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Sample records for rapeseed protein concentrates

  1. Effect of Rapeseed Oil on Effective Protein Degradability and Intestinal Protein Digestibility of Oat, Rapeseed Meal and Dried Sugarbeet Pulp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potkanski, A; Nowak, W

    2000-01-01

    Potkanski, A. and Nowak, W. 2000. Effect of rapeseed oil on effective protein degradability and intestinal protein digestibility of oat, rapeseed meal and dried sugarbeet pulp. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 18: 81-89...

  2. Increase of protein extraction yield from rapeseed meal through a pretreatment with phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ivo M; Carvalho, M Graça Vs; Rocha, Jorge Ms

    2017-06-01

    Rapeseed meal is a good source of high-quality vegetal protein but contains antinutritional compounds that limit its use for human and animal feed. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to enhance alkaline protein extraction of rapeseed meal and to produce protein-rich products with low levels of phytic acid. Different phytase dosages and operating conditions were used for rapeseed meal pretreatment followed by alkaline extraction at different temperatures, time, pH and solid/liquid ratios (S/L). The highest protein extraction yield attained was 72.1%, for 2 h at 55 °C, with a phytase dosage of 0.8 U g(-1) when the alkaline extraction was performed at 75 °C, pH 12.5 and 60 min for an S/L ratio of 10 g 100 mL(-1) water. The extraction yields were higher than those previously obtained without enzymatic pretreatment. Phytase pretreatment enhanced alkaline extraction yield of proteins from rapeseed meal. This procedure allowed also the production of rapeseed protein concentrates with very low levels of phytic acid, ∼1 g kg(-1) , improving their nutritional properties and commercial value. Moreover, after the pretreatment, the amount of phytic acid in the remaining rapeseed meal decreases about 25%. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. In Vitro Digestibility of Rapeseed and Bovine Whey Protein Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehnke, Marcel Skejovic; Rehder, Alina; Sørensen, Susanne; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup

    2018-01-24

    Partial replacement of animal protein sources with plant proteins is highly relevant for the food industry, but potential effects on protein digestibility need to be established. In this study, the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of four protein sources and their mixtures (50:50 w/w ratio) was investigated using a transient pepsin hydrolysis (1 h) followed by pancreatin (1 h). The protein sources consisted of napin-rich rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) protein concentrates (RPCs; RP1, RP2) prepared in pilot scale and major bovine whey proteins (WPs; α-LA, alpha-lactalbumin; β-LG, beta-lactoglobulin). IVPD of individual protein sources was higher for WPs compared to RPCs. The RP2/β-LG mixture resulted in an unexpected high IVPD equivalent to β-LG protein alone. Protein mixtures containing RP1 showed a new IVPD response type due to the negative influence of a high trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) level. Improved IVPD of RP1 alone and in protein mixtures was obtained by lowering the TIA level using dithiothreitol (DTT). These results showed that napin-rich protein products prepared by appropriate processing can be combined with specific WPs in mixtures to improve the IVPD.

  4. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae

  5. Physicochemical and functional properties of rapeseed protein isolate: influence of antinutrient removal with acidified organic solvents from rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Gogoi, Jyotchna; Kalita, Dipankar; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Goyary, Danswrang; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2014-08-06

    The presence of antinutritional constituents in rapeseed protein products (RPI), such as polyphenols, phytates, allyl isothiocyanates, and glucosinolates, is a formidable constraint. The effect of antinutrient removal from rapeseed meal with an organic solvent mixture (methanol/acetone, 1:1 v/v, combined with an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric)) on the physicochemical and functional properties of RPI was investigated. The extraction resulted in a substantial reduction of antinutrients from RPI, especially polyphenols and phytates, with concomitant decreases in protein yield and solubility. Treatment harbored significant improvement in the degree of whiteness, which was highest in the perchloric acid case. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl group of RPI changed considerably, with perchloric acid-treated samples showing higher values, whereas the disulfide content remarkably increased in trichloroacetic acid- and phosphoric acid-treated samples, signifying aggregation. Intrinsic emission fluorescence and FTIR spectra showed significant changes in proteins' tertiary and secondary conformations, and the changes were more pronounced in samples treated with higher concentrations of acids. No appreciable alteration appeared among the electrophoretic profiles of proteins from pristine meal and those treated with lower levels of acids. Interfacial surface properties of proteins were variably improved by the solvent extraction, whereas the converse was true for their extent of denaturation. The results suggest that the physicochemical and conformational properties of RPI are closely related to its functional properties.

  6. Characterization of the Factors that Influence Sinapine Concentration in Rapeseed Meal during Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Jiang, Mulan; Guo, Mian; Wan, Chuyun; Hu, Shuangxi; Jin, Hu; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed and compared the difference in sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal between the filamentous fungus, Trametes sp 48424, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in both liquid and solid-state fermentation. During liquid and solid-state fermentation by Trametes sp 48424, the sinapine concentration decreased significantly. In contrast, the liquid and solid-state fermentation process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae just slightly decreased the sinapine concentration (P ≤ 0.05). After the solid-state fermented samples were dried, the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal decreased significantly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the measurement of laccase activity, we observed that laccase induced the decrease in the concentration of sinapine during fermentation with Trametes sp 48424. In order to eliminate the influence of microorganisms and the metabolites produced during fermentation, high moisture rapeseed meal and the original rapeseed meal were dried at 90°C and 105°C, respectively. During drying, the concentration of sinapine in high moisture rapeseed meal decreased rapidly and we obtained a high correlation coefficient between the concentration of sinapine and loss of moisture. Our results suggest that drying and enzymes, especially laccase that is produced during the solid-state fermentation process, may be the main factors that affect the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal. PMID:25606856

  7. Characterization of the factors that influence sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal during fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Niu

    Full Text Available We analyzed and compared the difference in sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal between the filamentous fungus, Trametes sp 48424, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in both liquid and solid-state fermentation. During liquid and solid-state fermentation by Trametes sp 48424, the sinapine concentration decreased significantly. In contrast, the liquid and solid-state fermentation process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae just slightly decreased the sinapine concentration (P ≤ 0.05. After the solid-state fermented samples were dried, the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal decreased significantly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the measurement of laccase activity, we observed that laccase induced the decrease in the concentration of sinapine during fermentation with Trametes sp 48424. In order to eliminate the influence of microorganisms and the metabolites produced during fermentation, high moisture rapeseed meal and the original rapeseed meal were dried at 90 °C and 105 °C, respectively. During drying, the concentration of sinapine in high moisture rapeseed meal decreased rapidly and we obtained a high correlation coefficient between the concentration of sinapine and loss of moisture. Our results suggest that drying and enzymes, especially laccase that is produced during the solid-state fermentation process, may be the main factors that affect the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal.

  8. Canola/rapeseed protein-functionality and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanasundara Janitha P.D.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein rich meal is a valuable co-product of canola/rapeseed oil extraction. Seed storage proteins that include cruciferin (11S and napin (2S dominate the protein complement of canola while oleosins, lipid transfer proteins and other minor proteins of non-storage nature are also found. Although oil-free canola meal contains 36–40% protein on a dry weight basis, non-protein components including fibre, polymeric phenolics, phytates and sinapine, etc. of the seed coat and cellular components make protein less suitable for food use. Separation of canola protein from non-protein components is a technical challenge but necessary to obtain full nutritional and functional potential of protein. Process conditions of raw material and protein preparation are critical of nutritional and functional value of the final protein product. The storage proteins of canola can satisfy many nutritional and functional requirements for food applications. Protein macromolecules of canola also provide functionalities required in applications beyond edible uses; there exists substantial potential as a source of plant protein and a renewable biopolymer. Available information at present is mostly based on the protein products that can be obtained as mixtures of storage protein types and other chemical constituents of the seed; therefore, full potential of canola storage proteins is yet to be revealed.

  9. Large scale purification of rapeseed proteins (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérot, S; Compoint, J P; Larré, C; Malabat, C; Guéguen, J

    2005-04-15

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cruciferin (12S globulin), napin (2S albumin) and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) were purified at a multi-g scale. The procedure developed was simple, rather fast and resolutive; it permitted the recovery of these proteins with a good yield, such as 40% for cruciferin and 18% for napin. Nanofiltration eliminated the major phenolic compounds. The remaining protein fraction was fractionated by cation exchange chromatography (CEC) on a streamline SP-XL column in alkaline conditions. The unbound neutral cruciferin was polished by size exclusion chromatography. The alkaline napin isoforms and LTP, adsorbed on the beads, were eluted as a whole fraction and further separated by an other CEC step at acidic pH. Napins were polished by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The fractions were characterized by reverse phase HPLC, electrophoresis, N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. All the fractions contained less than 5% of impurities.

  10. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. as a protein plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of plant origin have a profound impact on human and animal lives. It is impossible to solve worldwide nutrition problem without taking into concern needs for proteins. Inadequate nutrition can only be improved by providing adequate proteins. Humans need c. 120g proteins daily, a third of which should come from meat and milk. Certain population categories, such as the sick, children, pregnant women and sportspeople are more sensitive to lack of protein. Oil crops synthesise oil, which is the basic reserve material in seed, but they also synthesise high levels of protein and can serve as protein source for human and animal nutrition. Generally speaking, protein content in seed of rapeseed at site R. Šančevi was from 19.60% (NS-L-74 to 25.93% JR-NS-36, and at site Sombor from 19.26% (NS-L-74 to 24.06% and 24.09% (NS-L-46 and cultivar Mira. Genotype NS-L-74 had the lowest protein content at both testing sites. Higher protein content was evident with spring genotypes than with winter gentypes. .

  11. Green Sonoextraction of Protein from Oleaginous Press Rapeseed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Boukroufa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extraction of soluble proteins from rapeseed cake using different conventional and innovative extraction processes in order to maximize the extraction yield has been investigated. Firstly, various extraction techniques including ultrasound, microwave, and percolation were tested to increase the protein recovery efficiency. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD approach was applied to investigate the influence of process variables on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. Statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions providing a protein yield of 4.24 g/100 g DM were an ultrasound power of 5.6 W·cm−2 and temperature of 45 °C. Quantitatively UAE followed by two stages of conventional extraction gave the best total protein yield of 9.81 g/100 g DM. Qualitatively, the protein efficiency ratio (PER used as measure of the nutritive value (12S/2S ratio which indicates protein quality in terms of S-containing essential amino acids, was similar to that of the conventional extraction method. Small amounts of protein aggregate were observed in the HPLC profile of the extract.

  12. Comparison of protein chemical and physicochemical properties of rapeseed cruciferin with those of soybean glycinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Salleh, Mohamad Ramlan Bin; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Adachi, Motoyasu; Hontani, Naho; Saka, Shiori; Kato, Noboru; Ohkawa, Yasunobu; Utsumi, Shigeru

    2002-12-04

    Rapeseeds contain cruciferin (11S globulin), napin (2S albumin), and oleosin (oil body protein) as major seed proteins. The effects of oil expression and drying conditions on the extraction of these proteins from rapeseed meal were examined. The conditions strongly affected the extraction of oleosin and only weakly affected the extraction of cruciferin and napin. The protein chemical and physicochemical properties of cruciferin, the major protein present, were compared with those of glycinin (soybean 11S globulin) under various conditions. In general, cruciferin exhibited higher surface hydrophobicity, lower thermal stability, and lower and higher solubility at mu= 0.5 and mu = 0.08, respectively, than did glycinin. At the pHs (6.0, 7.6, and 9.0) and ionic strengths (mu= 0.08 and 0.5) examined, the emulsifying ability of cruciferin was worse than that of glycinin, except at mu= 0.08 and pH 7.6. The emulsifying abilities of cruciferin and glycinin did not correlate with thermal stability and surface hydrophobicity. Higher protein concentration, higher heating temperature, higher pH, and lower ionic strength were observed to produce harder gels from cruciferin. Gel hardness partly correlated with the structural stability of cruciferin.

  13. Use of rapeseed and pea grain protein supplements for organic milk production

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    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Grass-red clover silage was fed ad libitum. In experiment 1 a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design was used. A mixture of oats and barley was given at 8 kg (C. Three isonitrogenous protein supplements were a commercial rapeseed meal (218 g kg-1 dry matter (DM; RSM, crushed organic field pea (Pisum sativum L. (452 g kg-1 DM; P and a mixture of pea (321 g kg-1 DM and organic rapeseed (Spring turnip rape, Brassica rapa L. oleifera subv. annua (155 g kg-1 DM; PRS. Cows on P and PRS diets produced as much milk as cows on the RSM diet. Milk yield was higher but protein content lower with PRS diet than with diet P. In experiment 2 a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square design was used. A mixture of oats (395 g kg-1 , barley (395 g kg-1 and a commercial heat-moisture treated rapeseed cake (210 g kg-1 was given at 8 kg (RSC. The second diet (ORSC consisted (g kg-1 of oats (375, barley (375 and cold-pressed organic rapeseed cake (250. The third diet (RSCO consisted (g kg-1 of oat (395, barley (395 and commercial heat-moisture treated rapeseed cake (250 and additional rapeseed oil (0.38 kg to balance fat content between ORSC and RSCO diets. There was no dietary effect on the yield of energy corrected milk. Milk yield was higher with RSCO diet compared with other diets.;

  14. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, van der Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was

  15. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, de, K.R.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was performed with pancreatic proteases to represent in vitro protein digestibility. Increasing the toasting time of RSM linearly decreased the rate of protein hydrolysis of RSM and the insoluble protein frac...

  16. Effects of pressure toasting on in situ degradability and intestinal protein and protein-free organic matter digestibility of rapeseed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarfar, A.; Ferreira, C.; Goelema, J.O.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapeseed is a protein supplement that contains up to 40% crude protein (CP) on a dry matter (DM) basis, but a large part of its protein can be easily degraded in the rumen. Therefore, before inclusion in ruminant's diet, the extent of its protein degradation in the rumen must be reduced

  17. Of proteins and processing: mechanisms of protein damage upon rapeseed processing and their effects on nutritional value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar Villanea, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal processing is a common practice during the manufacture of protein-rich feed ingredients, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), and feeds. This processing step can induce physical and chemical changes to the proteins, thereby reducing the digestibility and utilization of crude protein (CP) and

  18. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  19. The poor digestibility of rapeseed protein is balanced by its very high metabolic utilization in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Cécile; Airinei, Gheorghe; Mariotti, François; Benamouzig, Robert; Bérot, Serge; Evrard, Jacques; Fénart, Evelyne; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2007-03-01

    Rapeseed protein (RP, Brassica napus) is used in only animal feed despite its high nutritional potential for human nutrition. We sought to assess the nutritional quality of rapeseed by measuring its real ileal digestibility (RID) and net postprandial protein utilization (NPPU) in humans fed (15)N-RP. Volunteers equipped with an intestinal tube at the jejunal (n = 5) or ileal level (n = 7) ingested a mixed meal containing 27.3 g (15)N-RP and a total energy content of 700 kcal (2.93 MJ). Dietary N kinetics was quantified in intestinal fluid, urine, and blood sampled at regular intervals during the postprandial period. The RID of RP was 84.0 +/- 8.8%. Dietary N at the ileal level was mostly in the form of undigested protein from both 12S and 2S rapeseed fractions. Aminoacidemia was not significantly increased by meal ingestion. The postprandial distribution of dietary N was 5.4 +/- 1.8% in urinary urea and ammonia, 8.2 +/- 3.4% in body urea, and 7.7 +/- 2.0% in plasma protein 8 h after the meal. The NPPU of RP amounted to 70.5 +/- 9.6% and the postprandial biological value (PBV) was high at 83.8 +/- 4.6%. RP has a low RID in humans compared with other plant proteins but also exhibits a very low deamination rate. Thus, the PBV of RP is excellent in humans, being as high as that of milk protein. We conclude that RP has a high nutritional potential for human nutrition.

  20. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions-Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa; Rempel, Curtis B; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2016-04-13

    At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled "Canola/Rapeseed Protein-Future Opportunities and Directions" that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015) addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry.

  1. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions—Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled “Canola/Rapeseed Protein—Future Opportunities and Directions” that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015 addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry.

  2. Physical and chemical changes of rapeseed meal proteins during toasting and their effects on in vitro digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar Villanea, S.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Gruppen, H.; Hendriks, W.H.; Carré, P.; Quinsac, A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2016-01-01


    Background

    Toasting during the production of rapeseed meal (RSM) decreases ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. The mechanisms that determine the decrease in digestibility have not been fully elucidated. A high protein quality, low-denatured, RSM was produced and

  3. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M A M; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; van der Poel, Antonius F B

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was performed with pancreatic proteases to represent in vitro protein digestibility. Increasing the toasting time of RSM linearly decreased the rate of protein hydrolysis of RSM and the insoluble protein fractions. The extent of hydrolysis was, on average, 44% higher for the insoluble compared with the soluble protein fraction. In contrast, the rate of protein hydrolysis of the soluble protein fraction was 3-9-fold higher than that of the insoluble protein fraction. The rate of hydrolysis of the insoluble protein fraction linearly decreased by more than 60% when comparing the untoasted to the 120 min toasted RSM. Increasing the toasting time elicited the formation of Maillard reaction products (furosine, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine and N(ε)-carboxyethyl-lysine) and disulfide bonds in the insoluble protein fraction, which is proposed to explain the reduction in the hydrolysis rate of this fraction. Overall, longer toasting times increased the size of the peptides resulting after hydrolysis of the RSM and the insoluble protein fraction. The hydrolysis kinetics of the soluble and insoluble protein fractions and the proportion of soluble:insoluble proteins in the RSM explain the reduction in the rate of protein hydrolysis observed in the RSM with increasing toasting time.

  4. Physical and chemical changes of rapeseed meal proteins during toasting and their effects on in vitro digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M. A. M.; Gruppen, Harry; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Carr?, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; van der Poel, Antonius F. B.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundToasting during the production of rapeseed meal (RSM) decreases ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. The mechanisms that determine the decrease in digestibility have not been fully elucidated. A high protein quality, low-denatured, RSM was produced and toasted up to 120 min, with samples taken every 20 min. The aim of this study was to characterize secondary structure and chemical changes of proteins and glucosinolates occurring during toasting of RSM and the ...

  5. Physical and chemical changes of rapeseed meal proteins during toasting and their effects onin vitrodigestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M A M; Gruppen, Harry; Hendriks, Wouter H; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; van der Poel, Antonius F B

    2016-01-01

    Toasting during the production of rapeseed meal (RSM) decreases ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. The mechanisms that determine the decrease in digestibility have not been fully elucidated. A high protein quality, low-denatured, RSM was produced and toasted up to 120 min, with samples taken every 20 min. The aim of this study was to characterize secondary structure and chemical changes of proteins and glucosinolates occurring during toasting of RSM and the effects on its in vitro CP digestibility. The decrease in protein solubility and the increase of intermolecular β-sheets with increasing toasting time were indications of protein aggregation. The contents of NDF and ADIN increased with increasing toasting time. Contents of arginine, lysine and O -methylisourea reactive lysine (OMIU-RL) linearly decreased with increasing toasting time, with a larger decrease of OMIU-RL than lysine. First-order reactions calculated from the measured parameters show that glucosinolates were degraded faster than lysine, OMIU-RL and arginine and that physical changes to proteins seem to occur before chemical changes during toasting. Despite the drastic physical and chemical changes noticed on the proteins, the coefficient of in vitro CP digestibility ranged from 0.776 to 0.750 and there were no effects on the extent of protein hydrolysis after 120 min. In contrast, the rate of protein hydrolysis linearly decreased with increasing toasting time, which was largely correlated to the decrease in protein solubility, lysine and OMIU-RL observed. Rate of protein hydrolysis was more than 2-fold higher for the untoasted RSM compared to the 120 min toasted material. Increasing the toasting time for the production of RSM causes physical and chemical changes to the proteins that decrease the rate of protein hydrolysis. The observed decrease in the rate of protein hydrolysis could impact protein digestion and utilization.

  6. Solubility of a cruciferin-rich protein product purified from rapeseed pressed cake (Brassica napus L.) by an aqueous processing method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Alina; Sulewska, Anna Maria; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup

    2017-01-01

    as food ingredients. A novel cruciferin-rich rapeseed protein product was produced by an aqueous processing method in pilot plant scale. Intact glucosinolates were conserved by this procedure and largely removed from the protein products. Protein solubility in this product was examined when dispersed...... in 50 mm phosphate buffer, pH 8.0 with varying NaCl concentration (0-500 mm). Unexpectedly, a salting-out effect was observed of the globulin proteins, as 15.9 ± 0.6% protein was in solution at 500 mm added NaCl, whereas 21.5 ± 1.1% was solubilised without added NaCl; whether the observed effects...

  7. Effect of the desolventizing/toasting process on chemical composition and protein quality of rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenthin, Rainer; Messerschmidt, Ulrike; Sauer, Nadja; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Schöne, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    During processing in a desolventizer/toaster (DT), rapeseed meal (RSM) is heated to evaporate the hexane and to reduce the level of heat-labile anti-nutritional factors such as glucosinolates (GSL). However, excessive heat treatment may reduce amino acid (AA) content in addition to lower AA digestibility and availability in RSM. The objective of the present study was to produce from one batch of a 00-rapeseed variety (17 μmol GSL/g dry matter (DM), seed grade quality) five differently processed RSM under standardized and defined conditions in a pilot plant, and to determine the impact of these different treatments on protein solubility and chemical composition, in particular with regard to contents of AA including reactive Lys (rLys) and levels of total and individual GSL. Four RSM were exposed to wet toasting conditions (WetTC) with increasing residence time in the DT of 48, 64, 76, and 93 min. A blend of these four RSM was further processed, starting with saturated steam processing (toasting conditions (DryTC) to further reduce the GSL content in this RSM. The contents of neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber bound crude protein (CP) increased linearly (P < 0.05), as residence time of RSM in the DT increased from 48 to 93 min, whereas contents of total and most individual GSL and those of Lys, rLys, Cys, and the calculated ratio of Lys:CP and rLys:CP decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05). The combination of wet heating and DryTC resulted in the lowest GSL content compared to RSM produced under WetTC, but was associated with lowest protein solubility. It can be concluded that by increasing residence time in the DT or using alternative processing conditions such as wet heating combined with DryTC, contents of total and individual GSL in RSM can be substantially reduced. Further in vivo studies are warranted to elucidate if and to which extent the observed differences in protein quality and GSL content between RSM may affect digestibility and

  8. Impact of Power Ultrasound on Antihypertensive Activity, Functional Properties, and Thermal Stability of Rapeseed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Wali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of power ultrasound pretreatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity, amino acid composition, surface hydrophobicity, protein solubility, and thermal stability of ACE inhibition of rapeseed protein hydrolysates were evaluated. Ultrasonic pretreatments before enzymolysis in terms of power and exposure time increased the DH and ACE inhibitory activities over the control (without sonication. In this study, maximum DH 22.07% and ACE inhibitory activity 72.13% were achieved at 600 W and 12 min pretreatment. Compared to the hydrolysates obtained without sonication, the amino acid profile of ultrasound pretreated hydrolysates showed significant changes particularly in the proline content and hydrophobic amino acids with an increased rate of 2.47% and 6.31%, respectively. Ultrasound pretreatment (600 watts, 12 min improved functional properties of protein hydrolysates over control by enhancing surface hydrophobicity and solubility index with an increased rate of 130.76% and 34.22%. Moreover, the stability test showed that the ACE inhibitory activity remains stable against heat treatments. However, extensive heat, prolonged heating time, and alkaline conditions were not in the favor of stability test, while under mild heat and acidic conditions their ACE inhibitory activities were not significantly different from unheated samples.

  9. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious...... deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...... in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic...

  10. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all mixtures, the more wheat bran was included and the longer the mixtures were fermented. The increase in N (FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM) and protein solubility (RSM/SFM/FB > RSM > SFM > FB) was greatest from day 0 to day 3 and thereafter limited, whereas P solubility increased during the whole period (5 days; FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM). In general, FB showed the highest solubility and highest increase in N and P solubility, while RSM showed the highest protein solubility and RSM/SFM/FB the highest increase in protein solubility. Fermentation of RSM, SFM, FB and RSM/SFM/FB without or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Safety of Novel Protein Sources (Insects, Microalgae, Seaweed, Duckweed, and Rapeseed) and Legislative Aspects for Their Application in Food and Feed Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Noordam, M.Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Novel protein sources (like insects, algae, duckweed, and rapeseed) are expected to enter the European feed and food market as replacers for animal-derived proteins. However, food safety aspects of these novel protein sources are not well-known. The aim of this article is to review the state of the

  12. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    . Glucosinolates can be transformed enzymatic by the enzyme myrosinase (EC. 3.2.1.147), or non-enzymatic by heat treatment or under the acidic and reducing conditions in the stomach of monogastrics. The type of transformation product depends on the parent glucosinolate and of the chemical conditions, and in some...... for cheaper protein rapeseed meal has been considered as an alternative to soya-protein. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. spp. oleifera) has a well-balanced amino acid profile for monogastrics, but it contains several compounds which are anti-nutritional and might lower the protein quality and limit the amount...... cake was included, while losses up to 88% were observed when cold-pressed rapeseed caked was used. N-balance trials with rats clearly demonstrated effects on the biologic value caused by high glucosinolate concentrations, active myrosinase and long temperature treatments. The second study (manuscript...

  13. Utilisation of rapeseed protein isolates for production of peptides with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vioque, Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available ACE activity is related to increased arterial pressure and coronary diseases. A rapeseed protein isolate was hydrolyzed with the protease Alcalase in order to investigate the possible presence of ACE inhibitory peptides in the resulting hydrolysates. Hydrolysis for 30 min yielded a hydrolysate with the highest ACE inhibitory activity. Two fractions of this hydrolysate obtained by Biogel P2 gel filtration chromatography were used for further purification of ACE inhibitory peptides. Three fractions with ACE inhibitory activity were purified by reverse-phase HPLC of Biogel P2 f ractions. This demonstrates that rapeseed protein hydrolysates represent a good source of ACE inhibitory peptides .La actividad de ECA está relacionada con una presión arterial alta y enfermedades cardíacas. Un aislado proteico de colza se hidrolizó con alcalasa para estudiar la posible presencia de péptidos inhibidores de ECA en el hidrolizado. La hidrólisis durante 30 min produjo el hidrolizado con la mayor actividad inhibidora de ECA. Dos fracciones de este hidrolizado, obtenidas por cromatografía de filtración en gel Biogel P2, se usaron para la purificación de péptidos inhibidores de ECA. Tres fracciones con actividad inhibidora de ECA se purificaron mediante HPLC en fase reversa de las fracciones obtenidas mediante Biogel P2. Esto demuestra que los hidrolizados proteicos de colza representan una buena fuente de péptidos inhibidores de ECA.

  14. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Maize Silage-based Diets for Dairy Cows Containing Extruded Rapeseed Cake or Extruded Full-fat Soybean as Major Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Třináctý

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The trial was carried out on four Holstein cows with initial milk yield of 27.3 ± 1.7 kg.day−1. Cows were divided into two groups – the first was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake (D-ERC, the second one was fed a diet based on extruded full-fat soybean (D-EFFS, both diets contained maize silage and meadow hay. The experiment was divided into 4 periods of 42 days. Intake of dry matter, crude protein and NEL was not affected by the treatment (P > 0.05 while the intake of PDIA, PDIN and PDIE was lower in D-ERC than in D-EFFS (P < 0.05. Milk yield in D-ERC (22.6 kg.d−1 was lower than in D-EFFS (24.7 kg.d−1, P < 0.001 while concentration of milk fat and protein were reverse (P < 0.05. Smaller portion of essential AADI in crude protein intake (CPI in D-ERC resulted in lower efficiency of CPI utilization for milk protein synthesis in comparison to D-EFFS being 313 and 327 g.kg−1, respectively (P < 0.01. Concentration of AA in blood plasma was not affected by the type of diet except of His and Ile that were higher in D-EFFS (P < 0.01.

  16. Apparent protein digestibility and recovery of endogenous nitrogen at the terminal ileum of pigs fed diets containing various soyabean products, peas or rapeseed hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grala, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Leeuwen, P. van

    1999-01-01

    Effects of the use of three different soyabean products (soya concentrate and two different soyabean meals), peas or rapeseed hulls in the diet on the apparent ileal digestibility of CP (N x 6.25) and recovery of ileal endogenous nitrogen (N) in weanling pigs were investigated. Ileal endogenous N

  17. Fast and nondestructive determination of protein content in rapeseeds (Brassica napus L.) using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuzhen; Du, Changwen; Yu, Changbing; Zhou, Jianmin

    2014-08-01

    Fast and non-destructive determination of rapeseed protein content carries significant implications in rapeseed production. This study presented the first attempt of using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) to quantify protein content of rapeseed. The full-spectrum model was first built using partial least squares (PLS). Interval selection methods including interval partial least squares (iPLS), synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS), backward elimination interval partial least squares (biPLS) and dynamic backward elimination interval partial least squares (dyn-biPLS) were then employed to select the relevant band or band combination for PLS modeling. The full-spectrum PLS model achieved an ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) of 2.047. In comparison, all interval selection methods produced better results than full-spectrum modeling. siPLS achieved the best predictive accuracy with an RPD of 3.215 when the spectrum was sectioned into 25 intervals, and two intervals (1198-1335 and 1614-1753 cm(-1) ) were selected. iPLS excelled biPLS and dyn-biPLS, and dyn-biPLS performed slightly better than biPLS. FTIR-PAS was verified as a promising analytical tool to quantify rapeseed protein content. Interval selection could extract the relevant individual band or synergy band associated with the sample constituent of interest, and then improve the prediction accuracy of the full-spectrum model. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol......Elevated concentrations of fasting and non-fasting triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) as well as oxidative changes of lipoproteins may increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease. To compare the effects of different diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids on the concentrations and in vitro...

  19. Enhancement of oleic acid and vitamin E concentrations of bovine milk using dietary supplements of whole rapeseed and vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Givens, D.; Allison, Richard; Blake, Jonathon

    2003-01-01

    International audience; With the aim of reducing the degree of saturation and increasing the C18:1 cis fatty acid content of milk fat, the effects of feeding high levels of whole cracked rapeseed to dairy cows was investigated together with the effect of increasing dietary intake of vitamin E on the vitamin E content of milk. Using a 3 $\\times$ 3 factorial design, 90 Holstein dairy cows were fed one of three levels of whole cracked rapeseed (0 (ZR), 134 (MR) and 270 g$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$ diet dry...

  20. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2008-01-01

    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... g were allocated to the four groups and kept pair-wise in metabolism cages. The chickens were fed similar amounts of metabolisable energy (ME) per day and similar amounts of essential amino acids relative to ME by adjusting with crystalline amino acids. The chickens were subjected to four balance...... periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy...

  1. Fields of application for the by-products of extraction and transesterification of rapeseed oil; Anvaendningsomraaden foer biprodukterna vid pressning och omfoerestring av rapsolja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven

    2007-07-01

    Rapeseed contains 40-50% oil that can be extracted by pressing and possibly subsequent extraction. The residue, rapeseed cake, normally contains 10-25% oil, but rapeseed meal subjected to extraction only contains a few percent oil. Rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal can be used as animal feed, fuel, biogas substrate or fertiliser. If the extracted oil is used as a vehicle fuel it is normally transesterified to rapeseed oil methyl ester and then glycerol is produced as a by-product. Glycerol can be used for animal feed, fuel, biogas substrate or in the chemical industry as a raw material or additive in several products. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate how rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal, together with glycerol from transesterification of rapeseed oil, could be used in different applications, and to calculate their economic values in these uses. Used as a ruminant feed, current rapeseed cultivars can provide the entire dietary protein requirement. Up to 10% of the feed or concentrate mix for pigs, poultry and horses can comprise rapeseed feed. For piglets and horses, the palatability may limit the amount fed. The amount of rapeseed cake fed is restricted by its oil content. Normally, ruminants can manage 5% fat and horses about 2% fat in concentrate, and pigs 5% and poultry 1-1.5% fat in the overall diet. Glycerol can be an energy component of the feed mix. Cattle, sheep and pigs have been successfully fed a mixture containing 5-10% glycerol, and poultry a mixture containing 5%. Glycerol works well as a binding agent in feed pellet manufacture, with an admixture of 2-3% giving a more solid pellet. Rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal may be incinerated, but produce an ash with a relatively low melting-point, causes sintering and deposits to form in the furnace. The amount of ash is rather high, about 6%. The high nitrogen content (4-6% of dry matter) gives high nitric oxide emissions, often 2-3.6 times the emissions of fuels deficient in nitrogen. The high oil

  2. Pelleting and extrusion can ameliorate negative effects of toasting of rapeseed meal on protein digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, S; Bruininx, E M A M; Gruppen, H; Hendriks, W H; Carré, P; Quinsac, A; van der Poel, A F B

    2017-10-16

    Toasting time (TT) of rapeseed meal (RSM), the diet processing (DP) method and the interaction between both on the apparent CP digestion along the gastrointestinal tract and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids of growing pigs were investigated. The experiment consisted of a 3×3 factorial design of TT of RSM (0, 60 and 120 min) and DP method (mash, pelleting and extrusion). In total, 81 boars with a starting BW of 20 kg were euthanized 4 h after their last feeding. The gastrointestinal tract was dissected and the small intestine divided in three sections of similar length. Samples were collected from the stomach, 1.5 m from the ends of each of the three sections of the small intestine, and the rectum. The apparent digestibility (AD) of CP for each of the small intestine sections was used to calculate the rate of CP digestion. Increasing the TT of RSM resulted in lower protein solubility, lower lysine/reactive lysine contents and higher protein denaturation, indicative of the occurrence of protein aggregation and Maillard reactions. There were significant effects (P⩽0.01) of TT on the AD of CP in the different sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The rate of CP digestion of the 0 min toasted RSM diets was 23% and 35% higher than that of the 60 and 120 min toasted RSM diets, respectively. There was a significant interaction (P=0.04) between TT and DP for the AID of CP. Although pelleting of the 0 and 60 min toasted RSM diets did not change the AID of CP with respect to the mash diets, pelleting of the 120 min toasted RSM diet increased the AID of CP by 9.3% units. Extrusion increased the AID of CP of the 0 and 60 min toasted RSM diets by 3.4% and 4.3% units with respect to the mash diets, whereas extrusion of the 120 min toasted RSM diet increased the AID of CP by 6.9% units. Similar positive effects of pelleting and extrusion were obtained for the AID of lysine and reactive lysine, especially in the diets with higher TT. In conclusion

  3. Effects of different tannin-rich extracts and rapeseed tannin monomers on methane formation and microbial protein synthesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischer, G; Boguhn, J; Steingaß, H; Schollenberger, M; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-11-01

    Tannins, polyphenolic compounds found in plants, are known to complex with proteins of feed and rumen bacteria. This group of substances has the potential to reduce methane production either with or without negative effects on digestibility and microbial yield. In the first step of this study, 10 tannin-rich extracts from chestnut, mimosa, myrabolan, quebracho, sumach, tara, valonea, oak, cocoa and grape seed, and four rapeseed tannin monomers (pelargonidin, catechin, cyanidin and sinapinic acid) were used in a series of in vitro trials using the Hohenheim gas test, with grass silage as substrate. The objective was to screen the potential of various tannin-rich extracts to reduce methane production without a significant effect on total gas production (GP). Supplementation with pelargonidin and cyanidin did not reduce methane production; however, catechin and sinapinic acid reduced methane production without altering GP. All tannin-rich extracts, except for tara extract, significantly reduced methane production by 8% to 28% without altering GP. On the basis of these results, five tannin-rich extracts were selected and further investigated in a second step using a Rusitec system. Each tannin-rich extract (1.5 g) was supplemented to grass silage (15 g). In this experiment, nutrient degradation, microbial protein synthesis and volatile fatty acid production were used as additional response criteria. Chestnut extract caused the greatest reduction in methane production followed by valonea, grape seed and sumach, whereas myrabolan extract did not reduce methane production. Whereas chestnut extract reduced acetate production by 19%, supplementation with grape seed or myrabolan extract increased acetate production. However, degradation of fibre fractions was reduced in all tannin treatments. Degradation of dry matter and organic matter was also reduced by tannin supplementation, and no differences were found between the tannin-rich extracts. CP degradation and ammonia

  4. Solid-state fermentation of rapeseed meal with the white-rot fungi trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuchowski, Jerzy; Pecio, Łukasz; Jaszek, Magdalena; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Rapeseed meal is valuable high-protein forage, but its nutritional value is significantly reduced by the presence of a number of antinutrients, including phenolic compounds. Solid-state fermentation with white-rot fungi was used to decrease the sinapic acid concentration of rapeseed meal. After 7 days of growth of Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus, the sinapic acid content of rapeseed meal was reduced by 59.9 and 74.5 %, respectively. At the end of the experiment, sinapic acid concentration of T. versicolor cultures decreased by 93%of the initial value; in the case of cultures of P. ostreatus, 93.2 % reduction was observed. Moreover, cultivation of white-rot fungi on rapeseed meal resulted in the intensive production of extracellular laccase, particularly strong during the late phases of growth of T. versicolor. The obtained results confirm that both fungal species may effectively be used to decompose antinutritional phenolics of rapeseed meal. Rapeseed meal may also find use as an inexpensive and efficient substrate for a biotechnological production of laccase by white-rot fungi.

  5. Changes in Growth and Oil Yield Indices of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola 401 in Different Concentrations andTimes of Application of Supplementary Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi Kehal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of concentration and time of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer spray on growth indices of rapeseed (cv. Hyola 401, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran as a randomized complete blocks design with 16 treatments and 3 replications in 2008-2009. The treatments included concentration of nitrogen fertilizer (urea at two levels (5 and 10 ppm in seven levels of application time:1 spraying at 6-8- leaf stage, 2 beginning of stem elongation, 3 prior to flowering, 4 at 6-8- leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation, 5 at 6-8- leaf + prior to flowering, 6 beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, and 7 at 6-8- leaf + beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, which were compared with two control treatments (no fertilizer nitrogen and conventional soil fertilization. Results showed that significant difference was observed between spray treatments including concentration and times of nitrogen application, between controls and between controls with spray treatments, of grain and oil yield, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and leaf area duration (LAD. Application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages produced maximum grain yield (4221.7 kg/ha and oil yield (1771.1 kg/ha. Spray treatments produced maximum oil yield index (15.3% compared to controls. Maximum LAI (6.9 and 5.6 respectively, CGR (15.2 and 14.3 g/m2.10 GDD, respectively and LAD (1204 and 1029 cm2/10 GDD, respectively were also obtained from spray application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages and at 6-8-leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation + prior to flowering. According to the results of the present investigation, it seems that foliar application of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer at the end growth stages (beginning of stem elongation and prior to flowering of rapeseed plants may help to enhance growth indices

  6. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Anti-nutritional Factors and Ruminal Dry Matter and Crude Protein Degradability of Gamma and Microwave Irradiated Native Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sayyed roohollah ebrahimimahmoudabad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Native rapeseed (NRS is planted in some parts of Iran because of climatic condition. The consumption of NRS in animal nutrition is limited by anti-nutritional such as phytic acid and glucosinolate. Moreover, the protein of NRS is highly degraded by rumen microorganisms. Several processing methods have been used to enhance the nutritive value of whole oilseeds, including extrusion, roasting, toasting and Jet-Sploding. However, most heat processing methods adversely affect protein digestibility in the small intestine. Recently, other processing methods such as processing by gamma and microwave irradiation have been noticed. Therefore, this research was carried out to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (15, 30 and 45 kGy and microwave irradiation (800 W for 2, 4 and 6 min on ruminal dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability, in vitro CP digestibility, anti-nutritional factors (glucosinolate and phytic acid and chemical composition of NRS. Materials and Methods Chemical composition (DM, CP, EE and Ash of untreated and irradiated NRS was determined by AOAC methods. Then, sufficient water was added to the sample to increase the moisture content to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was completed by using a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 ºC. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.36 Gy/s. Another three samples (500 g each were subjected to microwave irradiation at a power of 800 W for 2, 4 and 6 min. Phytic acid and glucosinolate contents of untreated and irradiated samples were determined by standard methods. Degradation kinetics of DM or CP were determined according to in situ procedure. Six grams of untreated or irradiated NRS were incubated in the rumen of three ruminally fistulated Taleshi bulls for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Bags were placed in the rumen just before the bulls were offered their first meal. After retrieval from the rumen, bags were thoroughly washed with tap water until the rinsing water was clear

  8. Comparison of processing treatments on the composition and functional properties of rapeseed preparations (Brassica campestris L. var. toria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, A; Dua, S

    1994-01-01

    Rapeseed preparations viz. rapeseed meal, concentrates and isolates were prepared using different processing treatments involving organic solvents, acids, alkali, steaming and boiling. Their anti-nutritional constituents and functional properties were studied in comparison to undefatted meal. Percent decrease in phytic acid and phenolic content was maximum in seeds boiled for 30 min and isolates, respectively. Isolate II prepared by sodium hexa-metaphosphate had minimum glucosinolates, maximum content of total proteins and much improved nitrogen solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties. Water absorption and fat absorption capacities were enhanced by boiling seeds prior to grinding and ammonia-methanol extraction, respectively. Viscosity decreased in all the treatments as compared to control.

  9. Spectrophotometric methods to determine protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, J P Dean

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the concentration of proteins is an essential part of enzyme evaluations or to monitor protein yields during protein isolation procedures. Decisions on the usefulness of any isolation procedure depend on knowing the relative concentrations of a particular protein or enzyme in relation to the concentrations of all the proteins present. Protein concentration in solution is generally measured with spectrophotometry in the UV range or in the presence of dyes or copper interacting with the protein. This review describes protein determination methods for measuring protein concentration in solution.

  10. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  11. Impact of second line limiting amino acids' deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C Basavanta; Gloridoss, R G; Singh, K Chandrapal; Prabhu, T M; Siddaramanna; Suresh, B N; Manegar, G A

    2015-03-01

    To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a 'moderate SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a 'high SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP) and AA were studied. The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (pdeficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  12. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products.

  13. The phytotoxic effects and biodegradability of stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VAUHKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the phytotoxicity of stored rapeseed (Brassica rapa oil (RSO and rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME after "spill like" contamination on the growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare and the biodegradability of these substances in OECD 301F test conditions and in ground water. Rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester were both stored for a period of time and their fuel characteristics (e.g. acid number had changed from those set by the fuel standards and are considered to have an effect on its biodegradation. The phytotoxicity was tested using two different types of barley cultivars: ‘Saana’ and ‘Vilde’. The phytotoxic effect on the barley varieties was determined, after the growth season, by measuring the total biomass growth and the mass of 1000 kernels taken from the tests plots. Also visual inspection was used to determine what the effects on the barley growth were. These measurements suggest that both RSO and RME have a negative impact on barley sprouts and therefore the total growth of the barley. RSO and RME both decreased the total amount of harvested phytomass. The weight of 1000 kernels increased with low concentrations of these contaminants and high contamination levels reduced the mass of the kernels. The results of these experiments suggest that the stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester are both phytotoxic materials and therefore will cause substantial loss of vegetation in the case of a fuel spill. The RSO and RME biodegraded effectively in the measurement period of 28 days under OECD test conditions: the degree of biodegradation being over 60%. The biodegradation in the ground water was much slower: the degree of biodegradation being about 10% after 28 days.;

  14. Seed structure characteristics to form ultrahigh oil content in rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Hu

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding.Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition.Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding.

  15. Rapakinin, an anti-hypertensive peptide derived from rapeseed protein, dilates mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats via the prostaglandin IP receptor followed by CCK(1) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuko; Iwasaki, Masashi; Usui, Hachiro; Ohinata, Kousaku; Marczak, Ewa D; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2010-05-01

    The anti-hypertensive peptide Arg-Ile-Tyr, which was isolated based on its inhibitory activity (IC(50)=28microM) for angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) from the subtilisin digest of rapeseed protein, exhibited vasorelaxing activity (EC(50)=5.1microM) in an endothelium-dependent manner in the mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We named the peptide rapakinin. ACE inhibitors are reported to induce nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasorelaxation by elevating the endogenous bradykinin level; however, the vasorelaxation induced by 10microM of rapakinin was blocked only insignificantly by HOE140 or N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), antagonists of bradykinin B(2) receptor and an inhibitor of NO synthase, respectively. On the other hand, the vasorelaxation induced by 10microM rapakinin was significantly blocked by indomethacin and CAY10441, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor and an antagonist of the IP receptor, respectively. The vasorelaxing activity of rapakinin was also blocked by lorglumide, an antagonist of the cholecystokinin (CCK) CCK(1) receptor, although rapakinin has no affinity for the IP and CCK(1) receptors. The vasorelaxation induced by 10microM iloprost, an IP receptor agonist, was also blocked by lorglumide, suggesting that CCK-CCK(1) receptor system is activated downstream of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system. The anti-hypertensive activity of rapakinin after oral administration in SHRs was also blocked by CAY10441 and lorglumide. These results suggest that the anti-hypertensive activity of rapakinin might be mediated mainly by the PGI(2)-IP receptor, followed by CCK-CCK(1) receptor-dependent vasorelaxation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of rapeseed press-cake on Maillard reaction in a cookie model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Wilkin, Jonathan Desmond; Fiore, Alberto

    2018-03-15

    Rapeseed press-cake (RPC) is a byproduct of rapeseed oil production, rich in proteins and fiber. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of cold pressed RPC, RPC fiber isolate and RPC alkaline extract on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfufural (HMF) in cookies. Both compounds were influenced by the ingredients: the addition of RPC led to a significant dose-dependent increase of HMF in the cookies and to an increase of acrylamide up to 66.9%. On the contrary, acrylamide concentration was reduced down to 39.6% in presence of the alkaline extract and down to 4.4% in the presence of the fiber extract. The Michael addition of free amino acids to acrylamide was further investigated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) revealing that cysteine was the preferred nucleophile for acrylamide elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the Use of Spring Rapeseed in Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Trace Elements and Their Effect on Yield Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Piotr Mirosław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material was made up by the plant organs of Brassica napus L. from a pot experiment during one vegetation period. There was investigated the effect of relatively high concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil on the rapeseed yield, the content of protein and oil in seeds. The impact of metals was defined based on the content of selected fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds. The highest contents of zinc and copper were found in leaves, lead - in roots and cadmium - in stems. The biological concentration factor values were respectively calculated for all the rapeseed organs. For Cu and Pb the values of biological concentration factor were low and very low for all the plant organs. The doses of Zn (300 mg × kg-1, 600 mg × kg-1 and Cu (80 mg × kg-1, 160 mg × kg-1 applied in the pot experiment resulted in the translocation of metals from the roots to the leaves. The doses of lead (400 mg × kg-1, 1600 mg × kg-1 did not trigger any translocation of that metal from the roots to the above-ground rapeseed plant parts, however, after the application of the cadmium doses (2 mg × kg-1, 6 mg × kg-1, there was recorded a clear translocation of Cd to the rapeseed stems and the leaves. A relatively high content of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil had a significant effect neither on the yield parameters and nor on the qualitative characters of the rapeseed seed. Neither did they affect the content of protein, fat and fatty acids in seed-extracted oil. The results of the pot experiment suggest that spring rapeseed is suitable for the phytoremediation of moderately heavy-metalcontaminated soils.

  18. Imaging Extracellular Protein Concentration with Nanoplasmonic Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Jeff M.; Christodoulides, Joseph A.; Delehanty, James B.; Raghu, Deepa; Raphael, Marc P.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular protein concentrations and gradients queue a wide range of cellular responses, such as cell motility and division. Spatio-temporal quantification of these concentrations as produced by cells has proven challenging. As a result, artificial gradients must be introduced to the cell culture to correlate signal and response. Here we demonstrate a label-free nanoplasmonic imaging technique that can directly map protein concentrations as secreted by single cells in real time and which ...

  19. Processing of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal reduces protein digestibility and pig growth performance but does not affect nitrogen solubilization along the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H; Bikker, P

    2016-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of processing of soybean meal (SBM) and 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on N solubilization in chyme, CP digestibility along the small intestine, metabolic load as determined by organ weight, body composition, and growth performance in growing pigs. The SBM and RSM were processed by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) in the presence of lignosulfonate, resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM) as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Fifty-four growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 6 experimental diets. Four of the diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM as the sole protein source. The remaining 2 experimental diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to the same standardized ileal digestible AA levels as the SBM or RSM diet. Pigs were slaughtered at 40 kg, and organ weights were recorded. The organs plus blood and empty carcass were analyzed for CP content. The small intestine was divided into 3 segments, and chyme samples were taken from the last meter of each segment. Chyme of the SBM, pSBM, RSM, and pRSM diets was centrifuged to separate the soluble and insoluble fractions, and N content was determined in the latter. The amount of insoluble N as a fraction of N in chyme at each small intestinal segment was not affected by processing. Diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, affected ( < 0.05) the G:F and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP. Processing reduced G:F from 0.56 to 0.38 for SBM and 0.49 to 0.40 for RSM, whereas supplementing crystalline AA increased G:F to the level of the SBM and RSM diets. Processing reduced the SID of CP from 87.2% to 69.2% for SBM and 71.0% to 52.2% for RSM. Diet type affected ( < 0.05) the CP content in the empty body, with processing reducing this content from 170 to 144 g/kg empty BW for SBM and 157 to 149 g/kg empty BW for RSM and supplementing crystalline AA restoring this content

  20. Rapeseed research and production in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Qiong; Hua, Wei; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xuekun; Liu, Lijiang; Shi, Jiaqin; Zhao, Yongguo; Qin, Lu; Chen, Chang; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and...

  1. Concentration dependent model of protein-protein interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingshan

    2007-01-01

    The scale free structure p(k)~k^{-gamma} of protein-protein interaction networks can be produced by a static physical model. We find the earlier study of deterministic threshold models with exponential fitness distributions can be generalized to explain the apparent scale free degree distribution of the physical model, and this explanation provides a generic mechanism of "scale free" networks. We predict the dependence of gamma on experimental protein concentrations. The clustering coefficient distribution of the model is also studied.

