by a gradual breakdown of chlorophylls, carotenoids and protein whereas, POD (peroxidase) and protease activity; and total sugars revealed an increment. Application of kinetin (KN) and a morphactin (MOR; chlorflurenol methyl ester-CME 74050) found to be effective in senescence delay, by minimizing breakdown of chlorophylls and carotenoids; and by bringing down peroxidase and protease activity, and sugar accumulation. Although both PGR's were able to minimize senescence, their higher concentration found to be more effective than the lower one.

  19. Análisis cuantitativo de la aplicación de cuatro bioestimulantes en el cultivo del rábano (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Londoño I. Jorge

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el segundo semestre de 1984 se realizó el ensayo con el fin de determinar el efecto de la aplicación de Agrostemín, Ergostím, Agrovitae y vitamina C en el cultivo del rábano Raphanus sativus L. Las variables estudiadas fueron porcentaje de germinación, velocidad de germinación, energía germinativa, altura de planta, materia verde, materia seca e índice de cosecha.The effect of four bioestimulants (Agrostemin, Ergostim, Agrovitae and vitamina C on radish Raphanus sativus L. was determined in a trial carried out in Palmira (Valle during the second semester of 1984. The variables studied were: germination percentage, germination speed, germination energy, plant height, green matter, dry matter and harvest index.

  20. Efecto fitotóxico de Baccharis ulicina sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Tucat, Guillermo; Bentivegna, Diego; Fernández, Osvaldo; Busso, Carlos; Brevedan, Roberto; Mujica, María de la Merced; Torres, Yanina; Daddario, Juan; Ithurrart, Leticia; Giorgetti, Hugo; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Montenegro, Oscar; Baioni, Sandra; Entío, José; Fioretti, María Nélida

    2013-01-01

    Baccharis ulicina es una maleza ampliamente distribuida en los pastizales de la zona semiárida argentina. A fin de evaluar sus posibles efectos alelopáticos, se utilizaron extractos acuosos de B. ulicina (hoja, tallo, raíz y planta entera) a dos concentraciones (50 y 150 g tejido/L agua) sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus. Para cada especie se regaron 100 ...

  1. Dendrochronological study of the endangered shrub Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (Brassicaceae: implications for its recovery and conservation

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    Génova, Mar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is useful to determine plant longevity, to provide insights into the structure and dynamics of plant populations and to study the relationships between growth and environmental determinants. The dendrochronology of endangered shrubs is unexplored, although their use represents an opportunity to produce better conservation guidelines. We collected for this study 63 samples from already dead specimens of Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (Brassicaceae, an endangered Spanish endemism from three localities. We analyzed the relationship between ring data and plant size to determine the accuracy of using size as a proxy for plant age. We also explored the relationships between ring data and environmental variables to detect growth determinants. This shrub showed a high longevity as older individuals presented nearly 50 growth rings. The relationship between age and size is weak although it could be established based on the logarithmic function of plant biovolume. Significant relationships were found between rainfall and ring widths, showing that water limited annual growth. Finally, age structure characterized differences among populations, highlighting the effects of disturbance and land use. These results provided new opportunities for management within the ongoing recovery plan for the species.La dendrocronología es útil para determinar la longevidad de la planta, proporcionar información sobre la estructura y dinámica de las poblaciones vegetales y estudiar las relaciones entre el crecimiento y las variables ambientales. Hasta ahora no se había hecho uso de la dendrocronología en arbustos en peligro de extinción, aunque su empleo puede mejorar las directrices de conservación. En este estudio se han recolectado 63 especímenes ya muertos de tres localidades de Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (Brassicaceae, un endemismo español en peligro de extinción. Se han analizado las relaciones entre los grosores del anillo de

  2. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L

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    M. Etesami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality and quantity of the product to follow. Manure is a valuable source of biological, ecological and environmental benefits is positive and its main use is for agricultural use. Radish is an important root vegetable that belongs to the cruciferous (Brassicaceae. Value radish on high levels of dietary is related to soluble fiber and antioxidants. Radish is a native plant to Asia, China and Europe. The oral part of the botanical garden radish is important and that kind of traditional varieties have long hypocotyls include root and hypocotyls made.The purpose of this test is to evaluate the different mixture amount of animal fertilizers on the growth and yield of radish plants and compare them to each other. Materials and Methods: In order to study of different manure effect on radish growth and yield, an experiment carried out in 2012-2013 in the greenhouse of Gonbad- Kavos University with geographical characteristics 37.16 degrees north, 55.12 ° east and with a height of 45 meters above sea level in a completely randomized design with four replications. Soil and fertilizers used to this experiment were made of the soil and livestock of Gonbad- Kavos University. Soil texture was Clay loam and pH was 7.7 obtained from soil analysis. To obtain the required levels of fertilizer treatments (25, 50, 75, 100, a measure was considered as the basis of each treatment on the basis of the ratio were calculated. The treatments included control (soil, 25 percent cow manure+ 75

  3. Plant Size as Determinant of Species Richness of Herbivores, Natural Enemies and Pollinators across 21 Brassicaceae Species.

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    Hella Schlinkert

    Full Text Available Large plants are often more conspicuous and more attractive for associated animals than small plants, e.g. due to their wider range of resources. Therefore, plant size can positively affect species richness of associated animals, as shown for single groups of herbivores, but studies usually consider intraspecific size differences of plants in unstandardised environments. As comprehensive tests of interspecific plant size differences under standardised conditions are missing so far, we investigated effects of plant size on species richness of all associated arthropods using a common garden experiment with 21 Brassicaceae species covering a broad interspecific plant size gradient from 10 to 130 cm height. We recorded plant associated ecto- and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies and pollinators on and in each aboveground plant organ, i.e. flowers, fruits, leaves and stems. Plant size (measured as height from the ground, the number of different plant organ entities and their biomass were assessed. Increasing plant size led to increased species richness of associated herbivores, natural enemies and pollinating insects. This pattern was found for ectophagous and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies, as well as for herbivores associated with leaves and fruits and their natural enemies, independently of the additional positive effects of resource availability (i.e. organ biomass or number of entities and, regarding natural enemies, herbivore species richness. We found a lower R2 for pollinators compared to herbivores and natural enemies, probably caused by the high importance of flower characteristics for pollinator species richness besides plant size. Overall, the increase in plant height from 10 to 130 cm led to a 2.7-fold increase in predicted total arthropod species richness. In conclusion, plant size is a comprehensive driver of species richness of the plant associated arthropods, including pollinators, herbivores and their

  4. Flowering Locus C (FLC) Is a Potential Major Regulator of Glucosinolate Content across Developmental Stages of Aethionema arabicum (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadin, Setareh; Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; van Weij, Marco S; Reichelt, Michael; Schranz, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    The biochemical defense of plants can change during their life-cycle and impact herbivore feeding and plant fitness. The annual species Aethionema arabicum is part of the sister clade to all other Brassicaceae. Hence, it holds a phylogenetically important position for studying crucifer trait evolution. Glucosinolates (GS) are essentially Brassicales-specific metabolites involved in plant defense. Using two Ae. arabicum accessions (TUR and CYP) we identify substantial differences in glucosinolate profiles and quantities between lines, tissues and developmental stages. We find tissue specific side-chain modifications in aliphatic GS: methylthioalkyl in leaves, methylsulfinylalkyl in fruits, and methylsulfonylalkyl in seeds. We also find large differences in absolute glucosinolate content between the two accessions (up to 10-fold in fruits) that suggest a regulatory factor is involved that is not part of the quintessential glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. Consistent with this hypothesis, we identified a single major multi-trait quantitative trait locus controlling total GS concentration across tissues in a recombinant inbred line population derived from TUR and CYP. With fine-mapping, we narrowed the interval to a 58 kb region containing 15 genes, but lacking any known GS biosynthetic genes. The interval contains homologs of both the sulfate transporter SULTR2;1 and FLOWERING LOCUS C. Both loci have diverse functions controlling plant physiological and developmental processes and thus are potential candidates regulating glucosinolate variation across the life-cycle of Aethionema. Future work will investigate changes in gene expression of the candidates genes, the effects of GS variation on insect herbivores and the trade-offs between defense and reproduction.

  5. Root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis obtained Brassicaceae-specific strictosidine synthase-like genes by horizontal gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Besides gene duplication and de novo gene generation, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is another important way of acquiring new genes. HGT may endow the recipients with novel phenotypic traits that are important for species evolution and adaption to new ecological niches. Parasitic systems expectedly allow the occurrence of HGT at relatively high frequencies due to their long-term physical contact. In plants, a number of HGT events have been reported between the organelles of parasites and the hosts, but HGT between host and parasite nuclear genomes has rarely been found. Results A thorough transcriptome screening revealed that a strictosidine synthase-like (SSL) gene in the root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and the shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis showed much higher sequence similarities with those in Brassicaceae than with those in their close relatives, suggesting independent gene horizontal transfer events from Brassicaceae to these parasites. These findings were strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis and their identical unique amino acid residues and deletions. Intriguingly, the nucleus-located SSL genes in Brassicaceae belonged to a new member of SSL gene family, which were originated from gene duplication. The presence of introns indicated that the transfer occurred directly by DNA integration in both parasites. Furthermore, positive selection was detected in the foreign SSL gene in O. aegyptiaca but not in C. australis. The expression of the foreign SSL genes in these two parasitic plants was detected in multiple development stages and tissues, and the foreign SSL gene was induced after wounding treatment in C. australis stems. These data imply that the foreign genes may still retain certain functions in the recipient species. Conclusions Our study strongly supports that parasitic plants can gain novel nuclear genes from distantly related host species by HGT and the foreign genes may execute certain functions in the new hosts

  6. Root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis obtained Brassicaceae-specific strictosidine synthase-like genes by horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dale; Qi, Jinfeng; Yue, Jipei; Huang, Jinling; Sun, Ting; Li, Suoping; Wen, Jian-Fan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Wu, Jinsong; Wang, Lei; Zhuang, Huifu; Wu, Jianqiang; Sun, Guiling

    2014-01-13

    Besides gene duplication and de novo gene generation, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is another important way of acquiring new genes. HGT may endow the recipients with novel phenotypic traits that are important for species evolution and adaption to new ecological niches. Parasitic systems expectedly allow the occurrence of HGT at relatively high frequencies due to their long-term physical contact. In plants, a number of HGT events have been reported between the organelles of parasites and the hosts, but HGT between host and parasite nuclear genomes has rarely been found. A thorough transcriptome screening revealed that a strictosidine synthase-like (SSL) gene in the root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and the shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis showed much higher sequence similarities with those in Brassicaceae than with those in their close relatives, suggesting independent gene horizontal transfer events from Brassicaceae to these parasites. These findings were strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis and their identical unique amino acid residues and deletions. Intriguingly, the nucleus-located SSL genes in Brassicaceae belonged to a new member of SSL gene family, which were originated from gene duplication. The presence of introns indicated that the transfer occurred directly by DNA integration in both parasites. Furthermore, positive selection was detected in the foreign SSL gene in O. aegyptiaca but not in C. australis. The expression of the foreign SSL genes in these two parasitic plants was detected in multiple development stages and tissues, and the foreign SSL gene was induced after wounding treatment in C. australis stems. These data imply that the foreign genes may still retain certain functions in the recipient species. Our study strongly supports that parasitic plants can gain novel nuclear genes from distantly related host species by HGT and the foreign genes may execute certain functions in the new hosts.

  7. SEM observations of pollen grains, fruits and seeds of the Pieniny Mountains (South Poland endemic species Erysimum pieninicum (Zapał. Pawł. (Brassicaceae

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    Irmina Maciejewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erysimum pieninicum (Zapał. Pawł. (Brassicaceae is an endemic species, growing only in Pieniny Mts. The aim of the presented work was to investigate its pollen morphology as well as its ultrastructural traits of pericarp and seed-coat. Pollen grains of this species were of small size, 3-zonocolpate with reticulate ornamentation. The external siliqua surface was of rugose sculpture, covered by numerous, stellate hairs. The internal surface of the fruit was naked and characterized by striate sculpture. The seed-coat ornamentation of E. pieninicum was of blister type.

  8. Determination of S-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) from Brassicaceae Family Vegetables and Characterization of the Intestinal Transport of SMM by Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Hae-Rim; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine S-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) from various Brassicaceae family vegetables by using validated analytical method and to characterize the intestinal transport mechanism of SMM by the Caco-2 cells. The SMM is well known to provide therapeutic activity in peptic ulcers. The amount of SMM from various Brassicaceae family vegetables ranged from 89.08 ± 1.68 μg/g to 535.98 ± 4.85 μg/g of dry weight by using validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method. For elucidating intestinal transport mechanism, the cells were incubated with or without transport inhibitors, energy source, or a metabolic inhibitor. Phloridzin and verapamil as inhibitors of sodium glucose transport protein (SGLT1) and P-glycoprotein, respectively, were not responsible for cellular uptake of SMM. Glucose and sodium azide were not affected by the cellular accumulation of SMM. The efflux ratio of SMM was 0.26, implying that it is not effluxed through Caco-2 cells. The apparent coefficient permeability (Papp ) of SMM was 4.69 × 10(-5) cm/s, indicating that it will show good oral absorption in in vivo. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  10. Studies on different concentration of lead (Pb and sewage water on Pb uptake and growth of Radish (Raphanus sativus

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    Qudratullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the accumulation of lead (Pb by radish (Raphanus sativus cultivars a study was carried out at Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan, during 2012. Two radish varieties i.e., exotic and local, were used. The treatments included sewage water and different concentrations of Pb @ 25, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1. The results showed that the total biomass of both the radish varieties were nonsignificantly influenced by the applied Pb concentrations and sewage water, except for root diameter which were significantly greater in the local cultivar (3.261 cm.Pb treatments significantly reduced the growth and yield of both the cultivars. While the Pb uptake by the root and leaf of radish plants was increased by the increasing the applied Pb levels, with the highest value for root (19.008 mg kg-1 and leaf (16.134 mg kg-1 in the treatment receiving the highest applied Pb concentrations. The total biomass, fresh weight of root and root diameter was found significantly higher except for Pb @ 400 mg L-1, in the plants receiving sewage water as compared to the control and different levels of Pb. The interaction amongst the varieties and treatments were found significantly different for various parameters. Thus, it can be concluded, that the use of sewage water and Pb contaminated wastewater results in higher metal concentration in the radish root and may lead to different types of health problems to consumers.

  11. Antilithiasic and hypolipidaemic effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on mice fed with a lithogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine.

  12. Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Deng, Shi-Huai; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Ying-Jun; Peng, Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei

    2010-11-15

    Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower than the EC10, Cu concentration reducing root length by 10%), activity and isozyme expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POD) increased significantly; no significant variations in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves and toxic symptoms were observed. Under a slightly higher Cu stress (close to the EC10), activity and isozyme expression of SOD and MDA content were enhanced significantly; those of CAT and POD decreased due to an inverted U-shape dose response. Chlorophyll content remained unchanged. Thus, antioxidant enzymes and MDA content are more sensitive to Cu stress, showing significant variations ahead of chlorophyll and toxic symptoms under Cu stress (lower than about 200 mg kg(-1) soil). Thus, the joint monitoring of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content of R. sativus can be used as biomarkers of soil Cu contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of copper on pro- and antioxidative reactions in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatkin, Alexander; Egorova, Irina; Michailova, Irina; Malec, Przemysław; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The generation of superoxide radicals, lipid peroxidation (as measured by malone dialdehyde formation) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase) were assessed in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), in response to elevated concentrations of copper ions in the culture medium in vitro and in vivo. Experiments were performed on 7-day-old seedlings and 5-week-old calluses grown on media supplemented with CuSO4 in concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000μМ. The exposure to elevated Cu concentrations in the medium significantly reduced both callogenesis and the proliferation of radish calluses in vitro. Cu treatment resulted in the increased generation of the superoxide radical (O2(-)) in radish seedlings and calluses indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in radish cells, whereas the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) remained unchanged. Both in calluses and in radish seedlings in vivo, the relative level of oxidative stress was maximal at micromolar Cu concentrations and became attenuated with increasing Cu concentrations. Stronger oxidative stress occurred in the radish seedlings in vivo, compared with radish calluses in vitro. The observed lower sensitivity of calluses to Cu-induced oxidative stress and their ability to proliferate upon exposure to Cu concentrations of up to 1000μМ demonstrate the potential of in vitro cell-selection to obtain metal-tolerant radish plant lines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Radish (Raphanus sativus L) - a model for studying plant responses to air pollutants and other environmental stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostkarick, R.; Manning, W.J. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sudwest, Filderstadt (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Oekologie)

    1993-01-01

    The use of [ital Raphanus sativus L.] as a model crop for studies on plant response to environmental stresses is reviewed with emphasis on the effects of different atmospheric pollutants (O[sub 3], SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2], acidic precipitation) and their combinations. Responses to temperature, light supply, water stress, and atmospheric CO[sub 2] are also studied and discussed. In addition, the references reviewed are evaluated in terms of their experimental protocols on growth conditions and recommendations for optimal ranges of environmental and cultural variables, i.e. light, temperature, nutrient supply are given. Its distinct pattern of biomass partitioning, the small dimensions along with short and easy culture make radish an excellent experimental plant. The fleshy below-ground storage organ, formed by the hypocotyl and upper radicle, acts as the major sink during vegetative development. Abundant assimilate supply due to elevated levels of CO[sub 2] along with high irradiation frequently promote hypocotyl growth more than shoot growth, whereas under conditions of stress shoot growth is maintained at the expense of the hypocotyl. This makes the hypocotyl:shoot ratio of radish a very sensitive and suitable indicator for various environmental stresses. Potential weaknesses and short-comings of radish in its role as a model crop, particularly the high variability of injury and growth responses, are discussed along with possible solutions. Future research needs are derived from the summarized results presented and from some disparities among findings within the literature reviewed.

  15. Mutant selection in the self-incompatible plant radish (Raphanus sativusL.var. sativus) using two-step TILLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Chiba, Motoko; Nagano, Soichiro; Anai, Toyoaki; Ueda, Miki U; Oguchi, Riichi; Shirai, Kazumasa; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2017-06-01

    Radish ( Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus ), a widely cultivated root vegetable crop, possesses a large sink organ (the root), implying that photosynthetic activity in radish can be enhanced by altering both the source and sink capacity of the plant. However, since radish is a self-incompatible plant, improved mutation-breeding strategies are needed for this crop. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful method used for reverse genetics. In this study, we developed a new TILLING strategy involving a two-step mutant selection process for mutagenized radish plants: the first selection is performed to identify a BC 1 M 1 line, that is, progenies of M 1 plants crossed with wild-type, and the second step is performed to identify BC 1 M 1 individuals with mutations. We focused on Rubisco as a target, since Rubisco is the most abundant plant protein and a key photosynthetic enzyme. We found that the radish genome contains six RBCS genes and one pseudogene encoding small Rubisco subunits. We screened 955 EMS-induced BC 1 M 1 lines using our newly developed TILLING strategy and obtained six mutant lines for the six RsRBCS genes, encoding proteins with four different types of amino acid substitutions. Finally, we selected a homozygous mutant and subjected it to physiological measurements.

  16. Identification and analysis of isothiocyanates and new acylated anthocyanins in the juice of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Petrillo, Gianna; Valgimigli, Luca

    2012-07-15

    The freeze-dried sprouts' juice of Raphanus sativus (L.) cv. Sango was prepared and analysed for the first time. HPLC analysis of total isothiocyanates, after protein displacement, resulted in 77.8 ± 3.0 μmol/g of dry juice while GC-MS analysis of hexane and acetone extracts showed E- and Z-raphasatin (8.9 and 0.11 μmol/g, respectively) and sulforaphene (11.7 μmol/g), summing up to 20.7 ± 1.7 μmol/g of free isothiocyanates. Sprouts' juice contained an unprecedented wealth of anthocyanins and a new fractionation methodology allowed us to isolate 34 mg/g of acylated anthocyanins (28.3 ± 1.9 μmol/g), belonging selectively to the cyanidin family. Analysis was performed by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(n) and extended to deacylated anthocyanins and aglycones, obtained, respectively, by alkaline and acid hydrolysis. This study identified 70 anthocyanins, 19 of which have never been described before and 32 of which are reported here in R. sativus for the first time. Sango radish sprouts are exceptional dietary sources of heath-promoting micronutrients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Broad resistance to acetohydroxyacid-synthase-inhibiting herbicides in feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) populations from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Claudio E; Presotto, Alejandro; Moreno, Florencia; Dossou, Ida; Migasso, Juan P; Sakima, Ernesto; Cantamutto, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Soon after the commercial release of sunflower cultivars resistant to imidazolinone herbicides, several uncontrolled feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) populations were found in south-eastern Buenos Aires, Argentina. These populations were studied in field, glasshouse and laboratory experiments aiming to characterise their resistance profile and to develop management tools. Three feral radish accessions were highly resistant to ten active ingredients of five families of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides. Sequence analysis of the AHAS gene detected a Trp574Leu mutation in all resistant accessions. One accession with an intermediate level of resistance was heterozygous for this mutation, probably owing to gene exchange with a susceptible subpopulation located in the field margin. Herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible radish could be controlled in sunflower by alternative herbicides. This is the first report of feral radish with resistance to herbicides belonging to all the AHAS-inhibiting herbicide families, conferred by Trp574Leu mutation in the AHAS gene. An appropriate herbicide rotation with alternative herbicides such as fluorochloridone or aclonifen and an increase in the diversity of cropping systems are important for minimising the prevalence of these biotypes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Regulation of growth and antioxidant enzyme activities by 28-homobrassinolide in seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2010-06-01

    28-Homobrassinolide (28-HBL), a brassinosteroid is reported to play significant role in diverse physiological processes. It induces a range of cellular and adaptive responses to a range of environmental stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which alters various physiological processes and generates ROS, which can oxidize biological macromolecules and causes oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by the internal antioxidative defense system and stress shielding phytohormones. In this study, effect of 28-HBL was studied on growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes in known hyperaccumulator Raphanus sativus L. (radish) seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. To determine the influence of 28-HBL (0, 10-(11), 10-(9), 10-(7) M) in radish seedlings subjected to Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APOX, CAT, GR, POD and SOD) were analyzed. In addition, length and biomass of radish seedlings was also recorded. Cd toxicity resulted in reduced length, biomass, protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes. 28-HBL treatments lowered the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, biomass and seedling length. The present study thus suggests a possible role of 28-HBL in amelioration of metal stress by regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes in radish.

  19. Phytochemical composition and biological activity of 8 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprouts and mature taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Paul R; Barnes, David M

    2011-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) are members of the cruciferous vegetable family that contain many classes of biologically active phytochemicals. This study determined the phytochemical composition of the sprouts and mature taproots of 8 radish varieties. Radish sprouts contained significantly greater concentrations of glucosinolates (3.8-fold) and isothiocyanates (8.2-fold) than the mature radish taproot and also contained significantly greater concentrations of phenolics (on average 6.9-fold). The anthocyanin concentrations of the mature radish taproot were significantly greater than in the sprouts of red, pink, and purple varieties. The primary anthocyanidins present in the red and pink radish varieties were pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the primary anthocyanidin in the purple radish variety was cyanidin. Radish sprouts were between 9- and 59-fold more potent than the corresponding mature taproot at activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably transfected hepatoma cell line. The ARE activity of the radish sprouts and mature taproots was significantly correlated with the total isothiocyanate concentration of the radishes. Practical Application: Understanding the influence variety and developmental stage has on the biological activity of cruciferous vegetables provides important information for further studies examining the in vivo effects of radish treatment and foundation for providing recommendations to reduce the risk of chronic disease through dietary intervention.

  20. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  1. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  2. Mutant selection in the self-incompatible plant radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) using two-step TILLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Chiba, Motoko; Nagano, Soichiro; Anai, Toyoaki; Ueda, Miki U.; Oguchi, Riichi; Shirai, Kazumasa; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2017-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus), a widely cultivated root vegetable crop, possesses a large sink organ (the root), implying that photosynthetic activity in radish can be enhanced by altering both the source and sink capacity of the plant. However, since radish is a self-incompatible plant, improved mutation-breeding strategies are needed for this crop. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful method used for reverse genetics. In this study, we developed a new TILLING strategy involving a two-step mutant selection process for mutagenized radish plants: the first selection is performed to identify a BC1M1 line, that is, progenies of M1 plants crossed with wild-type, and the second step is performed to identify BC1M1 individuals with mutations. We focused on Rubisco as a target, since Rubisco is the most abundant plant protein and a key photosynthetic enzyme. We found that the radish genome contains six RBCS genes and one pseudogene encoding small Rubisco subunits. We screened 955 EMS-induced BC1M1 lines using our newly developed TILLING strategy and obtained six mutant lines for the six RsRBCS genes, encoding proteins with four different types of amino acid substitutions. Finally, we selected a homozygous mutant and subjected it to physiological measurements. PMID:28744180

  3. Isothiocyanate profile and selective antibacterial activity of root, stem, and leaf extracts derived from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Dhand, Vivek; Ramakrishna, Damaraju Siva

    2009-01-01

    Acetone and hexane extracts derived from the root, stem, and leaf of Raphanus sativus were investigated for their antibacterial activity against foodborne and resistant pathogens, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli. Total and individual isothiocyanate (ITC) components and their relationship with the antibacterial activity of R. sativus were also evaluated. Both acetone and hexane fractions of root, stem, and leaf exhibited selective antibacterial activity against the organisms tested. Antibacterial activity was strongest in the acetone fraction of root with larger zone of inhibition and lower minimum inhibitory concentration. The results obtained were comparable to that seen with standard antibiotics. Of the different parts of R. sativus studied, root tended to be more active than the stem and leaf extracts in inhibiting the bacterial growth. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of variable amounts of five different ITCs such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate, and 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) in different parts of the plant. The low linear correlation between the total ITC content and antibacterial activity implied that bacterial growth inhibitory ability of R. sativus was not dependent on the total ITC content. However, the antibacterial activity of R. sativus was well correlated with AITC, PITC, and BITC for all organisms except for Enteroc. faecalis, whose inhibitory effect was more related to MTBITC.

  4. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium availability and uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in soils applied with wheat straw or composted pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hong; Su, Shiming; Liu, Rongle; Li, Shutian

    2016-08-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) availability and uptake by cherry-red radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in Cd-contaminated soils after addition with wheat straw or composted pig manure were studied. The results indicated that wheat straw application promoted radish growth until the second harvest, while pig manure application improved radish biomass in Acid Ferralsols regardless of harvesting seasons. Application with pig manure might be more effective in lowering the Cd uptake by radish than wheat straw. Especially when pig manure of 11.9 g TOC kg(-1) amended into Acid Ferralsols, Cd contents in leaves and roots of radish decreased by 89.2 and 95.7 % at the second harvest, respectively. The changes in Cd fractions distribution in soils after application were contributed to the decline of Cd availability. Furthermore, significantly negative linear correlation (P radish. Thus, it is recommended to stabilize soil Cd and reducing plant uptake by application with composted manure without or slightly contaminated with metals.

  6. Determination of the Absolute Configuration of a Monoglyceride Antibolting Compound and Isolation of Related Compounds from Radish Leaves (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Tsuyoshi; Amano, Naruki; Mitsui, Yuki; Fujino, Kaien; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2017-04-28

    A monoglyceride (1) has been reported to possess an antibolting effect in radish (Raphanus sativus), but its absolute configuration at the C-2 position was not determined earlier. In this work, the absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be (2S), and it was also accompanied by one new (2) and two known monoglycerides (3 and 4). The chemical structure of 2 was determined as β-(7'Z,10'Z,13'Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid monoglyceride (β-16:3 monoglyceride). Qualitative and quantitative analytical methods for compounds 1-4 were developed, using two deuterium-labeled compounds (8 and 9) as internal standards. The results revealed a broader range of distribution of 1-4 in several annual winter crops. It was also found that these isolated compounds have an inhibitory effect on the root elongation of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings at concentrations of 25 and 50 μM in the medium. However, the inhibitory effect of 1 was not dependent on coronatin-insensitive 1 (COI1) protein, which may suggest the involvement of an unidentified signaling system other than jasmonic acid signaling.

  7. Responses of vegetative and reproductive traits to elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen in Raphanus varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, L.M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between the vegetative and reproductive responses to increased CO{sub 2} and N fertilization in different varieties of Raphanus (radish) was studied to determine if an increase in nonfoliar vegetative storage capacity promotes reproductive output. Another objective was to determine if the capacity for nonfoliar carbon storage would be beneficial for reproductive output in an elevated CO{sub 2} environment. Three cultivars of radish were grown under two levels of CO{sub 2} and two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Growth conditions were discussed. The methodology included biomass allocation and growth analysis, reproductive characteristics, photosynthesis measurements, metabolite measurements, starch analysis and statistical analyses. Results showed that in the vegetative phase, there were several correlations between source leaf physiological and plant mass traits in the response to high CO{sub 2}. The reproductive response to CO{sub 2} cannot be inferred from increases in total vegetative mass. It was concluded that vegetative responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and N differed with ontogeny and with variations in the hypocotyl to shoot ratios. 55 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Green synthesis of biogenic silver nanomaterials using Raphanus sativus extract, effects of stabilizers on the morphology, and their antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Naved; Khan, Tabrez Alam; Khan, Zaheer; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    The present study explores the reducing and capping potentials of aqueous Raphanus sativus root extract for the synthesis of silver nanomaterials for the first time in the absence and presence of two stabilizers, namely, water-soluble starch and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The surface properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques. The mean size of AgNPs, ranging from 3.2 to 6.0 nm, could be facilely controlled by merely varying the initial [extract], [CTAB], [starch], and [Ag(+)] ions. The agglomeration number, average number of silver atoms per nanoparticle, and changes in the fermi potentials were calculated and discussed. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against different pathogenic organisms. The inhibition action was due to the structural changes in the protein cell wall.

  9. Antilithiasic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on Mice Fed with a Lithogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  10. Structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible and resistant radish (Raphanus sativus L., var. oleiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Grymaszewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible Raphanus sativus L. cv. "Siletina" and resistant radish cv. "Pegletta" was investigated. In the radish cultivar "Siletina" the syncytia most often appeared in the elongation zone of lateral roots. They were initiated in the procambium and pericycle but also included the parenchyma cells of vascular cylinder. In the susceptible cultivar "Siletina" the cells forming the female's syncytia were subject to hypertrophy. Their cytoplasmic density increased. The cytoplasm contained numerous organella. The proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum took place. Branched cell wall ingrowths were formed next to the vessels. In the male's syncytia the cells were only slightly increased. Their protoplasts contained few organelles. The cell wall ingrowths were poorly developed. In the syncytia of the resistant cultivar "Pegletta" there was only a slight increase of the cell volume. A well developed system of rough endoplasmic reticulum was observed in the protoplast. Distended ER cisterns contained fine fibrillar material. Material of similar structure also appeared in numerous small vacuoles. In resistant plants only some, not numerous, syncytia spreading in procambium fully developed and functioned long enough for the parasite females to mature. At an advanced stage of infection a well developed system of a rough ER was observed also in those syncytia and numerous vacuoles appeared.

  11. The allelopathic effect of the black nut leaves (Juglans nigra L. over the species of moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina CORBU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment is a research on the effect of the allelopathic substances in the leaves of the black nut (Juglans nigra L. over the species of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and the moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.. We have prepared a watery extract of a concentration of 5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the leaves in different seasons (spring, autumn and winter. The watery extract presents an inhibitory effect over the germination and growth of the plants subdued to experiments, especialy over the leaves collected in spring.

  12. Efecto fitotóxico de Baccharis ulicina sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Tucat, Guillermo; Bentivegna, Diego Javier; Fernandez, Osvaldo Alberto; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Brevedan, Roberto; Mujica, Maria de la Merced; Torres, Yanina Alejandra; Daddario, Juan Facundo Fabian; Ithurrart, Leticia Soledad; Giorgetti, Hugo Dosindo; Rodriguez, Gustavo Dionisio; Montenegro, Oscar Alberto; Baioni, Sandra Sonia; Entio, Lisandro Jose; Fioretti, Maria Nelida

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis ulicina es una maleza ampliamente distribuida en los pastizales de la zona semiárida argentina. A fin de evaluar sus posibles efectos alelopáticos, se utilizaron extractos acuosos de B. ulicina (hoja, tallo, raíz y planta entera) a dos concentraciones (50 y 150 g tejido/L agua) sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa , Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus . Para cada especie se regaron 100 semillas y se mantuvieron a 25°C y oscuridad. Se registraron la germina...

