Sample records for rapeseed oil rape

  1. Separation of Erucic Acid from Rape-Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide with Entrainer

    云志; 钱仁渊; 等


    Separation of erucic acid from rape-seed oil using supercritical carbon dioxide with entrainer was carried on a pilot column with an inner diameter 14 mm and an effective total height 2.2m.Experiments were focused on the effects of entrainers.i.e.acetone.ethanol and ethyl acetate,on the extraction.It is showed that entrainers made selectivity lower,but separation time shorter.

  2. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering


    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major

  3. The effect of dietary rape-seed oil on cholesterol-ester metabolism and cholesterol-ester-hydrolase activity in the rat adrenal.

    Beckett, G J; Boyd, G S


    The effects of stock diet and stock diet supplemented by olive oil and rape seed on rat adrenal cholesterol ester metabolism have been studied. Rats fed rape seed oil failed to gain weight at the same rate as rats fed olive oil. A prominent feature of the rats fed rape seed oil was an accumulation of high concentrations of cholesterol erucate in the adrenal lipid droplets. When these rats were subjected to an ether stress no percentage decrease in the amount of cholesterol erucate was observed. Adrenal cholesterol ester hydrolase activity was higher in rats fed the olive oil and rape seed oil diets than rats fed the stock diet. In rats fed stock or olive oil diets, a ten-minute ether anaesthesia stress resulted in a two-fold increase in activity of adrenal cholesterol ester hydrolase. Cofactor addition of ATP, cyclic AMP and MgCl-2 in vitro resulted in a stimulation of cholesterol ester hydrolase to a similar activity in both quiescent and ether-stressed rats. By contrast rats fed the rape seed oil diet gave no significant stimulation of cholesterol ester hydrolase activity when given an ether stress or when cofactors were added in vitro. Cholesterol erucate was hydrolysed at only 25% to 30% of the rate of cholesterol oleate in vitro in all groups of animals. Oleic acid added in vitro gave an inhibition of cholesterol ester hydrolase activity in rats fed stock diet while erucic acid activated the enzyme. The accumulation of cholesterol erucate in the adrenal when rats are fed rape seed oil could be due to the reduced ability of cholesterol ester hydrolase to hydrolyse this ester.

  4. Rapeseed species and environmental concerns related to loss of seeds of genetically modified oilseed rape in Japan.

    Nishizawa, Toru; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi


    Feral rapeseed in Japan consists of Brassica rapa, B. juncea and B. napus, mostly produced by escape from crops. Brassica rapa and B. juncea were introduced from abroad long ago as leaf and root vegetables and as an oil crop and breeders have developed various cultivars. Brassica napus was introduced in the late 1800s, mainly as an oil crop. Rapeseed production in Japan is low, and most demand is met by imports from Canada (94.4% of the 2009 trade volume). Recently, spontaneous B. napus, including genetically modified (GM) herbicide-resistant individuals, has been detected along Japanese roads, probably originating from seeds lost during transportation of imports. As GM oilseed production increases abroad, the probability of escape of GM oilseed rape in Japan will increase, raising environmental biosafety concerns related to the impact of feral rapeseed on heirloom brassicaceous crops. In this paper, we review the history of rapeseed introduction in Japan and future concerns.

  5. Characterisation of Rapeseed Oil Based Resins Using Infrared and ...

    Rapeseed oil which is a triglyceride had undergone chemical modification ... methylene-pphenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. ... The applications of more than one analytical method offer a complement of the results.

  6. Influence of Meteorological Factors on Oil Content and Major Fatty Acids of Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L. )

    Zhou Weijun; Zhao Desheng; Shen Huicong


    A study on the influence of meteorological factors on oil content and major fatty acids of rapeseeds was conducted based on latitudinal location experiments and years of varietal investigations. Negative correlation was found between the latitudes and erucic acid content, and positive correlations were found between the latitudes and oil content, oleic acid and linoleic acid contents of rapeseeds. No significant correlation was observed between the latitudes and lionlenic acid content of rapeseeds. The oil content of rapeseeds varied from 34.00 % to 44.90 % and was concentrated within 39.00 %~40.90% in the Yangtze River lower basin. The difference of oil content between years was observed to be 3. 00% ~5.00%. The regional variation of the same varieties had ravealed a 0. 4432 % increase of oil content per 1 increase of the latitudes.The seed formation was the key growth stage in which the oil content and stagemajor fatty acid contents of rapeseeds were influenced by the meteorological factors. The following correlations were observed:( 1 )positive correlation between oil content and the daylength; (2) negative correlations between erucic acid content and daily mean temperature, ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature, and the daylength; (3)positive correlation between oleic acid content and the daylength; (4) negative correlation between linoleic acid content and daily mean temperature, and positive one between linoleic acid content and ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature;(5) no significant correlation between linolenic acid content and these meteorological factors. The experiments also estimated the key meteorological factors which affected oil content and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds, and established the stepwise regression equations between the key meteorological factors and oil content, and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds. The experimental results formed important bases for the selection of low erucic acid rape breeding area and for

  7. Liquid rheology study on refined rapeseed oil

    刘其梅; 罗迎社; 殷水平; 陈胜铭; 张党权; 彭万喜


    The rapeseed oil extracted from the mature seeds was purified by refining processing,and the rheological characteristic analysis of the viscosity and dynamic shear rate at gradient temperatures was made.The result shows that at 20,40,60 and 80 ℃ respectively,when the shear rate gradually rises,the torque increases accordingly but its viscosity does not vary distinctly.The result suggests that when rapeseed oil is used as the raw of edible oils and industries,the working procedures at high temperature will not influence its rheological characteristic distinctly.

  8. Ethoxylated rapeseed oil derivatives as novel adjuvants for herbicides.

    Müller, Thomas; Brancq, Bernard; Milius, Alain; Okori, Nathalie; Vaille, Claude; Gauvrit, Christian


    Ethoxylates of rapeseed oil and of methylated rapeseed oil were synthesized and tested as adjuvants for 2,4-D and phenmedipham. Provided they had less than 6 units of ethylene oxide (EO), 1.0 to 10 g litre(-1) ethoxylates in water induced droplet spreading on barley leaves. In an acetone-based medium all derivatives strongly promoted the foliar uptake of 2,4-D, with no clear influence of the ethoxylation degree. In the same medium there was a negative influence of ethoxylate chain length on the foliar uptake of phenmedipham. In a water-based medium, phenmedipham applied with rapeseed oil emulsified with ethoxylated (20 EO) rapeseed oil displayed uptake rates close to a commercial preparation. The same was true for phenmedipham applied with ethoxylated (2 EO) methylated rapeseed oil. In bioassays, phenmedipham prepared with methylated rapeseed oil emulsified with ethoxylated (20 EO) rapeseed oil was as efficacious on barley as a commercial formulation. The same was true for phenmedipham prepared with ethoxylated (2 EO) methylated rapeseed oil. However, neither rapeseed oil nor methylated rapeseed oil emulsified with ethoxylated (2 EO) methylated rapeseed oil conferred good efficacy to phenmedipham. Hence, ethoxylated rapeseed oil derivatives are promising adjuvants or formulants for herbicides.

  9. The phytotoxic effects and biodegradability of stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester



    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the phytotoxicity of stored rapeseed (Brassica rapa oil (RSO and rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME after "spill like" contamination on the growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare and the biodegradability of these substances in OECD 301F test conditions and in ground water. Rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester were both stored for a period of time and their fuel characteristics (e.g. acid number had changed from those set by the fuel standards and are considered to have an effect on its biodegradation. The phytotoxicity was tested using two different types of barley cultivars: ‘Saana’ and ‘Vilde’. The phytotoxic effect on the barley varieties was determined, after the growth season, by measuring the total biomass growth and the mass of 1000 kernels taken from the tests plots. Also visual inspection was used to determine what the effects on the barley growth were. These measurements suggest that both RSO and RME have a negative impact on barley sprouts and therefore the total growth of the barley. RSO and RME both decreased the total amount of harvested phytomass. The weight of 1000 kernels increased with low concentrations of these contaminants and high contamination levels reduced the mass of the kernels. The results of these experiments suggest that the stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester are both phytotoxic materials and therefore will cause substantial loss of vegetation in the case of a fuel spill. The RSO and RME biodegraded effectively in the measurement period of 28 days under OECD test conditions: the degree of biodegradation being over 60%. The biodegradation in the ground water was much slower: the degree of biodegradation being about 10% after 28 days.;

  10. Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection

    Bambuleac, Dumitru


    Fuels' physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels' characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

  11. Seed structure characteristics to form ultrahigh oil content in rapeseed.

    Zhi-Yong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding.



    The results of the studies of the effectiveness of diatomaceous bleached soil for the adsorption of rapeseed oil impurities are discussed. We have established that a mixture of diatomaceous bleached soil with activated carbon has a high degree of adsorption in relation to the pigments of rapeseed oil


    Stryzhenok A. A.


    Full Text Available The results of the studies of the effectiveness of diatomaceous bleached soil for the adsorption of rapeseed oil impurities are discussed. We have established that a mixture of diatomaceous bleached soil with activated carbon has a high degree of adsorption in relation to the pigments of rapeseed oil

  14. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found si...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  15. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Muhammad Ijaz


    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.




    Full Text Available This article presents the rheological behavior of refined rapeseed oil and hydraulic oil. Apparent viscosity of both oils was determined at temperatures between 40 and 90°C and shear rates ranging from 3.3 to 120 s-1. The aim of the study was to find a polynomial dependence of oil viscosity on temperature and shear rate. The modified Andrade equation was used. Constants A, B, C and correlation coefficient were determined by correlating a characteristic polynomial equation of each curve.

  17. Characteristics of rapeseed oil cake using nitrogen adsorption

    Sokołowska, Z.; Bowanko, G.; Boguta, P.; Tys, J.; Skiba, K.


    Adsorption of nitrogen on the rapeseed oil cake and rapeseed oil cake with wheat meal extrudates was investigated. The results are presented as adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Brunauer-Emmet and Teller equation was used to analyse the experimental sorption data. To obtain estimates of the surface area and surface fractal dimension, the sorption isotherms were analyzed using the Brunauer-Emmet and Teller and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equations. Mesopore analysis was carried out using the Dollimore and Heal method. The properties and surface characteristic of rapeseed oil cake extrudates are related to different basic properties of particular samples and duration of the extrusion process. Extrusion conditions lead to essential differences in particular products. For all kinds of rapeseed oil cakes the amount of adsorbed nitrogen was different, but for the rapeseed oil cake extrudates a large amount of adsorbed nitrogenwas observed. The average surface area of the rapeseed oil cake extrudates was about 6.5-7.0 m2 g-1, whereas it was equal to about 4.0-6.0 m2 g-1 for rapeseed oil cake with the wheat meal extrudates. In the case of non-extruded rapeseed oil cake and wheat meal, the dominant group included ca. 2 and 5 nmpores. The values of surface fractal dimension suggested that the surface of the extrudates was more homogenous than that of the raw material. Duration of the extrusion process to 80 s resulted in a decrease in the specific surface area, surface fractal dimension, and porosity of the extrudates.

  18. Use of Rapeseed Straight Vegetable Oil as Fuel Produced in Small-Scale Exploitations


    This chapter presents a method to produce rapeseed and process it to obtain rapeseed oil and rapeseed cake meal from a small-scale point of view. It also shows how rapeseed oil can be used as fuel in diesel engines for agriculture self-consumption. A production, processing and use-as-fuel model for rapeseed oil is also presented, analysing environmentally and economically the use of rapeseed oil as fuel compared to other agricultural production alternatives. The results are evaluated for dry ...

  19. Determination of multiresidues in rapeseed, rapeseed oil, and rapeseed meal by acetonitrile extraction, low-temperature cleanup, and detection by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Jiang, Yaping; Li, Yanjie; Jiang, Yuting; Li, Jianguo; Pan, Canping


    A multiresidue method for determining pesticides in rapeseed, rapeseed oil, and rapeseed meal by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is developed. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile or acidified acetonitrile and cleaned up by a 12 h freezing step. The recovery data were obtained by spiking blank samples at three concentration levels. The recoveries of 27 selected pesticides in rapeseed, rapeseed oil, and rapeseed meal were in the range of 70-118%, at the concentration level of 10 μg kg(-1), with intraday and interday precisions of lower than 22 and 27%, respectively. Linearity was studied between 2 and 500 μg L(-1) with determination coefficients (R(2)) of higher than 0.98 for all compounds in the three matrices. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) of pesticides in rapeseed, rapeseed oil, and rapeseed meal ranged from 0.3 to 18 μg kg(-1). The n-octanol-water partition coefficient showed more influence than water solubility in extracting pesticides by acetonitrile from matrices of high fat content. This method was successfully applied for routine analysis in commercial products.

  20. Biodiesel fuel from rapeseed oil as prepared in supercritical methanol

    Saka, S.; Kusdiana, D. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science


    Transesterification reaction of rapeseed oil in supercritical methanol was investigated without using any catalyst. An experiment has been carried out in the batch-type reaction vessel preheated at 350 and 400{degree}C and at a pressure of 45-65 MPa, and with a molar ratio of 1:42 of the rapeseed oil to methanol. It was consequently demonstrated that, in a preheating temperature of 350{degree}C, 240 s of supercritical treatment of methanol was sufficient to convert the rapeseed oil to methyl esters and that, although the prepared methyl esters were basically the same as those of the common method with a basic catalyst, the yield of methyl esters by the former was found to be higher than that by the latter. In addition, it was found that this supercritical methanol process requires the shorter reaction time and simpler purification procedure because of the unused catalyst. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)


    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  2. characterisation of rapeseed oil based resins using infrared and ...


    Rapeseed oil which is a triglyceride had undergone chemical modification on its structure to obtain hydroxyl ... The cross linking process was monitored in situ ... spectroscopy and the thermogravimetric analysis techniques. ... alternative feedstocks for the synthesis of polymers. ..... Michaeli W, Kamps T 2007 Design of a.

  3. Dust Reduction in Broiler Houses by Spraying Rapeseed Oil

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Hattum, van T.G.; Zhao, Y.; Ogink, N.W.M.


    The effect of spraying rapeseed oil on the reduction of dust and ammonia concentrations and emissions, and on animal parameters was investigated in a dose-response study in a broiler house during three growing periods in four (round 1) or five rooms (rounds 2 and 3). The spraying rates varied per ro

  4. 菜籽油加工产业“差异化”发展模式分析%Analysis of the “differentiation” development mode of rapeseed oil processing industry

    梅星星; 冯中朝; 郑炎成


    Based on the perspective of rape industry chain,with the raw material supply,rapeseed oil pro-cessing,rapeseed oil marketing in rapeseed oil processing industry as breakthrough points,the“differenti-ation” concept of rapeseed oil processing industry was described,and the obstacles in developing“differ-entiation” of rapeseed oil processing industry in rape industry were dicussed. It was thought that the“dif-ferentiation” development of rapeseed oil processing industry was beneficial to the development of domes-tic rape industry. Finally,the policy recommendations for the“differentiation” development mode of rape-seed oil processing industry was proposed from the aspects of national standards of rapeseed oil,processing technology of rapeseed oil,target price subsidy of rapeseed,industrially technological innovation and sci-entific planning of rape planting.%基于油菜产业链脉络的研究视角,以菜籽油加工产业原料供给、菜籽油加工、菜籽油销售等环节为分析的切入点,阐述菜籽油加工产业“差异化”概念,探讨发展菜籽油加工产业“差异化”在油菜产业方面所面临的障碍,认为菜籽油加工产业“差异化”发展有益于国内油菜产业发展。最后,从菜籽油国家标准、菜籽油加工工艺、油菜籽目标价格补贴、产业科技创新、油菜种植科学规划等方面,提出菜籽油加工产业“差异化”发展模式的政策建议。

  5. Predicting rapeseed oil content with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Roberta Rossato


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish a calibration equation and to estimate the efficiency of near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy for evaluating rapeseed oil content in Southern Brazil. Spectral data from 124 half-sib families were correlated with oil contents determined by the chemical method. The accuracy of the equation was verified by coefficient of determination (R² of 0.92, error of calibration (SEC of 0.78, and error of performance (SEP of 1.22. The oil content of ten genotypes, which were not included in the calibration with NIR, was similar to the one obtained by the standard chemical method. NIR spectroscopy is adequate to differentiate oil content of rapeseed genotypes.

  6. Transesterification of rapeseed oil in supercritical methanol in a flow reactor

    Anikeev, V. I.; Yakovleva, E. Yu.


    Transesterification reactions of rapeseed oil in supercritical methanol in a flow reactor over a wide range of variation of the methanol/oil ratio, pressure, and contact time are studied. Conditions ensuring selectivity and a high degree of rapeseed oil conversion are found. Experiments to study this reaction in the presence of zeolite heterogeneous catalyst are performed.

  7. The Influence of Chemical Fertilizers over the Conent and Production of Rapeseed Oil under Mures County Conditions

    Florica Morar


    Full Text Available Lately, the experts are paying a higher attention to the agricultural plants, whose seeds are characterized by a high fat content, this mainly having as a purpose to respect the obligations that our country has through EU Directive 2003/30/EG. Thus in Mures County have been experimented on different spring rape crops, fertilized with different doses of chemical fertilizers, aiming at their influence on seed oil content and hence oil production per unit area. Research has revealed that the cultivated varieties of rapeseed (Heros, Bolero, Amica had an oil content of between 46.1%(N60P0K0 and 48.4%(N90P90K90 and organic production of oil is influenced more than seed production, averaged over the three years of research, being the highest(815.3 kg, fertilization with N90P90K90(54.7% increase.

  8. [Fatty acid composition variability of rapeseed oil: classical selection and biotechnology].

    Sakhno, L A


    The problems and achievements in the rapeseed Brassica napus L. var. oleifera breeding directed on the change of fatty acid composition in seed oil with the use of traditional and genetic engineering approaches are analyzed. It is noticed that the combination of biotechnological workings out and methods of classical breeding is the optimum for the further improvement of rapeseed oil composition.

  9. The Investigation Of Utilizing Rapeseed Flowers Oil As A Reliable Feedstock To Produce Biofuel And To Be Applied In Iraqi Kurdistan Region

    Ribwar K. Abdulrahman


    Full Text Available The world demand for energy in recent decade has been dramatic. Indeed, several hydrocarbons reservoirs are depleted around the world. Moreover, the using of fossil fuels for example, natural gas and coal is emitted high quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the environment that contributed in global worming phenomenon. Hence, many researchers and energy companies are attended and investigated to find out a new and reliable renewable energy source for example, biogas and biodiesel. Indeed, biodiesel can consider a reliable fuel due to many advantages for instance, reduce the global worming phenomenon, reduces carbon dioxide emissions and sustainable energy source. In fact, biodiesel can be produced from several resources for example, vegetable oil and animal fats. Rapeseed oil may consider a quite reliable and cheap source to produce biodiesel. Indeed, it has been observed that during the spring session in Iraqi Kurdistan region, wild rapeseed flowers are growing naturally in many cities of Iraqi Kurdistan for example, Sulaymaniyah, Ranya and Koya. The observed wild rapeseed flowers are produced considerable amounts of rape seed that can be invested to produced rapeseed oil and biodiesel. Therefore, this study is aimed to produce a reliable biodiesel from rapeseed flower oil by adopting transesterification reaction. Furthermore, this study has also applied process production parameters to find out the optimum operating conditions to produce biodiesel form the rapeseed oil for instance, amount of catalyst 1.25 % KOH and amount of methanol on biodiesel production yield about 7:1.Moreover, several laboratory tests for example, density, cloud point, pour point and cetane value have been applied for the produced biodiesel.

  10. [Influence of rapeseed oil on lipoprotein lipase activity in pigs (author's transl)].

    Simonetti, M S


    Toxic activities in various animal species have shown for rapeseed oil. In this paper the influence of this oil on lipoprotein lipase activity of heart, liver and lung of pigs has been examined. The animals were fed with rapeseed oil with 40% erucic acid for 7, 15, 20 and 40 days. The control animals received olive oil. The results have shown a slight increase in the lipoprotein lipase activity in the heart of the pig after 20 days with rapeseed oil. In the liver this increase is particularly large in the pigs having been fed for 15 days both with rapeseed oil and olive oil. No differences were observed in the lung in the test and control animals with the only exception of animals fed for 20 days.

  11. Sensitivity and Compatibility Analysis of Sulfur and Phosphorus Type Additives in Rapeseed Oil

    MAJiang-bo; HUJun-hong; DINGJin-yuan; MAXian-gui


    The effects of sulfur type additives T321 and phosphorous type additives P120 on the EP and AW abilities of rapeseed oil were investigated by a four-ball testing machine using the rapeseed oil as base oil. The effect of T321 ,nixed with P 120 on the tribochemical performance of the rapeseed oil was studied. The result shows that the load carrying, extreme pressure and abrasion capacities of lubricant film can be improved by adding T321and P120 as additives in rapeseed oil, respectively. The SEDX analysis on the surface of steal balls reveals that tribochemical reactions occur during the friction process, the barrier lubricating film is formed containing triglyer-ide and the additives can improve the anti-wear ability and load-carrying capacity.

  12. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan


    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  13. Rapeseed Oil as Renewable Resource for Polyol Synthesis

    Stirna, Uldis; Fridrihsone, Anda; Misane, Marija; Vilsone, Dzintra


    Vegetable oils are one of the most important platform chemicals due to their accessibility, specific structure of oils and low price. Rapeseed oil (RO) polyols were prepared by amidization of RO with diethanolamine (DEA). To determine the kinetics of amidization reaction, experiments were carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), amine (NH) value was determined. Group contribution method by Fedor‵s was used to calculate solubility parameters, van der Waals volume was calculated by Askadskii. Obtained polyol‵s OH and NH value are from 304 up to 415 mg KOH/g. RO polyols synthesis meets the criteria of "green chemistry". In the present study, reaction of RO amidization with DEA was investigated, as well as optimum conditions for polyol synthesis was established to obtain polyols for polyurethane production. Calculations of solubility parameter and cohesion energy density were calculated, as RO polyols will be used as side chains in polymers, and solubility parameter will be used to explain properties of polymers.

  14. Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil extraction plants. Handbook. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Herstellung von Rapsoelkraftstoff in dezentralen Oelgewinnungsanlagen. Handbuch

    Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ) im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany)


    Increasing oil prices, the dependence on petroleum imports and the desire to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions, are arguments to accelerate the production and utilization of biofuels. In 2007, 3.3 million tons of biodiesel and 772,000 tons of vegetable oil were used as fuel. The technically and economically successful production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills requires a quality assurance. Specifically, the brochure under consideration reports on the following: (1) Oilseed processing; (2) Centralized oil production in Germany; (3) Design of a decentralized oil mill; (4) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized systems; (5) Quality assurance for rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills; (6) Properties of rapeseed oil fuel; (7) Quality of rapeseed oil fuel from decentralized oil mills; (8) Economic aspects of decentralized oil extraction; (9) Legal framework conditions.

  15. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal


    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; pparticulate emissions from the combustion of rapeseed oil is significant and is comparable to that from the combustion of diesel fuel. A more detailed study is ongoing to verify and extent these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)


    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  17. A Study on Triacylglycerol Composition and the Structure of High-Oleic Rapeseed Oil

    Mei Guan


    Full Text Available The composition of fatty acids in triacylglycerides (TAGs and their position on the glycerol backbone determine the nutritional value of vegetable oil. In this study, gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS were used to analyze the composition and distribution of fatty acids in TAGs of different rapeseed oils. Our results show the content of oleic acid in high-oleic-acid rapeseed oil to be about 80%. In terms of the number of acyl carbon atoms (CN, TAGs with CN52–C54 were most abundant, with a maximum concentration at CN54 (80%. The main type of TAG was oleic-oleic-oleic (OOO, accounting for 71.75%, while oleic-oleic-linoleic (OOL accounted for 7.56%, oleic-oleic-linolenic (OOLn accounted for 4.81%, and stearic-oleic-oleic (SOO accounted for 4.74%. Oleic acid in high-oleic-acid rapeseed oil was distributed in the following order of preference: sn-2 > sn-1/3. In high-erucic-acid rapeseed oil, however, oleic acid was enriched at the sn-1/3. These data show that the content of oleic acid can be as high as about 80% in high-oleic-acid material. This finding suggests that high-oleic-acid rapeseed oil has high nutritional value.

  18. RAPESEED (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris) A NEW OILSEED CROP FOR TURKEY

    KURAL, Aynur


    Rapeseed (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris L.) is an important oil crop in many parts of the world. Rapeseed is well-adapted to cool, moist growing conditions and requires fewer heat units than either soybean or sunflower for maturity. Rapeseed oil can be used for human consumption (Canola) and ındustrial purposes. Oil from Canola cultivars must contain less than 2% erucic acid compared with 40-45% in industrial use rape varieties. The meal remaining after oil extraction of Canola seed ...

  19. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.