  2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) 4 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a novel member inducing ROS accumulation and cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liang, E-mail: 18710470987@163.com; Ye, Chaofei, E-mail: yechaofei001@163.com; Zhao, Rui, E-mail: 571828628@qq.com; Li, Xin, E-mail: 1458272138@qq.com; Liu, Wu-zhen, E-mail: happywuzhenliu@163.com; Wu, Feifei, E-mail: 283915941@qq.com; Yan, Jingli, E-mail: yanjingli512@163.com; Jiang, Yuan-Qing, E-mail: jiangyq@nwafu.edu.cn; Yang, Bo, E-mail: yangwl@nwafu.edu.cn

    2015-11-27

    MAPKKK is the largest family of MAPK cascade, which is known to play important roles in plant growth, development and immune responses. So far, only a few have been functionally characterized even in the model plant, Arabidopsis due to the potential functional redundancy of MAPKKK. We previously identified and cloned a few MAPKKK family genes from rapeseed. In this study, BnaMAPKKK4 was characterized as a member in eliciting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. This is accompanied with accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), anthocyanin as well as nuclear DNA fragmentation. The transcript abundance of a series of ROS accumulation, cell death, and defense response related genes were up-regulated by the expression of MAPKKK4. Further investigation identified BnaMAPKKK4 elicited ROS through the downstream MPK3. These results indicate that BnaMAPKKK4 and its downstream components function in the ROS-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Expression of rapeseed MAPKKK4 induced ROS accumulation and cell death in leaves. • Cell death induced by MAPKKK4 is associated with membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation. • MAPKKK4 interacts with MKK5 and MPK3. • MAPKKK4-induced ROS accumulation and cell death require downstream WIPK and SIPK. • MAPKKK4 is a novel MAPKKK modulating ROS accumulation and cell death.

  3. Dust Reduction in Broiler Houses by Spraying Rapeseed Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Hattum, van T.G.; Zhao, Y.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of spraying rapeseed oil on the reduction of dust and ammonia concentrations and emissions, and on animal parameters was investigated in a dose-response study in a broiler house during three growing periods in four (round 1) or five rooms (rounds 2 and 3). The spraying rates varied per

  4. Glucosinolates in rapeseed as antinutritive factors in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed has multiple purposes: animal nutrition, production of oil and biodiesel. Content of oil and protein in dry seeds of rapeseed is 40-47% and 19-29%, respectively. However, the seed also contains harmful substances: glucosinolates, erucic acid, phytate and tannin. This paper describes the importance of rapeseed in animal nutrition and shows the possibility of its inclusion in animal meal depending on the content of glucosinolates. The main antinutritive factors present in this oil crop are glucosinolates, therefore this paper shows their biological effect in animal nutrition and their detoxification. Canola varieties have reduced glucosinolate content and they have almost entirely superseded the old varieties of rapeseed. Glucosinolates alone are biologically inactive molecules, but their degradation products are biologically active and well known for their diverse biological effects. The degree of negative impact of glucosinolates in the diet of animals depends on their level and composition of formed degradation products, but also the species and age of animals. In order to reduce glucosinolate content different methods are used which include their hydrolysis or decomposition before feeding the animals.

  5. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  6. Controllable Soluble Protein Concentration Gradients in Hydrogel Networks**

    OpenAIRE

    Peret, Brian J.; William L Murphy

    2008-01-01

    Here we report controlled formation of sustained, soluble protein concentration gradients within hydrated polymer networks. The approach involves spatially localizing proteins or biodegradable, protein-loaded microspheres within hydrogels to form a protein-releasing “depot”. Soluble protein concentration gradients are then formed as the released protein diffuses away from the localized source. Control over key gradient parameters, including maximum concentration, gradient magnitude, slope, an...

  7. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Relationship between asparagine metabolism and protein concentration in soybean seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between asparagine metabolism and protein concentration was investigated in soybean seed. Phenotyping of a population of recombinant inbred lines adapted to Illinois confirmed a positive correlation between free asparagine levels in developing seeds and protein concentration at matu...

  9. The effect of different physical forms of rapeseed as a fat supplement on the activity of some enzymes in the duodenal chyme of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharerry, A.; Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2014-01-01

    on the duodenal enzyme profile in dairy cows. Four mid-lactation Danish Holstein dairy cows were submitted to an experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed four rations containing 50% forage and 50% concentrate on a dry matter basis. The four rations were: a control ration with rapeseed meal (low fat......Studies on nutritional regulation of digestive enzymes in ruminants are scarce. Fat supplementation of diets for dairy cows changes the supply of nutrients for absorption and transport. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed (Brassica napus) fat......, frozen immediately and stored frozen (–20°C) before analyses. Additional fat increased the soluble protein content in duodenal chyme (P treatments. Lipase activity increased for RSO compared with the control...

  10. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Święch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  11. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM) for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contained more crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) (except His) than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF), glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many extracellular degradation enzymes (especially lignocellulosic hydrolyzing enzymes, acid proteases and phytase

  12. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM) for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight—mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contained more crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) (except His) than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF), glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many extracellular degradation enzymes (especially lignocellulosic hydrolyzing enzymes, acid proteases and phytase

  13. Biosorption of lead ions from aqueous effluents by rapeseed biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosanu, Irina; Teodosiu, Carmen; Paduraru, Carmen; Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Tofan, Lavinia

    2017-10-25

    Lead, as well as other heavy metals, is regarded as priority pollutant due to its non-biodegradability, toxicity and persistence in the environment. In this study, rapeseed biomass was used in the biosorption of Pb(II) ions in batch and dynamic conditions, as well as with tests for industrial wastewater. The influence of initial concentration (5-250mg/L), pH and contact time (0.5-6h) was investigated. The kinetic data modeling resulted in good correlations with the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The maximum sorption capacities of Pb(II) were 18.35, 21.29 and 22.7mg/L at 4, 20 and 50°C, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated the spontaneity and endothermic nature of lead biosorption on rapeseed biomass. The biosorption mechanism involves both physical and chemical interactions. The breakthrough curves at 50 and 100mg/L were determined and evaluated under dynamic conditions. The breakthrough time lowered with increasing the influent Pb(II) concentration. The experimental data obtained from fixed-bed column tests were well fitted by Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The calculated sorption capacities were in good agreement with the uptake capacity of Langmuir model. The applicability of rapeseed to be used as a sorbent for Pb(II) ions from real wastewater was tested, and Pb(II) removal efficiency of 94.47% was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  15. Rapeseed research and production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Progress on functional genomics including the identification of QTL governing important agronomic traits such as yield, seed oil content, fertility regulation, disease and insect resistance, abiotic stress, nutrition use efficiency, and pod shattering resistance has been achieved. As a consequence, molecular markers have been developed and used in breeding programs. During 2005–2014, 215 rapeseed varieties were registered nationally, including 210 winter- and 5 spring-type varieties. Mechanization across the whole process of rapeseed production was investigated and operating instructions for all relevant techniques were published. Modern techniques for rapeseed field management such as high-density planting, controlled-release fertilizer, and biocontrol of disease and pests combined with precision tools such as drones have been developed and are being adopted in China. With the application of advanced breeding and production technologies, in the near future, the oil yield and quality of rapeseed varieties will be greatly increased, and more varieties with desirable traits, especially early maturation, high yield, high resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and suitability for mechanized harvesting will be developed. Application of modern technologies on the mechanized management of rapeseed will greatly increase grower profit.

  16. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L. (DL and rapeseed (Brassica napus L. meal (RM. Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L. meal (SBM was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extruded at 120 ºC with 20% moisture. Ruminal degradability was evaluated in situ by incubating feed samples for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h of fermentation in the rumen using three rumen-fistulated dairy cows. Values of CP soluble fraction (“a” in SBM, DL, extruded dehulled lupin (EDL, RM, and extruded rapeseed meal (ERM was lower in the extruded feeds (P El flujo de proteína no degradable en el rumen (RUP hacia el intestino delgado puede ser incrementado si se reduce la degradación ruminal de la proteína dietaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la extrusión sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca (DM y proteína cruda (CP de lupino (Lupinus albus L. descascarado (DL y torta de raps (Brassica napus L. (RM. Se utilizó afrecho de soya (Glicine max L. sin extruir (SBM como control. El DL fue extruido a 130 ºC con 20% de humedad y la RM fue extruida a 120 ºC con 20% de humedad. La degradabilidad ruminal se evaluó in situ incubando las muestras de alimentos a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h de fermentación en tres vacas lecheras con fístula ruminal. Los valores de la fracción soluble de la CP (“a” en SBM, en DL, lupino descascarado extruido (EDL, RM y torta de raps extruida (ERM fue menor en los extruidos (P < 0.05. La fracción lentamente degradable (“b” de SBM, DL, EDL, RM y de ERM fue 858; 593; 622 y 451 y 457 g kg-1, respectivamente, y se incrementó por extrusión (P < 0.05. La extrusión redujo la degradabilidad efectiva

  17. Assessing transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractionation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bojanowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Having considered increasing production of liquid and solid biofuels from rapeseed and bearing in mind its stable and unquestionable position in  the food and animal feed industries, a rational approach towards technologically and logistically efficient utilization of by-products from rapeseed processing is required. The aim of the research presented in the article is to assess the transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractions, varying according to particle size and chemical composition. Methods: Resistance to changes stimulating self-heating has been assumed as the main criterion of transport susceptibility. The following diagnostic variables have been experimentally determined: total protein, crude fat and crude fiber content, porosity, and water activity in the fraction of examined meal. In order to organize a set of particles and to indicate their optimal applications according to criteria chosen with regard to both  utilization and transportation, two aggregate indicators have been calculated. Results: It has been proved that medium-sized particle fractions (0.075-0.4 mm exhibit the lowest transport susceptibility, whereas the those with the largest granulations (>3 mm -have the highest. One significant relationship is the decline of feeding value and concurrent increase in the transport susceptibility of meal fractions, which in practice means that those fractions least-favoured by the animal feed industry can be least cumbersome to transport. Conclusions: It has been suggested that there should be a division of rapeseed meal into two products with different applications and different transport susceptibility. The fractioning of meal can bring numerous, measurable benefits for the meal industry and logistics processes for solid biofuels, where storage and transport properties have considerable importance, alongside commodity price and transport costs.

  18. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2012-07-07

    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; ptest cycle than on the fuel. Our findings suggest that the genotoxicity of particulate emissions from the combustion of rapeseed oil is significant and is comparable to that from the combustion of diesel fuel. A more detailed study is ongoing to verify and extent these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, T.G.; Bikker, P.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, o-methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing

  20. Characterization of alkali-modified soy protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of the preparation mode, including mild alkali modification, of soy protein concentrate on soluble protein content and composition, some of its nutritive and functional properties were investigated. Soy protein concentrate prepared by aqueous alcohol leaching was modified in mild alkaline solutions (pH 8.0 at 40, 50 and 60° C for 60 minutes and compared with two principal types of commercial soy protein concentrate. Soluble protein content, composition and properties of soy protein concentrate, as well as their potential use are essentially determined by the preparation mode. Limited mild alkali hydrolysis increased protein solubility by 40-71%, while emulsion stability was increased by 18-56%. Major storage soybean proteins exhibited different stability to alcohol denaturation and mild alkali modification. The most susceptible were acidic -A3 - and -A5- subunits of glycinin.

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RICE PROTEIN CONCENTRATES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. V. Kolpakova; D. N. Lukin; L. V. Chumikina; L. V. Shevyakova

    2015-01-01

    .... The task of this study was a comparative research of nutrition and biological value and functional properties of protein and protein-calcium concentrates produced from rice flour milled from white and brown rice...

  2. Jasna: A new winter rapeseed cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The program of winter rapeseed breeding at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops covers the development of winter and spring rapeseed cultivars and hybrids. Winter rapeseed cultivars are selected for high and stabile grain and oil yield, good oil quality, low erucic acid and glucosinolate content (type 00 and tolerance to stresses caused by abiotic and biotic factors. This paper reviews agronomic characteristics and grain and oil quality of a new cultivar of winter rapeseed Jasna. In the trials of the Serbian Commission for new cultivars registration, cultivar Jasna had higher grain yield then standard, in the three locations and two years. In average the yield was 4566 kg/ha. Oil content is at the level of the standard. The erucic acid content and glucosinolate content are lower then that in the standard and that are positive characteristics. .

  3. Erucic acid rapeseed: 1. Prospects of improvements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanyal, Anushree; Pinochet, Xavier; Merrien, André; Laustriat, Marie; Decocq, Guillaume; Fine, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In the current context of boosting production of high erucic acid rapeseed, because of the wide range of its industrial applications, this literature review is designed to provide a general overview...

  4. Nutritional and functional properties of whey proteins concentrate and isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein fractions represent 18 - 20 % of total milk nitrogen content. Nutritional value in addition to diverse physico - chemical and functional properties make whey proteins highly suitable for application in foodstuffs. In the most cases, whey proteins are used because of their functional properties. Whey proteins possess favourable functional characteristics such as gelling, water binding, emulsification and foaming ability. Due to application of new process techniques (membrane fractionation techniques, it is possible to produce various whey - protein based products. The most important products based on the whey proteins are whey protein concentrates (WPC and whey protein isolates (WPI. The aim of this paper was to give comprehensive review of nutritional and functional properties of the most common used whey proteins (whey protein concentrate - WPC and whey protein isolate - WPI in the food industry.

  5. Whey protein particles modulate mechanical properties of gels at high protein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Berg, van den L.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the influence of dense whey protein particles on the mechanical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) gels at high protein concentrations (16–22% (w/w)). Incorporation of dense whey protein particles in the gel, while keeping the total protein concentration constant, leads to a

  6. Oxidation stability of rapeseed biodiesel/petroleum diesel blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Anderson, James E.; Mueller, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    of the oxidation of a biodiesel fuel blend consisting of 30% (v/v) rapeseed methyl ester in petroleum diesel (B30) was conducted at 70 and 90 °C with three aeration rates. Oxidation rates increased with increasing temperature as indicated by decreases in induction period (Rancimat), concentrations of unsaturated......, and then decreased reflecting volatilization of fuel and volatile oxidation products. Peroxide concentration showed a peak that coincided with the most rapid rate of oxygen incorporation, acid formation, and polyunsaturated FAME degradation. Net oxygen incorporation exhibited a plateau at approximately 5-6 wt % O...

  7. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  8. Whey Protein Concentrate and Dexamethasone Protected Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. The possible radioprotective effect of Immunocal® (whey protein]) supplement and dexamethasone on gamma-irradiated cerebellar tissue of Wistar rat was investigated in this study. Forty male albino rats were acclimatized and randomized into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I rats served as control; ...

  9. Whey protein concentrate and dexamethasone protected rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible radioprotective effect of Immunocal® (whey protein]) supplement and dexamethasone on gamma-irradiated cerebellar tissue of Wistar rat was investigated in this study. Forty male albino rats were acclimatized and randomized into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I rats served as control; Group II: ...

  10. Tobacco Rotated with Rapeseed for Soil-Borne Phytophthora Pathogen Biocontrol: Mediated by Rapeseed Root Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Fang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Black shank, caused by Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, is a widespread and destructive disease of tobacco. Crop rotation is essential in controlling black shank. Here, we confirmed that rotating black shank-infested fields with rapeseed (Brassica napus suppressed the incidence this disease. Further study demonstrated that rapeseed roots have a strong ability to attract zoospores and subsequently stop the swimming of zoospores into cystospores. Then, rapeseed roots secrete a series of antimicrobial compounds, including 2-butenoic acid, benzothiazole, 2-(methylthiobenzothiazole, 1-(4-ethylphenyl-ethanone, and 4-methoxyindole, to inhibit the cystospore germination and mycelial growth of P. parasitica var. nicotianae. Thus, rapeseed rotated with tobacco suppresses tobacco black shank disease through the chemical weapons secreted by rapeseed roots.

  11. Fatty acids, vitamins and cholesterol content, and sensory properties of cheese made with milk from sheep fed rapeseed oilcake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera, A I; Bustamante, M A; Albisu, M; Valdivielso, I; Amores, G; Mandaluniz, N; Arranz, J; Barron, L J R; de Renobales, M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of rapeseed oilcake used for feeding sheep on the content of fatty acids (FA), tocopherols, retinoids, and cholesterol of milk and cheese, and on the sensory properties of cheese. Indoor animal feeding (in winter) is the highest cost of production for cheesemakers, and the inclusion of locally produced rapeseed oilcake in the concentrate feed formulation can reduce the cost of cheese production, as long as the quality of the cheese is not altered. The experiment was carried out in March (mid lactation) with 72 Latxa sheep from an experimental farm located in the Basque Country (northern Spain). Two homogeneous groups of animals (n = 36) were set to receive each a different diet based on commercial or rapeseed concentrate, respectively, and forage (Festuca hay). Animal production parameters were individually recorded for each feeding group, whereas bulk milk from each group was used for cheesemaking trials. The rapeseed concentrate had higher amounts of unsaturated FA (mainly C18:1 cis isomers, C18:2 cis-9,cis-12 and C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15) and tocopherols than the commercial concentrate. The inclusion of rapeseed oilcake in the diet of dairy sheep did not compromise animal production parameters or milk gross composition. Bulk milk and cheese from sheep fed rapeseed concentrate showed higher content of unsaturated FA and tocopherols than those from sheep fed commercial concentrate. No differences were observed in the content of retinoid in milk and cheese between feeding groups, whereas the cholesterol content was slightly lower in cheese made with milk from sheep fed rapeseed concentrate. Thus, milk and cheese from sheep fed rapeseed concentrate had a healthier lipid profile. In addition, the inclusion of rapeseed oilcake in the diet of sheep did not change the typical sensory attributes of Protected Denomination of Origin Idiazabal cheese. Therefore, rapeseed concentrate could be a good local resource

  12. Limited hydrolysis of soybean protein concentrate and isolate with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Soy protein concentrate (SPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) were limited hydrolyzed with trypsin or neutrase under controlled hydrolysis conditions. Eight soybean protein hydrolysates, 4 SPC hydroly- sates and 4 SPI hydrolysates were prepared with degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 1 or 2%. SDS-PAGE was.

  13. Concentrated whey protein particle dispersions: Heat stability and rheological properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Shi, J.; Linden, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work heat stability and rheological properties of concentrated whey protein particle dispersions in different dispersing media are studied. Whey protein particles (protein content ~20% w/v) having an average size of a few microns were formed using a combination of two-step emulsification and

  14. C reactive protein concentrations during long distance running.

    OpenAIRE

    Strachan, A F; Noakes, T. D.; Kotzenberg, G; Nel, A E; de Beer, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Long distance runners competing in events ranging from 15 to 88 km showed a distance related acute phase response as indicated by significantly raised serum C reactive protein concentrations. In trained athletes only a small rise in C reactive protein concentrations was seen after races of less than 21 km. After an 88 km ultramarathon concentrations comparable to those found in patients with small myocardial infarctions were detected. Indomethacin did not affect the increases in C reactive pr...

  15. High-concentration protein formulations: How high is high?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Kuhn, Alexander B; Schäfer, Lars V; Karow-Zwick, Anne R; Blech, Michaela

    2017-10-01

    High-concentration protein formulation (HCPF) is a term that is used to describe protein formulations, mostly monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs, at high protein concentration. The concentration is rarely defined, with typical ranges varying between 50 and 150mg/ml for mAbs. The term HCPF is meant to include and express specific solution properties of formulations that are prone to appear at high protein concentrations such as high viscosity, high opalescence, phase separation, gel formation or the increased propensity for protein particle formation. Thus the term HCPF can be understood as a descriptor of protein formulations, usually at high protein (monoclonal antibody) concentrations, which have specific solution, stability and colloidal properties that differ from formulations at low protein concentration (e.g. at 10mg/ml). The current paper highlights in brief the development challenges that might occur for high-concentration protein/monoclonal antibody formulations. In particular, the maximum concentration regimes achievable in HCPF remained unclear. Based on geometrical considerations involving packing of monoclonal antibodies in a lattice we map out a maximum concentration range that might be theoretically achievable. Different geometrical assumptions and packing models are compared and their relevance is critically discussed, in particular concerning the influence of the physicochemical properties of the monoclonal antibodies on their solubility, which is neglected in the simple geometrical model. According to our estimates, monoclonal antibody concentration above 500mg/ml will be very challenging to achieve. Our results have implications for setting up realistic drug product development strategies and for preparing convincing drug target product profiles for development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of environment on rapeseed (Brassica napus L. yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed seed is highly valuable raw material in oil and food industry. The main goals of rapeseed breeding are oil as the product with the highest commercial value, oil quality, and yield. Different winter and spring rapeseed cultivars and hybrids were tested at different locations in order to test their value. The environment had significant effect on seed yield. .

  17. Unfermented recalcitrant polysaccharide structures from rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pustjens, A.M.; Vries, de S.; Bakuwel, M.; Gruppen, H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kabel, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Unprocessed and acid-extruded rapeseed meal (RSM) was fed to pigs as the only source of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and protein. Unfermented carbohydrate structures were analyzed. Acid-extrusion seemed to increase rigidness of the NSP-matrix in vivo, without affecting NSP-fermentability.

  18. 7 CFR 457.161 - Canola and rapeseed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Canola and Rapeseed Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of... that contains at least 30 percent of an industrial type of oil as shown on the Special Provisions and... Official United States Standards for Grain including, but not limited to protein and oil, will not be...

  19. Prediction of colloidal stability of high concentration protein formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Blume, Alfred; Wagner, Michael

    2015-05-01

    A major aspect determining the colloidal properties of proteins in solution is the interaction between them and with surrounding molecules. These interactions can be described by the concentration dependency of the protein diffusivity (kD), as derived by dynamic light scattering and was determined for different solutions of monoclonal antibodies varying in pH, ionic strength and presence/absence of co-solute(s). Concerning colloidal stability, protein solutions of different kD values are evaluated, based on their initial solution opalescence, to assess protein association. The current investigation shows that solution conditions with large kD values, indicating high repulsive protein-protein interactions, show lower initial opalescence, compared to solution conditions with low kD values. Upon applying stirring stress, to assess colloidal stability, the trend is such that, the higher kD values are, the more stable the protein solutions are, as long as the thermodynamic and conformational stability is not impaired. Besides, kD allows ranking of solution conditions for highly concentrated immunoglobulin solutions up to concentrations of ∼200 mg mL(-1) with regard to protein self-association and thus opalescent properties. The present study shows that the protein interaction parameter kD can be used as a surrogate parameter for a qualitative prediction of protein association and, thus, colloidal protein stability.

  20. Enhancement of growth and nutrient uptake of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by applying mineral nutrients and biofertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasari, Esmaeil; Azadgoleh, M A Esmaeili; Mozafari, Saedeh; Alashti, Mahsa Rafati

    2009-01-15

    For investigating the effect of chemical fertilizer as well as biofertilizers on seed yield and quality i.e. oil, protein and nutrients concentration of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), a split-plot fertilizers application experimental design in 4 replications was carried out during the 2005-2006 growing season, at the Gharakheil Agricultural Research Station in the Mazandaran province of Iran. Rapeseed was grown as a second crop in rotation after rice. Biofertilizers treatments were two different levels: control (no seed inoculation) and seeds inoculation with a combination of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azosprillum brasilense and Azosprillum lipoferum, as main plot and chemical fertilizers comprised N, P, K and their combinations, NPKS and NPK Zn as sub plots. The maximum value of seed yield obtained at (BF+NPK Zn) 3421.2 kg h(-1) corresponding to 244.5 pods per plant and maximum concentration of Zn in leaves as well as seeds. The highest weight of 1000 seeds (4.45 g) happened to obtain at (BF+NPK S) which coinciding with the maximum K levels in leaves. The highest number of branches was obtained at (BF+NPK Zn) with 4.43 branches per plant i.e., 46.2% increase over the control. The maximum value of rapeseed oil content 47.73% obtained at T16 (BF+NK) but maximum protein concentration of seed obtained at T12 (BF+N). Overall the results indicated that inoculation resulted in increase in seeds yield (21.17%), number of pods per plant (16.05%), number of branches (11.78%), weight of 1000 grain (2.92%), oil content of seeds (1.73%) and protein (3.91%) but decrease (-0.24%) in number of seeds per pods comparing to non-Biofertilizers treatments. Irrespective to the treatments, results showed that application of Biofertilizers coincided with 3.86, 0.82, 2.25, 0.75 and 0.91% increase in concentrations of N, P, K, S and Zn in the seeds over the non-Biofertilizers treatments.

  1. Dietary soyasaponin supplementation to pea protein concentrate reveals nutrigenomic interactions underlying enteropathy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Kortner Trond M; Skugor Stanko; Penn Michael H; Mydland Liv; Djordjevic Brankica; Hillestad Marie; Krasnov Aleksei; Krogdahl Åshild

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Use of plant ingredients in aquaculture feeds is impeded by high contents of antinutritional factors such as saponins, which may cause various pharmacological and biological effects. In this study, transcriptome changes were analyzed using a 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon fed diets based on five plant protein sources combined with soybean saponins. Results Diets with corn gluten, sunflower, rapeseed or horsebean produced...

  2. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, G V; Jensen, B B; Bach Knudsen, K E; Canibe, N

    2015-05-01

    Fluctuating prices of cereals have led to an interest in alternative ingredients for feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermentation and the addition of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes on the ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients of a diet based on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of β-glucanase + xylanase + pectinase (FLF+Enz). The FLF was prepared by mixing feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) and, once daily, replacing 50% of the mixture with an equal amount of fresh feed and water. The diets were fed to 8 ileal cannulated barrows in a double Latin square design. Ileal digesta and feces were collected after an adaption period of 10 d. Results showed microbiologically good-quality fermented diets. The levels of Enterobacteriaceae were 5.1 to 5.4 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the ileum and 5.1 to 5.2 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the feces. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP was increased by fermentation (73.2% in FLF vs. 69.0% in nFLF; P = 0.033), and digestibility of P showed a tendency (P = 0.073) toward an increase. Addition of the enzyme mixture resulted in a pronounced reduction of dietary NSP compared with FLF (12.8% total NSP in FLF+Enz vs. 15.9% total NSP in FLF; Pdigestibility (AID) of total and insoluble NSP (total NSP, 31.1% in FLF+Enz vs. 13.6% in FLF; P = 0.002). The Control did not, in general, show higher digestibility values than the experimental diet. However, in the cases were it did, fermentation and enzyme addition brought the digestibility to the level of the Control. In conclusion, fermentation increased the ATTD of CP and the AID of P, with the same tendency (P ≤ 0

  3. Economics of rapeseed production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Rade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed production in Serbia is characterized by an increasing trend, as a result of positive price signals from international market. Since previous researches on economics of rapeseed production were aimed at non-family farms, focus in this paper is on the same aspects on family farms from lowland production region. Results are analyzed in view of micro and macro-economic trends. Increase of world demand for oil crops, as a result of increasing production of renewable fuels and food needs, causes a trend of higher prices, which will probably remain in the following period. Due to this, opportunities are made for Serbian farmers in lowland production region to increase agriculture area under rapeseed. .

  4. Nutritive evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis leaf protein concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    , Federal University of Technology,. P.M.B. 704, Akure ... Leaf meal (LM), leaf proteins concentrate (LPC) and LPC residues from Telfairia occidentalis were produced ... fluted pumpkin takes place 120-150 days after sowing.

  5. Effect of Limited Hydrolysis on Traditional Soy Protein Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana B. Pesic

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of limited proteolysis of soy protein concentrate on proteinextractability, the composition of the extractable proteins, their emulsifying properties andsome nutritional properties were investigated. Traditional concentrate (alcohol leachedconcentrate was hydrolyzed using trypsin and pepsin as hydrolytic agents. Significantdifferences in extractable protein composition between traditional concentrate and theirhydrolysates were observed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE and by SDSPAGE.All hydrolysates showed better extractability than the original protein concentrate,whereas significantly better emulsifying properties were noticed at modified concentratesobtained by trypsin induced hydrolysis. These improved properties are the result of twosimultaneous processes, dissociation and degradation of insoluble alcohol-induced proteinaggregates. Enzyme induced hydrolysis had no influence on trypsin-inibitor activity, andsignificantly reduced phytic acid content.

  6. Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Lu; Zhang, Y.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A central composite design of response surface method was used to optimize H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw, in respect to acid concentration (0.5-2%), treatment time (5-20 min) and solid content (10-20%) at 180 degrees C. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were also...

  7. Abatement of particulate matter emission from experimental aviary housings for laying hens by spraying rapeseed oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, A.; Riel, van J.W.; Emous, van R.A.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    In alternative systems for laying hens, concentrations and emission rates of particulate matter (PM) give reason for concern with regard to working conditions, bird health and productivity, and health of residents living near farms. Previously, we found that spraying a film of rapeseed oil onto the

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of “ r apeseed protein isolate ” as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    is an aqueous extract with at least 90 % protein, isolated from rapeseed press cake originating from so-called canola varieties. The applicant intends to market the NF for the same food products, at similar concentrations and for corresponding purposes, as soy protein isolates. Total protein intake of "heavy...

  9. Freeze concentration of proteins in Antarctic krill wash water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangming; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Kuo; Guo, Hui; Ma, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Water-washing removes fluoride from Antarctic krill but produces large volumes of wash water containing water- soluble proteins and fluoride. The freeze concentration method was tested to determine if it could be used to recover water-soluble proteins while leaving the fluoride in solution. After freezing and thawing the wash water, protein and fluoride contents of the thawed fractions were determined to explore the melting regularity of components in the wash water. The highest concentration factors of protein and fluoride were obtained after 80 min of thawing, such as 1.48 ± 0.06 and 1.35 ± 0.04 times, respectively. The free amino-nitrogen (FAN) content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern results revealed that the highest concentrations of all ingredients were obtained after 80 min of the process. The degree of hydrolysis of all fractions from the thawing process fluctuated in a narrow range around 12% during the entire process, indicating that the thawing order did not change with various proteins or time during the entire thawing course. These results demonstrate that the freeze concentration method can be used to concentrate protein solutions, even those with fluoride. It was concluded that condensation was achieved and no ingredient could be separated, regardless of fluoride, amino acids, or different proteins in the water.

  10. Nutritive evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis leaf protein concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf meal (LM), leaf proteins concentrate (LPC) and LPC residues from Telfairia occidentalis were produced, chemically characterized and the protein quality of the LPC evaluated using rats. Five infant weaning foods were formulated using varying combinations of T. occidentalis LPC and soybean meal. These foods were ...

  11. Production of protein concentrate and isolate from cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated methods of producing protein concentrates and isolates from cashew nut in order to increase the global utilization of cashew nut and increase the availability of affordable, good quality protein for people. Cashew nuts were processed to obtain roasted cashew kernel. The roasted cashew kernels were ...

  12. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RICE PROTEIN CONCENTRATES

    OpenAIRE

    KOLPAKOVA V. V.; LUKIN D. N.; L. V. Chumikina; L. V. Shevyakova

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally rice and products of its processing are used to cook porridge, pilaf, lettuce, confectionery, fish, dairy and meat products. At the same time new ways of its processing with releasing of protein products for more effective using, including the use of a glutenfree diet, are developing. The task of this study was a comparative research of nutrition and biological value and functional properties of protein and protein-calcium concentrates produced from rice flour milled from white ...

  13. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RICE PROTEIN CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kolpakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally rice and products of its processing are used to cook porridge, pilaf, lettuce, confectionery, fish, dairy and meat products. At the same time new ways of its processing with releasing of protein products for more effective using, including the use of a glutenfree diet, are developing. The task of this study was a comparative research of nutrition and biological value and functional properties of protein and protein-calcium concentrates produced from rice flour milled from white and brown rice. The traditional and special methods were used. Concentrates were isolated with enzyme preparations of xylanase and amylolytic activity with the next dissolution of protein in diluted hydrochloric acid. Concentrates differed in the content of mineral substances (calcium, zinc, iron and other elements, amino acids and functional properties. The values of the functional properties and indicators of the nutritional value of concentrates from white rice show the advisability of their using in food products, including gluten-free products prepared on the basis of the emulsion and foam systems, and concentrates from brown rice in food products prepared on the basis of using of the emulsion systems. Protein concentrates of brown rice have a low foaming capacity and there is no foam stability at all.

  14. Pleural protein concentration and liquid volume in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai-Fook, S J; Kaplowitz, M R

    1988-01-01

    To determine the effect of systemic vascular hypertension on fluid balance in the pleural space, we studied the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and its genetic normotensive control, the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY). We measured arterial and venous pressures, total protein and albumin concentrations of pleural liquid and plasma, pleural space thickness, and pleural surface pressure in SHR and WKY that were matched for weight (260-300 g). Protein concentration was measured by a manual Biuret test and albumin concentration was measured by the bromcresol green colorimetric method. Pleural liquid thickness was measured in situ using light microscopy. Pleural surface pressure was assumed to equal pleural liquid pressure. In the SHR, total protein and albumin concentrations in pleural liquid were lower than in WKY, and pleural space thickness was larger in SHR than in WKY. These results are consistent with a higher capillary pressure and greater fluid filtration in SHR.

  15. Fast and sensitive detection of protein concentration in mild environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Nie, Xing-Guo; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Determination of protein concentration in mild environments is of great significance in the clinic diagnose and bioassay. Herein, a simple, fast and sensitive method for protein quantitative determination in neutral solution (pH 7.0) is developed. This assay is based on competition adsorption of the sample protein and fluorescently labeled dog serum albumin (FITC-DSA) onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). As the competitor FITC-DSA molecules are added into the mixture solution of sample protein conjugated AuNPs, they will compete for active sites of AuNPs, resulting in decrease in fluorescence intensity due to the quenching effect of AuNPs via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Thus, quantitative determination of sample protein concentration can be achieved. Under the optimum conditions, the decrease in fluorescence intensity of the solution is related to the concentration of sample protein and a low detection limit of 0.01 µg/mL BSA can be achieved in 5 min. For the validation of our strategy in practical applications, the total protein content in human serum was determined using the as-proposed method. The result is in well agreement with that of measured by other conventional methods, suggesting a simple, accurate, and mild approach for protein detection in bioassay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring Protein Concentration on Nitrocellulose and After the Electrophoretic Transfer of Protein to Nitrocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, J P Dean

    2015-01-01

    Proteins bind to nitrocellulose membranes when applied directly or after electrophoretic transfer from polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels. Proteins can be stained for visualization with organic dyes Ponceau S, amido black, Coomassie Blue, and colloidal silver/gold and the intensity of the stain is directly proportional to the amount of protein present. Chemicals that interfere with dye/protein interactions in solution can be removed by washing the nitrocellulose after protein application. A method is described whereby protein-dye complexes attached to the nitrocellulose can be solubilized, dissolving the nitrocellulose and releasing dye into solution for detection by a spectrophotometer. The concentration of the dyes Ponceau S, amido black, and colloidal silver is proportional to the concentration of protein. Proteins transferred electrophoretically from SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, or 2D gels to nitrocellulose can be stained with amido black, protein bands excised, and the bound dye detected in a spectrophotometer to quantify proteins in the individual protein bands.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... sodium hydroxide catalyst, to 330 °F under partial vacuum and steam sparging agitation. (2) The..., bleached, and deodorized edible oil obtained from certain varieties of Brassica Napus or B. Campestris of...

  18. Effects of grass-red clover silage digestibility and concentrate protein concentration on performance, carcass value, eating quality and economy of finishing Hereford bulls reared in cold conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MANNINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experiment was to study the effects of (1 digestibility of grass-red clover silage (GCS and (2 concentrate protein concentration on the performance, eating quality and economy of Hereford bulls during a six months pre-slaughter period, and reared in cold indoor facilities. Thirty-one bulls with an initial live weight (LW of 289 kg were selected for a 2 ~ 2 factorial design experiment consisting of two primary growth GCSs harvested at different maturities (in vitro digestible organic matter (OM in dry matter (DM, D value: Early-cut, E, 750 g kg-1 DM; Late-cut, L, 699 g kg-1 DM and two concentrate crude protein concentrations (Medium, M, 170 g kg-1 DM; High, H, 210 g kg-1 DM. The concentrate comprised milled barley and pelleted commercial protein compound and was offered daily on average 3.2 kg DM, including 0.45 and 1.13 kg of rapeseed cake in M and H, respectively. Grass-red clover silage was offered ad libitum. The target cold carcass weight was 330 kg.The proportion of concentrate of the total daily DM intake averaged 0.337 during the entire experiment. Treatments had no effect on the daily intake of GCS, total intake of DM, DM intake kg-1 LW0.75 and metabolizable energy averaging 6.0 and 9.4 kg DM, 97.4 g and 109.4 MJ, respectively. The digestibility of dietary OM and neutral detergent fibre was lower (p < 0.05, 0.733 vs. 0.769 and 0.625 vs. 0.665 on diet L than on diet E. The animals on diet E tended to consume daily on average 1.29 kg less (p < 0.10 DM kg-1 net weight gain than those on diet L. The time to achieve the target carcass weight was on average 18 days longer (p < 0.01 on diet L than on diet E. During the entire experiment the LW gain averaged 1795 and 1609 g d-1 (p < 0.01 on diets E and L, respectively. The concentrate protein concentration did not affect animal performance. Treatments had no significant effect on the kill-out proportion, EUROP carcass conformation and carcass fat classification which

  19. Protein-poly(amino acid) complex precipitation for high-concentration protein formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinomaru, Takaaki; Maruyama, Takuya; Izaki, Shunsuke; Handa, Kenji; Kimoto, Tomoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2014-08-01

    A method for concentration of protein solutions is required for high-dosage protein formulation. Here, we present a precipitation-redissolution method by poly(amino acid) for proteins, including therapeutic enzymes, antibodies, and hormones. The proteins were fully precipitated by the addition of poly-L-lysine or poly-L-glutamic acid at low ionic strength, after which precipitate was dissolved at physiological ionic strength. The activities and secondary structures of redissolved proteins, especially antibodies, were almost identical to the native state. The precipitation-redissolution method is a simple and rapid technique for concentration of protein formulations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyou Shi

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS. Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM contained more crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA (except His than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF, glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P < 0.05 by 13.47, 43.07, 55.64, 44.68 and 86.09%, respectively, compared with unfermented RSM. A. niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many

  1. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of β......-glucanase + xylanase + pectinase (FLF+Enz). The FLF was prepared by mixing feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) and, once daily, replacing 50% of the mixture with an equal amount of fresh feed and water. The diets were fed to 8 ileal cannulated barrows in a double Latin square design. Ileal digesta and feces were collected...

  2. Dietary soyasaponin supplementation to pea protein concentrate reveals nutrigenomic interactions underlying enteropathy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortner, Trond M; Skugor, Stanko; Penn, Michael H; Mydland, Liv Torunn; Djordjevic, Brankica; Hillestad, Marie; Krasnov, Aleksei; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2012-07-02

    Use of plant ingredients in aquaculture feeds is impeded by high contents of antinutritional factors such as saponins, which may cause various pharmacological and biological effects. In this study, transcriptome changes were analyzed using a 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon fed diets based on five plant protein sources combined with soybean saponins. Diets with corn gluten, sunflower, rapeseed or horsebean produced minor effects while the combination of saponins with pea protein concentrate caused enteritis and major transcriptome changes. Acute inflammation was characterised by up-regulation of cytokines, NFkB and TNFalpha related genes and regulators of T-cell function, while the IFN-axis was suppressed. Induction of lectins, complement, metalloproteinases and the respiratory burst complex parallelled a down-regulation of genes for free radical scavengers and iron binding proteins. Marked down-regulation of xenobiotic metabolism was also observed, possibly increasing vulnerability of the intestinal tissue. A hallmark of metabolic changes was dramatic down-regulation of lipid, bile and steroid metabolism. Impairment of digestion was further suggested by expression changes of nutrient transporters and regulators of water balance (e.g. aquaporin, guanylin). On the other hand, microarray profiling revealed activation of multiple mucosal defence processes. Annexin-1, with important anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties, was markedly up-regulated. Furthermore, augmented synthesis of polyamines needed for cellular proliferation (up-regulation of arginase and ornithine decarboxylase) and increased mucus production (down-regulation of glycan turnover and goblet cell hyperplasia) could participate in mucosal healing and restoration of normal tissue function. The current study promoted understanding of salmon intestinal pathology and establishment of a model for feed induced enteritis. Multiple gene expression

  3. High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen

    2012-11-01

    The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.

  4. Effects of low urea concentrations on protein-water interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luisa A; Povarova, Olga I; Stepanenko, Olga V; Sulatskaya, Anna I; Madeira, Pedro P; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Turoverov, Konstantin K; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2017-01-01

    Solvent properties of aqueous media (dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were measured in the coexisting phases of Dextran-PEG aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) containing .5 and 2.0 M urea. The differences between the electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the phases in the ATPSs were quantified by analysis of partitioning of the homologous series of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side chains. Furthermore, partitioning of eleven different proteins in the ATPSs was studied. The analysis of protein partition behavior in a set of ATPSs with protective osmolytes (sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, and TMAO) at the concentration of .5 M, in osmolyte-free ATPS, and in ATPSs with .5 or 2.0 M urea in terms of the solvent properties of the phases was performed. The results show unambiguously that even at the urea concentration of .5 M, this denaturant affects partitioning of all proteins (except concanavalin A) through direct urea-protein interactions and via its effect on the solvent properties of the media. The direct urea-protein interactions seem to prevail over the urea effects on the solvent properties of water at the concentration of .5 M urea and appear to be completely dominant at 2.0 M urea concentration.

  5. Texture profile in processed cheese: influence of the use of milk protein concentrates and whey protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Borges Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The techno-functional properties of proteins related with the molecular characteristics are facilitated by partial unfolding of structures. From these interactions, the medium pH is presented as a major interferer in intensity and type of reaction that takes place. The intensity of denaturation and interaction of different proteins occur in different forms and intensity accordingly to the pH value of the medium in which they are located. This study aimed to verify the influence of interactions between whey protein concentrate/milk protein concentrate on the evolution of the texture profile of processed cheese at different pH values. We have analyzed samples of commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC and milk protein concentrate (MPC using 112.5g/kg processed cheese. The results were interpreted in terms of texture profile. It was also possible to optimize the different proportions of WPC and MPC, and pH value change the parameters of texture for creamy processed cheese and the pH was also an influencing factor in this optimization.

  6. Effect of Crude Protein Levels in Concentrate and Concentrate Levels in Diet on Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Van Dung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of concentrate mixtures with crude protein (CP levels 10%, 13%, 16%, and 19% and diets with roughage to concentrate ratios 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 (w/w were determined on dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, and fermentation metabolites using an in vitro fermentation technique. In vitro fermented attributes were measured after 4, 24, and 48 h of incubation respectively. The digestibility of DM and OM, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA increased whereas pH decreased with the increased amount of concentrate in the diet (p<0.001, however CP levels of concentrate did not have any influence on these attributes. Gas production reduced with increased CP levels, while it increased with increasing concentrate levels. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and microbial CP production increased significantly (p<0.05 by increasing CP levels and with increasing concentrate levels in diet as well, however, no significant difference was found between 16% and 19% CP levels. Therefore, 16% CP in concentrate and increasing proportion of concentrate up to 80% in diet all had improved digestibility of DM and organic matter, and higher microbial protein production, with improved fermentation characteristics.

  7. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  8. The effect of mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis of lignite and rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onay, O [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School; Usta, C.; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of lignite on the yield and chemical structure of bio-oil produced from rapeseed using a fast pyrolysis technique. The rapeseed and lignite mixtures were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor. Heating rates and temperatures were controlled by a PID controller. Char yield after pyrolysis was determined from the overall weight losses of the reactor tube, while the liquid phase was collected in a glass liner. Experiments were conducted using a range of blending ratios. While final pyrolysis temperatures were set at 550 degrees C. An elemental analyzer was used to characterize the rapeseed and pyrolysis bio-oils. Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) was used to conduct functional group compositional analyses. The study showed that conversion degree increased with temperature increases. Yields of both conversion and oil increased with biomass concentration. However, distribution between conversion and oil was influenced by the blending ratio. A maximum yield of oil was obtained with a 5 per cent blending ratio of lignite. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis of rapeseed and coal at a temperature of 550 degrees C increases production by more than 11 per cent. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Validation of a headspace trap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of volatile compounds from degraded rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Lilia; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N; Watiez, Mickaël; Breton, Sylvie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Due to lipid oxidation, off-flavors, characterized by a fishy odor, are emitted during the heating of rapeseed oil in a fryer and affect the flavor of rapeseed oil even at low concentrations. Thus, there is a need for analytical methods to identify and quantify these products. To study the headspace composition of degraded rapeseed oil, and more specifically the compounds responsible for the fishy odor, a headspace trap gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and validated. Six volatile compounds formed during the degradation of rapeseed oil were quantified: 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, hexanal, nonanal, (E,E)-heptadienal, and (E)-2-heptenal. Validation using accuracy profiles allowed us to determine the valid ranges of concentrations for each compound, with acceptance limits of 40% and tolerance limits of 80%. This method was then successfully applied to real samples of degraded oils. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Free proline, soluble sugars and soluble proteins concentration as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effects of salt stress on free proline, soluble sugars and soluble proteins accumulation were investigated in two sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) cultivars: CP66-346 (salt- tolerant) and CP65-357 (salt-sensitive). Young plants of these cultivars were exposed, in a hydroponic system, to four concentrations of NaCl ...

  11. QTL identification of grain protein concentration and its genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our objective was to analyse the influence of genetic backgrounds on QTL detection for protein concentration (PC) and to reveal the molecular genetic associations between PC and both SC and grain weight (GWP). Two hundred and eighty-four (Pop1) and 265 (Pop2) F2:3 families were developed from two crosses ...

  12. Whey protein concentrate storage at elevated temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy processors are finding new export markets for whey protein concentrate (WPC), a byproduct of cheesemaking, but they need to know if full-sized bags of this powder will withstand high temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels during unrefrigerated storage under tropical conditions. To answ...

  13. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  14. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both poor and good correlation of total protein concentrations in various avian species using refractometry and biuret methodologies. The purpose of the current study was to compare these 2 techniques of total protein determination using plasma samples from several psittacine species and to determine the effect of cholesterol and other solutes on refractometry results. Total protein concentration in heparinized plasma samples without visible lipemia was analyzed by refractometry and an automated biuret method on a dry reagent analyzer (Ortho 250). Cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid concentrations were measured using the same analyzer. Results were compared using Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman bias plots, and Spearman's rank correlation. Correlation coefficients (r) for total protein results by refractometry and biuret methods were 0.49 in African grey parrots (n=28), 0.77 in Amazon parrots (20), 0.57 in cockatiels (20), 0.73 in cockatoos (36), 0.86 in conures (20), and 0.93 in macaws (38) (PMethod and species-specific reference intervals should be used in the interpretation of total protein values.

  15. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in hypertensive patients: predictive value of protein concentration versus total protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy M; Briandet, Benjamin M; Caranta, Diane G; Zelig, Craig M

    2014-11-01

    To compare the predictive value of protein concentration in a twenty-four hour urine collection to the conventional total protein in a twenty-four hour urine collection for adverse pregnancy outcomes in hypertensive patients. Retrospective cohort study. Hypertensive patients ≥20 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA) who completed twenty-four hour urine protein collections were identified; antepartum and delivery data were examined. For study patients who met criteria for adverse pregnancy outcome, multi-variable analysis was performed and summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for each model (total protein compared to protein concentration). The models were compared by analyzing the area under the curve (AUC). A total of 150 patients were analyzed. Mean gestational age at delivery was 36.7 weeks. Analysis of the ROC curves showed no significant difference between the models (AUCs of 0.668 versus 0.656, p = 0.715). Optimal thresholds were 299.2 mg for total protein and 0.1 mg/ml for protein concentration. A protein concentration of 0.1 mg/ml on a twenty-four hour urine collection appears equivalent to the traditional 300 mg total protein. If confirmed by prospective studies, this finding would be clinically important in cases where collections fall short of the 300 mg threshold but exceed the 0.1 mg/ml concentration.

  16. Raapzaadeiwitconcentraat en erwteneiwitconcentraat in biologisch biggenvoer = Canola protein concentrate and pea protein concentratrate in diets for organically housed piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    At the Experimental Farm Raalte it was investigated whether canola protein concentrate and pea protein concentrate are suitable protein-rich feedstuffs for organically housed piglets. It is concluded that both protein concentrates are suitable protein-rich feedstuffs for piglets. Feed intake and

  17. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) protein adduct concentrations during therapeutic dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Kennon; Green, Jody L; Anderson, Victoria; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Dart, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Paracetamol protein adducts (PPA) are a biomarker of paracetamol exposure. PPA are quantified as paracetamol-cysteine (APAP-CYS), and concentrations above 1.1 μmol l(-1) have been suggested as a marker of paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. However, there is little information on the range of concentrations observed during prolonged therapeutic dosing. The aim of the present study was to describe the concentration of PPA in the serum of subjects taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol for at least 16 days. Preplanned secondary aim of a prospective randomized controlled (placebo vs. 4g day(-1) paracetamol) trial. We measured subjects' serum PPA concentrations every 3 days for a minimum of 16 days. We also measured concentrations on study days 1-3 and 16-25 in subsets of patients. PPA were quantified as APAP-CYS after gel filtration and protein digestion using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ninety per cent of subjects had detectable PPA after five doses. Median APAP-CYS concentrations in paracetamol-treated subjects increased to a plateau of 0.1 μmol l(-1) on day 7, where they remained. The highest concentration measured was 1.1 μmol l(-1) and two subjects never had detectable PPA levels. PPA were detected in the serum of 78% of subjects 9 days after their final dose. PPA are detectable in the vast majority of subjects taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol. While most have concentrations well below the threshold associated with hepatotoxicity, concentrations may approach 1.1 μmol l(-1) in rare cases. Adducts are detectable after a few doses and can persist for over a week after dosing is stopped. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs of processed ingredients originating from soybeans, 00-rapeseeds, or a fermented mixture of plant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, D M D L; Liu, Y; Bruun, T S; Stein, H H

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of processed soybean products, in conventional dehulled soybean meal (SBM-CV), in conventional 00-rapeseed expellers (RSE), and in a fermented coproduct mixture (FCM) that contained rapeseed meal, wheat, soy molasses, and potato peel fed to weanling pigs. The 4 processed soybean products included 2 sources of enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM-1 and ESBM-2), extruded soybean meal, and soy protein concentrate (SPC). Twenty-seven weanling barrows (9.29 ± 0.58 kg initial BW) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Pigs were randomly allotted to three 9 × 5 Youden squares with 9 pigs and five 7-d periods in each square. Seven cornstarch-based diets were prepared using each of the protein sources as the sole source of CP and AA. A N-free diet was prepared to calculate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA, and this diet was fed to 2 groups of pigs, which resulted in a total of 9 dietary treatments. Results indicate that the SID of CP was greater ( soybean products, but the SID of total dispensable AA in ESBM-1 was greater ( soybean meal (SBM) products. The SID of most AA in RSE and the SID of all AA in FCM were less ( soybean products.