  13. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivarelli, Fabio; Canistro, Donatella; Sapone, Andrea; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Babot Marquillas, Clara; Iori, Renato; Antonazzo, Ippazio Cosimo; Gentilini, Fabio; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ), a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC) and isothiocyanates (ITCs), in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced). Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD). After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only) and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ). Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids). Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed. SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction). SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase, quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%). HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention. This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product.

  14. Microbiological investigation of Raphanus sativus L. grown hydroponically in nutrient solutions contaminated with spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, Luca; Miceli, Alessandro; Francesca, Nicola; Cruciata, Margherita; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The survival of eight undesired (spoilage/pathogenic) food related bacteria (Citrobacter freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11, Escherichia coli PSS2, Klebsiella oxytoca PSS82, Serratia grimesii PSS72, Pseudomonas putida PSS21, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PSS52 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114(T)) was investigated in mineral nutrient solution (MNS) during the crop cycle of radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated in hydroponics in a greenhouse. MNSs were microbiologically analyzed weekly by plate count. The evolution of the pure cultures was also evaluated in sterile MNS in test tubes. The inoculated trials contained an initial total mesophilic count (TMC) ranging between 6.69 and 7.78Log CFU/mL, while non-sterile and sterile control trials showed levels of 4.39 and 0.97Log CFU/mL, respectively. In general, all inoculated trials showed similar levels of TMC in MNS during the experimentation, even though the levels of the inoculated bacteria decreased. The presence of the inoculums was ascertained by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis applied on the isolates collected at 7-day intervals. At harvest, MNSs were also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The last analysis, except P. putida PSS21 in the corresponding trial, did not detect the other bacteria, but confirmed that pseudomonads were present in un-inoculated MNSs. Despite the high counts detected (6.44 and 7.24CFU/g), only C. freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11 and K. oxytoca PSS82 were detected in radishes in a living form, suggesting their internalization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. De novo transcriptome sequencing of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and analysis of major genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Pan, Yan; Liu, Zhe; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Yu, Rugang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2013-11-27

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), is an important root vegetable crop worldwide. Glucosinolates in the fleshy taproot significantly affect the flavor and nutritional quality of radish. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying glucosinolate metabolism in radish taproots. The limited availability of radish genomic information has greatly hindered functional genomic analysis and molecular breeding in radish. In this study, a high-throughput, large-scale RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots at different stages of development. Approximately 66.11 million paired-end reads representing 73,084 unigenes with a N50 length of 1,095 bp, and a total length of 55.73 Mb were obtained. Comparison with the publicly available protein database indicates that a total of 67,305 (about 92.09% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes exhibit similarity (e -value ≤ 1.0e⁻⁵) to known proteins. The functional annotation and classification including Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that the main activated genes in radish taproots are predominantly involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, biosynthesis of secondary metabolite pathways, signal transduction mechanisms and other cellular components and molecular function related terms. The majority of the genes encoding enzymes involved in glucosinolate (GS) metabolism and regulation pathways were identified in the unigene dataset by targeted searches of their annotations. A number of candidate radish genes in the glucosinolate metabolism related pathways were also discovered, from which, eight genes were validated by T-A cloning and sequencing while four were validated by quantitative RT-PCR expression profiling. The ensuing transcriptome dataset provides a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetics research in radish. It will serve as an

  17. Transcriptome profiling of root microRNAs reveals novel insights into taproot thickening in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ronghua; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2015-02-03

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an economically important root vegetable crop, and the taproot-thickening process is the most critical period for the final productivity and quality formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding small RNAs that play an important regulatory function in plant growth and development. However, the characterization of miRNAs and their roles in regulating radish taproot growth and thickening remain largely unexplored. A Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to identify key miRNAs involved in taproot thickening in radish. Three small RNA libraries from 'NAU-YH' taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage and expanding stage were constructed. In all, 175 known and 107 potential novel miRNAs were discovered, from which 85 known and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed during taproot thickening. Furthermore, totally 191 target genes were identified for the differentially expressed miRNAs. These target genes were annotated as transcription factors and other functional proteins, which were involved in various biological functions including plant growth and development, metabolism, cell organization and biogenesis, signal sensing and transduction, and plant defense response. RT-qPCR analysis validated miRNA expression patterns for five miRNAs and their corresponding target genes. The small RNA populations of radish taproot at different thickening stages were firstly identified by Solexa sequencing. Totally 98 differentially expressed miRNAs identified from three taproot libraries might play important regulatory roles in taproot thickening. Their targets encoding transcription factors and other functional proteins including NF-YA2, ILR1, bHLH74, XTH16, CEL41 and EXPA9 were involved in radish taproot thickening. These results could provide new insights into the regulatory roles of miRNAs during the taproot thickening and facilitate genetic improvement of

  18. De novo Taproot Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of Major Genes Involved in Sucrose Metabolism in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rugang; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Xie, Yang; Karanja, Benard; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important annual or biennial root vegetable crop. The fleshy taproot comprises the main edible portion of the plant with high nutrition and medical value. Molecular biology study of radish begun rather later, and lacks sufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in pubic databases for understanding of the molecular mechanism during the radish taproot formation. To develop a comprehensive overview of the 'NAU-YH' root transcriptome, a cDNA library, prepared from three equally mixed RNA of taproots at different developmental stages including pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage, and expanding stage was sequenced using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing. From approximately 51 million clean reads, a total of 70,168 unigenes with a total length of 50.28 Mb, an average length of 717 bp and a N50 of 994 bp were obtained. In total, 63,991 (about 91.20% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes were successfully annotated in five public databases including NR, GO, COG, KEGG, and Nt. GO analysis revealed that the majority of these unigenes were predominately involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, catalytic, binding, and cellular process. In addition, a total of 103 unigenes encoding eight enzymes involved in the sucrose metabolism related pathways were also identified by KEGG pathway analysis. Sucrose synthase (29 unigenes), invertase (17 unigenes), sucrose-phosphate synthase (16 unigenes), fructokinase (17 unigenes), and hexokinase (11 unigenes) ranked top five in these eight key enzymes. From which, two genes (RsSuSy1, RsSPS1) were validated by T-A cloning and sequenced, while the expression of six unigenes were profiled with RT-qPCR analysis. These results would be served as an important public reference platform to identify the related key genes during taproot thickening and facilitate the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying taproot formation in radish.

  19. Identification and characterization of novel and conserved microRNAs in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhai, Lulu; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Ye, Shan; Liu, Liwang

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs that play significant regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, a great number of conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been identified in many important plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and poplar. However, little is known about identification of miRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a small RNA library from radish root was constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput Solexa sequencing. Through sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction, a total of 545 conserved miRNA families as well as 15 novel (with their miRNA* strand) and 64 potentially novel miRNAs were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that both conserved and novel miRNAs were expressed in radish, and some of them were preferentially expressed in certain tissues. A total of 196 potential target genes were predicted for 42 novel radish miRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that most of the targets were involved in plant growth, development, metabolism and stress responses. This study represents a first large-scale identification and characterization of radish miRNAs and their potential target genes. These results could lead to the further identification of radish miRNAs and enhance our understanding of radish miRNA regulatory mechanisms in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can selection on a male mating character result in evolutionary change? A selection experiment on California wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Diane L; Evans, Ann S

    2016-03-01

    Whenever more pollen grains arrive on stigmas than necessary to fertilize ovules, sexual selection is possible. However, the role of sexual selection remains controversial, in part because of lack of evidence on genetic bases of traits and the response of relevant characters to selection. In an experiment with Raphanus sativus, we selected on tendency to sire seeds in the stylar or basal regions of fruits. This character is likely related to pollen tube growth rate, and seed position affects rates of abortion and seed predation. We measured differences among families in seed siring and related characters and evaluated responses to selection. All replicates showed strong effects of pollen donor family on proportion of seeds sired per fruit in mixed pollinations. Most also showed effects of pollen donor family on number of pollen grains per flower and pollen diameter. Two of four replicates showed a response to selection on position of seeds sired. In responding replicates, we found trade-offs in pollen grain size and number; plants with larger pollen grains sired more seeds in the basal region. Our data suggest a genetic basis for pollen donor ability to sire seeds in competition. The significant response to selection in two replicates shows that position of seeds sired can respond to selection. Thus, all components for sexual selection to occur and affect traits are present. Variation in results among replicates might be due to changes in greenhouse conditions. Environmental effects may contribute to the maintenance of variation in these fitness-related characters. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular mapping in oil radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and QTL analysis of resistance against beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budahn, Holger; Peterka, Herbert; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Ding, Yunhua; Zhang, Shaosong; Li, Jinbin

    2009-02-01

    The beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schmidt) can be controlled biologically in highly infected soils of sugar beet rotations using resistant varieties of oil radish (Raphanus sativus L. ssp. oleiferus DC.) as a green crop. Resistant plants stimulate infective juveniles to invade roots, but prevent them after their penetration to complete the life cycle. The resistance trait has been transferred successfully to susceptible rapeseed by the addition of a complete radish chromosome. The aim of the study was to construct a genetic map for radish and to develop resistance-associated markers. The map with 545 RAPD, dpRAPD, AFLP and SSR markers had a length of 1,517 cM, a mean distance of 2.8 cM and consisted of nine linkage groups having sizes between 120 and 232 cM. Chromosome-specific markers for the resistance-bearing chromosome d and the other eight radish chromosomes, developed previously from a series of rapeseed-radish addition lines, were enclosed as anchor markers. Each of the extra chromosomes in the addition lines could be unambiguously assigned to one of the radish linkage groups. The QTL analysis of nematode resistance was realized in the intraspecific F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between varieties 'Pegletta' (nematode resistant) x 'Siletta Nova' (susceptible). A dominant major QTL Hs1( Rph ) explaining 46.4% of the phenotypic variability was detected in a proximal position of chromosome d. Radish chromosome-specific anchor markers with known map positions were made available for future recombination experiments to incorporate segments carrying desired genes as Hs1( Rph ) from radish into rapeseed by means of chromosome addition lines.

  3. Discovery of a novel cytoplasmic male-sterility and its restorer lines in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Suhyung; Lim, Chaewan; Kim, Hyojung; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Kim, Sunggil

    2008-10-01

    A male-sterile (MS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was found in an accession collected from Uzbekistan. Unlike Ogura MS radishes in which no pollen grain is typically visible during anthesis, a small number of pollen grains stuck together in the dehiscing anthers was observed in the newly identified MS radish. Fluorescein diacetate tests and scanning electron micrographs showed that pollen grains in the new MS radish were severely deformed and non-viable. Cytological examination of pollen development stages showed a clear difference in the defective stage from that seen in Ogura male-sterility. Reciprocal cross-pollination with diverse male-fertile lines indicated that pollen grains of the new MS radish were completely sterile, and the female organs were fully fertile. When the new MS radish and Ogura MS lines were cross-pollinated with a set of eight breeding lines, all F1 progeny originating from crosses with the new MS radish were male-sterile. In contrast, most of the F1 progeny resulting from crosses with Ogura MS lines were male-fertile. These results demonstrated that factors associated with induction of the newly identified male-sterility are different from those of Ogura male-sterility. The lack of restorer lines for the newly identified male-sterility led us to predict that it might be a complete cytoplasmic male-sterility without restorer-of-fertility genes in nuclear genomes. However, cross-pollination with more diverse radish germplasm identified one accession introduced from Russia that could completely restore fertility, proving the existence of restorer-of-fertility gene(s) for the new male-sterility. Meanwhile, the PCR amplification profile of molecular markers for the classification of radish mitochondrial genome types revealed that the new MS radish contained a novel mitotype.

  4. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  5. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vivarelli

    Full Text Available Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism.The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ, a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC and isothiocyanates (ITCs, in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced.Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD. After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ. Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids. Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed.SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction. SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase,quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%. HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention.This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product.

  6. Growth and photosynthesis of plants in response to environmental stress. [Raphanus sativus; Glycine max; Salix nigra; Alnus serrulata; Populus tremuloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitner, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental stresses generally decrease photosynthetic rates and growth of plants, and alter biomass partitioning. Nutrient deficiency and drought cause root:shoot ratios to increase, whereas the air pollutant ozone (O[sub 3]) causes an opposite shift in carbon allocation. Plants in nature usually grow under suboptimal conditions; therefore plants were raised with O[sub 3] combined with other stresses to analyze the mechanisms whereby multiple stresses influence gas exchange and growth. Physiological and growth responses to stress were determined for radish (raphanus sativus), soybean (Glycine max) willow (Salix nigra), alder (Alnus serrulata) and aspen (Populus tremuloides) in laboratory and field trials. In willow, high-nutrient status plants had more visible injury, but a smaller decline in leaf area with O[sub 3] than did low-nutrient plants. Ultrastructure of host plant cells in alder root nodules was disrupted by O[sub 3], suggesting that this air pollutant can affect the ability of plants to acquire nutrients via symbiosis. Biomass and root:shoot ratios decreased with O[sub 3] in radish and soy-bean. Shifts in stable carbon isotope ratios were caused by O[sub 3], and this technique was used to integrate the effects of O[sub 3] on gas exchange over time. In aspen, O[sub 3] enhanced photosynthesis and foliar areas in young leaves of well-watered aspen, partially compensating for declines in older leaves. This effect was more pronounced in plants raised at a high nitrogen level than in N-deficient plants. Carboxylation efficiency decreased in older, but increased in younger leaves with O[sub 3]. Prior exposure to drought reduced effects of O[sub 3] on photosynthesis and leaf area.

  7. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of the seeds of Raphanus sativus L. in experimental ulcerative colitis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Cho, Seong-Wan; Kook, Sung-Ho; Chun, Sa-Ra; Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kim, Min-Kook; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-02-17

    Water extract of Raphanus sativus L. (RSL) seeds was traditionally used to treat digestive inflammatory complaints in Korean culture. RSL seeds exerted antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-septic functions, suggesting their pharmacological potential for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies associated with oxidative stress such as inflammatory bowel disease. We evaluated the intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of RSL seed water extract (RWE) in experimental rat models of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)- or dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. RWE was characterized by determining the content of sinapic acid as a reference material and then assayed in the DSS and TNBS models of rat colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 10 groups (n=7/group): non-colitic control, DSS or TNBS control, DSS colitis groups treated with RWE (100mg/kg) or mesalazine (25mg/kg), and TNBS colitis groups treated with various doses (10, 40, 70, and 100mg/kg) of RWE or mesalazine (25mg/kg). RWE or mesalazine treatment started the same day of colitis induction and rats were sacrificed 24h after the last treatment followed by histological and biochemical analyses. Oral administration with RWE suppressed intestinal inflammatory damages in both DSS- and TNBS-induced colitic rats. The treatment with 100mg/kg RWE recovered intestinal damages caused by TNBS or DSS to levels similar to that of mesalazine, decreasing the activity of myeloperoxidase activity and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β. RWE treatment inhibited malondialdehyde production and glutathione reduction in colon of colitis rats. The administration of RWE at dose of 100mg/kg also suppressed the TNBS- or DSS-stimulated expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, inducible nitric oxide, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Furthermore, RWE inhibited p38 kinase and DNA-nuclear factor-κB binding activities, both of which were stimulated in the

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-06

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  9. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10(-9) M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs, are

  11. Co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not affect cadmium toxicity in radish seeds (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, R Roshan; Grassi, G; Bergami, E; Marques-Santos, L F; Faleri, C; Liberatori, G; Corsi, I

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments on environmental fate models indicate that as nano waste, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) could reach terrestrial ecosystems thus potentially affecting environmental and human health. Plants can be therefore exposed to ENMs but controversial data in terms of fate and toxicity are currently available. Furthermore, there is a current lack of information on complex interactions/transformations to which ENMs undergo in the natural environment as for instance interacting with existing toxic compounds. The aim of the present study was to assess the behavior and biological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO 2 ) (Aeroxide P25, Degussa Evonik) and its interaction with cadmium (CdCl 2 ) in plants using radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L. Parvus) as model species. Radish seeds were exposed to n-TiO 2 (1-1000mg/L) and CdCl 2 (1-250mg/L) alone and in combination using a seed germination and seedling growth toxicity test OECD 208. Percentage of seed germination, germination index (GI) and root elongation were calculated. Cell morphology and oxidative stress parameters as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities (CAT) were measured in radish seeds after 5 days of exposure. Z-Average, PdI and Z-potential of n-TiO 2 in Milli-Q water as exposure medium were also determined. DLS analysis showed small aggregates of n-TiO 2 , negative Z-potential and stable PdI in seed's exposure media. Germination percentage, GI and root length resulted affected by n-TiO 2 exposure compared to controls. In particular, n-TiO 2 at 1mg/L and 100mg/L did not affect radish seeds germination (100%) while at concentration of 10mg/L, 200mg/L, 500mg/L, and 1000mg/L a slight but not significant decrease of germination % was observed. Similarly root length and GI resulted significantly higher in seeds exposed to 10mg/L and 200mg/L compared to 1mg/L, 100mg/L, 500mg/L, 1000mg/L and control (p radish seeds. Morphological alterations in nuclei, vacuoles and shape of

  12. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Expression Analysis in Radish (Raphanus sativus L. and Its Relatives Based on Expression Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Duan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radish (Raphanus sativus is an important cruciferous root crop with a close relationship to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa. RT-qPCR is used extensively to evaluate the expression levels of target genes, and accurate measurement of target gene expression with this method is determined by the valid reference genes used for data nomalization in different experimental conditions. Screening for appropriate reference genes with stable expression based on RT-qPCR data is important for gene expression and functional analysis research in radish and its relatives. However, many researches have thought that almost no single reference gene is widely suitable for all experimental conditions, and few researchers have paid attention to the validation of reference genes in radish gene expression analysis. In the present study, 12 candidate reference genes were selected for analysis. Their expression in 28 samples, including 20 radish samples from different organs and conditions, four Chinese cabbage organs and four organs of their distant hybrid, was assessed by RT-qPCR and then five software tools—ΔCt, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder—were used to compare their expression stability. The results showed that the most suitable reference genes were different in different organs and conditions. GAPDH, DSS1, and UP2 were optimal reference genes for gene expression analysis in all organs and conditions in radish. UPR, GSNOR1, and ACTIN2/7 were the most stable reference genes in different radish organs. UP2 and GAPDH were suitable reference genes for radish pistil development studies. RPII, UBC9, and GAPDH had the most stable expression in radish under various stresses. DSS1, UP2, and TEF2 were the optimal reference genes for Chinese cabbage organs, whereas TUA was optimal for the distant hybrid. UP2, and TEF2 were appropriate reference genes for all of the samples together. The optimal reference genes we identified, UP2, GAPDH, UPR, and GSNOR1 were

  13. Viabilidade do uso de água residuária tratada na irrigação da cultura do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Iasmine Louise de Almeida Dantas; Gregorio Guirado Faccioli; Luciana Coêlho Mendonça; Tatiana Pacheco Nunes; Pedro Roberto Almeida Viegas; Larissa Oliveira Gama de Santana

    2014-01-01

    A utilização de água residuária tratada para irrigação pode se tornar uma alternativa para regiões que enfrentam escassez de água. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do reuso de efluente doméstico na cultura do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.). O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Engenharia Agronômica (DEA), localizada na Universidade Federal de Sergipe/Campus de São Cristóvão no período de agosto a setembro de 2011. O efluente foi coletado...

  14. Seed Germination Ecology of the Cold Desert Annual Isatis violascens (Brassicaceae): Two Levels of Physiological Dormancy and Role of the Pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan M; Lu, Juan J; Tan, Dun Y; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of various species of Brassicaceae with indehiscent fruits in the cold deserts of NW China suggests that there are adaptive advantages of this trait. We hypothesized that the pericarp of the single-seeded silicles of Isatis violascens restricts embryo expansion and thus prevents germination for 1 or more years. Thus, our aim was to investigate the role of the pericarp in seed dormancy and germination of this species. The effects of afterripening, treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3) and cold stratification on seed dormancy-break were tested using intact silicles and isolated seeds, and germination phenology was monitored in an experimental garden. The pericarp has a role in mechanically inhibiting germination of fresh seeds and promotes germination of nondormant seeds, but it does not facilitate formation of a persistent seed bank. Seeds in silicles in watered soil began to germinate earlier in autumn and germinated to higher percentages than isolated seeds. Sixty-two percent of seeds in the buried silicles germinated by the end of the first spring, and only 3% remained nongerminated and viable. Twenty to twenty-five percent of the seeds have nondeep physiological dormancy (PD) and 75-80% intermediate PD. Seeds with nondeep PD afterripen in summer and germinate inside the silicles in autumn if the soil is moist. Afterripening during summer significantly decreased the amount of cold stratification required to break intermediate PD. The presence of both nondeep and intermediate PD in the seed cohort may be a bet-hedging strategy.

  15. Seed Germination Ecology of the Cold Desert Annual Isatis violascens (Brassicaceae: Two Levels of Physiological Dormancy and Role of the Pericarp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan M Zhou

    Full Text Available The occurrence of various species of Brassicaceae with indehiscent fruits in the cold deserts of NW China suggests that there are adaptive advantages of this trait. We hypothesized that the pericarp of the single-seeded silicles of Isatis violascens restricts embryo expansion and thus prevents germination for 1 or more years. Thus, our aim was to investigate the role of the pericarp in seed dormancy and germination of this species. The effects of afterripening, treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3 and cold stratification on seed dormancy-break were tested using intact silicles and isolated seeds, and germination phenology was monitored in an experimental garden. The pericarp has a role in mechanically inhibiting germination of fresh seeds and promotes germination of nondormant seeds, but it does not facilitate formation of a persistent seed bank. Seeds in silicles in watered soil began to germinate earlier in autumn and germinated to higher percentages than isolated seeds. Sixty-two percent of seeds in the buried silicles germinated by the end of the first spring, and only 3% remained nongerminated and viable. Twenty to twenty-five percent of the seeds have nondeep physiological dormancy (PD and 75-80% intermediate PD. Seeds with nondeep PD afterripen in summer and germinate inside the silicles in autumn if the soil is moist. Afterripening during summer significantly decreased the amount of cold stratification required to break intermediate PD. The presence of both nondeep and intermediate PD in the seed cohort may be a bet-hedging strategy.

  16. Delayed dehiscence of the pericarp: role in germination and retention of viability of seeds of two cold desert annual Brassicaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J J; Tan, D Y; Baskin, C C; Baskin, J M

    2017-01-01

    Considerable variation occurs in post-maturity timing of dehiscence in fruits of Brassicaceae species, and several studies have shown that the pericarp plays an important role in seed germination and retention of viability in species with indehiscent fruits. However, little is known about the significance to seed biology of delay in pericarp dehiscence for seed germination and retention of seed viability. We compared dormancy-break via after-ripening in the laboratory and germination phenology and retention of seed viability in intact siliques and isolated seeds buried in an experimental garden. Seeds of both species have Type 6 non-deep physiological dormancy, which is enhanced by the pericarp. Seeds of both species after-ripened during summer 2013, and some of them germinated in autumn and some in the following spring in watered and non-watered soil. Germination percentages of seeds in siliques increased in soil in spring 2014, after the pericarps had opened. Most isolated seeds of L. filifolium and N. korolkovii had germinated or were dead by spring 2014 and summer 2015, respectively, whereas 60% of the seeds of both species in the (opened) pericarps were viable after 24 months. Thus, although the pericarp opened 9-10 months after burial, its presence had a significant effect on seed dormancy, germination phenology and retention of viability of seeds of L. filifolium and N. korolkovii. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Characterization and structural features of a chalcone synthase mutation in a white-flowering line of Matthiola incana R. Br. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemleben, Vera; Dressel, Angela; Epping, Bernhard; Lukacin, Richard; Martens, Stefan; Austin, Michael

    2004-05-01

    For Matthiola incana (Brassicaceae), used as a model system to study biochemical and genetical aspects of anthocyanin biosynthesis, several nearly isogenic colored wild type lines and white-flowering mutant lines are available, each with a specific defect in the genes responsible for anthocyanin production (genes e, f, and g). For gene f supposed to code for chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74), the key enzyme of the flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway belonging to the group of type III polyketide synthases (PKS), the wild type genomic sequence of M. incana line 04 was determined in comparison to the white-flowering CHS mutant line 18. The type of mutation in the chs gene was characterized as a single nucleotide substitution in a triplet AGG coding for an evolutionary conserved arginine into AGT coding for serine (R72S). Northern blots and RT-PCR demonstrated that the mutated gene is expressed in flower petals. Heterologous expression of the wild type and mutated CHS cDNA in E. Scherichia coli, verified by Western blotting and enzyme assays with various starter molecules, revealed that the mutant protein had no detectable activity, indicating that the strictly conserved arginine residue is essential for the enzymatic reaction. This mutation, which previously was not detected by mutagenic screening, is discussed in the light of structural and functional information on alfalfa CHS and related type III PKS enzymes.

  18. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: katarina.vogel@uni-lj.si; Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 5960 mg kg{sup -1} Cd and 3500 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  19. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Mizue; Yasumoto, Keita; Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Terachi, Toru

    2012-07-31

    Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF) created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%). It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size) that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138 was found to be located at the edge of the

  20. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138

  1. Role of cadmium and ultraviolet-B radiation in plants. Influence on photosynthesis and element content in two species of Brassicaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson Joensson, Helene

    2001-02-01

    Plants are exposed to many different stress factors during their lifetime. often more than one factor at a time. which highlights the importance of research regarding interaction among stress factors. Cadmium and ultraviolet-B radiation (MB, 280-315 mm) are two potential stress factors in the environment, which have gained increased interest due to atmospheric pollution. In this work the interaction between Cd and UV-B radiation was investigated in two species of Brassicaceae; Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana, the latter including the wild type and phytochelatin-deficient cad1-3. In both species photosynthetic parameters and element content were studied after the plants were exposed to Cd and supplemental UV-B radiation for 14 days. A separate Cd uptake study was carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the effect of different Cd pretreatments on Cd uptake. The experiments showed that Cd was the dominant factor, but in Brassica napus, Cd+UV-B showed some interaction effects on energy dissipation and chlorophyll ratios. Generally, Cd decreased the chlorophyll content and influenced photosynthesis by altering oxygen evolution, non-photochemical quenching and the quantum yield. Cadmium had large effects on the content of essential elements, particularly in roots, that may be due to competition during uptake. The Cd uptake study showed that the wild type contained much higher amounts of Cd than the phytochelatin-deficient cad1-3, although Cd uptake is expected to be independent of phytochelatin content. Phytochelatins chelate and transport Cd to the vacuole, thus removing Cd from the cytosol. This compartmentation may disrupt a possible feedback mechanism in the cytosol.

  2. Efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus L. Effects of the culture of the Barley and of periods of control on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus. Foram considerados dois tratamentos testemunha sem controle das plantas daninhas, com e sem a cultura. Nos oito demais tratamentos, a cultura esteve sempre presente, controlando-se as plantas daninhas até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 e 100 dias após a emergência da cevada. A comunidade infestante da área era composta quase exclusivamente por R. .sativus. Avaliou-se o número de plantas, acúmulos de matéria seca, número médio de frutos e sementes de nabiça por planta e por unidade de área ; foram ainda avaliados o número médio de sementes por fruto, peso médio de 1.000 sementes e a contribuição das sementes na composição da matéria se catota. A análise dos resultados evidenciou que a espécie Raphanus sativus apresenta elevado potencial reprodutivo, sendo possível concluir pela ineficiência de programas de controle de curta duração, em termos de redução do banco de sementes. A presença da cultura da cevada reduziu tanto o crescimento quanto o número de sementes produzidas pela nabiça (R. sativus. Na ausência da cultura e de práticas de controle foram produzidas 5.074 sementes/m, a partir de 125 plantas/m ainda presentes na colheita da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of barley and weed control periods on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus, the major weed in the experimental area. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Two checks, with and without the crop, were kept weedy from seeding to harvest. In other eight treatments the crop was kept weed free up to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 days after emergence. It were evaluated the number of plants, the dry matter accumulation and the number of fruits and seeds per plant and per m2, the weight of 1.000 seeds and the

  3. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  4. Leaves of Raphanus sativus L. Shows Anti-Inflammatory Activity in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages via Suppression of COX-2 and iNOS Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Song, Minjung

    2017-01-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (RS) is a cruciferous vegetable that is widely consumed in Korea. The anticancer activity of leaves of RS (RSL) extract has been investigated; however, no studies focused on its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of RSL extract. In brief, RSL powder was fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water-soluble fractions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with each fraction for initial screening. It was found that the chloroform fraction significantly inhibited nitric oxide release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 196 μg/mL. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, measured using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression decreased. Furthermore, the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the key regulator of the transcriptional activation of the inflammatory cytokine genes, was reduced by the RSL chloroform fraction. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that RSL exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated macrophages via NF-κB inactivation. PMID:28401088

  5. Leaves ofRaphanus sativusL. Shows Anti-Inflammatory Activity in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages via Suppression of COX-2 and iNOS Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Song, Minjung

    2017-03-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (RS) is a cruciferous vegetable that is widely consumed in Korea. The anticancer activity of leaves of RS (RSL) extract has been investigated; however, no studies focused on its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of RSL extract. In brief, RSL powder was fractionated into n -hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n -butanol, and water-soluble fractions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with each fraction for initial screening. It was found that the chloroform fraction significantly inhibited nitric oxide release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 196 μg/mL. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, measured using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression decreased. Furthermore, the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the key regulator of the transcriptional activation of the inflammatory cytokine genes, was reduced by the RSL chloroform fraction. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that RSL exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated macrophages via NF-κB inactivation.

  6. Hexane extract of Raphanus sativus L. roots inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by modulating genes related to apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Subathra, Murugan; Edula, Jyotheeswara Reddy

    2010-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. It has been used in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various human ailments in India. This present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of different parts of R. sativus such as root, stem and leaves, extracted with solvents of varying polarity and investigated the molecular mechanism leading to growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in human cancer cell lines. Of the different parts, significant growth inhibitory effect was observed with hexane extract of R. sativus root. Analysis of hexane extract by GC-MS revealed the presence of several isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), 4-(methylthio)-3-butyl isothiocyanate (erucin), 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphene. R. sativus root extract induced cell death both in p53 proficient and p53 deficient cell lines through induction of apoptotic signaling pathway regardless of the p53 status of cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying R. sativus-induced apoptosis may involve interactions among Bcl(2) family genes, as evidenced by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes along with activation of Caspase-3. Our findings present the first evidence that hexane extract of R. sativus root exerts potential chemopreventive efficacy and induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines through modulation of genes involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.

  7. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  8. Synthetic peptides derived from the beta2-beta3 loop of Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 that mimic the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaper, W M; Posthuma, G A; Plasman, H H; Sijtsma, L; Fant, F; Borremans, F A; Thevissen, K; Broekaert, W F; Meloen, R H; van Amerongen, A

    2001-05-01

    Rs-AFPs are antifungal proteins, isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus) seed or leaves, which consist of 50 or 51 amino acids and belong to the plant defensin family of proteins. Four highly homologous Rs-AFPs have been isolated (Rs-AFP1-4). The structure of Rs-AFP1 consists of three beta-strands and an alpha-helix, and is stabilized by four cystine bridges. Small peptides deduced from the native sequence, still having biological activity, are not only important tools to study structure-function relationships, but may also constitute a commercially interesting target. In an earlier study, we showed that the antifungal activity of Rs-AFP2 is concentrated mainly in the beta2-beta3 loop. In this study, we synthesized linear 19-mer peptides, spanning the entire beta2-beta3 loop, that were found to be almost as potent as Rs-AFP2. Cysteines, highly conserved in the native protein, are essential for maintaining the secondary structure of the protein. Surprisingly, in the 19-mer loop peptides, cysteines can be replaced by alpha-aminobutyric acid, which even improves the antifungal potency of the peptides. Analogous cyclic 19-mer peptides, forced to adopt a hairpin structure by the introduction of one or two non-native disulfide bridges, were also found to possess high antifungal activity. The synthetic 19-mer peptides, like Rs-AFP2 itself, cause increased Ca2+ influx in pregerminated fungal hyphae.