    (1:1) prior to emulsification into milk significantly protected the emulsions against oxidative deterioration. Addition of propyl gallate and a citric acid ester to the fish oil prior to emulsification also protected the fish oil enriched milk during storage. Emulsions containing a rapeseed:fish oil......As a part of our ongoing experiments on optimization of the oxidative stability of fish oils in genuine food systems, this study investigated the oxidative deterioration of fish oil enriched milk emulsions during cold storage. The experimental data showed that addition of rapeseed oil to fish oil...... from the corresponding levels in neither the emulsion containing only rapeseed oil nor the milk. It is proposed that the tocopherols in rapeseed oil may be the protective factor. Three-way chemometric exploratory data analysis was implemented in form of a parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The PARAFAC...

  20. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Boshui, Chen, E-mail:; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Monodispersed stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. Their morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics were also characterized. • The surface-capped cerium borate nanoparticles exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. As new lubricating additives, they were also outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil in biodegradable rapeseed oil. The results presented in this paper would be of important significance for developing green lubricants and lubricant additives. • The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} in rapeseed oil were investigated and attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species on the tribo-surfaces. - Abstract: Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO{sub 3}, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO{sub 3} were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO{sub 3} were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO{sub 3} nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent

  1. Effects of rapeseed oil on fatty acid oxidation and lipid levels in rat heart and liver.

    Kienle, M G; Cighetti, G; Spagnuolo, C; Galli, C


    The comparative rates of oxidation of erucic and oleic acids and of their CoA esters were studied in heart and liver mitochondria of rats fed a standard diet or semisynthetic diets containing 25% of the calories as either rapeseed oil (46.6% erucic and 10.4% eicosenoic acid) or olive oil, for a period of 5 months. The long exposure to the diet containing 25% rapeseed oil did not alter the oxidative activity of mitochondria and did not induce morphological changes in the heart. It is confirmed that erucic acid is oxidized in mitochondria at lower rates than other long chain fatty acids and that its activation as CoA derivative may be one of the rate limiting steps of the overall oxidationprocess. Total lipids and triglycerides do not significantly change in the heart whereas they increase in the liver of rats fed the diet containing rapeseed oil.

  2. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Boshui, Chen; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang


    Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO3, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO3 were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO3 as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO3 were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO3 nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO3 in rapeseed oil were attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species of B2O3, CeO2 and Fe2O3, and the adsorbates of SA/CeBO3 and rapeseed oil, on the tribo-surfaces.

  3. Myocardial lipids and nucleotides of rats fed olive oil or rapeseed oil.

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gordon, E


    After 1 week, the level of myocardial fatty acids was 4 times greater in young rats fed high erucic rapeseed oil than in those fed oliver oil. The proportion of erucic acid was 5.6% in the mitochondrial fraction, 15.1% in the microsomal fraction, and 34.8% in the floating fat fraction. This incorporation of erucic acid into triglycerides of the floating fat was evidence of esterification. The changes in the mitochondrial lipids did not alter the content of adenine nucleotides of the myocardium nor its apparent capacity to oxidize substrates.

  4. Is chronic rapeseed oil diet more neuroprotective than chronic corn/sunflower diet?

    Pages Nicole


    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and specifically omega3 have been shown to exert a potent protecting effect on both cardiac and neuronal functions. Rapeseed oil contains 9% of alphalinolenic acid (18-3n-3, ALA, whereas corn and sunflower oils (18:2n-6, linoleic acid rich do not. The aim of the present study was to compare in mice the putative protective effects of ALA, by testing two chronic diets containing either rapeseed oil (ALA rich or a corn/sunflower blend (devoided of ALA using an epilepsy model, allowing the detection of neurotoxic or neuroprotective activities: the MDDAS test (Magnesium Deficiency-Dependent Audiogenic Seizure test. After a 30 day-Mg-deprivation period, neuronal hyperexcitability appeared only in the corn/sunflower fed group, suggesting a protecting effect of the rapeseed oil. The number of convulsive mice was twice reduced in the rapeseed group and all of them recovered whereas in the corn/sunflower group all the mice had seizures and 43% died. The pattern of seizures with the rapeseed diet showed an increase in the first two step durations (latency and wild running, and a non significant slight decrease in the third (convulsions and the fourth (recovery ones. These results suggest a GABAergic-like effect. The increases in the first 2 phases were also indicative of a likely effect on Na+ channels, which was also observed using the maximum electroshock seizure test. These preliminary results indicate that adapted chronic dietary intake of rapeseed oil, an ALA rich monounsaturated oil, could help to control neuronal disorders as here shown in our model of magnesium-deficient mice.

  5. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H


    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E.

  6. Preparation and Tribological Behavior of Hydrophobic Lanthanum Borate Nanosheets in Rapeseed Oil

    Gu Kecheng; Chen Boshui; Xue Ming; Wang Jiu; Fang Jianhua; Wu Jiang


    Oleic acid-capped lanthanum borate (abbreviated as OA/LaBO3·H2O) nanosheets were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The microstructures of as-prepared OA/LaBO3·H2O were characterized by means of SEM, TEM, EDS, FTIR and XRD, respectively. Moreover, the friction and wear properties of OA/LaBO3·H2O as a lubricant additive in rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribotester. The tribochemical characteristics of worn surfaces were investigated by SEM and XPS. The results showed that the hydrophobic OA/LaBO3·H2O nanosheets exhibited their morphology with a diameter in the range of 100 nm to 300 nm and a thickness of about 25 nm, and displayed excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. In the meantime, the rapeseed oil doped with OA/LaBO3·H2O nanosheets markedly decreased the friction and wear of steel balls, and the optimal friction-reducing and antiwear ability of rapeseed oil was obtained at an OA/LaBO3·H2O content of 1.0%. The outstanding tribological performance of OA/LaBO3·H2O in rapeseed oil was attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication iflm mainly composed of lubricious tribochemical species of B2O3, La2O3 and Fe2O3, and deposits of OA/LaBO3·H2O nanosheets as well as the adsorbates of rapeseed oil on rubbed surfaces.

  7. Effect of Specific Oil Surface Area on the Thermal Stressing of Rapeseed Oil During Heating in an Electric Frying Pan.

    Kobyliński, Jakub P; Krygier, Krzysztof; Karlovits, György; Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra

    The effect of specific oil surface (SOS) during pan frying of rapeseed oil on its thermal stability and antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated. Rapeseed oils with different oil layer heights (OLH = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm) were heated on an electric frying pan coated with Teflon at 180 ± 10 °C until a selected end point of 25 % total polar compounds (TPC) was reached. The changes of chemical parameters of oil samples such as peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Totox value, free fatty acids, TPC and AC using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay were determined. Irrespective of the applied methods, the highest changes in oil with OLH = 0.5 cm were observed. Heating in low OLH also led to the fastest time of TPC formation in rapeseed oil; the 0.5-cm layer reached 25 % TPC in a relatively short time (71.5 min) compared to the highest OLH = 2.5 cm (t = 315.1 min). The SOS and the rate of change in the heated oils decreased with increasing OLH. Crucial effects of SOS on physicochemical oil changes were observed. The present study demonstrated the protective effect of increasing the OLH on the quality of the heated rapeseed oils.

  8. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed butterfat interesterification with rapesee oil by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    Zhang, Hong; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing


    This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend and intere......This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend...

  9. Can rapeseed oil replace olive oil as part of a Mediterranean-style diet?

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette


    The present narrative review compares evidence from experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies of the health benefits of rapeseed oil (RO) (known as canola oil) and olive oil (OO) in order to assess whether rapeseed oil is suitable as a sustainable alternative to OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet in countries where olive trees do not grow. From epidemiological studies, the evidence for cardiovascular protection afforded by extra-virgin OO is 'convincing', and for cancers 'limited-suggestive', especially oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, but more studies are required in relation to cognitive impairment. Evidence for RO is limited to short-term studies on the biomarkers of risk factors for CVD. Any benefits of RO are likely to be due to α-linolenic acid; however, it is prone to oxidation during frying. We conclude that due to a lack of evidence from observational or intervention studies indicating that RO has comparable health benefits to extra-virgin OO, RO cannot currently be recommended as a suitable substitute for extra-virgin OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet.

  10. Additives for rapeseed oil fuel. Influence on the exhaust gas emissions

    Kastl, Johannes; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)


    In contrast to fossil diesel fuel, the use of additives is not common in rapeseed oil fuel. In a preceding research project the efficacy of several additives, that are commercially available for the use in fossil diesel or FAME, has been investigated for rapeseed oil fuel in the lab. Four additives could be identified, which have a significant influence on the ignition delay or the low temperature flow behaviour of rapeseed oil fuel. To investigate whether there are negative effects of the additives on other fuel-related properties in practical use, a test series on an agricultural tractor capable of running on vegetable oils has been conducted. Attention is focused on the operating parameters like power, torque or fuel consumption as well as on regulated emissions (CO, HC, particulate matter or NOx) and non-regulated emissions like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the influence of the additives on the storage stability of rapeseed oil fuel is investigated in long term studies. No negative influence of the additives on the regulated emissions could be seen in the experiments, the data of the non-regulated emissions is still being analysed. This paper will focus on the emissions testing; results of the long term studies will be given in the presentation. (orig.)

  11. Storage stability of rapeseed oil%菜籽油储存稳定性研究

    朱正友; 杨帆; 魏冰


    In the case of 4 types of rapeseed oil(low-temperature pressed crude rapeseed oil,high-temperature pressed crude rapeseed oil,1st grade solvent extraction rapeseed oil,1st grade pressed rapeseed oil),3 containers(colorless and transparent PET bottle,iron cans,pottery) and 3 types of lighting environment(dark,natural light,direct lighting),the storage stability of rapeseed oil was studied.The acid value and peroxide value of samples at room temperature(10-30 ℃) were detected at interval storage days(10-15 d).The results showed that lighting was a key factor to affect oil storage stability,opaque packaging material should be used as far as possible,and the oil should be stored in dark environment;iron cans could be used to store crude oil and refined oil,but the increase rate of peroxide value of the crude oil was lower than that of the refined oil;the opaque ceramic material for small package of refined oil was an ideal choice.%研究了4种不同品质的菜籽油(冷榨菜籽毛油、热榨菜籽毛油、浸出一级菜籽油、压榨一级菜籽油)、3种容器(无色透明聚酯瓶、铁罐和陶罐)及3种光照条件(避光、自然光、直射灯光)下菜籽油的储存稳定性情况.室温条件(10~30℃)下间隔一定储存天数(10~15 d)测定样品的酸值和过氧化值,结果显示,光照是影响油脂储存稳定性的关键因素,油脂包装及储存要尽量采用不透光材料或避光储存;铁罐可用于储存毛油及精炼油,储存毛油时过氧化值升高幅度较精炼油要小;对成品小包装油,采用性质稳定的不透光的陶瓷材料包装是理想的选择.

  12. Effects of a monounsaturated rapeseed oil and a polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet on lipoprotein levels in humans.

    Valsta, L M; Jauhiainen, M; Aro, A; Katan, M B; Mutanen, M


    The effects of high oleic acid rapeseed oil compared with polyunsaturated fats on serum lipoprotein levels are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed 30 women and 29 men a baseline diet rich in saturated fat, which was followed by a diet rich in high oleic and low erucic acid rapeseed oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.4%; monounsaturates, 16%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 6%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 2%) and one rich in sunflower oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.7%; monounsaturates, 10%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 13%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 0%). The oils were incorporated into mixed natural diets that were dispensed in a random order for 3.5 weeks each in a blinded crossover design. The diet composition was confirmed by analysis of duplicate diets. Both test diets reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels from baseline, the monounsaturated rapeseed oil diet more than the polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet (TC: -15% versus -12%, p less than 0.01; LDL cholesterol: -23% versus -17%, p less than 0.01). Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and total, VLDL, and LDL triglyceride levels were lower during the sunflower oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil diet. Total high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels remained unchanged by both diets. The consumption of rapeseed oil resulted in a more favorable HDL2 to LDL cholesterol ratio (0.43 +/- 0.19 versus 0.39 +/- 0.18, p less than 0.01) and an apolipoprotein A-I to B ratio (3.0 +/- 1.4 versus 2.4 +/- 1.6, p less than 0.001) than did the sunflower oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The tribological performance and tribochemical analysis of novel borate esters as lubricant additives in rapeseed oil

    Yan, J.; Zeng, X.; Heide, van der E.; Ren, T.


    Two novel borate esters, tris (4-dodecylphenyl) borate and 2-(2-(4-dodecylphenoxy)-1, 3, 6, 2-dioxazaborocan-6-yl) ethanol were synthesized and applied as anti-wear and extreme pressure additives in rapeseed oil. The borate esters possess high anti-wear and extreme pressure properties. XANES and XPS

  14. Shear and Rapeseed Oil Addition Affect the Crystal Polymorphic Behavior of Milk Fat

    Kaufmann, Niels; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Andersen, Ulf;


    The effect of shear on the crystallization kinetics of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and blends with 20 and 30 % w/w added rapeseed oil (RO) was studied. Pulse 1H NMR was used to follow the a to b0 polymorphic transition. The NMR method was confirmed and supported by SAXS/WAXS experiments. Samples wer...

  15. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the biofuel production process from sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil

    Sanz Requena, J.F.; Guimaraes, A.C.; Quiros Alpera, S.; Relea Gangas, E.; Hernandez-Navarro, S.; Navas Gracia, L.M.; Martin-Gil, J.; Fresneda Cuesta, H. [Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources; Valladolid Univ., Palencia (Spain). Dept. of Forest and Agricultural Engineering


    Once ratified the Kyoto protocol, Spain arises the great challenge of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Among the measures proposed is the introduction of biofuels in the market, both for the transport sector and for the production of heat. This paper compares the environmental impact from the production of biofuels whose origin is the oil obtained from sunflower, rapeseed and soybeans. The environmental impact of each production is performed by applying the methodology of life cycle analysis (LCA). The categories where you get a greater impact are land use, fossil fuels, carcinogens, inorganic respiratory and climate change. The cause is mainly due to the processes of seed production. We have also found a significant impact on the drying and preparation processes of the seed as well as the crude soybean oil extracting process. Moreover as the LCA shows production of rapeseed and sunflower has a positive contribution to climate change. (author)

  16. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic? Diets enriched with olive, rapeseed, or sunflower oil affect postprandial factor VII differently

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.


    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  17. Rape oil transesterification over heterogeneous catalysts

    Encinar, J.M.; Martinez, G. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, UEX, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain); Gonzalez, J.F. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, UEX, Avda Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain); Pardal, A. [Dpto. Ciencias do Ambiente, ESAB, IPBeja, Rua Pedro Soares s/n, 7800-Beja (Portugal)


    This work studies the application of KNO{sub 3}/CaO catalyst in the transesterification reaction of triglycerides with methanol. The objective of the work was characterizing the methyl esters for its use as biodiesel in compression ignition motors. The variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction, such as, amount of KNO{sub 3} impregnated in CaO, the total catalyst content, reaction temperature, agitation rate, and the methanol/oil molar ratio, were investigated to optimize the reaction conditions. The evolution of the process was followed by gas chromatography, determining the concentration of the methyl esters at different reaction times. The biodiesel was characterized by its density, viscosity, cetane index, saponification value, iodine value, acidity index, CFPP (cold filter plugging point), flash point and combustion point, according to ISO norms. The results showed that calcium oxide, impregnated with KNO{sub 3}, have a strong basicity and high catalytic activity as a heterogeneous solid base catalyst. The biodiesel with the best properties was obtained using an amount of KNO{sub 3} of 10% impregnated in CaO, a methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, a reaction temperature of 65 C, a reaction time of 3.0 h, and a catalyst total content of 1.0%. In these conditions, the oil conversion was 98% and the final product obtained had very similar characteristics to a no. 2 diesel, and therefore, these methyl esters might be used as an alternative to fossil fuels. (author)

  18. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel FAME from rapeseed oil in a novel two-compartment reactor

    Nakayama, Ryo-ichi; Imai, Masanao; Woodley, John


    Ultrasonication has been proposed as a promising technique for enzymatic transesterification. In contrast, excess ultrasonication causes an enzyme inactivation. This paper presents enzymatic transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed oil using Callera Trans L™ usi...

  19. Application of Brown’s Gas for a Diesel Engine Running on Rapeseed Oil

    Alfredas Rimkus; Tomas Ulickas; Saugirdas Pukalskas; Paulius Stravinskas


    The article presents the analysis of possible applications of Brown’s gas to the diesel engine running on oil. The paper also contains a review of experimental works. The selected fuel combinations are as follows: diesel fuel, diesel fuel and Brown’s gas, oil (rapeseed oil) and oil and Brown’s gas. Test results have shown that an additional supply of Brown’s gas to the engine results in a decrease in the amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke level; however it increases the total emission ...

  20. An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets.

    Pedersen, A; Baumstark, M W; Marckmann, P; Gylling, H; Sandström, B


    We investigated the effect of olive oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil on blood lipids and lipoproteins including number and lipid composition of lipoprotein subclasses. Eighteen young, healthy men participated in a double-blinded randomized cross-over study (3-week intervention period) with 50 g of oil per 10 MJ incorporated into a constant diet. Plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were 10;-20% higher after consumption of the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P sunflower oil diets (ANOVA, P sunflower oil (ANOVA, P sunflower oil had more favorable effects on blood lipids and plasma apolipoproteins as well as on the number and lipid content of LDL subfractions compared with olive oil. Some of the differences may be attributed to differences in the squalene and phytosterol contents of the oils.

  1. Oxidation Effect on Tribological Pproperties of Rapeseed oil and Lard Mixtures Containing Monoglycerides and Fatty Acids

    Violeta Makareviciene


    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and animal fats are increasingly popular base material to produce environmentally friendly lubricants. This is a renewable and easily biodegradable in the natural environment material. The main disadvantage of vegetable oils and animal fats as raw materials and its lubricants is pour oxidation stability. There are already a wide range of environmentally friendly lubricants in the market, while the variety of greases offer is not so high. This research aims to explore the properties of prepared compositions of lubricating greases produced from rapeseed oil and lard, modifying them with monoglycerides, stearic and oleic acids. The plastic properties (penetration and oxidation influence on tribological and corrosive properties of these compositions were studied. It was found that modifying rapeseed oil and lard with monoglycerides, oleic and stearic acids a few lubricating compositions of NLGI grades can be achieved: soft or very soft rapeseed oil based greases and medium or nearly hard consistency lard based compositions. The oxidation studies showed that it decreases the tribological properties of base and monoglycerides modified lubricants. Oxidation has greater negative impact on lard and lard based compositions. Oleic and stearic acids reduces or completely eliminates the negative influence of oxidation. Corrosion studies have shown that both fresh and oxidized lubricant compositions have no significant affect on copper strip corrosion.DOI:

  2. Flavoromics approach in monitoring changes in volatile compounds of virgin rapeseed oil caused by seed roasting.

    Gracka, Anna; Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Siger, Aleksander; Kaczmarek, Anna


    Two varieties of rapeseed (one high oleic - containing 76% of oleic acid, and the other - containing 62% of oleic acid) were used to produce virgin (pressed) oil. The rapeseeds were roasted at different temperature/time combinations (at 140-180°C, and for 5-15min); subsequently, oil was pressed from the roasted seeds. The roasting improved the flavour and contributed to a substantial increase in the amount of a potent antioxidant-canolol. The changes in volatile compounds related to roasting conditions were monitored using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS), and the key odorants for the non-roasted and roasted seeds oils were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The most important compounds determining the flavour of oils obtained from the roasted seeds were dimethyl sulphide, dimethyltrisulfide, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2,3-butenedione, octanal, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine and phenylacetaldehyde. For the oils obtained from the non-roasted seeds, the dominant compounds were dimethylsulfide, hexanal and octanal. Based on GC×GC-ToFMS and principal component analysis (PCA) of the data, several compounds were identified that were associated with roasting at the highest temperatures regardless of the rapeseed variety: these were, among others, methyl ketones (2-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 2-octanone).

  3. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.


    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  4. Replacement of margarine on bread by rapeseed and olive oils: effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol.

    Seppänen-Laakso, T; Vanhanen, H; Laakso, I; Kohtamäki, H; Viikari, J


    The effects of zero erucic acid rapeseed oil and olive oil on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol were studied in margarine users (n = 46). The replacement of margarine on bread by these oils accounted, on average, for 16% of the total fat and 7% of the total energy intake. Fatty acid analysis of total plasma indicated a dose-dependent rise in alpha-linolenic (alpha-LLA) and oleic acid (OA) levels during rapeseed and olive oil substitutions, respectively. Rapeseed oil substitution increased the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (0.4%- units, on average) in plasma phospholipids. A slight decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 4.5%, p acids, but also in the relationships with serum lipids, since the changes in alpha-LLA, rather than in OA, were associated with those in LDL-C and the HDL-C/TC ratio. No competitive action of polyunsaturated acids comparable to rapeseed oil was found during olive oil substitution. In contrast to the rapeseed oil diet, the reduced proportion of linoleic acid (LA) in plasma phospholipids was not restored; this may be unfavorable if the habitual intake of LA is low. However, the effects on LDL-C levels were beneficial: the concentration decreased by 5.9% (p olive oil substitution.

  5. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Sapit Azwan


    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  6. Extraction of oil and minor lipids from cold-press rapeseed cake with supercritical CO2

    E. Uquiche


    Full Text Available This study examines the extraction of oil from cold-press rapeseed cake using Supercritical CO2(SC-CO2. The effects of pressure (20, 30, and 40 MPa, temperature (40, 50, and 60 ºC, and extraction time (60, 90, and 120 min on oil yield and composition (tocopherols and carotenoids were studied using response surface design. The results indicated that pressure influenced the most the yield of oil, followed by temperature and extraction time. Extraction time had no effect on oil composition. Extraction pressure and temperature did not affect the tocopherol concentration of the oil to a great extent, whereas temperature had no affect in its carotenoid concentration. A comparison was made between the relative qualities of oil extracted with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC and with n-hexane. Neither solvent affected the unsaponifiable matter content or the composition of phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol of the oils, although there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in tocopherol. Extraction with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC is recommended to obtain rapeseed-oil enriched with tocopherols and carotenoids as important functional components.

  7. Influence of metal loading on hydrocracking of rapeseed oil using bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Gille, T.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Chemistry


    Hydrocracking of rapeseed oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, PtNiMo, Pt) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the support material and their metal loading influence the product selectivity as well as the deactivation tendencies of the catalyst sample. (orig.)

  8. Rapeseed market, worldwide and in Europe

    Carré Patrick


    Full Text Available Global rapeseed production has undergone sustained growth over the past 20 years. Having surpassed cottonseed production in the early 2000’s, it is now the second most produced oilseed behind soybeans. The major producers are China, India, Canada and European Union (27. During this same period, rapeseed crushing has risen strongly, Europe being the major player in this expansion (development of biodiesel followed to a lesser extent by Canada and China. World exports of rapeseeds are dominated by Canada, by far the largest exporter. Japan is a traditional importer, while China and the EU (27 are less regular buyers. Although less spectacular than palm oil growth, rapeseed oil growth is also remarkable. Its consumption occurs mainly in the crushing countries, the EU being the principal consumer. Rapeseed meal is the second major oilseed meal produced worldwide (after soybean meal. It has been following broadly the same trends as seeds and oils, this evolution was marked a short period of stagnation in the early 2000’s. Consumption of rapeseed meal has grown strongly in the EU (which is deficient in protein feed, in China (due to its extraordinary economic development, and in the USA (due to milk producers’ demand for feed. The main exporters of rapeseed meals are Canada and India. Oilseed prices spiked in 2008 and since 2010 are remaining at historically high levels: whilst prices fell sharply following the 2013 harvest, they remain well above the lows of 2009. Rape seed meal, however, will remain a secondary meal with known drawbacks; there is little prospect of its price going higher than 65–70% of that of soybean meal.