  19. Interaction of silver nanoparticles with proteins: a characteristic protein concentration dependent profile of SPR signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Victor; Das, K P

    2013-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles are finding increasing applications in biological systems, for example as antimicrobial agents and potential candidates for control drug release systems. In all such applications, silver nanoparticles interact with proteins and other biomolecules. Hence, the study of such interactions is of considerable importance. While BSA has been extensively used as a model protein for the study of interaction with the silver nanoparticles, studies using other proteins are rather limited. The interaction of silver nanoparticles with light leads to collective oscillation of the conducting electrons giving rise to surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Here, we have studied the protein concentration dependence of the SPR band profiles for a number of proteins. We found that for all the proteins, with increase in concentration, the SPR band intensity initially decreased, reaching minima and then increased again leading to a characteristic "dip and rise" pattern. Minimum point of the pattern appeared to be related to the isoelectric point of the proteins. Detailed dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the consistency of SPR profile was dependent on the average particle size and state of association of the silver nanoparticles with the change in the protein concentration. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed the binding constants of the proteins with the silver nanoparticles were in the nano molar range with more than one nanoparticle binding to protein molecule. Structural studies demonstrate that protein retains its native-like structure on the nanoparticle surface unless the molar ratio of silver nanoparticles to protein exceeds 10. Our study reveals that nature of the protein concentration dependent profile of SPR signal is a general phenomena and mostly independent of the size and structure of the proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of additives on the formation of protein aggregates and viscosity in concentrated protein solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katharina Christin; Suhm, Susanna; Wöll, Anna Katharina; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2017-01-10

    In concentrated protein solutions attractive protein interactions may not only cause the formation of undesired aggregates but also of gel-like networks with elevated viscosity. To guarantee stable biopharmaceutical processes and safe formulations, both phenomenons have to be avoided as these may hinder regular processing steps. This work screens the impact of additives on both phase behavior and viscosity of concentrated protein solutions. For this purpose, additives known for stabilizing proteins in solution or modulating the dynamic viscosity were selected. These additives were PEG 300, PEG 1000, glycerol, glycine, NaCl and ArgHCl. Concentrated lysozyme and glucose oxidase solutions at pH 3 and 9 served as model systems. Fourier-transformed-infrared spectroscopy was chosen to determine the conformational stability of selected protein samples. Influencing protein interactions, the impact of additives was strongly dependent on pH. Of all additives investigated, glycine was the only one that maintained protein conformational and colloidal stability while decreasing the dynamic viscosity. Low concentrations of NaCl showed the same effect, but increasing concentrations resulted in visible protein aggregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in European soya bean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, C; Mosenthin, R; Nenning, S; Wiltafsky, M; Schäffler, M; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder-Kuon, P

    2017-10-25

    This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of European soya bean and rapeseed products in pigs. Six soya bean and two rapeseed products were used as the sole dietary source of CP and AA, including raw (FFSB) and roasted full-fat soya beans (FFSBRoasted ), soya bean (SBC) and rapeseed cake (RSC), and rapeseed meal (RSM) from Bavaria (Germany), soya bean meal (SBM) from the Danube region (Austria; SBMAustria ), a commercially available standard SBM (SBMStd ) and an imported genetically modified organism-free SBM (SBMGMO-free ). Eight ileal- cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 32 ± 2 kg were allotted to a row-column design with eight diets and six periods of seven days each. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged from 1.8 in SBMStd to 24.5 mg/g DM in FFSB. The SID of CP and all AA in FFSBRoasted were greater than in FFSB, but lower when compared to SBC and SBMAustria (p soya bean and rapeseed products as influenced by differences in processing conditions. European SBC and SBMAustria can be used as alternative to imported SBMGMO-free and SBMStd in diets for growing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Composition, ileal amino acid digestibility and nutritive value of organically grown legume seeds and conventional rapeseed cakes for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight white-flowered pea (Pisum sativum and two white-flowered field bean (Vicia faba cultivars grown organically were analysed for proximate composition and amino acid content. In vivo ileal amino acid digestibilities and faecal energy digestibility were predicted from the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of nitrogen and organic matter, respectively. The crude protein (CP content of the pea and field bean cultivars ranged from 244 to 279 and from 320 to 347 g/kg dry matter (DM, respectively. The concentrations of several essential amino acids in protein decreased as the CP content increased. In peas, predicted in vivo digestibilities did not correlate with chemical composition, and in field beans were lower than in peas. A digestibility trial was carried out on six cannulated barrows according to a 6 ´ 5 cyclic change-over design to determine the faecal and ileal nutrient digestibilities of organically grown leafed peas (cv. Sohvi, 199 g CP/kg DM, semileafless peas (cv. Karita, 240 g CP/kg DM, field beans (cv. Kontu, 320 g CP/kg DM, narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Pershatsvet, 220 g CP/kg DM, and conventional warm- and cold-pressed rapeseed cakes (360 and 313 g CP/kg DM, respectively. The net energy contents of the leafed and semileafed peas, field beans, lupins, and cold- and warm-pressed rape seed cakes were 10.8, 11.2, 9.8, 9.7, 9.4 and 12.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The apparent ileal digestibilities of lysine and threonine were similar, but the digestibility of methionine was poor in all legume seeds. Cystine digestibility was highest in lupins and lowest in field beans. With the exception of phenylalanine, there was no difference in apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities between rapeseed cakes.;

  3. Rapeseed and sunflower meal: a review on biotechnology status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomascolo, Anne; Uzan-Boukhris, Eva; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Fine, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Rapeseed and sunflower are two of the world's major oilseeds. Rapeseed and sunflower meal (RSM and SFM), the by-products of oil extraction, are produced in large quantities. They are mainly composed of proteins, lignocellulosic fibres and minerals. They were initially used as a protein complement in animal feed rations and sometimes as fertilizer or as combustible source. More recently, new alternatives to these traditional uses have been developed that draw on the structure and physicochemical properties of RSM and SFM, which are plentiful sources of nitrogen and carbon nutrients. This feature, together with their cheapness and ready availability, supports the cultivation of various microorganisms in both submerged cultures and solid-state fermentation. Recent studies have thus emphasized the potential utilisation of RSM and SFM in fermentative processes, including saccharification and production of enzymes, antibiotics, antioxidants and other bio-products, opening new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  4. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  5. Concentration Dependent Ion-Protein Interaction Patterns Underlying Protein Oligomerization Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batoulis, Helena; Schmidt, Thomas H; Weber, Pascal; Schloetel, Jan-Gero; Kandt, Christian; Lang, Thorsten

    2016-04-07

    Salts and proteins comprise two of the basic molecular components of biological materials. Kosmotropic/chaotropic co-solvation and matching ion water affinities explain basic ionic effects on protein aggregation observed in simple solutions. However, it is unclear how these theories apply to proteins in complex biological environments and what the underlying ionic binding patterns are. Using the positive ion Ca(2+) and the negatively charged membrane protein SNAP25, we studied ion effects on protein oligomerization in solution, in native membranes and in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that concentration-dependent ion-induced protein oligomerization is a fundamental chemico-physical principle applying not only to soluble but also to membrane-anchored proteins in their native environment. Oligomerization is driven by the interaction of Ca(2+) ions with the carboxylate groups of aspartate and glutamate. From low up to middle concentrations, salt bridges between Ca(2+) ions and two or more protein residues lead to increasingly larger oligomers, while at high concentrations oligomers disperse due to overcharging effects. The insights provide a conceptual framework at the interface of physics, chemistry and biology to explain binding of ions to charged protein surfaces on an atomistic scale, as occurring during protein solubilisation, aggregation and oligomerization both in simple solutions and membrane systems.

  6. Role of protein concentration and protein-saliva interactions in the astringency of whey proteins at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M; Vardhanabhuti, B; Luck, P; Drake, M A; Osborne, J; Foegeding, E A

    2010-05-01

    Whey protein beverages are adjusted to pH protein concentration on astringency and interactions between whey and salivary proteins. Whey protein beverages containing 0.25 to 13% (wt/wt) beta-lactoglobulin and 0.017% (wt/wt) sucralose at pH 2.6 to 4.2 were examined using descriptive sensory analysis. Controls were similar pH phosphate buffers at phosphate concentrations equivalent to the amount of phosphoric acid required to adjust the pH of the protein solution. Changes in astringency with protein concentration depended on pH. At pH 3.5, astringency significantly increased with protein concentration from 0.25 to 4% (wt/wt) and then remained constant from 4 to 13% (wt/wt). Conversely, at pH 2.6, astringency decreased with an increase in protein concentration [0.5-10% (wt/wt)]. This suggests a complex relationship that includes pH and buffering capacity of the beverages. Furthermore, saliva flow rates increased with increasing protein concentrations, showing that the physiological conditions in the mouth change with protein concentration. Maximum turbidity of whey protein-saliva mixtures was observed between pH 4.6 and 5.2. Both sensory evaluation and in vitro study of interactions between beta-LG and saliva indicate that astringency of whey proteins is a complex process determined by the extent of aggregation occurring in the mouth, which depends on the whey protein beverage pH and buffering capacity in addition to saliva flow rate. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of factor VII protein concentration with lifestyle factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Møller, L; Jespersen, J

    1998-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that changes in fasting levels of factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C), a thrombotic risk marker, are due to changes in FVII protein concentrations (FVII:Ag). Consequently, studies on FVII now often include measurements of FVII:Ag. The present cross-sectional s......Several studies have demonstrated that changes in fasting levels of factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C), a thrombotic risk marker, are due to changes in FVII protein concentrations (FVII:Ag). Consequently, studies on FVII now often include measurements of FVII:Ag. The present cross....... These results suggest that blood lipids are major determinants of FVII:Ag, but that other lifestyle factors such as insulin, BMI and physical activity can also influence FVII:Ag. Furthermore, the association between FVII:Ag and bleeding time suggests an effect of FVII or the FVII pathway on primary haemostasis...

  8. Characterization of extruded and toasted milk protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2013-06-01

    Important functional properties of milk protein concentrate with 80% protein (MPC80), modified with low- and high-shear extrusion, or low-temperature toasting were compared. The effect of high- and low-shear profile screws in a corotating twin-screw extruder, and 4 different ramped temperature profiles with die temperatures of 65, 75, 90, and 120 °C were compared. Extrudates were pelletized, dried, and ground to a fine powder. Toasting was done at 75 and 110 °C for 4 h for milk protein modification. Extruded and toasted MPC80 had reduced protein solubility and surface hydrophobicity. Extrusion decreased water-holding capacity (WHC). Toasted MPC80 had increased WHC when treated at 75 °C, but WHC decreased when heated at 110 °C. The treatments had no strong influence on gel strength. Reduced and nonreduced sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed peptide structural changes that occurred due to processing, especially for whey proteins. Results are discussed in terms of potential for application of extruded or toasted MPC80 in high-protein nutrition bar applications. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Functional Characteristics of Milk Protein Concentrates and Their Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lv, Jia-Ping; Zhang, Shu-Wen

    2016-05-18

    A major deterrent to the usage of milk protein concentrate (MPC), a high-protein milk product with increasing demand as a food and sports drink ingredient, has been its poor functional characteristics when compared with other milk protein products such as whey protein concentrate and sodium caseinates. This review discusses the recent research on functional properties of MPC, focusing on factors that may contribute to the poor functional characteristics before, during, and after production. Current research, methods employed, and new understanding on the causes of poor solubility of MPC at mild temperatures (about 20°C) has been presented, including loss of solubility during storage as these areas have received unprecedented attention over the past decade, and also affects other useful functional properties of MPC, such as emulsifying properties, gelation, and foaming. Processing methods, which include heat treatment, high-pressure application, microwave heating, ultrasound application, and enzyme and salts modification, have been used or have potential to modify or improve the functional properties of MPCs. Future research on the effects of these processing methods on the functional properties, including effects of enzyme hydrolysis on bitterness and bioactivity, has also been discussed.

  10. Effects of physical treatment of barley and rapeseed meal in dairy cows given grass silage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four Ayrshire cows were used to study the effects of physical treatment of barley, rapeseed meal (RSM supplementation and heat-moisture treatment of RSM on silage intake and milk production. Experimental design was a cyclic change-over with six dietary treatments. The treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement consisted of either untreated (UB or heat-moisture treated barley (TB, given without protein supplementation (control or with untreated or heat-moisture treated RSM. Grass silage was given ad libitum and the concentrates at a rate of 10 kg/d. For the RSM diets, 2 kg/d of the basal concentrate was replaced with either untreated or treated RSM. Treatment of barley decreased silage intake, the effect being greater when the supplement did not contain RSM. There was no effect on milk yield, but due to the lower milk fat content, energy corrected milk yield was lower in cows given TB than in those given UB. Feeding the TB diets was also associated with lower milk urea content, and with increased milk protein content but not protein yield. Faster initial rate of gas production in vitro suggested that the treatment of barley increased the rate of fermentation. Compared with the control diets, RSM supplementation significantly increased silage intake, milk yield, milk protein content and yields of all milk constituents. Heat-moisture treatment of RSM did not produce any further production response.;

  11. Effects of processing technologies and pectolytic enzymes on degradability of nonstarch polysaccharides from rapeseed meal in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Pustjens, A.M.; Kabel, M.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed meal (RSM) contains a high level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) that are not well degraded in poultry and interfere with digestion of other nutrients as protein, starch, and fat. By altering physicochemical properties of NSP from RSM, processing and enzyme technologies might improve

  12. characterisation of rapeseed oil based resins using infrared

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Rapeseed oil which is a triglyceride had undergone chemical modification on its structure to obtain hydroxyl groups. The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-p- phenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using ...

  13. Characterisation of Rapeseed Oil Based Resins Using Infrared and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapeseed oil which is a triglyceride had undergone chemical modification on its structure to obtain hydroxyl groups. The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-pphenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using the Attenuated ...

  14. characterisation of rapeseed oil based resins using infrared

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    CHARACTERISATION OF RAPESEED OIL BASED RESINS. USING INFRARED AND THERMOGRAVIMETRY TECHNIQUES. LY Mwaikambo. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,. University of Dar Es salaam, P.O. Box 35131, Dar Es salaam, Tanzania, lyrmwaikambo@udsm.ac.tz. ABSTRACT. Rapeseed ...

  15. Assessment of nutritional quality of water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adeyemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was embarked upon to convert water hyacinth, an environmental nuisance, to a natural resource for economic development. Water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate (WHLPC was extracted in edible form and determination of its physicochemical characteristics, total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was done. Analysis of proximate composition and amino acid profile of the WHLPC was also done. The level of heavy metals (mg/kg in WHLPC was found to be Cd (0.02 ± 0.001, Cr (0.13 ± 0.001, Pd (0.003 ± 0.001 and Hg (0.02 ± 0.001 while concentrations of Pb, Pt, Sn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co were found to be 0.001 ± 0.00. Level of all heavy metals was found to be within safe limit. Proximate analysis revealed that protein in WHLPC accounted for 50% of its nutrients, carbohydrate accounted for 33% of its nutrients while fat, ash and fibre made up the remaining nutrients. Amino acid analysis showed that WHLPC contained 17 out of 20 common amino acids, particularly, Phe (3.67%, Leu (5.01%. Level of total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was 16.6 mg/kg and 6.0 mg/kg respectively. Evidence from this study suggests that WHLPC is a good source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC; it is nutritious and acutely non toxic.

  16. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fiebig, Anne [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  17. Nutritional evaluation of low-glucosinolate rapeseed meals obtained by various processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, K D; Mangold, H K; El Nockrashy, A S

    1979-01-01

    Defatted meals were prepared from two new varieties of rapeseed, the 'high-glucosinolate' variety, Brassica napus, Lesira, and the 'low-glucosinolate' variety, Brassica napus, Erglu, by each of the following processes: (1) defatting of the ground seed with hexane; (2) extraction of the myrosinase-deactivated ground seed with 70% aqueous acetone for the removal of glucosinolates followed by defatting with pure acetone, and (3) autolysis of the ground seed for the decomposition of glucosinolates followed by defatting and simultaneous removal of the decomposition products with hexane. The defatted meals obtained after extraction with aqueous acetone of autolysis contain very little glucosinolates and their degradation products as compared to those obtained by defatting with hexane only. The contents of available lysine and of phytates in the meals are, to some extent, affected by the treatment for the removal of glucosinolates. The rapeseed meals were fed at different levels to protein-depleted chicks and weanling rats. The animals fed low-glucosinolate meals prepared both from high-glucosinolate and low-glucosinolate varieties of rapeseed gave superior performance with regard to the feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio as compared to the animals fed the corresponding meals which were obtained simply by defatting the seeds with hexane. The levels of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the serum of rats fed low-glucosinolate meals indicated normal function of the thyroid, whereas those in rats fed high-glucosinolate meals revealed hypothyroidism of the animals.

  18. The use of crude protein content to predict concentrations of lysine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    proteins provided by energy sources (i.e. cereal grains), as protein sources are more ... Lysine concentrations were determined with a Beckman System 6300 High .... The biological value of maize protein (Cromwell et al., 1983), wheat protein.

  19. The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H., E-mail: jch@life.ku.dk [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: > A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. > The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. > Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M can be distinguished from the controls. > Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

  20. Chemical Composition and Some Functional Properties of Beef Lung Protein Concentrate Extracted by Alkaline Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khotibul Umam Al Awwaly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to examine the functional properties of beef lung protein concentrates. The extraction was performed as a function of pH and time. The pI method was applied in the precipitation of proteins from beef lung. Beef lung protein concentrates contained 85.13% protein. The functional properties of the protein concentrates were compared to those of some commercial ingredients as whey protein concentrates, and casein. Protein from beef lung exhibited better foaming property than casein and better emulsifying property than whey protein. The use of beef lung proteins appears to be an interesting opportunity to obtain added value slaughterhouse by-products.

  1. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurti, R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24% lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.

  2. Dietary soyasaponin supplementation to pea protein concentrate reveals nutrigenomic interactions underlying enteropathy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortner Trond M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of plant ingredients in aquaculture feeds is impeded by high contents of antinutritional factors such as saponins, which may cause various pharmacological and biological effects. In this study, transcriptome changes were analyzed using a 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon fed diets based on five plant protein sources combined with soybean saponins. Results Diets with corn gluten, sunflower, rapeseed or horsebean produced minor effects while the combination of saponins with pea protein concentrate caused enteritis and major transcriptome changes. Acute inflammation was characterised by up-regulation of cytokines, NFkB and TNFalpha related genes and regulators of T-cell function, while the IFN-axis was suppressed. Induction of lectins, complement, metalloproteinases and the respiratory burst complex parallelled a down-regulation of genes for free radical scavengers and iron binding proteins. Marked down-regulation of xenobiotic metabolism was also observed, possibly increasing vulnerability of the intestinal tissue. A hallmark of metabolic changes was dramatic down-regulation of lipid, bile and steroid metabolism. Impairment of digestion was further suggested by expression changes of nutrient transporters and regulators of water balance (e.g. aquaporin, guanylin. On the other hand, microarray profiling revealed activation of multiple mucosal defence processes. Annexin-1, with important anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties, was markedly up-regulated. Furthermore, augmented synthesis of polyamines needed for cellular proliferation (up-regulation of arginase and ornithine decarboxylase and increased mucus production (down-regulation of glycan turnover and goblet cell hyperplasia could participate in mucosal healing and restoration of normal tissue function. Conclusion The current study promoted understanding of salmon intestinal pathology and establishment of a

  3. Neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulping of rapeseed residues

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; LATIBARI, Ahmad Jahan; FAEZIPOUR, Mehdi; HEDJAZI, Sahab

    2014-01-01

    Neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulping of rapeseed residues from Karadj rapeseed growing fields was investigated. Rapeseed residue was collected from the research field at the Agriculture and Natural Resources Campus, University of Tehran located in Karadj. Cellulose, lignin, holocellulose, extractives soluble in alcohol acetone, 1% NaOH solubility, and ash were determined as 42 ± 2%, 17 ± 1%, 77.5 ± 2%, 2.2 ± 0.1%, 50.3 ± 1.6%, and 6%, respectively. Fiber length, width, and cell wall t...

  4. [Effect of rapeseed from different distributors on the rat liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvizouri, M

    1993-01-01

    In previous papers it was reported that rapeseed could prevent the development of cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and at the same time can induce liver regeneration in the rat. In such experiments rapeseed was always obtained from the same distributor "Semillas Berentsen". When reseed of different distributors was used, neither cirrhosis prevention or liver regeneration was observed. The difference among the rapeseed used was that "Semillas Berentsen" utilizes a fungicide to preserve the seed and the other distributors do not use any preservative. This circumstance made think that the active principle responsible for the effects observed is probably the fungicide.

  5. Characterising variation of branch angle and genome-wide association mapping in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the rapeseed branch angle alter plant architecture, allowing more efficient light capture as planting density increases. In this study, a natural population of rapeseed was grown in three environments and evaluated for branch angle trait to characterize their phenotypic patterns and genotype with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array. Significant phenotypic variation was observed from 20 to 70 degrees. As a result, 25 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with branch angle were identified on chromosomes A2, A3, A7, C3, C5 and C7 by the MLM model in TASSEL 4.0. Orthologs of the functional candidate genes involved in branch angle were identified. Among the key QTL, the peak SNPs were close to the key orthologous genes BnaA.Lazy1 and BnaC.Lazy1 on A3 and C3 homologous genome blocks. With the exception of Lazy (LA orthologous genes, SQUMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE 14 (SPL14 and an auxin-responsive GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3 genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were identified close to two clusters of SNPs on the A7 and C7 chromosomes.These findings on multiple novel loci and candidate genes of branch angle will be useful for further understanding and genetic improvement of plant architecture in rapeseed.

  6. Characterizing Variation of Branch Angle and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Wenxiang; Mei, Desheng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Li; Liu, Daoming; Li, Yunchang; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the rapeseed branch angle alter plant architecture, allowing more efficient light capture as planting density increases. In this study, a natural population of rapeseed was grown in three environments and evaluated for branch angle trait to characterize their phenotypic patterns and genotype with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array. Significant phenotypic variation was observed from 20 to 70°. As a result, 25 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with branch angle were identified on chromosomes A2, A3, A7, C3, C5, and C7 by the MLM model in TASSEL 4.0. Orthologs of the functional candidate genes involved in branch angle were identified. Among the key QTL, the peak SNPs were close to the key orthologous genes BnaA.Lazy1 and BnaC.Lazy1 on A3 and C3 homologous genome blocks. With the exception of Lazy (LA) orthologous genes, SQUMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE 14 (SPL14) and an auxin-responsive GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were identified close to two clusters of SNPs on the A7 and C7 chromosomes. These findings on multiple novel loci and candidate genes of branch angle will be useful for further understanding and genetic improvement of plant architecture in rapeseed.

  7. Dependence of rapeseed quality and yield on density, variety and year of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is an important industrial plant in the world. In Vojvodina region of Serbia it is grown on well aerated and deep soils. Most often it is sown with the distance between the rows of 25 cm, and 5-6 cm within the row. The trial with three winter rapeseed genotypes (Banaćanka, Slavica and NS-H-2 was set up at Rimski Šančevi (Vojvodina during growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Seed was sown with inter row spacing of 25 cm, and spacing within the rows of 5 cm, 8 cm, 10 cm and 16 cm. The following parameters were tested upon harvesting: seed germination, 1000 seed weight, test weight, seed yield, oil content and total protein in seed. No effect of planting density was observed on rapeseed seed quality produced in 2009/10 and 2010/11, which should be kept in mind when determining the quantity of seed required for sowing.

  8. Protein conformational modifications and kinetics of water-protein interactions in milk protein concentrate powder upon aging: effect on solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Enamul; Bhandari, Bhesh R; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Møller, Sandie M; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2010-07-14

    Protein conformational modifications and water-protein interactions are two major factors believed to induce instability of protein and eventually affect the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder. To test these hypotheses, MPC was stored at different water activities (a(w) 0.0-0.85) and temperatures (25 and 45 degrees C) for up to 12 weeks. Samples were examined periodically to determine solubility, change in protein conformation by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA), and water status (interaction of water with the protein molecule/surface) by measuring the transverse relaxation time (T(2)) with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The solubility of MPC decreased significantly with aging, and this process was enhanced by increasing water activity (a(w)) and storage temperature. Minor changes in protein secondary structure were observed with FTIR, which indicated some degree of unfolding of protein molecules. PCA of the FTIR data was able to discriminate samples according to moisture content and storage period. Partial least-squares (PLS) analysis showed some correlation between FTIR spectral feature and solubility. The NMR T(2) results indicated the presence of three distinct populations of water molecules, and the proton signal intensity and T(2) values of proton fractions varied with storage conditions (humidity, temperature) and aging. Results suggest that protein/protein interactions may be initiated by unfolding of protein molecules that eventually affects solubility.

  9. Comparative proteome analysis of drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant rapeseed roots and their hybrid F1 line under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Payam Pour; Moieni, Ahmad; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-11-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), which is the third leading source of vegetable oil, is sensitive to drought stress during the early vegetative growth stage. To investigate the initial response of rapeseed to drought stress, changes in the protein expression profiles of drought-sensitive (RGS-003) and drought-tolerant lines (SLM-003), and their F1 hybrid, were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Seven-day-old rapeseed seedlings were treated with drought stress by restricting water for 7 days, and proteins were extracted from roots and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the sensitive rapeseed line, 35 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins related to metabolism, energy, disease/defense, and transport were decreased. In the tolerant line, 32 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins involved in metabolism, disease/defense, and transport were increased, while energy-related proteins were decreased. Six protein spots in F1 hybrid were common among expressed proteins in the drought-sensitive and -tolerant lines. Notably, tubulin beta-2 and heat shock protein 70 were decreased in the drought-sensitive line and hybrid F1 plants, while jasmonate-inducible protein and 20S proteasome subunit PAF1 were increased in the F1 hybrids and drought-tolerant line. These results indicate that (1) V-type H(+) ATPase, plasma-membrane associated cation-binding protein, HSP 90, and elongation factor EF-2 have a role in the drought tolerance of rapeseed; (2) The decreased levels of heat shock protein 70 and tubulin beta-2 in the drought-sensitive and hybrid F1 lines might explain the reduced growth of these lines in drought conditions.

  10. Can rapeseed lower methane emission from heifers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    300 kg. Dry matter intake (DMI; P=0.01) and daily CH4 emission (P=0.002) were lowest on the FAT. However, CH4 emission per kg DMI (P=0.21) or per kg weight gain (P=0.44) was not different. The loss of CH4 as a percentage of gross energy intake tended to be lower on FAT (6.4%) than on CON (6.8%; P=0......Twelve heifers were assigned to either a control diet (CON) with 26 g fat per kg dry matter (DM) or a supplemented diet (FAT) with crushed rapeseed with 53 g fat per kg DM. Methane (CH4) emission was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for four days when the heifers weighed approximately.......08). It is concluded that the FAT may have potential to reduce CH4 emission from heifers, but further studies are warranted to document this effect....

  11. Protein aggregation under high concentration/density state during chromatographic and ultrafiltration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Ejima, Daisuke; Akuta, Teruo

    2017-02-01

    Local transient high protein concentration or high density condition can occur during processing of protein solutions. Typical examples are saturated binding of proteins during column chromatography and high protein concentration on the semi-permeable membrane during ultrafiltration. Both column chromatography and ultrafiltration are fundamental technologies, specially for production of pharmaceutical proteins. We summarize here our experiences related to such high concentration conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of rapeseed oil cake using nitrogen adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Z.; Bowanko, G.; Boguta, P.; Tys, J.; Skiba, K.

    2013-09-01

    Adsorption of nitrogen on the rapeseed oil cake and rapeseed oil cake with wheat meal extrudates was investigated. The results are presented as adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Brunauer-Emmet and Teller equation was used to analyse the experimental sorption data. To obtain estimates of the surface area and surface fractal dimension, the sorption isotherms were analyzed using the Brunauer-Emmet and Teller and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equations. Mesopore analysis was carried out using the Dollimore and Heal method. The properties and surface characteristic of rapeseed oil cake extrudates are related to different basic properties of particular samples and duration of the extrusion process. Extrusion conditions lead to essential differences in particular products. For all kinds of rapeseed oil cakes the amount of adsorbed nitrogen was different, but for the rapeseed oil cake extrudates a large amount of adsorbed nitrogenwas observed. The average surface area of the rapeseed oil cake extrudates was about 6.5-7.0 m2 g-1, whereas it was equal to about 4.0-6.0 m2 g-1 for rapeseed oil cake with the wheat meal extrudates. In the case of non-extruded rapeseed oil cake and wheat meal, the dominant group included ca. 2 and 5 nmpores. The values of surface fractal dimension suggested that the surface of the extrudates was more homogenous than that of the raw material. Duration of the extrusion process to 80 s resulted in a decrease in the specific surface area, surface fractal dimension, and porosity of the extrudates.

  13. Concentration dependence of dynamic moduli of heat-induced soy protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, J.M.S.; Vliet, van T.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of dynamic moduli of soy protein gels was studied for different protein preparations (soy protein isolate), purified glycinin and a -conglycinin rich fraction) at various pHs and salt concentrations. The concentration dependence of the storage modulus of glycinin and

  14. Drying and hydration of proteins at high concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are the building blocks of life and serve a wide range of essential functions in organisms. Many metabolic reactions in organisms are catalysed by enzymes, DNA is replicated by proteins and in cells proteins often facilitate active transport of e.g. glucose or ions. Proteins also serve an

  15. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2016-01-01

    concentration by 5%, while elevated temperature (+5 °C day/night) substantially increased protein concentration by 29%. The combined treatment increased protein concentration across accessions by 8%. This was an increase less than predicted from strictly additive effects of the individual treatments. Despite...

  16. Use of human protein C concentrates in the treatment of patients with severe congenital protein C deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kroiss

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Kroiss, Manuela AlbisettiDivision of Hematology, University Children’s Hospital, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: Protein C is one of the major inhibitors of the coagulation system that downregulate thrombin generation. Severe congenital protein C deficiency leads to a hypercoagulability state that usually presents at birth with purpura fulminans and/or severe venous and arterial thrombosis. Recurrent thrombotic events are commonly seen. From the 1990’s, several virus-inactivated human protein C concentrates have been developed. These concentrates currently constitute the therapy of choice for the treatment and prevention of clinical manifestations of severe congenital protein C deficiency. This review summarizes the available information on the use of human protein C concentrates in patients with severe congenital protein C deficiency.Keywords: Congenital protein C deficiency, protein C concentrate, purpura fulminans

  17. Nutritional and functional properties of whey proteins concentrate and isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Herceg; Anet Režek

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein fractions represent 18 - 20 % of total milk nitrogen content. Nutritional value in addition to diverse physico - chemical and functional properties make whey proteins highly suitable for application in foodstuffs. In the most cases, whey proteins are used because of their functional properties. Whey proteins possess favourable functional characteristics such as gelling, water binding, emulsification and foaming ability. Due to application of new process techniques (membrane fract...

  18. Enhanced phyto-extraction of cadmium and zinc using rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.; Slycken, S.V.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Naz, F. [National Insect Museum, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, S. [Agriculture Department, University of Haripur, Haripur (Pakistan)

    2013-07-01

    In a green house pot experiment, the effects of three amendments, sulphur (S), ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) were tested for phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn by rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Elemental sulphur was applied as 20.00, 60.00, and 120.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. EDTA was tested at a dose of 585.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) at a rate of 0.23 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. All treatments received a base fertilization (Hogland) before sowing. Plants were harvested after 51 days of growth and shoot dry matter and soil samples were analysed for metal contents. All amendments caused a significant increase in Cd and Zn contents in plant shoots of all treatments than control treatment. Further, EDTA was most effective for extraction metals concentrations in shoot biomass but the plants showed significant signs of toxicity and yield were severely depressed. The addition of sulfur favorably influenced plant biomass production. The fertilized ammonium sulfate treatment resulted in the highest phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn and the amounts of these metals accumulated in plant shoot exceeded by a factor of 4 and 3 respectively. Finally, Brassica napus could be used for soil remediation keeping its other uses which will make the contaminated site income generating source for the farmers. (authors)

  19. Method To Determine Protein Concentration in the Protein-Nanoparticle Conjugates Aqueous Solution Using Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanghao; Peng, Zhili; Leblanc, Roger M

    2015-07-07

    Considerable efforts have been made to synthesize and characterize protein-nanoparticle conjugates (protein-NPs) for their promising applications in bionanotechnology. However, protein concentration determination in the protein-NPs has so far not been reported. In this Letter, we present a simple and nondestructive approach to quantify the protein concentration in the protein-NPs aqueous solution using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Carbon dots (∼4 nm), gold nanoparticles (∼10 nm), and polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight ∼3000) were either physically mixed or covalently conjugated (not in the case of gold nanoparticles) with proteins (human transferrin, human serum albumin, and ovalbumin). We were able to quantify the protein concentration in the protein-nanoparticle conjugates using a calibration curve from the CD spectra.

  20. Effects of Energy intake and, dietary protein concentration on energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased protein intake resulted into incresed rate of heat production and protein energy retention and low rate of fat energy retention. The energy requirement for maintenance was slightly lower in animals fed on the high compared with those on low-protein diets. The partial efficiency of ME utilisation for growth, was poor ...

  1. A re-examination of the technical feasibility and economic viability of rapeseed dehulling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of dehulled sunflower meals on the French market encourages reconsideration of the possibility of applying dehulling techniques to rapeseed. Hulls account for 18−20% of rapeseed mass; they contain mostly fibres (72%, 78% and 99%, respectively of the seeds’ NDF, ADF and ADL. Complete removal of these hulls would result in a high (43% protein meal with enhanced added value. However, the technical feasibility of producing such a meal is impeded by the relatively high oil content of the hull fraction. This article presents a model of mass balance that takes account both of the purity of the “hull” and “kernel” fractions and comparisons of gross margins between conventional processing and dehulling-based processing. The value of dehulled rapeseed meal is assessed against both a range of market scenarios and the composition and price of a selection of alternative feeds. The gross margin differential favours dehulling only in periods where proteins are expensive and oil relatively cheap, as at present. Reducing the oil content of the hulls affects considerably the profitability of dehulling whereas modification of the protein content has only a modest impact. An important unknown is the effect of antinutritional factors on the final price of dehulled meals. Management of the glucosinolates residues through processing might decrease their noxiousness though the information on this is scant. Since this lack of knowledge is an impediment to the implementation of dehulling technology, research and development investments should start by addressing this question. Technical solutions could be developed to recover the oil contained in the hulls. Such solutions include expelling, aqueous extraction or tail-end dehulling after direct extraction of the seeds.

  2. Quality evaluation of rapeseed oils used as engine fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Světlík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples from six reference decentralised facilities and one industrial production unit of rapeseed oils were taken for the evaluation of the influence of production processes to the properties specified in the technical standard; in the laboratories, the properties limited by the standard for rapeseed oils were determined. In addition, long-term monitoring of changes in the oxidation stability in the storage test of rapeseed oils additived in the quantities of 200, 400 and 600 mg.kg−1 of the Baynox antioxidant was started. The results confirmed that the critical points in the rapeseed oil production process consist in the contamination with ash-forming elements, such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and overall impurities. Not only in the case of hot pressing, but also in two-step cold pressing of rapeseed it is necessary to reduce the content of ash-forming elements using additional processes, such as degumming, neutralisation and whitening. The safety step consisting of filtration down to maximum particle size of 1 μm must be always in place before the oil distribution. A positive effect of the Baynox antioxidant was clearly proved. As 200 mg.kg−1 of Baynox was added, the oxidation stability value increased from 8 to 9.05 hrs immediately after the pressing with a consequent decrease to 6 hrs after 270 days. With using of addition 400 ppm Baynox decreased oxidation stability under 6 hours not until after 390 days of storage. With addition 600 ppm Baynox the oxidation stability of rapeseed oil even after 510 days of storage makes 6.5 hours. The quality monitoring brought about necessary findings and knowledge for the optimisation of the rapeseed oil production and distribution as engine fuels. In addition, it serves as an initial supporting document for the creation of the necessary quality control system.

  3. Effects of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal on nutrient digestibility, growth performance and serum parameters in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Wang, Jianping; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influences of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. A total of 72 growing pigs (body weight = 40.8 ± 2.1 kg) were used in feeding trials, lasting for up to 42 days, and were randomly allotted to one of three diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet as well as two experimental diets containing 10% unfermented rapeseed meal (RSM) or 10% FRSM. The results showed that average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of pigs fed FRSM were superior (P digestibility for dry matter, protein, calcium and phosphorus than pigs fed unfermented RSM diet and did not differ from the FRSM diet. Pigs fed FRSM had lower levels (P digestibility of RSM for pigs and FRSM is a promising alternative protein for pig production. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Protein-Free Efavirenz Concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Plasma Are Equivalent: Applying the Law of Mass Action To Predict Protein-Free Drug Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, L. B.; Sacktor, N.; McArthur, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is one of the most commonly prescribed antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the treatment of HIV. Highly protein-bound drugs, like EFV, have limited central nervous system (CNS) penetration when measured using total drug concentration gradients between blood plasma (BP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the more relevant pharmacologically active protein-free drug concentrations are rarely assessed directly in clinical studies. Using paired BP and CSF samples obtained from 13 subjects on an EFV-containing regimen, both the protein-free and total concentrations of EFV were determined. Despite a median (interquartile range [IQR]) total EFV BP/CSF concentration ratio of 134 (116 to 198), the protein-free EFV BP/CSF concentration ratio was 1.20 (0.97 to 2.12). EFV median (IQR) protein binding was 99.78% (99.74 to 99.80%) in BP and 76.19% (74.47 to 77.15%) in CSF. In addition, using the law of mass action and an in vitro-derived EFV-human serum albumin dissociation constant, we have demonstrated that the predicted median (IQR) protein-free concentration in BP, 4.59 ng/ml (4.02 to 9.44 ng/ml), compared well to that observed in BP, 4.77 ng/ml (3.68 to 6.75 ng/ml). Similar results were also observed in CSF and seminal plasma. This method provides a useful predictive tool for estimating protein binding in varied anatomic compartments. Our results of equivalent protein-free EFV concentrations in BP and CSF do not support prior concerns of the CNS as a pharmacological sanctuary from EFV. As CSF penetration of ARVs may increase our understanding of HIV-associated neurological dysfunction and antiretroviral effect, assessment of protein-free CSF concentrations of other highly protein-bound ARVs is warranted. PMID:23295919

  5. Delineation of concentration ranges and longitudinal changes of human plasma protein variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgica Trenchevska

    Full Text Available Human protein diversity arises as a result of alternative splicing, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and posttranslational modifications. Because of these processes, each protein can exists as multiple variants in vivo. Tailored strategies are needed to study these protein variants and understand their role in health and disease. In this work we utilized quantitative mass spectrometric immunoassays to determine the protein variants concentration of beta-2-microglobulin, cystatin C, retinol binding protein, and transthyretin, in a population of 500 healthy individuals. Additionally, we determined the longitudinal concentration changes for the protein variants from four individuals over a 6 month period. Along with the native forms of the four proteins, 13 posttranslationally modified variants and 7 SNP-derived variants were detected and their concentration determined. Correlations of the variants concentration with geographical origin, gender, and age of the individuals were also examined. This work represents an important step toward building a catalog of protein variants concentrations and examining their longitudinal changes.

  6. Protein denaturation and functional properties of Lenient Steam Injection heat treated whey protein concentrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonatan Ahrens; Kaufmann, Niels; Wiking, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was heat treated by use of the novel heat treatment method of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) to elucidate new functional properties in relation to heat-induced gelation of heat treated WPC. Denaturation was measured by both DSC and FPLC, and the results of the two...... methods were highly correlated. Temperatures of up to 90 °C were applicable using LSI, whereas only 68 °C could be reached by plate heat exchange before coagulation/fouling. Denaturation of whey proteins increased with increasing heat treatment temperature up to a degree of 30–35% denaturation at 90 °C...... LSI treatment. A subsequent spray drying was found not to affect the degree of denaturation. WPC gels were found to become softer, as function of increasing temperature during LSI treatment of WPC. Furthermore, pH and conductivity of WPC largely affected both the axial stress and the Hencky strain...

  7. Cortical concentrations of metals and protein in the brain of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protein, the concentration between the sexes of the RS goats was the same. This study has given information on metal and protein concentration in the brain of goat for use in comparative neurochemistry and toxicological studies. Keywords: metal, protein, brain, goats, Nigeria African Journal of Biomedical Research Vol.

  8. Reducing the stiffness of concentrated whey protein isolate (WPI) gels by using WPI microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.; Moerkens, A.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated protein gels were prepared using native whey protein isolate (WPI) and WPI based microparticles. WPI microparticles were produced by making gel pieces from a concentrated WPI suspension (40% w/w), which were dried and milled. The protein within the microparticles was denatured and the

  9. Xerophilic mycopopulations isolated from rapeseeds (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation related to mycological populations of rapeseed samples produced in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad (location: Rimski Šančevi, Novi Sad, with a special emphasis on the potentially toxigenic mycopopulations. Mycological investigations were performed on the samples that were treated with 4% solution of Na-hypochlorite, and on the ones that were not submitted to this treatment. Isolation and determination of total mould count was carried out using Dichloran Glycerol Agar (DG18. The identification of isolated moulds was done according to modern keys for fungal determination. From 20 untreated tested samples, 17 were contaminated with moulds (10.0 to 4.7x102 cfu/g. When the samples were treated with 4% solution of Na-hypochlorite, moulds were isolated only form 4 samples, and the total mould count ranged from 10.0 to 60.0 cfu/g. In the isolated mycopopulations, xerophilic moulds dominated, especially those from the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium. In the isolated mycopopulations, high degree of isolated species belonged to toxigenic species from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Eurotium and Penicillium. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009 i br.TR31025

  10. Concentration-dependent protein adsorption at the nano-bio interfaces of polymeric nanoparticles and serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Xu; Zhu, Guan-Yin; Lu, Bo-Yao; Zhang, Chao-Liang; Peng, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    A comprehensive understanding of nanoparticle (NP)-protein interaction (protein corona formation) is required. So far, many factors influencing this interaction have been investigated, like size and ζ potential. However, NPs exposure concentration has always been ignored. Herein, we aim to disclose the correlation of NPs exposure concentration with protein adsorption. Four polymeric NPs systems possessing similar sizes (230 ± 20 nm) but varied ζ potentials (-30 ∼ +40 mv) were prepared. Physicochemical properties and protein adsorption upon NP-protein interaction were characterized. Protein adsorption capacity and adsorbed protein types were NPs concentration-dependent. Considering the critical impacts of protein adsorption on NPs delivery, our work could be an urgent warning about the possible risks of dosage adjustment of nanoformulations.

  11. Rape-seed oil - a substitute for mineral oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badent, R.; Kist, K.; Schwab, A.J. [University of Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute of Electric Systems and High-Voltage Technology

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the study on the basic characteristics of rape-seed oil considered to be a substitute of mineral oil in power transformers. The results show that rape- seed oil is usable as an insulating liquid. Furthermore, results are presented concerning the breakdown behaviour in uniform (plane-plane geometry) and non-uniform (rod-plane geometry) fields under impulse conditions with gaps up to 40 mm and voltages up to 650 kV. A sufficient high 50 Hz breakdown voltage is the most important precondition for a medium to be used as an insulator. The dielectric strength of rape-seed oil exceeds more than 50 kV/2,5 mm and consequently fulfils the requirements of the standards. The measurement of the permittivity and tan {delta} at 90{sup o}C yields to 3,18 and 0,015, respectively and is comparable to the values of standard mineral oil. However, there are still some problems to be overcome. Beside the insulating task the liquid dielectric has also a cooling function in power apparatus. Since the dynamic viscosity of rape-seed oil (about 70 mm{sup 2}/s at 40{sup o}C) is higher than that of mineral oil, rape-seed oil has a lower ability for heat conduction. A further problem is the solidification of rape-seed oil below -5{sup o}C. (author)

  12. Optimized rapeseed oil enriched with healthy micronutrients: a relevant nutritional approach to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Results of the Optim'Oils randomized intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladine, Cécile; Combe, Nicole; Vaysse, Carole; Pereira, Bruno; Huertas, Alain; Salvati, Serafina; Rossignol-Castera, Anne; Cano, Noël; Chardigny, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Rapeseeds are naturally rich in cardioprotective micronutrients but refining leads to substantial losses or the production of undesirable compounds. The Optim'Oils European project proposed innovative refining conditions to produce an optimized rapeseed oil enriched in micronutrients and low in trans linolenic acid. We aimed to investigate cardioprotective properties of this Optimized oil. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 59 healthy normolipidaemic men consumed either Optimized or Standard rapeseed oils (20 g/d) and margarines (22 g/d) for 3 weeks. The Optimized oil reduced the trans FA concentration (p=0.009) and increased the contents of alpha-tocopherol (p=0.022) and coenzyme Q10 (pmicronutrients represent a relevant nutritional approach to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving the cholesterol profile and reducing LDL oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of our ongoing experiments on optimization of the oxidative stability of fish oils in genuine food systems, this study investigated the oxidative deterioration of fish oil enriched milk emulsions during cold storage. The experimental data showed that addition of rapeseed oil to fish oil...... (1:1) prior to emulsification into milk significantly protected the emulsions against oxidative deterioration. Addition of propyl gallate and a citric acid ester to the fish oil prior to emulsification also protected the fish oil enriched milk during storage. Emulsions containing a rapeseed:fish oil...... mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...

  14. Biocompounds from rapeseed oil industry co-stream as active ingredients for skin care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Rommi, K; Fernandes, M M; Lantto, R; Tzanov, T

    2015-10-01

    Despite the great number of substances produced by the skincare industry, very few of them seem to truly have an effect on the skin. Therefore, given the social implications surrounding physical appearance, the search for new bioactive compounds to prevent or attenuate skin ageing and enhance self-image is a priority of current research. In this context, being rich in valuable compounds, such as proteins, phenolics, lipids and vitamins, this study is focused on the potential activity of rapeseed press cake hydrolysates to be used as raw materials for skincare applications. In this study, the protein-rich press residue from the rapeseed oil industry was converted enzymatically into short-chain biologically active peptides using four protease products with varying substrate specificity - Alcalase 2.4L FG, Protex 6L, Protamex and Corolase 7089. The antioxidant, anti-wrinkle and anti-inflammatory activities of the obtained hydrolysates were evaluated in vitro while their biocompatibility with human skin fibroblasts was tested. All hydrolysates were biocompatible with skin fibroblasts after 24 h of exposure, while the non-hydrolysed extract induced cell toxicity. Alcalase 2,4L FG and Protex 6L-obtained hydrolysates were the most promising extracts showing improved bioactivities suitable for skin anti-ageing formulations, namely antioxidant activity, inhibiting approximately 80% cellular reactive oxidative species, anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle properties, inhibiting around 36% of myeloperoxidase activity and over 83% of elastase activity. The enzymatic technology applied to the rapeseed oil industry costream results in the release of bioactive compounds suitable for skincare applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  16. Dry fractionation for sustainable production of plant protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for protein-rich foods is expected to double in the coming decades due to the increasing prosperity and world population. To keep up with the demand, the transition from an animal to a plant-based protein supply is desirable from long-term economic and environmental perspectives.

  17. Dry fractionation for sustainable production of functional legume protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteins gain increasing interest as part of a sustainable diet. Because plant materials not only contain protein, they are generally isolated via an energy intensive wet fractionation. This review discusses dry fractionation as an alternative and more sustainable route for producing

  18. quantification of total soluble protein concentration in aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urve for protein @wialysis 0f Aumnmnas spa-fies. 6. 5 .1. 3. E Poultry. 2 i! Fish. [:1 Human. 1. U. A. hydrophila A' sobria A. caviae A. salmonicida. Figure 2: Chart showing average proteins of species of. Aeromonas isoloied fishes, poufiry and man ...

  19. influence of dietary energy concentration on protein deposition of ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the rate and efficiency of protein deposition in pigs that were fed ad lib on diets with an adequate protein content, but with different energy con- centrations, using the Roux mathematical model (Roux,. 1976) to describe the data obtained from sequentially slaughtered pigs. Materials and Methods.

  20. Dry fractionation for production of functional pea protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Vissers, A.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Dry milling in combination with air classification was evaluated as an alternative to conventional wet extraction of protein from yellow field peas (Pisum sativum). Major advantages of dry fractionation are retention of native functionality of proteins and its lower energy and water use. Peas were

  1. Cell cycle-dependent variations in protein concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cookson, Natalie A; Cookson, Scott W; Tsimring, Lev S; Hasty, Jeff

    .... While most modeling techniques rely heavily on the concentrations of intracellular molecules, little attention has been paid to tracking and simulating the significant volume fluctuations that occur...

  2. Using herbicides in spring rapeseed and effect on quantity and quality parameters of yeald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, P; Marinković, R; Marisavljević, D; Pavlović, D; Dolovac, E Pfaf

    2011-01-01

    Possibility to chemically control weeds in spring rapeseed has been tested in two locations ( Novi Sad and Kragujevac) and following herbicides (a.i.) : trifluralin, clomazone, quizalofop-p-ethyl and clopyralid. We tested the effect of the herbicides on yield and hectoliter weight of seed and oil and protein contents in seed. In the trial in Kragujevac, a large number of weed species were present, with somewhat increased density and uneven distribution of weed plants. This was particularly evident with grassy weeds and with the species Rubus caesius in several plots. Rapeseed yield and quality were determined by measuring and analyzing the following parameters: grain yield (kg/plot (30 m2), hectoliter weight, oil content (%) and protein content (%) in seed.Basic statistical calculations of rapessed yield and quality were done by the t-test. The tested herbicides showed no adverse effect on the yield and hectoliter weight of seed in either location, with the exception of quizalofop-p-ethyl in Kragujevac, which affected the control variants. Oil content was negatively affected by the combination, trifluralin + clopyralid in the location of Novi Sad and by quizalofop-p-ethyl in the other location. Trifluralin and quizalofop-p-ethyl exhibited a negative effect on protein content in the location of Novi Sad, while there were no statistically significant negative effects in the other location.