  9. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  10. Simultaneous quantification of sulforaphene and sulforaphane by reverse phase HPLC and their content in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Sarita; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida

    2016-06-15

    A simple, rapid and precise HPLC assay was developed for the well-known anti-cancer isothiocyanates-sulforaphene (SE) and sulforaphane (SF). The analytical system comprised RP-C18 column with isocratic 5% THF-95% water. High resolution was obtained (and eluted) of two distinct HPLC peaks of similar structures SE and SF analytes (at 23.01±0.02 and 25.65±0.03 min, respectively). The respective LOD vs. LOQ for SE and SF was 0.34 and 0.36 μg/ml vs. 1.02 and 1.08 μg/ml. This assay had the best linearity and accuracy. The recoveries were in the range of 96.83-101.17%. SF and SE were quantified in the pod of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef extracts (2253.05±246.18 and 111.94±16.49 μg/g in the crude extract, respectively), while only SE was detected in the stem (1105.14±243.10 μg/g crude extract), as SF was lower than the detection limit. The validated method thus minimized and expedited simultaneous SE and SF analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Raphanus sativus L. var niger attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing transforming growth factor β1 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Nazarizadeh, Ali; Mikaili, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease of the lungs, which leads to death in human. It has been suggested that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) together with oxidative stress play a central role in the pathogenesis of the ailment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible curative effects of black radish, Raphanus sativus L. var niger (RSN) on bleomycine (BLM) -induced pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model. In this study, thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups, including: (I) positive (BLM) control group, (II) negative (normal saline) control group, (III) sham group (R. sativus extract 150 mg/kg), and (IV-VI) treatment groups. In order to induce pulmonary fibrosis, four groups were treated with a single dose of BLM sulfate (7.5 U/kg) through intratracheal instillation. Treatment groups (IV-VI) received RSN extract (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) orally a week before and two weeks after the administration of BLM. At the end of the treatment course, blood and lung tissue samples were taken and the measurement of TGF-β1 and histopathological examination of the lung tissues performed. The results showed that RSN, at 300 mg/kg dose, could significantly decrease the serum level of TGF-β1 and severity of the histological lesions as compared to the positive control group. The results of the current study indicate that the components present in the extract can remarkably prevent the aggravation of pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing TGF-β1 level.

  12. Instability of chromosome number and DNA methylation variation induced by hybridization and amphidiploid formation between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Distant hybridization can result genome duplication and allopolyploid formation which may play a significant role in the origin and evolution of many plant species. It is unclear how the two or more divergent genomes coordinate in one nucleus with a single parental cytoplasm within allopolyploids. We used cytological and molecular methods to investigate the genetic and epigenetic instabilities associated with the process of distant hybridization and allopolyploid formation, measuring changes in chromosome number and DNA methylation across multiple generations. Results F1 plants from intergeneric hybridization between Raphanus sativus L. (2n = 18, RR) and Brassica alboglabra Bailey (2n = 18, CC) were obtained by hand crosses and subsequent embryo rescue. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to identify the F1 hybrid plants. The RAPD data indicated that the hybrids produced specific bands similar to those of parents and new bands that were not present in either parent. Chromosome number variation of somatic cells from allotetraploids in the F4 to F10 generations showed that intensive genetic changes occurred in the early generations of distant hybridization, leading to the formation of mixopolyploids with different chromosome numbers. DNA methylation variation was revealed using MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism), which showed that cytosine methylation patterns changed markedly in the process of hybridization and amphidiploid formation. Differences in cytosine methylation levels demonstrated an epigenetic instability of the allopolyploid of Raphanobrassica between the genetically stable and unstable generations. Conclusions Our results showed that chromosome instability occurred in the early generations of allopolyploidy and then the plants were reverted to largely euploidy in later generations. During this process, DNA methylation changed markedly. These results suggest that, epigenetic mechanisms play an

  13. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2013-12-15

    Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Instability of chromosome number and DNA methylation variation induced by hybridization and amphidiploid formation between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanjie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant hybridization can result genome duplication and allopolyploid formation which may play a significant role in the origin and evolution of many plant species. It is unclear how the two or more divergent genomes coordinate in one nucleus with a single parental cytoplasm within allopolyploids. We used cytological and molecular methods to investigate the genetic and epigenetic instabilities associated with the process of distant hybridization and allopolyploid formation, measuring changes in chromosome number and DNA methylation across multiple generations. Results F1 plants from intergeneric hybridization between Raphanus sativus L. (2n = 18, RR and Brassica alboglabra Bailey (2n = 18, CC were obtained by hand crosses and subsequent embryo rescue. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to identify the F1 hybrid plants. The RAPD data indicated that the hybrids produced specific bands similar to those of parents and new bands that were not present in either parent. Chromosome number variation of somatic cells from allotetraploids in the F4 to F10 generations showed that intensive genetic changes occurred in the early generations of distant hybridization, leading to the formation of mixopolyploids with different chromosome numbers. DNA methylation variation was revealed using MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism, which showed that cytosine methylation patterns changed markedly in the process of hybridization and amphidiploid formation. Differences in cytosine methylation levels demonstrated an epigenetic instability of the allopolyploid of Raphanobrassica between the genetically stable and unstable generations. Conclusions Our results showed that chromosome instability occurred in the early generations of allopolyploidy and then the plants were reverted to largely euploidy in later generations. During this process, DNA methylation changed markedly. These results suggest that

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identification of a candidate gene responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) containing DCGMS cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Young; Lee, Young-Pyo; Lee, Jonghoon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Sunggil; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-07-01

    A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) conferred by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its restorer-of-fertility gene (Rfd1) was previously reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Its inheritance of fertility restoration and profiles of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based molecular markers were reported to be different from those of Ogura CMS, the first reported CMS in radish. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence (239,186 bp; GenBank accession No. KC193578) of DCGMS mitotype is reported in this study. Thirty-four protein-coding genes and three ribosomal RNA genes were identified. Comparative analysis of a mitochondrial genome sequence of DCGMS and previously reported complete sequences of normal and Ogura CMS mitotypes revealed various recombined structures of seventeen syntenic sequence blocks. Short-repeat sequences were identified in almost all junctions between syntenic sequence blocks. Phylogenetic analysis of three radish mitotypes showed that DCGMS was more closely related to the normal mitotype than to the Ogura mitotype. A single 1,551-bp unique region was identified in DCGMS mtDNA sequences and a novel chimeric gene, designated orf463, consisting of 128-bp partial sequences of cox1 gene and 1,261-bp unidentified sequences were found in the unique region. No other genes with a chimeric structure, a major feature of most characterized CMS-associated genes in other plant species, were found in rearranged junctions of syntenic sequence blocks. Like other known CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, the predicted gene product of orf463 contained 12 transmembrane domains. Thus, this gene product might be integrated into the mitochondrial membrane. In total, the results indicate that orf463 is likely to be a casual factor for CMS induction in radish containing the DCGMS cytoplasm.

  16. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cadmium-responsive microRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is highly toxic to living organisms. To date, a number of conserved and non-conserved miRNAs have been identified to be involved in response to Cd stress in some plant species. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) remain largely unexplored. To dissect Cd-responsive miRNAs and their targets systematically at the global level, two small RNA libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and Cd-free roots of radish seedlings. Using Solexa sequencing technology, 93 conserved and 16 non-conserved miRNAs (representing 26 miRNA families) and 28 novel miRNAs (representing 22 miRNA families) were identified. In all, 15 known and eight novel miRNA families were significantly differently regulated under Cd stress. The expression patterns of a set of Cd-responsive miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Based on the radish mRNA transcriptome, 18 and 71 targets for novel and known miRNA families, respectively, were identified by the degradome sequencing approach. Furthermore, a few target transcripts including phytochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1), iron transporter protein, and ABC transporter protein were involved in plant response to Cd stress. This study represents the first transcriptome-based analysis of miRNAs and their targets responsive to Cd stress in radish roots. These findings could provide valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs and their targets in regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root and identification of genes involved in response to Lead (Pb) stress with next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop with fleshy taproots as the edible parts. Little is known about the mechanism by which radishes respond to Pb stress at the molecular level. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during Pb stress. A total of 68,940 assembled unique transcripts including 33,337 unigenes were obtained from radish root cDNA samples. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 4,614 DEGs were detected between the two libraries of untreated (CK) and Pb-treated (Pb1000) roots. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs under Pb stress are predominately involved in defense responses in cell walls and glutathione metabolism-related processes, while downregulated DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways. The expression patterns of 22 selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. Furthermore, many candidate genes, which were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors, metal transporters and chelate compound biosynthesis related enzymes, were successfully identified in response to heavy metal Pb. Identification of potential DEGs involved in responses to Pb stress significantly reflected alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. The molecular basis of the response to Pb stress in radishes was comprehensively characterized. Useful information and new insights were provided for investigating the molecular regulation mechanism of heavy metal Pb accumulation and

  19. Raphanus sativus L. seeds prevent LPS-stimulated inflammatory response through negative regulation of the p38 MAPK-NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Choi, Ki-Choon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Cho, Hyoung-Kwon; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2014-12-01

    The seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (RSL) have long been used as anti-inflammatory traditional medicine. However, scientific bases for the purported potential of the medicine and the associated mechanisms were barely defined. This study investigated the effects of RSL seeds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 100 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (REF), which was isolated from water extract of the seeds, significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (P < 0.001), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P < 0.001) in RAW264.7 cells. Oral supplementation with 30 mg/kg REF protected mice by 90% against LPS-induced septic death and prevented the increases of serum TNF-α and interferon-γ levels in LPS-injected mice. When REF was divided into four sub-fractions (REF-F1-F4), REF-F3 showed the greatest activity to suppress LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators. We subsequently isolated an active fraction from the REF-F3 and identified sinapic acid as the main constituent. The addition of 50 μg/ml active fraction markedly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-κB activation. Furthermore, supplementation with the active fraction (10 mg/kg) improved the survival rate of LPS-injected mice by 80% of the untreated control. Additional experiments revealed that sinapic acid was the active component responsible for the anti-inflammatory potential of RSL seeds. Collectively, our current results suggest that both RSL seeds and sinapic acid may be attractive materials for treating inflammatory disorders caused by endotoxins.

  20. Identification of highly variable chloroplast sequences and development of cpDNA-based molecular markers that distinguish four cytoplasm types in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunggil; Lee, Young-Pyo; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee

    2009-06-01

    Four types of cytoplasms (Ogura, DCGMS, DBRMF1, and DBRMF2) were identified in the previous studies using molecular markers based on mitochondrial genome variations in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). However, mtDNA markers have limitations in obtaining clear results due to complexity of radish mitochondrial genomes. To improve fidelity, molecular markers based on variation of chloroplast genome sequences were developed in this study. We searched for the sequence variations of chloroplast genome among the four cytoplasm types in 11 noncoding intergenic regions of ~8.7 kb. Highly variable intergenic regions between trnK and rps16 were identified, and a couple of 4-34 bp indels were used to develop a simple PCR-based marker that distinguished the four cytoplasm types based on the PCR product length polymorphism. Two additional cpDNA markers were developed by using a single nucleotide polymorphism and 17-bp insertion. Analysis of 90 accessions using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers showed the perfect match of results of both the markers, suggesting strict co-transmission of mitochondria and chloroplast in radish. Phylogenetic trees showed that two male-sterility inducing cytoplasms, Ogura and DCGMS, were closely related to DBRMF1 and DBRMF2, respectively. Analysis of 120 radish germplasms introduced from diverse countries showed that the frequency of male-sterility inducing mitotypes of Ogura and DCGMS was very low, and DCGMS was predominately detected in eastern European countries. Majority of accessions from Europe and Asia were shown to contain DBRMF2 and DBRMF1 mitotypes, respectively.

  1. Genome-Wide Characterization of the MADS-Box Gene Family in Radish (Raphanus sativusL.) and Assessment of Its Roles in Flowering and Floral Organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Nie, Shanshan; Chen, Yinglong; Liang, Dongyi; Sun, Xiaochuan; Karanja, Benard K; Luo, Xiaobo; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish ( Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana , all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ) and 76 type II (70 MIKC C and 6 MIKC ∗ ). Among them, 41 (28.47%) RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana , Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  2. Formation of a subero-lignified apical deposit in root tip of radish (Raphanus sativus) as a response to copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovác, Ján; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek

    2018-02-10

    Heavy metals induce changes in root metabolism and physiology, which can lead to a complex remodelling of the root system. The final morphological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots exposed to toxic concentrations of the heavy metal (Cu) include root growth inhibition, differentiation of xylem vessels close to the root tip, enhanced suberin lamellae deposition and enhanced lateral root production. Recently, we have found that such changes in root morphology and anatomy are coupled to the formation of a subero-lignified apical deposit (SLAD) very close to the root tip. To clarify the details of the formation of a SLAD in the root tip, we conducted experiments with radish roots exposed to a high Cu concentration (60 µm). Histochemical analysis of lignin and suberin as well as analysis of spatial-temporal characteristics of SLAD formation were performed by bright-field, fluorescence and confocal microscopy. This unique structure, not longer than 100 µm, consists of modified cell walls of the central cylinder that are encircled by a short cylinder of prematurely suberized endodermal cells. A SLAD starts to form, in both primary and lateral roots, after cessation of root elongation, and it is coupled with xylem differentiation and root branching close to the root apex. We noticed that deposition of phenolic substances into a SLAD, mainly suberin in the endodermis, is spatially separated from suberization or lignification in basally located endodermis. Although the main reason for formation of a SLAD is elusive, we suggest that it is a part of stress-induced responses which relate to decreased root growth or permeability in heavy metal stress.

  3. Transfer of Nickel from Polluted Soil to Pisum sativum L. and Raphanus sativus L. under Composted Green Amendment and Native Soil Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafady Nivien Allam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost, inoculation with native soil microbes and their residual effects on bioavailability of nickel by peas (Pisum sativum L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. grown on polluted soil were investigated in pot experiments. Plants were amendment with different compost levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% of soil dry weight and inoculated with different native soil microbes (4 fungal species, one bacterial species, 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the polluted soil under study. Significant increases in the biomass of pea and radish plants were observed as a result of amendment application and their residual effects. The mycorrhizal dependency (MD of pea plants was lower than of radish plants. The highest reductions of Ni levels in both plants were observed by the simultaneous applications of compost with microbes or mycorrhizal fungi to polluted soils. Soil pH increased significantly (p < 0.05 as a result of applying native microbes especially with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF alone or combined with compost. The DTPA extractability of soil Ni was significantly decreased with increasing soil pH (p < 0.05. The minimum transfer factor of Ni from polluted soil were 0.067 and 0.089 for pea and radish plants, respectively which were attained as a result of applying compost (0.6% of soil weight inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. From the results, we can conclude that the use of compost and native soil microbes as a soil remediate could be an effective strategy for soil remediation.

  4. Biocontrol Potential ofStreptomyces hydrogenansStrain DH16 towardAlternaria brassicicolato Control Damping Off and Black Leaf Spot ofRaphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhas, Rajesh K; Kaur, Talwinder

    2016-01-01

    Biocontrol agents and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to decrease the use of chemical pesticides. In light of this, the present investigation reports the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 and its metabolites towards Alternaria brassicicola , causal agent of black leaf spot and damping off of seedlings of crucifers. In vitro antibiosis of strain against pathogen revealed complete suppression of mycelial growth of pathogen, grown in potato dextrose broth supplemented with culture supernatant (20% v/v) of S. hydrogenans DH16. Microscopic examination of the fungal growth showed severe morphological abnormalities in the mycelium caused by antifungal metabolites. In vivo studies showed the efficacy of streptomycete cells and culture supernatant as seed dressings to control damping off of Raphanus sativus seedlings. Treatment of pathogen infested seeds with culture supernatant (10%) and streptomycete cells significantly improved seed germination (75-80%) and vigor index (1167-1538). Furthermore, potential of cells and culture supernatant as foliar treatment to control black leaf spot was also evaluated. Clearly visible symptoms of disease were observed in the control plants with 66.81% disease incidence and retarded growth of root system. However, disease incidence reduced to 6.78 and 1.47% in plants treated with antagonist and its metabolites, respectively. Additionally, treatment of seeds and plants with streptomycete stimulated various growth traits of plants over uninoculated control plants in the absence of pathogen challenge. These results indicate that S. hydrogenans and its culture metabolites can be developed as biofungicides as seed dressings to control seed borne pathogens, and as sprays to control black leaf spot of crucifers.

  5. Genome-wide characterization of the MADS-box gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L. and assessment of its roles in flowering and floral organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC*. Among them, 41 (28.47% RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  6. Biocontrol Potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16 Towards Alternaria brassicicola to Control Damping Off and Black Leaf Spot of Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumari Manhas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol agents and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to decrease the use of chemical pesticides. In light of this, the present investigation reports the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 and its metabolites towards Alternaria brassicicola, causal agent of black leaf spot and damping off of seedlings of crucifers. In vitro antibiosis of strain against pathogen revealed complete suppression of mycelial growth of pathogen, grown in potato dextrose broth supplemented with culture supernatant (20% v/v of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Microscopic examination of the fungal growth showed severe morphological abnormalities in the mycelium caused by antifungal metabolites. In vivo studies showed the efficacy of streptomycete cells and culture supernatant as seed dressings to control damping off of Raphanus sativus seedlings. Treatment of pathogen infested seeds with culture supernatant (10% and streptomycete cells significantly improved seed germination (75-80% and vigour index (1167-1538. Furthermore, potential of cells and culture supernatant as foliar treatment to control black leaf spot was also evaluated. Clearly visible symptoms of disease were observed in the control plants with 66.81% disease incidence and retarded growth of root system. However, disease incidence reduced to 6.78 and 1.47% in plants treated with antagonist and its metabolites, respectively. Additionally, treatment of seeds and plants with streptomycete stimulated various growth traits of plants over uninoculated control plants in the absence of pathogen challenge. These results indicate that S. hydrogenans and its culture metabolites can be developed as biofungicides as seed dressings to control seed borne pathogens, and as sprays to control black leaf spot of crucifers.

  7. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-Reyes, J. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Vilchis-Nestor, A.R. [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM—UNAM, Carretera Toluca—Atlacomulco km 14.5, San Cayetano, CP 50200 Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Majumdar, S. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Peralta-Videa, J.R. [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, J.L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Chemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Av., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The citric acid capping significantly reduced the ζ potential values. • As the amount of CA increased, thicker the layer surrounding the CeO{sub 2} NPs. • CeO{sub 2}/CA NPs had better distribution and small particle size than bare CeO{sub 2} NPs. • CeO{sub 2}/CA NPs decrease the Ce uptake by radish seedlings. -- Abstract: Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO{sub 2} NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO{sub 2}:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO{sub 2} NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO{sub 2} NPs suspensions at 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, and 200 mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100 mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and −56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO{sub 2} NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO{sub 2} NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200 mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO{sub 2} NPs toxicity to plants.

  8. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  9. Identification of novel and salt-responsive miRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory network of salt stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Yu, Rugang; Zhu, Xianwen; Luo, Xiaobo; Gong, Yiqin; Wang, Ronghua; Limera, Cecilia; Zhang, Keyun; Liu, Liwang

    2015-03-17

    Salt stress is one of the most representative abiotic stresses that severely affect plant growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well known for their significant involvement in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Although miRNAs implicated in salt stress response have been widely reported in numerous plant species, their regulatory roles in the adaptive response to salt stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), an important root vegetable crop worldwide, remain largely unknown. Solexa sequencing of two sRNA libraries from NaCl-free (CK) and NaCl-treated (Na200) radish roots were performed for systematical identification of salt-responsive miRNAs and their expression profiling in radish. Totally, 136 known miRNAs (representing 43 miRNA families) and 68 potential novel miRNAs (belonging to 51 miRNA families) were identified. Of these miRNAs, 49 known and 22 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed under salt stress. Target prediction and annotation indicated that these miRNAs exerted a role by regulating specific stress-responsive genes, such as squamosa promoter binding-like proteins (SPLs), auxin response factors (ARFs), nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (CSD1). Further functional analysis suggested that these target genes were mainly implicated in signal perception and transduction, regulation of ion homeostasis, basic metabolic processes, secondary stress responses, as well as modulation of attenuated plant growth and development under salt stress. Additionally, the expression patterns of ten miRNAs and five corresponding target genes were validated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). With the sRNA sequencing, salt-responsive miRNAs and their target genes in radish were comprehensively identified. The results provide novel insight into complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network of salt stress response in radish, and facilitate further dissection of molecular mechanism underlying plant adaptive response

  10. The uptake of Cs and Sr from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus L.)- potential for phytoextraction and remediation of contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wen, Fangping; Xu, Changhe; Tang, Yunlai; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-08-01

    The (133)Cs and (88)Sr uptake by plant Raphanus sativus L. was studied during cultivation in outdoor potted-soil. The distribution, accumulation of (133)Cs, (88)Sr and the antioxidant responses in plants were measured after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. The results showed that the uptake capacity of radish for (88)Sr was far higher than that for (133)Cs when the concentration of (88)Sr was as the same as that of (133)Cs in the soil (The concentration of (88)Sr or (133)Cs in the soil was from 2.5 mg kg(-1) to 40 mg kg(-1)). The highest (88)Sr accumulation was 239.18 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the highest (133)Cs accumulation was 151.74 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil was 40 mg kg(-1)), and the lowest (88)Sr accumulation was 131.03 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the lowest (133)Cs accumulation was 12.85 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil is 5 mg kg(-1)). The (88)Sr and (133)Cs TF values were 1.16-1.72 and 0.24-0.60, respectively. There was little influence of high concentration of (88)Sr on the total biomass of plants, so the radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance to (88)Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the (88)Sr stress than that under the (133)Cs stress, and the activities of POD and CAT were lower under the (88)Sr stress than that under (133)Cs stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Viabilidade do uso de água residuária tratada na irrigação da cultura do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmine Louise de Almeida Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de água residuária tratada para irrigação pode se tornar uma alternativa para regiões que enfrentam escassez de água. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do reuso de efluente doméstico na cultura do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Engenharia Agronômica (DEA, localizada na Universidade Federal de Sergipe/Campus de São Cristóvão no período de agosto a setembro de 2011. O efluente foi coletado na Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos (ETE Rosa Elze, localizada no Município de São Cristóvão/SE. As irrigações foram feitas utilizando-se cinco diluições diferentes. A lâmina de irrigação foi obtida pelo método do Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO 56. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado (IC, com cinco repetições e duas plantas por parcela útil. Foram avaliados altura, massa seca e fresca da parte aérea; comprimento e massa fresca da raiz; diâmetro do fruto e número de folhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, não havendo diferença significativa. Em relação à qualidade microbiológica do bulbo, realizou-se a enumeração de coliformes termotolerantes, de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas e a pesquisa de Salmonella, os resultados demonstram que o rabanete encontra-se dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação.

  12. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Expression Analysis in Radish (Raphanus sativusL.) and Its Relatives Based on Expression Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui; Wang, Haiping; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Guo, Yangdong; Li, Xixiang

    2017-01-01

    Radish ( Raphanus sativus ) is an important cruciferous root crop with a close relationship to Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ). RT-qPCR is used extensively to evaluate the expression levels of target genes, and accurate measurement of target gene expression with this method is determined by the valid reference genes used for data nomalization in different experimental conditions. Screening for appropriate reference genes with stable expression based on RT-qPCR data is important for gene expression and functional analysis research in radish and its relatives. However, many researches have thought that almost no single reference gene is widely suitable for all experimental conditions, and few researchers have paid attention to the validation of reference genes in radish gene expression analysis. In the present study, 12 candidate reference genes were selected for analysis. Their expression in 28 samples, including 20 radish samples from different organs and conditions, four Chinese cabbage organs and four organs of their distant hybrid, was assessed by RT-qPCR and then five software tools-ΔCt, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder-were used to compare their expression stability. The results showed that the most suitable reference genes were different in different organs and conditions. GAPDH, DSS1 , and UP2 were optimal reference genes for gene expression analysis in all organs and conditions in radish. UPR, GSNOR1 , and ACTIN2/7 were the most stable reference genes in different radish organs. UP2 and GAPDH were suitable reference genes for radish pistil development studies. RPII, UBC9 , and GAPDH had the most stable expression in radish under various stresses. DSS1, UP2 , and TEF 2 were the optimal reference genes for Chinese cabbage organs, whereas TUA was optimal for the distant hybrid. UP2 , and TEF 2 were appropriate reference genes for all of the samples together. The optimal reference genes we identified, UP2, GAPDH, UPR , and GSNOR1 were verified by

  13. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE IRRIGAÇÃO BASEADAS EM FRAÇÕES DO TANQUE CLASSE SOBRE A PRODUÇÃO DE RABANETE (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Angélica Alves MARQUES

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The radish (Raphanus sativus L. is a herbaceous plant which roots present high nutritious value. One of the more used methods of the cultures evapotranspiration estimative (Eto is the pan evaporation. This method integrated the effects of solar radiation, wind, temperature and relative humidity based on the water evaporation of a free surface. This work studied the effect of different irrigation levels, based on pan evaporation (ECA - 80% ECA; 100% ECA; 120% ECA and hydric stress (0% ECA, about the 'Crinson Giant' radish production cultivated in pots. The fractions of pan evaporation tested didn't cause a reduction in the radish production in relation to the total irrigation (100% ECA. However the plants submitted to the hydric stress (0% ECA had presented a reduction in dry matter of 42% and 64% in aerial part and roots, respectively, when compared to the control (100% ECA.

  14. Radish (Raphanus sativus) and Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleem Ali

    2017-09-14

    For more than three decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies have linked radishes with diabetes, though this link has not been discussed. This review systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of radishes on diabetes. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and EMBASE databases for English language articles from June 1987 through May 2017 using the key words "radish" and "diabetes," and the references from particular reports were also considered if relevant. In summary, radish has been identified as having antidiabetic effects, making it favorable for those with diabetic conditions. This may be due to its ability to enhance the antioxidant defense mechanism and reduce the accumulation of free radicals, affect hormonal-induced glucose hemostasis, promote glucose uptake and energy metabolism, and reduce glucose absorption in the intestine. However, this summary requires further confirmation in research in vivo studies and clinical trials.

  15. Replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA of lucerne transient streak virus are supported in divergent hosts by cocksfoot mottle virus and turnip rosette virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, O P; Sinha, R C; Gellatly, D L; Ivanov, I; AbouHaidar, M G

    1993-04-01

    Cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus supports replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA (sat-RNA) of lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in two monocotyledonous species, Triticum aestivum and Dactylis glomerata. Additionally, LTSV sat-RNA replicates effectively in the presence of turnip rosette sobemovirus in Brassica rapa, Raphanus raphanistrum and Sinapsis arvensis, but not in Thlaspi arvense or Nicotiana bigelovii, indicating that host species markedly influence this interaction. Previous reports of the association between LTSV sat-RNA and helper sobemoviruses were limited to dicotyledonous hosts. Our results demonstrate that the biological interaction between these two entities spans divergent dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species.

  16. EVALUACION DEL POTENCIAL DE LOS BIOSÓLIDOS PROCEDENTES DEL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES PARA USO AGRÍCOLA Y SU EFECTO SOBRE EL CULTIVO DE RABANO ROJO (Raphanus sativus L.. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOSOLIDS OBTAINED FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL USE AND THEIR EFFECT ON CULTIVATION OF RED RADISH (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Ramiro Ramírez Pisco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se adelantó en predios de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales “El Salitre”, en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el propósito de evaluar el potencial del subproducto del tratamiento de aguas residuales “biosólido”, para su aplicación en la agricultura por medio de la valoración del crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano rojo, y establecer una posible alternativa al problema de disposición final de 3900 toneladas de este material generado mensualmente en las planta de tratamiento de aguas. El diseño experimental empleado correspondió a bloques completos al azar, con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones, dispuesto en parcelas de 2 m x 2 m. Los tratamientos correspondieron a mezclas de biosólidos con suelo en las siguientes proporciones: 100 % biosólido (equivalente a 294 ton ha-1, 75 % biosólido (220 ton Ha-1, 50 % biosólido (147 ton ha-1, 25 % biosólido (73 ton ha-1 y 100 % suelo como control. Se sembró rábano rojo Raphanus sativus L. Las variables evaluadas fueron: porcentaje de germinación, peso seco de hojas y raíz, longitud de la planta, área foliar y producción. Además, se midió la acumulación de elementos traza en los rábanos cosechados, para determinar su riesgo para el consumo. Los resultados evidenciaron que los tratamientos 50 % biosólido y 25 % biosólido, son los que favorecen el crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano, mientras que los tratamientos 75 % biosólido y 100% suelo presentaron un menor desarrollo, crecimiento y producción del cultivo. El tratamiento 100% biosólido provoco una baja germinación, además no presentó acumulación en la raíz, que es el producto cosechable. Los niveles de acumulación de metales pesados sobrepasaron los máximos permitidos con el tratamiento 75 % biosólido. Se evidenció como, la utilización del biosólido en la agricultura puede acarrear un gran riesgo, ya que a pesar de presentar una gran cantidad

  17. Sub-proteome S-nitrosylation analysis in Brassica juncea hints at the regulation of Brassicaceae specific as well as other vital metabolic pathway(s) by nitric oxide and suggests post-translational modifications cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Deswal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Abiotic stress affects the normal physiology of the plants and results in crop loss. Brassica juncea is an oil yielding crop affected by abiotic stress. In future, over 30% yield loss by abiotic stress is predicted in India. Understanding the mechanism of plant response to stress would help in developing stress tolerant crops. Nitric oxide (NO) is now viewed as a remarkably important signaling molecule, involved in regulating stress responses. S-Nitrosylation is a NO based post-translational modification (PTM), linked with the regulation of many physiologically relevant targets. In the last decade, over 700 functionally varied S-nitrosylated proteins were identified, which suggested broad-spectrum regulation. To understand the physiological significance of S-nitrosylation, it was analyzed in cold stress. Functional categorization and validation of some of the B. juncea S-nitrosylated targets, suggested that NO produced during stress regulates cellular detoxification by modulating enzymes of ascorbate glutathione cycle, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glyoxalase I by S-nitrosylation in crude, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) depleted and apoplastic fractions. Interestingly, S-nitrosylation of enzymes associated with glucosinolate hydrolysis pathway, suggests a novel regulation of this Brassicaceae specific pathway by NO. Moreover, identification of enzymes of Glycolysis and Calvin cycle in crude and RuBisCO depleted fractions showed the regulation of metabolic as well as photosynthetic pathways by S-nitrosylation. S-Nitrosylation of cell wall modifying and proteolytic enzymes in the apoplast suggested differential and spatial regulation by S-nitrosylation. To have an overview of physiological role(s) of NO, collective information on NO based signaling (mainly by S-nitrosylation) is presented in this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  19. A new case of late-acting self-incompatibility in Capparis L. (Brassicaceae: C. jacobinae Moric. ex Eichler, an endemic andromonoecious species of the Caatinga, Pernambuco State, Brazil Novo registro de auto-incompatibilidade de ação tardia em Capparis (Brassicaceae: C. jacobinae Moric. ex Eichler, uma espécie andromonóica endêmica da Caatinga, PE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Primo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the reproductive system of Capparis jacobinae Moric ex Eichler (Brassicaceae, based on controlled hand-pollination and observation of pollen tube growth made in a fluorescence microscope. Of 105 self-pollinated flowers only one produced fruits (success = 0.95%, all the other flowers abscised at the same time, between the eighth and tenth day after anthesis. Nevertheless, self- and cross-pollinated pollen tubes reached the micropyle. The rate of penetrated ovules in self-pollinated flowers was lower during the first 24 h after pollination; thereafter this rate was similar between self- and cross-pollinated flowers for treatments of 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after pollination. In addition, we carried out two indirect estimates of the reproductive system, based on pollen/ovule and seed/ovule ratios, which resulted in typical features of xenogamous species. We concluded that C. jacobinae has a late-acting self-incompatibility system. This is the third record of this mechanism for the genus and the first for a species of Capparis endemic to the Caatinga. We suggest that this self-incompatibility system may occur in other species of the same genus and family.O sistema reprodutivo de Capparis jacobinae Moric. ex Eichler (Brassicaceae, uma espécie endêmica da Caatinga no Brasil, foi analisado através de polinizações controladas e observações do desenvolvimento dos tubos polínicos por meio de microscopia de fluorescência. De 105 flores autopolinizadas, apenas uma formou fruto (sucesso= 0,95%, ocorrendo a abscisão das demais em um intervalo de tempo uniforme, entre o oitavo e o décimo dia após a antese. Entretanto, tanto tubos polínicos procedentes de autopolinização quanto de polinização cruzada penetraram na micrópila, sendo a taxa de óvulos penetrados menor em flores autopolinizadas durante as 24 horas posteriores à polinização, igualando-se entre os dois tratamentos para 48, 72 e 96 horas posteriores à polinização. Al

  20. Screening, identification and quantification of glucosinolates in black radish (Raphanus sativus L. niger) based dietary supplements using liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediage, E Njumbe; Di Mavungu, J Diana; Scippo, M L; Schneider, Y J; Larondelle, Y; Callebaut, A; Robbens, J; Van Peteghem, C; De Saeger, S

    2011-07-15

    The glucosinolate profile of black radish (Raphanus sativus L. niger) based dietary supplements has been investigated by HPLC-PDA, LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-APCI-MS/MS systems. Optimization of the MS/MS parameters and LC conditions was performed using sinigrin reference standard and rapeseed certified reference material (BC190) respectively. An LC-ESI-MS/MS system was used to detect (screen) and identify the naturally occurring intact glucosinolates (GLs). The intact GLs identified were then desulfated and quantified on an HPLC-PDA system as desulfo-glucosinolates (DS-GLs). Prior to quantification, the DS-GLs were identified using an APCI-MS/MS. The HPLC-PDA method performance criteria were evaluated using glucotropaeolin potassium salt. The validated method was applied for the analysis of six dietary supplements. In total, six glucosinolates were identified and quantified in the dietary supplements; glucoraphasatin (0.2-0.48 mg/g), glucosisaustricin (0.37-0.91 mg/g), glucoraphenin (0.84-1.27 mg/g), glucoputrajivin (0.14-0.28 mg/g), glucosisymbrin (0.70-0.99 mg/g) and gluconasturtiin (0.06-0.12 mg/g). Glucoraphenin was the most abundant glucosinolate in all samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ocorrência de Frankliniella schultzei (trybom (thysanoptera: thripidae em plantas daninhas Ocurrence of Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom (Thysanoptera:Thripidae at weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. A. Lima

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se levantamentos de plantas daninhas, no Campus da UNESP em Jaboticabal/SP, com o objetivo de identificar espécies de plantas daninhas hospedeiras do tripes Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom. As plantas foram coletadas semanalmente utilizando-se o método de ensacamento. A separação dos tripes foi feita mediante emprego do funil de Berlese. Entre as 43 espécies de plantas daninhas encontradas nas áreas amostradas, 19 são hospedeiras do tripes. Rabanete (Raphanus sativus L., nabiça (R. raphanistrum L. e mostarda (Sinapsis arvensis L. foram as que apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de F. schultzei, 45, 27 e 17% do total de fêmeas coletadas respectivamente.A monitoring of weeds was carried out on the UNESP Campus in Jaboticabal, SP, with the objective of indentifying host weed species of Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom. The plants were collected weekly and transported to the laboratory inside paper bags. The Berlese funnel method was used to separate the insects from the plants. Thrips were found in 19 of the 43 weed species studied: Raphanus sativus L., R. raphanistrum L., and Sinapsis arvensis L. presented the highest percentage of thrips, consisting of 45, 27, and 17% respectively of the total females that were collected.