  9. Study on noise of rapeseed oil blends in a single-cylinder diesel engine

    Bao, Y.D.; He, Y. [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)


    This study was undertaken to obtain the knowledge necessary for reducing noise of mixed oil composed of rapeseed oil and conventional diesel oil and for improving the performance of engine fuelled by the mixture. A S195 (8.8kW) type single-cylinder diesel engine was used to determine the effect of four adjustable working parameters, i.e. intake-valve-closing angle ({alpha}), exhaust-valve-opening angle ({beta}), fuel delivery angle ({theta}) and injection pressure (P, in 10{sup 4}Pa) on noise when an oil mixture of 30% rapeseed oil and 70% diesel oil was used. Single-factor and multi-factor quadratic regressive orthogonal design test method were adopted in the experiments to find the relationship between noise and four adjustable working parameters. Relationship between these parameters and noise was analysed under two typical operating conditions and mathematical equations characterizing the relationship were formulated. The equation of noise from the regressive test under each operating condition was set as the objective function and the ranges for the four adjustable working parameters were the given constraint condition. Models of nonlinear programming were then constructed. Computer-aided optimization of the working parameters for 30:70 rapeseed oil/diesel oil mixed fuel was achieved. Field test verified that the engine (in use) working condition was found to be bad at maladjustment. The optimum working parameters for two working conditions of the engine were used to adjust the four working parameters. Test results showed that optimum adjustment could achieve noise reduction between 2 and 4dB and that the power could be increased by 0.6-1.8kW. The experimental results also provided useful reference material for selection of the most preferable combination of working parameters. (author)

  10. French environmental communication on sunflower and rapeseed oils based on life cycle assessment

    Badey Laureen


    Full Text Available The French “Grenelle” laws sparked a French national experiment trialling the environmental labelling of fast-moving consumer goods. The data required for this labelling scheme are generated by carrying out a life cycle assessment (LCA. The aim of this study is to provide all necessary information to fit the national experiment for two standard oils: sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The complete oil life cycle was studied, from oilseed farming through to the end-of-life of the packaging. We focused heavily on the impacts of crushing and refining. The seed processing data was collected from different plants that are representative of the French crushing/refining industry and packaging site practice. The data inventory was used to calculate the identified environmental labelling indicators, i.e. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water consumption. The production of 100g of refined bulk sunflower and rapeseed emits 89 and 127 g equivalent CO2 and consumes 1.7 L and 0.8 L of water, respectively. Most impacts on the studied indicators stem from the farming phase. Energy and water consumptions during crushing and refining also weigh on the studied indicators. The results of this study provide a relevant overview of all sunflower and rapeseed oils produced in France, and are usable as standard values for vegetable oil producers and users. Oil supply chain operators can use these values to compare to their own process values and gauge the improvements brought about by their ecodesign strategies. For example, using a biomass boiler, using less packaging, and making different choices on seed suppliers can lead to a lower set of impact values.

  11. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana


    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  12. Highly active CaO for the transesterification to biodiesel production from rapeseed oil

    Ying Tang


    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of commercial CaO modified by trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS for transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol to biodiesel production was studied. It was found that the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME yield of the modified CaO was greatly enhanced from 85.4% to 94.6% under 65 oC with 15:1 molar ratios of methanol/oil by using 5 wt.% catalyst (weight to oil. The possible reason lies on promoting the absorption of grease to modified CaO surface. Both the characterization of the catalyst and the effects of various factors such as mass ratio of catalyst to oil, reaction temperature and molar ratio of methanol to oil were investigated.

  13. Optimized rapeseed oil enriched with healthy micronutrients: a relevant nutritional approach to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Results of the Optim'Oils randomized intervention trial.

    Gladine, Cécile; Combe, Nicole; Vaysse, Carole; Pereira, Bruno; Huertas, Alain; Salvati, Serafina; Rossignol-Castera, Anne; Cano, Noël; Chardigny, Jean-Michel


    Rapeseeds are naturally rich in cardioprotective micronutrients but refining leads to substantial losses or the production of undesirable compounds. The Optim'Oils European project proposed innovative refining conditions to produce an optimized rapeseed oil enriched in micronutrients and low in trans linolenic acid. We aimed to investigate cardioprotective properties of this Optimized oil. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 59 healthy normolipidaemic men consumed either Optimized or Standard rapeseed oils (20 g/d) and margarines (22 g/d) for 3 weeks. The Optimized oil reduced the trans FA concentration (p=0.009) and increased the contents of alpha-tocopherol (p=0.022) and coenzyme Q10 (poil. Over the 3-week trial, Total-/HDL-cholesterol and LDL-/HDL-cholesterol were increased by 4% (poil consumption whereas none of them rose with the Optimized rapeseed oil which increased the HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 plasma content (+2%, NS and +3%, prapeseed oil. Finally, the Optimized oil reduced the plasma content of LDLox (-6%, NS), this effect being significantly different from the Standard oil (p=0.050). In conclusion, reasonable intake of an Optimized rapeseed oil resulting from innovative refining processes and enriched in cardioprotective micronutrients represent a relevant nutritional approach to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving the cholesterol profile and reducing LDL oxidation.

  14. Dehulling and microwave pretreatment effects on the physicochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of virgin rapeseed oil.

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Siger, Aleksander; Wroniak, Małgorzata; Ścibisz, Iwona; Derewiaka, Dorota; Anders, Andrzej


    The effect of microwave heating (800 W) of whole and dehulled rapeseeds for 2 to 8 min was investigated in order to evaluate the impact of dehulling in conjunction with microwaving on the nutritional value, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of virgin rapeseed oil. Control oil produced from dehulled seeds (DRO) had higher amounts of bioactive compounds, such as tocochromanols and phytosterols, lower content of pigments, and higher content of primary and secondary oxidation products compared to oil pressed from whole seeds (WRO). Oils pressed from seeds that had previously undergone thermal treatment demonstrated gradual increase of oxidative stability, radical scavenging activity, moreover microwave treatment to caused darkening of oil, assessed in terms of changes in L*a*b* coordinates as well as browning index. Thermally-induced compositional changes were seen mainly in canolol, phytosterols, and carotenoids content, while only slight increase of tocopherols and phenolics was observed. The most pronounced effect of microwave pretreatment was noted for canolol formation-for 8-min MV exposure canolol quantity was approximately 7- and 23-fold higher, in comparison with control WRO and DRO samples, respectively (increase from 61.39 to 456.04 µg/g, and from 13.39 to 320.44 µg/g).

  15. Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil for Biodiesel Production with tert-Butanol

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester that can be derived from any vegetable oil or animal fat via the process of transesterification. It is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel. In this paper, we have evaluated the efficacy of a transesterification process for rapeseed oil with methanol in the presence of an enzyme and tert-butanol, which is added to ameliorate the negative effects associated with excess methanol. The application of Novozym 435 was determined to catalyze the transesterification process, and a conversion of 76.1% was achieved under selected conditions (reaction temperature 40 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio 3:1, 5% (w/w) Novozym 435 based on the oil weight, water content 1% (w/w), and reaction time of 24h). It has also been determined that rapeseed oil can be converted to fatty acid methyl ester using this system, and the results of this study contribute to the body of basic data relevant to the development of continuous enzymatic processes.

  16. Effect of pretreatment with dehulling and microwaving on the flavor characteristics of cold-pressed rapeseed oil by GC-MS-PCA and electronic nose discrimination.

    Zhou, Qi; Yang, Mei; Huang, Fenghong; Zheng, Chang; Deng, Qianchun


    Raw and dehulled rapeseeds were treated with microwave energy (800 W) from 1 to 8 min with 1-min intervals at a frequency of 2450 MHz to investigate the influence of microwaving and dehulling pretreatment on the flavor characteristics of rapeseed oil extracted by pressing. Headspace solid phase microextraction was used to isolate the volatile compounds of rapeseed oil, which were then identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results indicated that microwave and dehulling pretreatment of rapeseed can significantly influence the kinds and content of volatile compounds. The key flavor compounds in rapeseed oil were oxidized volatiles, heterocyclic compounds, and degradation products of glucosinolates. A pungent compound, 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene, was reduced by 97% in rapeseed treated for 3 min with microwaves energy when compared to the rapeseed oil without any treatment. The pyrazine compounds in the oil appeared after 6 min of microwave pretreatment and give a pleasant roasting flavor when compared to crude oils. Principal component analysis was able to differentiate between oils obtained using 4 pretreatment processes based on volatile compounds and electronic nose. The results showed that dehulling pretreatment could improve the flavor, yet microwaving had a greater effect on the flavor of rapeseed oils.

  17. Synthesis of Two Novel Additives and Study of Their Tribological Properties in Rapeseed Oil

    Zhou Maolin; Li Fenfang; Zeng Xiaojun; Fan Chengkai


    Two novel ashless additives-benzothiazole derivatives containing boron and chlorine,OBC and BBC,were synthesized.The tribological performances of OBC and BBC at different mass ratios as additives in rapeseed oil(RO)were examined on a four-ball machine.The worn surfaces of the lower steel balls lubricated by oil samples were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The test results showed that OBC and BBC had good solubility in the base oil,and could effectively increase the load-carrying capacity of the base Oil.The maximum non-seizure load of oil sample containing 1.5 m% BBCwas 1117N.which was 2.3 times as much as that of the base oil.Both OBC and BBC could improve the anti-wear and corrosion inhibiting performance and thermal stability of the base oil,whose initial decomposition temperatures was above 350℃.However,OBC and BBC at different concentrations could increase the friction coefficient of the base oil.The SEM morphology of steel balls lubricated by oil samples containing 1.5 m%additives seemed to be more uniform and smoother than that of the base oil,and the scars formed were very shallow.

  18. Breeding and high-yield culture technique of a new rape cultivar ‘ Huyou 19' with high oil content%高含油量油菜新品种‘沪油19’的选育和高产栽培技术研究

    王伟荣; 杨立勇; 李延莉; 蒋美艳; 孙超才


    'Huyou 19',a new rape cultivar of Brassica napus with high oil content,was bred by means of multiple cross between varieties (lines) .being 0.1% in erucic acid content, 18. 87 /zmol/g in glucosinolate content and 49.16% in rapeseed oil content. In the Shanghai regional test of rape,it av-eragely yielded 2 589.75 kg/hm2 rapeseed and produced 1 273.12 kg/hm2 rapeseed oil, increasing by 14.78% over 'Huyou 15'; In the Shanghai production test of rape,it averagely yielded 3 020.85 kg/hm2 rapeseed and produced 1 485.05 kg/hm2 rapeseed oil,increasing by 21.92% over 'Huyou 15'.%‘沪油19'是通过品种(系)间复交的方法选育的高含油量甘蓝型双低油菜品种,其芥酸含量0.1%,硫苷含量18.87 μmol/g,种子含油量49.16%.在上海市油菜区域试验中,平均产量2 589.75 kg/hm2,产油量1 273.12 kg/hm2,较‘沪油15’增加14.78%;在上海市油菜生产试验中,平均产量3 020.85 kg/hm2,产油量1 485.05 kg/hm2,较‘沪油15’增加21.92%.

  19. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Michał Górecki


    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  20. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.


    mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...

  1. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.


    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  2. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil

    Justyna Kadzińska


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3 % of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32 of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90. Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (ΔE increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg’s equation (R2≥0.99. The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  3. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil.

    Galus, Sabina; Kadzińska, Justyna


    The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90). Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆E) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg's equation (R(2)≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  4. BnWRI1 coordinates fatty acid biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways during oil accumulation in rapeseed.

    Wu, Xue-Long; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Zhang-Hua; Huang, Rui-Zhi


    Photosynthesis in "green" seeds, such as rapeseed, soybean, and Arabidopsis, plays a substantial role in the improved efficiency of oil accumulation. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the coordinated expression of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related genes in such developing seeds remains to be elucidated. Here, we found that seed-specific overexpression of BnWRI1, a WRI1 homolog from rapeseed (Brassica napus cv. ZGY2), results in enhanced chlorophyll content in developing seeds and increased oil content and seed mass in matured seeds. BnWRI1 was co-expressed with BnBCCP and BnCAB, two marker genes of FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis during seed development, respectively. Overexpression of BnWRI1 increased expression of both marker genes. Further, the nuclear-localized BnWRI1 protein was found to act as a transcription activator. It could bind to the GT1-element and/or GCC-box, which are widespread in the upstream regions of genes involved in FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways. Accordingly, BnWRI1 could interact with promoters of BCCP2 and LHB1B2 in vivo. These results suggested that BnWRI1 may coordinate FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways in developing seeds via directly stimulating expression of GT1-element and/or GCC-box containing genes.

  5. Preparation and tribological properties of lanthanum-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in rapeseed oil

    GU Kecheng; CHEN Boshui; CHEN Yong


    Oleic acid (denoted as OA) surface-capped lanthanum-doped titanium dioxide composite nanoparticles,abbreviated as OA/La-TiO2,were prepared via sol-gel method in association with surface modification by oleic acid.The microstructure of as-prepared OA/La-TiO2 was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry,and their thermal stability was evaluated by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry.Moreover,the tribological properties of OA/La-TiO2 as lubricant additives in rapeseed oil were evaluated with a four-ball friction and wear tester.The morphology as well as elemental composition and chemical characteristics of worn steel surfaces was investigated by scanning electron microscopy,energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.Results showed that as-prepared OA/La-TiO2 particles were of spherical shape and had an average diameter of 20 nm.In the meantime,OA/La-TiO2 particles doped with 1.5% (molar ratio; the same hereafter) and 2.5% of lanthanum could markedly improve the anti-wear and friction-reducing capacities of rapeseed oil.This is attributed to the formation of a complex boundary lubrication film mainly composed of the oxides of iron,titanium and lanthanum as well as the formation of an adsorption film of oleic acid on steel sliding surfaces.

  6. Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a New Biodiesel

    Jiang Dayong


    Full Text Available A novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether is developed. This fuel has one more ester group than the traditional biodiesel. The fuel was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR and P1PH NMR analyses. Engine test results show that when a tested diesel engine is fueled with this biodiesel in place of 0# diesel fuel, engine-out smoke emissions can be decreased by 25.0%–75.0%, CO emissions can be reduced by 50.0%, and unburned HC emissions are lessened significantly. However, NOx emissions generally do not change noticeably. In the area of combustion performance, both engine in-cylinder pressure and its changing rate with crankshaft angle are increased to some extent. Rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has a much higher cetane number and shorter ignition delay, leading to autoignition 1.1°CA earlier than diesel fuel during engine operation. Because of certain amount of oxygen contained in the new biodiesel, the engine thermal efficiency is improved 13.5%–20.4% when fueled with the biodiesel compared with diesel fuel.

  7. Enhancing the value of nitrogen from rapeseed meal for microbial oil production.

    Uçkun Kiran, Esra; Salakkam, Apilak; Trzcinski, Antoine P; Bakir, Ufuk; Webb, Colin


    Rapeseed meal, a major byproduct of biodiesel production, has been used as a low-cost raw material for the production of a generic microbial feedstock through a consolidated bioconversion process. Various strategies were tested for the production of a novel fermentation medium, rich in free amino nitrogen (FAN): commercial enzymes (CEs) (2.7 mg g⁻¹ dry meal), liquid state fungal pre-treatment (LSF) using Aspergillus oryzae (4.6 mg g⁻¹), liquid state fungal pre-treatment followed by fungal autolysis (LSFA) (9.13 mg g⁻¹), liquid state pre-treatment using fungal enzymatic broth (EB) (2.1 mg g⁻¹), but the best strategy was a solid state fungal pre-treatment followed by fungal autolysis (34.5 mg g⁻¹). The bioavailability of the nitrogen sources in the novel medium was confirmed in fed-batch bioreactor studies, in which 82.3g dry cell L⁻¹ of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4 was obtained with a lipid content of 48%. The dry cell weight obtained was higher than that obtained using conventional yeast extract, due to a higher total nitrogen content in the novel biomedium. The fatty acids obtained from the microbial oil were similar to those derived from rapeseed oil.

  8. BnWRI1 coordinates fatty acid biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways during oil accumulation in rapeseed

    Xue-Long Wu; Zhi-Hong Liu; Zhang-Hua Hu; Rui-Zhi Huang


    Photosynthesis in“green”seeds, such as rapeseed, soybean, and Arabidopsis, plays a substantial role in the improved efficiency of oil accumulation. However, the molecular mecha-nism underpinning the coordinated expression of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis-and photosynthesis-related genes in such develop-ing seeds remains to be elucidated. Here, we found that seed-specific overexpression of BnWRI1, a WRI1 homolog from rapeseed (Brassica napus cv. ZGY2), results in enhanced chlorophyl content in developing seeds and increased oil content and seed mass in matured seeds. BnWRI1 was co-expressed with BnBCCP and BnCAB, two marker genes of FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis during seed development, respectively. Over-expression of BnWRI1 increased expression of both marker genes. Further, the nuclear-localized BnWRI1 protein was found to act as a transcription activator. It could bind to the GT1-element and/or GCC-box, which are widespread in the upstream regions of genes involved in FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways. Accordingly, BnWRI1 could interact with promoters of BCCP2 and LHB1B2 in vivo. These results suggested that BnWRI1 may coordinate FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways in developing seeds via directly stimulating expression of GT1-element and/or GCC-box containing genes.

  9. Biodiesel synthesis combining pre-esterification with alkali catalyzed process from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Ling; Yan, Yunjun [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)


    A two-step technique combining pre-esterification catalyzed by cation exchange resin with transesterification catalyzed by base alkali was developed to produce biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate (RDOD). The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the feedstock were converted to methyl esters in the pre-esterification step using a column reactor packed with cation exchange resin. The acid value of oil was reduced from the initial 97.60 mg-KOH g{sup -1} oil to 1.12 mg-KOH g{sup -1} oil under the conditions of cation exchange resin D002 catalyst packed dosage 18 wt.% (based on oil weight), oil to methanol molar ratio 1:9, reaction temperature 60 C, and reaction time 4 h. The biodiesel yield by transesterification was 97.4% in 1.5 h using 0.8 wt.% KOH as catalyst and a molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:4 at 60 C. The properties of RDOD biodiesel production in a packed column reactor followed by KOH catalyzed transesterification were measured up the standards of EN14214 and ASTM6751-03. (author)

  10. Tribological performance and chemistry of films for di-n-butyl dithiocarbamate derivatives in rapeseed oil

    WU Hua; ZENG XiangQiong; LU LingBo; REN TianHui


    Two di-n-butyl dithiocarbamate derivatives were easily synthesized. Their tribological performances as lubricating oil additives in rapeseed oil were evaluated using a four-ball machine, and their chemistry of films was analyzed with X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). The results indicate that the two compounds possess excellent anti-wear property and good load-carrying capacity. According to the XANES results, for the thermal films, the outer surfaces are mainly composed of N, S-containing polymer and ferric sulfate, and the near-surface and the bulk are composed of ferrous sulfate, while for the anti-wear films, the outer surfaces are only composed of ferric sulfate, but the near-surface and the bulk are mainly composed of ferrous sulfate.

  11. Physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausages from enzymatically modified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage

    Cheong, L.Z.; Zhang, H.; Nersting, L.;


    Physical and sensory characteristic of pork sausages produced from enzymatic interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage were evaluated. All three enzymatic interesterified blends (IE90, IE70 and IE50) had ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids within the range of 1...

  12. Fields of application for the by-products of extraction and transesterification of rapeseed oil; Anvaendningsomraaden foer biprodukterna vid pressning och omfoerestring av rapsolja

    Bernesson, Sven


    Rapeseed contains 40-50% oil that can be extracted by pressing and possibly subsequent extraction. The residue, rapeseed cake, normally contains 10-25% oil, but rapeseed meal subjected to extraction only contains a few percent oil. Rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal can be used as animal feed, fuel, biogas substrate or fertiliser. If the extracted oil is used as a vehicle fuel it is normally transesterified to rapeseed oil methyl ester and then glycerol is produced as a by-product. Glycerol can be used for animal feed, fuel, biogas substrate or in the chemical industry as a raw material or additive in several products. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate how rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal, together with glycerol from transesterification of rapeseed oil, could be used in different applications, and to calculate their economic values in these uses. Used as a ruminant feed, current rapeseed cultivars can provide the entire dietary protein requirement. Up to 10% of the feed or concentrate mix for pigs, poultry and horses can comprise rapeseed feed. For piglets and horses, the palatability may limit the amount fed. The amount of rapeseed cake fed is restricted by its oil content. Normally, ruminants can manage 5% fat and horses about 2% fat in concentrate, and pigs 5% and poultry 1-1.5% fat in the overall diet. Glycerol can be an energy component of the feed mix. Cattle, sheep and pigs have been successfully fed a mixture containing 5-10% glycerol, and poultry a mixture containing 5%. Glycerol works well as a binding agent in feed pellet manufacture, with an admixture of 2-3% giving a more solid pellet. Rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal may be incinerated, but produce an ash with a relatively low melting-point, causes sintering and deposits to form in the furnace. The amount of ash is rather high, about 6%. The high nitrogen content (4-6% of dry matter) gives high nitric oxide emissions, often 2-3.6 times the emissions of fuels deficient in nitrogen. The high oil

  13. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Polyols from Rapeseed Oil and Properties of Flexible Polyurethane Foams

    Sylwia Dworakowska


    Full Text Available The application of raw materials derived from renewable feedstock has given rise to growing interest recently, as it can be exploited for the production of bio-based materials from vegetable oils. Their availability, biodegradability and low prices have been taken into account. In this work, vegetable oil-based polyols as a prospective replacement for petroleum polyols were investigated. A two-stage method for polyol preparation by incomplete epoxidation of natural oils and subsequent complete oxirane ring opening under microwave irradiation is presented. The course of epoxidation and oxirane ring-opening process was determined analytically by an evaluation of iodine, epoxy and hydroxyl values. The samples of oils and their derivatives were also analyzed by FT-IR and characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC in order to calculate their functionalities. Finally, polyols with two different hydroxyl values were obtained and used for the synthesis of flexible polyurethane (PUR foams. The scope of this research includes the determination of the relationship between the rapeseed oil-based polyol content and the properties of the resulting materials. It was found that applying bio-based polyols in conjunction with petroleum-based polyols for PUR foams formulations resulted in materials with good mechanical properties and a higher number of cells with smaller dimensions.

  14. Ethanolysis of rapeseed oil - distribution of ethyl esters, glycerides and glycerol between ester and glycerol phases.

    Cernoch, Michal; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek


    The distribution of ethyl esters, triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, and glycerol between the ester and glycerol phase was investigated after the ethanolysis of rapeseed oil at various reaction conditions. The determination of these substances in the ester and glycerol phases was carried out by the GC method. The amount of ethyl esters in the glycerol phase was unexpectedly high and therefore the possibility of the reduction of this amount was investigated. The distribution coefficients and the weight distributions of each investigated substance were calculated and compared mutually. The distribution coefficients between the ester and glycerol phase increase in this sequence: glycerol, monoglycerides, diglycerides, ethyl esters, and triglycerides. Soaps and monoglycerides in the reaction mixture cause a worse separation of ethyl esters from the reaction mixture. The existence of a non-separable reaction mixture was observed also, and its composition was determined.

  15. Rapeseed oil and magnesium manipulations affect the seizure threshold to kainate in mice*

    Pagès Nicole


    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the drop in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-induced seizure threshold caused by nutritional magnesium deprivation responded well to the w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA alpha-linolenate (ALA (5% rapeseed oil diet when compared to w-6 PUFA diet. In the present work, kainate-induced seizures are shown to be also exacerbated by magnesium deprivation. ALA diet better attenuates this seizure exacerbation when compared to the non-ALA diet. The reversion of the drop in kainate seizure threshold induced in these conditions by magnesium administration was, however, better under the non-ALA diet in comparison with the ALA diet. Taken as a whole, present data indicate that kainate like NMDA brain injury is attenuated by ALA diet. On the other hand, the relative failure of ALA diet to potentiate reversion induced by magnesium might suggest that magnesium and ALA protections are not additive.

  16. Tribological Behaviors of S,B-Containing Morpholine Derivatives as Additives in Rapeseed Oil

    Fan Chengkai; Li Fenfang; Sheng Liping


    Two novel ashless and non-phosphorus S,B-containing morpholine derivatives,MBOC and MBOD,were prepared and their tribological behaviors in rapeseed oil (RSO) were evaluated using a four-ball tester.Thermal degradation tests were conducted to identify their thermal stabilities using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer.The worn surfaces of the steel balls were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The results indicated that the additives possessed high thermal stabilities and good load-carrying capacities.Moreover,they both had good anti-wear and friction reducing property at a relatively high concentration (1.5 m%) and under all test loads.The resuits of XPS analyses illustrated that the prepared compounds as additives in RSO could form a protective film containing inorganic sulfide,sulfate,oxidized compounds and organic nitrogen-containing compounds on the metal surface during the sliding process.

  17. Effect of the Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester Component on Conventional Diesel Fuel Properties

    Kumbár V.


    Full Text Available The effect of the rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME component in diesel fuel was assessed. Dynamic viscosity and density of blends were particularly observed. Measurements were performed at standard constant temperature. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In the case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and the blend of both, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Considerable temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was found out and demonstrated for all three samples. This finding is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data sources. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was modelled using the 3rd degree polynomial. Temperature dependence of density was modelled using the 2nd degree polynomial. The proposed models can be used for flow behaviour prediction of RME, diesel fuel, and their blends.

  18. Fatty Acid Profile and Biological Activities of Linseed and Rapeseed Oils

    Anna Lewinska


    Full Text Available It has been postulated that fatty acids found in edible oils may exert beneficial health effects by the modulation of signaling pathways regulating cell differentiation and proliferation, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of selected edible oils—linseed (LO and rapeseed (RO oils—were tested in vitro on fibroblast cells. The fatty acid profile of the oils was determined using gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy. LO was found to be rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA, whereas oleic acid was the most abundant species in RO. Fatty acids were taken up by the cells and promoted cell proliferation. No oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxic or genotoxic effects were observed after oil stimulation. Oils ameliorated the process of wound healing as judged by improved migration of fibroblasts to the wounding area. As ALA-rich LO exhibited the most potent wound healing activity, ALA may be considered a candidate for promoting the observed effect.