  3. On the quantitative Amido Black B staining of protein spots in agar gel at low local protein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Protein spots in agar gel of identical protein content but different in surface area are found to bind different amounts of dye upon staining with Amido Black B. The lower the protein concentration within the agar gel, the more the Amido Black B content of the spot falls short of the value expected

  4. Enzymatic Hydrolysate of a Whey Protein Concentrate by Alcalase…

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luciano

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... results indicate that the hydrolysate obtained by treatment with alcalase demonstrated anti- inflammatory activity in the ... Abbreviations: WPH, Whey protein hydrolysate; LPS, ... and detected by UV (254 nm). Quantification ...

  5. Differences in Protein Concentration Dependence for Nucleation and Elongation in Light Chain Amyloid Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Mejía, Luis M; Misra, Pinaki; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina

    2017-02-07

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by the deposition of the immunoglobulin light chain into amyloid fibrils, resulting in organ dysfunction and failure. Amyloid fibrils have the ability to self-propagate, recruiting soluble protein into the fibril by a nucleation-polymerization mechanism, characteristic of autocatalytic reactions. Experimental data suggest the existence of a critical concentration for initiation of fibril formation. As such, the initial concentration of soluble amyloidogenic protein is expected to have a profound effect on the rate of fibril formation. In this work, we present in vitro evidence that fibril formation rates for AL light chains are affected by the protein concentration in a differential manner. De novo reactions of the proteins with the fastest amyloid kinetics (AL-09, AL-T05, and AL-103) do not present protein concentration dependence. Seeded reactions, however, exhibited weak protein concentration dependence. For AL-12, seeded and protein concentration dependence data suggest a synergistic effect for recruitment and elongation at low protein concentrations, while reactions of κI exhibited poor efficiency in nucleating and elongating preformed fibrils. Additionally, co-aggregation and cross seeding of κI variable domain (VL) and the κI full length (FL) light chain indicate that the presence of the constant domain in κI FL modulates fibril formation, facilitating the recruitment of κI VL. Together, these results indicate that the dominant process in fibril formation varies among the AL proteins tested with a differential dependence of the protein concentration.

  6. A dual small-molecule rheostat for precise control of protein concentration in Mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu Hsuan; Pratt, Matthew R

    2014-04-14

    One of the most successful strategies for controlling protein concentrations in living cells relies on protein destabilization domains (DD). Under normal conditions, a DD will be rapidly degraded by the proteasome. However, the same DD can be stabilized or "shielded" in a stoichiometric complex with a small molecule, enabling dose-dependent control of its concentration. This process has been exploited by several labs to post-translationally control the expression levels of proteins in vitro as well as in vivo, although the previous technologies resulted in permanent fusion of the protein of interest to the DD, which can affect biological activity and complicate results. We previously reported a complementary strategy, termed traceless shielding (TShld), in which the protein of interest is released in its native form. Here, we describe an optimized protein concentration control system, TTShld, which retains the traceless features of TShld but utilizes two tiers of small molecule control to set protein concentrations in living cells. These experiments provide the first protein concentration control system that results in both a wide range of protein concentrations and proteins free from engineered fusion constructs. The TTShld system has a greatly improved dynamic range compared to our previously reported system, and the traceless feature is attractive for elucidation of the consequences of protein concentration in cell biology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of initial protein concentration and pH on in vitro gastric digestion of heated whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2014-02-15

    The in vitro digestion of heated whey protein aggregates having different structure and physicochemical properties was evaluated under simulated gastric conditions. Aggregates were formed by heating whey protein isolates (WPI) at 3-9% w/w initial protein concentration and pH 3.0-7.0. Results showed that high protein concentration led to formation of larger WPI aggregates with fewer remaining monomers. Aggregates formed at high protein concentrations showed slower degradation rate compared to those formed at low protein concentration. The effect of initial protein concentration on peptide release pattern was not apparent. Heating pH was a significant factor affecting digestion pattern. At pH above the isoelectric point, the majority of the proteins involved in the aggregation, and aggregates formed at pH 6.0 were more susceptible to pepsin digestion than at pH 7.0. At acidic conditions, only small amount of proteins was involved in the aggregation and heated aggregates were easily digested by pepsin, while the remaining unaggregated proteins were very resistant to gastric digestion. The potential physiological implication of these results on satiety was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from rapeseed plant in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Talebnia, Farid; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the utilization of the whole rapeseed plant (seed and straw) for multi-biofuels production in a biorefinery concept. Results showed that bioethanol production from straw was technically feasible with ethanol yield of 0.15 g ethanol/g dry straw after combined alkaline......, results from continuous experiments demonstrated that the two-stage hydrogen and methane fermentation process could work stably at organic loading rate up to 4.5 gVS/(L d), while the single-stage methane production process failed. The energy recovery efficiency from rapeseed plant increased from 20...

  9. A protein extraction method for low protein concentration solutions compatible with the proteomic analysis of rubber particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Tong, Zheng; Yang, Qian; Chang, Lili; Meng, Xueru; Wang, Limin; Tian, Weimin; Wang, Xuchu

    2016-11-01

    The extraction of high-purity proteins from the washing solution (WS) of rubber particles (also termed latex-producing organelles) from laticifer cells in rubber tree for proteomic analysis is challenging due to the low concentration of proteins in the WS. Recent studies have revealed that proteins in the WS might play crucial roles in natural rubber biosynthesis. To further examine the involvement of these proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis, we designed an efficiency method to extract high-purity WS proteins. We improved our current borax and phenol-based method by adding reextraction steps with phenol (REP) to improve the yield from low protein concentration samples. With this new method, we extracted WS proteins that were suitable for proteomics. Indeed, compared to the original borax and phenol-based method, the REP method improved both the quality and quantity of isolated proteins. By repeatedly extracting from low protein concentration solutions using the same small amount of phenol, the REP method yielded enough protein of sufficiently high-quality from starting samples containing less than 0.02 mg of proteins per milliliter. This method was successfully applied to extract the rubber particle proteins from the WS of natural rubber latex samples. The REP-extracted WS proteins were resolved by 2DE, and 28 proteins were positively identified by MS. This method has the potential to become widely used for the extraction of proteins from low protein concentration solutions for proteomic analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effects of Hydrolyzed Rapeseed Cake Extract on the Quality Characteristics of Mayonnaise Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye-Seul; Lee, Jeung-Hee

    2017-12-01

    Combined fractions (H2 O and 30% and 50% ethanol) of crude rapeseed cake extracts with 80% ethanol were hydrolyzed with NaOH solution. The hydrolyzed extract showed significantly higher contents of total phenolics (41.8 mg SAE/g) and sinapic acid (425.8 mg/g), as well as higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity (91.98 RSC%) than the crude extract (P extract was remarkably higher than that of the crude extract against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast, as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Hydrolyzed extract (100, 250, or 500 ppm) was added to mayonnaise dressing, and several quality characteristics of the dressing were investigated by assessments of microbial, physical, and oxidative stabilities during 8 wk of storage. Microbial stability was higher in the dressing with hydrolyzed extract added (4.3 to 4.6 Log CFU/g) than the control (4.9 Log CFU/g). Physical characteristics of the dressing with hydrolyzed extract added were better than those of the control, based on increased viscosity and reduced emulsion separation. Hydrolyzed extract increased oxidative stability in a concentration-dependent manner, and the dressing with added 500 ppm of hydrolyzed extract resulted in a lower free fatty acid content (4.8% at week 8), peroxide value (13.5 meq/kg at week 6), and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value (66.2 μg/100 g at week 8) than the control. Therefore, it is expected that hydrolyzed rapeseed cake extract containing high sinapic acid content can be used in emulsion system as a value-added ingredient. Crude extract of rapeseed cake was fractionated and alkaline-hydrolyzed to convert sinapine into sinapic acid, and the produced hydrolyzed extract showed higher antimicrobial and antioxidative activities than the crude extract. When the hydrolyzed extract was added to mayonnaise dressing, microbial stability increased along with physical characteristics and oxidative

  11. Cold stress causes rapid but differential changes in properties of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of camelina and rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sung; Oh, Jung-Min; Luan, Sheng; Carlson, John E; Ahn, Sung-Ju

    2013-06-15

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) and rapeseed (Brassica napus) are well-established oil-seed crops with great promise also for biofuels. Both are cold-tolerant, and camelina is regarded to be especially appropriate for production on marginal lands. We examined physiological and biochemical alterations in both species during cold stress treatment for 3 days and subsequent recovery at the temperature of 25°C for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, and 24h, with particular emphasis on the post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC3.6.3.14). The activity and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase, as well as 14-3-3 proteins, increased after 3 days of cold stress in both species but recovery under normal conditions proceeded differently. The increase in H(+)-ATPase activity was the most dramatic in camelina roots after recovery for 2h at 25°C, followed by decay to background levels within 24h. In rapeseed, the change in H(+)-ATPase activity during the recovery period was less pronounced. Furthermore, H(+)-pumping increased in both species after 15min recovery, but to twice the level in camelina roots compared to rapeseed. Protein gel blot analysis with phospho-threonine anti-bodies showed that an increase in phosphorylation levels paralleled the increase in H(+)-transport rate. Thus our results suggest that cold stress and recovery in camelina and rapeseed are associated with PM H(+)-fluxes that may be regulated by specific translational and post-translational modifications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Total protein and cholesterol concentrations in brain regions of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rabbits in the tropics. Due to the deleterious effects of papain (in pawpaw parts) on some aspects of the physiology of livestock, an investigation was made of the effect of pawpaw peel meal on the total protein and cholesterol levels of the brain regions of male rabbits using 16 bucks of mixed breeds. The animals were ...

  13. Intestinal DNA concentration and protein synthesis in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance, protein synthesis and mucosal DNA in small intestine of Leghorn hens may be affected by low quality feedstuff. An experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Main factors included diets containing 20 and 40 % barley and black and blue strains of leghorn ...

  14. The effect of different rumen degradable protein concentrations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nolte Joubert

    that tryptophan synthesis might be dependent on peptides and AA's. The initial decrease in the ratios of essential AA's to lysine between the control treatment and 40 g supplemental RDP/d probably resulted from enhanced microbial growth rates (Argyle & Baldwin, 1989; Nolte et al., 2003) that lead to reduced protein.

  15. Free proline, soluble sugars and soluble proteins concentration as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results provided evidence that soluble sugars could contribute mainly to counteract the negative water potential of the outside medium and that protein synthesis stimulation was implicated in sugarcane salt tolerance. Proline appeared as a symptom in salt-stressed sugarcane plants rather than as an indicator of ...

  16. The relative nutritive value of lucerne leaf protein concentrate (LPC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral & vitamin premix*. Lactalbumin. Lucerne LPC. Determined protein content. 'Water-coagulated LPC; bSteam-coagulated LPC; *Supplied per kilogram feed: Vitamin A, 2,0 IU; Vitamin. D, I {)()()IU; Vitamin E, 35 mg; Vitamin K, 50 ~g; Thiamin hydrochloride 1,25 mg; Riboflavin 2,5 mg;. Vitamin B6, 7 mg; Vitamin B12, ...

  17. Concentration and desalination of protein solutions by ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, T.R; Ketelaar, T.H.; Donkers, F.; Wesselingh, J.A

    In this study the effects of ionic strength and PH on ultrafiltration of protein solutions are examined. Experiments are done with BSA/NaCl solutions with PH varying from 3 to 8 and ionic strength from 5 to 150 mM. Fluxes depend on solution conditions and increase with decreasing ionic strength.

  18. The relative nutritive value of lucerne leaf protein concentrate (LPC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    established that unpigmented farm animals (pigs and poultry) are insensitive to pheophorbides and chlorophyllides. References. ARKCOLL, D.B. & HOLDEN, Margaret, 1973. Changes in chloroplast pigments during the preparation of leaf protein. J. Sci. Fd Agric. 24, 1217. BELL, G.E. & STERN, Judith S., 1977. Evaluation of ...

  19. 21 CFR 172.385 - Whole fish protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... percent by weight of the final product, as determined by the method described in section 2.057 in “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists” (AOAC), 13th Ed. (1980). Protein quality shall not be less than 100, as determined by the method described in sections 43.212-43...

  20. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. RNA Remodeling Activity of DEAD Box Proteins Tuned by Protein Concentration, RNA Length, and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghoon; Myong, Sua

    2016-09-01

    DEAD box RNA helicases play central roles in RNP biogenesis. We reported earlier that LAF-1, a DEAD box RNA helicase in C. elegans, dynamically interacts with RNA and that the interaction likely contributes to the fluidity of RNP droplets. Here we investigate the molecular basis of the interaction of RNA with LAF-1 and its human homolog, DDX3X. We show that both LAF-1 and DDX3X, at low concentrations, are monomers that induce tight compaction of single-stranded RNA. At high concentrations, the proteins are multimeric and dynamically interact with RNA in an RNA length-dependent manner. The dynamic LAF-1-RNA interaction stimulates RNA annealing activity. ATP adversely affects the RNA remodeling ability of LAF-1 by suppressing the affinity, dynamics, and annealing activity of LAF-1, suggesting that ATP may promote disassembly of the RNP complex. Based on our results, we postulate a plausible molecular mechanism underlying the dynamic equilibrium of the LAF-1 RNP complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction of oil and minor lipids from cold-press rapeseed cake with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uquiche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extraction of oil from cold-press rapeseed cake using Supercritical CO2(SC-CO2. The effects of pressure (20, 30, and 40 MPa, temperature (40, 50, and 60 ºC, and extraction time (60, 90, and 120 min on oil yield and composition (tocopherols and carotenoids were studied using response surface design. The results indicated that pressure influenced the most the yield of oil, followed by temperature and extraction time. Extraction time had no effect on oil composition. Extraction pressure and temperature did not affect the tocopherol concentration of the oil to a great extent, whereas temperature had no affect in its carotenoid concentration. A comparison was made between the relative qualities of oil extracted with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC and with n-hexane. Neither solvent affected the unsaponifiable matter content or the composition of phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol of the oils, although there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in tocopherol. Extraction with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC is recommended to obtain rapeseed-oil enriched with tocopherols and carotenoids as important functional components.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrate, on a dry product basis, based on analytical methods in the referenced sections of “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th ed. (1980), which is... methods prescribed in section 16.036 (liquid sample), entitled “Total Nitrogen—Officials Final Action...

  4. Plasma protein concentrations of the young and adult Amazona brasiliensis parrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Elizabeth Moreira Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis is an endangered species of the Psittacine family, and for which various data are important for a comprehensive preservation plan. Data about plasma protein gel electrophoresis of Amazon parrot blood are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma protein concentrations and concentrations of major protein bands in blood of young and adult Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis. Materials and Methods. Blood samples from eight young and eight adult healthy free-living parrots were obtained. Plasma protein concentration and fractions were determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare variables. Results and Conclusions. Six major protein bands with the following molecular weights were identified by SDS-PAGE: 170 kDa, 117 kDa, 85 kDa (putative ovotransferrin, 60 kDa, 45 kDa and 23 kDa. Adult parrots had significantly higher concentrations of total proteins, albumin and other proteins with similar mobility (around 60 kDa. Young birds had significantly higher levels of 23kDa proteins. The concentration of putative ovotransferrin (85 kDa was not different between young and adult parrots. Plasma protein gel electrophoresis patterns in Red-tailed Amazon parrots are similar between young and adult animals, but specific protein bands differ in their absolute concentrations. This finding should be taken into consideration when clinical pathology data are analysed.

  5. Chemical composition, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends

    OpenAIRE

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Ariahu, Charles Chukwuma; Abu, Joseph Oneh

    2011-01-01

    The chemical, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends intended for biofilm processing were studied. Cassava starch and soy protein concentrates were prepared and mixed at different proportions (100: 0%; 90 : 10%; 80 : 20%; 70 : 30%; 60;40% and 50: 50%). Addition of varying levels of soy protein concentrates to cassava starch led to increases in moisture (from 7.10 to 9.17%), protein ( from 0.32 to 79.03%), ash (from 0.45 to 2.67%) and fat (from 0...

  6. The effects of dietary energy and protein concentrations on ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All traits were assessed in samples taken parallel or perpendicular to the spine in the butt region of the slaughter bird. The raw skin weights of ostriches consuming the diets with energy concentrations of 10.5 and 12.0 MJ ME/kg diet were respectively 19.4 and 21.8% heavier at slaughter than those of their contemporaries ...

  7. Physical and chemical changes in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemistry of whey protein concentrate (WPC) under adverse storage conditions was monitored to provide information on shelf life in hot, humid areas. WPC34 (34.9 g protein/100 g) and WPC80 (76.8 g protein/100 g) were stored for up to 18 mo under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature and...

  8. Serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, S M; Fry, J K; Rodrigues Hoffmann, A; Manino, P; Heilmann, R M; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Hottinger, H A; Hunter, S L; Lidbury, J A

    2016-09-01

    To describe serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with hepatic disease and to determine whether there is a relationship between the concentration of either and the severity of hepatic necroinflammation. Serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were measured in 46 dogs undergoing hepatic biopsy. Dogs were divided into three groups: congenital portosystemic shunts, chronic hepatitis and hepatic neoplasia. The histological severity of hepatic necroinflammation was scored. C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were greater than the upper limit of the reference intervals in 39 and 26% of dogs, respectively. There was no association of disease group with C-reactive protein (P=0·1733) or S100A12 (P=0·1513) concentrations. There was a positive correlation between serum C-reactive protein concentration and hepatic necroinflammatory activity (rs =0·428, P=0·006). Increased serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were observed in a subpopulation of dogs with various types of hepatic diseases, suggesting acute-phase inflammation and activation of phagocytic cells, respectively. Dogs with higher hepatic necroinflammatory activity scores tended to have higher serum C-reactive protein concentrations. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in a larger group of dogs. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Krička

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate usability of rapeseed cake from biodiesel fuel production as an energy source. For this research, rapeseed was grown at the research site of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, Croatia. The investigated rapeseed cake, residue from cold pressing, was divided in two groups of samples. The first group was a mix of three varieties (Bristol, Express and Navajo, while the other group consisted of three hybrids (Artus, Baldur, Titan. The utilization of rapeseed cake for energy via two routes was evaluated; namely, utilization of rapeseed cake as (1 solid biofuel (pellets with addition of 3% of glycerol, and (2 as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD. In investigation of cake as solid fuel, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon and volatile matter, ultimate (content of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and physical and calometry analyses (abrasion, diameter, length, density, higher and lower heating value were carried out. As for its use in AD, production of biogas during 40 days was monitored with a view of assessing the use of digested residue as fertilizer in agricultural production. Both groups of digested residues were analysed (pH, electroconductivity, moisture content, ash content, content of nitrogen and carbon, C/N ratio, content of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na. The analysis indicated that the investigated raw material is usable as solid and gas biofuel, and digested residue as fertilizer in ecological agriculture. The two groups of samples analysed here did not show significant differences.

  10. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  11. The effect of concentrate in meal- or pellet form on milk, protein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    firstly, to cause an increase in the digestibility of the feed, ... Table 1 The mean production of two comparable groups of Friesland cows fed dairy concentrate ... Total protein kg milk produced. Days. Form of production per production per production per per concentrate. Phase. Group measured concentrate cow (kg) cow (kg).

  12. BnWRI1 coordinates fatty acid biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways during oil accumulation in rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Long; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Zhang-Hua; Huang, Rui-Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Photosynthesis in "green" seeds, such as rapeseed, soybean, and Arabidopsis, plays a substantial role in the improved efficiency of oil accumulation. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the coordinated expression of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related genes in such developing seeds remains to be elucidated. Here, we found that seed-specific overexpression of BnWRI1, a WRI1 homolog from rapeseed (Brassica napus cv. ZGY2), results in enhanced chlorophyll content in developing seeds and increased oil content and seed mass in matured seeds. BnWRI1 was co-expressed with BnBCCP and BnCAB, two marker genes of FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis during seed development, respectively. Overexpression of BnWRI1 increased expression of both marker genes. Further, the nuclear-localized BnWRI1 protein was found to act as a transcription activator. It could bind to the GT1-element and/or GCC-box, which are widespread in the upstream regions of genes involved in FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways. Accordingly, BnWRI1 could interact with promoters of BCCP2 and LHB1B2 in vivo. These results suggested that BnWRI1 may coordinate FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways in developing seeds via directly stimulating expression of GT1-element and/or GCC-box containing genes. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Functional Properties of Leucaena Leucocephala Protein Concentrates Resulted Separation of Ultrafiltration Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Rosida Dedin Finatsiyatull; Hapsari Nur; Hidayah Taufik

    2016-01-01

    Protein is a polypeptide, which is composed of a series of amino acids, with a relatively very large molecular weight, which ranges from 8,000 to 10,000 Da. Separation of protein can be done by chemical, enzymatic or using an ultrafiltration membrane. Applications of protein concentrates product depends on its functional properties such as water absorption, oil absorption capacity and power emulsions, and foaming power which will affect the quality of product. Food product that use protein co...

  14. Real-time optogenetic control of intracellular protein concentration in microbial cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Justin; Patel, Michael; Oakes, Benjamin L; Xu, Ping; Morton, Patrick; McClean, Megan N

    2014-03-01

    Perturbations in the concentration of a specific protein are often used to study and control biological networks. The ability to "dial-in" and programmatically control the concentration of a desired protein in cultures of cells would be transformative for applications in research and biotechnology. We developed a culturing apparatus and feedback control scheme which, in combination with an optogenetic system, allows us to generate defined perturbations in the intracellular concentration of a specific protein in microbial cell culture. As light can be easily added and removed, we can control protein concentration in culture more dynamically than would be possible with long-lived chemical inducers. Control of protein concentration is achieved by sampling individual cells from the culture apparatus, imaging and quantifying protein concentration, and adjusting the inducing light appropriately. The culturing apparatus can be operated as a chemostat, allowing us to precisely control microbial growth and providing cell material for downstream assays. We illustrate the potential for this technology by generating fixed and time-varying concentrations of a specific protein in continuous steady-state cultures of the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We anticipate that this technology will allow for quantitative studies of biological networks as well as external tuning of synthetic gene circuits and bioprocesses.

  15. Composition, Structure and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrates and Isolates Produced from Walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Mao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, composition, structure and the functional properties of protein concentrate (WPC and protein isolate (WPI produced from defatted walnut flour (DFWF were investigated. The results showed that the composition and structure of walnut protein concentrate (WPC and walnut protein isolate (WPI were significantly different. The molecular weight distribution of WPI was uniform and the protein composition of DFWF and WPC was complex with the protein aggregation. H0 of WPC was significantly higher ( p < 0.05 than those of DFWF and WPI, whilst WPI had a higher H0 compared to DFWF. The secondary structure of WPI was similar to WPC. WPI showed big flaky plate like structures; whereas WPC appeared as a small flaky and more compact structure. The most functional properties of WPI were better than WPC. In comparing most functional properties of WPI and WPC with soybean protein concentrate and isolate, WPI and WPC showed higher fat absorption capacity (FAC. Emulsifying properties and foam properties of WPC and WPI in alkaline pH were comparable with that of soybean protein concentrate and isolate. Walnut protein concentrates and isolates can be considered as potential functional food ingredients.

  16. Using magnetic nanoparticles to probe protein damage in ferritin caused by freeze concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Chagas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a method for monitoring the damage caused to a protein during freeze-thawing in the presence of glycerol, a cryo-protectant. For this work we synthesized magnetite nanoparticles doped with 2.5% cobalt inside the protein ferritin (CMF, dissolved them in different concentration glycerol solutions and measured their magnetization after freezing in a high applied field (5 T. As the temperature was raised, a step-like decrease in the sample magnetization was observed, corresponding to the onset of Brownian relaxation as the viscosity of the freeze-concentrated glycerol solution decreased. The position of the step reveals changes to the protein hydrodynamic radius that we attribute to protein unfolding, while its height depends on how much protein is trapped by ice during freeze concentration. Changes to the protein hydrodynamic radius are confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS measurements, but unlike DLS, the magnetic measurements can provide hydrodynamic data while the solution remains mainly frozen.

  17. Review of methods for determination of total protein and peptide concentration in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapan, Christine V; Lundblad, Roger L

    2015-04-01

    Clinical proteomics can be defined as the use of proteomic technologies to identify and measure biomarkers in fluids and tissues. The current work is intended to review various methods used for the determination of the total concentration of protein or peptide in fluids and tissues and the application of such methods to clinical proteomics. Specifically, this article considers the approaches to the measurement of total protein concentration, not the measurement of the concentration of a specific protein or group of proteins in a larger mixture of proteins. The necessity of understanding various concepts such as fit-for-use, quality-by-design, and other regulatory elements is discussed, as is the significance of using suitable standards for the protein quality of various samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Effect of plasma protein and tissue binding on the time course of drug concentration in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, P J; Levy, G; Gibaldi, M

    1979-04-01

    We have studied by digital computer simulation the effect of concentration-dependent plasma protein and tissue binding on the time course of drug concentrations (both unbound and total) in plasma following rapid injection of a drug whose elimination rate is proportional to either free or total drug concentration in plasma, assuming instantaneous equilibration of the drug between vascular and nonvascular spaces. The following observations were made when elimination rate was assumed to be a function of free drug concentration: (a) when plasma protein binding is nonlinear and there is either no tissue binding or linear tissue binding, log concentration-time plots of free drug are always concave whereas such plots for total (sum of free and bound) drug can be convex, almost linear, or concave (apparently biexponential) depending on the plasma protein binding parameters relative to the initial concentration; (b) linear tissue binding in association with nonlinear plasma protein binding can reduce the concavity or enhance the convexity of log total concentration-time plots. When drug elimination rate was assumed to be a function of total concentration in plasma, nonlinear plasma protein binding in association with linear or no tissue binding yielded convex log total concentration-time plots which could sometimes be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In general, drug concentration-dependent changes in the apparent volume of distribution resulting from nonlinear plasma protein and (where applicable) tissue binding have a pronounced effect on the slope of log total plasma concentration-time plots. It appears that under clinically realistic conditions an otherwise marked curvature of such plots, due to nonlinear plasma protein binding, may in fact be dampened or overcome by linear tissue binding.

  19. Increased EPA levels in serum phospholipids of humans after four weeks daily ingestion of one portion chicken fed linseed and rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the amounts of arachidonic acid (AA and EPA in food may have implications for human health, we investigated whether a small change in chicken feed influenced the blood lipid concentration in humans ingesting the chicken. Forty-six young healthy volunteers (age 20–29 were randomly allocated into two groups in a double-blind dietary intervention trial, involving ingestion of about 160 g chicken meat per day for 4 weeks. The ingested meat was either from chickens given a feed concentrate resembling the commercial chicken feed, containing 4% soybean oil (SO, or the meat was from chickens given a feed where the soybean oil had been replaced by 2% rapeseed oil plus 2% linseed oil (RLO. Serum total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, serum phospholipid fatty acid concentration, blood pressure, body weight and C-reactive protein were determined at baseline and post-intervention. In subjects consuming chicken meat from the RLO group there was a significantly (p

  20. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J M; Auldist, M J; Douglas, M L; Macmillan, K L

    2016-12-01

    Milk protein concentration has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance in dairy cows. These beneficial associations are most likely due to factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance possibly being mediated, in part, by energy balance during early lactation. However, it is likely that factors other than energy balance are also involved in these relationships. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using subsets of data collected from 74 dairy herds with seasonal or split calving patterns. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression and survival analysis with milk protein concentration during the cow's breeding period fitted as a time-varying covariate. The beneficial associations between milk protein concentration and each of the 4 selected indices for measuring reproductive performance were evident when milk protein concentration was derived for each 30-d period from calving up to 300d in milk. For the first 150d of lactation the adjusted odds ratios were highest from 31 to 60d and only slightly lower for all periods up to 150d of lactation. Estimated associations for 31 to 60d were stronger than for 0 to 30d. In addition, milk protein concentration during a cow's breeding period was positively associated with the subsequent daily hazard of conception, even after adjusting for milk protein concentration in the cow's first or second month of lactation. Milk protein concentrations from 0 to 30d of lactation were less closely correlated with concentrations measured at subsequent 30-d intervals; correlations were closer between other periods in lactation. These results indicate that the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance is partly due to factors other than the extent of negative energy balance in early

  1. Modulation of immune function by a modified bovine whey protein concentrate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cross, M L; Gill, H S

    1999-01-01

    .... In the present report, a modified whey protein concentrate (mWPC), derived as a by-product from the commercial manufacture of cheese, was tested for its ability to modulate murine immune function in vitro...

  2. Cyanobacteria Maintain Constant Protein Concentration despite Genome Copy-Number Variation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiao-yu Zheng; Erin K. O’Shea

    2017-01-01

    ... of genome copy-number variation on cell size and gene expression. Using single-cell fluorescence imaging, we found that protein concentration remained constant across individual cells regardless of genome copy number...

  3. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein concentra......In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein...... concentration by 5%, while elevated temperature (+5 °C day/night) substantially increased protein concentration by 29%. The combined treatment increased protein concentration across accessions by 8%. This was an increase less than predicted from strictly additive effects of the individual treatments. Despite...... the increase in grain protein concentration, the decrease in grain yield at combined elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] resulted in 23% less harvestable protein. There was variation in the response of the 108 accessions, which might be exploited to at least maintain if not increase harvestable grain...

  4. An Improved Method of Predicting Extinction Coefficients for the Determination of Protein Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilario, Eric C; Stern, Alan; Wang, Charlie H; Vargas, Yenny W; Morgan, Charles J; Swartz, Trevor E; Patapoff, Thomas W

    2017-01-01

    Concentration determination is an important method of protein characterization required in the development of protein therapeutics. There are many known methods for determining the concentration of a protein solution, but the easiest to implement in a manufacturing setting is absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region. For typical proteins composed of the standard amino acids, absorption at wavelengths near 280 nm is due to the three amino acid chromophores tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine in addition to a contribution from disulfide bonds. According to the Beer-Lambert law, absorbance is proportional to concentration and path length, with the proportionality constant being the extinction coefficient. Typically the extinction coefficient of proteins is experimentally determined by measuring a solution absorbance then experimentally determining the concentration, a measurement with some inherent variability depending on the method used. In this study, extinction coefficients were calculated based on the measured absorbance of model compounds of the four amino acid chromophores. These calculated values for an unfolded protein were then compared with an experimental concentration determination based on enzymatic digestion of proteins. The experimentally determined extinction coefficient for the native proteins was consistently found to be 1.05 times the calculated value for the unfolded proteins for a wide range of proteins with good accuracy and precision under well-controlled experimental conditions. The value of 1.05 times the calculated value was termed the predicted extinction coefficient. Statistical analysis shows that the differences between predicted and experimentally determined coefficients are scattered randomly, indicating no systematic bias between the values among the proteins measured. The predicted extinction coefficient was found to be accurate and not subject to the inherent variability of experimental methods. We propose the use of a

  5. Concentration of Host Blood Protein During Feeding by Anopheline Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Briegel, Hans; Rezzonico, Licia

    2017-01-01

    During blood feeding, Anopheles stephensi ingested 2 to 10 µl of blood. It took such large meals by releasing large amounts of a red rectal fluid as it fed. Although the fluid contained intact erythrocytes, the female was able to concentrate the dietary protein in the midgut by a factor of about 2. Two larger species, An. albimanus and An. quadrimaculatus, consuming larger meals, released a clear rectal fluid and also concentrated their blood meals without losing protein. Therefore, gravimetr...

  6. The possibility of total protein concentration determination based on acoustojet phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minin, I. V.; Minin, O. V.; Shipilov, S. E.; Zavyalova, K. V.

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that it is possible to convert sound speeds in blood into corresponding densities and total protein concentrations. In this paper we numerically study the possibilities of the blood characteristics and total protein concentrations determinations based on acoustojet phenomenon. It has been shown that the particle of the blood immersed in water allow to form acoustical field localization near the shadow surface of particle by illumination of ultrasound.

  7. Associations between milk protein concentration, milk yield, and reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J M; Auldist, M J; Douglas, M L; Macmillan, K L

    2016-12-01

    Milk protein concentration in dairy cows has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance. It was possible that these associations were due to confounding by milk volume. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using data collected from 74 dairy herds with seasonal or split calving patterns. Associations between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression. The key finding from this study was that the associations between milk protein concentration in early lactation and reproductive performance were not due to confounding by milk yield. Associations between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance were weaker at higher early lactation milk yields, but positive associations were evident at all milk volumes assessed. The second major finding was that increases in milk yield were associated with improved proportions of cows pregnant by wk 6 and 21 at low to moderate milk protein concentrations but with decreases in these reproductive measures at high milk protein concentrations. Thus, no simple relationship is present between milk yield and reproductive performance; effects of milk yield depend on milk protein concentration. These results indicate that mechanisms causing the associations between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance may be linked to milk yield but these mechanisms operate over a wide range of milk yields (<2,000 to ≥5,000kg in the first 120d of lactation). Further research is required to identify the causes of these associations. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ageing-induced solubility loss in milk protein concentrate powder: effect of protein conformational modifications and interactions with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Enamul; Bhandari, Bhesh R; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2011-11-01

    Protein conformational modifications and water-protein interactions are two major factors believed to induce instability of protein and eventually affect the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder. To test these hypotheses, MPC was stored at different water activities (a(w) 0.0-0.85) and temperatures (25 and 45 °C) for up to 12 weeks. Samples were examined periodically to determine solubility, change in protein conformation by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and water status (interaction of water with the protein molecule/surface) by measuring the transverse relaxation time (T(2) ) with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR). The solubility of MPC decreased significantly with ageing and this process was enhanced by increasing water activity (a(w) ) and temperature. Minor changes in protein secondary structure were observed with FTIR which indicated some degree of unfolding of protein molecules. The NMR T(2) results indicated the presence of three distinct populations of water molecules and the proton signal intensity and T(2) values of proton fractions varied with storage condition (humidity) and ageing. Results suggest that protein/protein interactions may be initiated by unfolding of protein molecules that eventually affects solubility. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  10. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without

  11. Characterization of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Suat; Ozkan, Ahmet R

    2008-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the composition of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake in a fixed bed reactor at 400, 450, 500, 700 and 900 degrees C. The gas products mainly consisted of CO(2), CO, CH(4) and H(2)S at 500 degrees C. Empirical formula of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake was CH(1.59)O(0.16)N(0.116)S(0.003) for 500 degrees C. Bio-oils mainly contained oleic acid, 1H-indole, 2,3,5-trimethoxy toluene, toluene, (Z)-9-octadecanamide, psoralene, phenol and phenol derivatives at all pyrolysis temperatures. Both non-aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were determined in water phase of liquid product by Headspace-GC analysis. The heating values of bio-chars were found to be similar (24MJkg(-1)) at all pyrolysis temperatures.

  12. Predicting rapeseed oil content with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish a calibration equation and to estimate the efficiency of near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy for evaluating rapeseed oil content in Southern Brazil. Spectral data from 124 half-sib families were correlated with oil contents determined by the chemical method. The accuracy of the equation was verified by coefficient of determination (R² of 0.92, error of calibration (SEC of 0.78, and error of performance (SEP of 1.22. The oil content of ten genotypes, which were not included in the calibration with NIR, was similar to the one obtained by the standard chemical method. NIR spectroscopy is adequate to differentiate oil content of rapeseed genotypes.

  13. Effect of treatments and washing cycles on the quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Boarin Alcalde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of proteins from wastes reduces production costs and environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two treatments involving decanting/sieving or centrifugation and the number of washing cycles on the quality of protein concentrate obtained from mechanically separated meat (MSM of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Results were analyzed in terms of final yield and proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat and ash after each washing cycle. Moisture did not vary statistically with the treatments and after the third washing cycle. However, the process involving centrifugation was more efficient for protein concentration because the final protein content increased 2.0 folds (79.82%, dry basis and fat decreased 6.1 folds (8.29%, dry basis. After four washing cycles, it was obtained a protein concentrate with 79.82% protein, 8.29% lipid and 0.45% ash (dry basis, and 80.0% yield, using the centrifugation procedure. Visual whiteness was highly improved after four washing cycles using both processes. It was concluded that the centrifugation process with four washing cycles was the most appropriate method for producing protein concentrate from MSM of Nile tilapia.

  14. Comparison of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle as measured by the Bradford and Lowry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevaratnam, Rajini; Patel, Barkha P; Hamadeh, Mazen J

    2009-06-01

    The Lowry and Bradford assays are the most commonly used methods of total protein quantification, yet vary in several aspects. To date, no comparisons have been made in skeletal muscle. We compared total protein concentrations of mouse red and white gastrocnemius, reagent stability, protein stability and range of linearity using both assays. The Lowry averaged protein concentrations 15% higher than the Bradford with a moderate correlation (r = 0.36, P = 0.01). However, Bland-Altman analysis revealed considerable bias (15.8 +/- 29.7%). Both Lowry reagents and its protein-reagent interactions were less stable over time than the Bradford. The linear range of concentration was smaller for the Lowry (0.05-0.50 mg/ml) than the Bradford (0-2.0 mg/ml). We conclude that the Bradford and Lowry measures of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle are not interchangeable. The Bradford and Lowry assays have various strengths and weaknesses in terms of substance interference and protein size. However, the Bradford provides greater reagent stability, protein-reagent stability and range of linearity, and requires less time to analyse compared to the Lowry assay.

  15. Nitrogen requirement to change protein concentration of spring wheat in semiarid Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-combine yield monitors and grain protein analyzers enable mapping of grain N removal at time of harvest. Nitrogen removal maps combined with estimates of the fertilizer N equivalent (FNE) for each unit (g kg-1) change in grain protein concentration (GPC) are useful for developing site-specific f...

  16. Genetic variation and association mapping of protein concentration in rice using a germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice protein is an important source of nutrition and energy for a majority of the world’s population. However, the protein concentration in rice can have an impact on its flavor, texture, cooking and processing quality, thus, affecting its acceptability. It is therefore important to know if genet...

  17. Optical-mechanical system for on-combine segregation of wheat by grain protein concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain segregation by grain protein concentration (GPC) may help growers maximize revenues in markets that offer protein premiums. Our objective was to develop an on-combine system for automatically segregating wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by GPC during harvest. A multispectral optical sensor scans...

  18. Characteristics of denatured rapeseed oil during storage and refining processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philen, R. M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, toxic oil syndrome, a progressive multi-system disease caused by consumption of rapeseed oil denatured with aniline occurred in Spain. To date, the causal toxic agent or agents remain unknown. Measures of acidity, moisture, impurities, phosphorous, soaps, and spectrophotometric determinations of color at 409 nm were performed. Since fatty acid anilide concentrations in these oils are associated with risk of disease, w e studied the formation of aniline-derived compounds over time after oil denaturation and by oil deodorization temperatures (200ºC, 215ºC, 230ºC, 245ºC, 260ºC, y 270ºC and times (3, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 and 6 hours. Formation of fatty acid anilide compounds increased with storage time. Deodorization led to a reduction of total anilides in all the samples, particularly at temperatures above 245ºC. Esters of 3-(N-phenylamino-1,2-propanediol were not detected.En 1981 tuvo lugar en España el llamado «Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico», una enfermedad progresiva multi-sistemática causada por el consumo de aceite de colza desnaturalizado con anilina. Hasta la fecha, el agente o agentes tóxicos causantes permanecen desconocidos. Se han realizado medidas de acidez, humedad, impurezas, fósforo, jabones y determinaciones espectrofotométricas de color a 409 nm. Puesto que las concentraciones de anilidas de los ácidos grasos en estos aceites se asocian al riesgo de padecer la enfermedad, se estudiaron la formación de compuestos derivados de anilina durante el tiempo de desnaturalización y con las temperaturas y tiempos de desodorización (temperaturas: 200ºC, 215ºC, 230ºC, 245ºC, 260ºC, y 270ºC y tiempos: 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 y 6 horas. La formación de anilidas de ácidos grasos aumenta con el tiempo de almacenamiento. La desodorización conlleva una reducción de la cantidad total de anilidas en todas las muestras, particularmente cuando la temperatura es superior a 245ºC. No fueron

  19. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G.; Heilmann, Romy M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Steiner, JöRg M.; Burgener, Iwan A.

    2015-01-01

    Results—Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum a1-proteinase inhibitor

  20. Determination of adsorbed protein concentration in aluminum hydroxide suspensions by near-infrared transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of aluminum hydroxide based vaccines is difficult after antigen adsorption. Adsorbed protein is often assessed by measuring residual unadsorbed protein for quality control. A new method for the direct determination of adsorbed protein concentration in suspension using near-infrared (NIR...... in vaccine production as a method for quality control and quality assurance.......) transmittance spectroscopy is proposed here. A simple adsorption system using albumin from bovine serum (BSA) and aluminum hydroxide as a model system is employed. The results show that the NIR absorbance at 700-1300 nm is correlated to the adsorbed BSA concentration, measured by the ultraviolet (UV) method...

  1. CONCENTRATION AND RECOVERY OF PROTEIN FROM TUNA COOKING JUICE BY FORWARD OSMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHONGNAKORN W.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuna cooking processing plants generate large amount of cooking juice containing a significant content of protein. Recovery and concentrating process of this valuable compound together with a low energy consumption process are of interest regarding full utilization concept and green process approach. Forward osmosis (FO was employed in this work to recover and concentrate tuna cooking juice. FO process could increase the protein concentration up to 9% with an average permeate flux of 2.54 L/m2h. The permeate flux however tended to decrease as protein concentration increased due to the impact of osmotic pressure of the feed and fouling on the membrane surface. Since tuna cooking juice consists of protein and minerals, membrane analyses indicated that fouling was more severe compared to the fouling caused by standard bovine serum albumin pure protein. However, the presence of minerals rendered it a quicker and lower energy process by comparison. These results indicated that FO is a promising technique in the recovery and concentration of tuna cooking juice protein.

  2. Functional Properties of Leucaena Leucocephala Protein Concentrates Resulted Separation of Ultrafiltration Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosida Dedin Finatsiyatull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein is a polypeptide, which is composed of a series of amino acids, with a relatively very large molecular weight, which ranges from 8,000 to 10,000 Da. Separation of protein can be done by chemical, enzymatic or using an ultrafiltration membrane. Applications of protein concentrates product depends on its functional properties such as water absorption, oil absorption capacity and power emulsions, and foaming power which will affect the quality of product. Food product that use protein concentrates in the form of sausages, meatballs, bakery and beverages. Techniques of membrane separation are generally based on particle size and molecular weight of the thrust in the form of pressure differences, and different electric field concentration. This study aims to determine the role of membrane ultrafiltration to separate proteins and produce the characteristic functional properties. This study used two main factors, ultrafiltration membrane pressure (2.33 atm, 3.66 atm and the separation time (15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes. The resulted showed leucaena seed protein concentrates obtained from the best treatment of 3.66 atm pressure and separation time 45 minutes. Concentrates of leucaena seed had the functional properties of the water absorption capacity of 3.3 g water/g of solid, oil absorption capacity of 1.43 g of oil/g solid, Bulk density of 0.55 g/ml, power emulsion 51.11% and power foam 9.8%.

  3. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. VI. Serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were used, of which 40 were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Foals from these 24 mares were weaned at the age of 6 months. Non-lactating and lactating mares were divided into 4 dietary groups each. The total daily protein intake and the protein quality (essential amino-acid content differed in the 4 groups of non-lactating and 4 groups of lactating mares. The mares were covered and the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary protein on serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy was studied. A sharp decline in serum progestagen concentrations was recorded in all dietary groups from Days 18 to 40 of pregnancy, with some individual mares reaching values of less than 4 ng/mℓ. Serum progestagen concentrations recorded in some of the non-lactating mares on the low-quality protein diet increased to higher values (p<0.05 than those of mares in the other 3 dietary groups at 35-140 days of pregnancy. A similar trend was observed for the lactating mares on a low-quality protein diet at 30-84 days of pregnancy. No such trends were observed in any of the other dietary groups. High-quality protein supplementation increased serum progestagen concentrations during the 1st 30 days of pregnancy. Lactation depressed serum progestagen concentrations until after the foals were weaned.

  4. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  5. [Comparative study of the composition and nutritional value of the seeds and protein concentrations in legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, R; Fernández-Quintela, A; Martínez, J A; Macarulla, M T

    1995-09-01

    The nutritional properties of three legumes: pea (Pisum sativum), faba bean (Vicia faba) and soya (Glycine max) have been characterized. From these seeds, protein concentrates were elaborated by wet processing and two different procedures of drying were followed (freeze-drying and alcohol washing). The composition and content of several antinutritional factors (phytates, tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins) were assessed in all of them. Also some functional properties regarding their potential use in food technology were evaluated, such as protein solubility at different pH, as well as water and oil absorption capacities. All the obtained concentrates showed high protein contents, nevertheless protein extraction efficiency was smaller in alcohol-washed concentrates than in the lyophilized ones. In the other hand, the concentrates obtained from pea and faba bean showed higher yields than those obtained from soya. The content of antinutritional factors were markedly reduced after the concentration process. Furthermore, the functional properties of pea and faba bean protein concentrates point out their suitability for food preparation as previously reported for soya.

  6. Characterization of high-milk-protein powders upon rehydration under various salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, R; Gaiani, C; Aberkane, L; Scher, J

    2011-01-01

    Rehydration of native micellar casein and native whey isolate protein powders was followed in different ionic environments. Solutions of NaCl and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0 to 12% (wt%) were used as rehydration media. The rehydration profiles obtained were interpreted in terms of wetting, swelling, and dispersion stages by using a turbidity method. Two behaviors were observed depending on the salt concentration. For native micellar casein powder, a significant change was observed between 3 and 6% NaCl and between 0.75 and 1.5% CaCl2. The first behavior (low salt concentration) presents a typical rehydration profile: quick wetting, swelling, and long dispersion stage. The dispersion stage of the second behavior (high salt concentration) was significantly shortened, indicating a strong modification of the protein backbone. The rehydration of whey protein powder was less influenced by salts. At low salt concentrations, a typical profile for whey powders was observed: wetting with lump formation and no swelling followed by a quick dispersion. At high CaCl2 concentrations, no turbidity stabilization was observed, indicating a possible protein unfolding and denaturation. Additionally, the changes in secondary structures of the 2 proteins upon salt increase were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed the different profiles observed. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Short gel method for pretreatment of protein samples with high concentration of detergent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shouzhi; Zhang, Tao; Zhai, Linhui; Sun, Yulin; Xu, Ping; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2014-09-01

    In proteomic research, to improve protein solubility of membrane proteins and nuclear proteins, buffers containing high concentration of detergent, such as 4% SDS, were widely used. However, high concentration of detergent might severely interfere with the downstream proteomic analysis, including protein quantitation and trypsin digestion. To improve the proteomic compatibility of buffers with high concentration of detergent, we used short gel method to pretreat buffers containing detergent. Protein samples were first separated by a short (2-2.5 mm) SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and proteins were quantitated by comparing with bovine serum albumin standards via optical density analysis. The gel was then cut and peptides were recovered using in-gel digestion. The quantitative linearity range of this method was 1 to 8 μg. The quantitation was accurate and reproducible. After short gel analysis, recovered peptides generated high mass spectrometry signals. In conclusion, short gel method eliminated the interference of high concentration detergent in the proteomics analysis, and it was suitable for protein samples' pretreatment, and was worth to apply in proteomic research.

  8. Improved in-cell structure determination of proteins at near-physiological concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Teppei; Hanashima, Tomomi; Hosoya, Saori; Shimazaki, Manato; Ikeda, Shiro; Mishima, Masaki; Güntert, Peter; Ito, Yutaka

    2016-12-02

    Investigating three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins in living cells by in-cell nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy opens an avenue towards understanding the structural basis of their functions and physical properties under physiological conditions inside cells. In-cell NMR provides data at atomic resolution non-invasively, and has been used to detect protein-protein interactions, thermodynamics of protein stability, the behavior of intrinsically disordered proteins, etc. in cells. However, so far only a single de novo 3D protein structure could be determined based on data derived only from in-cell NMR. Here we introduce methods that enable in-cell NMR protein structure determination for a larger number of proteins at concentrations that approach physiological ones. The new methods comprise (1) advances in the processing of non-uniformly sampled NMR data, which reduces the measurement time for the intrinsically short-lived in-cell NMR samples, (2) automatic chemical shift assignment for obtaining an optimal resonance assignment, and (3) structure refinement with Bayesian inference, which makes it possible to calculate accurate 3D protein structures from sparse data sets of conformational restraints. As an example application we determined the structure of the B1 domain of protein G at about 250 μM concentration in living E. coli cells.

  9. A Rapid Method for Determining the Concentration of Recombinant Protein Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Niu, L. P.; Jiang, R.; Song, Y.; Feng, H.; feng, K.; Qi, C.

    2011-02-01

    Pichia secretive expression system is one of powerful eukaryotic expression systems in genetic engineering, which is especially suitable for industrial utilization. Because of the low concentration of the target protein in initial experiment, the methods and conditions for expression of the target protein should be optimized according to the protein yield repetitively. It is necessary to set up a rapid, simple and convenient analysis method for protein expression levels instead of the generally used method such as ultrafiltration, purification, dialysis, lyophilization and so on. In this paper, acetone precipitation method was chosen to concentrate the recombinant protein firstly after comparing with four different protein precipitation methods systematically, and then the protein was analyzed by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The recombinant protein was determined with the feature of protein band by the Automated Image Capture and 1-D Analysis Software directly. With this method, the optimized expression conditions of basic fibroblast growth factor secreted from pichia were obtained, which is as the same as using traditional methods. Hence, a convenient tool to determine the optimized conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia was established.

  10. Studies on formulation of whey protein enriched concentrated tomato juice beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, Avneet; Chauhan, Anil K; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-02-01

    Whey protein components derived from cheese whey and heat and acid coagulated Indian products (paneer, chhana, chakka) possess valuable functional and nutritional properties. Tomato products rich in lycopene are reported to be anticarcinogenic and antioxidative. The main objective of this study was to formulate a whey protein enriched tomato juice concentrate for use as beverage by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) engaging the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The ingredients range used for this formulation comprised of Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) 4-8 g, Cane sugar 10-20 g and Guar gum (stabilizer) 0.75-1.25 g in 100 g of concentrated tomato juice. The most preferred reconstituted beverage was obtained from the formulation developed with WPC 4.98 g, sugar 15.71 g and Guar gum 0.93 g added to 100 g tomato juice concentrate.