  2. Influence of an iron-rich amendment on chemical lability and plant (Raphanus sativus L.) availability of two metallic elements (As and Pb) on mine-impacted agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhee; Kim, Yong-Seong; Hyun, Seunghun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Jun Young

    2016-10-01

    Variation of the chemical extractability and phytoavailability of two metallic elements (e.g., As and Pb) on amendment-treated soils was investigated. Four mine-impacted agricultural soils contaminated with both As (174-491 mg kg -1 ) and Pb (116-357 mg kg -1 ) were amended with an iron-rich sludge at the rate of 5 % (w/w). After a 4-, 8-, and 16-week incubation, the extractability of metallic elements was assessed by sequential extraction procedure (SEP; F1-F5). The control without amendment was also run. In amended soils, the labile element mass (i.e., F1 + F2) promptly decreased (15-48 % of As and 5-10 % of Pb) in 4 weeks, but the decrement was continued over 16 weeks up to 70 and 28 % for As and Pb, respectively. The labile mass decrement was quantitatively corresponded with the increment of F3 (bound to amorphous metal oxides). In plant test assessed by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on the 16-week soils, up to 57 % of As and 28 % of Pb accumulation was suppressed and 10-43 % of growth (i.e., shoot/root elongation and fresh weight) was improved. For both the control and amended soils, element uptake by plant was well correlated with their labile soil concentrations (r 2  = 0.799 and 0.499 for As and Pb, respectively). The results confirmed that the iron-rich material can effectively suppress element uptake during R. sativus seedling growth, most likely due to the chemical stabilization of metallic elements in growth medium.

  3. Construction of a high-resolution linkage map of Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility conferred by DCGMS cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using synteny between radish and Arabidopsis genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngcho; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Han, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sunggil

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility caused by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its nuclear restorer-of-fertility locus (Rfd1) with a linked molecular marker (A137) have been reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus, linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were screened using bulked segregant analysis. A 220-bp linked AFLP fragment sequence from radish showed homology with an Arabidopsis coding sequence. Using this Arabidopsis gene sequence, a simple PCR marker (A220) was developed. The A137 and A220 markers flanked the Rfd1 locus. Two homologous Arabidopsis genes with both marker sequences were positioned on Arabidopsis chromosome-3 with an interval of 2.4 Mb. To integrate the Rfd1 locus into a previously reported expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, the radish EST sequences located in three syntenic blocks within the 2.4-Mb interval were used to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for tagging each block. The SNP marker in linkage group-2 co-segregated with male fertility in an F(2) population. Using radish ESTs positioned in linkage group-2, five intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker were developed and used to construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus. Two closely linked markers delimited the Rfd1 locus within a 985-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3. Synteny between the radish and Arabidopsis genomes in the 985-kb interval were used to develop three ILP and three CAPS markers. Two ILP markers further delimited the Rfd1 locus to a 220-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3.

  4. Phosphorylation of H2AX histones in response to double-strand breaks and induction of premature chromatin condensation in hydroxyurea-treated root meristem cells of Raphanus sativus, Vicia faba, and Allium porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Maszewski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Histone H2A variant H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation and hydroxyurea-mediated replication arrest, resulting in the formation of gamma-H2AX foci along megabase chromatin domains nearby the sites of incurred DNA damage. In an attempt to establish a relationship between species-specific nuclear architecture and H2AX phosphorylation in S/G(2) phase-arrested root meristem cells, immunocytochemical comparisons using an antibody raised against human gamma-H2AX were made among three plants differing with respect to DNA contents: Allium porrum, representing a reticulate type of DNA package, Vicia faba, having semireticulate cell nuclei, and Raphanus sativus, characterised by a chromocentric type of chromatin. Another approach was aimed at determining possible correlations between the extent of hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of H2AX histones and the quantities of root meristem cells induced by caffeine to enter aberrant mitotic division (premature chromosome condensation). It was concluded that the higher-order structure of chromatin may contribute to the accessibility of molecular factors engaged in the recognition and repair of genetic lesions. Consequently, in contrast to A. porrum and V. faba, a diffuse chromatin in chromocentric cell nuclei of R. sativus may become more vulnerable both to generate DNA double-strand breaks and to recruit molecular elements needed to arrange the cell cycle checkpoint functions, and thus, more resistant to factors which allow the cells to enter premature chromosome condensation spontaneously. On the other hand, however, caffeine-mediated overriding of the S-M checkpoint control system resulted in the typical appearance of premature chromosome condensation, irrespective of the genomic content of DNA.

  5. Revizija rodu diplotaxis (Brassicaceae) v Sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Fabijan, Tina

    2017-01-01

    V Sloveniji po podatkih Male flore Slovenije (Wraber, 2007) uspevajo štiri vrste rodu Diplotaxis, in sicer D. muralis, D. tenuifolia, D. erucoides in D. viminea. Njihovo razlikovanje je zahtevno, v določevalnem ključu pa ni dovolj zanesljivih določevalnih znakov. Iz literature, ki obravnava floro sosednjih držav, sem zbrala znake, po katerih omenjene vrste ločijo v tujini, in te znake preverila na herbarijskih polah herbarija LJU. V zbirki je bilo 48 herbarijskih pol. Ker je bil v nekaterih p...

  6. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae) from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, P. J.; Heenan, P. B.; Houliston, G. J.; Rolfe, J. R.; Mitchell, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA). One species, Lepidium castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with Lepidium oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, Lepidium amissum sp. nov. and Lepidium obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from Lepidium banksii, Lepidium flexicaule and Lepidium oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (Lepidium aegrum sp. nov., Lepidium crassum sp. nov. and Lepidium juvencum sp. nov.). One of these, Lepidium juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (Lepidium flexicaule, Lepidium oblitum sp. nov., Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., Lepidium panniforme sp. nov., and Lepidium rekohuense sp. nov.), one of which, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, Lepidium seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to Lepidium oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for Lepidium banksii, Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum. PMID:23794938

  7. Genetic relationships among some Hesperis L. (Brassicaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... In this study the phylogenetic relations among infraspecific, specific and supraspecific categories of 6 taxa of the genus Hesperis collected from different parts of Turkey were investigated by RAPD analysis. The results of the RAPD analysis support the idea that H. bicuspidata (Sect. Hesperis), H. schischkinii.

  8. Effects of Soil Pre-Treatment with Basamid® Granules, Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, and Tagetes patula on Bacterial and Fungal Communities at Two Apple Replant Disease Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Bunlong; Nitt, Heike; Wrede, Andreas; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J; Winkelmann, Traud; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-01-01

    Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as "replant disease (RD)". Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span. In our previous study, we showed that RD symptoms were reduced when apple rootstock M106 were grown in RD soils treated either with the soil fumigant Basamid or after biofumigation by incorporating Brassica juncea or Raphanus sativus or by growing Tagetes under field conditions compared to untreated control soil. The present study aimed at identifying potential bacterial and fungal taxa that were affected by different soil treatments and linking bacterial and fungal responders to plant performance. Miseq® Illumina® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments (bacteria) and ITS regions (fungi) amplified from total community DNA extracted from soil samples taken 4 weeks after treatments were performed. Soil properties and culture history of the two RD sites greatly influenced soil microbiomes. Several bacterial genera were identified that significantly increased in treated soils such as Arthrobacter (R. sativus, both sites), Curtobacterium (Basamid, both sites), Terrimonas (Basamid and R. sativus, site A) and Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, site K and R. sativus, site A) that were also significantly and positively correlated with growth of apple M106 plants. Only few fungal genera, such as Podospora, Monographella and Mucor, were significantly promoted in soils treated with B. juncea and R. sativus (both sites). The least pronounced changes were recorded for bacterial as well as fungal communities in the RD soils planted with Tagetes. The detection

  9. Effects of Soil Pre-Treatment with Basamid® Granules, Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, and Tagetes patula on Bacterial and Fungal Communities at Two Apple Replant Disease Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunlong Yim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as “replant disease (RD”. Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span. In our previous study, we showed that RD symptoms were reduced when apple rootstock M106 were grown in RD soils treated either with the soil fumigant Basamid or after biofumigation by incorporating Brassica juncea or Raphanus sativus or by growing Tagetes under field conditions compared to untreated control soil. The present study aimed at identifying potential bacterial and fungal taxa that were affected by different soil treatments and linking bacterial and fungal responders to plant performance. Miseq® Illumina® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments (bacteria and ITS regions (fungi amplified from total community DNA extracted from soil samples taken 4 weeks after treatments were performed. Soil properties and culture history of the two RD sites greatly influenced soil microbiomes. Several bacterial genera were identified that significantly increased in treated soils such as Arthrobacter (R. sativus, both sites, Curtobacterium (Basamid, both sites, Terrimonas (Basamid and R. sativus, site A and Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, site K and R. sativus, site A that were also significantly and positively correlated with growth of apple M106 plants. Only few fungal genera, such as Podospora, Monographella and Mucor, were significantly promoted in soils treated with B. juncea and R. sativus (both sites. The least pronounced changes were recorded for bacterial as well as fungal communities in the RD soils planted with Tagetes

  10. Effects of Soil Pre-Treatment with Basamid® Granules, Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, and Tagetes patula on Bacterial and Fungal Communities at Two Apple Replant Disease Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Bunlong; Nitt, Heike; Wrede, Andreas; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J.; Winkelmann, Traud; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-01-01

    Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as “replant disease (RD)”. Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span. In our previous study, we showed that RD symptoms were reduced when apple rootstock M106 were grown in RD soils treated either with the soil fumigant Basamid or after biofumigation by incorporating Brassica juncea or Raphanus sativus or by growing Tagetes under field conditions compared to untreated control soil. The present study aimed at identifying potential bacterial and fungal taxa that were affected by different soil treatments and linking bacterial and fungal responders to plant performance. Miseq® Illumina® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments (bacteria) and ITS regions (fungi) amplified from total community DNA extracted from soil samples taken 4 weeks after treatments were performed. Soil properties and culture history of the two RD sites greatly influenced soil microbiomes. Several bacterial genera were identified that significantly increased in treated soils such as Arthrobacter (R. sativus, both sites), Curtobacterium (Basamid, both sites), Terrimonas (Basamid and R. sativus, site A) and Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, site K and R. sativus, site A) that were also significantly and positively correlated with growth of apple M106 plants. Only few fungal genera, such as Podospora, Monographella and Mucor, were significantly promoted in soils treated with B. juncea and R. sativus (both sites). The least pronounced changes were recorded for bacterial as well as fungal communities in the RD soils planted with Tagetes. The

  11. Measurement of thermal properties of white radish (R. raphanistrum using easily constructed probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfrekemfon Samuel Obot

    Full Text Available Thermal properties are necessary for the design and control of processes and storage facilities of food materials. This study proposes the measurement of thermal properties using easily constructed probes with specific heat capacity calculated, as opposed to the use of Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC or other. These probes were constructed and used to measure thermal properties of white radish in the temperature range of 80-20°C and moisture content of 91-6.1% wb. Results showed thermal properties were within the range of 0.71-0.111 Wm-1 C-1 for thermal conductivity, 1.869×10-7-0.72×10-8 m2s-1 for thermal diffusivity and 4.316-1.977 kJ kg-1C-1for specific heat capacity. These results agree with reports for similar products studied using DSC and commercially available line heat source probes. Empirical models were developed for each property through linear multiple regressions. The data generated would be useful in modeling and control of its processing and equipment design.

  12. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforap...

  13. PREDIÇÃO DOS TEORES DE COMPOSTOS FENÓLICOS E FLAVONOIDES NA PARTE AÉREA DAS ESPÉCIES Secale cereale L., Avena strigosa L. E Raphanus sativus L. POR MEIO DE ESPECTROSCOPIA NO INFRAVERMELHO PRÓXIMO (NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Souza

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy associated with chemometrics is a non-destructive method of the samples for the prediction of phenolic compounds. The objective of the work was to apply the near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for the prediction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in aerial part samples of cover crops plants Raphanus sativus L., Secale cereale L. and Avena strigosa L. Samples were collected at 60, 80 and 100 days after sowing (DAS of the plants and, after lodging (DAA, at 15 and 30 days, in an experiment implanted in the field, in the city of Ituporanga, Santa Catarina. The samples were homogenized, identified, transported on dry ice, lyophilized, crushed, sieved and stored at -20 °C for analysis. For the calibration, 84 samples were used and for the validation 10 samples. The combination of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis by partial least squares regression allowed the development of prediction models of phenolics and flavonoids with associated errors averaging 10%. NIR spectroscopy is recommended for the development of calibration models because it allows to non-destructive infer phenolic and total flavonoid contents, with high analytical frequency, without the use of reagents and other inputs required by the reference method, with results very close to those obtained in the laboratory.

  14. A new species of Hesperis (Brassicaceae) from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, G.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Hesperis kuerschneri, from the vilayet of Denizli in the Western Taurus is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities are with H. theophrasti, which has several infraspecific taxa in the Balkans and Anatolia. The new species occurs on steep serpentine scree slopes toget...

  15. Quantitative variation for apomictic reproduction in the genus Boechera (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliyu, O.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Sharbel, T.F.

    2010-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The evolution of asexual seed production (apomixis) from sexual relatives is a great enigma of plant biology. The genus Boechera is ideal for studying apomixis because of its close relation to Arabidopsis and the occurrence of sexual and apomictic species at low ploidy levels

  16. Seed image analysis and taxonomy of Diplotaxis DC. (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Grillo, Oscar; Draper, David; Venora, Gianfranco; Martinez Laborde, Juan Bautista

    2012-01-01

    The genus Diplotaxis, comprising 32 or 34 species, plus several additional infraspecific taxa, displays a considerable degree of heterogeneity in the morphology, molecular markers, chromosome numbers and geographical amplitude of the species. The taxonomic relationships within the genus Diplotaxis were investigated by phenetic characterisation of germplasm belonging to 27 taxa of the genus, because there is an increasing interest in Diplotaxis, since some of its species (D. tenuifolia, D. mur...

  17. Revision of the genus diplotaxis (Brassicaceae) in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Fabijan, Tina

    2017-01-01

    According to the data in Mala flora Slovenije (Wraber, 2007) four species of the genus Diplotaxis named D. muralis, D. tenuifolia, D. erucoides and D. viminea grow in Slovenia. The determination of the specimen is often difficult due to the lack of reliable determination characters. I have gathered the discriminative characters from floras and determination keys from neighbouring countries and checked them on the herbarium material from Herbarium LJU. I have examined 53 herbarium sheets, two ...

  18. The Role of ER Bodies in Brassicaceae Resistance under Clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, S. M.; Kordyum, E. L.

    2013-02-01

    Results of the electron-microscopic investigation of root apices of Arabidopsis thaliana 3- and 7-day old seedlings grown in the stationary conditions and under clinorotation are presented. It was shown the similarity in the root apex cell ultrastructure in control and under clinorotation. In the same time there were some differences in the ultrustructure of statocytes and the distal elongation zone under clinorotation. For the first time, the sensitivity of ER-bodies, which are derivative of granular endoplasmic reticulum and contain a β-glucosidase enzyme, to the influence of simulated microgravity that was demonstrated by increasing quantity and area of ER-bodies per cell section, as well as by higher variability of their shape under clinorotation. A degree of these changes correlated with the duration of clinorotation. On the basis of obtained data, a protective role of ER-bodies in adaptation of plants to microgravity is discussed.

  19. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in

  20. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Turkey. Odontarrhena. AY237952.1. A. chalcidicum. Elbasan Perrenjas, Albania. Odontarrhena. GQ284869.1. Macedonia Drosia. A. chalcidicum. Central, Greece. Odontarrhena. GQ284876.1. A. condensatum. Syria. Odontarrhena. AY237951.1. A. corsicum. Corsica, France. Odontarrhena. AY237949.1. A. corymbosoides.

  1. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular data suggested the diversification of Alyssum in Mediterranean areas and wide-ranging distribution such as North Africa, eastward into Central Asia and immigration into North America. Climatic aridification and arid/semiarid areas established in the Pliocene/Pleistocene could have provided favourable conditions ...

  2. Lepidium s. str. (Brassicaceae in the flora of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyinska Antonina P.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The key to the 14 species of Lepidium occurring in the Ukraine, including basionyms and the most important synonyms, and distribution of these species within the floristic regions, especially in Ukraine, are presented

  3. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, collards, garden cress, upland cress, water cress, kale, Chinese kale, Siberian kale, kohlrabi, mustard, pakchoi, radish, rape, rutabaga, and turnip. (a) General description. (1...

  4. A synopsis of the South American Lepidium (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cincuenta especies nativas y 12 naturalizadas de Lepidium crecen en América del Sur, se presenta una clave para las 62 especies. Se describen e ilustran tres nuevas especies de Argentina (L. hickenii, L. pedersenii y L. santacruzensis y dos para Perú (L. cuzcoensis y L. werffii, y se discuten sus relaciones con sus especies más afines. Se propone Lepidium crassius comb. nov., se designa lectotipo para 19 binomios (Coronopus didymus var. macrocarpus, C. didymus var. procumbens, L. abrotanifolium var. steinmannii, L. affine, L. argentinum, L. auriculatum, L. bonariense var. pseudovirginicum, L. calycinum var. integrifolium, L. costaricense, L. cumingianum var. orbiculatum, L. cumingianum subsp. berteroanum, L. depressum, L. myrianthum, L. neglectum, L. parodii, L. pubescens var. fallax, L. subvaginatum, L. virginicum subsp. centrali-americanum, Thlaspi campestre, y se reducen a sinónimos otros 17 nombres (Coronopus leptocarpus, C. leptocarpus var. microcarpus, L. boelckii, L. bonariense var. gayi, L. bonariense var. pseudovirginicum, L. brevicaule, L. calycinum, L. danielsii, L. demissum, L. kalenbornii, L. morrisonii, L. peruvianum, L. philippianum var. boliviense, L. raimondii, L. scabrifructum, L. spicatum var. caylx-persistente, L. subvaginatum. L. depressum y L. rahmeri son nuevos registros para la Argentina.

  5. A synopsis of the South American Lepidium (Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz

    2010-01-01

    Cincuenta especies nativas y 12 naturalizadas de Lepidium crecen en América del Sur, se presenta una clave para las 62 especies. Se describen e ilustran tres nuevas especies de Argentina (L. hickenii, L. pedersenii y L. santacruzensis) y dos para Perú (L. cuzcoensis y L. werffii), y se discuten sus relaciones con sus especies más afines. Se propone Lepidium crassius comb. nov., se designa lectotipo para 19 binomios (Coronopus didymus var. macrocarpus, C. didymus var. procumbens, L. abrotanifo...

  6. Control of corolla monosymmetry in the Brassicaceae Iberis amara

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Andrea; Zachgo, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Establishment of morphological novelties has contributed to the enormous diversification of floral architecture. One such novelty, flower monosymmetry, is assumed to have evolved several times independently during angiosperm evolution. To date, analysis of monosymmetry regulation has focused on species from taxa where monosymmetry prevails, such as the Lamiales and Fabaceae. In Antirrhinum majus, formation of a monosymmetric corolla is specified by the activity of the TCP transcription factor...

  7. Glucosinolate profiling and antimicrobial screening of Aurinia leucadea (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažević, Ivica; Radonić, Ani; Skočibušić, Mirjana; De Nicola, Gina R; Montaut, Sabine; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Mastelić, Josip; Zekić, Marina; Maravić, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Glucosinolates (GLs) were characterized in various aerial parts (stems, leaves, and flowers) of Aurinia leucadea (Guss.) C. Koch and quantified according to the ISO 9167-1 official method based on the HPLC analysis of desulfoglucosinolates. Eight GLs, i.e., glucoraphanin (GRA), glucoalyssin (GAL; 1), gluconapin (GNA; 2), glucocochlearin (GCC), glucobrassicanapin (GBN; 3), glucotropaeolin (GTL), glucoerucin (GER), and glucoberteroin (GBE) were identified. The total GL contents were 57.1, 37.8, and 81.3 μmol/g dry weight in the stems, leaves, and flowers, respectively. The major GL detected in all parts of the plant was 2, followed by 1 and 3. GC/MS Analysis of the volatile fractions extracted from the aerial parts of fresh plant material either by hydrodistillation or CH(2) Cl(2) extraction showed that these fractions mostly contained isothiocyanates (ITCs). The main ITCs were but-3-enyl- (55.6-71.8%), pent-4-enyl- (7.6-15.3%), and 5-(methylsulfinyl)pentyl ITC (0-9.5%), originating from the corresponding GLs 2, 3, and 1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the volatile samples was investigated by determining inhibition zones with the disk-diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) with the microdilution method. They were found to inhibit a wide range of bacteria and fungi, with MIC values of 2.0-32.0 μg/ml, indicating their promising antimicrobial potential, especially against the fungi Candida albicans and Rhizopus stolonifer as well as against the clinically important pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Nickel accumulation by Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae) reduces floral visitation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, George A; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2014-02-01

    Hyperaccumulation is the phenomenon whereby plants take up and sequester in high concentrations elements that generally are excluded from above-ground tissues. It largely is unknown whether the metals taken up by these plants are transferred to floral rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether floral visitation is affected. We grew Streptanthus polygaloides, a nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator, in short-term Ni supplemented soils and control soils to determine whether Ni is accumulated in floral rewards and whether floral visitation is affected by growth in Ni-rich soils. We found that while supplementation of soils with Ni did not alter floral morphology or reward quantity (i.e., anther size or nectar volume), Ni did accumulate in the nectar and pollen-filled anthers-providing the first demonstration that Ni is accumulated in pollinator rewards. Further, S. polygaloides grown in Ni-supplemented soils received fewer visits per flower per hour from both bees and flies (both naïve to Ni-rich floral resources in the study area) relative to plants grown in control soils, although the probability a plant was visited initially was unaffected by Ni treatment. Our findings show that while Ni-rich floral rewards decrease floral visitation, floral visitors are not completely deterred, so some floral visitors may collect and ingest potentially toxic resources from metal-hyperaccumulating plants. In addition to broadening our understanding of the effects of metal accumulation on ecological interactions in natural populations, these results have implications for the use of insect-pollinated plants in phytoremediation.

  9. The significance of glucosinolates for sulfur storage in Brassicaceae seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luit J. eDe Kok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea seedlings contained a two-fold higher glucosinolate content than Brassica rapa and these secondary sulfur compounds accounted for up to 30 % of the organic sulfur fraction. The glucosinolate content was not affected by H2S and SO2 exposure, demonstrating that these sulfur compounds did not form a sink for excessive atmospheric supplied sulfur. Upon sulfate deprivation, the foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 replaced sulfate as the sulfur source for growth of B. juncea and B. rapa seedlings. The glucosinolate content was decreased in sulfate-deprived plants, though its proportion of organic sulfur fraction was higher than that of sulfate-sufficient plants, both in absence and presence of H2S and SO2. The significance of myrosinase in the in situ turnover in these secondary sulfur compounds needs to be questioned, since there was no direct co-regulation between the content of glucosinolates and the transcript level and activity of myrosinase. Evidently, glucosinolates cannot be considered as sulfur storage compounds upon exposure to excessive atmospheric sulfur and are unlikely to be involved in the re-distribution of sulfur in B. juncea and B. rapa seedlings upon sulfate deprivation.

  10. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  11. Forage potential of Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth rate of early plantings decreased by April, while late plantings produced poor yields because of a restricted growing season. Establishment in February provided the highest yield coupled with relatively late flowering and sustained quality.Language: English. Keywords: Flowering; Japanese radish; Nooitgedacht; ...

  12. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  13. QTL mapping of clubroot resistance in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Akito; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hayashi, Takeshi; Wang, Ning; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Hirai, Masashi

    2010-03-01

    A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F(2) population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F(3) plants obtained by selfing of F(2) plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter. The mean disease indexes of the F(3) plants were used for the phenotype of the F(2). The results of two CR tests were analyzed for the presence of QTL. A linkage map was constructed using AFLP and SSR markers; it spanned 554 cM and contained 18 linkage groups. A CR locus was observed in the top region of linkage group 1 in two tests. Therefore, the present results suggest that a large part of radish CR is controlled by a single gene or closely linked genes in this radish population, although minor effects of other genomic areas cannot be ruled out. The CR locus was named Crs1. Markers linked to Crs1 showed sequence homology to the genomic region of the top of chromosome 3 of Arabidopsis, as in the case of Crr3, a CR locus in Brassica rapa. These markers should be useful for breeding CR cultivars of radish. As Japanese radishes are known to be highly resistant or immune to clubroot, these markers may also be useful in the introgression of this CR gene to Brassica crops.

  14. Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Timossi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla.This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds, aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3, with four replications. The factors consisted of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil

  15. Studying Geographical Distribution Map of Weeds of Irrigated Wheat Fields of Ardabil Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Soheili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the density and abundance of weeds in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil Province, 76 samples of irrigated wheat fields based on cultivation area from all counties of Ardabil province for six years (2001-2006 were selected. The genus and species of weeds from each sampling fields and their population indices density, frequency and uniformity of each species were calculated by using Thomas method. Geographic coordinates of field (Latitude, Altitude and Elevation were the main coverage and were determined by using GPS. These data were used for producing weed maps using GIS in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province. Results showed that bedstraw (Galium tricurnatum, Fumitory(Fumaria vaillantiand wildradish (Raphanus raphanistrum were dominant broad leaf weed species and wild oats (Avena fatua, rye (Secale cereal and mouse foxtail(Alopecurus myosuroides dominant grassy weeds species in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province. Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Canada thistle(Cirsium arvenseand Acroptilon repens were the most important disturbing plants prior to harvesting in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province.

  16. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L.

  17. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

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    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  18. Testing for conflicting and nonadditive selection: floral adaptation to multiple pollinators through male and female fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Heather F; Conner, Jeffrey K

    2011-05-01

    Although conflicting selection from different resources is thought to play a critical role in the evolution of specialized species, the prevalence of conflicting selection in generalists is poorly understood. Plants may experience conflicting selection on floral traits by different pollinators and between genders. Using artificial selection to increase phenotypic variation, we tested for conflicting and nonadditive selection on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) flowers. To do this, we measured selection by each of the major pollinator taxa through both male and female fitness, and tested for a single-generation response to selection by a subset of these pollinators. We found some evidence for conflicting selection on anther exertion--sweat bees exerted stabilizing selection and larger bees selected for increased exertion. Stamen dimorphism was only under selection by honey bees, causing a response to selection in the next generation, and flower size was under similar selection by multiple pollinators. Selection differed significantly between genders for two traits, but there was no evidence for stronger selection through male fitness or for conflicting selection between genders. Our results suggest wild radish flowers can adapt to multiple pollinators, as we found little evidence for conflicting selection and no evidence for nonadditive selection among pollinators. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Cruciferae (Brassicaceae: альтернативная обработка для «Конспекта сосудистых растений Монголии» (2014

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    D. A. German

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Представлен конспект крестоцветных (Cruciferae, или Brassicaceae Монголии, основанный на критической ревизии гербарных сборов, интернет-ресурсов и литературы, в том числе новейших работ по систематике семейства. Для всех 141 видов и 7 подвидов из 59 родов, отмеченных на данный момент во флоре страны, приведена краткая синонимика и данные по распространению (наличию или отсутствию в каждом из 16-ти ботанико-географических регионов в Монголии. Впервые для страны указан род левкой – Matthiola W. T. Aiton, представленный естественно произрастающим здесь M. superba Conti; некоторые виды отмечены в качестве новинок для отдельных районов. В то же время, перечислены и прокомментированы ошибочные указания представителей семейства для Монголии или определенных ее районов, обнародованные в основном после выхода «Конспекта …» И.А. Губанова (1996. Валидизированы новые комбинации в родах Guenthera Andrz. и Stevenia Fisch. Сообщение может считатья альтернативной обработкой крестоцветных для недавно вышедшего «Конспекта сосудистых растений Монголии» (2014.

  20. Arabis soyeri Reuter ex Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae en el Pirineo aragonés [Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae, in the Aragonese Pyrenees

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    José Vicente FERRÁNDEZ PALACIO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En esta nota confirmamos la presencia de Arabis soyeri subsp. soyeri en el Pirineo aragonés (provincia de Huesca. Esta cita oscense se sitúa en el límite SW de su área de distribución endémica. Además, comentamos algunos aspectos sobre su autoecología y conservación.SUMMARY: Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri is confirmed for the flora of the Aragonese Pyrenees (Huesca province, Spain. Moreower, this new station is located on the south-western border of its endemic range. Some aspects on its autecology and conservation are discussed as well.

  1. Models of the fate of glucosinolates in Brassicaceae from processing to digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites of Brassica vegetables. Glucosinolates are not bioactive themselves, but their hydrolysis products isothiocyanates have been associated with health benefits. The concentrations of glucosinolates and their break down products are strongly affected by

  2. Chemosystematic significance of flavonoids isolated from Diplotaxis acris (Brassicaceae) and related taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Sameh R; Marzouk, Mona M; Kassem, Mona E S; Abdel Latif, Rasha R; Mohammed, Reda S

    2017-02-01

    The chemosystematic relationship of four Diplotaxis species; Diplotaxis acris, Diplotaxis erucoides, Diplotaxis harra and Diplotaxis muralis were surveyed from the flavonoids point of view. These species were found to produce 33 flavonoids (7 flavones and 26 flavonols), including 11 compounds were isolated in the present study from D. acris. Among them, seven flavonoids were identified for the first time; luteolin (4), kaempferol (8), kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (13), quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (16), quercetin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside (20), isorhamnetin (22) and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (32). Their structures were recognized on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic techniques (1D & 2D NMR, UV, EI & ESI/MS). The isolated flavonoids may provide useful taxonomic characters at the infraspecific levels of classification where the flavonoid profile of D. acris and D. harra is similar and different from the other species.