  19. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.


    Elevated concentrations of fasting and non-fasting triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) as well as oxidative changes of lipoproteins may increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease. To compare the effects of different diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids on the concentrations and in vitro...... oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  20. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw for the production of bio-oils

    Xing-Yan Huang; Feng Li; Jiu-Long Xie; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Chung-Yun Hse; Jin-Qiu Qi; Hui. Xiao


    The acid-catalyzed liquefaction of rape straw in methanol using microwave energy was examined. Conversion yield and energy consumption were evaluated to profile the microwave-assisted liquefaction process. Chemical components of the bio-oils from various liquefaction conditions were identified. A higher reaction temperature was found to be beneficial to obtain higher...

  1. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.;


    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious...... deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...... in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic...

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  3. 菜籽油无氧包装研究%Study on oxygen-free packaging for rapeseed oil

    郑素霞; 吴龙奇


    氧气是油脂氧化的主要因素之一.根据隔离氧气可以阻断油脂氧化的原理,提出菜籽油无氧包装的概念,即在无氧环境下完成菜籽油灌装及封口.以菜籽油为试样,分别采用无氧包装与普通包装(对照样),以过氧化值和酸值为考察对象,进行比较,结果标明,经过无氧包装的菜籽油,其过氧化值仅升高0.01 mmol/kg,酸值仅升高0.1 mg KOH/g,而对照组过氧化值则升高了2.42 mmol/kg,酸值则升高了0.18 mg KOH/g,数据说明了无氧包装的优势.%Oxygen is one of the main factors in oil oxidation. According to the principle that could completely block the oil oxidation by Oxygen Barrier, this paper introduces the concept of oxygen-free packaging of rapeseed oil that is bottle filling and seal in oxygen-free condition. Taking rapeseed oil as sample, used anaerobic packed with ordinary packaging (Comparative sample), and compared peroxide value and acid value as the object of investigation. The experimental results showed that the peroxide value of packaged rapeseed oil only increased 0. 01 mmol/kg while the control group has almost increased 2. 42 mmol/kg. The acid value of packaged rapeseed oil has only increased 0. 1 mg KOH/g while the control group has almost increased 0. 18 mg KOH/g. Other parameters also showed advantage of the oxygen-free packaging. Research achievement has the practical significance on anti-oxidation packaging of rapeseed oil.

  4. Mechanical hulling and thermal pre-treatment effects on rapeseed oil antioxidant capacity and related lipophilic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds.

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Wroniak, Małgorzata; Siger, Aleksander; Ścibisz, Iwona; Derewiaka, Dorota; Anders, Andrzej


    In this study, the effect of rapeseed mechanical hulling and thermal pre-treatment by microwaves (from 2 to 10 min with 2-min intervals, 800 W) and roasting (from 20 to 100 min with 20-min intervals, 165 °C) on the content of phytochemicals in the oil was investigated. Results showed that both pre-treatments applied differentiated the oils in terms of the content of bioactive compounds. In general, oils pressed from hulled and thermally pre-treated seeds contained higher content of tocopherols, PC-8 and phytosterols, while oils pressed from non-hulled and pre-processed seeds had significantly higher concentration of polyphenols. Both microwaving and roasting contributed to an increase of antioxidant capacity of studied oils. The increase of radical scavenging activity of oils was seen mainly in hydrophilic fraction of oil, which was highly positively correlated with the amount of canolol formed during seeds heating.

  5. Cold-pressed and hot-pressed rapeseed oil: The effects of roasting and seed moisture on the antioxi- dant activity, canolol, and tocopherol level.

    Siger, Aleksander; Józefiak, Marta; Górnaś, Paweł


    The paper looks at the levels of canolol, tocopherols and antioxidant activity in cold-pressed and hot-pressed rapeseed oils produced from seeds of various moisture levels (5%, 7.5%, and 10%). The paper also considers the effects of seed roasting on the levels of these compounds. The material used for the tests was rapeseed cv. Adrianna. The quality of the oils obtained is determined using peroxide and acid values. The levels of canolol and tocopherols are analyzed using HPLC. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity method for oil samples and phenolic extract from oils was used. It has been demonstrated that the oils produced from rapeseeds with a 5% moisture content, and   in particular from cold-pressed oils, were characterized by the lowest peroxide values. Cold-pressed oils produced from rapeseeds with a 5% moisture content were characterized by higher levels of tocopherols and plastochromanol-8. In the case of hot-pressed oils, the highest levels of tocopherols were found in oils pro- duced from seeds with a 7.5% moisture content, and the greatest amount of PC-8 (more than 4 mg/100 g) was found in oils produced from seeds with a 10% moisture content. Hot-pressed oils have been shown to have higher levels of these compounds than cold-pressed oils. Both roasting and hot pressing led to an increase in the amount of canolol in the oils investigated. When analysing the antioxidant activity of the oils and phenolic extracts it was shown that phenolic compounds are responsible for approx. 10% of total antioxidant activity. Various levels of biologically active compounds were shown to be present in the rapeseed oil obtained from raw materials of a varying moisture content. The type of pressing process (cold-pressing or hot-pressing) and whether the seeds have undergone roasting has also been shown to affect the resulting oil and the level of native antioxidants it contains.

  6. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna


    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  7. Abatement of particulate matter emission from experimental aviary housings for laying hens by spraying rapeseed oil.

    Winkel, A; van Riel, J W; van Emous, R A; Aarnink, A J A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Ogink, N W M


    In alternative systems for laying hens, concentrations and emission rates of particulate matter (PM) give reason for concern with regard to working conditions, bird health and productivity, and health of residents living near farms. Previously, we found that spraying a film of rapeseed oil onto the litter of broilers could substantially reduce PM concentrations and emissions. The objective of this study was to establish dose-response effects of oil spraying in aviaries on concentrations and emission rates of PM with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5), on stockmen's exposure to PM10, on egg production, exterior quality and behavior of the hens, and on the litter. An experiment was carried out with 4 treatments: 0 (control), 15, 30, and 45 mL/m(2) per d (oil treatments). Each treatment was applied in 2 rooms with different aviary systems (8 rooms in total). The experiment was repeated during a second period, both lasting 35 days. From d 11 to d 35, oil was applied daily using a spraying gun. Applying 15, 30, or 45 mL/m(2) per d significantly reduced emission rates of PM10 by 27, 62, and 82%, and emission rates of PM2.5 by 71, 83, and 94%, respectively. No significant effects of oil spraying were found on mortality, egg production, dust bathing behavior, scratching behavior, plumage soiling, DM content of the litter, or friability of the litter. A significant worsening of the plumage condition was found only for the body spot back/wings/tail (not for: throat/neck, chest/breast, or legs) in the 45 mL/m(2) per d treatment. Egg quality shifted significantly towards more second-class eggs in the oil treatments (1.9% versus 1.4%; P = 0.004). Remarkably, foot soiling decreased with increasing oil application. In conclusion, PM concentrations and emission rates in aviaries can be effectively reduced by spraying 15 to 30 mL/m(2) per d with minor side effects within a 25 d application period.

  8. Performance and emission evaluation of a CI engine fueled with preheated raw rapeseed oil (RRO)-diesel blends

    Hazar, Hanbey [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)


    Many studies are still being carried out to find out surplus information about how vegetable based oils can efficiently be used in compression ignition engines. Raw rapeseed oil (RRO) was used as blended with diesel fuel (DF) by 50% oil-50% diesel fuel in volume (O50) also as blended with diesel fuel by 20% oil-80% diesel fuel in volume (O20). The test fuels were used in a single cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection compression ignition engine. The effects of fuel preheating to 100 C on the engine performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with rapeseed oil diesel blends were clarified. Results showed that preheating of RRO was lowered RRO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow Heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. It can be achieved by heating RRO to 100 C. It can also be concluded that preheating of the fuel have some positive effects on engine performance and emissions when operating with vegetable oil. (author)

  9. Interfacial properties of oleosins and phospholipids from rapeseed for the stability of oil bodies in aqueous medium.

    Deleu, Magali; Vaca-Medina, Guadalupe; Fabre, Jean-François; Roïz, Julie; Valentin, Romain; Mouloungui, Zéphirin


    Oleosins are plant proteins associated with phospholipids in seed oil bodies. The ability of oleosins to aid in the emulsification and stabilization of oil bodies is well known, but little information is available on their interaction with phospholipids at the interface between oil bodies and aqueous medium. Oil body reconstitution at various phospholipid/oleosin ratios was carried out to observe how rapeseed oleosins of 20kDa and rapeseed phospholipids affect oil body stability. Phospholipids are needed to stabilize oil droplets, but oleosins are mandatory to avoid coalescence. We thus characterized how phospholipids affect the interfacial properties of oleosins at pHs 5.5 and 8.5, by analyzing the adsorption kinetics and interfacial dilational rheology. We observed a synergic effect between oleosins and phospholipids in increasing surface pressure at both pHs. This kind of effect was also observed for the dilational modulus at pH 5.5. A thermodynamic approach highlights these synergic interactions between oleosins and phospholipids through a positive deviation from ideality.

  10. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir


    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  11. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil.

    Ma, Jin-Kui; Zhang, Han; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Chen, Jie-Yu


    This study was carried out to investigate the frying performance of Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil during deep-fat frying of frozen French fries with/without replenishment. Commercial regular canola oil was used for comparison. The frying oils were used during intermittent frying of frozen French fries at 180, 200, and 220 ℃ for 7 h daily over four consecutive days. The Kizakinonatane oil exhibited lower levels of total polar compounds, carbonyl value, and viscosity as well as comparable color (optical density) values to that of the canola oil. The monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios were lower than that of canola oil, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios are higher than that of canola oil after heating. Results showed that fresh Kizakinonatane oil contains higher levels of acid value, viscosity, optical density values, tocopherols, and total phenolics contents than that of canola oil. Replenishment with fresh oil had significant effects on all chemical and physical parameters, except the acid value of the Kizakinonatane oil during frying processes. Based on the results, the Kizakinonatane oil is inherently suitable for preparing deep-fried foods at high temperatures.

  12. Effect of micella interesterification on fatty acids composition and volatile components of soybean and rapeseed oils

    Afifi, Sherine M.


    Full Text Available Micella interesterification of soybean and rapeseed oils was carried out using 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percentages of nickel catalyst, each at different temperatures of 60, 90 and 120ºC for 2, 4, and 6 hours. The proposed interesterification reaction conditions to obtain an oil with low linoleic acid level were 0.2 % nickel catalyst at 120ºC for 4 hours, 0.4% nickel catalyst at 90ºC for 4 hours and 0.6% at 60ºC for 4 hours. Fatty acid composition and chemical analysis of the interesterified and non-esterified oils were estimated. Selected samples undergo heating at 180ºC for 4 hours determining the volatile components. The appearance of some components supported the interesterification process for modification of fatty acid constituents of the oils.Se ha llevado a cabo la interesterificación en fase miscelar de aceites de soja y de colza usando un 0.2%, 0.4% y 0.6% de níquel como catalizador, a diferentes temperaturas (60, 90 y 120ºC durante 2, 4 y 6 horas. Las condiciones de reacción de interesterificación propuestas para obtener un aceite con niveles de ácidos linolénicos bajos fueron 0.2 % de níquel a 120ºC durante 4 horas, 0.4 % de níquel a 90ºC durante 4 horas y 0.6 % a 60ºC durante 4 horas. Se han estimado la composición en ácidos grasos y el análisis químico de los aceites interesterificados y no-esterificados. Las muestras seleccionadas se sometieron a calentamiento a 180ºC durante 4 horas determinando los componentes volátiles. La aparición de algunos componentes apoyó el proceso de interesterificación por modificación de los ácidos grasos constituyentes de los aceites.

  13. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I


    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam.

  14. Effect of inter- and intragenic epistasis on the heritability of oil content in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans Peter; Dreyer, Felix; Reif, Jochen C


    The loci detected by association mapping which are involved in the expression of important agronomic traits in crops often explain only a small proportion of the total genotypic variance. Here, 17 SNPs derived from 9 candidate genes from the triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway were studied in an association analysis in a population of 685 diverse elite rapeseed inbred lines. The 685 lines were evaluated for oil content, as well as for glucosinolates, yield, and thousand-kernel weight in field trials at 4 locations. We detected main effects for most of the studied genes illustrating that genetic diversity for oil content can be exploited by the selection of favorable alleles. In addition to main effects, both intergenic and intragenic epistasis was detected that contributes to a considerable amount to the genotypic variance observed for oil content. The proportion of explained genotypic variance was doubled when in addition to main effects epistasis was considered. Therefore, a knowledge-based improvement of oil content in rapeseed should also take such favorable epistatic interactions into account. Our results suggest, that the observed high contribution of epistasis may to some extent explain the missing heritability in genome-wide association studies.

  15. Local Cooking Oil Faces Foreign Challenges


    @@ Alarming local oil industry This year, the purchasing price of rapeseed from China's major production bases has gone up due to the decline in planting area of oil-bearing crops. In this June, the purchase price of rapeseeds from Anhui Province, a major rape production base in China, increased by 10%~20% from this May and by 50%~60% over last year. It was even 0.26 yuan /jin (half a kilogram) higher than the highest price level of last year. Domestic oil price rise has also resulted in the increasing import of cooking oil.

  16. Enzymatic interesterification of a lard and rapeseed oil equal-weight blend.

    Gruczynska, Eliza; Kowalska, Dorota; Kozlowska, Mariola; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Kowalski, Boleslaw


    A mixture of lard and rapeseed oil (1:1, wt/wt) was interesterified using immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435) as catalysts. Enzymatic interesterifications were carried out at 60°C for 8 h with Lipozyme RM IM or at 80°C for 4 h with Novozym 435. The biocatalyst doses were kept constant (8 wt-%). The starting blend was quantitatively separated by column chromatography into pure triacylglycerol fraction (98.5%), and a nontriacylglycerol fraction containing free fatty acids (0.3%) and of mono- and diacylglycerols (1.2%). It was found that after interesterification the contents of free fatty acids and of mono- and diacylglycerols increased to 3.5% and 6.3% or to 1.5% and 4.5% when Lipozyme RM IM and Novozym 435 were used, respectively.The slip melting temperatures and solid fat contents of the triacylglycerol fractions separated from interesterified samples were lower compared with the nonesterified blend. The sn-2 and sn-1,3 distribution of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol fractions before and after interesterification were determined. The compositions of fatty acids at sn-2 were near statistical (33.3%) when Novozym 435 was used. When Lipozyme RM IM was used, the fatty acid compositions at the sn-2 position remained practically unchanged, compared with the starting blend. The changes in molecular structures of fat components due to interesterification have greatly influenced on the melting profiles of products as illustrated by the DSC melting scans. The interesterified fats and isolated triacylglycerols had reduced oxidative stabilities, as assessed by Dynamic DSC and Isothermal PDSC measurements. The Arrhenius kinetic parameters for fats oxidation based on DSC and PDSC measurements were calculated.

  17. Impact of instant controlled pressure drop pre-treatment on solvent extraction of edible oil from rapeseed seeds

    Allaf Tamara


    Full Text Available The fundamental analysis and modeling of kinetics of solvent extraction of rapeseed oil enable the quantification of the “washing” and “diffusion” steps. Both are illustrated through “starting accessibility” and “effective diffusivity”, respectively. This is a relevant way to identify how to intensify and optimize the operating conditions in terms of highest yield and lowest extraction time. Using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC expansion as a pre-treatment for the intensification of the whole unit operation, the starting accessibility ratio reached a value of 28.69% against 19.03% for the raw material. Effective diffusivity of DIC treated samples reached a value of 2.05 × 10-12 m2/s instead of 0.72 × 10-12 m2/s for the raw material. Regarding oil composition, predominant fatty acids in all extracted rapeseed oils are oleic acid (C18:1 n9 ranged from 57.58 to 59.03%, linoleic acid (C18:2 n6 ranged from 21.23 to 21.89%, and linolenic acid (C18:3 n3 ranged from 9.11 to 9.45%. None of DIC treatment produced a significant variation in relative fatty acid profile.

  18. Rapeseed in China

    Bonjean Alain. P.


    Full Text Available In 2015, China was the world’s second most important producer of rapeseed after Canada, with 7.59 million hectares under cultivation and a production of 14.1 million tons. It is also a major importer of rapeseed grain, as well as the premier consumer. Currently, its R&D remains mainly public. Its rapeseed seed market is slightly superior to 2.7 billion RMB (362 million € and concerns partly hybrid varieties Nevertheless, the improvement in living standards and the strong development of animal production in China has brought with it an increasing dependence on oil and protein crops, notably rapeseed but especially soybean and palm.

  19. A note on the combustion of blends of diesel and soya, sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils in a light boiler

    San Jose Alonso, J.; Lopez, E. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez Sastre, J.A.; Romero-Avila, C. [Dpto. Quimica Organica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    This paper deals with the study of the vegetable oils (VO) used as fuel for heating. The properties of sunflower, rape and soya oils are studied and these are compared with the properties of C-diesel fuel (used for heating domestic purposes in Spain). The mixtures of VO and diesel are studied and characterized and, finally, the results of a series of combustion trials of the mixtures in a conventional heating installation with a mechanical pulverization burner are presented. The results show that viscosity of VO limits the use of blends up to 40% of them, and the oxygen present in their structures contributes to an efficiency gain. (author)

  20. Effects of Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba loads on these elements' uptake and oil content and fatty acid composition of rapeseed

    Kastori Rudolf R.


    Full Text Available Studied in the present paper were the long-term effects of the application of high Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba rates (0, 90, 270, and 810 kg ha-1 on rapeseed oil content and oil fatty acid composition. The trace elements were applied in the spring of 1991, while the rapeseed was sown on a calcareous сhernozem soil in 2001. The trace elements differed significantly in their rates of accumulation in rapeseed plants. Relative to the control, the Mo content of the stem increased up to 1,000 times, that of the chaff over 100 times, and that of the seed around 60 times. The levels of the other trace elements increased considerably less relative to the control. The increases were typically twofold to threefold, depending on the plant part involved. The trace elements accumulated the most in the vegetative plant parts, except for Zn, a major quantity of which was found in the seed as well. The application of the high rates of Sr, Zn and, to an extent. Mo reduced the seed oil content of rapeseed. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of the trace elements had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the rapeseed oil, either. The increased levels of the trace elements found in the rapeseed plants indicate that 11 years after application significant amounts of the applied elements are still present in the soil in a form available to plants. However, the rates were not high enough to affect the synthesis of oil and its fatty acid composition.

  1. Research progress of studies on rapeseed gene engineering%油菜基因工程研究进展

    田亚红; 王丽萍; 徐传远


    油菜是中国主要油料作物,油菜基因工程的研究已日趋成熟。该文综述油菜转化筛选标记和转化方法,较常用的筛选标记基因是新霉素磷酸转移酶基因(NPT II),目前用于油菜基因转化的方法主要有农杆菌介导法和外源基因直接转化法;介绍了转基因油菜的应用,探讨了转基因油菜的安全性问题。%Rapeseed is the main oil crop in china. Rapeseed gene engineering is more and more mature. The rapeseed selection marker and transformation methods were mainly reviewed.Selective marker gene commonly was neomycin phosphotransferase gene(NPT II). At present,the main methods of rape gene transformation were agrobacterium-mediated method and exogenous gene transformation method. The application of transgenic rapeseed was introduced and the safety problem of transgenic rapeseed rape was discussed.

  2. Characterization of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oils by bulk C, O, H, and fatty acid C stable isotope analyses.

    Richter, Eva Katharina; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian


    Rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) oils differing in cultivar, sites of growth, and harvest year were characterized by fatty acid concentrations and carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope analyses of bulk oils (delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), delta(18)O(bulk) values) and individual fatty acids (delta(13)C(FA)). The delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), and delta(18)O(bulk) values were determined by continuous flow combustion and high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS, TC-EA/IRMS). The delta(13)C(FA) values were determined using gas chromatography--combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). For comparison, other C(3) vegetable oils rich in linolenic acid (flax and false flax oils) and rich in linoleic acid (poppy, sunflower, and safflower oils) were submitted to the same chemical and isotopic analyses. The bulk and molecular delta(13)C values were typical for C(3) plants. The delta(13)C value of palmitic acid (delta(13)C(16:0)) and n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (delta(13)C(18:3n-3)) differed (p oils. Also within species, significant differences of delta(13)C(FA) were observed (p oil differed between cultivars (p oil and specific fatty acid stable isotope analysis might be useful in tracing dietary lipids differing in their origin.

  3. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique


    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  4. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Wallenius Marja


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration NCT01119690

  5. Physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausages from enzymatically modified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage.

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Nersting, Lise; Jensen, Kirsten; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Xu, Xuebing


    Physical and sensory characteristic of pork sausages produced from enzymatic interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage were evaluated. All three enzymatic interesterified blends (IE90, IE70 and IE50) had ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids within the range of 1.47-2.84 which is favourable for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Blends of IE90 and IE70 were found to have suitable solid fat content, melting and crystallization profile suitable for sausages production. Sausages were produced from blends of IE90 and IE70 with different muscle types (musculus longissimus dorsi and musculus sternomandibularis) and processing conditions such as cooling rates and final processing temperature. Cooling rate was found to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on hardness of the sausages throughout storage. Both musculus longissimus dorsi and high final processing temperature of 20 degrees C increased the hardness of the sausages during storage. In terms of fat particle size distribution, it was found that sausages IE70 had significantly (Psausages IE70. All the sausages produced from interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil had no apparent fat excretion and were rated as having acceptable sensory attributes as compared to reference sausage which was produced from pure lard.

  6. Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study.

    Vermunt - Dongen, S.H.F.; Beaufrere, B.; Riemersma, R.A.; Sebedio, J.L.; Chardigny, J.M.; Mensink, R.P.


    : Br J Nutr 2001 Mar;85(3):387-92 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Comment in: Br J Nutr. 2001 Mar;85(3):249-50. Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study. Vermunt SH, Beaufrere B, Riemersma RA, Sebedio JL,

  7. Long-term experiences in the use of rapeseed oil fuel in tractors of the emissions levels I and II; Langzeiterfahrungen zum Einsatz von Rapsoelkraftstoff in Traktoren der Abgasstufe I und II

    Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar


    The operational behavior as well as the emission behavior should be clarified in long-term use by means of tractors which are powered by rapeseed oil fuel. This is based on the following measures: review of the quality of rapeseed oil fuel used; testing of the quality of the engine oil on a random basis; documentation of failures, maintenance and repair work; measurement of performance and fuel economy; measurement of exhaust emissions; diagnosis of engines.

  8. Preparation and Tribological Performance of Modified Rapeseed Oil%改性菜籽油的制备及其摩擦学性能研究

    何忠义; 吴余琴; 熊丽萍; 吴奕锋


    绿色润滑基础油的研究工作在国内外得到了越来越多的重视。以菜籽油为原料,进行酰胺化改性,通过碱值和氮含量的比较,挑选出两种改性菜籽油作为润滑基础油,和纯菜籽油以及加氢油5Cst在四球摩擦磨损试验机上进行摩擦学性能比较,发现改性后的菜籽油相对有较好的极压、抗磨和减摩性能。EDS对磨损钢球表面分析得出醇胺改性后的菜籽油由于含有活性氮元素,其在摩擦表面形成有机氮和无机氮组成的复杂膜,可以明显提高基础油的摩擦学性能。%Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to the research of green lubricating base oil at home and abroad. Using rapeseed oil as raw material, modifying them by amidation method, and comparing alkali value and nitrogen content of these modified rapeseed oil, this study selected two kinds of modified rapeseed oil as lubri-cating base oil to make a comparison with pure rapeseed oil and hydrogenated oil 5 Cst in terms of their tribologi-cal property through a four-ball tester. Based on the experiment, it finds that modified rapeseed oil has better prop-erty on pressure-resistance, wear-resistance and friction-reduction. Through EDS analysis of the worn surface of the steel ball, it concludes that rapeseed oil modified by alcohol amine, which contains reactive nitrogen element to form an organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen complex film, can significantly improve tribological property of base oil.

  9. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

    Amin Mohamed, Amal


    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  10. Determination of the Degree of Degradation of Frying Rapeseed Oil Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Partial Least-Squares Regression

    Jie Yu Chen; Han Zhang; Jinkui Ma; Tomohiro Tuchiya; Yelian Miao


    This rapid method for determining the degree of degradation of frying rapeseed oils uses Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares (PLS) regression. One hundred and fifty-six frying oil samples that degraded to different degrees by frying potatoes were scanned by an FTIR spectrometer using attenuated total reflectance (ATR). PLS regression with full cross validation was used for the prediction of acid value (AV) and total polar compounds (TPC) based on...