  11. Effect of acute irradiation on concentration of some serum proteins in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlebovska, K.; Liskova, E.; Chlebovsky, O.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1981-01-01

    The relationship is studied between the effect of a dose of acute radiation and the character of changes in the serum concentration of prealbumin, albumin, A/sub 1/-globulin, A/sub 1/-macroglobulin (A/sub 1/M), transferrin, IgG, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, hemopexin, and the C/sub 3/ component of the complement in rats irradiated with doses of 1.91 Gy, 5.26 Gy and 6.70 Gy. With proteins whose serum concentrations decreased, the decrease was found to depend on the radiation dose. With proteins whose concentration increased as a result of irradiation, the most effective dose was found to be 5.26 Gy. The concentration of the serum proteins was determined by 2-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis.

  12. The bioanalytical challenge of determining unbound concentration and protein binding for drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lars B

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge regarding unbound concentrations is of vital importance when exploring the PK and PD of a drug. The accurate and reproducible determination of plasma protein binding and unbound concentrations for a compound/drug is a serious challenge for the bioanalytical laboratory. When the drug is in equilibrium with the binding protein(s), this equilibrium will shift when physiological conditions are not met. Furthermore, the true unbound fraction/concentration is unknown, and there are numerous publications in the scientific literature reporting and discussing data that have been produced without sufficient control of the parameters influencing the equilibrium. In this Review, different parameters affecting the equilibrium and analysis are discussed, together with suggestions on how to control these parameters in order to produce as trustworthy results for unbound concentrations/fractions as possible.

  13. Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Aran

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins that migrate through cross-linked polyacrylamide gels (PAGs under the influence of a constant electric field experience negative factors, such as diffusion and non-specific trapping in the gel matrix. These negative factors reduce protein concentrations within a defined gel volume with increasing migration distance and, therefore, decrease protein separation efficiency. Enhancement of protein separation efficiency was investigated by implementing pulsed field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE. Results Separation of model protein species and large protein complexes was compared between FIGE and constant field electrophoresis (CFE in different percentages of PAGs. Band intensities of proteins in FIGE with appropriate ratios of forward and backward pulse times were superior to CFE despite longer running times. These results revealed an increase in band intensity per defined gel volume. A biphasic protein relative mobility shift was observed in percentages of PAGs up to 14%. However, the effect of FIGE on protein separation was stochastic at higher PAG percentage. Rat liver lysates subjected to FIGE in the second-dimension separation of two-dimensional polyarcylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE showed a 20% increase in the number of discernible spots compared with CFE. Nine common spots from both FIGE and CFE were selected for peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS, which revealed higher final ion scores of all nine protein spots from FIGE. Native protein complexes ranging from 800 kDa to larger than 2000 kDa became apparent using FIGE compared with CFE. Conclusion The present investigation suggests that FIGE under appropriate conditions improves protein separation efficiency during PAGE as a result of increased local protein concentration. FIGE can be implemented with minimal additional instrumentation in any laboratory setting. Despite the tradeoff of longer running times, FIGE can be a powerful protein

  14. [Variations in the concentration of total human milk proteins in the first month of lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenović, Marija; Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Ristić, Dragana; Radlović, Petar; Gajić, Milan; Djurdjević, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Human milk proteins are maximally adapted to physiological needs of a neonate. Thus, depending on the speed of the neonatal growth and development, the content of milk proteins changes, both in quantity and quality. The study was conducted in order to determine variations of total protein concentrations in milk in the first and third lactation week in lactating mothers of term and preterm neonates. Also, we analyzed the influence of the mode of delivery, neonatal Apgar score and parity on the concentration of human milk proteins in both lactation phases. The study aims were evaluated on the sample of 48 women, of whom 33 were mothers of term neonates and 15 of neonates born between the 34th to 37th gestational weeks. Total protein level of the lactation milk from the middle phase was determined using the standard laboratory method (Lowry et al., 1951), and the obtained differences were analyzed by t-test. Total protein concentration in term colostrum was 17.60-45.17 g/l (X = 24.71 +/- 5.19), while in preterm colostrum it was 28.39-73.30 g/l (X = 39.17 +/- 11.08). The total protein level of mature milk in women who had term delivery was 11.90-22.11 g/l (X = 16.39 +/- 2.96), while in women who had preterm delivery it was 14.50-44.19 g/l (X = 23.25 +/-8.96). The obtained results indicated that total protein concentration in women who had preterm delivery was significantly higher than that of women who had term delivery, both in the colostral and mature phase of lactation. (p protein concentration was statistically highly significant (p total protein level of human milk were not significant, depending on the prematurity stage, the mode and severity of delivery and parity, both in the first and third week of lactation. Our results show that total protein concentration in human milk was significantly higher in the first than the third week of lactation. In both lactation phases, milk protein content was higher in women who had preterm delivery than those having had term

  15. Variations in the concentration of total human milk proteins in the first month of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Marija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Human milk proteins are maximally adapted to physiological needs of a neonate. Thus, depending on the speed of the neonatal growth and development, the content of milk proteins changes, both in quantity and quality. Objective. The study was conducted in order to determine variations of total protein concentrations in milk in the first and third lactation week in lactating mothers of term and preterm neonates. Also, we analyzed the influence of the mode of delivery, neonatal Apgar score and parity on the concentration of human milk proteins in both lactation phases. Method. The study aims were evaluated on the sample of 48 women, of whom 33 were mothers of term neonates and 15 of neonates born between the 34th to 37th gestational weeks. Total protein level of the lactation milk from the middle phase was determined using the standard laboratory method (Lowry et al., 1951, and the obtained differences were analyzed by t-test. Results. Total protein concentration in term colostrum was 17.60-45.17 g/l (X=24.71±5.19, while in preterm colostrum it was 28.39-73.30 g/l (X=39.17±11.08. The total protein level of mature milk in women who had term delivery was 11.90-22.11 g/l (X=16.39±2.96, while in women who had preterm delivery it was 14.50-44.19 g/l (X=23.25±8.96. The obtained results indicated that total protein concentration in women who had preterm delivery was significantly higher than that of women who had term delivery, both in the colostral and mature phase of lactation. (p<0.01. Also, the difference in the protein concentration was statistically highly significant (p<0.01 in the colostral and mature phase of lactation, both in women who had term and preterm delivery. Variations in the total protein level of human milk were not significant, depending on the prematurity stage, the mode and severity of delivery and parity, both in the first and third week of lactation. Conclusion. Our results show that total protein concentration

  16. Determination of chicken and turkey plasma and serum protein concentrations by refractometry and the biuret method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, C B; Latimer, K S; Kircher, I M; Brown, J

    1989-01-01

    Plasma and serum protein concentrations were determined in chickens and turkeys by refractometry (with human and veterinary refractometers) and by the biuret method. Chicken and turkey serum protein values were significantly lower than respective plasma protein values according to both methods. Refractometer readings for both plasma and serum correlated closely with the results of the biuret test (r2 = 0.72 to 0.97). These findings indicate that plasma and serum protein values may be determined accurately in chickens and turkeys with a handheld refractometer.

  17. ISOLATION OF PROTEIN MINERAL CONCENTRATES AT ELECTROPHYSICAL PROCESSING OF WHEY IN STATIONARY REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRCEA BOLOGA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of isolation of protein mineral concentrates at the electrophysical processing of whey, which is practically important for food industry, as one. In the focus of attention were variations of the: electric current strength, energy consumption, pH values, and the degree of the isolations of proteins at different current densities. As a result, the optimal degree of the isolation of proteins at the stationary regime was determined, which heavily depends on the primary processing of milk as well as on the solid matter content and protein of the initial whey.

  18. IMPACT OF DYNAMICAL HYDRATION SHELL AROUND HA PROTEIN ON NONLINEAR CONCENTRATION DEPENDENT T-RAYS ABSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIWEN SUN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available T-rays is sensitive to covalently cross-linked proteins and can be used to probe unique dynamic properties of water surrounding a protein. In this paper, we demonstrate the unique absorption properties of the dynamic hydration shells determined by hemagglutinin (HA protein in terahertz frequency. We study the changes arising from different concentrations in detail and show that nonlinear absorption coefficient is induced by the dynamic hydration water. The binary and ternary component model were used to interpret the nonlinearity absorption behaviors and predict the thickness of the hydration shells around the HA protein in aqueous phase.

  19. Minimum inhibitory concentration of irradiated silk protein powder for bacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuntivisoottikul, Kunya; Bunnak, Jintana [King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Chaokhun Taharn Ladkrabang, Faculty of Industrial Education, Dept. of Agricultural Educaiton, Bangkok (Thailand); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this research was to study a minimum concentration level of irradiated silk protein powder, which inhibited bacterial activity. The concentration of 100 kGy irradiated silk protein powder (ISP) solution was ranged from 5 to 15% in distilled water. The activities of three types of bacteria, Escherichia coli B/r, Bacillus subtilis M3-1 and Staphylococcus aureus K, were tested by using minimum inhibition concentration method (MIC). The results indicated that the minimum concentration level that inhibited growth of E. coli B/r and S. aureus K was 5% ISP and all concentration levels studied could not inhibit the Bacilus subtilis M3-1 activity. (author)

  20. Shape, shell, and vacuole formation during the drying of a single concentrated whey protein droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Céline; Tabuteau, Hervé; Schuck, Pierre; Fallourd, Yannick; Pradeau, Nicolas; Le Floch-Fouéré, Cécile; Jeantet, Romain

    2013-12-17

    The drying of milk concentrate droplets usually leads to specific particle morphology influencing their properties and their functionality. Understanding how the final shape of the particle is formed therefore represents a key issue for industrial applications. In this study, a new approach to the investigation of droplet-particle conversion is proposed. A single droplet of concentrated globular proteins extracted from milk was deposited onto a hydrophobic substrate and placed in a dry environment. Complementary methods (high-speed camera, confocal microscopy, and microbalance) were used to record the drying behavior of the concentrated protein droplets. Our results showed that whatever the initial concentration, particle formation included three dynamic stages clearly defined by the loss of mass and the evolution of the internal and external shapes of the droplet. A new and reproducible particle shape was related in this study. It was observed after drying a smooth, hemispherical cap-shaped particle, including a uniform protein shell and the nucleation of an internal vacuole. The particle morphology was strongly influenced by the drying environment, the contact angle, and the initial protein concentration, all of which governed the duration of the droplet shrinkage, the degree of buckling, and the shell thickness. These results are discussed in terms of specific protein behaviors in forming a predictable and a characteristic particle shape. The way the shell is formed may be the starting point in shaping particle distortion and thus represents a potential means of tuning the particle morphology.

  1. Lateral Protein-Protein Interactions at Hydrophobic and Charged Surfaces as a Function of pH and Salt Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladílková, Jana; Callisen, Thomas H; Lund, Mikael

    2016-04-07

    Surface adsorption of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL)-a widely used industrial biocatalyst-is studied experimentally and theoretically at different pH and salt concentrations. The maximum achievable surface coverage on a hydrophobic surface occurs around the protein isoelectric point and adsorption is reduced when either increasing or decreasing pH, indicating that electrostatic protein-protein interactions in the adsorbed layer play an important role. Using Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, where proteins are coarse grained to the amino acid level, we estimate the protein isoelectric point in the vicinity of charged surfaces as well as the lateral osmotic pressure in the adsorbed monolayer. Good agreement with available experimental data is achieved and we further make predictions of the protein orientation at hydrophobic and charged surfaces. Finally, we present a perturbation theory for predicting shifts in the protein isoelectric point due to close proximity to charged surfaces. Although this approximate model requires only single protein properties (mean charge and its variance), excellent agreement is found with MC simulations.

  2. Effects of protein and phosphate buffer concentrations on thermal denaturation of lysozyme analyzed by isoconversional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X M; Tian, Y; Wang, Z Y; Liu, Y W; Wang, C X

    2016-07-03

    Thermal denaturation of lysozymes was studied as a function of protein concentration, phosphate buffer concentration, and scan rate using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which was then analyzed by the isoconversional method. The results showed that lysozyme thermal denaturation was only slightly affected by the protein concentration and scan rate. When the protein concentration and scan rate increased, the denaturation temperature (Tm) also increased accordingly. On the contrary, the Tm decreased with the increase of phosphate buffer concentration. The denaturation process of lysozymes was accelatated and the thermal stability was reduced with the increase of phosphate concentration. One part of degeneration process was not reversible where the aggregation occurred. The other part was reversible. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was computed by the isoconversional method. It decreased with the increase of the conversion ratio (α). The observed denaturation process could not be described by a simple reaction mechanism. It was not a process involving 2 standard reversible states, but a multi-step process. The new opportunities for investigating the kinetics process of protein denaturation can be supplied by this novel isoconversional method.

  3. Extracellular fluid proteins of goldfish brain: studies of concentration and labeling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashoua, V E

    1981-10-01

    An extraction procedure for the isolation of proteins from the extracellular fluid (ECF) of goldfish brain was developed and applied in an investigation of the time course and pattern of labeling of ECF proteins. The results indicate that two out of the many protein bands present, which migrated at 32,000 and 26,000 daltons on SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoretic gels, could incorporate as much as 50% of the label of the ECF fraction, even though their concentration was only 14%. Measurements of the protein content of the ECF and its volume (24% of the brain) by the inulin method were used to calculate the protein concentration in the extracellular space of goldfish brain. This gave a value of 1.6-2%, i.e., about 50% of the value obtained for the protein concentration of the cytoplasmic fraction devoid of particulate matter. Such a result suggests that the goldfish brain intracellular and extracellular fluids, separated by the neural membranes, contain relatively comparable levels of proteins.

  4. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  5. Functional properties and sensory testing of whey protein concentrate sweetened with rebaudioside A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gimenez MILANI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To develop a natural dietary product with functional benefits for diabetic patients. Whey protein concentrate was obtained through the separation membrane processes and sweetened with rebaudioside A. This product was submitted to sensory testing in humans and used to evaluate possible functional properties in male Wistar rats models with diabetesMellitus induced by streptozotocin. Methods: Two concentrates were produced. Only the second showed protein content of 74.3 and 17.3% of lactose was used as supplementation in induced diabetic rats. This concentrate was obtained from the concentration by reverse osmosis system (180 k Daltons, followed by nanofiltration in a 500 k Daltons membrane and spray drying at 5.0% solution of the first concentrate developed. The concentrate was sweetened with rebaudioside A (rebaudioside A 26 mg/100 g concentrate. All procedures were performed at the Center for Studies in Natural Products, at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Three experimental groups were established (n=6: two groups of diabetic animals, one control group and one supplemented group; and a control group of normal mice (non-diabetic. The supplemented group received concentrates sweetened with rebaudioside A in a dose of 100 mg/kg bw/day by an esophageal tube for 35 days. Fasting, the fed state and body weight were assessed weekly for all groups. At the end of the supplementation period, the following were analyzed: plasma parameters of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and fructosamine; the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, water and food intake. Organs and tissues were removed and weighed to assess mass and anatomical changes. Results: The product presented 74% of proteins and 17% of lactose and showed satisfactory sensory testing by the addition of 26 mg of rebaudioside A/100 g concentrate. Supplementation of the product reduced hyperglycemia, plasma fructosamine levels

  6. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2016-01-01

    -six Jersey cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, for 4 periods of 3 weeks and with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: spring grass/clover silage from primary growth or autumn grass/clover silage which was an equal mixture of 3rd regrowth and 4th regrowth, with or without rapeseed...... supplementation. Dry matter intake and milk production was higher for autumn than for spring silage. Rapeseed supplementation did not affect dry matter intake, but increased milk production. The concentrations of C18 : 1cis9, C18 : 2n6 and β-carotene and C18 : 3n3 in milk were increased whereas the concentrations...

  7. Brown pigment formation in heated sugar-protein mixed suspensions containing unmodified and peptically modified whey protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongsirikul, Narumol; Hongsprabhas, Parichat

    2016-01-01

    Commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC) was modified by heating the acidified protein suspensions (pH 2.0) at 80 °C for 30 min and treating with pepsin at 37 °C for 60 min. Prior to spray-drying, such modification did not change the molecular weights (MWs) of whey proteins determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After spray-drying the modified whey protein concentrate with trehalose excipient (MWPC-TH), it was found that the α-lactalbumin (α-La) was the major protein that was further hydrolyzed the most. The reconstituted MWPC-TH contained β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the major protein and small molecular weight (MW) peptides of less than 6.5 kDa. The reconstituted MWPC-TH had higher NH2 group, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lower exposed aromatic ring and thiol (SH) contents than did the commercial WPC. Kinetic studies revealed that the addition of MWPC-TH in fructose-glycine solution was able to reduce brown pigment formation in the mixtures heated at 80 to 95 °C by increasing the activation energy (Ea) of brown pigment formation due to the retardation of fluoresced advanced glycation end product (AGEs) formation. The addition of MWPC to reducing sugar-glycine/commercial WPC was also able to lower brown pigment formation in the sterilized (121 °C, 15 min) mixed suspensions containing 0.1 M reducing sugar and 0.5-1.0 % glycine and/or commercial (P < 0.05). It was demonstrated that the modification investigated in this study selectively hydrolyzed α-La and retained β-Lg for the production of antibrowning whey protein concentrate.

  8. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Over-Expressing MicroRNA394

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Shen, Qi; Li, Bo Wen; Song, Jun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus) miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS (BnLCR) to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS) and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA) composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (BnLEC1), BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3). Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development. PMID:25978066

  9. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  10. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  11. Molecular Effects of Concentrated Solutes on Protein Hydration, Dynamics, and Electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriata, Luciano A; Spiga, Enrico; Peraro, Matteo Dal

    2016-08-23

    Most studies of protein structure and function are performed in dilute conditions, but proteins typically experience high solute concentrations in their physiological scenarios and biotechnological applications. High solute concentrations have well-known effects on coarse protein traits like stability, diffusion, and shape, but likely also perturb other traits through finer effects pertinent at the residue and atomic levels. Here, NMR and molecular dynamics investigations on ubiquitin disclose variable interactions with concentrated solutes that lead to localized perturbations of the protein's surface, hydration, electrostatics, and dynamics, all dependent on solute size and chemical properties. Most strikingly, small polar uncharged molecules are sticky on the protein surface, whereas charged small molecules are not, but the latter still perturb the internal protein electrostatics as they diffuse nearby. Meanwhile, interactions with macromolecular crowders are favored mainly through hydrophobic, but not through polar, surface patches. All the tested small solutes strongly slow down water exchange at the protein surface, whereas macromolecular crowders do not exert such strong perturbation. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations predict that unspecific interactions slow down microsecond- to millisecond-timescale protein dynamics despite having only mild effects on pico- to nanosecond fluctuations as corroborated by NMR. We discuss our results in the light of recent advances in understanding proteins inside living cells, focusing on the physical chemistry of quinary structure and cellular organization, and we reinforce the idea that proteins should be studied in native-like media to achieve a faithful description of their function. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Nutritional evaluation of protein concentrates of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentils (Lens esculenta)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, H; Sanahuja, J C

    1978-06-01

    The composition and nutritive value were determined in navy bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil meal (Lens esculenta), and in their respective protein concentrates obtained through extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation. Sulfur amino acids per gram of nitrogen were lower in the concentrates than in the meals, while there was no difference for lysine and threonine. The white bean protein concentrate had a lower biological value than the meal but better digestibility, although trypsin inhibitor concentration was unchanged. Digestibility greatly improved with heating but it did not increase beyond 81% even after autoclaving. Autoclaved samples supplemented with methionine reached a biological value of 83. The lentil protein concentrate also had a lower biological value than the meal but digestibility was high for both samples (91%) and remained unchanged after heating. Trypsin inhibitors were absent. After supplementing with methionine, a biological value of only 63 was obtained, due to the low level of tryptophan, the second limiting amino acid. In spite of the concentrates' lower biological value, it was proved that they equalled the meals' potential for complementing cereal, as their content in lysine and threonine is high. The concentrates have the additional advantage of allowing effective supplementation without increasing the legume-cereal ratio.

  13. Characterization of the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant as a biomass energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.; Gurboy, B.; Sanli, I.

    1999-10-01

    Oil seed plants are important biomass energy sources. The rapeseed plant, which yields a high amount of vegetable oil, has a major position among other oil seed plants. In this study the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant (type 00 Brassica napus L.) has been investigated as a candidate for a biomass energy source. (author)

  14. Characterization of the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant as a biomass energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Guerboy, B.; Sanli, I. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Forestry

    1999-11-01

    Oil seed plants are important biomass energy sources. The rapeseed plant, which yields a high amount of vegetable oil, has a major position among other oil seed plants. In this study the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant (type 00 Brassica napus L.) has been investigated as a candidate for a biomass energy source.

  15. Sequence-specific determination of protein and peptide concentrations by absorbance at 205 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthis, Nicholas J; Clore, G Marius

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative studies in molecular and structural biology generally require accurate and precise determination of protein concentrations, preferably via a method that is both quick and straightforward to perform. The measurement of ultraviolet absorbance at 280 nm has proven especially useful, since the molar absorptivity (extinction coefficient) at 280 nm can be predicted directly from a protein sequence. This method, however, is only applicable to proteins that contain tryptophan or tyrosine residues. Absorbance at 205 nm, among other wavelengths, has been used as an alternative, although generally using absorptivity values that have to be uniquely calibrated for each protein, or otherwise only roughly estimated. Here, we propose and validate a method for predicting the molar absorptivity of a protein or peptide at 205 nm directly from its amino acid sequence, allowing one to accurately determine the concentrations of proteins that do not contain tyrosine or tryptophan residues. This method is simple to implement, requires no calibration, and should be suitable for a wide range of proteins and peptides. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  16. Microvolume protein concentration determination using the NanoDrop 2000c spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Philippe; Hansen, Joel B; Allen, Michael

    2009-11-04

    Traditional spectrophotometry requires placing samples into cuvettes or capillaries. This is often impractical due to the limited sample volumes often used for protein analysis. The Thermo Scientific NanoDrop 2000c Spectrophotometer solves this issue with an innovative sample retention system that holds microvolume samples between two measurement surfaces using the surface tension properties of liquids, enabling the quantification of samples in volumes as low as 0.5-2 microL. The elimination of cuvettes or capillaries allows real time changes in path length, which reduces the measurement time while greatly increasing the dynamic range of protein concentrations that can be measured. The need for dilutions is also eliminated, and preparations for sample quantification are relatively easy as the measurement surfaces can be simply wiped with laboratory wipe. This video article presents modifications to traditional protein concentration determination methods for quantification of microvolume amounts of protein using A280 absorbance readings or the BCA colorimetric assay.

  17. Effects of intensive and alternative production systems on the technological and quality parameters of rapeseed seed (Brassica napus L. 'Siska').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinek, Maja; Bavec, Martina; Repič, Milan; Turinek, Matjaž; Krajnc, Andreja Urbanek; Möllers, Christian; Tres, Alba; Bavec, Franc

    2017-06-01

    Organic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics, compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. 'Siska' seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed. The BD and ORG production systems positively influenced oleic fatty acid and oil content in comparison to INT, which had higher levels of protein and water content (19.8% and 4.7%, respectively), as well as linolenic (3.8%), gadoleic (12.6%) and hexadecadienoic (15.5%) fatty acids. Increases in the listed parameters were linked to mineral fertilizer application in the INT production system. With principal component analysis (PCA) the INT samples were clearly differentiated. The PCA results were influenced by differences in linolenic, gadoleic and behenic fatty acid levels as well as protein and water content. Because quality parameters in rapeseed are increased in alternative production systems, production with an understanding of the soil processes and yield formation presents an opportunity for ORG and BD farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Studies on formulation of whey protein enriched concentrated tomato juice beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Rajoria, Avneet; Chauhan, Anil K.; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    Whey protein components derived from cheese whey and heat and acid coagulated Indian products (paneer, chhana, chakka) possess valuable functional and nutritional properties. Tomato products rich in lycopene are reported to be anticarcinogenic and antioxidative. The main objective of this study was to formulate a whey protein enriched tomato juice concentrate for use as beverage by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) engaging the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The ingredi...

  19. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to...

  20. Squeeze flow rheometry as a novel tool for the characterization of highly concentrated protein solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermeyer, Marie-Therese; Sigloch, Heike; Bauer, Katharina C; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    This study aims at defining rheological parameters for the characterization of highly concentrated protein solutions. As a basis for comparing rheological behavior with protein solution characteristics the protein phase behavior of Lysozyme from chicken egg white with concentrations up to 225 mg/mL, changing pH values and additive concentrations was studied in a microbatch scale format. The prepared phase diagrams, scored after 40 days (t40) give insights into the kind and kinetics of the phase transitions that occur. Oscillatory frequency sweep measurements of samples with exactly the same conditions were conducted immediately after preparation (t0). The protein solutions behave viscoelastic and show a characteristic curve shape of the storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G″). The graphs provide information about the cross-linking degree of the respective sample. The measured rheological parameters were sensitive concerning solution composition, protein concentration and solution inner structure. The rheological moduli G' and G″ and especially the ratio of these parameters over a frequency range from 100 to 40000 rad/sec give information about the aggregation tendency of the protein under tested conditions. We succeeded to correlate protein phase behavior with the defined rheological key parameter ωCO. This point represents the frequency value of the intersection point from G' and G″. In our study Lysozyme expressed a ωCO threshold value of 20000 rad/sec as a lower limit for stable protein solutions. The predictability of lysozyme aggregation tendency and crystallization by means of squeeze flow rheometry is shown. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Thermal properties of defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., a species of legume found in the Brazilian savannas, was investigated in this study for the composition of its flesh and seed. Thermal analyses, Thermogravimetry (TG, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were used to investigate the proteins in defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate. The protein concentrate was extracted at pH 10, followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point to obtain the isolate that was spray dried. The thermogravimetric curves were obtained under a nitrogen atmosphere with a 100 mL/minutes flow. The initial, final and peak temperatures and mass loss were analyzed. Within the performed temperature ranges studied, the defatted meal and concentrate presented four steps of mass loss, while the isolate showed only two steps. The protein content of defatted meal from Baru nuts was higher than that of the isolate. On the other hand, there was a reduction in enthalpy, which suggests that the process applied to obtain the baru concentrate and isolate led to protein denaturation.

  2. Enhanced Temperature During Grain Filling Reduces Protein Concentration of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Miglietta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is cultivated over more than 13 millions of hectares (ha world wide and Italy is the main European producer with 3.5 millions tons per year. The protein concentration of durum wheat is very important, it ensures high nutritional value and is highly appreciated by the pasta production industries. The protein concentration of wheat is determined during the grain filling period when carbon and nitrogen compounds are translocated into the grains. Air temperature affects translocation rates and contributes to final protein concentration of wheat grains. Two common commercial varieties of durum and bread wheat were exposed from anthesis to harvest, to a source of infrared radiation in the field. This allowed to investigate the relative effect of temperature on translocation of carbon and nitrogen compound during grain filling. The heat treatment imposed affected marginally dry mass accumulation of the grains in bread wheat and didn’t affect dry mass in durum wheat. Grain protein was affected by heat treatment in durum but not in bread wheat. Carbon accumulation rate was higher for durum than for bread wheat. The protein concentration was greater in durum than in bread wheat and we can assume that the absolute nitrogen accumulation rates were higher for the former species. Such difference may be either caused by a faster nitrogen uptake rate and translocation or a more efficient relocation of nitrogen accumulated in reserve organs.

  3. Predictive response surface model for heat-induced rheological changes and aggregation of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro A; Emond, Charles; Gomaa, Ahmed; Remondetto, Gabriel E; Subirade, Muriel

    2015-02-01

    Whey proteins are now far more than a by-product of cheese processing. In the last 2 decades, food manufacturers have developed them as ingredients, with the dairy industry remaining as a major user. For many applications, whey proteins are modified (denatured) to alter their structure and functional properties. The objective of this research was to study the influence of 85 to 100 °C, with protein concentration of 8% to 12%, and treatment times of 5 to 30 min, while measuring rheological properties (storage modulus, loss modulus, and complex viscosity) and aggregation (intermolecular beta-sheet formation) in dispersions of whey protein concentrate (WPC). A Box-Behnken Response Surface Methodology modeled the heat denaturation of liquid sweet WPC at 3 variables and 3 levels. The model revealed a very significant fit for viscoelastic properties, and a lesser fit for protein aggregation, at temperatures not previously studied. An exponential increase of rheological parameters was governed by protein concentration and temperature, while a modest linear relationship of aggregation was governed by temperature. Models such as these can serve as valuable guides to the ingredient and dairy industries to develop target products, as whey is a major ingredient in many functional foods. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Alternative plant protein sources in sea bass diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo D’Agaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A control diet (C containing animal protein (mainly fish meal was compared with 6 experimental diets containing different  plant proteins (soybean meal, SM; rapeseed meal, RM; potato protein concentrate, PPC and a mix of the three vegetable  protein sources, M. The plant protein replaced either 25 (1 or 50 (2% of the animal protein with the exception of diet  RM2 where the substitution rate was lowered to 35%, and in diet M where 55% of the total protein given was replaced in  equal amounts by the three plant proteins. For the growth trial, which lasted 97 days, 528 European sea bass (initial live  weight 107 ± 0,06g, distributed among 24 fibreglass tanks with three replicates per treatment, were used. The pelleted  feed was distributed 5 times per day using an automatic dispenser. Energy, crude protein and crude fat digestibility values  for fish meal and soybean meal were similar and not statistically different while the values for rapeseed meal and potato  protein concentrate were significantly lower. Digestive utilization for NFE was higher in fish meal and decreased significant-  ly in soybean meal, rapeseed meal and even more noticeably in potato protein concentrate. Diet digestibility values showed  a similar trend with a clear worsening effect at the higher inclusion rates used. Diet M gave digestibility coefficients lower  than those observed with diets C, SM1, SM2, RS1and RS2and higher than those of diets PPC1and PPC2. Fish fed a diet in  which 25% of the total protein was replaced by soybean had similar performances to those of the control group. On the  other hand, sea bass fed diets SM2, RS1, RS2and M had lower growth rates and worse feed utilization than those observed  with the control. Finally, specific growth rates and food conversion efficiency in sea bass fed diets containing potato protein  concentrate were poor because of the low palatability. These results show that soybean meal can substitute up to 25% of

  5. Direct nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Köbke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suarez, Teresa; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heiner

    2014-05-01

    The production of first generation biofuels has increased over the last decade in Germany. However, there is a strong public and scientific debate concerning ecological impact and sustainability of biofuel production. The EU Renewables Directive requires biofuels to save 35 % of GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels. Starting in 2017, 50 % mitigation of GHG emissions must be achieved. This presents challenges for production of biofuels from rapeseed, which is one of the major renewable resources used for fuel production. Field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and GHG emissions during production of fertilizers contribute strongest to the GHG balance of rapeseed biofuel. Thus, the most promising GHG mitigation option is the optimization of nitrogen fertilization. Since 2012, field trials are conducted on five German research farms to quantify direct GHG emissions. The sites were selected to represent the main rapeseed production regions in Germany as well as climatic regions and soil types. Randomized plot designs were established, which allow monitoring (using manual chambers) impact of fertilization intensity on direct emissions and yield of the typical crop sequence (winter rape - winter wheat - winter barley). The effect of substituting mineral fertilizer with biogas digestate with and without addition of a nitrification inhibitor is also studied. Here we present results from the first cropping season. In 2013, annual direct N2O emissions as well as yield normalized N2O emissions from rape were low. This can be explained with the weather conditions as 2013 was characterized by a cold and long winter with snow until mid spring. As a result, emissions were smaller than predicted by the IPCC emission factors or by the Global Nitrous Oxide Calculator (GNOC). However, emissions still depend on nitrogen input.

  6. In vitro protein digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flours and protein concentrates from two varieties of lentil (Lens culinaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbana, Chockry; Boye, Joyce Irene

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition of whole lentil flours and lentil protein concentrates prepared by alkaline extraction and iso-electric precipitation from Blaze and Laird varieties of lentil were studied. The protein composition of the flours and concentrates, determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) showed that the extracted proteins were composed mainly of globulins and albumins. Trypsin inhibitor activity ranged between 0.94 and 1.94 trypsin inhibitor units (TIU) mg(-1) for the flours, but was markedly lower in the protein concentrates ranging between 0.17 and 0.66 TIU mg(-1). In vitro protein digestibility ranged between 75.90 and 77.05% for the flours, whereas significantly (P lentil protein concentrates is higher than that of the flours, however, both lentil flours and protein concentrates contain useful proteins that could serve as value-added ingredients in food formulations.

  7. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica and sunflower (Helianthus annuus protein concentrates: production methods and nutritional properties for use in fish feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGLEZI M. LOVATTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to develop and improve protein concentration techniques for two industrial by-products with the potential for use in fish feed. In particular, we chemically characterized crambe meal and sunflower meal and their protein concentrates. Three different protein concentration methods were tested: isoelectric pH (pHi, acid pH and alkaline pH. For crambe and sunflower meals extraction using the pHi method was most efficient in terms of protein yield and crude protein content in the concentrates; this method also increased lysine and methionine content in the concentrates. The water holding capacity of the sunflower protein concentrate was greater than that of the crambe protein concentrate. The crambe protein concentrate had a foam-formation capacity of 15%, which stabilized at 6% after 90 minutes. The protein concentration method also reduced total phenolic content by approximately 50% in the concentrates compared with the meals. Therefore, we conclude that protein concentration using the pHi method is the most efficient technique for crambe and sunflower meals, and the use of this technique can decrease total phenolic compounds while improving meal quality for fish feeding.

  8. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  9. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G; Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Burgener Dvm, Iwan A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate serum concentrations of biochemical markers and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Prospective study. 29 dogs with PLE and 18 dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD). Data regarding serum concentrations of various biochemical markers at the initial evaluation were available for 18 of the 29 dogs with PLE and compared with findings for dogs with FRD. Correlations between biochemical marker concentrations and survival time (interval between time of initial evaluation and death or euthanasia) for dogs with PLE were evaluated. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration was less than the lower reference limit in 9 dogs with PLE and 1 dog with FRD. Compared with findings in dogs with FRD, values of those 3 variables in dogs with PLE were significantly different. Serum calprotectin (measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA) and S100A12 concentrations were high but did not differ significantly between groups. Seventeen of the 29 dogs with PLE were euthanized owing to this disease; median survival time was 67 days (range, 2 to 2,551 days). Serum C-reactive protein, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations differed significantly between dogs with PLE and FRD. Most initial biomarker concentrations were not predictive of survival time in dogs with PLE.

  10. Differences in antioxidant activity between two rice protein concentrates in an oil-in-water emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two formulations of rice protein concentrates (RPC) derived from brown rice were evaluated for their antioxidant activity in bulk oil and in oil-in-water emulsions. Bulk oils were mixed with RPC and heated to 180°C, and total polar compounds and triacylglycerol polymerization were measured. Minimal ...

  11. Protein and fat mobilization and associations with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959544; Houweling, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/094875642; Schonewille, J. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Tielens, A. G. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069043035; Jorritsma, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/24462013X

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on variation between dairy cows in muscle and fat tissue mobilization around parturition and to study the association between protein and fat mobilization and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations (hyperketonemia) in this period.

  12. Variation for seed minerals and protein concentrations in diverse germplasm of lentil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris) is an important food legume that can provide significant amounts of dietary minerals and other essential nutrients to humans. To understand the nutritional diversity that exists within this species, we measured seed mineral and protein concentrations in 350 diverse accessions...

  13. Effect of dietary protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas emitting potential of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of these experiments was to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG; nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) emissions from dairy cow manure in simulated storage (Exp. 1) and from manure amended soil (Exp. 2). Manure was prep...

  14. Economic feasibility of segregating dark northern spring wheat by protein concentration during harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-line, optical sensing has been developed for on-combine measurement and mapping of grain protein concentration (GPC). The objective of this study was to estimate changes in costs and net returns from using this technology for segregation of the dark northern spring (DNS) subclass of hard red whe...

  15. Effect of dietary protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG: carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) emissions from dairy manure in simulated storage (Exp. 1) and from manure-amended soil in lysimeters (Exp. 2). Twenty four lacta...

  16. Textural behavior of gels formed by rice starch and whey protein isolate: Concentration and crosshead velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Novaes Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fabricated food gels involving the use of hydrocolloids are gaining polpularity as confectionery/convenience foods. Starch is commonly combined with a hydrocolloid (protein our polyssacharides, particularly in the food industry, since native starches generally do not have ideal properties for the preparation of food products. Therefore the texture studies of starch-protein mixtures could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products, being thus acritical attribute that needs to be carefully adjusted to the consumer liking. This work investigated the texture and rheological properties of mixed gels of different concentrations of rice starch (15%, 17.5%, and 20% and whey protein isolate (0%, 3%, and 6% with different crosshead velocities (0.05, 5.0, and 10.0 mm/s using a Box-Behnken experimental design. The samples were submitted to uniaxial compression tests with 80% deformation in order to determinate the following rheological parameters: Young’s modulus, fracture stress, fracture deformation, recoverable energy, and apparent biaxial elongational viscosity. Gels with a higher rice starch concentration that were submitted to higher test velocities were more rigid and resistant, while the whey protein isolate concentration had little influence on these properties. The gels showed a higher recoverable energy when the crosshead velocity was higher, and the apparent biaxial elongational viscosity was also influenced by this factor. Therefore, mixed gels exhibit different properties depending on the rice starch concentration and crosshead velocity.

  17. Effects of a concentrate of pea antinutritional factors on pea protein digestibility in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guen, M.P. Le; Huisman, J.; Guéguen, J.; Beelen, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Four experiments were designed to investigate the apparent ileal digestibility of raw pea (Pisum sativum) and two of its components - an isolate of its proteins and a concentrate of its proteinaceous antinutritional factors (ANFs). Three varieties of peas were used: spring varieties Finale and

  18. Can serum concentration of C-reactive protein, albumin and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine whether serum concentration of C-reactive protein, serum albumin level and body weight can serve as an index of disease progression and treatment assessment in HIV/AIDS. Methodology: The study investigated 80 subjects (40 subjects on anti-retroviral therapy and 40 not on therapy) and 40 ...

  19. Quantifying Protein Concentrations Using Smartphone Colorimetry: A New Method for an Established Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Clifford T.; Kehoe, Eric; Pomerantz, William C. K.; Penn, R. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are involved in nearly every biological process, which makes them of interest to a range of scientists. Previous work has shown that hand-held cameras can be used to determine the concentration of colored analytes in solution, and this paper extends the approach to reactions involving a color change in order to quantify protein…

  20. Investigation of whey protein concentration by ultrafiltration elements designed for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukučka Miroslav Đ.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes (UFM commercial designed for water treatment have been investigated for separation of protein (PR from sweet whey. Ultrafiltration (UF of whey originated from dairy has been realized by self-made pilot plant which has been in service about one year. Influence of two whey temperatures (9 oC and 30 oC on efficiency of protein concentration has been examined. Application of investigated UF elements has given whey protein concentrate (WPC with 5 to 6 times excess amount of protein content in regard to starting one. In the same time the prevalent content of lactose has been removed to permeate. Better results have been occurred during the cold whey filtration. Besides the fact that molecular weight cut-off (MWCO of investigated membranes were 50-100 kDa, results showed very successful concentrating of whey proteins of dominantly lower molar weights than 50-100 kDa. Investigated membranes are beneficial for design and construction of UF plants for exploitation in small dairies.

  1. Split nitrogen application improves wheat baking quality by influencing protein composition rather than concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng eXue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of late nitrogen (N fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g. booting, heading or anthesis to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems.

  2. Genetic Variation and Association Mapping of Protein Concentration in Brown Rice Using a Diverse Rice Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein is the second most abundant constituent in the rice grain next to starch. Association analysis for protein concentration in brown rice was performed using a “Mini-Core” collection, which represents the germplasm diversity found in the USDA world rice collection. Protein concentration was det...

  3. Effect of whey concentration on protein recovery in fresh ovine ricotta cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, E; Pes, M; Falchi, G; Pagnozzi, D; Furesi, S; Fiori, M; Roggio, T; Addis, M F; Pirisi, A

    2014-01-01

    Ricotta cheese, particularly the ovine type, is a typical Italian dairy product obtained by heat-coagulation of the proteins in whey. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentration, obtained by ultrafiltration, on yield of fresh ovine ricotta cheese. Ricotta cheeses were obtained by thermocoagulation of mixtures with protein content of 1.56, 3.10, 4.16, and 7.09g/100g from the mixing of skim whey and ultrafiltered skim whey. A fat-to-protein ratio of 1.1 (wt/wt) was obtained for all mixtures by adding fresh cream. The initial mixtures, as well as the final ricotta cheeses, were analyzed for their composition and by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands were quantified by QuantityOne software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant differences in the composition of the ricotta cheese were observed depending on protein concentration. Particularly, ricotta cheese resulting from the mixture containing 7.09g/100g of protein presented higher moisture (72.88±1.50g/100g) and protein (10.18±0.45g/100g) contents than that prepared from the mixture with 1.56g/100g of protein (69.52±1.75 and 6.70±0.85g/100g, respectively), and fat content was lower in this sample (12.20±1.60g/100g) compared with the other treatments, with mean values between 15.72 and 20.50g/100g. Each protein fraction presented a different behavior during thermocoagulation. In particular, the recovery of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the cheese increased as their content increased in the mixtures. It was concluded that concentrating ovine rennet whey improved the extent of heat-induced protein aggregation during the thermal coagulation process. This resulted in a better recovery of each protein fraction in the product, and in a consequent increase of ricotta cheese yield. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid...... in fish fed the VEG diet compared to those fed the FM diet. Essential and non-essential amino acids furthermore appeared more or less synchronously in the plasma in fish fed the FM diet, while the appearance was less synchronised in fish fed the VEG diet. Differences in plasma concentrations between...

  5. Variation of Blood Plasma Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Total Protein Concentrations in Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Găvan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes of blood plasma Gamma-glutamiltranferase (GGT and total protein concentrations during the growth of Holstein calves. Blood samples were collected from 20 calves divided in two groups (group 1 from 1 to 3 month of age and group 2 from over 3 months to 5 months of age. Mean value of GGT in group 1 was 32.2 IU/L and 27.2 IU/L in group 2. Mean value of total protein was 7.14 g/dl in group 1 and 6.92 g/dl in group 2. The slight changes in concentrations of GGT and total protein may be related to maturity of organs initiation of specific enzymatic activities or simply physiological adaptation of calves to the new environment.

  6. Effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on the protein composition of cereal grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-07-16

    The present study investigates effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on protein composition of maize, wheat, and barley grain, especially on the fractions prolamins and glutelins. Cereals were grown at different atmospheric CO2 concentrations to simulate future climate conditions. Influences of two nitrogen fertilization levels were studied for wheat and barley. Enriched CO2 caused an increase of globulin and B-hordein of barley. In maize, the content of globulin, α-zein, and LMW polymers decreased, whereas total glutelin, zein, δ-zein, and HMW polymers rose. Different N supplies resulted in variations of barley subfractions and wheat globulin. Other environmental influences showed effects on the content of nearly all fractions and subfractions. Variations in starch-protein bodies caused by different CO2 treatments could be visualized by scanning electron microscopy. In conclusion, climate change would have impacts on structural composition of proteins and, consequently, on the nutritional value of cereals.

  7. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  8. Egg performance, egg quality, and nutrient utilization in laying hens fed diets with different levels of rapeseed expeller cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SWIATKIEWICZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of rapeseed expeller cake (RC in the diet of laying hens on egg performance, egg quality, retention and excretion of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, and metabolizability of energy. The experiment was carried out with 72 Bovans Brown hens, from 28 to 53 weeks of age. Experimental treatment consisted of four isonitrogenous and isocaloric corn-soybean diets (as calculated: 17% crude protein, 11.6 MJ/kg metabolizable energy, 0.81% lysine, 0.36% methionine, 3.60% calcium and 0.37% available phosphorus, containing 0, 4, 6 or 8% RC. The RC used was produced from double zero rapeseed and contained 29.3% crude protein, 17.4% crude fat, 10.8% crude fibre, 0.63% calcium, 0.97% phosphorus, 1.91% lysine and 0.84% methionine. During the experimental period, the dietary level of RC had no significant effects on egg performance and egg quality parameters. Boiled eggs from hens fed a diet with 8% RC were characterized by an inferior flavour to those from other groups. There were no treatment effects on nitrogen balance or metabolizability of energy, though the highest dietary level of RC negatively affected retention and excretion of calcium and phosphorus.;

  9. A multiple path photonic lab on a chip for parallel protein concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Conejero-Muriel, Mayte; Ackermann, Tobias N; Gavira, José A; Llobera, Andreu

    2015-02-21

    We propose a PDMS-based photonic system for the accurate measurement of protein concentration with minute amounts of the sample. As opposed to the state of the art approach, in the multiple path photonic lab on a chip (MPHIL), analyte concentration or molar absorptivity is obtained with a single injection step, by performing simultaneous parallel optical measurements varying the optical path length. Also, as opposed to the standard calibration protocol, the MPHIL approach does not require a series of measurements at different concentrations. MPHIL has three main advantages: firstly the possibility of dynamically selecting the path length, always working in the absorbance vs. concentration linear range for each target analyte. Secondly, a dramatic reduction of the total volume of the sample required to obtain statistically reliable results. Thirdly, since only one injection is required, the measurement time is minimized, reducing both contamination and signal drifts. These characteristics are clearly advantageous when compared to commercial micro-spectrophotometers. The MPHIL concept was validated by testing three commercial proteins, lysozyme (HEWL), glucose isomerase (d-xylose-ketol-isomerase, GI) and Aspergillus sp. lipase L (BLL), as well as two proteins expressed and purified for this study, B. cereus formamidase (FASE) and dihydropyrimidinase from S. meliloti CECT41 (DHP). The use of MPHIL is also proposed for any spectrophotometric measurement in the UV-VIS range, as well as for its integration as a concentration measurement platform in more advanced photonic lab on a chip systems.

  10. Variation in venom yield and protein concentration of the centipedes Scolopendra polymorpha and Scolopendra subspinipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allen M; Fox, Gerad A; Nelsen, David R; Hayes, William K

    2014-05-01

    Venom generally comprises a complex mixture of compounds representing a non-trivial metabolic expense. Accordingly, natural selection should fine-tune the amount of venom carried within an animal's venom gland(s). The venom supply of scolopendromorph centipedes likely influences their venom use and has implications for the severity of human envenomations, yet we understand very little about their venom yields and the factors influencing them. We investigated how size, specifically body length, influenced volume yield and protein concentration of electrically extracted venom in Scolopendra polymorpha and Scolopendra subspinipes. We also examined additional potential influences on yield in S. polymorpha, including relative forcipule size, relative mass, geographic origin (Arizona vs. California), sex, time in captivity, and milking history. Volume yield was linearly related to body length, and S. subspinipes yielded a larger length-specific volume than S. polymorpha. Body length and protein concentration were uncorrelated. When considering multiple influences on volume yield in S. polymorpha, the most important factor was body length, but yield was also positively associated with relative forcipule length and relative body mass. S. polymorpha from California yielded a greater volume of venom with a higher protein concentration than conspecifics from Arizona, all else being equal. Previously milked animals yielded less venom with a lower protein concentration. For both species, approximately two-thirds of extractable venom was expressed in the first two pulses, with remaining pulses yielding declining amounts, but venom protein concentration did not vary across pulses. Further study is necessary to ascertain the ecological significance of the factors influencing venom yield and how availability may influence venom use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucose recognition proteins for glucose sensing at physiological concentrations and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Smita; Turner, Kendrick B; Daunert, Sylvia

    2014-07-18

    Advancements in biotechnology have allowed for the preparation of designer proteins with a wide spectrum of unprecedented chemical and physical properties. A variety of chemical and genetic methods can be employed to tailor the protein's properties, including its stability and various functions. Herein, we demonstrate the production of semisynthetic glucose recognition proteins (GRPs) prepared by truncating galactose/glucose binding protein (GBP) of E. coli and expanding the genetic code via global incorporation of unnatural amino acids into the structure of GBP and its fragments. The unnatural amino acids 5,5,5-trifluoroleucine (FL) and 5-fluorotryptophan (FW) were chosen for incorporation into the proteins. The resulting semisynthetic GRPs exhibit enhanced thermal stability and increased detection range of glucose without compromising its binding ability. These modifications enabled the utilization of the protein for the detection of glucose within physiological concentrations (mM) and temperatures ranging from hypothermia to hyperthermia. This ability to endow proteins such as GBP with improved stability and properties is critical in designing the next generation of tailor-made biosensing proteins for continuous in vivo glucose monitoring.

  12. Concentrations and fate of sugars, proteins and lipids during domestic and agro-industrial aerobic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Dominique; Choubert, Jean-Marc; le Pimpec, Paul; Heduit, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the composition and the fate of sugars, lipids, proteins, amino acids under aerobic conditions for 13 domestic and 4 agro-industrial wastewaters, sampled before and after treatment. The rates of aerobic degradation were moreover studied with a 21-day continuous aeration batch test. It is shown that the sum of the biochemical forms represented 50 to 85% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD). Lipids represented the half of the identified COD; sugars and proteins correspond to a quarter of the identified COD. Aerobic processes provided an increase of the relative fractions for proteins, whereas the ones of lipids decreased and sugars fraction remains stable. For the wastewaters released from cheese dairy (lipid-rich) and slaughterhouses (protein/lipid-rich), the dissolved phase after biological treatment is composed of proteins whereas the particulate one is composed of lipids. After the 21-day test, the concentration in proteins was nearby 10 mg/L. The results should be used for operations of WWTP to detect when a dysfunction is about to occur. They can be used to predict the concentrations in the treated water when upgrading an existing municipal plant that will admit agro-industrial discharge.