  3. Histología de la Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae

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    Manuel Marín-Bravo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio histológico de Lepidium meyenii Walpers "maca", enfocado principalmente en la caracterización del órgano reservante. El estudio se realizó en macas de color amarillo, procedentes de Junín, y comprendió la caracterización histológica del órgano reservante subterráneo y detalles adicionales de la estructura interna foliar, a partir de muestras fijadas en FAA y empleando la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Los resultados muestran en el órgano reservante las características de una región de transición entre la raíz, de estructura secundaria lignificada, y el tallo primario reducido, con el desarrollo de una amplia zona medular. Presenta además un tipo peculiar de actividad cambial secundaria en la forma de haces conductores corticales. Entre los detalles histológicos adicionales está el desarrollo de una cubierta suberificada de células corticales en el órgano reservante y la presencia de tricomas cónicos unicelulares en las hojas.

  4. Lectotypification of names of Himalayan Brassicaceae taxa currently placed in the genus Cardamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhold, Karol; Kempa, Matúš; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lectotypes of twenty-eight names of taxa currently recognized or synonymized in Cardamine are designated as part of the work on the account of the genus for the Pan-Himalayan Flora. Among them, the previous first-step lectotypification of the name Cardamine calthifolia is finalized. In cases when specimen images are available online, stable identifiers for specimens, other permanent links, or links via JSTOR Global Plants are provided. PMID:26140016

  5. Cardamine hamiltonii G.Don – Aziatische veldkers (Brassicaceae) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, Gerard M.; Zonneveld, Ben J.M.; Duistermaat, Leni H.

    2015-01-01

    Sinds een paar jaar wordt een winterbloeiende, nagenoeg kale en kleinbloemige Cardamine waargenomen die niet met regionale Flora’s gedetermineerd kan worden. Deze vorm heeft geen bladrozet, bloemen met 6 meeldraden, en bladen zonder oortjes. Uit metingen van het genoomgewicht blijkt, dat het geen

  6. DNA barcoding of western North American taxa: Leymus (Poaceae) and Lepidium (Brassicaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Mae Culumber

    2007-01-01

    My objective was to determine if polymorphic information from the 18S-5.8S-26S nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions and the trnK-psbA, trnK-rps16 chloroplast DNA spacer regions is sufficient 1) to identify a plant specimen to the species level, and 2) to establish the phylogenetic relationship between species. The first study examined the...

  7. Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa (brassicaceae) species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasidharan, R.; Mustroph, A.; Boonman, A.; Akman, M.; Ammerlaan, A.M.H.; Breit, T.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Tienderen, van P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis

  8. Lectotypification of names of Himalayan Brassicaceae taxa currently placed in the genus Cardamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Marhold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lectotypes of twenty-eight names of taxa currently recognized or synonymized in Cardamine are designated as part of the work on the account of the genus for the Pan-Himalayan Flora. Among them, the previous first-step lectotypification of the name C. calthifolia is finalized. In cases when specimen images are available online, stable identifiers for specimens, other permanent links, or links via JSTOR Global Plants are provided.

  9. Lectotypification of names of Himalayan Brassicaceae taxa currently placed in the genus Cardamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhold, Karol; Kempa, Matúš; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A

    2015-01-01

    Lectotypes of twenty-eight names of taxa currently recognized or synonymized in Cardamine are designated as part of the work on the account of the genus for the Pan-Himalayan Flora. Among them, the previous first-step lectotypification of the name Cardaminecalthifolia is finalized. In cases when specimen images are available online, stable identifiers for specimens, other permanent links, or links via JSTOR Global Plants are provided.

  10. Asexual reproduction in a close relative of Arabidopsis: a genetic investigation of apomixis in Boechera ( Brassicaceae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schranz, M.E.; Kantama, L.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Mitchell-Olds, T.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) is of great interest to both plant breeders and evolutionary biologists. The genus Boechera is an excellent system for studying apomixis because of its close relationship to Arabidopsis, the occurrence of apomixis at the diploid level, and

  11. Bidirectional but asymmetrical sexual hybridization between Brassica carinata and Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kyle W; Razeq, Fakhria M; Sauder, Connie A; James, Tracey; Martin, Sara L

    2015-05-01

    With transgenic crop development it is important to evaluate the potential for transgenes to escape into populations of wild, weedy relatives. Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata, BBCC) is easily transformed and is being investigated for uses from biodiesel fuels to biopharmaceuticals. However, little work has been done evaluating its ability to cross with relatives such as wild mustard (Sinapsis arvensis, SrSr), an abundant, cosmopolitan weedy relative. Here we conducted bidirectional crosses with Ethiopian mustard as a maternal parent in 997 crosses and paternal parent in 1,109 crosses. Hybrids were confirmed using flow cytometry and species-specific ITS molecular markers and indicate a high hybridization rate of 6.43 % between Ethiopian mustard (♀) and wild mustard (♂) and a lower, but not insignificant, hybridization rate of 0.01 % in the reverse direction. The majority of the hybrids were homoploid (BCSr) with less than 1 % of pollen production of their parents and low seed production (0.26 seeds/pollination) in crosses and backcrosses indicating a potential for advanced generation hybrids. The accession used had a significant effect on hybrid seed production with different accessions of Ethopian mustard varying in their production of hybrid offspring from 2.69 to 16.34 % and one accession of wild mustard siring almost twice as many hybrid offspring per flower as the other. One pentaploid (BBCCSr) and one hexaploid (BBCCSrSr) hybrid were produced and had higher pollen viability, though no and low seed production, respectively. As wild mustard is self-incompatible and the outcrossing rate of Ethiopian mustard has been estimated as 30 % potential for hybrid production in the wild appears to be high, though the hybridization rate found here represents a worst case scenario as it does not incorporate pre-pollination barriers. Hybridization in the wild needs to be directly evaluated as does the propensity of Ethiopian mustard to volunteer.

  12. Morphological, Anatomical and Palynological Studies on Endemic Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub. -Mor. (Brassicaceae

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    Mehmet TEKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, anatomical, palynological and seed micromorphological properties of an endemic plant Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub.-Mor. are recorded for the first time. A description and descriptive illustrations of the species are given based on the collected specimens for morphological study. Seed surface of M. anchoniifolia is examined by scanning electron microscope. The seed of M. anchoniifolia was compressed, brownish in colour and the cells of testa were nearly 60-80 μm in diameter and ranged from isodiametric, tetragonal or pentagonal. The anticlinal walls were straight or weakly curved while the outer periclinal walls were concave to flat with smooth surface. In anatomical study, cross sections of root, stem and stem leaf are examined. The root had secondary structure. Periderm consists of 5-8 layers of cells for phellem. Cortex consists of 9-12 layered parenchymatic tissue under the periderm. Secondary phloem ring-shaped, 6-9 layered and consists of companion cells and grouped sieve tubes. Stem had primary structure when analyzed. It is circular with a few irregular ribs in cross section. Cortex is 8-12 layered and parenchymatous. Stoma cells are present on both epidermis. Leaf is isobilateral. There are unicellular and ramified hairs on both surface. Palisade parenchyma cells are 1-2 layered and spongy parenchyma cells are 5-12 layered. M. anchoniifolia has tricolpate pollen type, prolate pollen shape and reticulate exine ornamentation.

  13. The Brassicaceae-Specific EWR1 Gene Provides Resistance to Vascular Wilt Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Yadeta, Koste A.; Dirk-Jan Valkenburg; Mathieu Hanemian; Yves Marco; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-borne vascular wilt diseases caused by Verticillium spp. are among the most destructive diseases worldwide in a wide range of plant species. The most effective means of controlling Verticillium wilt diseases is the use of genetic resistance. We have previously reported the identification of four activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutants which showed enhanced resistance to Verticillium wilt. Among these, one mutant also showed enhanced resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum, a bacterial vascula...

  14. Ultrastructural study of maturing pollen in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. (Brassicaceae

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    Krystyna Zając

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural changes in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen, between late microspore stage and mature pollen stage were described. When the generative cell was peeled off from the intine, it was of spherical shape and had all usual organelles with the exception of plastids. The cytoplasm transformation of the vegetative cell included an increase in the number of mitochondria and changes in the accumulation of starch and lipid bodies. The starch plastids were observed at the bicellular and early tricellular pollen stages and next starch was utilized during the maturation procces. The lipid bodies of the vegetative cell form a very regular sheath around the generative cell and then, around the sperm cells. Before anthesis the lipid bodies were dispersed within the whole vegetative cell cytoplasm.

  15. Reproductive ecology and severe pollen limitation in the polychromic tundra plant, Parrya nudicaulis (Brassicaceae.

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    Justin R Fulkerson

    Full Text Available Pollen limitation is predicted to be particularly severe in tundra habitats. Numerous reproductive patterns associated with alpine and arctic species, particularly mechanisms associated with reproductive assurance, are suggested to be driven by high levels of pollen limitation. We studied the reproductive ecology of Parrya nudicaulis, a species with relatively large sexual reproductive investment and a wide range of floral pigmentation, in tundra habitats in interior montane Alaska to estimate the degree of pollen limitation. The plants are self-compatible and strongly protandrous, setting almost no seed in the absence of pollinators. Supplemental hand pollinations within pollinator exclusion cages indicated no cage effect on seed production. Floral visitation rates were low in both years of study and particularly infrequent in 2010. A diversity of insects visited P. nudicaulis, though syrphid and muscid flies composed the majority of all visits. Pollen-ovule ratios and levels of heterozygosity are consistent with a mixed mating system. Pollen limitation was severe; hand pollinations increased seed production per plant five-fold. Seed-to-ovule ratios remained low following hand pollinations, indicating resource limitation is likely to also be responsible for curtailing seed set. We suggest that pollen limitation in P. nudicaulis may be the result of selection favoring an overproduction of ovules as a bet-hedging strategy in this environmental context of highly variable pollen receipt.

  16. Species radiation by niche shifts in New Zealand's rockcresses (Pachycladon, Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Simon; Heenan, Peter B; Lockhart, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    Adaptive radiations such as the Darwin finches in the Galapagos or the cichlid fishes from the Eastern African Great Lakes have been a constant source of inspiration for biologists and a stimulus for evolutionary thinking. A central concept behind adaptive radiation is that of evolution by niche shifts, or ecological speciation. Evidence for adaptive radiations generally requires a strong correlation between phenotypic traits and the environment. But adaptive traits are often cryptic, hence making this phenotype-environment approach difficult to implement. Here we propose a procedure for detecting adaptive radiation that focuses on species' ecological niche comparisons. It evaluates whether past ecological disparity in a group fits better a neutral Brownian motion model of ecological divergence or a niche shift model. We have evaluated this approach on New Zealand rockcresses (Pachycladon) that recently radiated in the New Zealand Alps. We show that the pattern of ecological divergence rejects the neutral model and is consistent with that of a niche shift model. Our approach to detect adaptive radiation has the advantage over alternative approaches that it focuses on ecological niches, a key concept behind adaptive radiation. It also provides a way to evaluate the importance of ecological speciation in adaptive radiations and will have general application in evolutionary studies. In the case of Pachycladon, the high estimated diversification rate, the distinctive ecological niches of species, and the evidence for ecological speciation suggest a remarkable example of adaptive radiation.

  17. Cytotype diversity and genome size variation in eastern Asian polyploid Cardamine (Brassicaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhold, Karol; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Pak, Jae-Hong; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Spaniel, Stanislav; Lihová, Judita

    2010-02-01

    Intraspecific ploidy-level variation is an important aspect of a species' genetic make-up, which may lend insight into its evolutionary history and future potential. The present study explores this phenomenon in a group of eastern Asian Cardamine species. Plant material was sampled from 59 localities in Japan and Korea, which were used in karyological (chromosome counting) and flow cytometric analyses. The absolute nuclear DNA content (in pg) was measured using propidium iodide and the relative nuclear DNA content (in arbitrary units) was measured using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole fluorochrome. Substantial cytotype diversity was found, with strikingly different distribution patterns between the species. Two cytotypes were found in C. torrentis sensu lato (4x and 8x, in C. valida and C. torrentis sensu stricto, respectively), which displays a north-south geographical pattern in Japan. Hypotheses regarding their origin and colonization history in the Japanese archipelago are discussed. In Korean C. amaraeiformis, only tetraploids were found, and these populations may in fact belong to C. valida. C. yezoensis was found to harbour as many as six cytotypes in Japan, ranging from hexa- to dodecaploids. Ploidy levels do not show any obvious geographical pattern; populations with mixed ploidy levels, containing two to four cytotypes, are frequently observed throughout the range. C. schinziana, an endemic of Hokkaido, has hexa- and octoploid populations. Previous chromosome records are also revised, showing that they are largely based on misidentified material or misinterpreted names. Sampling of multiple populations and utilization of the efficient flow cytometric approach allowed the detection of large-scale variation in ploidy levels and genome size variation attributable to aneuploidy. These data will be essential in further phylogenetic and evolutionary studies.

  18. Term-stability of extractive processes from Nasturtium officinale R. Br., brassicaceae for soxhlet modified system

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, João Luiz de Souza; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Dias, Josiane de Fátima Gaspari; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes

    2009-01-01

    This work had as objective verified the term-stability of the Soxhlet modified system with analytical and pharmacothecnical application in extractive processes of Nasturtium officinale. It has proven that the process is thermo-stable. The analysis with analytical have determined 3.606 mg g-1 in chlorogenic acid and 11.813 mg g-1 in rutin (extract 1:20 w/v) and with pharmacotecnical 3.427 mg g-1 in chlorogenic acid and 11.278 mg g-1 in rutin (extract 1:6 w/v). The income of the pharmacothecnic...

  19. Evolutionary History of the Genus Capsella (Brassicaceae - Capsella orientalis , New for Mongolia

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    Barbara Neuffer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the evolutionary history of the genus Capsella , we included the hitherto poorly known species C. orientalis and C. thracica into our studies together with C. grandifl ora , C. rubella , and C. bursa-pastoris . We sequenced the ITS, and four loci of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnL – F, rps16, trnH – psbA, trnQ – rps16. In common garden fi eld experiments C. orientalis turned out as early fl owering with a specifi c leaf type. The crossing ability of the species was tested in pollen germination experiments. Capsella orientalis (self-compatible, SC; 2n = 16 forms a clade (eastern lineage with C . bursa-pastoris (SC; 2n = 32, which is a sister clade (western lineage to C. grandifl ora (self-incompatible, SI; 2n = 16 and C. rubella (SC; 2n = 16. Capsella bursa-pastoris is an autopolyploid species of multiple origin, whereas the Bulgarian endemic C. thracica (SC; 2n = 32 is allopolyploid and emerged from interspecifi c hybridisation between C. bursa-pastoris and C. grandifl ora . The common ancestor of the two lineages was diploid and SI, and its distribution ranged from eastern Europe to central Asia, predominantly confi ned to steppe like habitats. Biogeographic dynamics during the Pleistocene caused geographic and genetic subdivisions within the common ancestor giving rise to the two extant lineages. Capsella orientalis is verifi ed at several positions in western Mongolia.

  20. Distribution of the species Matthiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire (Brassicaceae) in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Šegota, Vedran; Jasprica, Nenad; Bogdanović, Sandro; Pandža, Marija; Milović, Milenko; Alegro, Antun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the distribution of the rare plant species Matthiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire in Croatia. During our study, previous records on the Pelješac peninsula were confirmed, and new records were found, extending the Croatian areal to the southern U radu se analizira rasprostranjenost rijetke biljne vrste Matthiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire u Hrvatskoj. Tijekom našeg istraživanja potvrđena su prethodna nalazišta vrste na Pelješcu, a nova nalazišta su proširila areal vrste u Hrvatskoj s...

  1. Study of phylogenetic relationship of Turkish species ofMatthiola (Brassicaceae) based on ISSR amplification

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN, BEKİR; ÇELİK, MUSTAFA; ÜNAL, MURAT; SEFALI, ABDURRAHMAN; MARTİN, ESRA; KAYA, AYLA

    2016-01-01

    Matthiola W.T.Aiton is a taxonomically complex genus in which there are many problems, mostly with Matthiola longipetala and M. Odoratissima. Matthiola species native to Turkey were collected from various locations in Anatolia, and their DNA was isolated. Revision studies performed on the basis of molecular data obtained from studies conducted in recent years have made the phylogenetic relationships and systematic positions of the taxa more apparent and reliable. Consequently, the remaining t...

  2. Cinética de secagem do nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. The drying kinetics of forage turnips (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Aparecida de Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições foi realizado um trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o modelo matemático que melhor descreve a secagem de sementes de nabo forrageiro, bem como o coeficiente de difusão e a energia de ativação em diferentes condições de ar. Sementes colhidas com teor de água de 0,36 (decimal b.s. foram secas até 0,09 (decimal b.s. em secador experimental com as temperaturas controladas de 30; 40; 50; 60 e 70 °C e umidades relativas de 47,3; 26,2; 12,0; 10,1 e 5,1%, respectivamente. Os dados de coeficiente de difusão foram analisados por meio de análise de variância pelo teste F e regressão, adotando-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade. Conclui-se que dentre os modelos analisados, o que apresentou melhor ajuste para descrever as curvas de secagem do nabo forrageiro foi o de Midilli. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo aumenta com a elevação da temperatura, apresentando valores entre 3,23 x 10-11 e 10,42 x 10-11 m² s-1, para faixa de temperatura de 30 a 70 °C. A relação entre o coeficiente de difusão e a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, que apresenta uma energia de ativação para a difusão líquida no processo de secagem do nabo forrageiro de 24,78 kJ mol-1.A study aimed at determining the best mathematical model to describe the drying of forage-turnip seeds, along with the diffusion coefficient and activation energy under different air-conditions, was carried out in a randomized design with four replications. Seeds were harvested, having a moisture content of 0.36 (decimal bs and then dried to 0.09 (decimal bs in an experimental dryer at controlled temperatures of 30; 40; 50; 60 and 70 °C and relative humidities of 47.3; 26.2; 12.0; 10.1 and 5.1%, respectively. The effective coefficient of diffusion was calculated by F-test variance analysis and regression, adopting a 5% level of probability. The conclusion was reached that among the models analyzed, that of Midilli best fit the drying curves of forage-turnip seeds. The effective diffusion coefficient increases with temperature, with values of between 3.23 x 10-11 and 10.42 x 10-11 m² s-1 for a temperature range of from 30 to 70 °C. The relationship between the coefficient of diffusion and drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation which gives an activation energy of 24.78 kJ mol-1 for liquid diffusion in the drying process of forage-turnip seeds.

  3. The antioxidant EDU and Raphanus sativus L. - a new approach to biological indication of ozone?; Das Antioxidant EDU und Raphanus sativus L. - neue Moeglichkeiten der Bioindikation von Ozon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka-Rick, R.; Manning, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    Studies on the effects of ozone on plants repeatedly suggested to use anti-oxidant agent-like ethylene diurea (EDU) as control treatment for exposure systems like open-top chambers. Radish (`Cherry Belle`) was exposed to ozone (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d) in a controlled way in green-house tests run during three different developmental stages. Some plants received pretreatment with EDU (150 mg l{sup -1}). Up to 26% of the leaf surface was injured by ozone exposure in untreated plants; EDU-treated plants and control plants grown in filtered ais showed a maximum of 2% of leaf injury. The growth of the storage organ (hypocotyl) was significantly depressed by ozone exposure (without EDU) but compensatory processes largely redressed this loss after the exposure period. EDU caused some minor leaf injury and a nonsignificant stimulation of shoot growth. (orig.) [Deutsch] In O{sub 3}-Wirkungsuntersuchungen mit Pflanzen wurde wiederholt der Einsatz antioxidanter Wirkstoffe wie Ethylendiurea (EDU) als Kontrollbehandlung alternativ zu Expositionssystemen wie z.B. Open-Top-Kammern vorgeschlagen. Waehrend drei verschiedener Entwicklungsstadien wurden Radies (Sorte `Cherry Belle`) in einem Gewaechshausversuch kontrolliert mit O{sub 3} belastet (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d), nachdem ein Teil der Pflanzen mit EDU behandelt worden war (150 mg l{sup -1}). Bei unbehandelten Pflanzen wurden bis zu 26% der Blattflaeche durch die O{sub 3}-Exposition geschaedigt; EDU-behandelte Pflanzen und Kontrollpflanzen in gefilterter Luft zeigten maximal 2% Blattschaedigung. Das Wachstum des Speicherorgans (Hypokotyl) war durch die O{sub 3}-Belastung (ohne EDU) signifikant vermindert, kompensatorische Prozesse glichen diesen Verlust nach der Belastungsphase jedoch weitgehend aus. EDU selbst loeste leichte Blattschaedigungen aus und bewirkte eine nicht-signifikante Stimulation des Sprosswachstums. (orig.)

  4. Expression of a transferred nuclear gene in a mitochondrial genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of mitochondrial genes to the nucleus, and subsequent gain of regulatory elements for expression, is an ongoing evolutionary process in plants. Many examples have been characterized, which in some cases have revealed sources of mitochondrial targeting sequences and cis-regulatory elements. In contrast, there have been no reports of a nuclear gene that has undergone intracellular transfer to the mitochondrial genome and become expressed. Here we show that the orf164 gene in the mitochondrial genome of several Brassicaceae species, including Arabidopsis, is derived from the nuclear ARF17 gene that codes for an auxin responsive protein and is present across flowering plants. Orf164 corresponds to a portion of ARF17, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences are 79% and 81% identical, respectively. Orf164 is transcribed in several organ types of Arabidopsis thaliana, as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, orf164 is transcribed in five other Brassicaceae within the tribes Camelineae, Erysimeae and Cardamineae, but the gene is not present in Brassica or Raphanus. This study shows that nuclear genes can be transferred to the mitochondrial genome and become expressed, providing a new perspective on the movement of genes between the genomes of subcellular compartments.

  5. Weed control in young coffee plantations through post emergence herbicide application onto total area Controle de plantas daninhas em cafezais recém-implantados, com herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência em área total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Ronchi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the efficiency of several herbicides under field conditions, by post-emergence application onto the entire area, their effect on the control of weeds in young coffee plantations and commercial coffee and bean intercropping system, as well as on both crops. Seedlings of Coffea arabica cv. Red Catuaí with four to six leaf pairs were transplanted to the field and treated according to conventional agronomic practices. A bean and coffee intercropping system was established by sowing three lines of beans in the coffee inter-rows. At the time the herbicides were sprayed, the coffee plants had six to ten leaf pairs; the bean plants, three leaflets; and the weeds were at an early development stage. Fluazifop-p-butyl and clethodim were selective for coffee plants and controlled only Brachiaria plantaginea and Digitaria horizontalis efficiently. Broad-leaved weeds (Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa, Coronopus didymus, Emilia sonchifolia, Galinsoga parviflora, Ipomoea grandifolia, Lepidium virginicum, and Raphanus raphanistrum were controlled with high efficiency by sole applications of fomesafen, flazasulfuron, and oxyfluorfen, except B. pilosa, C. didymus, and R. raphanistrum for oxyfluorfen. Sequential applications in seven-day intervals of fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butyl, or clethodim, and two commercial mixtures of fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butyl simultaneously controlled both types of weed. Cyperus rotundus was only controlled by flazasulfuron. Except for fluazifop-p-butyl and clethodim, all herbicide treatments caused only slight injuries on younger coffee leaves. However, further plant growth was not impaired and coffee plant height and stem diameter were therefore similar in the treatments, as evaluated four months later. Fomesafen, fluazifop-p-butyl, and clethodim, at sole or sequential application, and the commercial mixtures of fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butyl were also highly selective for bean crop; thus

  6. Uso do novo sistema Clearfield® na cultura do girassol para o controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas Use of the new Clearfield® system in sunflower culture to control dicotyledonous weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas tem limitado o aumento da área de cultivo de girassol no Brasil, devido ao seu impacto sobre a produtividade. Isso se deve à escassez de produtos registrados para a cultura com amplo espectro de ação. Em razão disso, desenvolveram-se dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas aplicados em pós-emergência de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura do girassol Clearfield®. Os experimentos foram instalados no campo, em Iguatemi, distrito de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas testemunhas sem aplicação de herbicida, sendo uma sem capina e outra capinada, sulfentrazone (200,00 g ha-1 aplicado em pré-emergência e imazapic+imazapyr aplicados em pós-emergência nas doses de [36,75+12,25], [52,5+17,5], [12,25+36,75] e [17,5+52,5] g ha-1. Foram feitas avaliações de controle para Euphorbia heterophylla, Conyza bonariensis, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa, Ipomoea grandifolia e Portulaca oleracea. Também foram realizadas avaliações de intoxicação do girassol Clearfield®, estande e produtividade em kg ha-1. De acordo com os resultados, verificou-se que o uso do sistema Clearfield® mostrou-se uma ótima opção para áreas com infestação de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas, pois possibilita a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS; os controles obtidos variaram de medianos a excelentes, além de ele não provocar injúrias à cultura e manter o estande inicial e a produtividade.The occurrence of dicotyledonous weeds has limited the increase of the area of sunflower cultivation in Brazil, due to their impact on crop yield. This is a result of a shortage of products registered for the crop with broad-spectrum control. Thus, two experiments were installed to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the imidazolinone herbicides applied on post

  7. A 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase Mediates the Biosynthesis of Glucoraphasatin in Radish1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Fukino, Nobuko; Ohara, Takayoshi; Nishio, Takeshi; Ishida, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites whose degradation products confer intrinsic flavors and aromas to Brassicaceae vegetables. Several structures of GSLs are known in the Brassicaceae, and the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory networks have been elucidated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). GSLs are precursors of chemical defense substances against herbivorous pests. Specific GSLs can act as feeding blockers or stimulants, depending on the pest species. Natural selection has led to diversity in the GSL composition even within individual species. However, in radish (Raphanus sativus), glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate) accounts for more than 90% of the total GSLs, and little compositional variation is observed. Because glucoraphasatin is not contained in other members of the Brassicaceae, like Arabidopsis and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), the biosynthetic pathways for glucoraphasatin remain unclear. In this report, we identified and characterized a gene encoding GLUCORAPHASATIN SYNTHASE 1 (GRS1) by genetic mapping using a mutant that genetically lacks glucoraphasatin. Transgenic Arabidopsis, which overexpressed GRS1 cDNA, accumulated glucoraphasatin in the leaves. GRS1 encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, and it is abundantly expressed in the leaf. To further investigate the biosynthesis and transportation of GSLs in radish, we grafted a grs1 plant onto a wild-type plant. The grafting experiment revealed a leaf-to-root long-distance glucoraphasatin transport system in radish and showed that the composition of GSLs differed among the organs. Based on these observations, we propose a characteristic biosynthesis pathway for glucoraphasatin in radish. Our results should be useful in metabolite engineering for breeding of high-value vegetables. PMID:28100450

  8. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reconocimiento y caracterización ecológica de la flora arvense asociada al cultivo de uchuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaza Guido

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el objetivo de realizar el reconocimiento de la flora arvense asociada al cultivo de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L., este estudio incluyó recorridos en 49 sistemas productivos ubicados en 12 municipios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Boyacá. Procurando cubrir todos los pisos térmicos presentes en estos municipios, en los cuales se cultiva la uchuva, se utilizó la abundancia y frecuencia de especies arvenses como variable de medida a través de los muestreos. La primera etapa o reconocimiento se llevó a cabo en siete municipios de Cundinamarca y la segunda, en cinco municipios de Boyacá. En los sistemas productivos se registraron y colectaron las diferentes especies arvenses asociadas al cultivo, en un área mínima de muestreo determinada para cada predio. Los resultados fueron: 21 familias, 40 géneros y 47 especies, donde ocho familias concentraron el 72% de las especies. En Cundinamarca, las especies con mayor frecuencia fueron Polygonum nepalense y Rumex crispus, y en el departamento de Boyacá Pennisetum clandestinum P. nepalense. Por categoría altitudinal las principales especies fueron: P. nepalense, P. clandestinum y Raphanus raphanistrum (categorías I, II y III, respectivamente. La categoría III reportó ocho de las principales especies arvenses asociadas al cultivo, y un valor de frecuencia superior al 40% del total de especies registradas. Las especies de mayor nocividad para el cultivo de la uchuva fueron Polygonum nepalense y Rumex crispus.

  10. Molecular systematics of Brassica and allied genera (Subtribe Brassicinae, Brassiceae) -chloroplast genome and cytodeme congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, S I; Black, L D

    1991-07-01

    Chloroplast DNA restriction sites for 20 endonucleases were mapped using cpDNA probes from Brassica juncea and site variation was surveyed in 33 diploid taxa of the Subtribe Brassicinae. A total of 419 mutations was observed, including both site (i.e., gain/ loss) and fragment length (i.e., insertions or deletions); 221 (53%) mutations showed variation at the interspecific level. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a clear division of the subtribe into two ancient evolutionary lineages. These were (I) the "Nigra" lineage: Brassica nigra, B. fruticulosa, B. tournefortii, Sinapis pubescens, S. alba, S. flexuosa, S. arvensis, Coincya cheiranthos, Erucastrum canariense, and Hirschfeldia incana, and (II) the "Rapa/ Oleracea" lineage: Brassica rapa, B. oleracea ssp. oleracea and ssp. alboglabra, B. rupestris-villosa complex (B. rupestris, B. drepanensis, B. macrocarpa, B. villosa), B. barrelieri, B. deflexa, B. oxyrrhina, B. gravinae, Diplotaxis erucoides, D. tenuifolia, Eruca sativa, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, and Sinapis aucheri. In the "Nigra" lineage, Brassica nigra was most closely related to the annual Sinapis species, S. arvensis and S. alba. In the "Rapa/Oleracea" lineage, the Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes formed a distinct group whose closest relatives were the wild species of the B. oleracea (n=9) complex (i.e., B. rupestris-villosa complex). Species with n=7 chromosomes exist in both lineages. Hirschfeldia incana (n=7), in the "Nigra" lineage, was most closely related to Sinapis pubescens. In the "Rapa/Oleracea" lineage three taxa with n=7 - B. deflexa, D. erucoides, and S. aucheri - were closely related, advanced in the lineage, and were the closest apparent relatives (particularly D. erucoides) to B. rapa, B. oleracea, and its wild relatives. Levels of genetic divergence suggested by the cpDNA data were consistent with cytodeme recognition in the subtribe, but provided evidence for inconsistencies in the current generic delimitations based on

  11. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in response to vernalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Shufen; Xu, Wenling; Liu, Xianxian

    2017-01-01

    Vernalization is a key process for premature bolting. Although many studies on vernalization have been reported, the molecular mechanism of vernalization is still largely unknown in radish. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of radish seedlings at three different time points during vernalization. More than 36 million clean reads were generated for each sample and the portions mapped to the reference genome were all above 67.0%. Our results show that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between room temperature and the early stage of vernalization (4,845) are the most in all treatments pairs. A series of vernalization related genes, including two FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) genes, were screened according to the annotations. A total of 775 genes were also filtered as the vernalization related candidates based on their expression profiles. Cold stress responsive genes were also analyzed to further confirm the sequencing result. Several key genes in vernalization or cold stress response were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). This study identified a number of genes that may be involved in vernalization, which are useful for other functional genomics research in radish.

  12. LC-PDA-EIS/MSn identification of new anthocyanins in purple radish (Raphanus sativus L. variety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An LC-PDA-ESI/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the anthocyanins of purple Bordeaux radish. This study identified 57 anthocyanins: 23 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 12 acylated cyanidin 3-(glucosylacyl) acylsophoroside-5-diglucosides, and 22 acylated cyanid...

  13. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild radish between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan, and might provide new insight into the genetic differentiation of coastal plants across islands.

  14. Dissecting Root Proteome Changes Reveals New Insight into Cadmium Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Fei; Tang, Mingjia; Chen, Yinglong; Wang, Jin; Karanja, Bernard Kinuthia; Luo, Xiaobo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Liwang

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread heavy metal of particular concern with respect to the environment and human health. Although intensive studies have been conducted on Cd-exposed transcriptome profiling, little systematic proteome information is available on the molecular mechanism of Cd stress response in radish. In this study, the radish root proteome under Cd stress was investigated using a quantitative multiplexed proteomics approach. Seedlings were grown in nutrient solution without Cd (control) or with 10 or 50 μM CdCl2 for 12 h (Cd10 and Cd50, respectively). In total, 91 up- and 66 down-regulated proteins were identified in the control vs Cd10 comparison, while 340 up- and 286 down-regulated proteins were identified in the control vs Cd50 comparison. Functional annotation indicated that these differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were mainly involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, stress and defense and signal transduction processes. Correlation analysis showed that 33 DEPs matched with their transcripts, indicating a relatively low correlation between transcript and protein levels under Cd stress. Quantitative real-time PCR evidenced the expression patterns of 12 genes encoding their corresponding DEPs. In particular, several pivotal proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism, ROS scavenging, cell transport and signal transduction were involved in the coordinated regulatory network of the Cd stress response in radish. Root exposure to Cd2+ activated several key signaling molecules and metal-containing transcription factors, and subsequently some Cd-responsive functional genes were mediated to reduce Cd toxicity and re-establish redox homeostasis in radish. This is a first report on comprehensive proteomic characterization of Cd-exposed root proteomes in radish. These findings could facilitate unraveling of the molecular mechanism underlying the Cd stress response in radish and provide fundamental insights into the development of genetically engineered low-Cd-content radish cultivars. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Han

    Full Text Available Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion, migration patterns (linear expansion, and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild radish between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan, and might provide new insight into the genetic differentiation of coastal plants across islands.