  11. Expression of rapeseed microsomal lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase isozymes enhances seed oil content in Arabidopsis.

    Maisonneuve, Sylvie; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Lessire, René; Delseny, Michel; Roscoe, Thomas J


    In higher plants, lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), located in the cytoplasmic endomembrane compartment, plays an essential role in the synthesis of phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids in all tissues and storage lipids in developing seeds. In order to assess the contribution of LPAATs to the synthesis of storage lipids, we have characterized two microsomal LPAAT isozymes, the products of homoeologous genes that are expressed in rapeseed (Brassica napus). DNA sequence homologies, complementation of a bacterial LPAAT-deficient mutant, and enzymatic properties confirmed that each of two cDNAs isolated from a Brassica napus immature embryo library encoded a functional LPAAT possessing the properties of a eukaryotic pathway enzyme. Analyses in planta revealed differences in the expression of the two genes, one of which was detected in all rapeseed tissues and during silique and seed development, whereas the expression of the second gene was restricted predominantly to siliques and developing seeds. Expression of each rapeseed LPAAT isozyme in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in the production of seeds characterized by a greater lipid content and seed mass. These results support the hypothesis that increasing the expression of glycerolipid acyltransferases in seeds leads to a greater flux of intermediates through the Kennedy pathway and results in enhanced triacylglycerol accumulation.

  12. Nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during long term storage as influenced by the type of packaging material, exposure to light & oxygen and storage temperature.

    Wroniak, Małgorzata; Rękas, Agnieszka


    The effect of various conditions (storage temperature, exposure to light, access of oxygen) and different packaging material (amber glass, amber polyethylene terephthalate) on the nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during 12 months of storage was investigated. Quantified quality parameters included: acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices (K 232 , K 268 ), fatty acid composition, tocopherols and sterols. Storage of oil at 4 °C was found to be most appropriate for maintaining the quality of cold-pressed rapeseed oil. Exposure of oil samples stored at room temperature to light in combination with the access of oxygen caused the most pronounced losses in the total tocopherols (ca. 90-91 % of α-T, and ca. 80-81 % of γ-T), total phytosterols (ca. 15-16 %) and substantial deterioration in oil qualitative properties. Although storage at room temperature is common for use in households, storage of at low temperatures (4 °C) significantly increases the possibility of prolonged shelf life of cold-pressed rapeseed oil.

  13. Impact of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol on the radiation induced oxidation of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols

    Braunrath, Robert; Isnardy, Bettina; Solar, Sonja; Elmadfa, Ibrahim


    Gamma-irradiation (doses: 2, 4, 7, and 10 kGy) was used as oxidation tool to study the antioxidant effects of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (enrichments 500-5000 ppm) in purified rapeseed oil triacylglycerols (RSOTG). Fatty acid composition, tocopherol degradation, primary (conjugated dienes (CD) and peroxide value (POV)) and secondary (p-anisidine value) oxidation products were chosen as test parameters. Fatty acid composition did not change. While secondary oxidation products could not be found in the irradiated samples, the POVs and CDs showed a significant, dose-dependent increase. α-Tocopherol did not inhibit the formation of peroxides, whereas γ- and δ-tocopherol reduced the POVs by more than 30%. No uniform effect of the different tocopherol concentrations at the particular doses could be established. The influence of the individual tocopherols on the CD formation was not pronounced. The degradation of the tocopherols decreased with increasing concentration. None of the tocopherols showed a prooxidant effect.

  14. Facile fabrication of large-scale stable superhydrophobic surfaces with carbon sphere films by burning rapeseed oil

    Qu, Mengnan; He, Jinmei; Cao, Biyun


    Stable anti-corrosive superhydrophobic surfaces were successfully prepared with the carbon nanosphere films by means of depositing the soot of burning rapeseed oil. The method is extremely cheap, facile, time-saving and avoided any of the special equipments, special reagents and complex process control. The method is suitable for the large-scale preparation of superhydrophobic surface and the substrate can be easily changed. The as-prepared surfaces showed stable superhydrophobicity and anti-corrosive property even in many corrosive solutions, such as acidic or basic solutions over a wide pH range. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surface was carefully characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope to confirm the synergistic binary geometric structures at micro- and nanometer scale. This result will open a new avenue in the superhydrophobic paint research with these easily obtained carbon nanospheres in the near future.

  15. Preparation and Structural Properties of Free Films from Rapeseed Oil-Based Rigid Polyurethane-Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Sergey Gaidukov


    Full Text Available The preparation of free standing films of biobased rigid polyurethanes (PU from rapeseed oil (RO and diethanolamine (DEA polyol and its modification with organomontmorillonite (OMMT nanoparticles are described. Heat enthalpy of the interaction during in situ mixing of RO/DEA polyol and OMMT is measured in isothermal profile. The Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis (FTIR-ATR is used to determine the urethane group concentration and hydrogen bonds formation in PU and PU/OMMT nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction shows the formation of intercalated and exfoliated structures of OMMT. The glass-transition temperature is used to demonstrate the formation for the intercalated and exfoliated nanocomposites of an interphase with a possible compact structure and the altered polymer chain mobility. The prepared PU/OMMT nanocomposites are also characterized by the enhanced thermal degradation characteristics upon heating in air atmosphere.

  16. The effect of microwave pretreatment of seeds on the stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil during long-term storage.

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Ścibisz, Iwona; Siger, Aleksander; Wroniak, Małgorzata


    Storage stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil pressed from microwave treated seeds (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10min, 800W) during long-term storage (12months) at a temperature of 20°C was discussed in the current study. The dominant phenolic compound detected in rapeseed oil was canolol, followed by minor amounts of free phenolic acids and sinapine. The most pronounced effect of seeds microwaving was noted for canolol formation - after 10-min exposure the quantity of this compound was approximately 63-fold higher than in control oil. The degradation of phenolics during storage displayed pseudo first-order kinetics. Differences in the initial degradation rate (r0) demonstrated significant impact of the period of seeds microwave exposure on the degradation rates of phenolic compounds. Results of the half-life calculation (t1/2) showed that the storage stability of phenolic compounds was higher in oils produced from microwave treated rapeseeds than in control oil.

  17. Effect of rapeseed oil and dietary n-3 fatty acids on triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes.

    Kjaer, M A; Vegusdal, A; Gjøen, T; Rustan, A C; Todorcević, M; Ruyter, B


    Fish oil (FO) has traditionally been used as the dominating lipid component in fish feed. However, FO is a limited resource and the price varies considerably, which has led to an interest in using alternative oils, such as vegetable oils (VOs), in fish diets. It is far from clear how these VOs affect liver lipid secretion and fish health. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanioc acid (DHA), reduce the secretion of lipoproteins rich in triacylglycerols (TAGs) in Atlantic salmon, as they do in humans. The mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids (FAs) in the diet reduce TAG secretion is not known. We have therefore investigated the effects of rapeseed oil (RO) and n-3 rich diets on the accumulation and secretion of (3)H-glycerolipids by salmon hepatocytes. Salmon, of approximately 90 g were fed for 17 weeks on one of four diets supplemented with either 13.5% FO, RO, EPA-enriched oil or DHA-enriched oil until a final average weight of 310 g. Our results show that the dietary FA composition markedly influences the endogenous FA composition and lipid content of the hepatocytes. The intracellular lipid level in hepatocytes from fish fed RO diet and DHA diet were higher, and the expressions of the genes for microsomal transfer protein (MTP) and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) were lower, than those in fish fed the two other diets. Secretion of hepatocyte glycerolipids was lower in fish fed the EPA diet and DHA diet than it was in fish fed the RO diet. Our results indicate that EPA and DHA possess different hypolipidemic properties. Both EPA and DHA inhibit TAG synthesis and secretion, but only EPA induces mitochondrial proliferation and reduce intracellular lipid. Expression of the gene for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) was higher in the DHA dietary group than it was in the other groups.

  18. Effect of amide type modified rapeseed oil as lubricating additive on friction and wear behavior of steel-steel and steel-aluminum alloy systems

    FANG Jian-hua; CHEN Bo-shui; LIU Wei-min; DONG Lin; WANG Jiu


    A new type of environmentally friendly lube additive-amide type modified rapeseed oil was synthesized and characterized by infrared spectrum. Its effect on the friction and wear behavior of steel-steel and steel-aluminum alloy systems were investigated with a four-ball machine and an Optimol SRV friction and wear tester respectively.The morphographies of the worn surfaces were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The worn surfaces of the 2024Al alloy block were analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The results show that the modified rapeseed oil as additives can obviously decrease the wear rate and friction coefficient of steel pair and steel-aluminum frictional pair. Its lubrication mechanism is inferred that a high strength complex protection films form on the worn surface of the Al alloy due to the adsorption or tribochemistry reaction of a long chain additive molecule and high reaction activity of N element.

  19. Sequence analysis of the gene correlated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in rape-seed (Brassica napus) Polima and Shaan 2A


    orf224 is a CMS-related mitochondrial gene discovered in Polima cytoplasm. Shaan 2A CMS line is the parent of the first rapeseed hybrid cultivar Qinyou No. 2that has been grown in many regions of China. In this work,genomic DNA of Polima CMS line and Shaan 2A CMS line were used as templates, two primers of specific oligonucleoamplification fragments were cloned into pGEM-T Easy vectors and DNA sequences were determined. The CMSassociated gene, orf224-1 present in Shaan 2A CMS line, has a sequence highly homologous to the orf224 of the Polima CMS line, except for one nucleotide at position +398. There were only one base (AAC→AGC) and one amino acid (Asn →Ser) differences between the two. The homologies of the two sequences in nucleotide and. amino acid were 99.9 % and 99.6%, respectively. It is concluded that orf224 in Polima CMS line and orf224-1 of Shaan 2A CMS line are the allele at the same locus in mitochondria.``

  20. Rapeseed and its products--sources of bioactive compounds: a review of their characteristics and analysis.

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra


    Extensive studies of rapeseed varieties, meals and rapeseed oils revealed that they are rich sources of natural components having antioxidant properties. In this review the characteristic of bioactive compounds in rapeseed cultivars, meals and oils will be presented. The analytical methods of antioxidants identification and determination are described. The effects of innovations in rapeseed modification and technology improvements on antioxidant capacity of rapeseed oil and products will be discussed.

  1. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC


    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil. PMID:27668136

  2. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using (13)C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC.

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B; Thybaut, Joris W; Weckhuysen, Bert M


    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. (13)C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil.

  3. Plasma Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B: Production of Biodiesel from Methanolysis of Rapeseed Oil.

    Rastian, Zahra; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Guo, Zheng; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh; Mortazavi, Yadollah


    Surface modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through functionalization could improve the characteristics of these nanomaterials as support for enzymes. Carboxylation of MWCNTs (MWCNT-COOH) has been carried out in this study using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor through humidified air. The chemical method was also used for further functionalization of the MWCNT-COOH through which the amidation of the surfaces with either butylamine (MWCNT-BA) or octadecylamine (MWCNT-OA) was performed. By immobilization of Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB) on these nanoparticles, performance of the immobilized enzyme in catalyzing methanolysis of rapeseed oil was evaluated. The CALB loading on the MWCNT-BA and MWCNT-COOH was 20 mg protein/g, while the value for MWCNT-OA was 11 mg protein/g. The yield of biodiesel was determined as percentage of mass of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced per initial mass of the oil, and the yield value for the two of these three supports namely, MWCNT-COOH and MWCNT-BA used for the CALB immobilization was similar at about 92 %, while 86 % was the yield for the reaction catalyzed by the lipase immobilized on MWCNT-OA. Thermal stability of the immobilized CALB and the catalytic ability of the enzyme in the repeated batch experiments have also been determined.

  4. Effect of salts on the phase behavior and the stability of nanoemulsions with rapeseed oil and an extended surfactant.

    Klaus, Angelika; Tiddy, Gordon J T; Solans, Conxita; Harrar, Agnes; Touraud, Didier; Kunz, Werner


    For many decades, the solubilization of long-chain triglycerides in water has been a challenge. A new class of amphiphiles has been created to overcome this solubilization problem. The so-called "extended" surfactants contain a hydrophilic-lipophilic linker to reduce the contrast between the surfactant-water and surfactant-oil interfaces. In the present contribution, the effects of different anions and cations on the phase behavior of a mixture containing an extended surfactant (X-AES), a hydrotrope (sodium xylene sulfonate, SXS), water, and rapeseed oil were determined as a function of temperature. Nanoemulsions were obtained and characterized by conductivity measurements, light scattering, and optical microscopy. All salting-out salts show a transition from a clear region (O/W nanoemulsion), to a lamellar liquid crystalline phase region, a clear phase (bicontinuous L(3)), and again to a lamellar liquid crystalline phase region with increasing temperature. For the phase diagrams with NaSCN and Na(2)SO(4), only one clear region (O/W nanoemulsion) was observed, which turns into a lamellar phase region at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, the stability of the nanoemulsions was investigated by time-dependent measurements: the visual observation of phase separation, droplet size by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and optical microscopy. The mechanism of the different phase transitions is also discussed.

  5. Candida antarctica Lipase B Immobilized onto Chitin Conjugated with POSS® Compounds: Useful Tool for Rapeseed Oil Conversion

    Jakub Zdarta


    Full Text Available A new method is proposed for the production of a novel chitin-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS enzyme support. Analysis by such techniques as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the effective functionalization of the chitin surface. The resulting hybrid carriers were used in the process of immobilization of the lipase type b from Candida antarctica (CALB. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the effective immobilization of the enzyme. The tests of the catalytic activity showed that the resulting support-biocatalyst systems remain hydrolytically active (retention of the hydrolytic activity up to 87% for the chitin + Methacryl POSS® cage mixture (MPOSS + CALB after 24 h of the immobilization, as well as represents good thermal and operational stability, and retain over 80% of its activity in a wide range of temperatures (30–60 °C and pH (6–9. Chitin-POSS-lipase systems were used in the transesterification processes of rapeseed oil at various reaction conditions. Produced systems allowed the total conversion of the oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME and glycerol after 24 h of the process at pH 10 and a temperature 40 °C, while the Methacryl POSS® cage mixture (MPOSS was used as a chitin-modifying agent.

  6. Mechanisms of aqueous enzymatic extraction of rapeseed oil%水酶法提取菜籽油的机理探讨

    章绍兵; 王璋; 许时婴


    For investigating the mechanisms of carbohydrase treatment and alkaline extraction during aqueous enzymatic extraction of rapeseed oil from wet milled rapeseed,the changes of rapeseed cell ultrastructure during enzyme hydrolysis were observed using SEM and the properties of emulsions in different pH conditions were studied.The results showed that the complex enzyme(mainly pectinase) could destroy rapeseed cell wall effectively and thus released cell contents.The amount of protein bound to the oil droplets in emulsions was less at alkaline pH,which was possibly in favor of the proteinase hydrolysis and the aggregation of oil droplets.%为探讨湿磨油菜籽水酶法提油工艺中细胞壁多糖酶和碱提的作用机理,使用扫描电镜观察油菜籽细胞在酶解过程中超微结构的变化,并对不同pH乳状液体系的部分理化性质进行了研究.结果表明,以果胶酶为主的细胞壁多糖复合酶可以有效破坏油菜籽细胞壁,释放细胞內容物;在碱性pH环境体系中,乳状液油滴表面结合蛋白质少,因此可能有利于蛋白酶的作用和油滴聚集.

  7. Quantification of vitamin A in fortified rapeseed, groundnut and soya oils using a simple portable device: comparison to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Renaud, Cécile; Berger, Jacques; Laillou, Arnaud; Avallone, Sylvie


    Vitamin A deficiency is still one of the major public health problems in least developed countries. Fortification of vegetable oils is a strategy implemented worldwide to prevent this deficiency. For a fortification program to be effective, regular monitoring is necessary to control food quality in the producing units. The reference methods for vitamin A quantification are expensive and time-consuming. A rapid method should be useful for regular assessment of vitamin A in the oil industry. A portable device was compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for three plant oils (rapeseed, groundnut, and soya). The device presented a good linearity from 3 to 30 mg retinol equivalents per kg (mg 1). Its limits of detection and quantification were 3 mg 1 for groundnut and rapeseed oils and 4 mg 1 for soya oil. The intra-assay precision ranged from 1.48 % to 3.98 %, considered satisfactory. Accuracy estimated by the root mean squares error ranged from 3.99 to 5.49 and revealed a lower precision than HPLC (0.4 to 2.25). Although it offers less precision than HPLC, the device estimates quickly the vitamin A content of the tested oils from 3 or 4 to 15 mg 1.

  8. 不同浓度菜籽油抑芽效果比较研究%Effects of Different Concentrations of Rapeseed Oil on Sucker Control

    彭坚强; 张谊寒; 吴兴富; 陈学军; 兰建强


    为开发环境友好型的抑芽剂,以打顶不抹权为阴性对照,以1%除芽通为阳性对照,对不同浓度菜籽油抑芽效果做了比较研究.结果表明:不同浓度菜籽油抑芽处理后,顶部第1片叶增加的叶面积在190.31~563.41 cm2,顶部第2片叶增加的叶面积在110.01~297.75 cm2,除6.7%浓度的菜籽油外,各处理对顶部叶叶面积的增加量与阳性对照无明显差异,但均显著高于阴性对照.不同浓度菜籽油在烟权鲜重、抑芽率、抑芽效果等方面和阳性对照无显著差异,但均显著高于阴性对照.其中,10%菜籽油浓度腋芽处理成本和除芽通的相近,其烟权鲜重为523.2 g、抑芽效果为86.8%、抑芽率为75.8%,显著高于阴性对照,可推荐在生产上使用.%For earth-friendly tobacco leaf production practices, field trials on the effects of rapeseed oil for sucker control, which using a treatment of toping without sucker removing as negative control, a treatment of suckercide (Chuyatong) as positive control, was conducted. Compared to negative and positive controls, the first leaf area on the top was increased from 190.31 cm2 to 563.41cm2 treated by different rapeseed oil concentration, and the second one was increased from 110.01cm2 to 297.75 cm2 different concentration of rapeseed oil, the other concentration rapeseed oil Suckercides processing. Despite of 6.7% rapeseed oil, no significant difference in increasing leaf area was observed for the multiple concentration rapeseed oil treatment compared to positive control. While there observed a significant difference in increasing top leaves area compared to negative control. Compared to positive control, no significant difference in fresh weight of axillary bud, sucker control rate, the sprout inhibition effect were observed, however, there observed significant differences in fresh weight of axillary bud, sucker control rate, the sprout inhibition effect when compared to negative control. For cost

  9. Optimization of Process Parameters for Palm Oil and Rapeseed Oil Hot Pot Soup Stock%棕榈油与菜籽油复合火锅底料关键工艺参数优化

    张丽珠; 唐洁; 车振明; 肖文艳; 黄清吉


    采用响应曲面分析法对棕榈油与菜籽油复合火锅底料关键工艺参数进行了优化。在单因素试验的基础上,以火锅底料的感观综合评分为响应值,进行了棕榈油与菜籽油用油量、油配比、熬制时间3个因素的显著性和交互作用分析,优化得到其最佳工艺参数条件:用油量为52%(m/m),棕榈油与菜籽油配比为3∶2∶3(5℃棕榈油∶8℃棕榈油∶菜籽油),熬制时间为26 min。在此条件下对棕榈油与菜籽油复合火锅底料进行感官综合评分,其中组织形态89.16分、浑汤度88.83分、色泽89.02分、香味92.87分、滋味87.29分,感官综合评分为89.65分。%The critical processing parameters of palm oil and rapesee d oil blend hot pot soup stock are optimized by response surface methodology (RSM).Use sensory scores to evaluate the response value,and the significance and interactions of three factors,including content of palm oil and rapeseed oil,oils ra-tio and stewing time.The optimal process parameters are obtained as follows:oil content is 5 2%(m/m),ratio of palm oil and rapeseed oil is 3∶2∶3 (palm oil with melting point of 5 ℃∶palm oil with melting point of 8 ℃∶rapeseed oil),the optimum stewing time established is 26 min.Under such conditions,the sensory evaluation score for palm oil and rapeseed oil hot pot soup stock is 89.16 for appearance,88.83 for turbidity,89.02 for color,92.87 for smell,87.29 for taste,and the overall sensory evaluation score is excellent at 89.65.

  10. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Polyols from Rapeseed Oil and Properties of Flexible Polyurethane Foams

    Sylwia Dworakowska; Dariusz Bogdal; Aleksander Prociak


    The application of raw materials derived from renewable feedstock has given rise to growing interest recently, as it can be exploited for the production of bio-based materials from vegetable oils. Their availability, biodegradability and low prices have been taken into account. In this work, vegetable oil-based polyols as a prospective replacement for petroleum polyols were investigated. A two-stage method for polyol preparation by incomplete epoxidation of natural oils and subsequent complet...

  11. An improved extraction method of rapeseed oil sample preparation for the subsequent determination in it of azole class fungicides by gas chromatography

    Mikhail F. Zayats


    Full Text Available The distribution of 19 azole class pesticides in hexane/aqueous–organic mixtures systems and rapeseed oil (or oil solution in hexane/organic solvents has been studied at 20 ± 1 °C. The distribution constants (P and coefficients (D between hydrocarbon and polar phase are calculated. It is found that all the studied pesticides are hydrophobic, i.e., in hexane–water system logP ≫ 0. Replacement of water by organic solvents results in sharp logP falling, and their values become negative. It is revealed that solutions of strong inorganic acids in anhydrous acetonitrile extract azole class pesticides from hexane and vegetable oils most fully and selectively. In particular, the acidification of acetonitrile causes a drop of D values in 50–2000 times for the majority of the studied pesticides. This phenomenon was used for the development of the improved technique for the quantitative analysis of a widely used azole class pesticides, which can be presented at trace levels in rapeseed oil. The proposed methodology is based on dissociation extraction (DE of azoles using perchloric acid in anhydrous acetonitrile, with following clean-up of acetonitrile extract from organic impurities by hexane and aqueous solution of dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate, and final GC–ECD (gas chromatography with electron capture detection determination of azole fungicides. The values of obtained recoveries were between 85% and 115% with RSD values below 10%. The obtained limits of quantitation, ranged from 3.0 to 300 μg kg−1, are below the maximum residue levels (MRLs set by the European Union for the majority of pesticides. The developed method was successfully applied to different rapeseed oil samples.




    Full Text Available Oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars, donors of quality (SC and self-incompatible (SI lines have been analysed using identification of S-locus. In several Brassica napus cultivars one S-locus SLG gene was detected as dominant and the second S-locus as recessive. Amplification class II SLG gene screened recessive gene in all analysed samples (SC and SI. The DNA fragment of recessive gene corresponded to SLG gene W found in cv. Westar. S-haplotypes were analysed by PCR-RFLP. Different Brassica napus cultivars had an identical electrophoretic profile conforming with nonfunctional A10 allele in B. campestris. In B. napus A10 allele is localised in genome A. The functional recessive SLG gene is probably localised in genome C. Model of their segregation was suggested. SC and SI plants segregated in F2 generation at the ratio of approximately 3:1. This indicates a recessive monogenic disposition of SI in the experimental population.

  13. An Empirical Research on Volatility Spillover Effects between Canadian and Chinese Rapeseed Oil Futures Market%中加菜籽油期货市场波动溢出实证研究



    Through Error Correction Model, BEKK-GARCH Model and Granger Causality Test, this paper makes empirical research on the information transmission, price volatility spillover and price guiding relationships between Canadian and Chinese rapeseed oil futures markets. The empirical results reveal that there is a certain information transmission relationship between these two markets. Further, there is significant volatility spillover effect from Canadian rapeseed oil futures market to Chinese rapeseed oil futures market, while the volatility spillover effect from Chinese rapeseed oil futures market to Canadian rapeseed oil futures market is not signiifcant. In the short term, the price leading relationship is stronger from Canadian rapeseed oil futures market to Chinese rapeseed oil futures market, which is consistent with the fact that Canada is the pricing center of global rapeseed oil futures market, and the competitiveness of Chinese rapeseed oil futures market should be further improved.%利用误差修正模型、BEKK-GARCH模型和格兰杰因果关系实证研究了加拿大和中国菜籽油期货市场之间的信息传导、波动溢出和价格引导关系。实证结果显示:这两个市场之间存在一定的信息传导关系;加拿大菜籽油期货市场对中国菜籽油期货市场存在显著的波动溢出效应,而中国菜籽油期货市场对加拿大菜籽油期货市场的波动溢出不显著;短期内加拿大菜籽油期货市场对中国菜籽油期货市场的价格引导作用更强些,这与加拿大菜籽油期货市场是全球菜籽油定价中心的实际相吻合,而中国菜籽油期货市场的竞争力有待进一步提升。

  14. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Xingxing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38 is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH population, its reconstructed F(2 (RC-F(2 population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel. Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2 populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used

  15. 精炼对菜籽油品质的影响%Effect of refining on the quality of rapeseed oil

    谢丹; 金青哲; 王兴国


    There was a reduction of some natural minor compounds in rapeseed oil during the refining process . At the same time, some new minor compounds were introduced or produced. The change of minor compounds exerted a decisive influence on the quality of rapeseed oil. Six batch samples were choosed from 6 plants and these minor compounds affecting greatly the quality of rapeseed oil, such as acid value, peroxide value, color, the content of phosphorus, tocopherol, phytosterol, trans fatty acid, were determinded in order to provide evidence for the moderate oil refining in our country.%菜籽油精炼过程是一个发生物理与化学变化的过程,在这一过程中,菜籽油损失了一些天然的微量物质,也引入或产生了多种其他微量物质,而这些微量物质的变化对菜籽油的品质具有决定性影响.对国内6厂家生产的菜籽油进行取样,选取酸值、过氧化值、磷含量、色泽、生育酚含量、植物甾醇含量、反式酸含量这几类对菜籽油品质影响较大的微量物质,对其进行分析测定,以期得到菜籽油精炼各工序中这些微量物质的变化规律,为菜籽油的适度精炼提供依据.