  13. Modified water solubility of milk protein concentrate powders through the application of static high pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udabage, Punsandani; Puvanenthiran, Amirtha; Yoo, Jin Ah; Versteeg, Cornelis; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2012-02-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100-400 MPa at 10-60 °C) on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders were tested. The solubility, measured at 20 °C, of fresh MPC powders made with no HP treatment was 66%. It decreased by 10% when stored for 6 weeks at ambient temperature (~20 °C) and continued to decrease to less than 50% of its initial solubility after 12 months of storage. Of the combinations of pressure and heat used, a pressure of 200 MPa at 40 °C applied to the concentrate before spray drying was found to be the most beneficial for improved solubility of MPC powders. This combination of pressure/heat improved the initial cold water solubility to 85%. The solubility was maintained at this level after 6 weeks storage at ambient temperature and 85% of the initial solubility was preserved after 12 months. The improved solubility of MPC powders on manufacture and on storage are attributed to an altered surface composition arising from an increased concentration of non-micellar casein in the milk due to HP treatment prior to drying. The improved solubility of high protein powders (95% protein) made from blends of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate compared with MPC powders (~85% protein) made from ultrafiltered/diafiltered milk confirmed the detrimental role of micellar casein on solubility. The results suggest that increasing the non-micellar casein content by HP treatment of milk or use of blends of sodium caseinate and whey proteins are strategies that may be used to obtain high protein milk powders with enhanced solubility.

  14. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmin Gong

    Full Text Available Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7% and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34% in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock.

  15. New procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes by mass spectrometry. Effect of salivary protein profile, tannin concentration, and time stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gregorio, Maria Rosa; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-10-15

    Several factors could influence the tannin-protein interaction such as the human salivary protein profile, the tannin tested, and the tannin/protein ratio. The goal of this study aims to study the effect of different salivas (A, B, and C) and different tannin concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) on the interaction process as well as the complex's stability over time. This study is focused on the identification of new procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes. Thus, 48 major B3-human salivary protein aggregates were identified regardless of the saliva and tannin concentration tested. A higher number of aggregates was found at lower tannin concentration. Moreover, the number of protein moieties involved in the aggregation process was higher when the tannin concentration was also higher. The selectivity of the different groups of proteins to bind tannin was also confirmed. It was also verified that the B3-human salivary protein complexes formed evolved over time.

  16. [Skin manifestations of toxic syndrome due to denatured rapeseed oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, E

    2009-12-01

    This article offered an extensive description of the clinical and pathological features and time-course of the skin manifestations of toxic syndrome caused by denatured rapeseed oil, also known as toxic oil syndrome. This new condition occurred in Spain in 1981 and was due to the ingestion of rapeseed oil intended for industrial use that had been denatured with anilines and subsequently refined and sold fraudulently as olive oil. In total, 20,000 cases and 400 deaths were reported. The disease affected mainly women, particularly in the late stages. In the acute phase, the predominant skin manifestations were toxic-allergic rashes reminiscent of allergic urticaria in the dermatopathologic study. In approximately 25% of cases, the patients' skin subsequently took on an edematous appearance, with pigmentary abnormalities shown to be related to cutaneous mucinosis. Finally, a characteristic sclerodermatous condition would develop that tended to improve spontaneously. The constant presence of mast cells in all biopsies and the development of mastocytosis in several patients pointed to an important role for these cells in the pathogenesis of the condition. This was subsequently confirmed in other sclerodermatous processes. In 1989, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome caused by toxins present in tryptophan food supplements was reported in the United States. This syndrome resembled toxic oil syndrome in many ways and demonstrated that mucinosis and toxic sclerodermatous processes do exist.

  17. Assessment of dairy cow energy status using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

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    Kirovski Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways to make an assessment of the energy status of cows in lactation is to consider the results obtained from the evaluation of the concentrations of organic milk components. The advantages of this method are that the taking of milk samples is not stressful for the cow and that it is also possible to use the results of milk examinations carried out by dairy plants within regular control. A bulk milk sample from all individual cows can be used, or an individual milk sample. In farms that have herds of unequal genetic potential, it is preferable to assess the energy status by analyzing the results for individual samples, because each animals is assessed individually in that way. Furthermore, the use of individual milk samples is recommended at newly-established farms in order to facilitate the establishment of reference values for the herd. The energy status of cows is assessed using the milk samples by analyzing fat, protein and urea concentrations and their mutual ratios. Fat and protein concentrations in cow milk vary depending on the breed, the diet, age, stage of lactation, and the season of the year. A fat content lower than the physiological values can be expected in cases of unfavourable diet of the cows during the period around calving or rumen acidosis, and it can be expected to be higher during ketotic conditions. A higher protein content in milk can be expected during a high-protein, and a lower one during a low-protein diet of the cows. The physiological concentration of urea in milk depends on nutritive factors, the season, age, stage of lactation, and body mass. Specifically, older cows, cows in advanced lactation, and cows in the summer period tend to have higher values for urea concentration in milk. Among nutritive factors, the most important is the ratio between energy and proteins in the cow feed ration. In cases when protein content in milk is optimal or above the recommended values but the energy supply is lower

  18. Weak acid-concentration Atot and dissociation constant Ka of plasma proteins in racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfli, H R; Misiaszek, S; Lumsden, J H; Carlson, G P; Heigenhauser, G J

    1999-07-01

    The plasma proteins are a significant contributor to the total weak acid concentration as a net anionic charge. Due to potential species difference, species-specific values must be confirmed for the weak acid anionic concentrations of proteins (Atot) and the effective dissociation constant for plasma weak acids (Ka). We studied the net anion load Atot of equine plasma protein in 10 clinically healthy mature Standardbred horses. A multi-step titration procedure, using a tonometer covering a titration range of PCO2 from 25 to 145 mmHg at 37 degrees C, was applied on the plasma of these 10 horses. Blood gases (pH, PCO2) and electrolytes required to calculate the strong ion difference ([SID] = [(Na(+) + K(+) + Ca(2+) + Mg(2+))-(Cl(-) + Lac(-) + PO4(2-))]) were simultaneously measured over a physiological pH range from 6.90-7.55. A nonlinear regression iteration to determine Atot and Ka was performed using polygonal regression curve fitting applied to the electrical neutrality equation of the physico-chemical system. The average anion-load Atot for plasma protein of 10 Standardbred horses was 14.89 +/- 0.8 mEq/l plasma and Ka was 2.11 +/- 0.50 x 10(-7) Eq/l (pKa = 6.67). The derived conversion factor (iterated Atot concentration/average plasma protein concentration) for calculation of Atot in plasma is 0.21 mEq/g protein (protein-unit: g/l). This value compares closely with the 0.24 mEq/g protein determined by titration of Van Slyke et al. (1928) and 0.22 mEq/g protein recently published by Constable (1997) for horse plasma. The Ka value compares closely with the value experimentally determined by Constable in 1997 (2.22 x 10(7) Eq/l). Linear regression of a set of experimental data from 5 Thoroughbred horses on a treadmill exercise test, showed excellent correlation with the regression lines not different from identity for the calculated and measured variables pH, HCO3 and SID. Knowledge of Atot and Ka for the horse is useful especially in exercise studies and in

  19. Impact of Dietary Protein Concentration and Quality on Immune Function of Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paßlack, Nadine; Kohn, Barbara; Doherr, Marcus G; Zentek, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Protein levels and quality in cat food can vary significantly and might affect immune function in various ways. In the present study, 3 diets with a low protein quality (LQ) and 3 diets with a high protein quality (HQ) were offered to 10 healthy adult cats for 6 weeks each, using a randomized cross-over design. The LQ and HQ diets differed in the collagen content and had low (36.7% and 36.2%), medium (45.0% and 43.3%) and high (56.1% and 54.9%) protein levels. At the end of each feeding period, blood was collected for phenotyping of leukocyte subsets, lymphocyte proliferation assay and cytokine measurements, phagocytosis assay and differential blood count. The results demonstrated no group differences for numbers of CD4+CD8-, CD4+CD8+, CD4-CD8+, MHCII+, CD21+, SWC3+ and CD14+ cells in the blood of the cats. Proliferative activity of lymphocytes when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A and Phytohemagglutinin, M form did not differ depending on the dietary protein concentration and quality. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the supernatant of the proliferation assay were also not affected by the dietary treatment. Blood monocyte phagocytic activity was higher (P = 0.048) and cell numbers of eosinophilic granulocytes in the blood were lower (P = 0.047) when cats were fed the low protein diets. In conclusion, only a few differences in feline immune cell populations and activity depending on dietary protein supply could be detected. However, the observed increase of eosinophilic granulocytes by a higher protein intake indicates an activation of immunological mechanisms and requires further investigation.

  20. Impact of Dietary Protein Concentration and Quality on Immune Function of Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Paßlack

    Full Text Available Protein levels and quality in cat food can vary significantly and might affect immune function in various ways. In the present study, 3 diets with a low protein quality (LQ and 3 diets with a high protein quality (HQ were offered to 10 healthy adult cats for 6 weeks each, using a randomized cross-over design. The LQ and HQ diets differed in the collagen content and had low (36.7% and 36.2%, medium (45.0% and 43.3% and high (56.1% and 54.9% protein levels. At the end of each feeding period, blood was collected for phenotyping of leukocyte subsets, lymphocyte proliferation assay and cytokine measurements, phagocytosis assay and differential blood count. The results demonstrated no group differences for numbers of CD4+CD8-, CD4+CD8+, CD4-CD8+, MHCII+, CD21+, SWC3+ and CD14+ cells in the blood of the cats. Proliferative activity of lymphocytes when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A and Phytohemagglutinin, M form did not differ depending on the dietary protein concentration and quality. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the supernatant of the proliferation assay were also not affected by the dietary treatment. Blood monocyte phagocytic activity was higher (P = 0.048 and cell numbers of eosinophilic granulocytes in the blood were lower (P = 0.047 when cats were fed the low protein diets. In conclusion, only a few differences in feline immune cell populations and activity depending on dietary protein supply could be detected. However, the observed increase of eosinophilic granulocytes by a higher protein intake indicates an activation of immunological mechanisms and requires further investigation.

  1. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  2. Absence of diurnal variation of C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Ewert, H. K.; Ridker, P. M.; Rifai, N.; Price, N.; Dinges, D. F.; Mullington, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in otherwise healthy subjects has been shown to predict future risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. CRP is synthesized by the liver in response to interleukin-6, the serum concentration of which is subject to diurnal variation. METHODS: To examine the existence of a time-of-day effect for baseline CRP values, we determined CRP concentrations in hourly blood samples drawn from healthy subjects (10 males, 3 females; age range, 21-35 years) during a baseline day in a controlled environment (8 h of nighttime sleep). RESULTS: Overall CRP concentrations were low, with only three subjects having CRP concentrations >2 mg/L. Comparison of raw data showed stability of CRP concentrations throughout the 24 h studied. When compared with cutoff values of CRP quintile derived from population-based studies, misclassification of greater than one quintile did not occur as a result of diurnal variation in any of the subjects studied. Nonparametric ANOVA comparing different time points showed no significant differences for both raw and z-transformed data. Analysis for rhythmic diurnal variation using a method fitting a cosine curve to the group data was negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that baseline CRP concentrations are not subject to time-of-day variation and thus help to explain why CRP concentrations are a better predictor of vascular risk than interleukin-6. Determination of CRP for cardiovascular risk prediction may be performed without concern for diurnal variation.

  3. Circulating concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 are associated with menopause status in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kang-Seo; Ahn, Kyu-Jeung; Kim, Byung-Joon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Ki-Ho; Baik, Haing-Woon; Lee, Seong-Kyu

    2009-05-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays a role in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Human circulating MCP-1 concentrations reportedly increase or remain unchanged according to obesity or insulin resistance in various ethnic populations; whether or not circulating MCP-1 concentrations increase after menopause has remained unclear. We investigated the relationship between circulating MCP-1 concentrations and obesity or insulin resistance, and the relationship between circulating MCP-1 and menopause status in premenopausal (n=111) and postmenopausal (n=64) Korean women. Circulating MCP-1 concentrations were significantly higher in postmenopausal women than in obesity-matched premenopausal women; they did not differ between non-obese and obese subgroups of pre- and postmenopausal women. Circulating MCP-1 concentrations had a relationship with menopause status (rho=0.500, p=0.000), irrespective of obesity, but no relationship with obesity or insulin resistance. Circulating MCP-1 concentrations correlated with serum triglycerides (r=0.4, p=0.001) and also correlated with serum triglyceride concentrations, after adjusting for age and obesity, in postmenopausal women. Circulating MCP-1 concentrations are associated with menopause status itself, irrespective of obesity; they do not correlate with obesity or insulin resistance in Korean women, most of whom are not severely obese.

  4. Digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in oat protein concentrate measured in 20- to 30-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelilla, Jerubella J; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2018-01-01

    Oat protein concentrate is often used in human food, but the quality of this protein has not been characterized. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in oat protein concentrate and to determine differences in protein quality estimates between the protein digestibility-corrected AA score (PDCAAS) and the digestible indispensable AA score (DIAAS) when using growing pigs for both measurements. For infants, the most limiting AA in oat protein concentrate was the aromatic AA (Phe + Tyr), for which the DIAAS value was 41 and the PDCAAS was 43. For children (6 months to 3 years) and children older than 3 years, the most limiting AA in oat protein concentrate was Lys, for which the DIAAS was 56 and 67 and the PDCAAS was 58 and 69, respectively. The DIAAS value for oat protein concentrate was close to the calculated value for PDCAAS, but below the recommended intake for protein. Therefore, to satisfy the daily human AA requirement, oat protein needs to be complemented by other proteins of higher quality and specifically with greater lysine concentrations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Relationship of serum bilirubin concentration to kidney function and 24-hour urine protein in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho Sik; Jung, Yeon Soon; Rim, Hark

    2011-06-28

    The relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, kidney function and proteinuria have yet to be fully elucidated, nor have these relationships been investigated in Korean adults. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Korean adults who were evaluated at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea) during a five-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. We evaluated the relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and 24-hour urinary protein excretion in a sample of 1363 Korean adults aged 18 years or older. The values of eGFR urine albumin ≥150 mg/day were observed in 26.1% (n = 356) and 40.5% (n = 553) of subjects, respectively. Fasting glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL were observed in 44.9% (n = 612) of the total sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors including demographic characteristics, comorbidities and other laboratory measures, total serum bilirubin was positively associated with eGFR and negatively associated with proteinuria both in the whole cohort and in a subgroup of diabetic individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first hospital-based study specifically aimed at examining the relationships among serum total bilirubin concentration, 24-hour urine protein and kidney function in Korean adults. We demonstrated that serum total bilirubin concentration was negatively correlated with 24-hour urine protein and positively correlated with eGFR in Korean non-diabetic and diabetic adults.

  6. A Spatial Interactome Reveals the Protein Organization of the Algal CO2-Concentrating Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinder, Luke C M; Chen, Chris; Leib, Ryan D; Patena, Weronika; Blum, Sean R; Rodman, Matthew; Ramundo, Silvia; Adams, Christopher M; Jonikas, Martin C

    2017-09-21

    Approximately one-third of global CO2 fixation is performed by eukaryotic algae. Nearly all algae enhance their carbon assimilation by operating a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) built around an organelle called the pyrenoid, whose protein composition is largely unknown. Here, we developed tools in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the localizations of 135 candidate CCM proteins and physical interactors of 38 of these proteins. Our data reveal the identity of 89 pyrenoid proteins, including Rubisco-interacting proteins, photosystem I assembly factor candidates, and inorganic carbon flux components. We identify three previously undescribed protein layers of the pyrenoid: a plate-like layer, a mesh layer, and a punctate layer. We find that the carbonic anhydrase CAH6 is in the flagella, not in the stroma that surrounds the pyrenoid as in current models. These results provide an overview of proteins operating in the eukaryotic algal CCM, a key process that drives global carbon fixation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of soybeans with low P34 allergen protein concentration for reduced allergenicity of soy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Adányi, Nóra; Takács, Krisztina; Maczó, Anita; Nagy, András; Gelencsér, Éva; Pachner, Martin; Lauter, Kathrin; Baumgartner, Sabine; Vollmann, Johann

    2017-02-01

    In soybean, at least 16 seed proteins have been identified as causing allergenic reactions in sensitive individuals. As a soybean genebank accession low in the immunodominant protein P34 (Gly m Bd 30K) has recently been found, introgression of the low-P34 trait into adapted soybean germplasm has been attempted in order to improve the safety of food products containing soybean protein. Therefore, marker-assisted selection and proteomics were applied to identify and characterize low-P34 soybeans. In low-P34 lines selected from a cross-population, concentrations of the P34 protein as identified with a polyclonal antibody were reduced by 50-70% as compared to P34-containing controls. Using 2D electrophoresis and immunoblotting, the reduction of P34 protein was verified in low-P34 lines. This result was confirmed by liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis, which revealed either a reduction or complete absence of the authentic P34 protein as suggested from presence or absence of a unique peptide useful for discriminating between conventional and low-P34 lines. Marker-assisted selection proved useful for identifying low-P34 soybean lines for the development of hypoallergenic soy foods. The status of the P34 protein in low-P34 lines needs further characterization. In addition, the food safety relevance of low-P34 soybeans should be tested in clinical studies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Pulsed electric field pretreatment of rapeseed green biomass (stems) to enhance pressing and extractives recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Gouyo, T; Grimi, N; Bals, O; Vorobiev, E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment on the valorization of extractives (proteins and polyphenols) from rapeseed green biomass (stems) by pressing. The effect of pressure, electric field strength and pulse number on the juice expression yield, total polyphenols and total proteins content in the expressed juices were studied. Experiments conducted under optimal conditions (E = 8 kV/cm, tPEF = 2 ms, P = 10 bar) permitted to increase the juice expressed yield from 34% to 81%. Significant increases in total polyphenols content (0.48 vs. 0.10 g GAE/100g DM), in total proteins content (0.14 vs. 0.07 g BSA/100g DM) and in consolidation coefficient (9.0 × 10(-8) vs. 2.2 × 10(-8)m(2)/s) were also observed after PEF pretreatment. The recovered press cake was well dehydrated with an increase of dry matter content from 8.8% to 53.0%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum protein concentrations from clinically healthy horses determined by agarose gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riond, Barbara; Wenger-Riggenbach, Bettina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-03-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis is a useful screening test in equine laboratory medicine. The method can provide valuable information about changes in the concentrations of albumin and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globulins and thereby help characterize dysproteinemias in equine patients. Reference values for horses using agarose gel as a support medium have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals for serum protein concentrations in adult horses using agarose gel electrophoresis and to assess differences between warm-blooded and heavy draught horses. In addition, the precision of electrophoresis for determining fraction percentages and the detection limit were determined. Blood samples were obtained from 126 clinically healthy horses, including 105 Thoroughbreds and 21 heavy draught horses of both sexes and ranging from 2 to 20 years of age. The total protein concentration was determined by an automated biuret method. Serum protein electrophoresis was performed using a semi-automated agarose gel electrophoresis system. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were calculated for within-run and within-assay precision. Data from warm-blooded and draught horses were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Within-run and within-assay CVs were <5% for all protein fractions. No significant difference was found between warm-blooded and heavy draught horses and so combined reference intervals (2.5-97.5%) were calculated for total protein (51.0-72.0 g/L), albumin (29.6-38.5 g/L), alpha(1)-globulin (1.9-3.1 g/L), alpha(2)-globulin (5.3-8.7 g/L), beta(1)-globulin (2.8-7.3g/L), beta(2)-globulin (2.2-6.0 g/L), and gamma-globulin (5.8-12.7 g/L) concentrations, and albumin/globulin ratio (0.93-1.65). Using agarose gel as the supporting matrix for serum protein electrophoresis in horses resulted in excellent resolution and accurate results that facilitated standardization into 6 protein fractions.

  10. An analysis of growth factors of rapeseed at modern resource-saving technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, M.; Zheleva, I.; Sulejmenova, N.; Abildaev, E.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the production of rapeseed has grown due to the variety of existing possibilities for its using. This calls the search for new, resource-saving technologies for its growing in Republic of Kazakhstan. For these new technologies it is needed to know which are the factors that influence the production of rapeseed and how each factor influence the production and the quality of this culture. The careful study of these factors is necessary for better understudying the process of the growing aimed increasing the yields and quantity of the rapeseed.

  11. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  12. Jatropha curcas Protein Concentrate Stimulates Insulin Signaling, Lipogenesis, Protein Synthesis and the PKCα Pathway in Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-López, Liliana; Márquez-Mota, Claudia C; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; Gálvez-Mariscal, Amanda; Arrieta-Báez, Daniel; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2015-09-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oil seed plant that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. Nontoxic genotypes have been reported in Mexico. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effect of a Mexican variety of J. curcas protein concentrate (JCP) on weight gain, biochemical parameters, and the expression of genes and proteins involved in insulin signaling, lipogenesis, cholesterol and protein synthesis in rats. The results demonstrated that short-term consumption of JCP increased serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels as well as the expression of transcription factors involved in lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis (SREBP-1 and LXRα). Moreover, there was an increase in insulin signaling mediated by Akt phosphorylation and mTOR. JCP also increased PKCα protein abundance and the activation of downstream signaling pathway targets such as the AP1 and NF-κB transcription factors typically activated by phorbol esters. These results suggested that phorbol esters are present in JCP, and that they could be involved in the activation of PKC which may be responsible for the high insulin secretion and consequently the activation of insulin-dependent pathways. Our data suggest that this Mexican Jatropha variety contains toxic compounds that produce negative metabolic effects which require caution when using in the applications of Jatropha-based products in medicine and nutrition.

  13. Milk fatty acid composition and production performance of Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey cows fed different amounts of linseed and rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M K; Hymøller, L; Brask-Pedersen, D B; Weisbjerg, M R

    2012-07-01

    Fat supplements are used in diets for dairy cows to increase energy intake and milk production and the fatty acid composition of the feed affects milk fatty acid composition. A total of 74 Danish Holstein and 41 Danish Jersey cows were divided into 4 groups and the cows within each group were fed a mixed ration supplemented with 0, 3.5, 6.8, or 10.2% of dry matter of a linseed:rapeseed (1:3) mixture during lactation wk 6 to 30. Milk yield, fat, and lactose contents were not affected by treatments for Danish Holsteins, whereas these parameters increased when increased amounts of oilseeds were fed to Danish Jerseys. For both breeds, milk protein content decreased when increased amounts of oilseeds were fed. The milk fatty acid composition showed higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids and lower concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat from Danish Jerseys compared with Danish Holsteins. Increased amounts of oilseeds in feed increased milk fat concentration of all C18 fatty acids except C18:2 n-6, whereas the content of C6 to C14, C11 to C17, and in particular, C16, decreased. This effect was more pronounced for Danish Holsteins than for Danish Jerseys. The apparent recovery of C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 decreased when increased amounts of oilseeds were fed; however, this was most likely due to increased amounts of fatty acid from feed used for other energy demands than milk production. It was concluded that up to 6.8% of oilseed supplementation can be fed without production problems and, in many cases, with positive production responses, including an improved milk fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioactive Whey Protein Concentrate and Lactose Stimulate Gut Function in Formula-fed Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Ninh Nguyen, Duc; Obelitz-Ryom, Karina

    2018-01-01

    Formula feeding is associated with compromised intestinal health in preterm neonates compared with maternal milk, but the mechanisms behind this are unclear. We hypothesized that the use of maltodextrin and whey protein concentrates (WPCs) with reduced bioactivity due to thermal-processing are im......Formula feeding is associated with compromised intestinal health in preterm neonates compared with maternal milk, but the mechanisms behind this are unclear. We hypothesized that the use of maltodextrin and whey protein concentrates (WPCs) with reduced bioactivity due to thermal......-processing are important factors. METHOD:: Ninety-two caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed increasing doses of formulas for 5 days (24–120?mL/kg/d). In Experiment 1, four groups of pigs (n?=?15–16) were fed lactose- or maltodextrin-dominant formulas (lactose/maltodextrin ratios 3:1 or 1:3, respectively), containing...

  15. Effects of salt concentration on the reaction rate of Glc with amino acids, peptides, and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Noumi, Yuri; Nakajima, Katsumi; Nagatsuka, Chiharu; Aizawa, Haruko; Nakawaki, Rie; Mizude, Eri; Otsuka, Yuzuru; Homma, Takeshi; Chuyen, Nguyen Van

    2009-11-01

    The reaction between the amino group and the carbonyl group is important in food quality control. Furthermore, advanced glycation end products from foods are considered to relate to aging and diabetes. Thus, it is important to control this reaction. In this study, we investigated the effects of salt concentration on the rates of browning reaction of amino acid, peptides, and proteins. A high concentration of sodium chloride retarded the reaction rate of Glc with amino acids as measured with the absorbance at 470 nm, but did not change the browning rate of Glc with peptides. On the other hand, sodium chloride retarded the browning reaction rate of proteins as measured with polymerization degree or by the loss of Lys. It is hoped that the results of this study will be applied in the control of amino-carbonyl reaction rates in the food industry.

  16. Growth rate hypothesis and efficiency of protein synthesis under different sulphate concentrations in two green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Mario; Palmucci, Matteo; Raven, John A

    2015-11-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) predicts a positive correlation between growth rate and RNA content because growth depends upon the protein synthesis machinery. The application of this hypothesis to photoautotrophic organisms has been questioned. We tested the GRH on one prasinophycean, Tetraselmis suecica, and one chlorophycean, Dunaliella salina, grown at three sulphate concentrations. Sulphate was chosen because its concentration in the oceans increased through geological time and apparently had a role in the evolutionary trajectories of phytoplankton. Cell protein content and P quota were positively related to the RNA content (r = 0.62 and r = 0.74, respectively). The correlation of the RNA content with growth rates (r = 0.95) indicates that the GRH was valid for these species when growth rates were below 0.82 d(-1) . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Concentrated autologous plasma protein: a biochemically neutral solder for tissue welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R B; Bleustein, C B; Petratos, P B; Chin, K C; Poppas, D P; Kung, R T

    2001-01-01

    Xenographic or allographic serum protein solders used for laser welding may have immunologic and/or pathogenic complications. The objective of these studies was to develop a safe, autologous solder. Five methods of preparing concentrated autologous plasma protein solder (CAPPS) were evaluated. Next, the CAPPS was evaluated via (1) thermal denaturation studies using differential scanning calorimetry, (2) tissue welding studies to characterize both acute and healing properties. The optimal concentration method to produce CAPPS rapidly was a dialysis method using chemical (osmotic) forces. The CAPPS showed similar denaturation profiles to serum albumin (SA) solders. Acutely, CAPPS provided comparable breaking strengths to SA solders. At 7 days, there was no significant difference in breaking strength or histology between 50% human SA solder and CAPPS (using a porcine skin model). These studies demonstrate that the CAPPS system provides acceptable acute and chronic properties for laser welding. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Dosimetry Determines the Initial OH Radical Concentration in Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Zhang, Hao; Giblin, Daryl; Rempel, Don L.; Gross, Michael L.

    2015-05-01

    Fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) employs laser photolysis of hydrogen peroxide to give OH radicals that label amino acid side-chains of proteins on the microsecond time scale. A method for quantitation of hydroxyl radicals after laser photolysis is of importance to FPOP because it establishes a means to adjust the yield of •OH, offers the opportunity of tunable modifications, and provides a basis for kinetic measurements. The initial concentration of OH radicals has yet to be measured experimentally. We report here an approach using isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine quantitatively the initial •OH concentration (we found ~0.95 mM from 15 mM H2O2) from laser photolysis and to investigate the quenching efficiencies for various •OH scavengers.

  19. Nutrient digestibility of degermed, dehulled corn, citrus pulp, and soy protein concentrate by barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U S; Tomaz, M C; Pascoal, L A F; Watanabe, P H; Amorim, A B; Melo, G M P; Daniel, E

    2012-12-01

    This study was carried out to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, CP, GE, and their respective digestible content of degermed dehulled corn (Zea mays), citrus pulp, and soy (Glycine max) protein concentrate by pigs using the difference method. Thirty-two barrows (28.1 ± 1.6 kg of BW) were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet or 1 of 3 diets formulated by replacing 30% of the basal diet with 30% of 1 of the test feedstuffs for 11 d. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was included in the diets. Feces were collected from days 7 to 11 by grab sampling and ileal digesta were collected after pigs were slaughtered on day 12. The AID of DM and AID and ATTD of GE of degermed corn (77.4, 88.7, and 77.7%) were greater (P citrus pulp (50.3, 86.5, and 55.8%) and in soy protein concentrate (63.5, 85.1, and 59.4%), which did not differ (P > 0.05). The ATTD of CP, total digestible CP, and total DE of soy protein concentrate (87.5%, 500 g/kg, and 3739 kcal/kg) were higher (P citrus pulp (60.5%, 39.5 g/kg, and 3223 kcal/kg). Total and ileal digestible DM, AID of CP, and ileal DE of degermed corn (782 g/kg, 673 g/kg, 70.7%, and 2913 kcal/kg) and soy protein concentrate (778 g/kg, 570 g/kg, 78.7%, and 2878 kcal/kg) were similar (P > 0.05) and greater (P citrus pulp (737 g/kg, 436 g/kg, 50.6%, and 2081 kcal/kg). Ileal digestible CP of degermed corn (49.8 g/kg) and citrus pulp (33.0 g/kg) did not differ (P > 0.05) but were smaller (P citrus pulp. Soy protein concentrate was the best protein source evaluated in this study.

  20. Calibration-free concentration analysis of protein biomarkers in human serum using surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover Shah, Veenita; Ray, Sandipan; Karlsson, Robert; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-11-01

    In complex biological samples such as serum, determination of specific and active concentration of target proteins, independent of a calibration curve, will be valuable in many applications. Calibration-free concentration analysis (CFCA) is a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based label-free approach, which calculates active concentration of proteins using their known diffusion coefficient and observed changes in binding rates at different flow rates under diffusion-limited conditions. Here, for the first time we demonstrate the application of CFCA for determining protein biomarker abundance, specifically serum amyloid A (SAA), directly in the serum samples of patients suffering from different infectious and non-infectious diseases. The assay involves preparation of appropriate reaction surfaces by immobilizing antibodies on CM5 chips via amine coupling followed by serum sample preparation and injection over activated and reference surfaces at flow-rates of 5 and 100 μL/min. The system was validated in healthy and diseased (infectious and non-infectious) serum samples by quantifying two different proteins: β2-microglobulin (β2M) and SAA. All concentration assays were performed for nearly 100 serum samples, which showed reliable quantification in unattended runs with high accuracy and sensitivity. The method could detect the serum β2M to as low as 13 ng/mL in 1000-fold serum dilution, indicating the possible utility of this approach to detect low abundance protein biomarkers in body fluids. Applying the CFCA approach, significant difference in serum abundance of SAA was identified in diseased subjects as compared to the healthy controls, which correlated well with our previous proteomic investigations. Estimation of SAA concentration for a subset of healthy and diseased sera was also performed using ELISA, and the trend was observed to be similar in both SPR assay and ELISA. The reproducibility of CFCA in various serum samples made the interpretation of assay

  1. Protein resistance efficacy of PEO-silane amphiphiles: Dependence on PEO-segment length and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufin, Marc A; Barry, Mikayla E; Adair, Paige A; Hawkins, Melissa L; Raymond, Jeffery E; Grunlan, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to modification with conventional PEO-silanes (i.e. no siloxane tether), silicones with dramatically enhanced protein resistance have been previously achieved via bulk-modification with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-silane amphiphiles α-(EtO)3Si(CH2)2-oligodimethylsiloxane13-block-PEOn-OCH3 when n=8 and 16 but not when n=3. In this work, their efficacy was evaluated in terms of optimal PEO-segment length and minimum concentration required in silicone. For each PEO-silane amphiphile (n=3, 8, and 16), five concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100μmol per 1g silicone) were evaluated. Efficacy was quantified in terms of the modified silicones' abilities to undergo rapid, water-driven surface restructuring to form hydrophilic surfaces as well as resistance to fibrinogen adsorption. Only n=8 and 16 were effective, with a lower minimum concentration in silicone required for n=8 (10μmol per 1g silicone) versus n=16 (25μmol per 1g silicone). Silicone is commonly used for implantable medical devices, but its hydrophobic surface promotes protein adsorption which leads to thrombosis and infection. Typical methods to incorporate poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) into silicones have not been effective due to the poor migration of PEO to the surface-biological interface. In this work, PEO-silane amphiphiles - comprised of a siloxane tether (m=13) and variable PEO segment lengths (n=3, 8, 16) - were blended into silicone to improve its protein resistance. The efficacy of the amphiphiles was determined to be dependent on PEO length. With the intermediate PEO length (n=8), water-driven surface restructuring and resulting protein resistance was achieved with a concentration of only 1.7wt%. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of whey protein concentrate on texture of fat-free desserts: sensory and instrumental measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Teixeira Ribeiro Vidigal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand how changes in the product formulation can modify its characteristics. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC on the texture of fat-free dairy desserts. The correlation between instrumental and sensory measurements was also investigated. Four formulations were prepared with different WPC concentrations (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 wt. (% and were evaluated using the texture profile analysis (TPA and rheology. Thickness was evaluated by nine trained panelists. Formulations containing WPC showed higher firmness, elasticity, chewiness, and gumminess and clearly differed from the control as indicated by principal component analysis (PCA. Flow behavior was characterized as time-dependent and pseudoplastic. Formulation with 4.5% WPC at 10 °C showed the highest thixotropic behavior. Experimental data were fitted to Herschel-Bulkley model. The addition of WPC contributed to the texture of the fat-free dairy dessert. The yield stress, apparent viscosity, and perceived thickness in the dairy desserts increased with WPC concentration. The presence of WPC promotes the formation of a stronger gel structure as a result of protein-protein interactions. The correlation between instrumental parameters and thickness provided practical results for food industries.

  3. Characterization of Key Odorants Causing a Fusty/Musty Off-Flavor in Native Cold-Pressed Rapeseed Oil by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-11-02

    The sensomics approach was used to clarify the formation of the fusty/musty off-flavor of native cold-pressed rapeseed oil. A "positive control" (PC) showing the desired sensory attributes and an oil eliciting a fusty/musty off-flavor (OF) were analyzed. Comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), identification experiments, quantitation by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), and aroma recombination resulted in 11 odorants with an OAV ≥ 1 in PC. Main differences between both oils were obtained for compounds caused by microbial influence revealing significantly higher concentrations in OF, e.g., for ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-methoxyphenol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (sotolon), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-methylphenol. Comparison of the key odorants in OF with those of the rapeseeds (OFS), from which it was pressed, showed the same 18 compounds proving that the grade of the seeds and their storage conditions are important criteria for the quality of the final oil. Finally, a further 7 native cold-pressed rapeseed oils, eliciting the same sensory defect, were analyzed to confirm aroma-active marker compounds responsible for the fusty/musty off-flavor.

  4. Modified procedure for rapid labelling of low concentrations of bioactive proteins with indium-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Neumann, R.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conjugation of DTPA to 100-500 g of protein in concentrations of 0.6-1.0 mg mL utilizing the mixed anhydride method. Free DTPA is removed by minicolumn gel filtration and centrifugation with minimal protein dilution. Radiolabelling process can be monitored by instant thin layer chromatography. Any radiochemical impurity detected can be eliminated either by additional minicolumn filtration of further chelation with more conjugated protein. In citrate buffer at pH 6 with minicolumn gel chromatography the authors prepared In-DTPA-D3 (3.0 Ci g) monoclonal antibody and used it to image hepatocarcinoma in guinea pigs. 13 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Physical and chemical changes in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Thomas-Gahring, Audrey; Van Hekken, Diane L; Iandola, Susan K; Singh, Mukti; Qi, Phoebe X; Ukuku, Dike O; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Onwulata, Charles I; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2016-03-01

    In a case study, we monitored the physical properties of 2 batches of whey protein concentrate (WPC) under adverse storage conditions to provide information on shelf life in hot, humid areas. Whey protein concentrates with 34.9 g of protein/100g (WPC34) and 76.8 g of protein/100g (WPC80) were stored for up to 18 mo under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature and relative humidity. The samples became yellower with storage; those stored at 35 °C were removed from the study by 12 mo because of their unsatisfactory appearance. Decreases in lysine and increases in water activity, volatile compound formation, and powder caking values were observed in many specimens. Levels of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeast, and mold were <3.85 log10 cfu/g in all samples. Relative humidity was not a factor in most samples. When stored in sealed bags, these samples of WPC34 and WPC80 had a shelf life of 9 mo at 35 °C but at least 18 mo at lower temperatures, which should extend the market for these products. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  7. [Determination of the concentrations of proteins, carbohydrates and fat in milk of mothers in relactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez de Acosta, Thais; Cluet de Rodríguez, Isabel; Rossell-Pineda, Maria; Valbuena, Emiro; Nucette, Meléndez Ana

    2010-12-01

    In a prospective, randomized and comparative trial the milk of 40 lactating mothers of hospitalized children at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital in Maracaibo, Venezuela was analyzed in a year period. They were divided in two groups of 20 mothers each: Group A, mothers in a relactation situation, and Group B (Control): Exclusive breastfeeding. Both types of milk were analyzed in a blind fashion to determine fat, proteins and carbohydrates. Results show that fat concentration (g/dL) was significantly more concentrated in Group B than in A, from 3.6 +/- 1.5 to 5.5 +/- 1.0 (p carbohydrates concentration (g/dL) was decreased from 6.4 +/- 5.7 to 5.7 +/- 0.8 (p types of milk in this study.

  8. Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

    2013-03-01

    Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless

  9. Optimization of expression JTAT protein with emphasis on transformation efficiency and IPTG concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Tri Margawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of small accessory genes between pol and env is tat gene encoding TAT protein. This research was aimed to optimize the expression of Jembrana TAT (JTAT protein with preparing Escherichia coli (E. coli in advance using adopted methods of M1 (MgCl2 + CaCl2 and M2 (CaCl2 + Glycerol. The best transformation efficiency resulting from a better transformation method was used to subsequent expression of JTAT protein. A synthetic tat gene encoding protein JTAT was previously cloned into pBT-hisC. Concentration of 200; 400; 600 µM IPTG was induced to a small volume culture (200 ml; OD600 = 4, incubated for 3 h. Pellets were harvested by centrifugation (4000 rpm; 4 °C; 15 min. Buffer B (10 mM Immidazole was added into pellets, lysed by freeze-thaw followed by sonication. Supernatant was collected by centrifugation (10,000 rpm; 4 °C; 20 min and purified using Ni-NTA Agarose resin, released by elution buffer (E containing 400 mM Immidazole to collect purified protein twice (E1, E2. The protein was characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot (WB, quantified (at λ595 nm with BSA standard method in prior. The result showed that transformation efficiency was better in M2 (2.53 × 106 than M1 (3.10 × 105. The JTAT protein was expressed at a right size of 11.8 kDa. Concentration of 200 µM IPTG produced a significantly better protein yield (1.500 ± 0.089 mg/ml; P < 0.05 than 600 µM IPTG (0.896 ± 0.052 mg/ml and not different to 400 µM IPTG (1.298 ± 0.080 mg/ml. This research indicated that transformation efficiency needs to be taken account in prior of optimization of the protein expression.

  10. Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii from rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Linares, Juan Carlos; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the possibility of using rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate as a fermentation medium for xylitol production. Two yeast strains, namely Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii, were used for this bioconversion process and their performance to convert xylose int...

  11. Characterizing Variation of Branch Angle and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Wenxiang; Mei, Desheng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Li; Liu, Daoming; Li, Yunchang; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, a natural population of rapeseed was grown in three environments and evaluated for branch angle trait to characterize their phenotypic patterns and genotype with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array...

  12. Rapeseed is an efficient energy crop which can still improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flenet Francis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofuels to contribute efficiently to the replacement of fossil energy and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has been a matter of debate. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately the energy balance of biofuels and their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in order to evaluate and to improve the benefit for society. In rapeseed, the energy ratio (energy produced per unit of non-renewable energy input is well above 2 whatever the method of calculation. In order to investigate the variability of energy ratios and to identify ways of improvement, a study was conducted in France in 2005 and 2006. The method of mass allocation of input energy was used for calculations, instead of the substitution method, because with this method the results do not depend on the utilization of co-products. Hence, this method is better adapted to follow improvements. A great variability in the energy ratio was observed in 2005 and 2006. Seed yields and energy cost of fertilizer N explained most of this variability. Hence, improvements should focus on increasing yield with little increase in energy cost, and on decreasing wasting of N fertilizer. However the farmer incomes, and the net production of energy per hectare, must also be a matter of concern. The inventories of greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are still uncertain because of the great variability of soil emissions, due to environmental and management factors. Hence, in order to assess the effect of rapeseed on greenhouse gas emissions, methods based on process-oriented models accounting for these factors must be used. Such models give promising results, but further testing is still needed.

  13. The effects of GH and hormone replacement therapy on serum concentrations of mannan-binding lectin, surfactant protein D and vitamin D binding protein in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Lauridsen, Anna Lis

    2004-01-01

    function. In the present study we examined whether GH or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in Turner syndrome (TS) influence the serum concentrations of MBL and two other proteins partaking in the innate immune defence, surfactant protein D (SP-D) and vitamin D binding protein (DBP). DESIGN: Study 1...

  14. Extraction of rice bran protein concentrate and its application in bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Harper

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC preparation, the alkaline extraction was performed. The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal extracting conditions of RBPC and apply RBPC into a bread recipe in order to improve bread quality and make acceptable product to consumers. The design used in extraction was a central composite design. The response surface methodology was chosen to graphically express the relationship between pH and extraction time with the output variables of protein content and percent yield of RBPC. It was found that optimal extracting conditions were pH 11 and 45 min., resulting in 69.16% protein content and 8.06% yield of RBPC. When incorporating 1-5% of RBPC in abread recipe, the weight loss and microbial counts of breads were decreased compared to those of control bread. The higher protein content and fiber in bread was corresponding to the amount of RBPC added. Therefore, adding RBPC can significantly increase protein and fiber content in bread. However, results from sensory evaluation showed that adding more than 1% of RBPC decreased the liking scores of color, taste, odor, texture, and overall liking. The results of this study could be used as a basic knowledge of RBPC utilization in other food products.

  15. STUDIES OF METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE PROTEIN CONCENTRATION OF "MALEIN PPD" BY THE KJELDAHL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciuca, V

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glanders is a contagious and fatal disease of horses, donkeys, and mules, caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. The pathogen causes nodules and ulcerations in the upper respiratory tract and lungs. Glanders is transmissible to humans by direct contact with diseased animals or with infected or contaminated material. In the untreated acute disease, the mortality rate can reach 95% within 3 weeks Malein PPD - the diagnostic product contain max 2mg/ml Burkholderia mallei. The amount of protein in the biological product "Malein PPD" is measured as nitrogen from protein molecule, applying the Kjeldahl (method determination of nitrogen by sulphuric acid digestion. The validation study aims to demonstrate the determination of the protein of the Malein PPD, by sulphuric acid digestion, it is an appropriate analytical method, reproducible and meets the quality requirements of diagnostic reagents. The paper establishes the performance characteristics of the method considered and identify the factors that influence these characteristics. The method for determining the concentration of protein, by the Kjeldahl method is considered valid if the results obtained for each validation parameter are within the admissibility criteria.The validation procedure includes details on protocol working to determine the protein of the Malein PPD, validation criteria, experimental results, mathematical calculations.

  16. Early Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A Concentrations Are Associated With Third Trimester Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Frystyk, Jan; Dunger, David B

    2017-06-01

    First or early second trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) concentrations have previously been shown to be lower in women who subsequently develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational hypertension. We therefore sought to investigate why circulating PAPP-A concentrations are related to the subsequent risk of GDM and gestational hypertension. We measured serum PAPP-A concentrations around week 15 of pregnancy and related these to indices derived from week 28 oral glucose tolerance tests and blood pressures across pregnancy in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study cohort. Increased PAPP-A concentrations were associated with reduced GDM risk [odds ratio 0.623 (0.453, 0.856), P = 3.5 × 10-3, n = 777] and reduced mean arterial blood pressures (β = -0.202 to -0.177, P = 1.7 to 6.9 × 10-3, n = 347 to 355). They were also negatively associated with week 28 fasting (β = -0.149, P = 6.6 × 10-4, n = 777) and 60-minute (β = -0.188, P = 1.5 × 10-5, n = 777) oral glucose tolerance test glucose concentrations. These associations were underpinned by the strong associations between increased week 15 PAPP-A concentrations and decreased week 28 insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: β = -0.319, P = 1.7 × 10-13, n = 768), as well as increased insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity (insulin disposition index: β = 0.202, P = 6.5 × 10-6, n = 731). These results suggest that links between PAPP-A concentrations in early pregnancy and subsequent glucose concentrations and blood pressures may be mediated by changes in insulin sensitivity (and secretion).

  17. Comparative study of rapeseed, monofloral types and multifloral honey by some physicochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zhelyazkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of the present study is to make a comparative analysis of some basic qualitative parameters of rapeseed (Brassica napus honey, monofloral (acacia Robinia pseudoacacia, sunflower Helianthus annuus, coriander Coriandrum sativum, lime Tilia sp., and multifloral honey. The study uses 26 samples of bee honey from different regions in the country. The physicochemical study was carried out at the Scientific Research Laboratory of Trakia University according to the harmonized methods of the International Honey Commission and the methods described in Bulgarian State Standard (BSS 3050- 80 and Regulation No. 48/2003. The following indicators have been investigated: water, glucose, fructose and sucrose content (%; hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, mg/kg; electrical conductivity (mS/cm. Based on the results obtained for glucose (G and fructose (F content in the honey samples, the sum total of G + F has been calculated. It has been found that the average values of the studied physico-chemical parameters in all analyzed honey samples (incl. rapeseed honey are within the tolerable limits according to national regulations. The established deviations from the requirements concerning HMF content in rapeseed honey samples can be explained by technological errors rather than by plant origin. By glucose content the analyzed rapeseed honey samples have values close to those of sunflower honey (over 30%. These results can explain the rapid crystallization of rapeseed and sunflower honey. The lowest average electrical conductivity values have been established for rapeseed and acacia honey, which is a characteristic feature of light coloured honey types. Rapeseed and multifloral honey have higher average active acidity value (pH compared to the average for the monofloral honey types. Based on the results, it can be concluded that rapeseed bee honey (Brassica napus is of quality, does not differ from the monofloral and multifloral types produced

  18. Effect of annatto addition and bleaching treatments on ultrafiltration flux during production of 80% whey protein concentrate and 80% serum protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Zulewska, Justyna; Barbano, David M

    2013-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if adding annatto color to milk or applying a bleaching process to whey or microfiltration (MF) permeate influenced ultrafiltration (UF) flux, diafiltration (DF) flux, or membrane fouling during production of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) or 80% serum protein concentrate (SPC80). Separated Cheddar cheese whey (18 vats using 900 kg of whole milk each) and MF permeate of skim milk (18 processing runs using 800 kg of skim milk each) were produced to make WPC80 and SPC80, respectively. The 6 treatments, replicated 3 times each, that constituted the 18 processing runs within either whey or MF permeate UF were as follows: (1) no annatto; (2) no annatto+benzoyl peroxide (BPO); (3) no annatto+hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); (4) annatto; (5) annatto+BPO; and (6) annatto+H2O2. Approximately 700 kg of whey or 530 kg of MF permeate from each treatment were heated to 50°C and processed in 2 stages (UF and DF) with the UF system in batch recirculation mode using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound UF membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 Da. Addition of annatto color had no effect on UF or DF flux. The processes of bleaching whey or MF permeate with or without added color improved flux during processing. Bleaching with H2O2 usually produced higher flux than bleaching with BPO. Bleaching with BPO increased WPC80 flux to a greater extent than it did SPC80 flux. Though no differences in mean flux were observed for a common bleaching treatment between the WPC80 and SPC80 production processes during the UF stage, mean flux during WPC80 DF was higher than mean flux during SPC80 DF for each bleaching treatment. Water flux values before and after processing were used to calculate a fouling coefficient that demonstrated differences in fouling which were consistent with flux differences among treatments. In both processes, bleaching with H2O2 led to the largest reduction in fouling. No effect of annatto on fouling was observed. The

  19. The structural organization of seed oil bodies could explain the contrasted oil extractability observed in two rapeseed genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, Céline; Bardet, Michel; Chardot, Thierry; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Gromova, Marina; Guillermo, Armel; Miquel, Martine; Nesi, Nathalie; Yen-Nicolaÿ, Stéphanie; Jolivet, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The protein, phospholipid and sterol composition of the oil body surface from the seeds of two rapeseed genotypes was compared in order to explain their contrasted oil extractability. In the mature seeds of oleaginous plants, storage lipids accumulate in specialized structures called oil bodies (OBs). These organelles consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer in which structural proteins are embedded. The physical stability of OBs is a consequence of the interactions between proteins and phospholipids. A detailed study of OB characteristics in mature seeds as well as throughout seed development was carried out on two contrasting rapeseed genotypes Amber and Warzanwski. These two accessions were chosen because they differ dramatically in (1) crushing ability, (2) oil extraction yield and, (3) the stability of purified OBs. Warzanwski has higher crushing ability, better oil extraction yield and less stable purified OBs than Amber. OB morphology was investigated in situ using fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and pulsed field gradient NMR. During seed development, OB diameter first increased and then decreased 30 days after pollination in both Amber and Warzanwski embryos. In mature seeds, Amber OBs were significantly smaller. The protein, phospholipid and sterol composition of the hemi-membrane was compared between the two accessions. Amber OBs were enriched with H-oleosins and steroleosins, suggesting increased coverage of the OB surface consistent with their higher stability. The nature and composition of phospholipids and sterols in Amber OBs suggest that the hemi-membrane would have a more rigid structure than that of Warzanwski OBs.

  20. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  1. Relationship of serum bilirubin concentration to kidney function and 24-hour urine protein in Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yeon Soon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, kidney function and proteinuria have yet to be fully elucidated, nor have these relationships been investigated in Korean adults. Method We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Korean adults who were evaluated at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea during a five-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. We evaluated the relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and 24-hour urinary protein excretion in a sample of 1363 Korean adults aged 18 years or older. Results The values of eGFR 2 and 24-hour urine albumin ≥150 mg/day were observed in 26.1% (n = 356 and 40.5% (n = 553 of subjects, respectively. Fasting glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL were observed in 44.9% (n = 612 of the total sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors including demographic characteristics, comorbidities and other laboratory measures, total serum bilirubin was positively associated with eGFR and negatively associated with proteinuria both in the whole cohort and in a subgroup of diabetic individuals. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first hospital-based study specifically aimed at examining the relationships among serum total bilirubin concentration, 24-hour urine protein and kidney function in Korean adults. We demonstrated that serum total bilirubin concentration was negatively correlated with 24-hour urine protein and positively correlated with eGFR in Korean non-diabetic and diabetic adults.