  16. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress.

  17. EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATOR MICEFIT ON YIELD OF GARDEN RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Seredin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micefit is a product developed based on mycorrhizal fungi extracted from roots of swamp ledum. For ecological purposes the Micefit is used for final stage of cleaning of contaminated and polluted land at seed sowing and seedling plating. The effect of growth regulator Micefit on seeds of garden radish depending on different concentrations and exposures. The dependence of garden radish yield on time of treatment and concentration is shown.

  18. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of cadmium accumulation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Liangju; Gong, Yiqin; Dai, Wenhao; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wen, Tiancai; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil pollutant and poses a significant threat to human health via the food chain. Large phenotypic variations in Cd concentration of radish roots and shoots have been observed. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in radish remain to be elucidated. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using an F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between a high Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Dysx and a low Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Yh. The linkage map consisted of 523 SRAP, RAPD, SSR, ISSR, RAMP, and RGA markers and had a total length of 1,678.2 cM with a mean distance of 3.4 cM between two markers. All mapped markers distributed on nine linkage groups (LGs) having sizes between 134.7 and 236.8 cM. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root Cd accumulation were mapped on LGs 1, 4, 6, and 9, which accounted for 9.86 to 48.64 % of all phenotypic variance. Two QTLs associated with shoot Cd accumulation were detected on LG1 and 3, which accounted for 17.08 and 29.53 % of phenotypic variance, respectively. A major-effect QTL, qRCd9 (QTL for root Cd accumulation on LG9), was identified on LG 9 flanked by NAUrp011_754 and EM5me6_286 markers with a high LOD value of 23.6, which accounted for 48.64 % of the total phenotypic variance in Cd accumulation of F(2) lines. The results indicated that qRCd9 is a novel QTL responsible for controlling root Cd accumulation in radish, and the identification of specific molecular markers tightly linked to the major QTL could be further applied for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in low-Cd content radish breeding program.

  19. De teelt van witte rammenas (rettich) onder glas (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Informatie over teelt van witte rammenas (rettich), waarbij aandacht voor de rassen, de teelt onder glas, bemesting, zaadkwaliteit en opkweek, oogsten, sorteren en verpakken, ziekten en ziektebestrijding en recepten.

  20. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-02-23

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were detected based on pairwise comparison in the three libraries (0_DAP, 7_DAP and 15_DAP). Results from Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implicated in numerous life processes including embryo development and phytohormones biosynthesis. Notably, some genes encoding auxin response factor (ARF ), Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK ) known to be involved in radish embryogenesis were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of 30 genes including LEC1-2, AGL9, LRR, PKL and ARF8-1 were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the cooperation between miRNA and mRNA may play a pivotal role in the radish embryogenesis process. This is the first report on identification of DEGs profiles related to radish embryogenesis and seed development. These results could facilitate further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying embryogenesis and seed development in radish.

  1. Relative susceptibilities of five fodder radish varieties (Raphanus sativus var. Oleiformis) to Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, M.G.; Schomaker, C.H.; Been, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    The fodder radish varieties Anaconda, Contra, Defender, Doublet and Terranova, known to have some partial resistance, were compared to the standard variety, Radical, to estimate their relative susceptibility (RS) for both population dynamic parameters of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and to evaluate Pi

  2. Analysis of differential gene expression during floral bud abortion in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Sun, X L; Zhang, L G; Hui, M X; Zhang, M K

    2013-07-24

    Radish floral bud abortion (FBA) is an adverse biological phenomenon that occurs during reproduction. Although FBA occurs frequently, its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying FBA, we detected gene expression differences between aborted and normal buds of radish using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). A total of 221 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected by 256 cDNA-AFLP primer combinations, of which 114 were upregulated and 107 were downregulated in the aborted buds. A total of 54 TDFs were cloned and sequenced. A BLAST search revealed that all TDFs have homologous sequences and 29 of these corresponded to known genes, whose functions were mainly related to metabolism, stimulus response, transcriptional regulation, and transportation. Expressions of 6 TDFs with different functions were further analyzed by real-time PCR yielding expression profiling results consistent with the cDNA-AFLP analysis. Our results indicated that radish FBA is related to abnormalities in various physiological and biochemical plant processes.

  3. Transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal, is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO32 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72% was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56% or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%. A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30% was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40% and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%, while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable crops.

  4. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76-98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44-1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11-99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08-80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22-77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36-39.37% and 27.35-46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb-phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable crops.

  5. Comparative transcriptomics uncovers alternative splicing and molecular marker development in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Liang; Liang, Dongyi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhu, Yuelin; Jiang, Haiyan; Tang, Mingjia; Liu, Liwang

    2017-07-03

    Alternative splicing (AS) plays important roles in gene expression and proteome diversity. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (InDel) are abundant polymorphisms and co-dominant inheritance markers, which have been widely used in germplasm identification, genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection in plants. So far, however, little information is available on utilization of AS events and development of SNP and InDel markers from transcriptome in radish. In this study, three radish transcriptome datasets were collected and aligned to the reference radish genome. A total of 56,530 AS events were identified from three radish genotypes with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS type, which accounted for 59.4% of the total expressed genes in radish. In all, 22,412 SNPs and 9436 InDels were identified with an average frequency of 1 SNP/17.9 kb and 1 InDel/42.5 kb, respectively. A total of 43,680 potential SSRs were identified in 31,604 assembled unigenes with a density of 1 SSR/2.5 kb. The ratio of SNPs with nonsynonymous/synonymous mutations was 1.05:1. Moreover, 35 SNPs and 200 InDels were randomly selected and validated by Sanger sequencing, 83.9% of the SNPs and 70% of the InDels exhibited polymorphism among these three genotypes. In addition, the 15 SNPs and 125 InDels were found to be unevenly distributed on 9 linkage groups. Furthermore, 40 informative InDel markers were successfully used for the genetic diversity analysis on 32 radish accessions. These results would not only provide new insights into transcriptome complexity and AS regulation, but also furnish large amount of molecular marker resources for germplasm identification, genetic mapping and further genetic improvement of radish in breeding programs.

  6. Formulasi Sediaan Krim Dari Ekstrak Lobak Merah (Raphanus sativus L.) Sebagai Pelembab Kulit

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Rohma Dearni

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radish is a vegetable which can be used to treat skin as it contains many substances that can rejuvenate skin. Radish contains 25% vitamin C, 9% vitamin E, 1% vitamin K, 4% iron, 2.5% magnesium, 2.5% calcium, 2.5% sodium, and 5% potassium. There are many varieties of radish such as red radish, black radish and white radish. The significant content differences between red radish and white radish is the presence of anthocyanins in red radish that is not present in white radish. Anth...

  7. Chromium phytotoxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus): effects on metabolism and nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K K; Singh, N K; Rai, U N

    2013-09-01

    In the present investigation, chromium (VI) induced toxicity on metabolic activity and translocations of nutrients in radish were evaluated under controlled glass house conditions. Chromium was found to induce toxicity and significantly affect plant growth and metabolic activity. Excess of chromium (0.4 mM) caused a decrease in the concentration of iron in leaves (from 134.3 to 71.9 μg g(-1) dw) and significant translocation of sulphur, phosphorus and zinc. Translocation of manganese, copper and boron were less affected from root to stem. After 15 days of Cr exposure, maximum accumulation of Cr was found in roots (327.6 μg g(-1) dw) followed by stems (186.8 μg g(-1) dw) and leaves (116.7 μg g(-1) dw) at 0.4 mM Cr concentration. Therefore, Cr may affect negatively not only production, but also the nutritive quality of the radish; likewise, higher Cr content may cause health hazards for humans.

  8. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Ha; Baskar, Thanislas Bastin; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-28

    A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g), phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g). Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), Pearson's correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87%) at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%), followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might provide information on the relationship between primary and secondary metabolites and a synergistic antioxidant ability derived from the secondary metabolites in the radish cultivars.

  9. Phytotoxicity of CeO2nanoparticles on radish plant (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xin; Rui, Mengmeng; Song, Youhong; Ma, Yuhui; Rui, Yukui; Zhang, Peng; He, Xiao; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) have been considered as one type of emerging contaminants that pose great potential risks to the environment and human health. The effect of CeO 2 NPs on plant-edible parts and health evaluation remains is necessary and urgently to be developed. In this study, we cultivated radish in Sigma CeO 2 NP (radish plant; especially in the treatment of 50 mg/kg CeO 2 NPs, root expansion was increased by 2.2 times as much as the control. In addition, the relative chlorophyll content enhanced by 12.5, 12.9, and 12.2% was compared to control on 40 cultivation days. CeO 2 NPs were mainly absorbed by the root and improved the activity of antioxidant enzyme system to scavenge the damage of free radicals in radish root and leaf. In addition, this study also indicated that the nanoparticles might enter the food chain through the soil into the edible part of the plant, which will be a potential threat to human health.

  10. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M.; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were det...

  11. Grazing of Raphanus sativus. L (Japanese radish). | N.F.G. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of young woolled sheep was markedly better when grazing Japanese radish early in winter, when more leaf was available. Continuous grazing resulted in better performance than rotational or zero grazing. Keywords: continuous grazing; grazing; japanese radish; leaves; nooitgedacht research station; ...

  12. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L)

    OpenAIRE

    Etesami, M.; F. Tajpour; Khosravi, M.; A. Biabani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality a...

  13. Development of male sterile Eruca sativa carrying a Raphanus sativus/Brassica oleracea cybrid cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, Thomas; Klocke, Evelyn; Schrader, Otto; Linke, Bettina; Budahn, Holger

    2016-02-01

    Alloplasmic male sterile breeding lines of Eruca sativa were developed by intergeneric hybridization with CMS- Brassica oleracea, followed by recurrent backcrosses and determination of the breeding value. Male sterile breeding lines of rocket salad (Eruca sativa) were developed by intergeneric hybridization with cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) followed by recurrent backcrosses. Five amphidiploid F1 plants (2n = 2x = 20, CE), achieved by manual crosses and embryo rescue, showed an intermediate habit. The plants were completely male sterile and lacked seed set after pollination with the Eruca parent. Allotetraploid F1-hybrid plants (4n = 4x = 40, CCEE) obtained after colchicine treatment were backcrossed six times with pollen of the Eruca parent to select alloplasmic diploid E. sativa lines. The hybrid status and the nucleo-cytoplasmic constellation were continuously controlled by RAPD and Southern analysis during subsequent backcrosses. The ploidy level was investigated by flow cytometry and chromosome analysis. Premeiotic (sporophytic) and postmeiotic (pollen abortive) defects during the anther development were observed in the alloplasmic E. sativus plants in comparison to the CMS-cauliflower donor. No further incompatibilities were noticed between the CMS-inducing cybrid cytoplasm and the E. sativa nuclear genome. The final alloplasmic E. sativa lines were diploid with 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes and revealed complete male sterility and restored female fertility. Plant vigor and yield potential of the CMS-E. sativa BC5 lines were comparable to the parental E. sativus line. In conclusion, the employed cybrid-cytoplasm has been proven as a vital source of CMS for E. sativa. The developed lines are directly applicable for hybrid breeding of rocket salad.

  14. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    , defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K-OW. A negative correlation between BCF and log K-OW was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF...

  15. Efeitos da radiação ultravioleta-B sobre a morfologia foliar de Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. (Brassicaceae Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on leaf morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torres Boeger

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A redução da camada de ozônio resulta no aumento da radiação ultravioleta que atinge a superfície terrestre, especialmente a radiação ultravioletaB (UV-B. O aumento da radiação poderá induzir a mudanças estruturais e fisiológicas nas plantas, influenciando no seu crescimento e desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os efeitos da radiação UV-B ambiente sobre a morfologia das folhas de Arabidopsis thaliana desenvolvidas em condições controladas. As sementes de A. thaliana cresceram em câmaras de crescimento, com 300 µmol m-2s-1 de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (PAR com ou sem 6 kJ m-2 s-1 de radiação UV-Bbe (UV-Bbe; UV-B biologicamente efetiva. Após 21 dias, 10 folhas de cada tratamento (com e sem radiação UV-B foram coletadas para avaliar área foliar, massa fresca e seca, AEF, densidades estomáticas e de tricomas de ambas as faces da folha, espessura da lâmina foliar e concentração de compostos fenólicos e de clorofila total, a e b. As folhas tratadas com radiação UV-B apresentaram menor área foliar, massa fresca e seca, densidade de tricomas na face adaxial e densidade de estômatos na face abaxial da folha. Entretanto, apresentaram os maiores valores médios de espessura total da lâmina e do mesofilo, maior concentração de clorofila total, clorofila a e clorofila b e compostos fenólicos foliares do que as folhas não tratadas com radiação UV-B. Essas diferenças morfológicas significativas (p Reduction of the ozone layer results in the increase in ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface, especially the ultraviolet-B (UV-B. The increase of radiation may induce structural and physiological changes in plants, influencing their growth and development. This paper evaluates the effects of ambient UV-B radiation upon to the leaf morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana developed under controlled conditions. The seeds of A. thaliana grown in environmental chamber, with 300 µmol m-2s-1 de photosynthetically active radiation (PAR with and without 6 kJ m-2 s-1 of radiation UV-Bbe (UV-Bbe; UV-B biologically effective. After 21 days, ten leaves of each treatment (with and without UV-B radiation were collected to measure leaf area, fresh and dry mass, AEF, stomata and trichome densities of both leaf surfaces, leaf thickness and concentration of phenolic compounds and total chlorophyll, and chlorophyll a and b. Leaves treated with UV-B radiation presented smaller leaf area, fresh and dry weight, hair density, and stomata density on the adaxial epidermis. However, leaves treated with UV-B presented higher mean values for total thickness, mesophyll thickness, higher concentration of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b, and phenolic compounds when compared to leaves without UV-B radiation. These significant morphological differences (p < 0.05 between leaves treated with and without UV-B radiation indicate that A. thaliana is not insensible to UV-B radiation and possess mechanisms that minimize the negative effects on leaf development and growth. Although, the plant responses to UV-B radiation involves several physiological mechanisms, that need more detailed investigation.

  16. Termoestabilidade de processos extrativos de Nasturtium officinale R. Br., brassicaceae por sistema Soxhlet modificado Term-stability of extractive processes from Nasturtium officinale R. Br., brassicaceae for soxhlet modified system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz de Souza Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective verified the term-stability of the Soxhlet modified system with analytical and pharmacothecnical application in extractive processes of Nasturtium officinale. It has proven that the process is thermo-stable. The analysis with analytical have determined 3.606 mg g-1 in chlorogenic acid and 11.813 mg g-1 in rutin (extract 1:20 w/v and with pharmacotecnical 3.427 mg g-1 in chlorogenic acid and 11.278 mg g-1 in rutin (extract 1:6 w/v. The income of the pharmacothecnical process was inferior to the analytical, suggesting that the pharmacothecnical process would need of at least the double of time in each extraction system.

  17. A stochastic population model for Lepidium papilliferum (Brassicaceae), a rare desert ephemeral with a persistent seed bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Dana Quinney; Jay Weaver

    2006-01-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is a valuable tool for rare plant conservation, but PVA for plants with persistent seed banks is difficult without reliable information on seed bank processes. We modeled the population dynamics of the Snake River Plains ephemeral Lepidium papilliferum using data from an 11-yr artificial seed bank experiment to estimate age-specific...

  18. Phylogeography of Thlaspi arvense (Brassicaceae in China Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Sequences and Ecological Niche Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thlaspi arvense is a well-known annual farmland weed with worldwide distribution, which can be found from sea level to above 4000 m high on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. In this paper, a phylogeographic history of T. arvense including 19 populations from China was inferred by using three chloroplast (cp DNA segments (trnL-trnF, rpl32-trnL and rps16 and one nuclear (n DNA segment (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein, ZIP. A total of 11 chloroplast haplotypes and six nuclear alleles were identified, and haplotypes unique to the QTP were recognized (C4, C5, C7 and N4. On the basis of molecular dating, haplotypes C4, C5 and C7 have separated from others around 1.58 Ma for cpDNA, which corresponds to the QTP uplift. In addition, this article suggests that the T. arvense populations in China are a mixture of diverged subpopulations as inferred by hT/vT test (hT ≤ vT, cpDNA and positive Tajima’s D values (1.87, 0.05 < p < 0.10 for cpDNA and 3.37, p < 0.01 for nDNA. Multimodality mismatch distribution curves and a relatively large shared area of suitable environmental conditions between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as well as the present time recognized by MaxEnt software reject the sudden expansion population model.

  19. Preferential exclusion of hybrids in mixed pollinations between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. campestris (Brassicaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Østergård, Hanne

    1997-01-01

    In most experimental hybridizations between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. campestris, either intra- or interspecific pollen has been applied to individual flowers. Under field conditions, however, stigmas will often receive a mixture of the two types of pollen, thereby allowing...... for competition between male gametophytes and/or seeds within pods. To test whether competition influences the success of hybridization, pollen from the two species was mixed in different proportions and applied to stigmas of both species. The resulting seeds were scored for paternity by isozyme and randomly...... survival of hybrid zygotes in B. napus pods. This is in contrast to the higher survival of hybrid seeds in B. napus than in B. campestris pods when pollinations are made with pure pollen. Altogether, the likelihood of a foreign pollen grain producing a seed was much lower on B. napus than on B. campestris...

  20. Plant-mediated effects of butterfly egg deposition on subsequent caterpillar and pupal development, across different species of wild Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashalidou, F.G.; Fatouros, N.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Gols, R.

    2015-01-01

    1. Herbivory can change plant quality, which may have consequences for interactions between the inducing herbivore and other insect community members. 2. Studies investigating the effects of plant quality on herbivore performance often have neglected the egg stage, and instead introduced larvae onto

  1. Fruit and seed heteromorphism in the cold desert annual ephemeral Diptychocarpus strictus (Brassicaceae) and possible adaptive significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juanjuan; Tan, Dunyan; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Diptychocarpus strictus is an annual ephemeral in the cold desert of northwest China that produces heteromorphic fruits and seeds. The primary aims of this study were to characterize the morphology and anatomy of fruits and seeds of this species and compare the role of fruit and seed hetermorphism in dispersal and germination. Methods Shape, size, mass and dispersal of siliques and seeds and the thickness of the mucilage layer on seeds were measured, and the anatomy of siliques and seeds, the role of seed mucilage in water absorption/dehydration, germination and adherence of seeds to soil particles, the role of pericarp of lower siliques in seed dormancy and seed after-ripening and germination phenology were studied using standard procedures. Key Results Plants produce dehiscent upper siliques with a thin pericarp containing seeds with large wings and a thick mucilage layer and indehiscent lower siliques with a thick pericarp containing nearly wingless seeds with a thin mucilage layer. The dispersal ability of seeds from the upper siliques was much greater than that of intact lower siliques. Mucilage increased the amount of water absorbed by seeds and decreased the rate of dehydration. Seeds with a thick mucilage layer adhered to soil particles much better than those with a thin mucilage layer or those from which mucilage had been removed. Fresh seeds were physiologically dormant and after-ripened during summer. Non-dormant seeds germinated to high percentages in light and in darkness. Germination of seeds from upper siliques is delayed until spring primarily by drought in summer and autumn, whereas the thick, indehiscent pericarp prevents germination for >1 year of seeds retained in lower siliques. Conclusions The life cycle of D. strictus is morphologically and physiologically adapted to the cold desert environment in time and space via a combination of characters associated with fruit and seed heteromorphism. PMID:20348559

  2. Multiple hybridization events in Cardamine (Brassicaceae) during the last 150 years: revisiting a textbook example of neoallopolyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozomová-Lihová, Judita; Krak, Karol; Mandáková, Terezie; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Spaniel, Stanislav; Vít, Petr; Lysak, Martin A

    2014-04-01

    Recently formed allopolyploid species represent excellent subjects for exploring early stages of polyploid evolution. The hexaploid Cardamine schulzii was regarded as one of the few nascent allopolyploid species formed within the past ∼150 years that presumably arose by autopolyploidization of a triploid hybrid, C. × insueta; however, the most recent investigations have shown that it is a trigenomic hybrid. The aims of this study were to explore the efficiency of progenitor-specific microsatellite markers in detecting the hybrid origins and genome composition of these two allopolyploids, to estimate the frequency of polyploid formation events, and to outline their evolutionary potential for long-term persistence and speciation. Flow-cytometric ploidy-level screening and genotyping by progenitor-specific microsatellite markers (20 microsatellite loci) were carried out on samples focused on hybridizing populations at Urnerboden, Switzerland, but also including comparative material of the parental species from other sites in the Alps and more distant areas. It was confirmed that hybridization between the diploids C. amara and C. rivularis auct. gave rise to triploid C. × insueta, and it is inferred that this has occurred repeatedly. Evidence is provided that C. schulzii comprises three parental genomes and supports its origin from hybridization events between C. × insueta and the locally co-occurring hypotetraploid C. pratensis, leading to two cytotypes of C. schulzii: hypopentaploid and hypohexaploid. Each cytotype of C. schulzii is genetically uniform, suggesting their single origins. Persistence of C. schulzii has presumably been achieved only by perennial growth and clonal reproduction. This contrasts with C. × insueta, in which multiple origins and occasional sexual reproduction have generated sufficient genetic variation for long-term survival and evolutionary success. This study illustrates a complex case of recurrent hybridization and polyploidization events, and highlights the role of triploids that promoted the origin of trigenomic hybrids.

  3. Using fitness parameters to evaluate three oilseed Brassicaceae species as potential oil crops in two contrasting environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thlaspi arvense and Camelina sativa have gained considerable attention as biofuel crops. But in some areas, these species, including C. microcarpa, are becoming rare weeds because of agriculture intensification. Including them as crops could guarantee their conservation in agricultural systems. The ...

  4. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L. and Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations were held daily. The parameters under analysis were: germination percentage, time and average speed of germination, and average root lenght. The data obtained underwent the F-Test and the mean values were compared through Tukey’s test, at a 5% probability level. The results confi rm the presence of allelopathic potential in camelina. It was found that this species can be considered an option for cultivating with soybean, due to the positive allelophatic interference caused in the culture and because it can be used in the control of weeds such as beggartick, having in mind that that it has delayed the development of the seedlings tested.

  5. 3D Plant Cell Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Using Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. Methods: Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. Results: Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. Discussion: The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  6. Taxonomy and systematics are key to biological information: Arabidopsis, Eutrema (Thellungiella), Noccaea and Schrenkiella (Brassicaceae) as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marcus A.; German, Dmitry A.

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomy and systematics provide the names and evolutionary framework for any biological study. Without these names there is no access to a biological context of the evolutionary processes which gave rise to a given taxon: close relatives and sister species (hybridization), more distantly related taxa (ancestral states), for example. This is not only true for the single species a research project is focusing on, but also for its relatives, which might be selected for comparative approaches and future research. Nevertheless, taxonomical and systematic knowledge is rarely fully explored and considered across biological disciplines. One would expect the situation to be more developed with model organisms such as Noccaea, Arabidopsis, Schrenkiella and Eutrema (Thellungiella). However, we show the reverse. Using Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens, two model species among metal accumulating taxa, we summarize and reflect past taxonomy and systematics of Arabidopsis and Noccaea and provide a modern synthesis of taxonomic, systematic and evolutionary perspectives. The same is presented for several species of Eutrema s. l. and Schrenkiella recently appeared as models for studying stress tolerance in plants and widely known under the name Thellungiella. PMID:23914192

  7. Characterization of Zinc and Cadmium Hyperaccumulation in Three Noccaea (Brassicaceae) Populations from Non-metalliferous Sites in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Soledad; Gallego, Berta; Sáez, Llorenç; López-Alvarado, Javier; Cabot, Catalina; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The Southern slope of the Pyrenees is the meridional limit for the distribution of several Noccaea populations. However, the systematic description of these populations and their hyperaccumulation mechanisms are not well established. Morphological and genetic analysis (ITS and 3 chloroplast regions) were used to identify Noccaea populations localized on non-metallicolous soils during a survey in the Catalonian Pyrenees. Cd and Zn concentrations were analyzed in soils and plants both sampled in the field and grown hydroponically. The expression of selected metal transporter genes was assessed by quantitative PCR. The populations were identified as Noccaea brachypetala (Jord.) F.K. Mey by conspicuous morphological traits. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation among N. brachypetala, Noccaea caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl and Noccaea occitanica (Jord.) F.K. Mey., three Noccaea species reported in the Pyrenees. Contrastingly, ITS and cpDNA analyses were unable to clearly differentiate these taxa. Differences in the expression of the metal transporter genes HMA3, HMA4, and MTP1 between N. caerulescens and N. brachypetala, and those amongst the N. brachypetala populations suggest differences in the strategies for handling enhanced Cd and Zn availability. This is the first report demonstrating Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by N. brachypetala both in the field and in hydroponics. This comprehensive study based on taxonomic, molecular, and physiological data allows both the correct identification of this species and the characterization of population differences in hyperaccumulation and tolerance of Zn and Cd. PMID:26904085

  8. Actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento clásico de la leishmaniosis cutánea consiste en la inyección de 15-20 ampollas de Glucantine lo que ocasiona efectos secundarios, este hecho justifica la búsqueda de nuevos medicamentos motivando la presente investigación. El objetivo fue evaluar in vitro la actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos blanco, rojo, morado y negro de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (también conocida como Lepidium meyenii Walp., sobre el crecimiento de Leishmania braziliensis peruviana. Los promastigotes alcanzaron la fase de crecimiento exponencial al quinto día de cultivo a 27 ºC en el medio bifásico Columbia, suplementado con 15% de sangre desfibrinada de carnero, en ese momento se enfrentaron, por separado, con los EM a concentraciones de 50, 100, 200 y 400 μg/ml. Los recuentos se hicieron diariamente con cámara Neubauer. La máxima disminución de promastigotes se produjo al segundo día de enfrentamiento para el ecotipo morado (17,41% de viabilidad empleando 400 μg/ml. El efecto leishmanicida estaría relacionado con los alcaloides imidazólicos presentes en el EM. Se concluye que al segundo día de enfrentamiento con el EM, el ecotipo morado presenta la mayor actividad leishmanicida seguido del ecotipo blanco.

  9. Actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alzamora, Libertad; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Laboratorio de Inmunología; Solís, Hilda; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina Humana. Instituto de Medicina Tropical «Daniel Alcides Carrión»; Rojas, Marisol; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina Humana. Instituto de Medicina Tropical «Daniel Alcides Carrión»; Calderón, Marisela; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina Humana. Instituto de Medicina Tropical «Daniel Alcides Carrión»; Fajardo, Narda; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina Humana. Instituto de Medicina Tropical «Daniel Alcides Carrión»; Quispe, Jenny; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Laboratorio de Inmunología; Alvarez, Evelyn; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Laboratorio de Inmunología; Colona, Erasmo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Laboratorio de Inmunología; Torres, Dina; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Laboratorio de Inmunología

    2013-01-01

    The classic treatment of the cutaneous leishmaniosis consists on the injection of 15-20 ampoule of Glucantine what causes serious secondary effects. This fact justifies the search of new medications what motivated the present investigation. The objective was to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of the methanolic extracts (ME) of the white, red, purple and black ecotypes of Lepidium peruvianum Chacón (at present Lepidium meyenii Walp.) about the growth of Leishmania braziliensis peruviana i...

  10. Magnitude and timing of leaf damage affect seed production in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Akiyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of herbivory on plant fitness varies widely. Understanding the causes of this variation is of considerable interest because of its implications for plant population dynamics and trait evolution. We experimentally defoliated the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in a natural population in Sweden to test the hypotheses that (a plant fitness decreases with increasing damage, (b tolerance to defoliation is lower before flowering than during flowering, and (c defoliation before flowering reduces number of seeds more strongly than defoliation during flowering, but the opposite is true for effects on seed size. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a first experiment, between 0 and 75% of the leaf area was removed in May from plants that flowered or were about to start flowering. In a second experiment, 0, 25%, or 50% of the leaf area was removed from plants on one of two occasions, in mid April when plants were either in the vegetative rosette or bolting stage, or in mid May when plants were flowering. In the first experiment, seed production was negatively related to leaf area removed, and at the highest damage level, also mean seed size was reduced. In the second experiment, removal of 50% of the leaf area reduced seed production by 60% among plants defoliated early in the season at the vegetative rosettes, and by 22% among plants defoliated early in the season at the bolting stage, but did not reduce seed output of plants defoliated one month later. No seasonal shift in the effect of defoliation on seed size was detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that leaf damage may reduce the fitness of A. thaliana, and suggest that in this population leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering, given similar damage levels.

  11. 3D Plant cell architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawana; Miller, Joyce L; Cahoon, A Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. • Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. • Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. • The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  12. Structure of a Berberine Bridge Enzyme-Like Enzyme with an Active Site Specific to the Plant Family Brassicaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Bastian; Wallner, Silvia; Steiner, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    to the replacement of a cysteine with a histidine. In addition, the structure reveals the interaction of a glutamic acid (Glu426) with an aspartic acid (Asp369) at the active site, which appear to share a proton. This arrangement leads to the delocalization of a negative charge at the active site that may...

  13. Patterns of Substitution Rate Variation at Many Nuclear Loci in Two Species Trios in the Brassicaceae Partitioned with ANOVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, John M; Hamilton, Matthew B; Johnson, Brent A

    2016-10-01

    There are marked variations among loci and among lineages in rates of nucleotide substitution. The generation time hypothesis (GTH) is a neutral explanation for substitution rate heterogeneity that has genomewide application, predicting that species with shorter generation times accumulate DNA sequence substitutions faster than species with longer generation times do since faster genome replication provides more opportunities for mutations to occur and reach fixation by genetic drift. Relatively few studies have rigorously evaluated the GTH in plants, and there are numerous alternative hypotheses for plant substitution rate variation. One major challenge has been finding pairs of closely related plant species with contrasting generation times and appropriate outgroup taxa that all also have DNA sequence data for numerous loci. To test for causes of rate variation, we obtained sequence data for 256 genes for Arabidopsis thaliana, normally reproducing every year, and the biennial Arabidopsis lyrata with three closely related outgroup taxa (Brassica rapa, Capsella grandiflora, and Neslia paniculata) as well as the biennial Brassica oleracea and the annual B. rapa lineage with the outgroup N. paniculata. A sign test indicated that more loci than expected by chance have faster rates of substitution on the branch leading to the annual than to the perennial for one three-species trio but not another. Tajima's 1D and 2D tests, and a likelihood ratio test that incorporated saturation correction, rejected rate homogeneity for up to 26 genes (up to 14 genes when correcting for multiple tests), consistently showing faster rates for the annual lineage in the Arabidopsis species trio. ANOVA showed significant rate heterogeneity between the Arabidopsis and Brassica species trios (about 6 % of rate variation) and among loci (about 26-32 % of rate variation). The lineage-by-locus interaction which would be caused by locus- and lineage-specific natural selection explained about 13 % of substitution rate variation in one ANOVA model using substitution rates from genes partitioned into odd and even codons but was not a significant effect without partitioned genes. Annual/perennial lineage and species trio by annual/perennial lineage each explained about 1 % of substitution rate variation.

  14. Interactive impacts of a herbivore and a pathogen on two resistance types of Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimes, Christine; Thiele, Jan; van Mölken, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    by interactive impacts of the antagonists. Most of the insect-resistant G-plants were severely affected by white rust, which reduced biomass and reproductive potential compared to the controls. However, when also exposed to flea beetles, biomass loss was mitigated in G-plants, even though apparent disease...... the pathogen Albugo sp. (white blister rust) and the herbivorous flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum affected each other's performance on two resistance types (G-type and P-type) of the crucifer Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata, and whether biomass, reproduction and survival of the plants were affected...... symptoms were not reduced. Most of the insect-susceptible P-plants were resistant to white rust; however, the number of flea beetle mines tended to increase in plants also exposed to Albugo, and biomass at the last harvest was slightly lower in the combined treatment. Thus, interactive impacts...