  16. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapsis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization.

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.


    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus sativus L. (oil-radish) and Sinapis alba L. (white mustard) into oil-seed r

  17. Study on cold rolling oil for sheet steel based on rapeseed oil%植物油基薄钢板冷轧轧制油的研究

    刘佳; 杨基和; 刘英杰


    植物油由于其优良的润滑性、退火清净性、离水展着性和可生物降解性,成为冷轧轧制油基础油研究的趋势.以菜籽油为基础油,通过添加23.72%高黏植物油、1.34%极压抗磨剂、1.02%脂肪酸、4.88%抗氧剂、11%乳化剂和2.7%消泡剂,开发出一种高黏度,抗氧性、极压抗磨性、低温流动性和乳化效果好的薄钢板冷轧轧制油,其母油性能完全达到奎克公司同类产品标准,乳液性能满足我国行业使用标准.使用植物油开发绿色冷轧轧制油,是实现可持续发展,解决石油危机的有效途径.%Because of good properties of lubrication,anneal free of annoyance,plate -out ability and biodegradable ability,the vegetable oils used as the base oil of lubricants was studied by many researchers. A cold rolling oil for steel sheet which showed high viscosity, good oxidation resistance, extreme pressure abrasion resistance,low temperature fluidity and emulsifying effect was developed by adding 23.72% high viscosity oil, 1.34% extreme pressure anti -wear additive, 1.02% fatty acid,4. 88% antioxidants, 11 % emulsifier and 2. 7% defoamer,using rapeseed oil as base oil. The mother oil performance could fully meet the Quaker products standard, and the emulsion performance could satisfy industry standard. It is an effective way using vegetable oil to develop green cold rolling oil to achieve sustainable development and solve petroleum oil crisis.

  18. 水酶法菜籽油破乳工艺的优化%Optimization the Demulsification Process in Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Rapeseed Oil

    胡丽丽; 袁永俊; 王健; 代斌; 杨攀; 代亚民; 田甜


      以水酶法提取菜籽油过程中形成的乳状液为研究对象,并以得油率为指标,利用离心并无水乙醚萃取的方法进行破乳,采用正交法对破乳工艺条件进行优化,结果表明,在离心转速9000r/min、离心时间30min、pH 5、无水乙醚加入量70%条件下,乳状液中的油回收率为98.05%.%Emulsion formed in the aqueous enzymatic extraction of rapeseed oil was taken as study object, the oil extraction rate as index was investigated, centrifugation and absolute ether extraction were used to demulsificate in aqueous enzymatic extraction of rapeseed oil. Throught orthogonal test optimization,the optimal conditions were found to be: centrifugation speed 9000r/min, centrifugation time 30min, pH 5.0, absolute ether 70%. Under these condi-tions, the oil extraction rate was 98.05%.

  19. Removing antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake and their benevolent role in waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel: conjoining the valorization of two disparate industrial wastes.

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Das, Subrata; Manhar, Ajay Kumar; Deka, Dhanapati; Mandal, Manabendra; Mahanta, Charu Lata


    Valorization of oilseed processing wastes is thwarted due to the presence of several antinutritional factors such as phenolics, tannins, glucosinolates, allyl isothiocyanates, and phytates; moreover, literature reporting on their simultaneous extraction and subsequent practical application is scanty. Different solvent mixtures containing acetone or methanol pure or combined with water or an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric) were tested for their efficiency for extraction of these antinutritive compounds from rapeseed press-cake. Acidified extraction mixtures (nonaqueous) were found to be superior to the nonacidified ones. The characteristic differences in the efficacy of these wide varieties of solvents were studied by principal component analysis, on the basis of which the mixture 0.2% perchloric acid in methanol/acetone (1:1 v/v) was deemed as "the best" for detoxification of rapeseed meal. Despite its high reductive potential, hemolytic activity of the extract from this solvent mixture clearly indicated the toxicity of the above-mentioned compounds on mammalian erythrocytes. Because of the presence of a high amount of antinutritive antioxidants, the study was further extended to examine the influence of this solvent extract on the stability of waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Treatment with the extract harbored significant improvement (p rapeseed press-cake, and the solvent extract can, thereafter, be used as an effective exogenous antioxidant for biodiesel. In other words, integrated valorization of two different industrial wastes was successfully achieved.

  20. Preservation of micronutrients during rapeseed oil refining: a tool to optimize the health value of edible vegetable oils? Rationale and design of the Optim'Oils randomized clinical trial.

    Gladine, C; Meunier, N; Blot, Adeline; Bruchet, Lucile; Pagès, X; Gaud, M; Floter, E; Metin, Z; Rossignol, A; Cano, N; Chardigny, J M


    Numerous micronutrients naturally abundant in oilseeds prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by reducing cholesterolemia and oxidative stress. These micronutrients include phytosterols and various antioxidants such as polyphenols, tocopherols and coenzyme Q10/Q9 but most of them are lost during the oilseed oil refining. The main objective of the Optim'Oil project was to modify the processes of oil refining in order to reduce the lost of micronutrients. Two clinical trials (cross-over, monocentric, randomized, double-blind and controlled) were designed to investigate the effect of an optimized rapeseed oil 1) on cardiovascular biomarkers (long-term study) and 2) on oxidative stress parameters (post-prandial study). For the long-term study, 59 volunteers ingested daily 20 g of oil and 22 g of margarine (optimized or standard) for 2 periods of 3 weeks separated by a 3-week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each period. For the post-prandial study, a sub-group of 16 volunteers came fasted at the laboratory and took 300 mL of a test meal containing 60% of the optimized or standard oils. Blood samples were collected before and during 6h after the test meal intake. In comparison with the standard oil and margarine, the optimized oil and margarine exhibit as expected an increased content of phytosterol (+22%), polyphenols (× 11), tocopherols (+131%) and coenzyme Q10/Q9 (+165%). Overall, conditions of this study were relevant to investigate the effect of the optimized rapeseed oil and margarine on the cardiovascular risk and the oxidative stress.

  1. Laboratory Production of Biofuels and Biochemicals from a Rapeseed Oil through Catalytic Cracking Conversion.

    Ng, Siauw H; Shi, Yu; Heshka, Nicole E; Zhang, Yi; Little, Edward


    The work is based on a reported study which investigates the processability of canola oil (bio-feed) in the presence of bitumen-derived heavy gas oil (HGO) for production of transportation fuels through a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) route. Cracking experiments are performed with a fully automated reaction unit at a fixed weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 8 hr(-1), 490-530 °C, and catalyst/oil ratios of 4-12 g/g. When a feed is in contact with catalyst in the fluid-bed reactor, cracking takes place generating gaseous, liquid, and solid products. The vapor produced is condensed and collected in a liquid receiver at -15 °C. The non-condensable effluent is first directed to a vessel and is sent, after homogenization, to an on-line gas chromatograph (GC) for refinery gas analysis. The coke deposited on the catalyst is determined in situ by burning the spent catalyst in air at high temperatures. Levels of CO2 are measured quantitatively via an infrared (IR) cell, and are converted to coke yield. Liquid samples in the receivers are analyzed by GC for simulated distillation to determine the amounts in different boiling ranges, i.e., IBP-221 °C (gasoline), 221-343 °C (light cycle oil), and 343 °C+ (heavy cycle oil). Cracking of a feed containing canola oil generates water, which appears at the bottom of a liquid receiver and on its inner wall. Recovery of water on the wall is achieved through washing with methanol followed by Karl Fischer titration for water content. Basic results reported include conversion (the portion of the feed converted to gas and liquid product with a boiling point below 221 °C, coke, and water, if present) and yields of dry gas (H2-C2's, CO, and CO2), liquefied petroleum gas (C3-C4), gasoline, light cycle oil, heavy cycle oil, coke, and water, if present.

  2. Spruce galactoglucomannans inhibit the lipid oxidation in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    Oil-in-water emulsions are functional and industrially valuable systems, whose large interfacial area makes them prone to deterioration, due in part to as the oxidation and oligomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), wood biomacromolecules abundantly available f...

  3. Experimental approach versus COSMO-RS assisted solvent screening for predicting the solubility of rapeseed oil

    Sicaire Anne-Gaëlle


    Full Text Available Vegetable oils take a large part in industry for food and non-food applications. However the extraction process of oil from oilseeds includes a solvent extraction step using hexane. Despite its various advantages it presents numerous drawbacks; it is sourced from petroleum, it has a high flammability and it appears to be dangerous for health and environment (CMR2. This study presents a theoretical screening using COSMO-RS simulations of the relative solubility of vegetable oil constituents regarding several bio-based solvents as well as an experimental screening of the efficiency of these solvents. The aim is to correlate simulations and experiments and give a preliminary evaluation for the substitution of hexane by bio-based solvents for the extraction of vegetable oils. Differences between theory and practice have been noticed for several solvents such as terpenes that appeared to be good candidates in theory and that were in fact the solvents that gave the lowest extraction yield.

  4. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel;


    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... g were allocated to the four groups and kept pair-wise in metabolism cages. The chickens were fed similar amounts of metabolisable energy (ME) per day and similar amounts of essential amino acids relative to ME by adjusting with crystalline amino acids. The chickens were subjected to four balance...

  5. SPME-GC-MS对菜籽毛油和精炼菜籽油挥发性风味成分的分析%Analysis of volatile flavour compounds in crude rapeseed oil and refined rapeseed oil by SPME-GC-MS

    谢婧; 徐俐; 吴浪; 夏晓峰


    以菜籽毛油和精炼菜籽油为原料,采用固相微萃取(SPME)装置顶空取样,用气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)对挥发性风味成分进行鉴定.结果表明:菜籽毛油的主要挥发性风味成分为硫甙降解产物、氧化挥发物(醛、醇、酮等)及杂环类物质,其中硫甙降解产物以2-甲代-1-丙烯基-氰、4-甲硫基-丁腈、3-苯基丙腈及4-异硫氰基-1-丁烯为主,氧化挥发物以1,5-己二烯-3-醇和反-2-反-4-癸二烯醛为主要成分,杂环类物质则以吡嗪类化合物为主;精炼菜籽油的挥发性风味成分主要为氧化挥发物,以反-2-反-4-庚二烯醛、反-2-反-4-癸二烯醛、反-2-癸烯醛为主,其菜籽油特征性风味不足,主要源于精炼过程中硫甙降解产物及杂环类芳香物质的减少.%The volatile flavour compounds in crude rapeseed oil and refined rapeseed oil were analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( GC - MS) . The oil samples were extracted by solid - phase mi-croextraction( SPME) method. The results showed that main volatile flavour compounds in crude rapeseed oil were degraded glucosinolate products, oxidation volatile compounds and heterocyclic compounds. The main degraded glucosinolate products involved methallyl cyanide, 4 - ( methylthio) - butanenitrile, 3 -phenyl propionitrile and 4 - isothiocyanato - 1 - butene. The main oxidation volatile compounds involved 1 ,5 -hexadien -3 - ol and (E,E) -2,4- decadienal. Pyrazine compounds were the main heterocyclic compounds. As well as the main volatile flavour compounds in refined rapeseed oil were oxidation vola-tiles ((E,E) -2,4- heptadienal ,(E,E) -2,4- decadienal and ( E ) - 2 - decenal) . Refined rapeseed oil was lack of typical volatile flavour compounds because of the decrease of degraded glucosinolate products and heterocyclic compounds.


    王竹云; 杨翠玲


    研究了不同水分含量 (干燥温度×干燥时间 )以及不同扫描次数对油菜种子含油量测定值及其生活力的影响。结果表明应用 NMR 法测定油菜种子含油量的最适条件为 45℃烘干 6h,种子发芽率仍在 90%以上。%It was studied that different water content (drying temperature× drying time) and different numbers of scan affected the determination value of rapeseed oil content and activity of oil seeds in the test. The result showed that the fittest condition, by which rapeseed oil content is determined in NMR, was that it spent 6 hours on drying seeds in 45℃ . Yet germination capability of seeds is still over 90% .

  7. Environmental friendly lubricants through selective hydrogenation of rapeseed oil over supported copper catalysts

    Ravasio, Nicoletta; Zaccheria, Federica; Fusi, Achille; Poli, Nicola; Psaro, Rinaldo [Centro CNR CSSCMTBSO e Dip. Chimica Inorganica Metallorganica e Analitica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian 21, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gargano, Michele [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Recchia, Sandro [Dipartimento Scienze CCFFMM, Universita dell' Insubria, Via Lucini 3, 22100 Como (Italy)


    Different supported copper catalysts are compared in the selective hydrogenation of vegetable oils and their methylesters. The influence of parameters such as the catalysts preparation method, the support used and the activation treatment are critically evaluated in terms of catalytic activity and selectivity. All ex situ reduced catalysts prepared by the chemisorption-hydrolysis (CH) method show better performances than the ones prepared by incipient wetness technique. These data are directly matched up to the different morphology of the supported copper particles obtained with these two methods. By using a 8% Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalyst the trienic component C18:3 can be eliminated and the dienic one lowered from 22 to 3-5% without increasing the stearic C18:0 content and limiting the cis/trans-isomerisation process. These oils, with a C18:1 content up to 88% show remarkable oxidation stability and keep fluid down to -15C.

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety...

  9. Research on rapeseed oil as an alternative fuel in the S195 type diesel engine%S195柴油机燃用菜籽油的试验

    陈军; 师帅兵; 韩冰; 张娟利; 卢红春


    Using rapeseed oil as the fuel,the fuel performance of S195 type diesel engine was studied.It indicated that it is feasible to burn rapeseed oil or mixture of rapeseed oil and diesel oil without changing the structure of the engine;When burning the rapeseed oil or the mixture fuel in the engine,the exhaust pollution is on decline,but the specific fuel consumption rate and deposit charcoal of combustion chambers and injection nozzles are more than ever.The performance of the engine is rather good when burning the mixture of half rapeseed oil and half light diesel oil in volume and the angle of pre-oil-supplied be 20° CA.%以菜籽油为燃料,对S195柴油机燃油性能进行了研究。结果表明:在发动机结构不经改动的情况下,燃用菜籽油或菜籽油与柴油的混合油是可行的;发动机燃用菜籽油或混合油时,其排放污染下降,但耗油率均有所上升,且燃烧室和喷油嘴积炭较多;发动机燃用50%菜籽油与50%轻柴油的混合油,且供油提前角为20° CA时燃烧性能较好。

  10. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.


    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  11. 碱法水解油菜籽油制备脂肪酸%Research on the Production of the Fatty Acid from Rapeseed Oil with Alkali Hydrolysis

    罗庆华; 林俊清; 张习敏


    [目的]研究碱法水解植物油脂的游离脂肪酸得率,为生物柴油的工业化生产提供科学数据.[方法]以油菜籽油为试验材料,研究碱法制备脂肪酸过程中NaOH浓度、反应时间和工艺条件对油菜籽油脂水解的效果.[结果]增加NaOH浓度和延长反应时间均可以提高水解率.最佳反应条件为两步法水解:先用23.5%NaOH水解3 h、然后用11.75%NaOH水解2 h.此条件下油菜籽油的水解率可达99.64%.[结论]采用两步法碱法分解油菜籽油效果理想.%[ Objective ] The scientific data of the industrial production of biological diesel was provided through the research on the efficiency of the fatty acid isolated from plant oil with the method of alkali hydrolysis. [ Method ] The effect of the concentration of NaOH, reaction time and processing technology on the hydrolysis of rapeseed oil in the production of the fatty acid isolated from plant oil with the method of alkali hydrolysis was experimented. [ Results] The result showed that hydrolysis rate of rapeseed oil could be raised with the concentration-increasing of NaOH and the reaction time-prolonging. The optimal measure of it was two-step hydrolysis method. The first step was the raw material was hydrolyzed by 23.5% NaOH for 3 hours, and then, by 11.75% NaOH for 2 hours, under which measure, the hydrolysis rate reached at 99.64%. [ Conclusion] The idea efficiency of the fatty acid isolated from rapeseed oil was two-step hydrolysis method.

  12. Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by Cupriavidus necator from waste rapeseed oil using propanol as a precursor of 3-hydroxyvalerate.

    Obruca, Stanislav; Marova, Ivana; Snajdar, Ondrej; Mravcova, Ludmila; Svoboda, Zdenek


    Waste rapeseed oil is a useful substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production employing Cupriavidus necator H16. In fed-batch mode, we obtained biomass and PHA yields of 138 and 105 g l(-1), respectively. Yield coefficient and volumetric productivity were 0.83 g PHA per g oil and 1.46 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. Propanol at 1% (v/v) enhanced both PHA and biomass formation significantly and, furthermore, resulted in incorporation of 3-hydroxyvalerate units into PHA structure. Thus, propanol can be used as an effective precursor of 3-hydroxyvalarete for production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer. During the fed-batch cultivation, propanol concentration was maintained at 1% which resulted in 8% content of 3-hydroxyvalerate in copolymer.


    E. A. Raksha-Slusareva


    Full Text Available When oil and biodiesel are extracted from rapeseed, secondary derived products are formed, which are not used effectively at the moment. The article deals with the problems of possible their use in food industry. During food product preparation for special dietary consumption we used electrophysical (processing by hydroelectropulse and physical (drying, grinding, steam treatment processing of raw materials. Through the developed technology for rapeseed cake processing, we received raw materials suitable for use in food industry. On the basis of these raw materials, the «Nutrition product for special dietary consumption “Ripakovyi”» was developed. It is a part of rape seed meal obtained from the seeds with low content of glucosinolates and erucic acid processed by hydroelectropulse dried in the cabinet oven or in the convective dryer, crushed and disinfected based on a developed soft technology for biologically active substances conservation. The production of this product solves the problem of rational utilization of rapeseed meal and diversification of foods for special dietary consumption.

  14. Rapeseed research and production in China

    Qiong Hu


    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Progress on functional genomics including the identification of QTL governing important agronomic traits such as yield, seed oil content, fertility regulation, disease and insect resistance, abiotic stress, nutrition use efficiency, and pod shattering resistance has been achieved. As a consequence, molecular markers have been developed and used in breeding programs. During 2005–2014, 215 rapeseed varieties were registered nationally, including 210 winter- and 5 spring-type varieties. Mechanization across the whole process of rapeseed production was investigated and operating instructions for all relevant techniques were published. Modern techniques for rapeseed field management such as high-density planting, controlled-release fertilizer, and biocontrol of disease and pests combined with precision tools such as drones have been developed and are being adopted in China. With the application of advanced breeding and production technologies, in the near future, the oil yield and quality of rapeseed varieties will be greatly increased, and more varieties with desirable traits, especially early maturation, high yield, high resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and suitability for mechanized harvesting will be developed. Application of modern technologies on the mechanized management of rapeseed will greatly increase grower profit.

  15. Conditional QTL mapping of oil content in rapeseed with respect to protein content and traits related to plant development and grain yield.

    Zhao, Jianyi; Becker, Heiko C; Zhang, Dongqing; Zhang, Yaofeng; Ecke, Wolfgang


    Oil content in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is generally regarded as a character with high heritability that is negatively correlated with protein content and influenced by plant developmental and yield related traits. To evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between these traits and oil content, QTL for oil content were mapped using data on oil content and on oil content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a segregating doubled haploid population of 282 lines derived from the F(1) of a cross between the old German cultivar Sollux and the Chinese cultivar Gaoyou. The material was tested at four locations, two each in Germany and in China. QTLMapper version 1.0 was used for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additive (a) and locus pairs with additive x additive epistatic (aa) effects. Clear evidence was found for a strong genetic relationship between oil and protein content. Six QTL and nine epistatic locus pairs were found, which had pleiotropic effects on both traits. Nevertheless, two QTL were also identified, which control oil content independent from protein content and which could be used in practical breeding programs to increase oil content without affecting seed protein content. In addition, six additional QTL with small effects were only identified in the conditional mapping. Some evidence was apparent for a genetic interrelationship between oil content and the number of seeds per silique but no evidence was found for a genetic relationship between oil content and flowering time, grain filling period or single seed weight. The results indicate that for closely correlated traits conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the level of individual QTL. Furthermore, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with small effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping.

  16. Minor Components and Oxidative Stability as Determined by DSC of Fractionated and Lipase-catalyzed Structured Rapeseed Oil

    Alim, M. A.


    Full Text Available Natural fats and oils can be modified by various methods to prepare products with desired physical, chemical and nutritional properties. The enrichment and retention of the minor lipid components, the incorporation of capric acid and oxidative stability in low temperature fractionated rapeseed oil (RSO in acetone were assessed in this study. The fractionated liquid part (L-RSO, the solid part (S-RSO and the RSO were transesterified with capric acid (CA at different mole ratios using lipase. The yields of L-RSO and S-RSO were 30 and 70 g per 100 g, respectively. The L-RSO contained higher levels of linoleic acid and linolenic acid, and a lower level of oleic acid compared to the S-RSO. The S-RSO contained a higher amount of total sterols than the RSO and the L-RSO. In contrast, the L-RSO contained a higher amount of total tocopherols than the RSO and the S-RSO. The incorporation of CA was ideal at a mole ratio of 1:3. The content of sterols and tocopherols gradually decreased with an increased mole ratio for the CA incorporation. The oxidative stability shown as onset temperature, determined by DSC, of the S-RSO was higher compared to those of the L-RSO and RSO.Las grasas y aceites naturales pueden ser modificados mediante diversos métodos para preparar productos con propiedades físicas, químicas y nutricionales deseadas. El enriquecimiento y la retención de componentes lipídicos menores, la incorporación de ácido cáprico y estabilidad a la oxidación a baja temperatura de aceites de colza (RSO fraccionado en acetona, se evaluaron en este estudio. La fracción líquida (L-RSO, la fracción sólida (S-RSO y el RSO son transesterificados con ácido cáprico (CA en diversas relaciones molares utilizando lipasa. Los rendimientos de las fracciones L-RSO y RSO-S fueron de 30 y 70 g por 100 g, respectivamente. La fracción líquida L-RSO contenía un mayor nivel de los ácidos linoleico y linolénico, y un menor nivel de ácido oleico en

  17. Effects of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of α-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Baxheinrich, Andrea; Stratmann, Bernd; Lee-Barkey, Young Hee; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Wahrburg, Ursel


    In therapy of the metabolic syndrome, the optimal dietary approach with regard to its macronutrient composition and metabolically favourable food components, such as the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), is still a matter of debate. We investigated the effects of a hypoenergetic diet with low energy density (ED) enriched in rapeseed oil, resulting in high MUFA content and an ALA intake of 3.5 g/d on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in eighty-one patients with the metabolic syndrome in comparison with an olive oil diet rich in MUFA, but with a low ALA content. After a 6-month dietary intervention, body weight was significantly reduced in the rapeseed oil and olive oil groups ( -7.8 v. -6.0 kg; P rapeseed oil diet, diastolic blood pressure declined more than after the olive oil diet (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). Furthermore, concentrations of serum TAG were significantly reduced after the high ALA intake, but not in the low ALA group (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). In conclusion, our dietary food pattern with a low ED and high intakes of MUFA and ALA may be a practical approach for long-term dietary treatment in patients with the metabolic syndrome, leading to weight reduction and an improvement in the overall cardiovascular risk profile.