  2. Serum C-reactive protein concentration in preeclamptic women: Effect on pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Sultana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by development of hyperten­sion to the extent of 140/90 mm of Hg or more with proteinuria after the 20th gestational week in a previously normoten­sive and non protein uric women. According to the National High blood presure Working group (NHBPEP and Ameri­can college of obstetricans and Gynecologiests (ACOG hypertension in pregnancy is defined as a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher after 20 weeks of gestation in a woman with previously normal blood pressure (NHBPEP, 2000; ACOG, 2002. If the disease is allowed to progress to the HELLP syndrome or eclampsia, maternal morbidity and mortality increases. The majority of perinatal losses are related to placental insufficiency, which causes intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity associated with preterm delivery, or abruptio placentae. Objectives: This study tried to explore the effect of serum C reactive protein concentration in preeclamptic women and its effect on pregnancy outcome.Methods: This case control study included 60 third trimester pregnant women (30 normotensive and 30 preeclamptic who attended Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, BIRDEM and DMCH, during July 2009 and June 2010. Estimation of serum C reactive protein (CRP concentrations was done by liquid phase immunoprecipitation assay and turbulometry at DMC.Results: Mean (±SD age showed no significant difference between groups; however, BMI, SBP, DBP and CRP were significantly (P<0.001 high in case group. Gravidity and ANC showed no significant variation between groups. CRP concentration was significantly high case group. Gestational age was significantly low in case group resulting in higher preterm delivery. No significant variation was observed regarding fetal outcome; however, birth weight was significantly low and neonatal complication was also significantly high in case group.Conclusion: CRP concentration was high in

  3. Experimental investigations of extracted rapeseed combustion emissions in a small scale stationary fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh Tung, N.; Steinbrecht, D. [Rostock University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Environmental Technology, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany); Tung, N. D. [Hanoi University of Agriculture- Hanoi/Vietnam, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Trau Quy - Gia Lam - Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vincent, T. [Rostock University, Chair of Energy Systems, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the combustion process of extracted rapeseed (ER) grist in a stationary fluidized bed combustor (SFBC) and evaluate the chemical compositions of the flue gas emissions. The experimental tests of ER combustion in the 90 to 200 kW SFB combustion test facility show that the optimal ER combustion temperature is within the range from 850 to 880 {sup o}C. Temperature and the concentration of exhausted emissions (e.g. O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, C{sub org}) were measured with dedicated sensors distributed within the combustor, along its height and in the flue gas duct. The experimental results showed that with respect to German emission limits the concentration of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in the flue gas were high whereas that of CO was low. This study furthermore is applicable for the abundant biomass residue resources in Vietnam (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse, cassava residues, coconut shell etc.), which have similar chemical compositions to ER. (author)

  4. Intraspecific variability of floral nectar volume and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eBertazzini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous angiosperms rely on pollinators to ensure efficient flower fertilization, offering a reward consisting of nourishing nectars produced by specialized floral cells, known as nectaries. Nectar components are believed to derive from phloem sap that is enzymatically processed and transformed within nectaries. An increasing body of evidence suggests that nectar composition, mainly amino acids, may influence pollinator attraction and fidelity. This notwithstanding, little is known about the range of natural variability in nectar content for crop species. Sugar and amino acid composition of nectar harvested from field-grown plants at the 63 to 65 phenological stage was determined for a set of 44 winter genotypes of rapeseed, a bee-pollinated crop. Significant differences were found for solute concentrations, and an even higher variability was evident for nectar volumes, resulting in striking differences when results were expressed on a single flower basis. The comparison of nectar and phloem sap from a subset of 8 varieties pointed out qualitative and quantitative diversities with respect to both sugars and amino acids. Notably, amino acid concentration in phloem sap was up to one hundred times higher than in nectar. Phloem sap showed a much more uniform composition, suggesting that nectar variability depends mainly on nectary metabolism. A better understanding of the basis of nectar production would allow an improvement of seed set efficiency, as well as hive management and honey production.

  5. Identification and quantification of glucosinolates in rapeseed using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Silvia; Sampedro, M Carmen; Gallejones, Patricia; Castellón, Ander; Ibargoitia, Maria L; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2009-07-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the speciation and quantification of glucosinolates in rapeseed is described. The method combines liquid chromatography (LC) with ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) detection. Electrospray ionization (ESI) has been chosen as the ionization technique for the on-line coupling of LC with ITMS. Glucosinolates are extracted from different rapeseeds with MeOH and the extracts are cleaned-up by solid phase extraction with Florisil cartridges. Aqueous extracts are injected into LC system coupled to an ITMS, leading to accurately quantify eight of the most important glucosinolates in rapeseed, by MS2 mode and confirming their structure by MS3 acquisition. All the glucosinolates found in rapeseeds provide good signals corresponding to the deprotonated precursor ion [M-H]-. The method is reliable and reproducible, and detection limits range from 0.5 nmol g(-1) to 3.7 nmol g(-1) when 200 mg of dried seeds of certified reference material are analyzed. Within-day and between-day RSD percentages range between 2.4-14.1% and 3.9-16.9%, respectively. The LC-ESI-ITMS-MS method described here allows for a rapid assessment of these metabolites in rapeseed without a desulfatation step. The overall process has been successfully applied to identify and quantify glucosinolates in rapeseed samples.

  6. Optimal Concentration of 2,2,2-Trichloroacetic Acid for Protein Precipitation Based on Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Albert N; Ezoulin, Miezan Jm; Youm, Ibrahima; Youan, Bi-Botti C

    2014-09-01

    For low protein concentrations containing biological samples (in proteomics) and for non proteinaceous compound assays (in bioanalysis), there is a critical need for a simple, fast, and cost-effective protein enrichment or precipitation method. However, 2,2,2-trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is traditionally used for protein precipitation at ineffective concentrations for very low protein containing samples. It is hypothesized that response surface methodology, can be used to systematically identify the optimal TCA concentration for protein precipitation in a wider concentration range. To test this hypothesis, a central composite design is used to assess the effects of two factors (X1 = volume of aqueous solution of protein, and X2 = volume of TCA solution 6.1N) on the optical absorbance of the supernatant (Y1), and the percentage of protein precipitated (Y2). Using either bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein or human urine (with 20 ppm protein content), 4% w/v (a saddle point) is the optimal concentration of the TCA solution for protein precipitation that is visualized by SDS-PAGE analysis. At this optimal concentration, the Y2-values range from 76.26 to 92.67% w/w for 0.016 to 2 mg/mL of BSA solution. It is also useful for protein enrichment and xenobiotic analysis in protein-free supernatant as applied to tenofovir (a model HIV microbicide). In these conditions, the limit of detection and limit of quantitation of tenofovir are respectively 0.0014 mg/mL and 0.0042 mg/mL. This optimal concentration of TCA provides optimal condition for protein purification and analysis of any xenobiotic compound like tenofovir.

  7. Lipoprotein(a) and dietary proteins: casein lowers lipoprotein(a) concentrations as compared with soy protein1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilausen, Karin Johanne; Meinertz, H.

    1999-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark......Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark...

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chengming Sun; Benqi Wang; Lei Yan; Kaining Hu; Sheng Liu; Yongming Zhou; Chunyun Guan; Zhenqian Zhang; Jiana Li; Jiefu Zhang; Song Chen; Jing Wen; Chaozhi Ma; Jinxing Tu; Jinxiong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson-Darling (A-D) test....

  9. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jiqu Xu; Xiaoli Liu; Hui Gao; Chang Chen; Qianchun Deng; Qingde Huang; Zhonghua Ma; Fenghong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed ...

  10. Changes in vitamin D binding protein and vitamin D concentrations associated with liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Peter P.; Bloom, Roy D.; Feldman, Harold I.; Huverserian, Ari; Thomasson, Arwin; Shults, Justine; Hamano, Takayuki; Goral, Simin; Shaked, Abraham; Olthoff, Kimberly; Rickels, Michael R.; Bleicher, Melissa; Leonard, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with fractures, infections and death. Liver disease impairs vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) metabolism. Aims We aimed to determine the impact of liver transplantation on vitamin D, particularly on DBP and free vitamin D concentrations. Methods Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D and DBP concentrations were measured in 202 adults before liver transplantation and 3 months later in 155. Free vitamin D concentrations were estimated from these values. Risk factors for 25(OH)D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) and low 1,25(OH)2D (<20 pg/ml) were examined with logistic regression, and changes in concentrations following transplantation with linear regression. Results Pretransplant, 84% were 25(OH)D deficient, 13% had 25(OH)D concentrations <2.5 ng/ml, and 77% had low 1,25(OH)2D. Model for end-stage liver disease score ≥ 20 (P < 0.005) and hypoalbuminemia (P < 0.005) were associated with low 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Following transplantation, 25(OH)D concentrations increased a median of 17.8 ng/ml (P < 0.001). Albumin increased from a median of 2.7 to 3.8 g/dl (P < 0.001) and DBP from 8.6 to 23.8 mg/dl (P < 0.001). Changes in total 25(OH)D were positively and independently associated with changes in DBP (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.001). Free 25(OH)D concentrations rose from 6.0 to 9.7 pg/ml (P < 0.001). In contrast, total 1,25(OH)2 Dconcentrations rose only by 4.3 pg/ml (P < 0.001) and free 1,25(OH)2 Dconcentrations declined (P < 0.001). Conclusions Serum total and free 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations rose substantially following transplantation, while 1,25(OH)2D concentrations showed modest changes and free 1,25(OH)2D decreased. Studies of the effects of vitamin D status on diverse transplant complications are needed. PMID:22098635

  11. Development, chemical and sensory characterization of semi skim yogurt added with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Regina Antunes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop, to perform the chemical characterization and verify the acceptability of a semi skim yogurt added with whey protein concentrate (WPC 35 %, and compare it to traditional yogurt, without adding any protein source. For this, two formulations were prepared: 1- traditional semi skim and 2: semi skim added with WPC 35 %, with subsequent evaluation of physicochemical characteristics of acidity, pH and viscosity, as well as the compositional analysis of the levels of humidity, full solids, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrates for both formulations. The sensory analysis was performed with 80 untrained tasters, which was based on parameters of appearance, taste, flavor and consistency. The appearance and consistency parameters showed a significant difference between received grades, and the yogurt added with WPC 35 % the most preferred these aspects, as well as the formulation with the highest widespread acceptance among testers. The results indicate that the use of WPC 35 % in foods is a promising alternative, considering the overall acceptance obtained, the protein content beneficial to the consumers health, the improvement of technological properties provided to food coupled to the extent which it is produced, low cost and reducing the damage caused to the environment. 

  12. GLUCOSE, TOTAL PROTEINS, URIC ACID AND TRIGL YCERIDES CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD OF ATIVE LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken, to estimate levels of glucose, total proteins, albumins, uric acid and triglycerides in plasma of Desi and Naked Neck laying hens. The experimental birds received ration containing 16 per cent crude protein and were housed in open sheds. The mean values (mg/dL observed in Desi hens were 226.736+15.20 glucose, 1.624+0.224 albumin, 5.203+1.078 total proteins, 4.633+1.875 uric acid and 529.800+554.74 triglycerides. In Naked neck hens, the mean values were found to be 231.818+31.376 glucose, 1.562+0.287 albumins, 4.533+0.797total proteins, 4.157+1.336 uric acid and 791.200+320.474 triglycerides. There was no difference (P<0.05 in mean values of blood parameters between both the native laying hens which suggested that in identical genetical mechanism regulated concentrations of blood chemical constituents under study.

  13. Contributions of equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters to viscosity in concentrated protein solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangapani, Prasad; Hudson, Steven; Pathak, Jai; Migler, Kalman

    2013-03-01

    Equilibrium and non-equilibrium clustering are ubiquitous phenomena in soft matter physics and are typically observed in systems ranging from colloidal suspensions to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Such phenomena are central to understanding and preventing irreversible aggregation in addition to controlling viscosity challenges related to formulation and drug delivery of protein therapeutics. Curiously, little work has been done in exploring the cluster size dependence of low-shear viscosity and intrinsic viscosity in protein solutions in a controlled manner. In this work, we carefully control cluster size of reversible and irreversible clusters formed by globular proteins or monoclonal antibodies over a concentration range of 2 mg/mL-500 mg/mL and pH from 3-9. We find a marked dependence of low-shear viscosity on cluster size using custom-designed silicon-based microfluidic viscometers. Measurements of cluster sizes using static light scattering reveal a correlation of low shear viscosity as well as intrinsic viscosity with the average cluster size. We model the composition dependence of viscosity for the case of equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters using an adaptation of a model recently presented by Minton for protein mixtures.

  14. The Quality of Dory Fillets based on Water Soluble Protein, Color, and Myoglobin Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfajrin Nisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fillet of dory is very easy to be find in Indonesian market with various brand and produsen.Imported dory fillet is preferred by consumer so far because it has a white color compare than localfillets. Color is the important parameter that used by consumers to determine the quality of filet. Thisstudy was aimed to determine the quality of local and imported fillets, including protein profile usingSDS PAGE, color measurement, and myoglobin extractability. The results of water soluble protein profilesshowed dory fillet contained 13-15 bands. The redness value (a* of local fillet (DN, DL, DM was highercompared others. However, imported fillet (DI had the highest if redness index (a/b. Imported fillet (DIshowed the lowest concentration of myoglobin compared other samples.

  15. The Quality of Dory Fillets based on Water Soluble Protein, Color, and Myoglobin Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfajrin Nisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fillet of dory is very easy to be find in Indonesian market with various brand and produsen. Imported dory fillet is preferred by consumer so far because it has a white color compare than local fillets. Color is the important parameter that used by consumers to determine the quality of filet. This study was aimed to determine the quality of local and imported fillets, including protein profile using SDS PAGE, color measurement, and myoglobin extractability. The results of water soluble protein profiles showed dory fillet contained 13-15 bands. The redness value (a* of local fillet (DN, DL, DM was higher compared others. However, imported fillet (DI had the highest if redness index (a/b. Imported fillet (DI showed the lowest concentration of myoglobin compared other samples.

  16. Effect of Salinity and Low Osmotic Potential on the Germination and Seedling Growth of Rapeseed Cultivars with Different Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pace

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In mediterranean environments, rapeseed is grown in fall-winter with late-summer sowing and this implies that germination and initial seedling growth may occur in soils with low water content and/or high salinity. Lab experiments were carried out to study the effect of the level and timing of salt and osmotic stress application on the germination and seedling growth of rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera Del. cultivars with different stress tolerance. After a preliminary screening on eighteen cultivars, four hybrids with different stress tolerance during germination were chosen to study germination on Petri dishes at 14 increasing concentrations of PEG 6000 (ψs up to -1.5 MPa and 12 increasing concentrations of NaCl (up to 600 mM. Seedlings from seeds germinated at 0 and 250 mM of NaCl were then grown into boxes for the slant test containing NaCl solutions 0 mM and 100 mM, while seedlings from seeds germinated -0.8 and -0.03 MPa (PEG were grown in pots containing siliceous sand with a water content equivalent to field capacity or half of field capacity. In both experiments seedlings were grown for 11 days under controlled light/temperature conditions. Therefore, for both salt and osmotic stress experiments, the following four combinations for “germination-growth” conditions were obtained for each cultivar: optimum-optimum; optimum-stress; stress-optimum; stress-stress. The following determinations were performed: final percentage germination, time to 50% germination (T50, and base water potential of seeds; dry and fresh weights, and shoot and root lengths of seedlings at the end of the growth period (i.e. 11 days after plant transfer to the growth medium, and correspondent relative growth rates between the start and the end of the growth period. The different degree of stress tolerance observed among rapeseed cultivars for germination was in the order of 150 mMol for NaCl concentration and 0.2-0.3 MPa for osmotic potential. Nonetheless

  17. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  18. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zou

    Full Text Available Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops.

  19. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Yokoyama, Wallace H; Zhang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Rice bran, containing about 100-150 g kg(-1) protein, is a by-product of rice milling that has only become an available ingredient in recent years owing to the centralisation of rice milling. Rice bran, but not its protein fraction or hydrolysates, has been shown to have a hypocholesterolaemic effect. Peptides from soy, milk and other foods have been proposed to have hypocholesterolaemic effects based on their ability to lower cholesterol solubility in bile acid/phosphotidyl choline micelles. Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPHs) were prepared and investigated for their potential to lower cholesterol concentration in micelles. The RBPHs were produced by digestion using four different peptidases, alcalase 2.4L(®), neutrase 0.8L(®), papaya latex papain and porcine pancreas trypsin, and then fractionated by hydrophobicity using styrene/divinylbeneze resins. Alcalase 2.4L(®) produced the highest degree of hydrolysis, and the resulting hydrolysates had the highest micellar cholesterol inhibition ability in an in vitro hypocholesterolaemic test. The adsorption dynamics of four different macroporous resins, DA201-C, Sepabeads SP207 and SP825 and Diaion HP20, were determined using the Langmuir isotherm model. DA201-C had the highest adsorption capacity with an equilibrium concentration of 220 mg g(-1). The hydrolysates eluted with 25, 50, 75 and 95% (v/v) ethanol lowered the micellar cholesterol concentration by 11.88, 14.76, 19.37 and 7.56% respectively. A hydrophobic fraction of RBPH had the highest inhibitory activity on micellar cholesterol, which suggests that it may have hypocholesterolaemic properties. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops.

  1. The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

    2011-03-01

    The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioactive Whey Protein Concentrate and Lactose Stimulate Gut Function in Formula-Fed Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Ryom, Karina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Formula feeding is associated with compromised intestinal health in preterm neonates compared with maternal milk, but the mechanisms behind this are unclear. We hypothesized that the use of maltodextrin and whey protein concentrates (WPCs) with reduced bioactivity due to thermal......-processing are important factors. METHOD:: Ninety-two caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed increasing doses of formulas for 5 days (24–120?mL/kg/d). In Experiment 1, four groups of pigs (n?=?15–16) were fed lactose- or maltodextrin-dominant formulas (lactose/maltodextrin ratios 3:1 or 1:3, respectively), containing...

  3. Comparison of the Results of Serum Total Protein Concentration Measured by 3 Methods: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGIEVA, Teodora M.; ZAPRYANOVA, Dimitrinka S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides the results from a comparative study of the 3 commonly used methods for total protein (TP) measurement. The experiments were carried out with 6 dogs (4-7 year-old, weighing 12.8 ± 1.4 kg). Five blood samples were obtained by saphena venepuncture from all dogs, during the time course of the experimentally induced infection with Staphylococcus intermedius, administered subcutaneously at a dose rate of 5 ml of 1.109 CFU/ml within 14 days. TP concentration was measured ...

  4. Effects of Excipient Interactions on the State of the Freeze-Concentrate and Protein Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Sampreeti; Horn, Jacqueline; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Friess, Wolfgang; Aksan, Alptekin

    2017-02-01

    The physical state of excipients in freeze-dried formulations directly affects the stability of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Crystallization of trehalose and mannitol in frozen solutions has been shown to be a function of composition. However, to date a detailed study of the effect of concentrations of the API and other excipients on the crystallinity of mannitol and trehalose in frozen solutions has not been reported. The crystallinity of mannitol and trehalose in frozen solutions was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, and FTIR spectroscopy. The secondary structure of BSA was probed by FTIR, and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in frozen and thawed solutions, respectively. Trehalose crystallization was accompanied by unfolding of BSA. BSA delayed and reduced the extent of mannitol and trehalose crystallization. Similar effects were observed upon adding D2O (≥5% w/w) and low concentrations of polysorbate 20 (≤0.2% w/w) with retention of BSA in its native conformation. At high BSA to trehalose mass ratio, the protein could stabilize itself in the frozen state, but unfolded upon thawing. The API and other excipients, in a concentration-dependent manner, influenced the physical state of the freeze concentrate as well as the stability of the API.

  5. Rational design of lyophilized high concentration protein formulations-mitigating the challenge of slow reconstitution with multidisciplinary strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenjin; Krishnan, Sampathkumar; Ricci, Margaret Speed; Shih, Liang-Yu; Liu, Dingjiang; Gu, Jian Hua; Jameel, Feroz

    2013-10-01

    An increasing number of protein therapies require chronic administration at high doses (>200 mg) by subcutaneous (sc) injection. Due to the injection volume limitation (protein concentration formulations at or exceeding 100 mg/mL are required to achieve the dose. Development of a high concentration protein formulation can be challenging due to increased aggregation at higher concentration and/or chemical instability, which necessitates the development of lyophilized formulation for high protein concentration drug products. Unique challenges, such as long reconstitution time for a lyophilized high protein concentration drug product, can limit practical usage and commercial marketability of the product. In this paper, a systematic approach is presented to develop a lyophilized high concentration protein formulation. The focus is on achieving reasonable reconstitution times with multidisciplinary strategies. Many strategies have been shown to provide nominal improvement in reconstitution times, such as adding wetting agents in the diluents, incorporating high annealing steps in the lyophilization cycle and reconstituting under vacuum. The reconstitution strategy of reduced diluent volume, however, has enabled significant decrease in reconstitution time (4-7-fold) of lyophilized high protein concentration formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of quantitative trait loci for kernel oil and protein concentration in a B73 and Zheng58 maize cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Li, X; Zhang, N; Zhang, Y N; Jiang, H W; Gao, J; Kuai, B K; Ding, Y L; Huang, X Q

    2016-09-30

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important food crops throughout the world, and provides oil and proteins to humans and livestock. Kernel oil and protein content in maize are two complex quantitative traits. In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling oil and protein concentration in maize kernels, and to evaluate their genetic effects, QTL analysis was conducted on an F3:4 population derived from a cross between an inbred line with a low oil and protein concentration (Zheng58) and an inbred line with a higher oil and protein concentration (B73). A total of 189 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers were used to construct a linkage map. Eleven QTLs for kernel oil concentration were detected on nine chromosomes, except for chromosome 9. A single QTL explained 4.6 to 11.1% of the phenotypic variance. Ten QTLs for kernel protein concentration were also detected on nine chromosomes, except for chromosome 9. A single QTL explained 4.2 to 11.4% of the phenotypic variance. Interestingly, novel QTLs for oil concentration (qOIL08-01 and qOIL10-01) and QTLs for protein concentration (qPRO01-01 and qPRO05-01) were specific to the population studied, which could explain 7.1 to 11.1% of the phenotypic variance. These results will provide better understanding of the genetic basis of oil and protein concentrations in maize. The markers closely linked with the QTLs will facilitate breeding of maize varieties with high oil and protein concentrations through molecular marker-assisted selection.

  7. Isoflavonas em isolados e concentrados protéicos de soja Isoflavones in soy protein isolate and soy protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Y. Lui

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolados e concentrados protéicos de soja são ingredientes largamente utilizados na indústria de panificação, confeitaria, bebidas e embutidos. As isoflavonas presentes na soja podem sofrer alterações em quantidade e perfil de distribuição dependendo das condições de processamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o balanço de massa de isoflavonas e proteína em processamento de isolados e de concentrados protéicos de soja (tratamento com ácido e com álcool. A maior parte das isoflavonas presentes na matéria-prima (farinha desengordurada de soja é perdida nos sobrenadantes de processo (90% para extração com etanol 60%, 52% para processamento de isolado protéico e 47% para extração com ácido. O teor de isoflavonas nos produtos obtidos foi de 686µg/g base seca (b.s. para isolado protéico, 871µ g/g b.s. para concentrado protéico obtido por tratamento ácido e apenas 153µg/g b.s. para concentrado protéico obtido por tratamento com álcool. Não foi observada alteração no perfil de distribuição das isoflavonas nesse último processo, enquanto que nos dois primeiros notou-se diminuição da quantidade das formas malonil glicosídeos e aumento da quantidade das formas beta-glicosiladas e gliconas.Soy protein isolate (SPI and soy protein concentrate (SPC are largely used in bakery, confectionary, meat and beverage products. Isoflavones present in soybeans products can undergo changes in quantity and profile depending on the processing conditions. The objective of this work was to conduct mass balance studies of isoflavones and protein during the processing of SPI and SPC (acid and alcohol leach. The majority of isoflavones present in the raw material is lost in the supernatants (90% for SPC treated with alcohol, 52% for SPI and 47% for SPC treated with acid. Total concentration of isoflavones was 652µg/g for SPI, 838µg/g for SPC (acid leach, and only 147µg/g for SPC (alcohol leach. There were no changes in the

  8. Effect of denatured whey protein concentrate and its fractions on cheese composition and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Véronique; Rémillard, Nathalie; Chabot, Denise; Morin, Pierre; Pouliot, Yves; Britten, Michel

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effect of a denatured whey protein concentrate (DWPC) and its fractions on cheese yield, composition, and rheological properties, and (2) to separate the direct effect of the DWPC or its fractions on cheese rheological properties from the effect of a concomitant increase in cheese moisture. Semihard cheeses were produced at a laboratory scale, and mechanical properties were characterized by dynamic rheometry. Centrifugation was used to induce a moisture gradient in cheese to separate the direct contribution of the DWPC from the contribution of moisture to cheese mechanical properties. Cheese yield increased and complex modulus (G*) decreased when the DWPC was substituted for milk proteins in milk. For cheeses with the same moisture content, the substitution of denatured whey proteins for milk proteins had no direct effect on rheological parameters. The DWPC was fractionated to evaluate the contribution of its different components (sedimentable aggregates, soluble component, and diffusible component) to cheese yield, composition, and rheological properties. The sedimentable aggregates were primarily responsible for the increase in cheese yield when DWPC was added. Overall, moisture content explained to a large extent the variation in cheese rheological properties depending on the DWPC fraction. However, when the effect of moisture was removed, the addition of the DWPC sedimentable fraction to milk increased cheese complex modulus. Whey protein aggregates were hypothesized to act as active fillers that physically interact with the casein matrix and confer rigidity after pressing. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  10. Feeding soybean meal increases the blood level of isoflavones and reduces the steroidogenic capacity in bovine corpora lutea, without affecting peripheral progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Vanhaecke, L; Heyerick, A; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-01-30

    Thirty-three Holstein-Friesian cows were followed from 14 days pre partum until the fourth ovulation post partum. Housing conditions and basic ration were identical for all animals. Concentrates were individually supplemented according to the daily milk production level, using two different types of protein rich concentrates: soybean meal and rapeseed meal. Soybean and rapeseed meal are known to be respectively high and low in isoflavones. Cows were randomly divided into three groups and blocked for parity. Group I (n=11) was supplemented with soybean meal and acted as control group. Groups II (n=11) and III (n=11) were respectively supplemented with soybean and rapeseed meal and were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum at day 9 of the first three postpartal estrous cycles. Soybean meal supplementation to lactating dairy cows (1.72 kg on average) induced an increase in the blood concentration of equol, dihydrodaidzein, o-desmethylangolensin in both soy groups and resulted in a reduced area occupied by steroidogenic (P=0.012) and endothelial cells (P=0.0007) in the luteal biopsies. Blood concentrations of equol and glycitein were negatively correlated with the areas occupied by steroidogenic (r=-0.410 with P=0.0002, respectively r=-0.351 with P=0.008) and endothelial cells (r=-0.337 with P=0.01, respectively r=-0.233 with P=0.085) in the 3 first estrous cycles. The latter however did not affect the diestrous peripheral blood progesterone concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantification of protein concentration by the Bradford method in the presence of pharmaceutical polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Nils; Borde, Annika; Wölfel, Sebastian; Kerman, Björn; Larsson, Anette

    2011-04-01

    We investigated how the Bradford assay for measurements of protein released from a drug formulation may be affected by a concomitant release of a pharmaceutical polymer used to formulate the protein delivery device. The main result is that polymer-caused perturbations of the Coomassie dye absorbance at the Bradford monitoring wavelength (595nm) can be identified and corrected by recording absorption spectra in the region of 350-850mm. The pharmaceutical polymers Carbopol and chitosan illustrate two potential types of perturbations in the Bradford assay, whereas the third polymer, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), acts as a nonperturbing control. Carbopol increases the apparent absorbance at 595nm because the polymer aggregates at the low pH of the Bradford protocol, causing a turbidity contribution that can be corrected quantitatively at 595nm by measuring the sample absorbance at 850nm outside the dye absorption band. Chitosan is a cationic polymer under Bradford conditions and interacts directly with the anionic Coomassie dye and perturbs its absorption spectrum, including 595nm. In this case, the Bradford method remains useful if the polymer concentration is known but should be used with caution in release studies where the polymer concentration may vary and needs to be measured independently. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of Protein Concentrate and 1,3-Propanediol by Wheat-Based Thin Stillage Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Shim, Youn Young; Emami, Shahram; Reaney, Martin J T

    2017-05-17

    Fermentation of wheat with yeast produces thin stillage (W-TS) and distiller's wet grains. A subsequent fermentation of W-TS (two-stage fermentation, TSF) with endemic bacteria at 25 and 37 °C decreased glycerol and lactic acid concentrations, while 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and acetic acid accumulated with greater 1,3-PD and acetic acid produced at 37 °C. During TSF, W-TS colloids coagulated and floated in the fermentation medium producing separable liquid and slurry fractions. The predominant endemic bacteria in W-TS were Lactobacillus panis, L. gallinarum, and L. helveticus, and this makeup did not change substantially as fermentation progressed. As nutrients were exhausted, floating particles precipitated. Protein contents of slurry and clarified liquid increased and decreased, respectively, as TSF progressed. The liquid was easily filtered through an ultrafiltration membrane. These results suggested that TSF is a novel method for W-TS clarification and production of protein concentrates and 1,3-PD from W-TS.

  13. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION OF MAIZE ON PROTEIN CONCENTRATION AND IN VITRO FEMENTABILITY OF GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D BABNIK

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitrogen fertilization of maize on fermentability of maize grain in the rumen was studied by means of in vitro method based on the measurement of gas produced during the incubation of samples with rumen liquor. Gas production was recorded continuously up to 72 h incubation time and cumulative gas production was described by the Gompertz equation Y=A*exp(-exp(-d*(t-tm. Seven treatments, one of them unfertilized and others fertilized with 100 to 250 kg N ha–1, were compared. Grain yield and concentration of crude protein (CP in grain increased linearly with nitrogen fertilization. Grain yield increased for 25 kg dry matter (DM ha–1 and CP concentration for 0.13 g kg–1 DM per each additional kg of N. Concentration of CP in grain, which varied from 83 to 115 g kg–1 DM, was closely related to the dynamics of gas production. The maximal gas production rate (MPR was negatively related to CP concentration in the grain (R2 = 0.53; p < 0.10 and the time of MPR (tm was positively related to the amount of added N (R2 = 0.74; p < 0.05 and concentration of CP in the grain (R2 = 0.88; p < 0.01. It is likely that intensive N fertilization of maize limits ruminal digestion of maize starch. Due to the shift of starch digestion from the rumen to lower gastrointestinal tract better utilization of energy can be expected in maize grain of extensively fertilized maize than in the grain of maize, in which supply of N is sub-optimal.

  14. What do changes in concentrations of serum surfactant proteins A and D in OSA mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shao; Li, Nanfang; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Yao, Xiaoguang; Abdireim, Arikin; Wang, Yingchun; Abulikemu, Zufeiya; Zhang, Delian; Chang, Guijuan; Kong, Jianqiong; Zhou, Ling; Hong, Jing; Ying, Ting; Zhang, Yongping

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that surfactant proteins are affected by oxygen concentration and mechanic stretches, although the alteration of serum surfactant proteins in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether serum concentrations of surfactant proteins A and D are altered and related to hypopnea index (HI) in OSA. This is a cross-sectional study. Consecutive 140 males, suspicious of OSA, were studied. OSA was determined by PSG and polysomnographic data examined. Subjects with HI ≥ 10.1/h were classified as higher HI group and those with HI OSA was diagnosed in 110 patients (78.5%). Mild, moderate, and severe OSA constitutes 26.4, 27.8, and 24.3%, respectively. Mean age was 44.6 ± 7.65 years. Subjects with higher HI had lower SP-A (139.54. ± 32.94 vs 158.2 ± 38.9 ng/L, p = 0.005) and SP-D (16.54 ± 3.67 vs 18.10 ± 3.48 ng/L, p = 0.014) compared to those with lower HI. Nocturnal HI was strongly correlated with serum levels of SP-A (r = 0.343, p = 0.012) and SP-D (r = 0.504, p OSA, possibly reflecting severity of hypoxia in OSA.

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa2 binding on lipid/cholesterol bilayer depends on protein concentration and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharad, Sudarat; Moreno-Cencerrado, Alberto; Üzülmez, Öykü; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Toca-Herrera, Jose L

    2017-10-14

    Bacillus thuringiensis produces cytolytic proteins (Cyt) that show toxicity against dipteran insect larvae acting directly on the cell membrane. Up to now, two different models have been proposed to explain the interaction mechanism of the cytolytic protein Cyt2Aa2 on lipid membranes: pore-forming and detergent-like action. Here we report on the interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with lipid/cholesterol bilayers at early stage (far from equilibrium) as a function of protein concentration. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements showed that the rate of protein adsorption increased with concentration, although the mass of the final protein-lipid was similar after two hours. In addition, the dissipation (compliance of the hybrid lipid/protein layer) increased with decreasing protein concentration. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the structure of the protein-lipid layer was concentration and time dependent. A rigid hybrid homogeneous layer was observed at protein concentrations of 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml after 30 min. At lower concentrations, 10 μg/ml and 17.5 μg/ml, protein adsorption on the lipid layer led to the formation of small aggregates. Interestingly, at 25 μg/ml a transition of a hole-like structure into a homogeneous layer was observed. This suggests that 25 μg/ml is a threshold concentration for the binding mechanism of Cyt2Aa2 on to lipid membranes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of total protein concentration and electrophoretic protein fractions in fresh and frozen serum from wild Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Daniela; de Giorgi, Giada Bagnagatti; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Baggiani, Luciana; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Comazzi, Carlo; Belloli, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the health status of reptiles is based on physical examination and evaluation of hematologic and biochemical values. Evaluation of serum total protein (TP) concentration and protein fractions plays an important role in health assessment; however, little is known about references value for these analytes in wild viperoid snakes. In addition, studies evaluating the stability of proteins in frozen viperoid serum are lacking. The aims of this study were to establish preliminary reference values for concentrations of TP and protein fractions in serum from wild vipers and to evaluate the stability of serum proteins in frozen serum samples from viperoid snakes. Blood samples were collected from wild Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes). Using fresh serum, TP concentrations were determined using the biuret method and protein fractions were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE); albumin/globulin ratios were calculated. Analyses were also performed on serum frozen at -20°C for 70 days and then thawed. Pre- and post-storage results were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Five adult wild Horned Vipers were sampled and comprised 4 males and 1 female. The female snake had higher TP concentrations than the male snakes. The electrophoretic patterns demonstrated 6 protein fractions that were similar for all 5 snakes. There were no significant changes in the concentrations of the 6 protein fractions post-storage; the percentage of the alpha-1 fraction was increased in frozen/thawed serum. Total protein concentrations in serum from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes were in agreement with published reference intervals for healthy reptiles and viperoid snakes. Serum protein fractions were easy to identify using AGE electrophoresis. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Allowance for radial dilution in evaluating the concentration dependence of sedimentation coefficients for globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Trushar R; Winzor, Donald J; Scott, David J

    2017-10-04

    The accuracy with which the concentration dependence of the sedimentation coefficient, s = s 0(1 - kc), can be quantified for globular proteins by commonly used procedures has been examined by subjecting simulated sedimentation velocity distributions for ovalbumin to c(s)‒s analysis. Because this procedure, as well as its g(s)‒s counterpart, is based on assumed constancy of s over the time course of sedimentation coefficient measurement in a given experiment, the best definition of the concentration coefficient k is obtained by associating the measured s with the mean of plateau concentrations for the initial and final distributions used for its determination. The return of a slightly underestimated k (by about 3%) is traced to minor mislocation of the air‒liquid meniscus position as the result of assuming time independence of s in a given experiment. Although more accurate quantification should result from later SEDFIT and SEDANAL programs incorporating the simultaneous evaluation of s 0 and k, the procedures based on assumed constancy of s suffice for determining the limiting sedimentation coefficient s 0-the objective of most s‒c dependence studies.

  19. The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids on threo-Ds-isocitric acid production from rapeseed oil by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Allayarov, Ramil K; Lunina, Julia N; Morgunov, Igor G

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids, the inhibitors of the isocitrate lyase, on the production of isocitric acid by the wild strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 grown in the medium containing rapeseed oil was studied. In the presence of oxalic and itaconic acids, strain Y. lipolytica accumulated in the medium isocitric acid (70.0 and 82.7 g/L, respectively) and citric acid (23.0 and 18.4 g/L, respectively). In control experiment, when the inhibitors were not added to the medium, the strain accumulated isocitric and citric acids at concentrations of 62.0 and 28.0 g/L, respectively. Thus, the use of the oxalic and itaconic acids as additives to the medium is a simple and convenient method of isocitric acid production with a minimum content of citric acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The validity of the proteins concentrations in the ascitic liquid and serum for the differential diagnosis of the ascitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdivia R, Mario; Llanos C, Alejandro; Zapata S, Carlos; Muñoz O, Norvinda

    2002-01-01

    ... in the ascitic serum and fluid, for the discrimination of possible etiological causes of ascites, including in these parameters Protein Concentration in the Ascitic Fluid, the Serum-Ascites Albumin Gradient...

  1. Feeding of palm oil fatty acids or rapeseed oil throughout lactation: Effects on energy status, body composition, and milk production in Norwegian dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknæs, M; Chilliard, Y; Hove, K; Inglingstad, R A; Bernard, L; Volden, H

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine how supplements of rapeseed oil or palm oil fatty acids would affect milk production and composition, body lipid stores, and energy balance in 30 multiparous goats of Norwegian dairy goat breed. The experiment lasted 230 d, with 1 to 120 d in milk (DIM) for indoor feeding (P1), 120 to 200 DIM for mountain grazing (P2), and 200 to 230 DIM for indoor feeding (P3). Grass silage was fed according to appetite during indoor feeding periods. After an adjustment period (1-60 DIM) when the control diet was given to the goats, the animals were subdivided into 3 groups of 10 goats. Treatments (60-230 DIM) were (1) basal concentrate (control; no added fat); (2) control concentrate with 8% (added on air-dry basis) hydrogenated palm oil enriched with palmitic acid (POFA); and (3) control concentrate with 8% (added on air-dry basis) rapeseed oil (RSO). Individual energy balances based on energy intake and milk production were estimated on 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 200, and 230 DIM. At the same times, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), body mass index, and body tissue stores using computed tomography were monitored. Silage intake was depressed by POFA throughout the experimental period. Reduced BW and body mass index were observed in the POFA and RSO groups, whereas no effect on BCS or body composition was observed throughout lactation. Generally, a minor decrease in BW was observed from 10 to 120 DIM (only 0.6 kg on average) and the total amount of body lipid was reduced by 4.4 kg. During the mountain grazing period, a further reduction in body lipid stores (2.7 kg) was observed, and BW was reduced by 3.9 kg in the same period. The goats mobilized, on average, 72% of their fat reserves during the first 200 DIM. In this period, dietary fat supplementation did not reduce the mobilization of adipose tissue but resulted in greater milk fat yield (2 kg more, on average, compared with the control group). Milk yield was not affected

  2. Optimization of the protein concentration process from residual peanut oil-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayol, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the best process conditions for preparing protein concentrate from residual peanut oil-cake (POC. The study was carried out on POC from industrial peanut oil extraction. Different protein extraction and precipitation conditions were used: water/ flour ratio (10:1, 20:1 and 30:1, pH (8, 9 and 10, NaCl concentration (0 and 0.5 M, extraction time (30, 60 and 120 min, temperature (25, 40 and 60 °C, extraction stages (1, 2 and 3, and precipitation pH (4, 4.5 and 5. The extraction and precipitation conditions which showed the highest protein yield were 10:1 water/flour ratio, extraction at pH 9, no NaCl, 2 extraction stages of 30 min at 40 °C and precipitation at pH 4.5. Under these conditions, the peanut protein concentrate (PC contained 86.22% protein, while the initial POC had 38.04% . POC is an alternative source of protein that can be used for human consumption or animal nutrition. Therefore, it adds value to an industry residue.El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar las mejores condiciones para obtener un concentrado de proteínas a partir de la torta residual de maní (POC. El estudio se llevó a cabo en POC provenientes de la extracción industrial de aceite de maní. Se utilizaron distintas condiciones para la extracción y precipitación de proteínas: relación agua / harina (10:1, 20:1 y 30:1, pH de extracción (8, 9 y 10, concentración de NaCl (0 y 0,5 M, tiempo de extracción (30, 60 y 120 min, temperatura (25, 40 y 60 °C, número de etapas de extracción (1, 2 y 3, y el pH de precipitación (4, 4,5 y 5. Las condiciones de extracción y de precipitación que mostraron mayor rendimiento de proteína fueron: relación de 10:1 en agua / harina, pH de extracción de 9, en ausencia de NaCl, 2 etapas de extracción de 30 min cada una a 40 °C y el pH de precipitación de 4,5. En estas condiciones, el concentrado de proteína de maní (PC fue de 86,22%, mientras que el porcentaje de proteínas de

  3. Rapeseed Oil as Renewable Resource for Polyol Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirna, Uldis; Fridrihsone, Anda; Misane, Marija; Vilsone, Dzintra

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important platform chemicals due to their accessibility, specific structure of oils and low price. Rapeseed oil (RO) polyols were prepared by amidization of RO with diethanolamine (DEA). To determine the kinetics of amidization reaction, experiments were carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), amine (NH) value was determined. Group contribution method by Fedor‵s was used to calculate solubility parameters, van der Waals volume was calculated by Askadskii. Obtained polyol‵s OH and NH value are from 304 up to 415 mg KOH/g. RO polyols synthesis meets the criteria of "green chemistry". In the present study, reaction of RO amidization with DEA was investigated, as well as optimum conditions for polyol synthesis was established to obtain polyols for polyurethane production. Calculations of solubility parameter and cohesion energy density were calculated, as RO polyols will be used as side chains in polymers, and solubility parameter will be used to explain properties of polymers.

  4. Detection of Water Content in Rapeseed Leaves Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Nie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz (THz spectra of rapeseed leaves with different water content (WC were investigated. The transmission and absorption spectra in the range of 0.3–2 THz were measured by using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The mean transmittance and absorption coefficients were applied to analyze the change regulation of WC. In addition, the Savitzky-Golay method was performed to preprocess the spectra. Then, the partial least squares (PLS, kernel PLS (KPLS, and Boosting-PLS were conducted to establish models for predicting WC based on the processed transmission and absorption spectra. Reliable results were obtained by these three methods. KPLS generated the best prediction accuracy of WC. The prediction coefficient correlation (Rval and root mean square error (RMSEP of KPLS based on transmission were Rval = 0.8508, RMSEP = 0.1015, and that based on absorption were Rval = 0.8574, RMSEP = 0.1009. Results demonstrated that THz spectroscopy combined with modeling methods provided an efficient and feasible technique for detecting plant physiological information.

  5. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshui, Chen, E-mail: boshuichen@163.com; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Monodispersed stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. Their morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics were also characterized. • The surface-capped cerium borate nanoparticles exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. As new lubricating additives, they were also outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil in biodegradable rapeseed oil. The results presented in this paper would be of important significance for developing green lubricants and lubricant additives. • The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} in rapeseed oil were investigated and attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species on the tribo-surfaces. - Abstract: Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO{sub 3}, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO{sub 3} were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO{sub 3} were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO{sub 3} nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent

  6. Impact of Ovine Whey Protein Concentrates and Clarification By-Products on the Yield and Quality of Whey Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos D. Pereira; Olga Díaz; Angel Cobos

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the addition of whey protein concentrates and clarification by-products obtained from ovine cheese whey and deproteinized whey (Sorelho) on the yield and quality of the whey cheese (Requeijão) have been evaluated. Whey protein concentrates were obtained by ultrafiltration of skimmed whey and Sorelho. The clarification by-products were obtained after the treatment of the skimmed whey and Sorelho by thermocalcic precipitation and microfiltration with two membranes (0.20 and 0.65 ...

  7. Quality of organically grown protein crops in Norway for livestock concentrates – limited N and S supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, Britt I.F.; Prestløkken, Egil

    2008-01-01

    The aim of organic farming husbandry, is to be entirely based on an organically produced diet. Shortage of organically produced protein crops for production of concentrates supplying the European market, and a contemporary ban on the use of fishmeal for ruminants in the EU has lead to an increased need for organically produced feedstuffs for production of concentrates in Norwegian organic husbandry. Pea is the most common cultivated protein-rich crop in organic agriculture in Norway. For rumi...

  8. Analysis of Low Frequency Protein Truncating Stop-Codon Variants and Fasting Concentration of Growth Hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hallengren

    Full Text Available The genetic background of Growth Hormone (GH secretion is not well understood. Mutations giving rise to a stop codon have a high likelihood of affecting protein function.To analyze likely functional stop codon mutations that are associated with fasting plasma concentration of Growth Hormone.We analyzed stop codon mutations in 5451 individuals in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study by genotyping the Illumina Exome Chip. To enrich for stop codon mutations with likely functional effects on protein function, we focused on those disrupting >80% of the predicted amino acid sequence, which were carried by ≥ 10 individuals. Such mutations were related to GH concentration, measured with a high sensitivity assay (hs-GH and, if nominally significant, to GH related phenotypes, using linear regression analysis.Two stop codon mutations were associated with the fasting concentration of hs-GH. rs121909305 (NP_005370.1:p.R93* [Minor Allele Frequency (MAF = 0.8%] in the Myosin 1A gene (MYO1A was associated with a 0.36 (95%CI, 0.04 to 0.54; p=0.02 increment of the standardized value of the natural logarithm of hs-GH per 1 minor allele and rs35699176 (NP_067040.1:p.Q100* in the Zink Finger protein 77 gene (ZNF77 (MAF = 4.8% was associated with a 0.12 (95%CI, 0.02 to 0.22; p = 0.02 increase of hs-GH. The mutated high hs-GH associated allele of MYO1A was related to lower BMI (β-coefficient, -0.22; p = 0.05, waist (β-coefficient, -0.22; p = 0.04, body fat percentage (β-coefficient, -0.23; p = 0.03 and with higher HDL (β-coefficient, 0.23; p = 0.04. The ZNF77 stop codon was associated with height (β-coefficient, 0.11; p = 0.02 but not with cardiometabolic risk factors.We here suggest that a stop codon of MYO1A, disrupting 91% of the predicted amino acid sequence, is associated with higher hs-GH and GH-related traits suggesting that MYO1A is involved in GH metabolism and possibly body fat distribution. However, our results are preliminary and need replication in

  9. Analysis of Low Frequency Protein Truncating Stop-Codon Variants and Fasting Concentration of Growth Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallengren, Erik; Almgren, Peter; Engström, Gunnar; Persson, Margaretha; Melander, Olle

    2015-01-01

    The genetic background of Growth Hormone (GH) secretion is not well understood. Mutations giving rise to a stop codon have a high likelihood of affecting protein function. To analyze likely functional stop codon mutations that are associated with fasting plasma concentration of Growth Hormone. We analyzed stop codon mutations in 5451 individuals in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study by genotyping the Illumina Exome Chip. To enrich for stop codon mutations with likely functional effects on protein function, we focused on those disrupting >80% of the predicted amino acid sequence, which were carried by ≥ 10 individuals. Such mutations were related to GH concentration, measured with a high sensitivity assay (hs-GH) and, if nominally significant, to GH related phenotypes, using linear regression analysis. Two stop codon mutations were associated with the fasting concentration of hs-GH. rs121909305 (NP_005370.1:p.R93*) [Minor Allele Frequency (MAF) = 0.8%] in the Myosin 1A gene (MYO1A) was associated with a 0.36 (95%CI, 0.04 to 0.54; p=0.02) increment of the standardized value of the natural logarithm of hs-GH per 1 minor allele and rs35699176 (NP_067040.1:p.Q100*) in the Zink Finger protein 77 gene (ZNF77) (MAF = 4.8%) was associated with a 0.12 (95%CI, 0.02 to 0.22; p = 0.02) increase of hs-GH. The mutated high hs-GH associated allele of MYO1A was related to lower BMI (β-coefficient, -0.22; p = 0.05), waist (β-coefficient, -0.22; p = 0.04), body fat percentage (β-coefficient, -0.23; p = 0.03) and with higher HDL (β-coefficient, 0.23; p = 0.04). The ZNF77 stop codon was associated with height (β-coefficient, 0.11; p = 0.02) but not with cardiometabolic risk factors. We here suggest that a stop codon of MYO1A, disrupting 91% of the predicted amino acid sequence, is associated with higher hs-GH and GH-related traits suggesting that MYO1A is involved in GH metabolism and possibly body fat distribution. However, our results are preliminary and need replication in

  10. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  11. Review: Amino acid concentration of high protein food products and an overview of the current methods used to determine protein quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiqi; Wang, Lydia M; Sivendiran, Thakshi; Bohrer, Benjamin M

    2017-12-04

    Quality of the dietary protein in foods rather than amount of dietary protein may be of greater importance from a human health and wellness standpoint. Various systems are in place to determine the value of dietary protein. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) are the two major protein standards used to determine the completeness of proteins by their unique concentration and digestibility of indispensable amino acids. The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive comparison of the amino acid concentration of high protein foods and provide the current status of the use and practicality of the PDCAAS and DIAAS system. This review builds upon previous research analyzing the total nutrient density of protein-rich foods and expands scientific research investigating the quality of proteins. In summary, the average sum of indispensable amino acids for meat and fish products is much more consistent than that of non-meat and plant-based food products. However, some non-meat products have relatively similar amounts of indispensable amino acids on a similar serving size basis. The overwhelming aspect of determining protein quality is that greater research is needed to determine protein digestibility of food products.

  12. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshui, Chen; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO3, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO3 were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO3 as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO3 were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO3 nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO3 in rapeseed oil were attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species of B2O3, CeO2 and Fe2O3, and the adsorbates of SA/CeBO3 and rapeseed oil, on the tribo-surfaces.