  15. Dormancy breaking and seed germination of the annual weeds Thlaspi arvense, Descurainia sophia and Malcolmia africana (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimmojeni Hassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Iran, Descurainia sophia, Malcolmia africana, and Thlaspi arvense are abundantly found as importunate weeds in winter cereal. Understanding the timing of seed germination under natural conditions is crucial for learning how to manage these annual weeds. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soil burial, dry storage, cold stratification, KNO3, GA3, and scarification on the seed dormancy and germination of these three species. Species had significantly different responses to the treatment. In D. sophia, seeds buried at a depth of 10 cm for 60 days (55%, and seeds dry stored at 20°C for 180 days (45% showed the highest level of germination. In M. africana, the germination percentage reached 95% when seeds buried at a depth of 1 cm were soaked in a GA3 concentration of 150 ppm. T. arvense had the lowest level of germination compared to the other species. The highest percentage of T. arvense germination was obtained in seeds treated with 150 ppm GA3. Potassium nitrate partly increased germinability in seeds of M. africana, which initially were less dormant than those of T. arvense and D. sophia.

  16. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on pollen quantity, quality, and seed yield in Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demchik, S.M.; Day, T.A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Three experiments examined the influence of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) exposure on reproduction in Brassica rapa (Brassicacaeae). Plants were grown in a greenhouse under three biologically effective UV-B levels that stimulated either an ambient stratospheric ozone level (control), 16% ({open_quotes}low enhanced{close_quotes}), or 32% ({open_quotes}high enhanced{close_quotes}) ozone depletion levels at Morgantown, WV, USA in mid-March. In the first experiment,pollen production and viability per flower were reduced by {approx}50% under both enhanced UV-B levels relative to ambient controls. While plants under high-enhanced UV-B produced over 40% more flowers than plants under the two lower UV-B treatments, whole-plant production of viable pollen was reduced under low-enhanced UV-B to 34% of ambient controls. In the second experiment, the influence of source-plant UV-B exposure on in vitro pollen from plants was examined and whether source-plant UV-B exposure influenced in vitro pollen germination and viability. Pollen from plants under both enhanced-UV-B was reduced from 65 to 18%. Viability of the pollen from plants grown under both enhanced UV-B treatments was reduced to a much lesser extent: only from {approx}43 to 22%. Thus, ambient source-plant pollen was more sensitive to enhanced UV-B levels to fertilize plants growing under ambient-UV-B levels, and assessed subsequent seed production and germination. Seed abortion rates were higher in plants pollinated with pollen from the enhanced UV-B treatments, than from ambient UV-B. Despite this, seed yield (number and mass) per plant was similar, regardless of the UV-B exposure of their pollen source. Our findings demonstrate that enhanced UV-B levels associated with springtime ozone depletion events have the capacity to substantially reduce viable pollen production, and could ultimately reduce reproductive success of B. rapa. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Genome-wide identification of microRNAs associated with taproot development in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuyan; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Xiaohua; Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Li, Xixiang

    2015-09-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. To identify the miRNAs associated with taproot development at the whole genome level, we sequenced five RNA libraries constructed from radish taproots at different developmental stages and generated a total of 148M clean reads. Using an integrative bioinformatics analysis, 494 known miRNAs belonging to 434 families and 220 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Combining the differential expression analysis and target prediction, we found that 77 miRNAs were potentially associated with taproot development. Target transcripts generated significant GO terms relating to cell proliferation, root development and hormone-mediated signaling. The KEGG analyses revealed that plant hormone signal transduction, zeatin biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, cell cycle, MAPK signaling and p53 signaling were closely associated with taproot development. These findings will provide valuable information for further functional verification of miRNAs and their targets in radish taproot development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of critical genes associated with lignin biosynthesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by de novo transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haiyang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Tang, Mingjia; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Xiaochuan; Nie, Shanshan; Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Liu, Liwang

    2017-06-30

    Radish is an important root vegetable crop with high nutritional, economic, and medicinal value. Lignin is an important secondary metabolite possessing a great effect on plant growth and product quality. To date, lignin biosynthesis-related genes have been identified in some important plant species. However, little information on characterization of critical genes involved in plant lignin biosynthesis is available in radish. In this study, a total of 71,148 transcripts sequences were obtained from radish root, of which 66 assembled unigenes and ten candidate genes were identified to be involved in lignin monolignol biosynthesis. Full-length cDNA sequences of seven randomly selected genes were isolated and sequenced from radish root, and the assembled unigenes covered more than 80% of their corresponding cDNA sequences. Moreover, the lignin content gradually accumulated in leaf during the developmental stages, and it increased from pre-cortex to cortex splitting stage, followed by a decrease at thickening stage and then increased at mature stage in root. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that all these genes except RsF5H exhibited relatively low expression level in root at thickening stage. The expression profiles of Rs4CL5, RsCCoAOMT1, and RsCOMT genes were consistent with the changes of root lignin content, implying that these candidate genes may play important roles in lignin formation in radish root. These findings would provide valuable information for identification of lignin biosynthesis-related genes and facilitate dissection of molecular mechanism underlying lignin biosynthesis in radish and other root vegetable crops.

  19. De novo sequencing of root transcriptome reveals complex cadmium-responsive regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Yu, Rugang; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metallic trace element that poses potential chronic toxicity to living organisms. To date, little is known about the Cd-responsive regulatory network in root vegetable crops including radish. In this study, 31,015 unigenes representing 66,552 assembled unique transcripts were isolated from radish root under Cd stress based on de novo transcriptome assembly. In all, 1496 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) consisted of 3579 transcripts were identified from Cd-free (CK) and Cd-treated (Cd200) libraries. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the up- and down-regulated DEGs were predominately involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis as well as cysteine and methionine-related pathways, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in consistent with results from RNA-Seq analysis. Several candidate genes encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH), zinc iron permease (ZIPs) and ABC transporter were responsible for Cd uptake, accumulation, translocation and detoxification in radish. The schematic model of DEGs and microRNAs-involved in Cd-responsive regulatory network was proposed. This study represents a first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of Cd-responsive DEGs in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into complex Cd-responsive regulatory networks and facilitate further genetic manipulation of Cd accumulation in root vegetable crops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  1. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-03

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a rapid and reliable method for gene expression studies. Normalization based on reference genes can increase the reliability of this technique; however, recent studies have shown that almost no single reference gene is universal for all possible experimental conditions. In this study, eight frequently used reference genes were investigated, including Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Actin2/7 (ACT), Tubulin alpha-5 (TUA), Tubulin beta-1 (TUB), 18S ribosomal RNA (18SrRNA), RNA polymerase-II transcription factor (RPII), Elongation factor 1-b (EF-1b) and Translation elongation factor 2 (TEF2). Expression stability of candidate reference genes was examined across 27 radish samples, representing a range of tissue types, cultivars, photoperiodic and vernalization treatments, and developmental stages. The eight genes in these sample pools displayed a wide range of Ct values and were variably expressed. Two statistical software packages, geNorm and NormFinder showed that TEF2, RPII and ACT appeared to be relatively stable and therefore the most suitable for use as reference genes. These results facilitate selection of desirable reference genes for accurate gene expression studies in radish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiology-biochemical features of the Raphanus sativus seedlings during cultivation in aqueous extracts from technogenic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shupranova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil pollution influence on functional state of the garden radish seedlings is studied. It has been shown that the variability of soil’s mineral composition from different technogenic zones entails active reorganization in a protein system and in antioxidant cell protection from the heavy metals superfluous accumulation in soil as well.

  3. Comparison of cadmium absorption, translocation, subcellular distribution and chemical forms between two radish cultivars (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Juan; Zhao, Xiaohu; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) absorption and accumulation vary greatly not only among plant species but also among cultivars within the same species. In order to better understand the mechanisms of Cd absorption, transportation and distribution, we examined the differences of Cd absorption, translocation, subcellular distribution and chemical forms between L19, a Cd-tolerant genotype, and H4, a Cd-sensitive genotype, using kinetic analysis and soil culture experiment. Kinetic assays showed that the different Cd concentrations between the two cultivars might be ascribed to root absorption and translocation from root to shoot. The investigations of subcellular distribution and chemical forms verified that Cd concentrations of all subcellular fractions in H4 were all higher than in L19. Meanwhile, most of the Cd was associated with cell walls in the root of H4, but the Cd in the root of L19 and leaf of the two cultivars was mainly stored in soluble fraction, which could be one possible mechanism of tolerance to Cd toxicity. In addition, Cd fractions extracted by 1M NaCl and 2% HAC were predominant in root and leaf of both cultivars and the concentrations and proportions extracted by water and 80% ethanol in root and 1M NaCl in leaf were all higher in H4 than in L19. These results indicate that the Cd in H4 is more active than L19, which could be responsible for the sensitivity of H4 to Cd damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective Effect of Humic acid and Chitosan on Radish (Raphanus sativus, L. var. sativus Plants Subjected to Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. EL-Gahmery

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHumic acid or chitosan has been shown to increase plant growth, yield and improving physiological processes in plant, but its roles on alleviating the harmful effect of cadmium on plant growth and some physiological processes in plants is very rare. Pot experiments were conducted to study the role of 100 and 200 mg/kg dry soil from either humic acid or chitosan on counteracted the harmful effects of cadmium levels (100 and 150 mg/kg dry soil on radish plant growth and some physiological charactersResultsCadmium at 100 and 150 mg kg-1 soil decreased significantly length, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root systems as well as leaf number per plant in both seasons. Chlorophyll, total sugars, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, relative water content, water deficit percentage and soluble proteins as well as total amino acids contents were also decreased. Meanwhile, cadmium concentration in plants was increased. On the other hand, application of chitosan or humic acid as soil addition at the concentration of 100 or 200 mg kg-1 increased all the above mentioned parameters and decreased cadmium concentrations in plant tissues. Chitosan at 200 mg kg-1 was the most effective than humic acid at both concentrations in counteracting the harmful effect of cadmium stress on radish plant growth.ConclusionIn conclusion, both natural chelators, in particular, chitosan at 200 mg/kg dry soil can increase the capacity of radish plant to survive under cadmium stress due to chelating the Cd in the soil, and then reduced Cd bio-availability.

  5. Transcriptome-based gene expression profiling identifies differentially expressed genes critical for salt stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Zhu, Xianwen; Kinuthia, Karanja Benard; Nie, Shanshan; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Liu, Liwang

    2016-02-01

    Transcriptome-based gene expression analysis identifies many critical salt-responsive genes in radish and facilitates further dissecting the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response. Salt stress severely impacts plant growth and development. Radish, a moderately salt-sensitive vegetable crop, has been studied for decades towards the physiological and biochemical performances under salt stress. However, no systematic study on isolation and identification of genes involved in salt stress response has been performed in radish, and the molecular mechanism governing this process is still indistinct. Here, the RNA-Seq technique was applied to analyze the transcriptomic changes on radish roots treated with salt (200 mM NaCl) for 48 h in comparison with those cultured in normal condition. Totally 8709 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 3931 up- and 4778 down-regulated genes were identified. Functional annotation analysis indicated that many genes could be involved in several aspects of salt stress response including stress sensing and signal transduction, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and ROS scavenging. The association analysis of salt-responsive genes and miRNAs exhibited that 36 miRNA-mRNA pairs had negative correlationship in expression trends. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in line with results from the RNA-Seq analysis. Furthermore, the putative model of DEGs and miRNA-mediated gene regulation was proposed to elucidate how radish sensed and responded to salt stress. This study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome-based gene expression profiling under salt stress in radish. The outcomes of this study could facilitate further dissecting the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response and provide a valuable platform for further genetic improvement of salt tolerance in radish breeding programs.

  6. Partition uptake of a brominated diphenyl ether by the edible plant root of white radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2017-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of a class of emerging contaminants. In this study, the accumulation of 4-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-3) by different parts of a live white radish was investigated. Different cultural media (hydroponics, silica sand, and soil) were used to sustain the radish plant during its uptake and in-plant translocation of BDE-3. The results showed that BDE-3 can be translocated from the roots to the aboveground organs and the accumulated levels of BDE-3 in different parts of the white radish followed the order for the three types of cultivation: fibrous roots > peels > main roots > leaves. The results were analyzed by the aid of the partition-limited model for the plant uptake. The relevant partition coefficients (K OC and K d ) and uptake parameters of BDE-3 with plant components (K pt and K lip ) were obtained for analyzing the BDE-3 distribution. The partition-limited model offers a significant insight into the uptakes of BDE-3 by the various components of live white radishes. The types of cultivation affected the total sorption level, translocation factors (TFs), extent to equilibrium (α pt ), and root concentration factors (RCFs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic fate of [14C] chlorophenols in radish (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Despoux, Sabrina; Rathahao, Estelle; Canlet, Cécile; Debrauwer, Laurent; Laurent, François

    2008-09-24

    Chlorophenols are potentially harmful pollutants that are found in numerous natural and agricultural systems. Plants are a sink for xenobiotics, which occur either intentionally or not, as they are unable to eliminate them although they generally metabolize them into less toxic compounds. The metabolic fate of [ (14)C] 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), [ (14)C] 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), and [ (14)C] 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) was investigated in lettuce, spinach, and radish to locate putative toxic metabolites that could become bioavailable to food chains. Radish plants were grown on sand for four weeks before roots were dipped in a solution of radiolabeled chlorophenol. The leaves of six-week old lettuce and spinach were treated. Three weeks after treatments, metabolites from edible plant parts were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Characterization of compounds highlighted the presence of complex glycosides. Upon hydrolysis in the digestive tract of animals or humans, these conjugates could return to the toxic parent compound, and this should be kept in mind for registration studies.

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Associated with Bolting and Flowering in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Tang, Mingjia; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The transition of vegetative growth to bolting and flowering is an important process in the life cycle of plants, which is determined by numerous genes forming an intricate network of bolting and flowering. However, no comprehensive identification and profiling of bolting and flowering-related genes have been carried out in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to analyze the differential gene expressions during the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage in radish. A total of 5922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 779 up-regulated and 5143 down-regulated genes were isolated. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that some DEGs were involved in hormone signaling pathways and the transcriptional regulation of bolting and flowering. KEGG-based analysis identified 37 DEGs being involved in phytohormone signaling pathways. Moreover, 95 DEGs related to bolting and flowering were identified and integrated into various flowering pathways. Several critical genes including FT, CO, SOC1, FLC, and LFY were characterized and profiled by RT-qPCR analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that 24 miRNA-DEG pairs were involved in radish bolting and flowering. Finally, a miRNA-DEG-based schematic model of bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed in radish. These outcomes provided significant insights into genetic control of radish bolting and flowering, and would facilitate unraveling molecular regulatory mechanism underlying bolting and flowering in root vegetable crops.

  9. Differential proteomic analysis reveals sequential heat stress-responsive regulatory network in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) taproot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-01-24

    Differential abundance protein species (DAPS) involved in reducing damage and enhancing thermotolerance in radish were firstly identified. Proteomic analysis and omics association analysis revealed a HS-responsive regulatory network in radish. Heat stress (HS) is a major destructive factor influencing radish production and supply in summer, for radish is a cool season vegetable crop being susceptible to high temperature. In this study, the proteome changes of radish taproots under 40 °C treatment at 0 h (Control), 12 h (Heat12) and 24 h (Heat24) were analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach. In total, 2258 DAPS representing 1542 differentially accumulated uniprotein species which respond to HS were identified. A total of 604, 910 and 744 DAPS was detected in comparison of Control vs. Heat12, Control vs. Heat24, and Heat12 vs. Heat24, respectively. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that annexin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, ATP synthase, heat shock protein (HSP) and other stress-related proteins were predominately enriched in signal transduction, stress and defense pathways, photosynthesis and energy metabolic pathways, working cooperatively to reduce stress-induced damage in radish. Based on iTRAQ combined with the transcriptomics analysis, a schematic model of a sequential HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. The initial sensing of HS occurred at the plasma membrane, and then key components of stress signal transduction triggered heat-responsive genes in the plant protective metabolism to re-establish homeostasis and enhance thermotolerance. These results provide new insights into characteristics of HS-responsive DAPS and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying heat tolerance in radish and other root crops.

  10. Influence of vegetative C and N storage on the reproductive repsonse to increased CO[sub 2] in Raphanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, L.M.; Potvin, C.J. (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada))

    1994-06-01

    We investigated whether plants possessing greater carbon storage capacity would show reproductive enhancement in increased CO[sub 2]. Four radish varieties differing in root:shoot ratio were grown for one season under 350 and 650 [mu]l l[sup [minus]1] CO[sub 2] and two levels of N fertilization. The controlled environment program simulated diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in temperature, relative humidity, photoperiod and light intensity. Physiological parameters of foliar photosynthesis, starch, chlorophyll and protein and also hypocotyl carbon storage were measured during the pre-reproductive phase, and phenology was followed. Flowering was not affected by treatments. Reproductive biomass was increase in response to CO[sup 2] in some varieties and was influenced by N. Path analysis will be used to examine which physiological and growth parameters best predict the reproductive response to increase CO[sub 2].

  11. Antifungal activity of synthetic 15-mer peptides based on the Rs-AFP2 (Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2) sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Samblanx, G W; Fernandez del Carmen, A; Sijtsma, L; Plasman, H H; Schaaper, W M; Posthuma, G A; Fant, F; Meloen, R H; Broekaert, W F; van Amerongen, A

    1996-01-01

    Plant defensins are a class of cysteine-rich peptides of which several members have been shown to be potent inhibitors of fungal growth. A series of overlapping 15-mer peptides based on the amino acid sequence of the radish antifungal protein Rs-AFP2 have been synthesized. Peptides 6, 7, 8 and 9, comprising the region from cysteine 27 to cysteine 47 of Rs-AFP2 showed substantial antifungal activity against several fungal species (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 30-60 micrograms/mL), but no activity towards bacteria (except peptide 6 at 100 micrograms/mL). The active peptides were shown to be sensitive to the presence of cations in the medium and to the composition and pH of the medium. When present at a subinhibitory concentration (20 micrograms/mL), peptides 1, 7, 8 and 10 potentiated the activity of Rs-AFP2 from 2.3-fold to 2.8-fold. By mapping the characteristics of the active peptide on the structure of Rs-AFP2 as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance, the active region of the antifungal protein appears to involve beta-strands 2 and 3 in combination with the loop connecting those strands. A cyclized synthetic mimic of the loop, cysteine 36 to cysteine 45, was shown to have antifungal activity. Substitution of tyrosine 38 by alanine in the cyclic peptide substantially reduced the antifungal activity, indicating the importance of this residue for the activity of Rs-AFP2 as demonstrated carrier by mutational analysis.

  12. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Xiaobo; Jiang, Haiyan; Liu, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops. PMID:28769938

  13. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: radish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ivus_S.png Raphanus_sativus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=NS ...

  15. Structural and biochemical characterization of the C3–C4 intermediate Brassica gravinae and relatives, with particular reference to cellular distribution of Rubisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of its CO2 compensation concentration, Brassica gravinae Ten. has been reported to be a C3–C4 intermediate. This study investigated the structural and biochemical features of photosynthetic metabolism in B. gravinae. The cellular distribution of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was also examined in B. gravinae, B. napus L. (C3), Raphanus sativus L. (C3), and Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. (C3–C4) by immunogold electron microscopy to elucidate Rubisco expression during the evolution from C3 to C3–C4 intermediate plants. The bundle sheath (BS) cells of B. gravinae contained centrifugally located chloroplasts as well as centripetally located chloroplasts and mitochondria. Glycine decarboxylase P-protein was localized in the BS mitochondria. Brassica gravinae had low C4 enzyme activities and high activities of Rubisco and photorespiratory enzymes, suggesting that it reduces photorespiratory CO2 loss by the glycine shuttle. In B. gravinae, the labelling density of Rubisco was higher in the mesophyll chloroplasts than in the BS chloroplasts. A similar cellular pattern was found in other Brassicaceae species. These data demonstrate that, during the evolution from C3 to C3–C4 intermediate plants, the intercellular pattern of Rubisco expression did not change greatly, although the amount of chloroplasts in the BS cells increased. It also appears that intracellular variation in Rubisco distribution may occur within the BS cells of B. gravinae. PMID:21825284

  16. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  17. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  18. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  19. Deciphering the diploid ancestral genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Mandáková, Terezie; Wu, Jian; Xie, Qi; Lysak, Martin A; Wang, Xiaowu

    2013-05-01

    The genus Brassica includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. Their current genome structures were shaped by whole-genome triplication followed by extensive diploidization. The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors. We reconstructed three ancestral subgenomes of B. rapa (n = 10) by comparing its whole-genome sequence to ancestral and extant Brassicaceae genomes. All three B. rapa paleogenomes apparently consisted of seven chromosomes, similar to the ancestral translocation Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (tPCK; n = 7), which is the evolutionarily younger variant of the Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7). Based on comparative analysis of genome sequences or linkage maps of Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra, radish (Raphanus sativus), and other closely related species, we propose a two-step merging of three tPCK-like genomes to form the hexaploid ancestor of the tribe Brassiceae with 42 chromosomes. Subsequent diversification of the Brassiceae was marked by extensive genome reshuffling and chromosome number reduction mediated by translocation events and followed by loss and/or inactivation of centromeres. Furthermore, via interspecies genome comparison, we refined intervals for seven of the genomic blocks of the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), thus revising the key reference genome for evolutionary genomics of crucifers.

  20. Deciphering the Diploid Ancestral Genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Mandáková, Terezie; Wu, Jian; Xie, Qi; Lysak, Martin A.; Wang, Xiaowu

    2013-01-01

    The genus Brassica includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. Their current genome structures were shaped by whole-genome triplication followed by extensive diploidization. The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors. We reconstructed three ancestral subgenomes of B. rapa (n = 10) by comparing its whole-genome sequence to ancestral and extant Brassicaceae genomes. All three B. rapa paleogenomes apparently consisted of seven chromosomes, similar to the ancestral translocation Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (tPCK; n = 7), which is the evolutionarily younger variant of the Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7). Based on comparative analysis of genome sequences or linkage maps of Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra, radish (Raphanus sativus), and other closely related species, we propose a two-step merging of three tPCK-like genomes to form the hexaploid ancestor of the tribe Brassiceae with 42 chromosomes. Subsequent diversification of the Brassiceae was marked by extensive genome reshuffling and chromosome number reduction mediated by translocation events and followed by loss and/or inactivation of centromeres. Furthermore, via interspecies genome comparison, we refined intervals for seven of the genomic blocks of the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), thus revising the key reference genome for evolutionary genomics of crucifers. PMID:23653472

  1. Comparison of growth inhibition profiles and mechanisms of apoptosis induction in human colon cancer cell lines by isothiocyanates and indoles from Brassicaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappa, Gerlinde [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lichtenberg, Maike [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Iori, Renato [Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Istituto Sperimentale Colture Industriali, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Barillari, Jessica [Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Istituto Sperimentale Colture Industriali, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Bartsch, Helmut [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gerhaeuser, Clarissa [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: c.gerhauser@dkfz.de

    2006-07-25

    The isothiocyanates sulforaphane and PEITC ({beta}-phenethyl isothiocyanate) as well as the indoles indole-3-carbinol and its condensation product 3,3'-diindolylmethane are known to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. In this study, we compared the cell growth inhibitory potential of the four compounds on the p53 wild type human colon cancer cell line 40-16 (p53{sup +/+}) and its p53 knockout derivative 379.2 (p53{sup -/-}) (both derived from HCT116). Using sulforhodamin B staining to assess cell proliferation, we found that the isothiocyanates were strongly cytotoxic, whereas the indoles inhibited cell growth in a cytostatic manner. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of all four compounds in both cell lines ranged from 5-15 {mu}M after 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. Apoptosis induction was analyzed by immunoblotting of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP). Treatment with sulforaphane (15 {mu}M), PEITC (10 {mu}M), indole-3-carbinol (10 {mu}M) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (10 {mu}M) induced PARP cleavage after 24 and 48 h in both 40-16 and the 379.2 cell lines, suggestive of a p53-independent mechanism of apoptosis induction. In cultured 40-16 cells, activation of caspase-9 and -7 detected by Western blotting indicated involvement of the mitochondrial pathway. We detected time- and concentration-dependent changes in protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-x{sub L} as well as pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak proteins. Of note is that for sulforaphane only, ratios of pro- to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein levels directly correlated with apoptosis induction measured by PARP cleavage. Taken together, we demonstrated that the glucosinolate breakdown products investigated in this study have distinct profiles of cell growth inhibition, potential to induce p53-independent apoptosis and to modulate Bcl-2 family protein expression in human colon cancer cell lines.

  2. Nuclear and chloroplast DNA phylogeography reveals vicariance among European populations of the model species for the study of metal tolerance, Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Maxime; Vekemans, Xavier; Godé, Cécile; Frérot, Hélène; Castric, Vincent; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    Arabidopsis halleri is a pseudometallophyte involved in numerous molecular studies of the adaptation to anthropogenic metal stress. In order to test the representativeness of genetic accessions commonly used in these studies, we investigated the A. halleri population genetic structure in Europe. Microsatellite and nucleotide polymorphisms from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, respectively, were used to genotype 65 populations scattered over Europe. The large-scale population structure was characterized by a significant phylogeographic signal between two major genetic units. The localization of the phylogeographic break was assumed to result from vicariance between large populations isolated in southern and central Europe, on either side of ice sheets covering the Alps during the Quaternary ice ages. Genetic isolation was shown to be maintained in western Europe by the high summits of the Alps, whereas admixture was detected in the Carpathians. Considering the phylogeographic literature, our results suggest a distinct phylogeographic pattern for European species occurring in both mountain and lowland habitats. Considering the evolution of metal adaptation in A. halleri, it appears that recent adaptations to anthropogenic metal stress that have occurred within either phylogeographic unit should be regarded as independent events that potentially have involved the evolution of a variety of genetic mechanisms. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Climatic adaptability of populations of Diplotaxis erucoides D.C. (Brassicaceae) from Sicily, based on leaf morphology, leaf anatomy and δ13 C studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleser, G. H.; Bernhardt, K.-G.; Hurka, H.

    1989-06-01

    The morphological and anatomical variability of Diplotaxis erucoides populations from Sicily was investigated. Populations growing during the summer months exhibit distinct xeromorphic features. Leaf area is strongly reduced and leaf thickness is increased when compared with winter populations. Cell size, as well as cell arrangement and mesophyll cell surface area differ significantly between summer and winter populations. Leaf thickness is almost three times higher in summer populations and A (cell)/ A, i.e. the mesophyll cell surface area per unit leaf area changes from about 16 for winter populations to almost 52 for summer populations. These differences are partly due to differences in intercellular volume and partly due to alterations in mesophyll cell sizes. The organic materal of the summer populations exhibits δ13C values in the order of -27%. to -28%., while the corresponding values for the winter populations are in the order of -31%. to -33%.. Analysis of D. erucoides populations from the transition period revealed intermediate δ13C values. Anatomical variations such as reductions or increases of A (cells)/ A and changes of intercellular volume correlate with the corresponding δ13C data. The δ13C data are discussed in conjunction with the differences in leaf anatomy.

  4. Frequency-dependent fitness of hybrids between oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) and weedy ¤B. rapa¤ (Brassicaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Damgaard, C.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    Fitness of interspecific hybrids is sometimes high relative to their parents, despite the conventional belief that they are mostly unfit. F-1 hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. rapa can be significantly more fit than their weedy parents under some conditions; however, under...... other conditions they are less fit. To understand the reasons, we measured the seed production of B. napus, B. rapa, and different generations of hybrid plants at three different densities and in mixtures of different frequencies (including pure stands). Brassica napus, B. rapa, and backcross plants (F...... and reproductive interactions may be responsible for these effects. Our results show that the fitness of both parents and hybrids is strongly frequency-dependent and that the likelihood of introgression of genes between the species thus may depend on the numbers and densities of parents and their various hybrid...

  5. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a glutathione S-transferase involved in both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation in Camelina sativa (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Tang, Y; Zhang, M; Cai, F; Qin, J; Wang, Q; Liu, C; Wang, G; Xu, L; Yang, L; Li, J; Wang, Z; Li, X

    2012-12-21

    Recently, we found that the Arabidopsis TT19 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, has two functional domains that influence both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation. To further understand the function of this protein in the other species, we cloned a cDNA encoding a glutathione S-transferase (namely CMGSTF12) from Camelina sativa, an oil crop that has received renewed interest due to its biofuel value and high omega-3 levels. Southern blot analysis demonstrated one copy of CMGSTF12 in C. sativa. Transformation of the Arabidopsis loss-of-function tt19-1 mutant with CMGSTF12 cDNA complemented accumulation of anthocyanin in vegetative tissues and resulted in the wild-type level of proanthocyanidin (both extractable and unextractable) in seeds. No obvious flavonoid accumulation changes were detected in the transgenic seeds, indicating that CMGSTF12 may only involve the lower flavonoid pathway, further proving that the TT19 protein controls accumulation of unextractable proanthocyanidin.

  6. Evaluation of the potential for interspecific hybridization between Camelina sativa and related wild Brassicaceae in anticipation of field trials of GM camelina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julié-Galau, Stéphane; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Tepfer, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is a re-emergent oilseed crop that is also becoming important as a model for applied projects based on studies in Arabidopsis thaliana, since the two species are closely related members of the tribe Camelineae of the Brassicaeae. Since camelina can be transformed genetically by floral dip, genetically modified (GM) camelina is being created in many laboratories, and small-scale field trials are already being conducted in the US and Canada. Although camelina does not cross-fertilize Brassica crop species, such as oilseed rape, nothing was known about its ability to cross with other members of the tribe Camelineae, which in addition to arabidopsis includes the widespread weed, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). We have tested the ability of camelina to cross with arabidopsis and C. bursa-pastoris, as well as with the more distantly related Cardamine hirsuta, tribe cardamineae. No seeds were produced in crosses with arabidopsis, and a few seeds were obtained in crosses with C. hirsuta, but the embryos aborted at an early stage of development. A few seeds were also obtained in crosses with C. bursa-pastoris, which germinated to produce plants of a phenotype intermediate to that of the parents, but the hybrids were both male and female sterile. Therefore, the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow from camelina to these related species is low.

  7. Alelopatia de Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de Bidens pilosa (L. e Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p17 O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a possível presença de potencial alelopático na camelina, bem como o seu efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de soja e picão-preto, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do cultivo dela com a soja no sistema de rotação de culturas e de seu uso como herbicida. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e as avaliações realizadas diariamente. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, tempo e velocidade média de germinação e comprimento médio de raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao Teste F e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a presença de potencial alelopático na camelina. Foi verificado que esta espécie pode ser considerada uma opção para o cultivo com a soja devido à interferência alelopática positiva provocada na cultura e ainda, que ela apresenta capacidade para utilização no controle de plantas invasoras como o picão-preto, já que atuou atrasando o desenvolvimento das plântulas testadas.

  8. Influência de temperatura, luz e giberelina na germinação de sementes de Thlaspi caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thlaspi caerulescens é espécie hiperacumuladora de metais como Cd2+, Ni2+ e Zn2+, considerada como uma plantamodelo para estudar a acumulação e tolerância a metais pesados. No entanto, a baixa produção de sementes em nossas condições climáticas tornam necessária a determinação de condições que possam maximizar a germinação e o vigor de suas sementes. Para identificar as melhores condições para a germinação, sementes de T. caerulescens foram colocadas na presença (15 mmol.m-2.s-1, 8 h luz/16 h escuro ou ausência de luz nas temperaturas de 10, 15, 20 e 25 ºC, em papel germitest previamente umedecido com solução de ácido giberélico (GA3 a 0,05% ou água destilada. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de germinação (%G e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Maior porcentagem de germinação (66% foi observada nos tratamentos com GA3 e temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC, na presença de luz. Maiores valores do IVG foram obtidos com a utilização de GA3 nas temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC, tanto na presença quanto na ausência de luz. Maiores germinação e IVG de T. caerulescens foram observados com uso de GA3 na presença de luz nas temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC.

  9. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  10. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  11. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest.

  12. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae) in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowicz, Pawel; Pauwels, Maxime; Pasierbinski, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa M; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja A; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Rostanski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest.