  18. Effect of rapeseed oil derived plant sterol and stanol esters on atherosclerosis parameters in cholesterol challenged heterozygous Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Schrøder, Malene; Fricke, Christiane; Pilegaard, Kirsten


    Rapeseed oil (RSO) is a novel source of plant sterols, containing the unique brassicasterol in concentrations higher than allowed for plant sterol blends in food products in the European Union. Effects of RSO sterols and stanols on aortic atherosclerosis were studied in cholesterol-fed heterozygous...... Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic (Hh-WHHL) rabbits. Four groups (n 18 per group) received a cholesterol-added (2 g/kg) standard chow or this diet with added RSO stanol esters (17 g/kg), RSO stanol esters (34 g/kg) or RSO sterol esters (34 g/kg) for 18 weeks. Feeding RSO stanol esters increased plasma...... campestanol (P sterol esters increased concentrations of plasma campesterol (P


    钟静; 金宁; 李浩杰


    对不同产地的菜籽油在常温储存条件下的水分及挥发物含量、酸值、过氧化值、色泽及脂肪酸组成变化进行了研究.结果表明:在常温储存的100 d内,水分及挥发物含量、色泽随储存时间的延长几乎没有发生变化,亚麻酸含量有微量的减小;酸值随储存时间的延长增长幅度很小,增长率仅为6.3%;而过氧化值随储存时间的延长增长很明显,平均增长率为27.2%,过氧化值是表征菜籽油在储存过程中品质变化的一个最敏感指标.%Six qualities of the rapeseed oil from different localities were investigated and analyzed during conven-tional storage, including the moisture, volatile content, the acid value, the peroxide value, the color and the fatty acid composition. The results showed that the moisture and volatile content, the color almost had no change as the storage time passing by, and the linolenic acid content of trace decreased in the 100 days; the acid value slightly increased with the increase rate of 6.3% respectively; and the peroxide value increased greatly at the average increasing rates of 27.2% as the storage time passing by. Therefore, the peroxide value was one of the most sensitive indexes for characterizing the storage quality of rapeseed oil.

  20. beta-Oxidation capacity of red and white muscle and liver in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)--effects of increasing dietary rapeseed oil and olive oil to replace capelin oil.

    Stubhaug, Ingunn; Frøyland, Livar; Torstensen, Bente E


    Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed six diets in which capelin oil was replaced with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100% rapeseed oil (RO; low-erucic acid) or 50% olive oil (OO). The experimental diets were fed to single groups of Atlantic salmon for 42 wk, whereas the 100% capelin oil (0% RO) diet was fed in duplicate. The beta-oxidation capacity of palmitoyl-CoA was determined, using a method optimized for salmon tissues, at the start of the experiment, after 21 wk (October), and after 42 wk (March) in red and white muscle and in liver. Red muscle showed the highest specific beta-oxidation capacity, but when expressed as total beta-oxidation capacity for the whole tissue, white muscle was the most important tissue for the beta-oxidation of FA. From the initial to the final sampling, the beta-oxidation capacity of white muscle increased significantly, whereas the beta-oxidation capacity in liver decreased significantly. After 22 wk, white muscle exhibited an increased beta-oxidation capacity when the dietary RO content was raised from 25 to 75%, with similar effects in red muscle and liver after 42 wk of feeding. The present results also show that the beta-oxidation capacity increased with an increase in fish size.

  1. Differential Scanning Calorimeter Application to the Detection of Cottonseed Oil in Rapeseed Oil%差示扫描量热法检测菜籽油掺伪棉籽油的研究



    The findings of DSC ( differential scanning calorimeter ) detection of cottonsee d oil in rapeseed oil suggest that both cooling and heating DSC thermograms for the two kinds of oil exhibit radical difference.Ther-mal properties of heating thermograms are significantly affected by cottonseed oil addition,even at a mass frac-tion as low as 5%.Thermal properties of rapeseed oil have a good linear relationship with the addition of cot-tonseed oil.Thermal properties of cooling and heating thermograms,such as Tpeak1,Tpeak2 and Tpeak5,which were the dependent variables to establish simple linear model,the coefficient of determination is greater than 0.997.The method is convenient and effective,which can be used to detect cottonseed oil contents in rapeseed oil adulterant.%采用差示扫描量热法对菜籽油掺伪棉籽油进行研究。结果表明:菜籽油和棉籽油在结晶与熔融过程的DSC曲线具有明显区别。棉籽油的掺入量大于或等于5%时,菜籽油熔融过程的特征热力学参数有显著差异( p<0.05)。随着棉籽油掺入量增加,菜籽油的特征热力学参数呈现递变趋势,其特征热力学参数与棉籽油掺入量呈现良好线性关系,菜籽油结晶过程的峰值温度Tpeak1、Tpeak2和熔融过程的峰值温度Tpeak5拟合程度较好(R2>0.99),其中Tpeak1高达0.997。该法便捷、有效,适用于菜籽油掺伪棉籽油的检测。

  2. Esterification condition of rapeseed oil fatty acid in supercritical methanol%菜籽油脂肪酸在超临界甲醇中酯化反应工艺条件研究

    李一哲; 王华; 包桂蓉; 李法社


    以菜籽油在亚临界水解反应中制取的脂肪酸为原料,研究菜籽油脂肪酸在超临界甲醇中的酯化反应工艺条件及动力学模型。通过单因素试验考察了反应温度、醇酸体积比、反应压力、反应时间对酯化转化率的影响,并采用超高效液相色谱法分析油酸甲酯含量的变化情况。试验结果表明菜籽油脂肪酸在超临界甲醇中酯化反应的最佳工艺条件为:反应温度270℃,反应时间40 min,反应压力25 MPa,醇酸体积比2:1。在最佳工艺条件下菜籽油脂肪酸酯化转化率超过了98%,动力学模型为- dCA dt =62.98e-20.14/ RT C1.8A 。%With the fatty acid prepared by hydrolyzing rapeseed oil in subcritical water as raw material, the esterification conditions and kinetics model of rapeseed oil fatty acid in supercritical methanol were studied. The effects of reaction temperature, volume ratio of methanol to rapeseed oil fatty acid, reaction pressure and reaction time on the conversion rate of the esterification were investigated by single factor ex-periment,and the content change of methyl oleate was analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatogra-phy. The results showed that the optimal esterification conditions of rapeseed oil fatty acid in supercritical methanol were obtained as follows: reaction temperature 270 ℃, reaction time 40 min, reaction pressure 25 MPa and volume ratio of methanol to rapeseed oil fatty acid 2: 1. Under the optimal conditions, the conversion rate of rapeseed oil fatty acid was over 98% and the kinetics model was - dCA 62. 98e - 20 . 14 / RTC1. 8A . dt =62. 98e-20. 14/ RT C1. 8 A .

  3. Deformation Curve Characteristics of Rapeseeds and Sunflower Seeds Under Compression Loading

    Divišová M.


    Full Text Available The deformation curve characteristics of rapeseeds and sunflower seeds compressed using the equipment ZDM 50-2313/56/18 and varying vessel diameters (40, 60, 80, and 100 mm were investigated. Maximum compressive force of 100 kN was applied on bulk oilseeds of rape and sunflower of measured height 20-80 mm and deformed at a speed of 60 mm∙min-1. The compression test using the vessel diameters of 40 and 60 mm showed a serration effect while the vessel diameters of 80 and 100 mm indicated an increasing function effect on the force-deformation characteristic curves. Clearly, the increasing function effect described the region with oil flow and that of serration effect described the region without any oil flow. However, it was observed that the serration effect could be due to the higher compressive stress inside the smaller vessel diameters (40 and 60 mm compared to those with bigger vessel diameters (80 and 100 mm. Parameters such as deformation, deformation energy, and energy density were determined from the force-deformation curves dependency showing both increasing function and serration effect. The findings of the study provide useful information for the determination of specific compressive force and energy requirements for extracting maximum oil from oilseed crops such as rape and sunflower.

  4. Date Rape (For Teens)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Date Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Date Rape A A ... Rape en español Violaciones durante citas What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might ...

  5. Determination of the degree of degradation of frying rapeseed oil using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares regression.

    Chen, Jie Yu; Zhang, Han; Ma, Jinkui; Tuchiya, Tomohiro; Miao, Yelian


    This rapid method for determining the degree of degradation of frying rapeseed oils uses Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares (PLS) regression. One hundred and fifty-six frying oil samples that degraded to different degrees by frying potatoes were scanned by an FTIR spectrometer using attenuated total reflectance (ATR). PLS regression with full cross validation was used for the prediction of acid value (AV) and total polar compounds (TPC) based on raw, first, and second derivative FTIR spectra (4000-650 cm(-1)). The precise calibration model based on the second derivative FTIR spectra shows that the coefficients of determination for calibration (R (2)) and standard errors of cross validation (SECV) were 0.99 and 0.16 mg KOH/g and 0.98 and 1.17% for AV and TPC, respectively. The accuracy of the calibration model, tested using the validation set, yielded standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 0.16 mg KOH/g and 1.10% for AV and TPC, respectively. Therefore, the degradation of frying oils can be accurately measured using FTIR spectroscopy combined with PLS regression.

  6. Mushroom and Rape Heart Soup


    100 grams mushrooms12 rape hearts5 grams salt2 grams MSG20 grams (2 tbsp) cooking oilWash mushrooms and slice. Clean the rape hearts, and cross-cut stem ends.Heat oil in a wok, and stir-fry the rape hearts for the short time it takes till their color changes. Add 750 grams (1 1/2 cups) of water. When boiling, add salt, MSG, and mushroom slices. Bring to the boil once more. Serve.Features: clear and refreshing.Effect: Nourishes the heart and stomach.

  7. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe.

    Maison, T; Stein, H H


    The digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs in coproducts from canola and 00-rapeseed may be influenced by the variety of seeds that was grown and the processing method used to extract the oil from the seeds. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal are the coproducts produced after the residual oil has been solvent extracted from canola seeds and 00-rapeseeds, respectively, whereas 00-rapeseed expellers is the coproduct from 00-rapeseeds that have been only expeller pressed. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 28.8 ± 2.64 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were allotted to a 9 × 23 Youden square design with 9 periods and 23 dietary treatments. The 23 diets included 7 diets based on the 7 samples of canola meal, 10 diets based on the 10 samples of 00-rapeseed meal, 5 diets based on the 5 samples of 00-rapeseed expellers, and a N-free diet. Each source of canola or rapeseed coproducts was used as the only source of CP and AA in 1 diet. The SID of CP and all AA except Val, Cys, and Glu were not different between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater (P rapeseed meal, which possibly is due to heat damage in 00-rapeseed meal. For Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, SID values of 70.6%, 84.5%, 73.0%, and 82.6%, and 71.9%, 84.6%, 72.6%, and 82.6% were obtained in canola meal and rapeseed meal, respectively, whereas values in 00-rapeseed expellers were 74.7%, 87.1%, 74.0%, and 83.4%. The SID for most AA was different (P rapeseed meal, and among the 5 sources of 00-rapeseed expellers. The concentration of standardized ileal digestible indispensable AA in canola and 00-rapeseed coproducts can be predicted from the concentration of the corresponding AA with only a low to moderate correlation (r(2) = 0

  8. 小波去噪对近红外光谱鉴别转基因菜籽油的影响分析%Effect of Wavelet De-noising to Identify Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Transgenic Rapeseed Oil

    袁嘉佑; 祝诗平


    Objective]The aim of this study was to establish the transgenic rapesee d oil identification models based on near infrared spectra,and study the effect of spectral preprocessing with wavelet denoising on the identification accuracy rate.[Method]Luhua,Jinlongyu and other six brands of bottled or barreled rapeseed oil altogether 117 samples have been already collected in earlier stage,which include 53 samples of transgene rapeseed oil and 64 samples of non-transgene rapeseed oil. The full spectrum of spectrum data of the 117 samples was collected by the FT-NIR analyzer of BRUKER company of Germany;the rapeseed oil spectral data was preprocessed by wavelet analysis,using db3 wavelet soft threshold to denoise the spectra;based on the near infrared spectral data of rapeseed oil samples,discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) were applied to set up the identification model of modified rapeseed oil.[Results]This study compared the accuracy of the modeling methods before and after the wavelet preprocessing. The accurate rate of the DPLS model increased from 96.43% to 100%.[Conclusion]The results indicated that wavelet denoising pretreatment can improve the accuracy of near infrared spectra of transgenic rapeseed oil identification model effectively.%【目的】建立基于近红外光谱的转基因菜籽油定性鉴别模型,研究小波去噪对光谱的预处理对鉴别准确率的影响。【方法】利用前期已收集的鲁花、金龙鱼等6种品牌的瓶装或桶装的菜籽油共计117份样品,其中转基因菜籽油样品53份、非转基因菜籽油样品64份,采用德国BRUKER公司的MATRIX-F型傅里叶近红外光谱仪对这些样品进行全谱段的光谱采集;利用小波分析对菜籽油光谱数据进行预处理,选用db3小波对光谱进行软阈值去噪;在菜籽油样品近红外光谱数据的基础上,采用判别偏最小二乘法(DPLS)建立转基因菜籽油定性鉴别模型。【结果】对比小波

  9. Continuous mesophilic anaerobic digestion of manure and rape oilcake - Experimental and modelling study.

    Jabłoński, Sławomir J; Biernacki, Piotr; Steinigeweg, Sven; Łukaszewicz, Marcin


    Rape oilcake is a by-product formed after the removal of oil from rapeseed. Due to the high content of organic matter rape oilcake seems a good substrate for anaerobic digestion when it cannot be used as fodder. The aim of this work was to optimise the parameters used in a mathematical model of anaerobic digestion for rapeseed oilcake and cattle manure. The composition of these substrates was determined in order to estimate model inputs. Optimised kinetic constants of hydrolysis and decomposition for oilcake (Kdis=0.77, KhydCH=0.55, khydPr=0.57, khydLi=0.30) were estimated based on batch fermentation. The accuracy of the model with improved input parameters was confirmed by continuous fermentation. The average concentration of methane in biogas was about 50%. The biogas production efficiency from organic matter (defined as volatile solids) was 0.42m(3)kg(-1) with an organic substrate loading rate equal to 3.18 kgm(-3)d(-1). The fermentation process demonstrated good stability and efficiency. The accuracy of the optimised model seems sufficient for use in modelling of a full scale process.

  10. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic rapeseed meal from rapeseed through in-situ alkaline transesterification.

    Qian, Junfeng; Yang, Qiuhui; Sun, Fuan; He, Mingyang; Chen, Qun; Yun, Zhi; Qin, Lizhen


    In-situ alkaline transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol for the production of biodiesel and nontoxic rapeseed meal was carried out. Water removal from milled rapeseed by methanol washing was more effective than vacuum drying. The conversion rate of rapeseed oil into FAME was 92%, FAME mass was 8.81 g, glucosinolates content in remaining rapeseed meal was 0.12% by methanol washing, while by vacuum drying the values were 46%, 4.44 g, 0.58%, respectively. In the presence of 0.10 mol/L NaOH in methanol, with methanol/oil molar ratio of 180:1 and a 3h reaction at 40 °C, a conversion rate of 98% was achieved, and the glucosinolates content was reduce to 0.07%, a value which below the GB/T 22514-2008 standard in China. Thus the rapeseed meal can be used as a source of protein in animal feed. The FAME prepared through in-situ alkaline transesterification met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel.

  11. Analysis on Factors Influencing Supply of Rapeseed in Provinces of China

    Yuanzi CHENG


    From the perspective of micro-subjects of rapeseed planting,namely,the rape seed planting farmers,this paper made an analysis on factors influencing supply of rapeseed in provinces of China on the basis of panel data of 14 provinces producing rapeseed. Analysis indicates that decision of rapeseed planting area is influenced by planting area of the previous year and comparative benefits of rapeseed and the substitute crop wheat,while the local non-agricultural employment level exerts little influence on decision of rapeseed planting area. Finally,it came up with pertinent policy recommendations: since lagging influence of previous planting decisions and selection of planting decisions are a long period,formulation and implementation of any policy should consider long-term subsequent effect,instead of excessively focusing on policy objectives; strengthening new technological researches of new rapeseed varieties relying on scientific and technological innovation,enhancing construction of rapeseed production infrastructure,and improving integrated rapeseed production capacity,so as to increase relative income of rapeseed planting.

  12. The transesterification of rapeseed and waste sunflower oils: Mass-transfer and kinetics in a laboratory batch reactor and in an industrial-scale reactor/separator setup.

    Klofutar, B; Golob, J; Likozar, B; Klofutar, C; Zagar, E; Poljansek, I


    We have investigated the transesterification of rapeseed (RO) and waste sunflower (SO) oils with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The transesterification of tri-acylglycerols was first conducted in a batch reactor. The effect of the temperature on the reaction rates was studied at a constant molar ratio of the alcohol to tri-acylglycerols (6:1) and for a constant concentration of the catalyst (1.0wt%). Size-exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR spectroscopy were used to quantitatively monitor the transesterification reaction. The mass-transfer coefficients of the tri-acylglycerols during the initial transesterification stage were found to be 0.2-1.2x10(-5)mmin(-1), depending on the type of oil and the temperature. Calculated activation energies implied that at higher temperatures the formation of mono-acylglycerols and glycerole was favored for the SO (93kJ/mol for the forward and 48kJ/mol for the backward reaction) and the RO (47kJ/mol for the forward and 36kJ/mol for the backward reaction), respectively. For the continuous industrial reactor/separator setup, the optimum methanol recycle ratio was established as 0.0550.

  13. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies


    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  14. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Tadeusz Zając


    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  15. 分子标记在油菜育种中的应用%Application of Molecular Markers in Rape Breeding



    Rapeseed is one of the best important oil crops in the world,improving yield of rapeseed,countries have been devoting to tasks of rape breeding.With Molecular biotechnology rapidly development,molecular marker technique were widely applied to rape breeding.This paper introduced the study of establishment of genetic and physical mapping,genetic location and clone,genetic analysis of quantitive trait loci,evaluation of genetic diversity and molecular marker-assisted selection in rape breeding.%油菜是世界上重要的油料作物之一,为了提高油菜的产量,各国都致力于油菜的育种工作。随着分子生物学的迅速发展,分子标记技术广泛地应用油菜育种。本文从遗传和物理图谱构建、基因的定位与克隆、数量性状位点的遗传分析、遗传多样性的评估、分子标记辅助选择等方面,综述了分子标记在油菜育种中的应用。

  16. Progress and future development of hybrid rapeseed in China

    Fu Tingdong; Zhou Yongming


    The hybrid growth of rapeseed now has reached to 4.7 × 106 hm2,accounting for 70%of total rapeseed growth area in China. Over the last 40 years,the researches and utilizations of hybrid rapeseed in China have sig-nificantly contributed to the development of rapeseed industry in China. The production of hybrid rapeseed mainly utilizes cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS),combined at the same time with nuclear male sterility and other pollinat-ing-control systems in China. The hybrid rapeseed studies in China are also characterized by the improvement of quality and oil content in hybrid breeding. Future studies to enhance the heterosis of rapeseed will be focused on several important issues,including the combination of heterosis and ideotype breeding,further increase of oil con-tent in hybrids,utilization of sub-genomic heterosis and resistance improvement. The paper will discuss the follow-ing perspectives in hybrid rapeseed studies:relationships among heterosis,quality and disease traits,solutions for excessive source and pool in hybrids compared with open-pollinated cultivars,and the importance of increasing harvest index of hybrids to achieve a better yield in hybrids.

  17. Aspects of stability of K/Al2O3 catalysts for the transesterification of rapeseed oil in batch and fixed-bed reactors

    Petr Kutálek; Libor Čapek; Lucie Smoláková; David Kubička; Martin Hájek


    Catalytically active, stable, and mechanically durable solid K/Al2O3 catalysts for the transesterifica-tion of rapeseed oil with methanol was studied. In a batch reactor, high catalytic activity was ac-companied by leaching of K species, caused by glycerol, and mechanical destruction of the solid catalyst as a result of contact with the stirrer. In a fixed-bed reactor, some leaching of K species into the liquid phases was also observed, but approached 0 during 30 h of time-on-stream; the activity of the K/Al2O3 catalyst (~83% ester yield) was stable for 100 h of time-on-stream and no mechanical destruction of the catalyst was observed. The populations of K2O and K-O-Al species for fresh and used K/Al2O3 catalysts were compared using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that some K2O species leached into the liquid phases at the beginning of the reaction.

  18. Rape prevention

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. ...

  19. 超临界CO 2萃取脱皮菜籽饼粕油脂的可行性%Feasibility of extraction of oil from dehulled rapeseed cake using supercritical CO2

    万楚筠; 胡双喜; 李文林; 邓乾春; 黄凤洪


    The double-low rapeseed contains ≤2%erucic acid in its oil and ≤35μmol/g of dry meal. The oil of double-low rapeseed contains very low levels of saturated fatty acids (6%), high levels of oleic acid (≥60%), and intermediate levels of linoleic and linolenic acids (20%and 10%, respectively). Because of its higher oil content and numerous agricultural advantages, double-low rapeseed is getting worldwide attention. The rapeseed oil, which was extracted by a traditional process with pre-press and solvent extraction, is of bad quality. Commercial hexane, which has been used as a solvent for crude edible oil extraction, has toxicological and environmental safety issues. Carbon dioxide in its supercritical state has properties and extraction capacities very similar to liquids. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a new technique for oil extraction and is similar to conventional solvent extraction in that the material to be extracted is withdrawn from the substrate by using a solvent. In its supercritical state, carbon dioxide is the most commonly used supercritical solvent due to its nontoxicity, non-flammability, low cost, availability in bulk quantities, ease of removal from the extracted materials, and low critical temperature and pressure (31.06 ℃ and 7.38 MPa, respectively). To improve the additional value of oils and meals obtained from the cold press cake of double-low dehulled rapeseed, supercritical CO 2 is used to extract double-low rapeseed oil and then the quality of the oil and meal obtained is studied. The affection of factors, which includes extraction pressure, temperature, and time effecting on oil yield, is investigated by Box-Behnken’s response surface methodology. The model equation for predicting the optimum response values is established by Design Expert software. The adequacy of the model equation for predicting the optimum response values was effectively verified by the validation. The experiment result indicates that affection of

  20. Influence of microwaves treatment of rapeseed on phenolic compounds and canolol content.

    Yang, Mei; Zheng, Chang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Changsheng; Li, Wenlin; Huang, Fenghong


    Rapeseeds were treated with microwaves under 800 W for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 min at a frequency of 2450 MHz, and oil was extracted with a press to investigate the influence on phenolic compounds, including sinapine, the main free phenolic acids, and canolol content in the rapeseeds and oil from them. The results indicated that sinapine and sinapic acid was the main phenolic compound and free phenolic acid in the rapeseed, respectively, and canolol was the main phenolic compound in the oil from rapeseed by cold press. Microwave treatment significantly influenced phenolic compounds content in the rapeseeds and oil from them. The sinapine, sinapic acid, and canolol content in rapeseed first increased and then decreased depending on the period of microwave radiation (p rapeseed increased to the maximum and was approximately six times greater than that of the unroasted rapeseed. The amount of canolol formed was significantly correlated with the content of sinapic acid and sinapine (for sinapic acid, r = -0.950, p oil extracted by press. Almost all of the sinapine remained in the cold-pressed cake and only 1.4-2.7% of the sinapic acid, whereas approximately 56-83% of the canolol was transferred to the oil. The transfer ratio of canolol significantly increased with microwave radiation time (p rapeseed benefited improving the oxidative stability of oil.

  1. Control of ALS resistant volunteer oil seed rape and other dicotyledonous weeds with GF-145, a new cereal herbicide product containing isoxaben and florasulam

    Becker, Jörg


    Full Text Available GF-145 contains the active ingredients isoxaben (610 g ai/kg and florasulam (40 g ai/kg and is formulated as a Wettable Granule (WG. The active ingredients are found in commercial products such as Primus™2 (florasulam, Starane XL™ (fluroxypyr + florasulam, Ariane C™ (fluroxypyr + florasulam + clopyralid or Flexidor™ (isoxaben. While florasulam has been widely used in cereal crops in recent years, isoxaben offers a new mode of action (MOA for use in German cereal herbicides even when considering that Flexidor™ has had regulatory approval in 1988 to 1991. The MOA of isoxaben is inhibition of cellulose synthesis (HRAC class L, while florasulam inhibits Acetolactate Synthase (ALS and is a representative of the HRAC class B. It is known that florasulam works through uptake by green leaves. Isoxaben is a herbicide with soil activity and with a very low activity when foliar applied, except on some species in the cruciferae family. GF-145 is intended to be applied in the autumn in cereals (wheat, barley, rye, triticale for the control of ALS resistant volunteer oil seed rape and annual dicotyledonous weeds including Matricaria spp., Stellaria media, Papaver rhoeas, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Myosotis arvensis, Lamium spp., Galium aparine, Veronica spp. and others when applied at early post-emergence from BBCH 10 to 13 of the crop. The use rate in winter cereals is 95 g product/ha (58 g ai/ha isoxaben plus 3.75 g ai/ha florasulam. Field trials conducted in previous years confirmed excellent selectivity in all cereal crops and efficacy trials initiated in autumn 2012 show that GF-145 provides excellent and superior control to ALS resistant oil seed rape that was better than straight florasulam and other ALS active ingredients. GF-145 adds a new MOA to the cereal herbicide portfolio and controls volunteer oil seed rape, cruciferous weeds and broad-leaved weeds and is more robust than florasulam based products that do not contain isoxaben.