  13. Pollination of Rapeseed (Brassica napus by Africanized Honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae on Two Sowing Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMERSON D. CHAMBÓ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433, three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011. The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  14. Comparison of four methods for determination of total protein concentrations in pleural and peritoneal fluid from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J P; Guelfi, J F; Pagès, J P

    2001-03-01

    To compare 4 techniques for determination of total protein concentrations in peritoneal and pleural effusions from dogs. 23 peritoneal and 12 pleural fluid samples from 35 dogs with various abnormalities. Samples were collected into tubes containing EDTA, centrifuged, and stored at -20 C until total protein concentrations were assessed. Protein concentration in each sample was determined by use of urine test strips, refractometry, and Bradford and biuret techniques. Accuracy of each method was determined, using dilutions of human control sera. There was good correlation among results of all quantitative procedures. Results of the biuret technique were more accurate than results of the Bradford assay. Refractometry underestimated protein concentration in samples with test strips correctly classified effusion samples into 2 groups on the basis of total protein concentrations less than or greater than 20 g/L. Results of any of these 4 techniques can be used to rapidly and efficiently differentiate peritoneal and pleural fluid from dogs into transudates and exudates on the basis of total protein concentration less than or greater than 20 g/L, respectively.

  15. Determination of ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) serum protein concentrations by refractometry and the biuret method

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira Dos Santos [UNESP; Paulillo, Antonio Carlos [UNESP; Dittrich, Rqsangela Locatelli; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux [UNESP; Bertoli, Rodolfo Silva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of hand-held refractometer in determining serum protein concentrations in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) as compared with the standard biuret method. The results indicated that serum protein values may be accurately determined in ring-necked pheasants with a hand-held refractometer. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2008.

  16. The Effect of Diet on Protein Concentration, Hypopharyngeal Gland Development and Virus Load in Worker Honey ees (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which honey bees process pollen vs. protein supplements are important in the generation of artificial diets needed to sustain managed honey bees. We measured the effects of diet on protein concentration, hypopharyngeal gland development and virus titers in worker honey...

  17. Serum Angiopoietin-Like Protein 2 Concentrations Are Independently Associated with Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Lun Huang

    Full Text Available Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2, which is mainly expressed from adipose tissue, is demonstrated to be involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Because several adipocytokines are known to be associated with heart failure (HF, here we investigated the association of ANGPTL2 and HF in Taiwanese subjects.A total of 170 symptomatic HF patients and 130 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled from clinic. The echocardiography was analyzed in each patient, and stress myocardial perfusion study was performed for clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease. Detailed demographic information, medications, and biochemical data were recorded. Circulating adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP and ANGPTL2, were analyzed. Compared with the control group subjects, serum ANGPTL2 concentrations were significantly higher in HF group patients. In correlation analyses, ANGPTL2 level was positively correlated to creatinine, fasting glucose, triglyceride, hsCRP, TNF-α, NT-proBNP and A-FABP levels, and negatively correlated with HDL-C and left ventricular ejection fraction. In multiple regression analysis, A-FABP, hsCRP, and HDL-C levels remained as independent predictors for ANGPTL2 level. To determine the association between serum ANGPTL2 concentrations and HF, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with subjects divided into tertiles by ANGPTL2 levels. For the subjects with ANGPTL2 levels in the highest tertile, their risk of HF was about 2.97 fold (95% CI = 1.24-7.08, P = 0.01 higher than those in the lowest tertile.Our results demonstrate a higher circulating ANGPTL2 level in patients with HF, and the upregulating ANGPTL2 levels might be associated with metabolic derangements and inflammation.

  18. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

  19. Heat shock protein concentration and clarity of porcine lenses incubated at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialoszynski, T M; Milne, K J; Trevithick, J R; Noble, E G

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the concentration of heat shock proteins in lenses in lens organ culture at elevated temperatures, and to examine the relation between elevated temperature and lens clarity. Pig lenses obtained from a local abattoir were dissected aseptically and incubated in medium M199 without serum for 4 days to stabilize, and lenses with protein leakage of less than 10 mg/l were obtained for heat shock exposure. Heat shock was performed by incubation for 1 h in M199 without serum at various temperatures ranging from 37 °C to 55 °C. After incubation for 24 h, cataract blurring of the images was assessed using Scantox™ and Scion Image analysis of the lens photographs. Lens homogenates were subsequently analyzed for Hsp70 and Hsp27 with western blotting. The degree of cataract blurring of the images increased with increasing temperature, but the two functional measures provided different results. Focal length inconsistency, as assessed with the back vertex distance standard error of the mean (BVD SEM; the variability in focal lengths measured at 20 equally spaced locations across the lens, Scantox™), increased nearly linearly with the heat treatment temperature. In contrast, decreased clarity, evident by a fuzzy image with lower contrast, was not markedly altered as the temperature rose until a threshold of approximately 47.5 °C. The inducible isoform of the Hsp70 family (Hsp70) of heat shock proteins was increased at all temperatures above the control except those above 50 °C. Changes in Hsp27 were less clear as the protein content increased only at the incubation temperatures of 39 °C and 48.5 °C. The porcine lens demonstrates subtle changes in the variability of the focal length, and the variability increases as the incubation temperature rises. In contrast, lens clarity is relatively stable at temperatures up to 47.5 °C, above which dramatic changes, indicative of the formation of cataracts, occur. The lens content of Hsp70 was elevated in lenses

  20. Protein Binding of β-Lactam Antibiotics in Critically Ill Patients: Can We Successfully Predict Unbound Concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gloria; Briscoe, Scott; Adnan, Syamhanin; McWhinney, Brett; Ungerer, Jacobus; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to optimize beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients is growing in popularity, although there are limited data describing the potential impact of altered protein binding on achievement of target concentrations. The aim of this study was to compare the measured unbound concentration to the unbound concentration predicted from published protein binding values for seven beta-lactams using data from blood samples obtained from critically ill patients. From 161 eligible patients, we obtained 228 and 220 plasma samples at the midpoint of the dosing interval and trough, respectively, for ceftriaxone, cefazolin, meropenem, piperacillin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, and flucloxacillin. The total and unbound beta-lactam concentrations were measured using validated methods. Variabilities in both unbound and total concentrations were marked for all antibiotics, with significant differences being present between measured and predicted unbound concentrations for ceftriaxone and for flucloxacillin at the mid-dosing interval (P < 0.05). The predictive performance for calculating unbound concentrations using published protein binding values was poor, with bias for overprediction of unbound concentrations for ceftriaxone (83.3%), flucloxacillin (56.8%), and benzylpenicillin (25%) and underprediction for meropenem (12.1%). Linear correlations between the measured total and unbound concentrations were observed for all beta-lactams (R2 = 0.81 to 1.00; P < 0.05) except ceftriaxone and flucloxacillin. The percent protein binding of flucloxacillin and the plasma albumin concentration were also found to be linearly correlated (R2 = 0.776; P < 0.01). In conclusion, significant differences between measured and predicted unbound drug concentrations were found only for the highly protein-bound beta-lactams ceftriaxone and flucloxacillin. However, direct measurement of unbound drug in research and clinical practice is suggested for selected

  1. C-reactive protein concentration and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptoge, Stephen; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Lowe, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Associations of C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration with risk of major diseases can best be assessed by long-term prospective follow-up of large numbers of people. We assessed the associations of CRP concentration with risk of vascular and non-vascular outcomes under different circumstances....

  2. The effect of diet on protein concentration, hypopharyngeal gland development and virus load in worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Huang, Eden; Huang, Ming Hua

    2010-09-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which honey bees process pollen vs. protein supplements are important in the generation of artificial diets needed to sustain managed honeybees. We measured the effects of diet on protein concentration, hypopharyngeal gland development and virus titers in worker honey bees fed either pollen, a protein supplement (MegaBee), or a protein-free diet of sugar syrup. Workers consumed more pollen than protein supplement, but protein amounts and size of hypopharyngeal gland acini did not differ between the two feeding treatments. Bees fed sugar syrup alone had lower protein concentrations and smaller hypopharyngeal glands compared with the other feeding treatments especially as the bees aged. Deformed wing virus was detected in workers at the start of a trial. The virus concentrations increased as bees aged and were highest in those fed sugar syrup and lowest in bees fed pollen. Overall results suggest a connection between diet, protein levels and immune response and indicate that colony losses might be reduced by alleviating protein stress through supplemental feeding.

  3. A fluorescence anisotropy method for measuring protein concentration in complex cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Radu Constantin; Calvet, Amandine; Ryder, Alan G

    2014-04-22

    The rapid, quantitative analysis of the complex cell culture media used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is of critical importance. Requirements for cell culture media composition profiling, or changes in specific analyte concentrations (e.g. amino acids in the media or product protein in the bioprocess broth) often necessitate the use of complicated analytical methods and extensive sample handling. Rapid spectroscopic methods like multi-dimensional fluorescence (MDF) spectroscopy have been successfully applied for the routine determination of compositional changes in cell culture media and bioprocess broths. Quantifying macromolecules in cell culture media is a specific challenge as there is a need to implement measurements rapidly on the prepared media. However, the use of standard fluorescence spectroscopy is complicated by the emission overlap from many media components. Here, we demonstrate how combining anisotropy measurements with standard total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (TSFS) provides a rapid, accurate quantitation method for cell culture media. Anisotropy provides emission resolution between large and small fluorophores while TSFS provides a robust measurement space. Model cell culture media was prepared using yeastolate (2.5 mg mL(-1)) spiked with bovine serum albumin (0 to 5 mg mL(-1)). Using this method, protein emission is clearly discriminated from background yeastolate emission, allowing for accurate bovine serum albumin (BSA) quantification over a 0.1 to 4.0 mg mL(-1) range with a limit of detection (LOD) of 13.8 μg mL(-1). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of incorporation of whey protein concentrate on physicochemical, texture, and microbial evaluation of developed cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Hamid Wani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whey Protein concentrate (WPC was incorporated into cookies at different levels (0, 2, 4, and 6%. Cookies were analyzed for physicochemical, color, textural, microbial, and sensory attributes. Physicochemical analysis revealed that 6% WPC supplemented cookies shows maximum protein content (13.22%, moisture content (11.33%, fat content (23.08%, and ash content (2.02% as compared to control. However, control sample shows significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 value for crude fiber and carbohydrate content. Maximum thickness (9.63 mm, diameter (44.06 mm, and weight (9.10 g were found for control and these decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 with increase in WPC supplementation level in cookies. Cookie supplemented with 4% WPC showed maximum overall acceptability (4.76. Texture analysis revealed that 6% WPC supplemented cookie shows maximum cutting force (55.3 N. Lightness (L* value of cookies decreased from 67.32 to 57.94. Where as a* and b* value increased from 0.37 to 3.57 and 25.35 to 27.54, respectively. The total plate count of cookie samples was under acceptable limits.

  5. Conducting polymer nanowires for control of local protein concentration in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joshua D.; Thourson, Scott B.; Panta, Krishna R.; Flanders, Bret N.; Payne, Christine K.

    2017-05-01

    Interfacing devices with cells and tissues requires new nanoscale tools that are both flexible and electrically active. We demonstrate the use of PEDOT:PSS conducting polymer nanowires for the local control of protein concentration in water and biological media. We use fluorescence microscopy to compare the localization of serum albumin in response to electric fields generated by narrow (760 nm) and wide (1.5 µm) nanowires. We show that proteins in deionized water can be manipulated over a surprisingly large micron length scale and that this distance is a function of nanowire diameter. In addition, white noise can be introduced during the electrochemical synthesis of the nanowire to induce branches into the nanowire allowing a single device to control multiple nanowires. An analysis of growth speed and current density suggests that branching is due to the Mullins-Sekerka instability, ultimately controlled by the roughness of the nanowire surface. These small, flexible, conductive, and biologically compatible PEDOT:PSS nanowires provide a new tool for the electrical control of biological systems.

  6. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics.

  7. Characterizing Reversible Protein Association at Moderately High Concentration Via Composition-Gradient Static Light Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Daniel; Pollastrini, Joseph; Cao, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of weakly self-associating macromolecules at concentrations beyond a few g/L is challenging on account of the confounding effect of thermodynamic nonideality on the association signal. When the reversible association comprises only 1 or 2 oligomeric species in equilibrium with the monomer, the nonideality may be accounted for in a relatively rigorous manner, but if more association states are involved, the analysis becomes quite complex. We show that under reasonable assumptions, the nonideality in a composition-gradient static light scattering measurement may be accounted for in a simple fashion. The correction is applied to determining the stoichiometry and binding affinity of a protein previously characterized via sedimentation equilibrium and dynamic light scattering. The results of the new analysis are remarkably self-consistent and in line with the expectations for the form of self-association predicted previously from analysis of the surface residuals, establishing composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering with nonideality corrections as a critical technology for characterizing associative interactions in concentrated solutions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical and structural characterization of whey protein concentrate/montmorillonite/lycopene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rafaela C; Carneiro, João de Deus S; Assis, Odílio Bg; Borges, Soraia V

    2017-11-01

    The production/characterization of nanocomposites based on whey protein concentrate (WPC) and montmorillonite (MMT) with lycopene as functional substance is presented and their potential use as alternative biomaterials in foodstuff applications is discussed. A full factorial design with varying levels of MMT (0 and 20 g kg-1 ) and lycopene (0, 60 and 120 g kg-1 ) was used. The mechanical properties (tensile and puncture tests), thermal stability, Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectra and film morphology of the resulting materials were evaluated. Lycopene and MMT nanoparticles could be successfully included in WPC films using the casting/evaporation method. The films were flexible and homogeneous and a uniform dispersion of the components was achieved. Inclusion of 20 g kg-1 of MMT in the polymeric matrix improved both mechanical and thermal properties. Lycopene at the tested concentrations, besides its red coloring ability, did not promote any detectable interference in the structural or physical properties. These findings are important in devising applications and open a new perspective on the use of these materials in bioactive packaging processing. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengming; Wang, Benqi; Yan, Lei; Hu, Kaining; Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Chunyun; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Jiana; Zhang, Jiefu; Chen, Song; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Yi, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson-Darling (A-D) test. Consequently, 68 loci were identified as significantly associated with plant height (P 0.1), we found plausible candidates orthologous to the documented Arabidopsis genes involved in height regulation. One significant association found by GWAS colocalized with the established height locus BnRGA in rapeseed. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of plant height in rapeseed and may facilitate marker-based breeding.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson-Darling (A-D test. Consequently, 68 loci were identified as significantly associated with plant height (P 0.1, we found plausible candidates orthologous to the documented Arabidopsis genes involved in height regulation. One significant association found by GWAS colocalized with the established height locus BnRGA in rapeseed. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of plant height in rapeseed and may facilitate marker-based breeding.

  11. The effect of microfiltration on color, flavor, and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y; Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2015-09-01

    The residual annatto colorant in fluid Cheddar cheese whey is bleached to provide a neutral-colored final product. Currently, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide are used for bleaching liquid whey. However, previous studies have shown that chemical bleaching causes off-flavor formation, mainly due to lipid oxidation and protein degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of microfiltration (MF) on norbixin removal and to compare flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) from MF whey to WPC80 from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase (LP). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured from colored, pasteurized milk. The fluid whey was pasteurized and fat separated. Liquid whey was subjected to 4 different treatments: control (no bleaching; 50°C, 1 h), HP (250 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), and LP (20 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), or MF (microfiltration; 50°C, 1 h). The treated whey was then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried to 80% concentrate. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Proximate analyses, color, functionality, descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analysis were conducted on WPC80. The MF and HP- and LP-bleached WPC80 displayed a 39.5, 40.9, and 92.8% norbixin decrease, respectively. The HP and LP WPC80 had higher cardboard flavors and distinct cabbage flavor compared with the unbleached and MF WPC80. Volatile compound results were consistent with sensory results. The HP and LP WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (especially heptanal, hexanal, pentanal, 1-hexen-3-one, 2-pentylfuran, and octanal) compared with unbleached and MF WPC80. All WPC80 had >85% solubility across the pH range of 3 to 7. The microstructure of MF gels determined by confocal laser scanning showed an increased protein particle size in the gel network. MF WPC80 also had larger storage modulus values, indicating higher gel firmness. Based on bleaching efficacy comparable to chemical bleaching with HP

  12. Tissue-specific distribution of secondary metabolites in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Fang

    Full Text Available Four different parts, hypocotyl and radicle (HR, inner cotyledon (IC, outer cotyledon (OC, seed coat and endosperm (SE, were sampled from mature rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by laser microdissection. Subsequently, major secondary metabolites, glucosinolates and sinapine, as well as three minor ones, a cyclic spermidine conjugate and two flavonoids, representing different compound categories, were qualified and quantified in dissected samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry. No qualitative and quantitative difference of glucosinolates and sinapine was detected in embryo tissues (HR, IC and OC. On the other hand, the three minor compounds were observed to be distributed unevenly in different rapeseed tissues. The hypothetic biological functions of the distribution patterns of different secondary metabolites in rapeseed are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of seed and oil yield stability in NS rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed trials performed in the period 2007-2010 were analyzed to evaluate seed and oil yield stability in NS rapeseed cultivars in changeable environmental conditions of northern Serbia. Seed yield, oil content and yield for 40 winter and 9 spring rapeseed cultivars were analyzed. It was found that the influence of year on seed and oil yield was most significant. Genotype (cultivars by environment (year interaction was further analyzed using AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction model. In the environmental conditions present during the trial in Rimski Šančevi according to the analysis of regression coefficient (bi and ecovalence (Wi and AMMI model, winter cultivars Nena and NS-L-102 were the most stable and high seed yielding, and hybrid cultivar NS-H-R-3 was singled out for oil yield. These cultivars are recommended for implementation in future breeding programs and for growing in the conditions described in this paper.

  14. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocío F; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S; Samuel, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

  15. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

  16. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  17. Protein brownian rotation at the glass transition temperature of a freeze-concentrated buffer probed by superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, J-C; Okuda, M; Jones, S E Ward; Schwarzacher, W

    2013-06-18

    For applications from food science to the freeze-thawing of proteins it is important to understand the often complex freezing behavior of solutions of biomolecules. Here we use a magnetic method to monitor the Brownian rotation of a quasi-spherical cage-shaped protein, apoferritin, approaching the glass transition Tg in a freeze-concentrated buffer (Tris-HCl). The protein incorporates a synthetic magnetic nanoparticle (Co-doped Fe3O4 (magnetite)). We use the magnetic signal from the nanoparticles to monitor the protein orientation. As T decreases toward Tg of the buffer solution the protein's rotational relaxation time increases exponentially, taking values in the range from a few seconds up to thousands of seconds, i.e., orders of magnitude greater than usually accessed, e.g., by NMR. The longest relaxation times measured correspond to estimated viscosities >2 MPa s. As well as being a means to study low-temperature, high-viscosity environments, our method provides evidence that, for the cooling protocol used, the following applies: 1), the concentration of the freeze-concentrated buffer at Tg is independent of its initial concentration; 2), little protein adsorption takes place at the interface between ice and buffer; and 3), the protein is free to rotate even at temperatures as low as 207 K. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg-1 and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg-1. It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  19. Is chronic rapeseed oil diet more neuroprotective than chronic corn/sunflower diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Nicole

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and specifically omega3 have been shown to exert a potent protecting effect on both cardiac and neuronal functions. Rapeseed oil contains 9% of alphalinolenic acid (18-3n-3, ALA, whereas corn and sunflower oils (18:2n-6, linoleic acid rich do not. The aim of the present study was to compare in mice the putative protective effects of ALA, by testing two chronic diets containing either rapeseed oil (ALA rich or a corn/sunflower blend (devoided of ALA using an epilepsy model, allowing the detection of neurotoxic or neuroprotective activities: the MDDAS test (Magnesium Deficiency-Dependent Audiogenic Seizure test. After a 30 day-Mg-deprivation period, neuronal hyperexcitability appeared only in the corn/sunflower fed group, suggesting a protecting effect of the rapeseed oil. The number of convulsive mice was twice reduced in the rapeseed group and all of them recovered whereas in the corn/sunflower group all the mice had seizures and 43% died. The pattern of seizures with the rapeseed diet showed an increase in the first two step durations (latency and wild running, and a non significant slight decrease in the third (convulsions and the fourth (recovery ones. These results suggest a GABAergic-like effect. The increases in the first 2 phases were also indicative of a likely effect on Na+ channels, which was also observed using the maximum electroshock seizure test. These preliminary results indicate that adapted chronic dietary intake of rapeseed oil, an ALA rich monounsaturated oil, could help to control neuronal disorders as here shown in our model of magnesium-deficient mice.

  20. Stability of buffer-free freeze-dried formulations: A feasibility study of a monoclonal antibody at high protein concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Pevestorf, Benjamin; Bahrenburg, Sven

    2015-11-01

    We studied the stability of freeze-dried therapeutic protein formulations over a range of initial concentrations (from 40 to 160 mg/mL) and employed a variety of formulation strategies (including buffer-free freeze dried formulations, or BF-FDF). Highly concentrated, buffer-free liquid formulations of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been shown to be a viable alternative to conventionally buffered preparations. We considered whether it is feasible to use the buffer-free strategy in freeze-dried formulations, as an answer to some of the known drawbacks of conventional buffers. We therefore conducted an accelerated stability study (24 weeks at 40 °C) to assess the feasibility of stabilizing freeze-dried formulations without "classical" buffer components. Factors monitored included pH stability, protein integrity, and protein aggregation. Because the protein solutions are inherently self-buffering, and the system's buffer capacity scales with protein concentration, we included highly concentrated buffer-free freeze-dried formulations in the study. The tested formulations ranged from "fully formulated" (containing both conventional buffer and disaccharide stabilizers) to "buffer-free" (including formulations with only disaccharide lyoprotectant stabilizers) to "excipient-free" (with neither added buffers nor stabilizers). We evaluated the impacts of varying concentrations, buffering schemes, pHs, and lyoprotectant additives. At the end of 24 weeks, no change in pH was observed in any of the buffer-free formulations. Unbuffered formulations were found to have shorter reconstitution times and lower opalescence than buffered formulations. Protein stability was assessed by visual inspection, sub-visible particle analysis, protein monomer content, charge variants analysis, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All of these measures found the stability of buffer-free formulations that included a disaccharide stabilizer comparable to buffer

  1. Insight into the Interaction of Graphene Oxide with Serum Proteins and the Impact of the Degree of Reduction and Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue-Qin; Hao, Li-Ying; Shao, Xiao-Ru; Zhang, Quan; Jia, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Lin, Yun-Feng; Peng, Qiang

    2015-06-24

    As novel applied nanomaterials, both graphene oxide (GO) and its reduced form (rGO) have attracted global attention, because of their excellent properties. However, the lack of comprehensive understanding of their interactions with biomacromolecules highly limits their biomedical applications. This work aims to initiate a systematic study on the property changes of GO/rGO upon interaction with serum proteins and on how their degree of reduction and exposure concentration affect this interaction, as well as to analyze the possible biomedical impacts of the interaction. We found that the adsorption of proteins on GO/rGO occurred spontaneously and rapidly, leading to significant changes in size, zeta potential, and morphology. Compared to rGO, GO showed a higher ability in quenching intrinsic fluorescence of serum proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. The protein adsorption efficiency and the types of associated proteins varied, depending on the degree of reduction and concentration of graphene. Our findings indicate the importance of evaluating the potential protein adsorption before making use of GO/rGO in drug delivery, because the changed physicochemical properties after protein adsorption will have significant impacts on safety and effectiveness of these delivery systems. On the other hand, this interaction can also be used for the separation, purification, or delivery of certain proteins.

  2. Conformational Analysis of Proteins in Highly Concentrated Solutions by Dialysis-Coupled Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houde, Damian; Esmail Nazari, Zeinab; Bou-Assaf, George M

    2016-01-01

    When highly concentrated, an antibody solution can exhibit unusual behaviors, which can lead to unwanted properties, such as increased levels of protein aggregation and unusually high viscosity. Molecular modeling, along with many indirect biophysical measurements, has suggested that the cause...... for these phenomena can be due to short range electrostatic and/or hydrophobic protein-protein interactions. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a useful tool for investigating protein conformation, dynamics, and interactions. However, "traditional" continuous dilution labeling HDX......-MS experiments have limited utility for the direct analysis of solutions with high concentrations of protein. Here, we present a dialysis-based HDX-MS (di-HDX-MS) method as an alternative HDX-MS labeling format, which takes advantage of passive dialysis rather than the classic dilution workflow. We applied...

  3. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  4. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Supplementation with concentrated milk protein in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Ana Carolina Amaral de São José; Barbosa, Thaís Rodrigues; da Silva, Fernanda Lopes; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Stephani, Rodrigo; Dos Santos, Kelli Borges; Atalla, Ângelo; Hallack Neto, Abrahão Elias

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of dietary supplementation with whey protein concentrate (WPC) in the incidence of oral mucositis (OM) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients were supplemented with a daily intake of WPC delivering 50% of the daily protein requirements (DPR) according to the Dietary Reference Intakes and classified later based on the amount of ingested supplement until OM median onset. We evaluated 73 patients. Forty-three were part of the historical control and 30 were supplemented with WPC. The OM had a mean duration of 5.3 d (SD 4.5), ranging from the day of the infusion of stem cells until the 17th day after infusion and a median of 5 d after infusion. OM duration was influenced by the conditioning protocol (P < 0.01) and WPC (P = 0.01). Patients who consumed the WPC in an amount ≥40% of DPR had a 35% reduction in duration of OM, and the incidence of OM grades 3 and 4 was 11 times smaller. Body mass index, serum albumin, and adverse reactions, such as diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, dry mouth and drooling, showed no statistically significant differences. WPC intake ≥40% of DPR helped to reduce the severity and duration of OM. The use of WPC in patients undergoing HSCT was shown to be safe, encouraging new studies in this population to assess its action mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simplified in situ method for estimating ruminal dry matter and protein degradability of concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaisen, V; Mejdell, T; Volden, H; Nesse, N

    2003-02-01

    In this study, dry matter and crude protein in situ degradation data from different concentrate feeds were used to test the accuracy of effective degradability (ED) measures when using reduced ruminal incubation times compared with models based on seven or eight incubation times. The ED was estimated both with and without correction for nylon bag particle loss. The crude protein ED corrected for particle loss of the calibration data set was widely distributed in a range from 16 to 90% with an overall mean value of 60.4%, and the dry matter ED was distributed in the range from 22.7 to 80.7%, with a mean value of 56.9%. The simplified method was developed based on bilinear regression models where all combinations of one to three disappearance values were tested to find the optimal time point combinations to estimate ED. Bilinear regression models based on two and three ruminal incubation times gave similar estimates to a standard in situ method over a wide range of passage rates both for the data set used to parameterize the models and the independent data set used to evaluate the models. Using two incubation times, the bilinear model based on 4 and 24 h gave the most accurate estimates, and the models based on 2, 8, and 24 h for uncorrected data and 4, 8, and 24 h for corrected data were most accurate of the three time points bilinear models. The number of nylon bags used by these models was reduced by 58 to 78% compared with the standard in situ method, and the total incubation time needed was substantially reduced.

  7. Smoking-Relevant Nicotine Concentration Attenuates the Unfolded Protein Response in Dopaminergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rahul; Henley, Beverley M; Henderson, Brandon J; Indersmitten, Tim; Cohen, Bruce N; Kim, Charlene H; McKinney, Sheri; Deshpande, Purnima; Xiao, Cheng; Lester, Henry A

    2016-01-06

    Retrospective epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between susceptibility to Parkinson's disease and a person's history of tobacco use. Animal model studies suggest nicotine as a neuroprotective agent and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) as targets for neuroprotection, but the underlying neuroprotective mechanism(s) are unknown. We cultured mouse ventral midbrain neurons for 3 weeks. Ten to 20% of neurons were dopaminergic (DA), revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity. We evoked mild endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with tunicamycin (Tu), producing modest increases in the level of nuclear ATF6, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, nuclear XBP1, and the downstream proapoptotic effector nuclear C/EBP homologous protein. We incubated cultures for 2 weeks with 200 nm nicotine, the approximate steady-state concentration between cigarette smoking or vaping, or during nicotine patch use. Nicotine incubation suppressed Tu-induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Study of mice with fluorescent nAChR subunits showed that the cultured TH+ neurons displayed α4, α6, and β3 nAChR subunit expression and ACh-evoked currents. Gene expression profile in cultures from TH-eGFP mice showed that the TH+ neurons also express several other genes associated with DA release. Nicotine also upregulated ACh-induced currents in DA neurons by ∼2.5-fold. Thus, nicotine, at a concentration too low to activate an appreciable fraction of plasma membrane nAChRs, induces two sequelae of pharmacological chaperoning in the ER: UPR suppression and nAChR upregulation. Therefore, one mechanism of neuroprotection by nicotine is pharmacological chaperoning, leading to UPR suppression. Measuring this pathway may help in assessing neuroprotection. Parkinson's disease (PD) cannot yet be cured or prevented. However, many retrospective epidemiological studies reveal that PD is diagnosed less frequently in tobacco users. Existing

  8. Fish Protein Concentrate Fortification Siam Patin on Amplang Snack Products and Mi Sago Instant Product as a Leading Regional Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Buchari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To enhance fish consumption in the community especially children, fortification on processed fish product is conducted. The processed fish products are developed to fill the requirements as the fish based food products that own characterizations such as ready to eat, easy to carry, and less time to cook. Amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles are defined as the products that fills the requirements. The research was aimed to process catfish into fish protein concentrate to become amplang snack and instant sagoo noodles. These products were designed as the effort to develop the local priority products in Riau by using diversification and fortification methods. Experimental method with fortification treatments on Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC extract from Catfish that generate products of amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles and fish tofu were carried out. The fortified products were examined by organoleptics test that involved panelists. The results showed that the proximate analysis on fortified Catfish Protein Concentrate products were presented as following :1. water contents of 3,13 %, ash of 2,85 %, protein content of 16,13 % and fat content of 18, 66 % for ampang snacks; and 2. water contents of 11,77 %, ash of 1,30 %, protein content of 12,35 % and fat content of 1,86 % for instant sagoo nodles. All fortified FPC products filled the Indonesian Nasional Standard (SNI.Keywords: Fortification, Catfish, and Fish Protein Concentrate

  9. Protein secondary structure prediction from circular dichroism spectra using a self-organizing map with concentration correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Vincent; Sklepari, Meropi; Rodger, Alison

    2014-09-01

    Collecting circular dichroism (CD) spectra for protein solutions is a simple experiment, yet reliable extraction of secondary structure content is dependent on knowledge of the concentration of the protein--which is not always available with accuracy. We previously developed a self-organizing map (SOM), called Secondary Structure Neural Network (SSNN), to cluster a database of CD spectra and use that map to assign the secondary structure content of new proteins from CD spectra. The performance of SSNN is at least as good as other available protein CD structure-fitting algorithms. In this work we apply SSNN to a collection of spectra of experimental samples where there was suspicion that the nominal protein concentration was incorrect. We show that by plotting the normalized root mean square deviation of the SSNN predicted spectrum from the experimental one versus a concentration scaling-factor it is possible to improve the estimate of the protein concentration while providing an estimate of the secondary structure. For our implementation (51 data points 240-190 nm in nm increments) good fits and structure estimates were obtained if the NRMSD (normalized root mean square displacement, RMSE/data range) is <0.03; reasonable for NRMSD <0.05; and variable above this. We also augmented the reference database with 100% helical spectra and truly random coil spectra. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Application of a PEG precipitation method for solubility screening: A tool for developing high protein concentration formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Kantor, Angela; Warne, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Previous publications demonstrated that the extrapolated solubility by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method (Middaugh et al., J Biol Chem 1979; 254:367–370; Juckes, Biochim Biophys Acta 1971; 229:535–546; Foster et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1973; 317:505; Mahadevan and Hall, AIChE J 1990; 36:1517–1528; Stevenson and Hageman, Pharm Res 1995; 12:1671–1676) has a strong correlation to experimentally measured solubility of proteins. Here, we explored the utility of extrapolated solubility as a method to compare multiple protein drug candidates when nonideality of a highly soluble protein prohibits accurate quantitative solubility prediction. To achieve high efficiency and reduce the amount of protein required, the method is miniaturized to microwell plate format for high-throughput screening application. In this simplified version of the method, comparative solubility of proteins can be obtained without the need of concentration measurement of the supernatant following the precipitation step in the conventional method. The monoclonal antibodies with the lowest apparent solubilities determined by this method are the most difficult to be concentrated, indicating a good correlation between the prediction and empirical observations. This study also shows that the PEG precipitation method gives results for opalescence prediction that favorably compares to experimentally determined opalescence levels at high concentration. This approach may be useful in detecting proteins with potential solubility and opalescence problems prior to the time-consuming and expensive development process of high concentration formulation. PMID:23740802

  11. Intentional formation of a protein corona on nanoparticles: Serum concentration affects protein corona mass, surface charge, and nanoparticle-cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, Christine; Weidner, Andreas; Lühe, Moritz V D; Bergemann, Christian; Schacher, Felix H; Clement, Joachim H; Dutz, Silvio

    2016-06-01

    The protein corona, which immediately is formed after contact of nanoparticles and biological systems, plays a crucial role for the biological fate of nanoparticles. In the here presented study we describe a strategy to control the amount of corona proteins which bind on particle surface and the impact of such a protein corona on particle-cell interactions. For corona formation, polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) were incubated in a medium consisting of fetal calf serum (FCS) and cell culture medium. To modulate the amount of proteins bind to particles, the composition of the incubation medium was varied with regard to the FCS content. The protein corona mass was estimated and the size distribution of the participating proteins was determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additionally, the zeta potential of incubated particles was measured. Human blood-brain barrier-representing cell line HBMEC was used for in vitro incubation experiments. To investigate the consequences of the FCS dependent protein corona formation on the interaction of MNP and cells flow cytometry and laser scanning microscopy were used. Zeta potential as well as SDS-PAGE clearly reveal an increase in the amount of corona proteins on MNP with increasing amount of FCS in incubation medium. For MNP incubated with lower FCS concentrations especially medium-sized proteins of molecular weights between 30kDa and 100kDa could be found within the protein corona, whereas for MNP incubated within higher FCS concentrations the fraction of corona proteins of 30kDa and less increased. The presence of the protein corona reduces the interaction of PEI-coated MNP with HBMEC cells within a 30min-incubation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pediatric Loss of Control Eating and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Lisa M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Kelly, Nichole R; Schvey, Natasha A; Marwitz, Shannon E; Mehari, Rim D; Brady, Sheila M; Demidowich, Andrew P; Broadney, Miranda M; Galescu, Ovidiu A; Pickworth, Courtney K; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2017-02-01

    Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth is associated with excess body weight and adiposity. After adjusting for fat mass, youth with LOC eating have higher blood pressure and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to youth without LOC eating. Increased inflammation may account for this relationship, although few data have examined this hypothesis. Therefore, this study explored the association between LOC eating and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of inflammation. We investigated hsCRP concentrations in relation to LOC eating in a convenience sample of 194 youth (age 14.3 ± 2.1 years; 63.9% female; BMI-z 1.64 ± 1.06). The presence of LOC eating in the past month was assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Serum hsCRP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiposity was measured by air displacement plethysmography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We compared hsCRP in those with and without LOC eating in analyses accounting for sex, adiposity, height, depressive symptoms, and eating psychopathology. Youth with LOC eating had significantly greater hsCRP than youth without LOC eating (p = 0.02), after accounting for all covariates. The number of LOC eating episodes in the past month was positively associated with hsCRP (p = 0.01). The relationship between LOC eating and hsCRP was not mediated by depressive symptoms or eating psychopathology (ps > 0.05). Youth with disinhibited eating may manifest increased chronic inflammation. Those with LOC eating may be an important subgroup at risk for adverse health outcomes associated with both chronic inflammation and obesity. Future research should examine whether hsCRP concentrations mediate the relationship between LOC eating and its association with cardiometabolic risk.

  13. Low salt concentrations activate AMP-activated protein kinase in mouse macula densa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Natasha; Fraser, Scott A; Katerelos, Marina; Katsis, Frosa; Gleich, Kurt; Mount, Peter F; Steinberg, Gregory R; Levidiotis, Vicki; Kemp, Bruce E; Power, David A

    2009-04-01

    The energy-sensing kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is associated with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter NKCC2 in the kidney and phosphorylates it on a regulatory site in vitro. To identify a potential role for AMPK in salt sensing at the macula densa, we have used the murine macula densa cell line MMDD1. In this cell line, AMPK was rapidly activated by isosmolar low-salt conditions. In contrast to the known salt-sensing pathway in the macula densa, AMPK activation occurred in the presence of either low sodium or low chloride and was unaffected by inhibition of NKCC2 with bumetanide. Assays using recombinant AMPK demonstrated activation of an upstream kinase by isosmolar low salt. The specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase inhibitor STO-609 failed to suppress AMPK activation, suggesting that it was not part of the signal pathway. AMPK activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of the specific substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser(79), as well as increased NKCC2 phosphorylation at Ser(126). AMPK activation due to low salt concentrations was inhibited by an adenovirus construct encoding a kinase dead mutant of AMPK, leading to reduced ACC Ser(79) and NKCC2 Ser(126) phosphorylation. This work demonstrates that AMPK activation in macula densa-like cells occurs via isosmolar changes in sodium or chloride concentration, leading to phosphorylation of ACC and NKCC2. Phosphorylation of these substrates in vivo is predicted to increase intracellular chloride and so reduce the effect of salt restriction on tubuloglomerular feedback and renin secretion.

  14. Pancreatic mass, cellularity, and alpha-amylase and trypsin activity in feedlot steers fed diets differing in crude protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K C; Kelly, N; Salim, H; Wang, Y J; Holligan, S; Fan, M Z; McBride, B W

    2008-04-01

    Twenty-four yearling beef steers (initial BW = 510 +/- 4.9 kg) predominantly of Angus breeding were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effect of dietary CP concentration on pancreatic cellularity, mass, and alpha-amylase and trypsin activities. Treatment diets were formulated to contain 8.8, 11.0, 13.2, and 15.4% CP. Soybean meal and Top Soy (ruminal bypass soybean meal) were used as supplemental protein sources to ensure that MP intake was increased with increasing dietary CP concentrations. Steers were penned in groups of 4 (1 steer per treatment) and individually fed at 2.5x the NE(m) requirement by using Calan gates for 28 d before tissue collection. Four steers (1 pen) were slaughtered per week. Pancreases were weighed, subsampled, frozen in liquid N(2), and stored at -80 degrees C until analyses for DNA, RNA, and protein concentrations, and alpha-amylase and trypsin activities. Pancreatic weight (g and g/kg of BW) did not differ among treatment groups. Pancreatic DNA concentration (mg/g) decreased linearly (P = 0.06) with increasing CP concentration. Pancreatic protein (g/pancreas) increased linearly (P = 0.08) with increasing dietary CP concentration. Pancreatic alpha-amylase activity (U/g, U/mg of DNA, U/g of protein, U/pancreas, and U/kg of BW) increased linearly (P pancreas, and U/kg of BW) increased linearly (P pancreas of cattle.

  15. Protein Immobilization Capabilities of Sucrose and Trehalose Glasses: The Effect of Protein/Sugar Concentration Unraveled by High-Field EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malferrari, Marco; Savitsky, Anton; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Möbius, Klaus; Venturoli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Disaccharide glasses are increasingly used to immobilize proteins at room temperature for structural/functional studies and long-term preservation. To unravel the molecular basis of protein immobilization, we studied the effect of sugar/protein concentration ratios in trehalose or sucrose matrixes, in which the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) was embedded as a model protein. The structural, dynamical, and H-bonding characteristics of the sugar-protein systems were probed by high-field W-band EPR of a matrix-dissolved nitroxide radical. We discovered that RC immobilization and thermal stabilization, being independent of the protein concentration in trehalose, occur in sucrose only at sufficiently low sugar/protein ratios. EPR reveals that only under such conditions does sucrose form a microscopically homogeneous matrix that immobilizes, via H-bonds, the nitroxide probe. We conclude that the protein immobilization capability depends critically on the propensity of the glass-forming sugar to create intermolecular H-bond networks, thus establishing long-range, homogeneous connectivity within the matrix.

  16. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC.

  17. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Contreras-Sesvold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285, HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581, and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29% in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL and higher (29% among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population.

  18. Nitrate concentration-shift cultivation to enhance protein content of heterotrophic microalga Chlorella vulgaris: Over-compensation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tonghui; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Yu; Li, Xingrui; Zhang, Yongkui

    2017-06-01

    Protein production from microalgae requires both high cell density during cultivation and high protein content in cells. Heterotrophic microalgae can achieve high cell density, and yet are confronted with the problem of low protein content. Based on over-compensation strategy, a new concentration-shift method was proposed to cultivate heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris, aiming to increase protein content. With a prior starvation period, microalgae utilized more nitrate and accumulated more proteins compared to one-stage cultivation. Considering the convenience of operation, nitrate-added culture was adopted for producing heterotrophic microalgae, rather than sterile centrifugal culture. Operating parameters including nitrate concentration in N-deficient medium, N-starved time and nitrate concentration in N-rich medium were optimized, which were 0.18gl(-1), 38h and 2.45gl(-1), respectively. Under the optimized conditions, protein content in heterotrophic Chlorella reached 44.3%. Furthermore, the heterotrophic microalga was suggested to be a potential single-cell protein source according to the amino acid composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum protein and casein concentration: effect on pH and freezing point of milk with added CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of protein concentration and protein type [i.e., casein (CN) and serum protein (SP)] on pH (0 degree C) and freezing point (FP) of skim milk upon CO2 injection at 0 degree C. CN-free skim milks with increasing SP content (0, 3, and 6%) and skim milks with the same SP content (0.6%) but increasing CN content (2.4, 4.8, and 7.2%) were prepared using a combination of microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes. CO2 was injected into milks at 0 degree C using a continuous flow carbonation unit (230 ml/min). Increasing SP or CN increased milk buffering capacity and protein-bound mineral content. At the same CO2 concentration at 0 degree C, a milk with a higher SP or a higher CN concentration had more resistance to pH change and a greater extent of FP decrease. The buffering capacity provided by an increase of CN was contributed by both the CN itself and the colloidal salts solublized into the serum phase from CN upon carbonation. Skim milks with the same true protein content (3%), one with 2.4% CN plus 0.6% SP and one with 3% SP, were compared. At the same true protein content (3%), increasing the proportion of CN increased milk buffering capacity and protein-bound mineral content. Milk with a higher proportion of CN had more resistance to pH change and a greater extent of FP decrease at the same carbonation level at 0 degree C. Once CO2 was dissolved in the skim portion of a milk, the extent of pH reduction and FP depression depended on protein concentration and protein type (i.e., CN and SP).

  20. Glucose Recognition Proteins for Glucose Sensing at Physiological Concentrations and Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Joel, Smita; Turner, Kendrick B.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in biotechnology have allowed for the preparation of designer proteins with a wide spectrum of unprecedented chemical and physical properties. A variety of chemical and genetic methods can be employed to tailor the protein?s properties, including its stability and various functions. Herein, we demonstrate the production of semisynthetic glucose recognition proteins (GRPs) prepared by truncating galactose/glucose binding protein (GBP) of E. coli and expanding the genetic code via ...

  1. Relationship between cortisol and acute phase protein concentrations in female rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argente, María-José; García, María de la Luz; Birlanga, Virginia; Muelas, Raquel

    2014-10-01

    Rabbit meat production in Europe is usually based on a semi-intensive system, in which lactation and gestation overlap. The demands of lactation and pregnancy are likely to be relatively stressful for female rabbits and may compromise the immune system and reproductive performance. The present study was designed to characterise circulating levels of cortisol, haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in non-lactating and lactating female rabbits at first and second mating, and to determine whether any relationship exists between these biomarkers and litter size. Serum cortisol concentrations were at their greatest (mean ± SEM = 39.5 ± 3.9 nmol/L) in animals at the end of lactation. However, after weaning, cortisol concentrations were not significantly different compared to nulliparous females (19.9 ± 3.6 vs. 16.3 ± 2.2 nmol/L, respectively). The highest concentrations of circulating Hp (0.14 ± 0.01 g/L) were seen in early lactating primiparous females, and lower in nulliparous females and in rabbits after weaning. In contrast, nulliparous female rabbits showed the highest plasma CRP values (13.1 ± 1.1 mg/L). No significant differences were found for SAA. Nulliparous females had smaller litter sizes than early lactating and non-lactating primiparous female rabbits. CRP and SAA showed a positive correlation (r = +0.24, P = 0.011) and were negatively related to litter size (r = -0.23, P = 0.017 and P = 0.032, respectively). Cortisol and Hp were not related to CRP, SAA, nor to litter size. These results suggest a closer association between the mechanisms that regulate release of CRP and SAA, compared to those that regulate Hp production. Thus, lactation is associated with changes in several stress biomarkers. CRP and SAA might be more useful for evaluating animal welfare and for predicting subsequent reproductive performance of female rabbits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Efficient extraction of proteins from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues requires higher concentration of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yusuke; Kodera, Yoshio; Singh, Anil; Matsumoto, Masaomi; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Numerous formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded clinical tissues have been created in the past decades and stored in pathological depositories at hospitals as well as in clinical laboratories worldwide. In addition to the archived tissues, formaldehyde-fixation is also mandatory for preparing proteomics samples from diseased patients or animal models in order to inactivate contagious agents. Protein extraction from formaldehyde-fixed tissues is hampered by the Schiff base formation between the amino groups of proteins and formaldehyde. Although achievement of the highest extraction efficiency of proteins from the formaldehyde-fixed tissues is essential for obtaining maximum proteomics information, no attention has been paid to the concentration dependence of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane on the extraction efficacy. We suspected that the concentration of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane affects the protein extraction efficiency because of its property as a primary amine that reverses the Schiff base formation between the primary amines of proteins and formaldehyde. Thus we pursued optimization of the component and protocol of protein extraction buffer to achieve better extraction efficiency of proteins from formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. In order to simulate protein extraction from diseased tissues we made formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples from mouse liver slices and investigated the protein extraction efficiency and speed by changing the concentration of the protein extraction buffer component tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane under various extraction conditions. We find, as expected, that tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane significantly affects the performance of protein extraction from the formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples both in the extraction yield and in the extraction speed. We recommend the concentration of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane in protein extraction buffer to be higher than 300 mM when extraction is

  3. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modulation of immune function by a modified bovine whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, M L; Gill, H S

    1999-08-01

    The commercial preparation of dairy foodstuffs generates large volumes of by-products, many of which have as yet undocumented effects on mammalian immune function. In the present report, a modified whey protein concentrate (mWPC), derived as a by-product from the commercial manufacture of cheese, was tested for its ability to modulate murine immune function in vitro. The mWPC suppressed T and B lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens in a dose-dependent fashion. The mWPC also suppressed alloantigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation during a mixed leucocyte reaction, but showed no suppressive effect against IL-2-sustained proliferation of mitogen-activated T cell blasts. Other indices of lymphocyte activation, such as cytokine secretion and the formation of activated (CD25+) T cell blasts, were suppressed by the mWPC, suggesting that the mode of suppression may be to inhibit the lymphocyte activation process. Enzymatic digestion by pepsin and pancreatin, under physiologically realistic conditions in vitro, ablated the immunomodulatory function of the mWPC. These results are discussed in relation to the potential development of complex-mixture dairy products into health-modulating products.

  5. Low-fat frankfurters from protein concentrates of tilapia viscera and mechanically separated tilapia meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenaghi-Altemio, Angela D; Alcade, Lígia B; Fonseca, Gustavo G

    2013-11-01

    In order to develop a healthy low-fat frankfurter-type sausage, different formulations were developed with tilapia viscera surimi (T1) and two with mechanically separated tilapia meat (MSTM) surimi (T2 and T3), all without pig lard addition. Due to technological problems observed for T1 sausage during cooking, it was not further investigated. The functionality of the other two formulations was evaluated based on proximate composition, pH, water activity, and texture. Finally, microbiological and sensory analyses based on acceptance tests were performed. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to be absent. T2 showed higher frequencies for the attributes color (90.0%) and overall acceptability (86.7%), while T3 showed higher frequencies for taste (86.7%) and texture (96.7%). The surimi concentration was reflected in the physical properties of the sausages. It was found that the addition of MSTM surimi to sausage favored greater cutting strength (3.9 N for T2 and 4.9 N for T3). Beyond the surimi utilization, the total replacement of pig lard by cassava starch and soybean protein had also contributed with the texture properties.

  6. Investigation of the microstructure of milk protein concentrate powders during rehydration: alterations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, A; Deeth, H C; Whittaker, A K; Gidley, M J; Bhandari, B R

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy to investigate the microstructure of rehydrated milk protein concentrate powder (MPC) particles. A sample preparation method for scanning electron microscopy analysis of rehydrated MPC particles is described and used to characterize the time course of dissolution and the effects of prior storage on the dissolution process. The results show that a combination of different types of interactions (e.g., bridges, direct contact) between casein micelles results in a porous, gel-like structure that restrains the dispersion of individual micelles into the surrounding liquid phase without preventing water penetration and solubilization of nonmicellar components. During storage of the powder, increased interactions occur between and within micelles, leading to compaction of micelles and the formation of a monolayer skin of casein micelles packed close together, the combination of which are proposed to be responsible for the slow dissolution of stored MPC powders. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of endurance exercise on serum concentrations of iron and acute phase proteins in racing sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Christine L; Basaraba, Randall J; Bohn, Andrea A

    2011-11-01

    To determine effects of long-distance racing exercise on iron status in endurance racing sled dogs, with or without anemia. Prospective cohort study. 114 dogs that participated in the 2007 Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race (59 and 55 dogs that did or did not complete the race, respectively). Stored serum samples obtained from 85 endurance-racing sled dogs that were expected to participate in the race were used to establish study reference intervals and prerace group values for iron-related variables. Blood samples collected from 114 study dogs before (ie, baseline) and after participation in the race were used to determine PCV and serum total protein concentrations before and after racing and assess iron-related variables after racing. Mean values for PCV and serum total protein concentration were decreased after racing, compared with baseline values in the same dogs. Mean serum iron concentration was low, and mean serum ceruloplasmin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were high in dogs after racing, compared with prerace group values. Mean serum ferritin concentration was high in dogs that did not complete the race, compared with the prerace group value and that of dogs that finished the race; 4 of 113 (3.5%) study dogs had low ferritin concentrations (racing, suggestive of possible iron deficiency. Decreased PCV and serum total protein concentrations were consistently detected, whereas iron deficiency appeared to be uncommon, in study dogs after race participation. High serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin and CRP after racing suggested that changes indicative of iron deficiency may be masked by inflammation. Alternatively, changes in serum iron and CRP concentrations may reflect a physiologic response.

  8. Determination of the influence of substrate concentration on enzyme selectivity using whey