  13. Characterization of the watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.; Brassicaceae) transcriptome using RNASeq and identification of candidate genes for important phytonutrient traits linked to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutsina, Nikol; Payne, Adrienne C; Hancock, Robert D; Clarkson, Graham J J; Rothwell, Steve D; Chapman, Mark A; Taylor, Gail

    2016-05-20

    Consuming watercress is thought to provide health benefits as a consequence of its phytonutrient composition. However, for watercress there are currently limited genetic resources underpinning breeding efforts for either yield or phytonutritional traits. In this paper, we use RNASeq data from twelve watercress accessions to characterize the transcriptome, perform candidate gene mining and conduct differential expression analysis for two key phytonutritional traits: antioxidant (AO) capacity and glucosinolate (GLS) content. The watercress transcriptome was assembled to 80,800 transcripts (48,732 unigenes); 71 % of which were annotated based on orthology to Arabidopsis. Differential expression analysis comparing watercress accessions with 'high' and 'low' AO and GLS resulted in 145 and 94 differentially expressed loci for AO capacity and GLS respectively. Differentially expressed loci between high and low AO watercress were significantly enriched for genes involved in plant defence and response to stimuli, in line with the observation that AO are involved in plant stress-response. Differential expression between the high and low GLS watercress identified links to GLS regulation and also novel transcripts warranting further investigation. Additionally, we successfully identified watercress orthologs for Arabidopsis phenylpropanoid, GLS and shikimate biosynthesis pathway genes, and compiled a catalogue of polymorphic markers for future applications. Our work describes the first transcriptome of watercress and establishes the foundation for further molecular study by providing valuable resources, including sequence data, annotated transcripts, candidate genes and markers.

  14. Development of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of intact glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in Brassicaceae seeds and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, P; Spinozzi, S; Pagnotta, E; Lazzeri, L; Ugolini, L; Camborata, C; Roda, A

    2016-01-08

    A new high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of glucosinolates, as glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, and the corresponding isothiocyanates, as sulforaphane and erucin, was developed and applied to quantify these compounds in Eruca sativa defatted seed meals and enriched functional foods. The method involved solvent extraction, separation was achieved in gradient mode using water with 0.5% formic acid and acetonitrile with 0.5% formic acid and using a reverse phase C18 column. The electrospray ion source operated in negative and positive mode for the detection of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, respectively, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was selected as acquisition mode. The method was validated following the ICH guidelines. Replicate experiments demonstrated a good accuracy (bias%glucosinolates and isothiocyanates determination both in biomasses and in complex matrices such as food products enriched with glucosinolates, or nutraceutical bakery products. In addition, the developed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in bakery product enriched with glucosinolates, to evaluate their thermal stability after different industrial processes from cultivation phases to consumer processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transparent Testa Glabra 1 (TTG1) and TTG1-like genes in Matthiola incana R. Br. and related Brassicaceae and mutation in the WD-40 motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, A; Hemleben, V

    2009-03-01

    TTG1 (Transparent Testa Glabra 1), a WD-40 repeat protein, is involved in regulation of flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis, seed coat (mucilage) development/pigmentation and trichome formation in leaves. Here, we characterized the TTG1 gene of Matthiola incana wild type (e locus), showing 85.3% similarity to TTG1 of A. thaliana on the nucleotide level and 96.2% on the protein level. A white-flowered and glabrous mutant, line 17, of M. incana exhibits one nucleotide change, leading to an amino acid substitution directly in the WD motif (W158R). Correspondingly, the DFR (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase) gene, in which the expression is known to be dependent on TTG1, is not expressed in Matthiola mutant lines 17 (and 19). Comparison of the GC content of the Matthiola TTG1 (54.1%) and Arabidopsis TTG1 (46.1%) genes revealed a strong difference, mostly obtained by neutral substitutions (C to T transitions). To examine whether this is an ecologically influenced trend, a fragment of TTG1 was characterized from another Matthiola species (M. tricuspidata) and from Malcolmia flexuosa subsp. naxensis from the eastern Mediterranean, near a beach with sandy and salty soils. Both Matthiola species have a higher GC content in the TTG1 gene than Arabidopsis and the closer-related Malcolmia, indicating that the GC content is rather an evolutionary than an ecological signal. A similar WD-40 repeat protein gene (containing no intron in the 3' untranslated region) with high similarity to the Arabidopsis TTG1-like (AtAN11) gene was found in Matthiola.

  16. Chalcone synthase family genes have redundant roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis and in response to blue/UV-A light in turnip (Brassica rapa; Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Wang, Yu; Zhan, Yaguang; Li, Yuhua; Kawabata, Saneyuki

    2013-12-01

    The epidermis of Brassica rapa (turnip) cv. Tsuda contains light-induced anthocyanins, visible signs of activity of chalcone synthase (CHS), a key anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme, which is encoded by the CHS gene family. To elucidate the regulation of this light-induced pigmentation, we isolated Brassica rapa CHS1-CHS6 (BrCHS1-CHS6) and characterized their cis-elements and expression patterns. Epidermises of light-exposed swollen hypocotyls (ESHS) were harvested to analyze transcription levels of BrCHS genes by real-time PCR. Different promoters for the genes were inserted into tobacco to examine pCHS-GUS activity by histochemistry. Yeast-one-hybridization was used to detect binding activity of BrCHS motifs to transcription factors. Transcript levels of BrCHS1, -4, and -5 and anthocyanin-biosynthesis-related genes F3H, DFR, and ANS were high, while those of BrCHS2, -3, and -6 were almost undetectable in pigmented ESHS. However, in leaves, CHS5, F3H, and ANS expression was higher than in nonpigmented ESHS, but transcription of DFR was not detected. In the analysis of BrCHS1 and BrCHS3 promoter activity, GUS activity was strong in pigmented flowers of BrPCHS1-GUS-transformed tobacco plants, but nearly absent in BrPCHS3-GUS-transformed plants. Transcript levels of regulators, BrMYB75 and BrTT8, were strongly associated with the anthocyanin content and were light-induced. Coregulated cis-elements were found in promoters of BrCHS1,-4, and -5, and BrMYB75 and BrTT8 had high binding activities to the BrCHS Unit 1 motif. The chalcone synthase gene family encodes a redundant set of light-responsive, tissue-specific genes that are expressed at different levels and are involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Tsuda turnip.

  17. Особенности интродукции листовой редьки в среднем Предуралье

    OpenAIRE

    Фёдоров, Александр; Несмелова, Любовь

    2014-01-01

    Одним из приоритетных направлений развития овощеводства в России является увеличение ассортимента культур за счет введения новых видов и форм растений. Целью наших исследований являлось изучить особенности интродукции редьки листовой в условиях Среднего Предуралья. Впервые в условиях Среднего Предуралья, в Удмуртской Республике, проведены исследования по интродукции новой салатной культуры листовой редьки, включающие два вида сем. Brassicaceae Burnett Raphanus indicus Sinsk. и Raphanus sativu...

  18. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  19. Transcriptome-wide analysis of chromium-stress responsive microRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Chen, Yinglong; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2015-09-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Chromium (Cr) is one of common environmental contaminants possessing potential health hazards to living organisms. To date, little is known about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in response to Cr stress in radish. To systematically identify Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish, two sRNA libraries derived from Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr200) roots were constructed. With Solexa sequencing, 81 known and 72 novel miRNAs were identified, from which 54 known and 16 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed under Cr stress. Several target genes for Cr-responsive miRNAs encode different transcription factor (TF) families, including SPLs, MYBs, ERFs and bZIPs, might regulate corresponding HM-related transcriptional processes in plants. Notably, a few key responsive enzymes or proteins, including HMA, YSL1 and ABC transporter protein were involved in Cr uptake and homeostasis process. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets were validated by RT-qPCR. This study represents the first characterization of Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish. The outcomes of this study could provide novel insights into miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms underlying plant response to Cr stress in root vegetable crops.

  20. Identification of anthocyanin biosynthesis related microRNAs in a distinctive Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuyan; Qiu, Yang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are widely distributed water-soluble phytochemical pigments belonging to the flavonoid group. To date, limited knowledge is available about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. To identify the miRNAs associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish, five small RNA (sRNA) libraries constructed from 'Xinlimei' radish roots at 11, 21, 44, 56 and 73 days (d) were examined using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 102.02 million (M) clean reads were generated, from which 483 known and 1415 novel miRNAs were identified. Combined with target prediction and annotation, 72 differentially expressed miRNAs (52 known and 20 novel miRNAs) were more likely to participate in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Several target genes for these miRNAs encode a few transcription factors, including Myb domain (MYB), basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), WD40 repeat, squamosa promoter binding protein like (SPL), auxin response factor (ARF), ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3), WRKY and MADS-box proteins. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some anthocyanin biosynthesis related miRNAs and their corresponding targets were validated by RT-qPCR. Based on the characterization of anthocyanin biosynthesis related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative miRNA-target module regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis was proposed. This study represents the first genome-wide identification of miRNAs associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish, and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish and other crops.

  1. Removal of off-flavours from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) anthocyanin-rich pigments using chitosan and its mechanism(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruichang; Jing, Pu; Ruan, Siyu; Zhang, Yifan; Zhao, Shujuan; Cai, Zhan; Qian, Bingjun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we examined the role of chitosan in the removal of off-flavours from radish anthocyanin-rich pigments and studied the mechanisms of the process. Four radish glucosinolates (glucoraphenin, dehydroerucin, glucobrassicin, and glucoerucin) were identified by LC-MSn from root extracts and dehydroerucin was found to be the major glucosinolate in red radish roots. Application of chitosan with 76%, 83% or 89% deacetylation in radish extracts attributed to 26%, 35% or 43% adsorption rate for glucosinolates, and 28%, 26% or 22% for anthocyanins, respectively. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the concentration of volatile compounds decreased by 70%, resulting in the loss of odorous compounds. The changes in chitosan spectra before/after adsorption and after desorption at 1590 and 3360cm(-1) and at broad bands from 2600 to 2000cm(-1) suggest that the dominant adsorption mechanisms of glucosinolates on chitosan may be electrostatic attractions, including hydrogen bonds and charge neutralisation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of low dose {gamma} radiation on early growth and physiological activities of radish (raphanus sativus L.) and the reduction of ultraviolet-B stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, H. Y.; Baek, M. H.; Yoo, J. C. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on early growth and photosynthesis in radish plant was studied. The seedling height of radish was stimulated in plants grown from seeds irradiated with the low dose of 10 Gy. The O{sub 2} evolution in the 10 Gy irradiation group was 1.2 times greater than in the control. The catalase and peroxidase activity of radish leaves grown from seeds irradiated with {gamma} radiation were increased at 10 Gy irradiation group as the superoxide dismutase activity of leaves was. To investigate the effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on response to UV-B stress, UV-B was given at the intensity of 1 W{center_dot} m{sup -2} to the detached leaves. Pmax was decreased with increasing illumination time by 76% in the control, while decreased by 75% in the 10 Gy irradiation group. The photochemical yield of PSII, estimated as Fv/Fm, was decreased with increasing illumination time by 75% after 4 hours while Fv/Fm in the 10 Gy irradiation group was decreased by 69% of inhibition, indicating that the low dose {gamma} radiation retarded the deteriorative effect of UV-B on PSII. The initial fluorescence (Fo) was slightly increased with increasing illumination time, while the maximal fluorescence (Fm) was decreased. These results showed the positive effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the seedling growth and the reduction of the deteriorative effect of UV-B stress on photosynthesis in radish plant.

  3. Genome-wide characterization of differentially expressed genes provides insights into regulatory network of heat stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-01-13

    Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways. These pathways played significant roles in reducing stress-induced damages and enhancing heat tolerance in radish. Expression patterns of 24 candidate genes were validated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Based mainly on the analysis of DEGs combining with the previous miRNAs analysis, the schematic model of HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. To counter the effects of HS, a rapid response of the plasma membrane leads to the opening of specific calcium channels and cytoskeletal reorganization, after which HS-responsive genes are activated to repair damaged proteins and ultimately facilitate further enhancement of thermotolerance in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into the regulatory network underlying heat tolerance in radish and facilitate further genetic manipulation of thermotolerance in root vegetable crops.

  4. Genome-wide characterization of the WRKY gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) reveals its critical functions under different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Bernard Kinuthia; Fan, Lianxue; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Tang, Mingjia; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Fei; Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Liu, Liwang

    2017-11-01

    The radish WRKY gene family was genome-widely identified and played critical roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses. The WRKY is among the largest transcription factors (TFs) associated with multiple biological activities for plant survival, including control response mechanisms against abiotic stresses such as heat, salinity, and heavy metals. Radish is an important root vegetable crop and therefore characterization and expression pattern investigation of WRKY transcription factors in radish is imperative. In the present study, 126 putative WRKY genes were retrieved from radish genome database. Protein sequence and annotation scrutiny confirmed that RsWRKY proteins possessed highly conserved domains and zinc finger motif. Based on phylogenetic analysis results, RsWRKYs candidate genes were divided into three groups (Group I, II and III) with the number 31, 74, and 20, respectively. Additionally, gene structure analysis revealed that intron-exon patterns of the WRKY genes are highly conserved in radish. Linkage map analysis indicated that RsWRKY genes were distributed with varying densities over nine linkage groups. Further, RT-qPCR analysis illustrated the significant variation of 36 RsWRKY genes under one or more abiotic stress treatments, implicating that they might be stress-responsive genes. In total, 126 WRKY TFs were identified from the R. sativus genome wherein, 35 of them showed abiotic stress-induced expression patterns. These results provide a genome-wide characterization of RsWRKY TFs and baseline for further functional dissection and molecular evolution investigation, specifically for improving abiotic stress resistances with an ultimate goal of increasing yield and quality of radish.

  5. Fodder radish cake (Raphanus sativus L. as an alternative biomass for the production of cellulases and xylanases in solid-state cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zukovski

    Full Text Available Abstract Fodder radish (FR is an oilseed crop with a high potential for biodiesel production due to its high productivity and the quality of its seed oil. FR oil extraction results in a residue that is rich in protein and fiber. In this study, FR cake (FRC was evaluated as carbon and nitrogen source for the production of cellulases and xylanases using Penicillium echinulatum S1M29 during solid-state cultivation. It was determined that it is possible to partially replace wheat bran (WB by FRC, resulting in 24.22 ± 0.25U/g Filter Paper Activity (144 hours, 210.5 ± 5.8U/g endoglucanase activity (144 hours, 22.62 ± 0.01U/g (-glucosidase activity (96 hours and 784.7 ± 70.19U/g xylanase activity (120 hours. These values are equal or higher than the enzymatic activity obtained using WB. These results may contribute to the reduction of the cost of enzymes used in the production of cellulosic ethanol or other biotechnological applications.

  6. Identification of bolting-related microRNAs and their targets reveals complex miRNA-mediated flowering-time regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shanshan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M; Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. The phase transition from vegetative growth to flowering is crucial in the life cycle of plants. To date, miRNA-mediated flowering regulatory networks remain largely unexplored in radish. In this study, two small RNA libraries from radish leaves at vegetative and reproductive stages were constructed and sequenced by Solexa sequencing. A total of 94 known miRNAs representing 21 conserved and 13 non-conserved miRNA families, and 44 potential novel miRNAs, were identified from the two libraries. In addition, 42 known and 17 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed and identified as bolting-related miRNAs. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that some miRNAs exhibited tissue- or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, 154 target transcripts were identified for 50 bolting-related miRNAs, which were predominately involved in plant development, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. Based on the characterization of bolting-related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative schematic model of miRNA-mediated bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed. These results could provide insights into bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering time regulation in vegetable crops.

  7. The Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Cadmium Fractionation and Enzyme Activities in the Rhizosphere of Two Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Juan; Zhao, Xiaohu; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Wen, Xin; Qin, Shiyu; Hu, Chengxiao

    2017-02-01

    The effects of increasing Cd additions on plant growth and Cd fractionation and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of two radish cultivars were investigated. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoot and root of cultivar 4 were both higher than for cultivar 19 under different Cd levels. Compared with cultivar 19, the total, shoot and root biomasses of cultivar 4 were significantly reduced with increasing Cd levels. A decrease in soil pH was observed for cultivar 4. The exchangeable Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly higher than for soil from cultivar 19, while the carbonate-bound Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly lower than for cultivar 19. Enzyme activities, especially acid phosphatase activity, were more susceptible to Cd in soil from cultivar 4. These results indicated that cultivar 19 exhibits a stronger ability to adapt to Cd stress than cultivar 4.

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) in Raphanus sativus L. and Spinacia oleracea L. plants irrigated with industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S N

    2006-05-01

    Effluent from electroplating industry contains various heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn, which are used in electroplating process of industry. Effluent was slightly greenish in colour and pungent in odour. Physico-chemical properties like total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), alkalinity, Biological oxygen demand (BOD), and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) showed higher values in effluent with high metal contents like Cd, 0.013; Cr, 0.093; Ni, 0.935 and Zn 4.76 mg l(-1). plants of S. oleracea and R. sativus were raised in uncontaminated alluvial soil of Lucknow by soil pot culture method and irrigated with industrial effluent, showed visual toxic symptoms like stunted growth, necrosis followed by chlorosis in leaves and finally death of the plants. Severity of toxicity was less in plants treated with diluted effluent (50%). High accumulation of Cr, 302.0; Cu, 81.2; Ni, 155.1 and Zn 146.8 microg g(-1) dry weight in S. oleracea and Cr, 198.0; Cu, 41.0; Ni, 84.3 and Zn, 140.2 microg g(-1) dry weight in R. sativus were determined. Tissue concentration of metals and toxic effects was more in S. oleracea plants. The tissue concentration of metals showed much higher values in treated plants than that of their respective control.

  9. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativusL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Xiaobo; Jiang, Haiyan; Liu, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  10. Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes Confers Varied Phenotypic and Spatial-Temporal Anthocyanin Accumulation in Radish (Raphanus sativusL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Fan, Lianxue; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Yang; Karanja, Benard K; Liu, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments that have important functions in plant growth and development. Radish taproots are rich in anthocyanins which confer different taproot colors and are potentially beneficial to human health. The crop differentially accumulates anthocyanin during various stages of growth, yet molecular mechanisms underlying this differential anthocyanin accumulation remains unknown. In the present study, transcriptome analysis was used to concisely identify putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish. Spatial-temporal transcript expressions were then profiled in four color variant radish cultivars. From the total transcript sequences obtained through illumina sequencing, 102 assembled unigenes, and 20 candidate genes were identified to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Fifteen genomic sequences were isolated and sequenced from radish taproot. The length of these sequences was between 900 and 1,579 bp, and the unigene coverage to all of the corresponding cloned sequences was more than 93%. Gene structure analysis revealed that RsF3 ' H is intronless and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes (ABGs) bear asymmetrical exons, except RsSAM . Anthocyanin accumulation showed a gradual increase in the leaf of the red radish and the taproot of colored cultivars during development, with a rapid increase at 30 days after sowing (DAS), and the highest content at maturity. Spatial-temporal transcriptional analysis of 14 genes revealed detectable expressions of 12 ABGs in various tissues at different growth levels. The investigation of anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression in four color variant radish cultivars, at different stages of development, indicated that total anthocyanin correlated with transcript levels of ABGs, particularly RsUFGT, RsF3H, RsANS, RsCHS3 and RsF3 ' H1 . Our results suggest that these candidate genes play key roles in phenotypic and spatial-temporal anthocyanin accumulation in radish through coordinated regulation and the major control point in anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish is RsUFGT . The present findings lend invaluable insights into anthocyanin biosynthesis and may facilitate genetic manipulation for enhanced anthocyanin content in radish.

  11. Metabolic fate of [¹⁴C]diuron and [¹⁴C]linuron in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Alsayeda, Haifaa; Jouanin, Isabelle; Debrauwer, Laurent; Canlet, Cecile; Laurent, François

    2010-10-27

    Metabolism of xenobiotics in plants usually occurs in three phases, phase I (primary metabolism), phase II (conjugation processes), and phase III (storage). The uptake and metabolism of [(14)C]diuron and [(14)C]linuron were investigated in wheat and radish. Seeds were sown in quartz sand and irrigated with a nutrient solution of either radioactive herbicide. Plants were harvested after two weeks, and metabolites were extracted and then analyzed by radio-reverse-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Uptake of the two molecules was higher in radish compared to wheat. Translocation of parent compounds and related metabolites from roots to aerial plant parts was important, especially for radish. A large proportion of extractable residues were found in radish whereas nonextractable residues amounted to 30% in wheat, mainly associated with roots. Chemical structure of metabolites was thereafter identified by acid, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolyses followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). This study highlighted the presence of diuron and linuron metabolites conjugated to sugars in addition to N-demethylation and N-demethoxylation products.

  12. Composted slaughterhouse sludge as a substitute for chemical fertilizers in the cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juscelino de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Flotation sludge (FS is produced in huge amounts at slaughterhouses in western Santa Catarina, Brazil. This waste is rich in plant nutrients and a valuable resource for soil amendments. Five FS composts were tested as a replacement for chemical fertilizers (QF, namely T1 (75% poultry manure (PM and 25% sawdust (SD; T2 (50% PM and 50% SD; T3 (25% PM and 75% SD; T4 (100% PM and 0% SD; and T5 (0% PM x 100% SD. For lettuce plants, treatments containing composted FS resulted in an increased number of leaves, leaf area and leaf fresh weight (LFW. T1 presented the best results with increases of 1.4 fold in LFW compared to plants supplemented with QF. T2 was the most effective treatment for radish with the best results of root fresh weight and root diameter. Although T4 had the highest nitrogen content, it did not present the best results in growth performance for lettuce or radish. The presence of higher proportions of SD in composts (25% for lettuce and 50% for radish improved the physical characteristics of the soil and proved to be a more balanced compost.

  13. An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

    2007-07-01

    Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems

  14. EVALUACION DEL POTENCIAL DE LOS BIOSÓLIDOS PROCEDENTES DEL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES PARA USO AGRÍCOLA Y SU EFECTO SOBRE EL CULTIVO DE RABANO ROJO (Raphanus sativus L.). EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOSOLIDS OBTAINED FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL USE AND THEIR EFFECT ON CULTIVATION OF RED RADISH (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiro Ramírez Pisco; Martha Inés Pérez Arenas

    2006-01-01

    El trabajo se adelantó en predios de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales “El Salitre”, en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el propósito de evaluar el potencial del subproducto del tratamiento de aguas residuales “biosólido”, para su aplicación en la agricultura por medio de la valoración del crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano rojo, y establecer una posible alternativa al problema de disposición final de 3900 toneladas de este material generado mensualmente en las plan...

  15. Glucosinolate diversity within a phylogenetic framework of the tribe Cardamineae (Brassicaceae) unraveled with HPLC-MS/MS and NMR-based analytical distinction of 70 desulfoglucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Carl Erik; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Hansen, Cecilie Ida Cetti

    2016-01-01

    As a basis for future investigations of evolutionary trajectories and biosynthetic mechanisms underlying variations in glucosinolate structures, we screened members of the crucifer tribe Cardamineae by HPLC-MS/MS, isolated and identified glucosinolates by NMR, searched the literature for previous...

  16. Producción de IFN−γ en cultivos de linfocitos humanos por efecto de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad inmunoduladora sobre cultivos de linfocitos T humanos de sangre periférica. Se evaluó la producción de IFN−γ inducida por los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos blanco, negro, rojo y morado de Lepidium peruvianum (conocida también como Lepidium meyenii Walp. maca. Luego de cultivar los linfocitos con los respectivos EM de maca durante 14 horas sólo el EM del ecotipo morado indujo la producción significativa de IFN−γ cuantificada mediante Elispot. El extracto metanólico del ecotipo morado de maca posee propiedades inmunoestimuladoras importantes, desencadenando la activación de linfocitos T humanos.

  17. Research on possibilities of utilization of chosen Brassicaceae plants in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium culmorum (W.G.SmithSacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Burgieł

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the usefulness of dried leaves of savoy cabbage, red cabbage, horse radish and fringed cabbage in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum. In the laboratory experiments, pathogens were grown on PDA containing dried leaves (3g·100 cm-3 and in atmosphere containing volatile substances evolved from plant material. The addition of radish horse leaves into PDA caused total inhibition of R. solani development. Remaining plants were also characterized by high fungistatic activity (% of growth inhibition about 85%. F. culmorum was less sensitive. The horse radish leaves showed the strongest activity (65 %, weakest in combination with fringed cabbage leaves (38,9%. The similar regularity in the case of fumigation activity was observed. The effectiveness of dried leaves in protection of cucumber against damping-off was confirmed in greenhouse experiment. The amendment of soil inoculated with R. solani in dose 2 g per 500 cm3 of soil significantly increased the number of cucumber sprouts compared to the control. In the experiment with F. culmorum only in combination with horse radish and red cabbage leaves significant action was observed.

  18. Utilização de substâncias naturais para o manejo de Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach, 1843) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em cultivo orgânico de brócolis, Brassica oleracea var. italica (Brassicaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Broglio,S.M.F.; SANTOS, A. J. N. dos; DIAS, N. da S.; VALENTE, E. C. N.; MICHELETTI, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de extratos aquosos de folhas de nim, Azadirachta indica, frutos de pimenta-malagueta, Capsicum frutescens, rama e folhas de melão-de-são-caetano, Mormodica charantia, sementes de pimenta-do-reino, Piper nigrum e NeenMax® (óleo de nim 2% i.a) para o manejo do pulgão, Lipaphis erysimi, em cultivo orgânico de Brassica oleracea. Aplicações dos extratos a 10% (v/v) foram realizadas semanalmente, durante cinco semanas. Avaliou-se o número de plantas infestadas, porcen...

  19. Capacidade reprodutiva e preferência da traça-das-crucíferas para diferentes brassicáceas Reproductive capacity and preference of the diamondback moth feeding on different brassicacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A De Bortoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar diferentes cultivares de brassicáceas em relação à capacidade reprodutiva e preferência para alimentação e oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas. Os experimentos foram realizados utilizando-se as cultivares de repolho Midori, Chato-de-Quintal, híbridos da Top Seed® - Agristar (TPC 308, TPC 681 e TPC 668, couve-flor Bola de Neve, couve brócolis Ramoso Piracicaba Precoce e couve Manteiga da Geórgia, sendo esta última utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade. Por meio dos dados biológicos de P. xylostella foram estimados os parâmetros necessários para a construção de tabela de vida de fertilidade, para comparação das cultivares testadas em relação à capacidade reprodutiva da praga. Em gaiolas de criação da traça-das-crucíferas foram colocados quatro quartos de folha, dois a dois, que justapostos formavam um círculo de 8 cm de diâmetro, confrontando-se os materiais dois a dois. As partes foram dispostas equidistantemente, para realização do teste de dupla chance de escolha (preferência para alimentação e oviposição e de múltipla chance de escolha, confrontando todos os substratos (preferência para alimentação. As cultivares que proporcionaram melhor desenvolvimento e reprodução para a traça-das-crucíferas foram couve Manteiga da Geórgia e couve brócolis. Para preferência alimentar constatou-se alta suscetibilidade em couve Manteiga e TPC 681 e para preferência de oviposição alta preferência para couve-flor Bola de Neve. Com isso, sugere-se a divisão das cultivares estudadas em quatro classes distintas: repolho Midori como moderadamente resistente (MR; couve-flor Bola de Neve e repolho Chato-de-Quintal como suscetíveis (S; couve brócolis, TPC308, TPC681 e TPC668 como moderadamente suscetíveis (MS; e couve Manteiga como altamente suscetível (AS.We compared different cultivars of crucifer in relation to reproductive capacity and preference for feeding and oviposition of the diamondback moth. The experiments were carried out with the following cultivars: Midori and Chato-de-Quintal cabbage, hybrids of cabbage Top Seed® - Agristar (TPC 308, TPC 681 and TPC 668, cauliflower Bola de Neve, broccolis Ramoso Piracicaba Precoce and collard green Manteiga da Geórgia, being this last one used as the susceptible control. Through the biological parameters of P. xylostella we elaborated a fertility life table, Comparing the cultivars in relation to the pest reproductive capacity. Four leaf parts were placed in diamondback moth rearing chambers, being two leaves of the treatment and two of the control which, put together formed a circle with 8 cm in diameter. The parts were disposed in an equidistantly form, to perform the dual-choice test (feeding and oviposition preference and multiple-choice test, confronting all substrates (feeding preference. The cultivars that provided better development and reproduction for the diamondback moth were collard green Manteiga da Georgia and broccolis Ramoso Piracicaba Precoce. For feeding preference high susceptibility was verified in collard green Manteiga da Geórgia and TPC 681 and for oviposition preference high preference was observed for cauliflower Bola de Neve. Four different groups of cultivars could be formed: cabbage Midori as moderately resistant (MR; cauliflower Bola de Neve and cabbage Chato-de-Quintal as susceptible (S; broccolis, TPC 308, TPC 681 and TPC 668 as moderately susceptible (MS; and collard green as highly susceptible (HS.

  20. Impact of plant-soil feedback on plant traits at field scale, testing the use of UAV-based optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B.; van der Meij, Bob; Barel, Janna M.; Suomalainen, Juha; Kooistra, Lammert

    2017-04-01

    Plant responses to biotic and abiotic legacies left in soil by preceding plants is known as plant-soil feedback (PSF). PSF is an important mechanism to explain plant community dynamics and plant performance in natural and agricultural systems. However, most PSF studies are short-term and small-scale due to practical constraints for field scale quantification of PSF effects, yet field experiments are warranted to asses actual PSF effects under less controlled conditions. Here we used Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based optical sensors to test whether PSF effects on plant traits can be quantified remotely. We established a randomized agro-ecological field experiment in which six different cover crop species and species combinations from three different plant families (Poaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae) were grown. The feedback effects on plant traits were tested in oat (Avena sativa) by quantifying the cover crop legacy effects on key plant traits: height, fresh biomass, nitrogen content and leaf chlorophyll content. Prior to destructive sampling, hyperspectral data was acquired and used for calibration and independent validation of regression models to retrieve plant traits from optical data. Subsequently, for each trait the model with highest precision and accuracy was selected. We used the hyperspectral analyses to predict the directly measured plant height (RMSE= 5.12 cm, R2= 0.79), chlorophyll content (RMSE= 0.11 g m-2, R2= 0.80), N-content (RMSE= 1.94 g m-2, R2= 0.68), and fresh biomass (RMSE= 0.72 kg m-2, R2=0.56). Overall the PSF effects of the different cover crop treatments based on the remote sensing data matched the results based on in situ measurements. The average oat canopy was tallest and its leaf chlorophyll content highest in response to legacy of Vicia sativa monocultures (100 cm, 0.95 g m-2, respectively) and in mixture with Raphanus sativus (100 cm, 1.09 g m-2, respectively), while the lowest values (76 cm, 0.41 g m-2, respectively) were found in

  1. Remote sensing of plant trait responses to field-based plant-soil feedback using UAV-based optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Bob; Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Barel, Janna M.; De Deyn, Gerlinde B.

    2017-02-01

    Plant responses to biotic and abiotic legacies left in soil by preceding plants is known as plant-soil feedback (PSF). PSF is an important mechanism to explain plant community dynamics and plant performance in natural and agricultural systems. However, most PSF studies are short-term and small-scale due to practical constraints for field-scale quantification of PSF effects, yet field experiments are warranted to assess actual PSF effects under less controlled conditions. Here we used unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based optical sensors to test whether PSF effects on plant traits can be quantified remotely. We established a randomized agro-ecological field experiment in which six different cover crop species and species combinations from three different plant families (Poaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae) were grown. The feedback effects on plant traits were tested in oat (Avena sativa) by quantifying the cover crop legacy effects on key plant traits: height, fresh biomass, nitrogen content, and leaf chlorophyll content. Prior to destructive sampling, hyperspectral data were acquired and used for calibration and independent validation of regression models to retrieve plant traits from optical data. Subsequently, for each trait the model with highest precision and accuracy was selected. We used the hyperspectral analyses to predict the directly measured plant height (RMSE = 5.12 cm, R2 = 0.79), chlorophyll content (RMSE = 0.11 g m-2, R2 = 0.80), N-content (RMSE = 1.94 g m-2, R2 = 0.68), and fresh biomass (RMSE = 0.72 kg m-2, R2 = 0.56). Overall the PSF effects of the different cover crop treatments based on the remote sensing data matched the results based on in situ measurements. The average oat canopy was tallest and its leaf chlorophyll content highest in response to legacy of Vicia sativa monocultures (100 cm, 0.95 g m-2, respectively) and in mixture with Raphanus sativus (100 cm, 1.09 g m-2, respectively), while the lowest values (76 c