  2. Economics of rapeseed production in Serbia

    Popović Rade


    Full Text Available Rapeseed production in Serbia is characterized by an increasing trend, as a result of positive price signals from international market. Since previous researches on economics of rapeseed production were aimed at non-family farms, focus in this paper is on the same aspects on family farms from lowland production region. Results are analyzed in view of micro and macro-economic trends. Increase of world demand for oil crops, as a result of increasing production of renewable fuels and food needs, causes a trend of higher prices, which will probably remain in the following period. Due to this, opportunities are made for Serbian farmers in lowland production region to increase agriculture area under rapeseed. .

  3. 菜籽油脚料制备生物柴油的研究%Study on Preparation of Biodiesel from Rapeseed Oil Sediment

    程正载; 雷锐; 颜晓潮; 林素素; 聂玉静; 胡雨黎; 甘露; 朱成奔


    The producing process of biodiesel are: after pretreatment, rapeseed oil sediment is taken as oil sources and esterifying agent is methyl alcohol, then, biodiesel fuel (BDF) has been made based on the pre-esterification acidic-catalyzed by sulfuric acid, respectively, moreover, transesterification base-catalyzed by sodium hydroxide and a series separating and purifying process are carried out. And the products structure have been characterized by infrared spectrum, then, through GC/MS analysis, the contents of fatty acid. methyl esters in biodiesel exceeded 98% after reducing pressure distillation. The optimum technological conditions of pre-esterification based on orthogonal experiment are as follows: reaction temperature is 65 ℃, 60 min for reaction and the ratio of methanol to oil is 1.0: 1.0(W/W) as well as H2SO4 dosage of 3.0% (mass percent), under these conditions, the pre-esterification rate could amount to 85.5%. The optimal conditions for transesterification under base catalysis are as follows: reaction temperature is 60 ℃ and the ratio of methanol to oil is 0.4: 1. 0 (W/W) ,NaOH dosage is 1.0% and reaction time is 60 min.%以预处理后菜籽油脚料为油源,甲醇为酯化剂,分别经硫酸催化的预酯化和碱催化下的酯交换反应和系列分离精制工艺,合成了生物柴油.红外光谱表征了产物结构,经GC/MS分析测定,减压蒸馏后的生物柴油中的脂肪酸甲酯的含量超过98%.通过正交试验确定了预酯化最佳工艺条件:反应温度65℃,反应时间60min,醇油质量比1.0:1.0,催化剂H2SO4用量3.0%(质量百分比),该条件下,预酯化的酯化率达到85.5%;而碱催化下的酯交换最佳工艺条件为:反应温度60℃,醇油质量比0.4:1.0,催化剂NaOH用量1.0%(质量百分比),反应时间60min.

  4. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Ma, Bingxin; Ban, Xiaoquan; Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei


    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  5. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  6. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    C. Basavanta Kumar


    Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  7. Concurrent elevation of CO2, O3 and temperature severely affects oil quality and quantity in rapeseed

    Namazkar, Shahla; Stockmarr, Anders; Frenck, Georg;


    FAs remained unchanged or even increased. Most reduced was the FA essential for human nutrition, C18:3-ω3, which decreased by 39% and 45% in the combined scenarios with elevated [CO2]+T+[O3] and [CO2]+T, respectively. Average oil content decreased 3–17%. When [CO2] and T were elevated concurrently...

  8. Effect of storing environment on acid value and peroxide value of rapeseed oil%储藏环境对菜籽油酸值和过氧化值的影响研究

    冯燕玲; 周建新; 高瑀珑


    Abstracts:The effects of moisture content,temperature and illumination on acid value and peroxide value of rapeseed oil were discussed by simulated storage. The results showed that the moisture content was essentially constant,but the acid value and peroxide value increased gradually,and the higher the moisture content was,the more obvious the change was,with the extension of storage time when the temperature was same. The acid value and peroxide value increased gradually,and the higher the temperature was,the more obvious the change was,with the extension of storage time when the moisture content was same. The variance analysis showed that acid value and peroxide value of the rapeseed oil had a significant linear relationship with the moisture content,temperature and storage time. The acid value and peroxide value of rapeseed oil in light preservation increased significantly compared with that kept out of the sun. The rapeseed oil was suitable for low temperature in a dry and dark place.%通过模拟储藏,研究了水分、温度和光照对菜籽油酸值和过氧化值的影响。结果表明,同一温度时,随着储藏时间的延长,水分含量基本不变,但酸值和过氧化值逐渐升高,水分含量越高,升高越明显;同一水分时,随着储藏时间的增加,其酸值和过氧化值不断增加,温度越高,增加越明显。方差分析表明,菜籽油的酸值和过氧化值与水分、温度和储藏时间具有显著的线性关系。光照与避光保藏相比,菜籽油的酸值和过氧化值增加明显。菜籽油适宜低温、干燥和避光储藏。

  9. Synthesis and tribology study of bi-alkoxy mono-thiophos-phate triazine derivatives as additives in rapeseed oil

    HE Zhongyi; XIONG Liping; ZENG Xiangqiong; REN Tianhui


    Series of triazine derivatives, 2,4-bi-alkoxy-6- (O,O'-dialkyldithiophosphate)-s-1,3,5-triazine, were synthesized. Their tribological properties as lubricating oil additives in vegetable oil were evaluated using a four-ball tester. The results show that these triazine derivatives possess extreme pressure capacity, and they can improve antiwear and friction-reducing performance of base stock. The elements chemical states of the worn surface were estimated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that a protective film containing sulphide, phosphate and some organic nitrogen compounds was formed on the worn surface during the lubrication process, and the film possesses extreme pressure and antiwear properties.

  10. Harmonised GHG accounting of decentralized rapeseed fuel production in Bavaria; Harmonisierte THG-Bilanzierung der dezentralen Rapsoelkraftstoffproduktion in Bayern

    Dressler, Daniela [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ), Straubing (Germany); Engelmann, Karsten; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus


    The Directive 2009/28/EG (RED) requires a minimum level of greenhouse gas reduction for biofuels to be marketed. Site-specific production conditions are not considered in default values, which are specified by RED for calculating the greenhouse gas emissions. However, calculations of regional and farm specific GHG balances in accordance to the method of ExpRessBio for the production of rape seed show a considerable range of GHG-emissions in CO{sup 2}-eq (25.2-43.6 g MJ{sup -1}). For the complete product system of decentralized rapeseed oil fuel production in Bavaria a GHG reduction of 58 % can be achieved. This is slightly higher than the default value of 57 % as specified in Directive 2009/28/EG. The reason for this is that the default value under Directive 2009/28/EG is based on an industrial oil production process whereas decentralized production leads to less GHG emissions. In comparison to the application of the energy allocation method the substitution method for the assessment of rape seed cake as protein feed leads to a distinct higher GHG reduction rate of 85%.

  11. Present evaluation of the use of rape oil/RME compared to diesel fuel. Appendix 1: Resources and emission balances: rape oil and RME compared to diesel fuel. Appendix 2: Economic evaluation of the use of rape oil and RME compared to diesel fuel; Aktuelle Bewertung des Einsatzes von Rapsoel/RME im Vergleich zu Dieselkraftstoff. Anhang 1: Ressourcen- und Emissionsbilanzen: Rapsoel und RME im Vergleich zu Dieselkraftstoff. Anhang 2: Oekonomische Bewertung des Einsatzes von Rapsoel und RME gegenueber Dieselkraftstoff

    Kraus, K.; Niklas, G.; Tappe, M.; Reinhardt, G.A. [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Folkers, C. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Finanzwissenschaft


    New recognitions in the sectors of research, development in the processing industry, motor vehicle technology, ecological balance methodics, the high interest in environmental policy and some other points of criticism have motivated the Umweltbundesamt to update the corresponding parts of the '1993 eco-balance rape oil'. Balancing of the particularly critically discussed sectors of resource consumption and airborne environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of rape oil based fuels as compared to diesel fuel was taken care of by the ifeu Institute. That balances were only made up for these two sectors is due to the fact that it is here where the particular environmental advantages of vegetable fuel oils are supposedly brought to bear. Moreover, on the basis of the report 'renewable energy sources - fundamentals, methods, ecological balancing' published recently and sponsored by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, topical essential factors such as the redefinition of the reference system (short-rotation cultivation instead of permanent fallowness) could be taken into account by the expertise. A particular benefit attributed to rape oil and RME is the conservation of fossil energy sources and associated abatement of the greenhouse effect (especially carbon dioxide). Cutting down greenhouse gas emissions is one of the predominant aims of national and international environmental policy with a view to preventing a dangerous man-made disturbance of climate. (orig.) [German] Neue Erkenntnisse im Bereich der Forschung, der Entwicklungen der verarbeitenden Industrie, der Fahrzeugtechnik, der Oekobilanzmethodik, das hohe umweltpolitische Interesse sowie die zuvor genannten Kritikpunkte haben das Umweltbundesamt veranlasst, die entsprechenden Teile der 'Oekobilanz Rapsoel' von 1993 auf den neuesten Stand zu bringen. Das ifeu-Institut hat die besonders kritisch diskutierten Bereiche des Ressourcenverbrauchs und der luftgetragenen

  12. 包膜肥用量对早熟油菜籽粒产量与油分产量的影响%Effects of different dosages of coated fertilizer on yield and oil production of precocious rapeseed

    田昌; 谭太龙; 杨勇; 宋海星; 刘强; 彭建伟; 荣湘民; 官春云


    采用大田小区试验,对比研究了不同用量包膜肥与普通肥对早熟油菜籽粒产量和油分产量的影响。结果表明:包膜肥处理的籽粒产量均高于相同用量的普通肥处理,包膜肥处理中B2(包膜肥用量为1500 kg/hm2)产量最高,为2066.9 kg/hm2,普通肥处理中A2(普通肥用量为1500 kg/hm2)产量最高,为1839.4 kg/hm2, B2较A2处理的产量提高12.37%;油分产量变化规律与籽粒产量一致,处理B2最高,为874.5 kg/hm2, 比处理A2(油分产量为792.8 kg/hm2)提高10.30%,且包膜肥对油分产量的提高效率随着包膜肥用量的增加而降低。株高、分枝数、单株有效角果与产量呈极显著或显著正相关,对产量贡献最大;包膜肥处理产量的稳定系数较普通肥处理小。综合油菜籽粒产量、油分产量及籽粒产量与农艺性状的相关分析,在本试验所设处理中包膜肥用量为1500 kg/hm2的B2处理较好,且株高、分枝数和单株有效角果数对产量贡献最大。%A field experiment was studied with the comparative of coated fertilizer and ordinary fertilizer on grain yield an d oil production of precocious rapeseed in different dosage (D), and the correlation of grain yield and agronomic traits was ana-lyzed. The results showed that the grain yield with the same dosage in coated fertilizer treatments was higher than that in ordina-ry fertilizer treatments. B2 ( D: 1 500 kg/hm2 ) , the yield of which was 2 066. 9 kg/hm2 , had the most productive produc-tion among the coated fertilizer treatments. And the yield of B2 increased by 12. 37% than that of A2 , which was 1 839. 4 kg/hm2 and the highest among the ordinary fertilizer treatments. Thevariation of oil production was similar with the grain yield, which was the highest (874. 5 kg/hm2) in treatment B2 among the ordinary fertilizer treatments and A2 (792. 8 kg/hm2) a-mong the ordinary fertilizer treatments. The increased rate of the oil production of B2 than A2

  13. Dietary rapeseed/canola-oil supplementation reduces serum lipids and liver enzymes and alters postprandial inflammatory responses in adipose tissue compared to olive-oil supplementation in obese men.

    Kruse, Michael; von Loeffelholz, Christian; Hoffmann, Daniela; Pohlmann, Antje; Seltmann, Anne-Cathrin; Osterhoff, Martin; Hornemann, Silke; Pivovarova, Olga; Rohn, Sascha; Jahreis, Gerhard; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H


    Obesity is associated with hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and low-grade inflammation. Studies have shown that MUFA as well as PUFA have beneficial effects on blood lipids and the inflammatory state. This study investigates the effects of a daily supplementation of either 50 g of rapeseed/canola (RA) or olive (OL) oil over 4 wk on serum lipids, serum liver enzymes, and inflammatory gene expression in subcutaneous (s. c.) adipose tissue in obese men. Consuming RA resulted in increased serum n-3 fatty acids and a reduction in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and serum aspartate aminotransferase compared to OL. In s. c. adipose tissue, gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL6 was reduced in RA compared to OL. However, after 4 h after a test meal, containing the appropriate oil, white bread, and 400 mL of liquid diet drink (835 kcal in total), gene expression of IL6, IL1B, and EMR1 (egf-like module containing Mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1) was increased in RA and of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2) in both RA and OL. This demonstrates that consuming RA for 4 wk improves serum lipids, liver enzymes, and basal inflammation in s. c. adipose tissue, but it mediates an acute pro-inflammatory response in adipose tissue upon consuming a meal. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Arvaniti, E.


    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  15. Production of environmentally benign surfactants from rape oil. Final report; Herstellung von 'Naturgerechten Tensiden' aus Rapsoel. Schlussbericht

    Greif, D.


    The growing demand for detergents and their introduction into the environment in conjunction with the development of environmental awareness led to the development and industrial-scale production in the 1980s and 1990s of fully biologically degradable detergents, namely alkylpolyglycosides. These are synthesised from fat and oil-based substances derived from replenishable raw materials. Currently the most widely used fat raw material is palm oil, which is imported in large quantities from Indonesia and Malaysia. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to substitute palm kernel oil with domestic rape oil (or equivalently with sunflower oil) as a fat raw material for the production of environmentally benign surfactants. [German] Der steigende Bedarf an Detergentien, deren Eintrag in die Umwelt verbunden mit einem sensibleren Umweltbewusstsein, fuehrte in den achtizger und neunziger Jahren zur Entwicklung und wirtschaftlichen Produktion von vollstaendig biologisch abbaubaren Detergentien, den Alkylpolyglycosiden. Fuer die Synthese der Alkylpolyglycoside werden Fett- und Oelstoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen genutzt. Der zur Zeit am meisten genutzte Fettrohstoff ist das Palmoel, das in grossen Mengen aus Indonesien und Malaysia importiert wird. Es sollte untersucht werden, ob eine Substitution des Plamkernoels durch den einheimischen Fettrohstoff Rapsoel (und damit gleichzusetzen Sonnenblumenoel) fuer die Herstellung naturgerechter Tenside moeglich ist. (orig.)


    Milan Pospišil


    Full Text Available To evaluate new winter rapeseed hybrids and cultivars, investigations were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, in the period 2009/10 - 2011/12. The trial involved 11 hybrids and 5 cultivars rapeseed of 5 seed producers selling seed in Croatia. The studied rapeseed hybrids and cultivars differed significantly in seed and oil yields, oil content and yield components (seed number per silique and 1000 seed weight. However, a number of hybrids rendered identical results, since the differences in the investigated properties were within statistically allowable deviation. Hybrids Traviata and CWH 119 can be singled out based on the achieved seed and oil yields, and the cultivar Ricco and hybrids CWH 119 and PR46W15 for their high oil content in seed. Hybrids with a larger silique number per plant also achieved a higher seed yield.

  17. Small-scale production of straight vegetable oil from rapeseed and its use as biofuel in the Spanish territory

    Grau, Baquero; Bernat, Esteban; Antoni, Rius; Jordi-Roger, Riba; Rita, Puig [Escola Universitaria d' Igualada (EUETII-Escola d' Adoberia), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Placa del Rei 15, 08700 Igualada, Catalunya (Spain)


    Biofuels nowadays are an important topic of study. The most significant point is the availability of bioethanol or biodiesel and their production from different raw materials. It is already known that large-scale production of first-generation biodiesel cannot be seen as an alternative to fossil fuels due to land requirements, competition with food, increase in fertilizer requirements and pressure on tropical forests among others. This fact does not necessarily apply to second-generation biofuels or small-scale niche productions. Straight vegetable oil (SVO) can be used directly in diesel engines with minor modifications. Our proposal is a small-scale SVO production system for self-supply in agricultural machinery. In this paper a model to provide SVO to local farmers in a specific area in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. We also present a discussion about the regulations to be changed in order to make possible the incorporation of SVO as engine fuel in diesel vehicles and a comparative analysis between the emissions of tractors fed with SVO and petrodiesel. Moreover, a quantitative economic analysis of modifying diesel engines and long-term operability costs are shown and a first-run economic analysis comparing the actual crop rotation with the proposed one and some alternatives is studied. (author)

  18. 菜籽油直接胺解法制备咪唑啉衍生物的缓蚀性能研究%Preparation of imidazoline derivatives from rapeseed oil by way of direct aminolysis and its inhibition behavior

    樊国栋; 崔梦雅; 林振宇


    The paper intends to introduce a new method of preparing imidazoline derivatives from rapeseed oil by way of direct aminolysis and its inhibition behavior. As is known, imidazoline derivative is a kind of environment-friendly corrosion-inhibitors, widely used in rust-removing of metal pickling, descaling by acid pickling of industrial e-quipmem and technology for acidulating oil extraction. In hoping to reduce the cost of raw materials and reduce the environmental pollution , this paper would like to introduce a new approach to synthesizing imidazoline intermediate (1M-1) by solvent method with rape- seed oil and 2-(aminoethylamino) ethanol. And next, we have modified the 1M - 1 by adding benzyl chloride and sulfamic acid to obtain cationic and arnphoteric derivate IM 2 and IM - 3, respectively. When the improved products were analyzed with IR spectrum and HNMR spectrum, it would be possible to select optimal inhibitor from the two said products by way of static weight-loss measurement. And then the amphoteric derivative IM - 3 can also be selected out of the original product through the following tests. Since the addition of inorganic anions 1- can help to raise the corrosion inhibition efficiency, it would be possible to gain finally a complex system (IM - 4) through selecting from and mixing them with KI (20:1) . Its inhibition behavior can be evaluated by static weight-loss measurement and dynamic weight-loss measurement. And, now, we can explore the film-forming behavior on the surface of A3 steel in different concentrations and different times with the newly prepared inhibitor IM - 4. Afterwards, we can apply the scanning electron microscope to the investigation of the shape patterns Dn the surface of A3 steel in hydrochloric acid before and after the corrosion. Comparing IM - 4 with other common inhibitors, such as thiourea and hexam-ethylenetetramine in inhibiting behavior, we can get the results that the IM - 4 has stronger corrosion inhibiting ability

  19. 硫化菜籽油润滑添加剂对钢-镁摩擦副摩擦学性能的影响%Friction and wear performances of magnesium alloy against steel under lubrication of rapeseed oil with S-containing additive

    方建华; 潘复生; 陈波水; 吴江; 董凌


    在菜籽油(RO)分子中引入硫,合成一种改性菜籽油润滑添加剂(SRO).结果表明:以菜籽油为基础油的硫化菜籽油润滑添加剂对钢-镁摩擦副具有优良的抗磨减摩性能;镁合金的摩擦因数和磨损体积随着SRO添加量的增加而减小;与菜籽油润滑的镁块表面相比,用含SRO菜籽油润滑的镁块表面摩擦划痕较轻微.SRO对钢-镁摩擦副具有优良抗磨减摩作用的机理是由于添加剂和菜籽油分子在摩擦表面吸附并与镁合金发生了摩擦化学反应而生成了一层复杂的边界润滑膜.%A S-containing additive,sulfuration modified rapeseed oil (named as SRO),was prepared by chemical modification of rapeseed oil with sulfur compounds.The results indicate that the friction and wear of the magnesium alloy-steel tribomates could be effectively reduced by formulating SRO into rapeseed oil lubricant.The friction coefficients and the wear volumes of magnesium alloy decrease with increasing contents of SRO.The surface lubricated with SRO-doped rapeseed oil was characterized by less wear as compared with that lubricated with neat rapeseed oil.The enhanced anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities of rapeseed oil by SRO in the lubrication of magnesium alloy against steel were ascribed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film due to the strong adsorption of SRO and rapeseed oil onto the lubricated surfaces and their tribochemical reactions with magnesium alloy.

  20. Fundamental Studies on Development of Environment Friendly Vegetable Oil Filled Transformer

    Shinke, Masami; Miyazato, Kenji; Tada, Toshiharu; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Nakagami, Yoshitake; Shimizu, Rumiko; Kosaka, Masaaki; Wada, Motoo

    In order to develop the environment-friendly transformer, the rapeseed ester oil which is vegetable oil was selected as the new insulating oil and various characteristics of rapeseed ester oil were investigated experimentally. These results showed that the basic characteristics of rapeseed ester oil surpasses as compared with mineral oil.

  1. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski


    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that


    Mehdi AZIZI


    Full Text Available Winter rapeseed is relatively new introduced crop that is in competition with winter cereals especially irrigated wheat in North-east of Iran. Farmers must to decide which of them is more economic and profitable for cultivation. Local farmers have a good technical cognition about wheat cultivation historically, so this crop has more chance for selecting in their cropping system compared to rapeseed. Besides, lack of technical recognition about rapeseed cultivation and management is led to lower seed yield compared to wheat. This research was conducted for determining the competitiveness capability of rapeseed and its some technical and economical aspects in that region. Results showed, almost the half of statistical community of farmers were satisfied for rapeseed cultivation. They were who had been achieved more than 1800 Kg.ha-1, seed yield. For increasing rapeseed economic yield in farmer’s fields, it needs to promote their technical knowledge about crop management too. Relative to this fact, 66.7% of farmers believed, rapeseed in cropping system could be reduce weeds and increase the yield of subsequent crop. 70% of farmers believed that oilseed rape- cereals rotation can increase the wheat seed yield after rapeseed. Eless of these beliefs, still 48% of farmers has a weak conception to expanding oilseed rape cultivation areas.

  3. 高油酸油菜研究现状、存在的问题及发展建议%Present Research Situation,Questions and Developmental Advises of High Oleic Acid Rapeseed

    张振乾; 胡庆一; 官春云


    High oleic acid rapeseed oil has very good nutrition and health functions,and its quality can be comparable with the camellia oil,olive oil and other senior edible vegetable oil,which is helpful to increase the edible vegetable oil supply of China and promote the upgrading of the rape industry. The study trend and application situation of Hunan Agricultural Uni-versity and the other domestic and foreign research institutions were summarized in this paper. At the same time,the genetic characteristics of oleic acid,high oleic acid rapeseed breeding (microspore culture,distant hybridization,induced and transgenic technology),advances of high oleic acid rapeseed breeding by different methods (such as,microspore culture, distant hybridization,mutation and transgenic technology),and the molecular biology research were summarized. In addi-tion,several advices were proposed according to the currently existing questions.%高油酸菜油具有很好的营养保健功能,其品质可与茶油、橄榄油等高级食用植物油媲美,对于改变我国食用植物油自给不足、促进油菜产业升级等方面有很好的作用。总结了国内外相关研究机构在高油酸油菜方面的研究动态及应用情况,同时对油酸的遗传特性、高油酸油菜选育途径(小孢子培养、远缘杂交、诱变和转基因技术)和分子生物学研究进展进行了综述,并针对当前存在的问题提出了一些建议。


    Коnоnеnко S. I.


    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions of the import substitution, special importance is given to the search for new feed sources, methods of preparing them for feeding, the use of biologically active substances and enzymes. At the forefront of feed production is rape as breeding work with this culture has showed positive results. Currently, selectionists have bred yellow double-zero "00" varieties of rapeseeds free of erucic acid of "Canole" type, that have low glucosinolate level. The development of new and modern technology standards are required for preparation them for feeding, since they are fundamentally different from the previously used rapeseed varieties and have fewer restrictions for feeding to different types of farm animals and poultry. The article presents a fairly lengthy and reasoned review of the literature of a large number of authors on the topic, as well as given rapeseed market analysis, rational and advanced methods of preparing rapeseed processed products for feeding to young and adult animals. Much attention is paid to the use of a variety of biologically active substances and enzymes, which improve digestion and absorption of nutrients from rations with rapeseed processingproducts, increase productivity and reduce feed costs per unit of production. The use of processing products of rapeseed improves the profitability of livestock production. Feeding of rapeseedcake to cattle increases the protein content and volatile fatty acids in the rumen content, increases the number of infusoria and decreases ammonia levels. The inclusion of rape forage in diets of farm animals and poultry improves hematological parameters. Products of rapeseed processing of the varieties with low glucosinolatesa1re recommended for the rations of farm animals and poultry depending on the species, age and physiological state

  5. 北方旱寒区冬油菜种植气候适宜性研究%Study on Climatic Suitability for Winter Rapeseed Planting in Arid and Cold Regions in North China

    周冬梅; 张仁陟; 孙万仓; 张军; 王鹤龄


    Objective By analyzing the relationship between rapeseed cultivation and climatic conditions of arid and cold regions in North China, dividing regions with climatic adaption for winter rapeseed, this paper aimed to provide a reference for improving winter rapeseed production layout and restructuring agricultural construction. [Method] Based on experimental data of rapeseed varieties in different zones and climate data of long sequences, using GIS spatial analysis functions and maximum entropy models, the relational potential climatic factors for the distribution of winter rape growing were screened, meteorological factors were used to establish the potential of spatial database based on the DEM method of small grid reckoning. This study analyzed the relationship between rapeseed cultivation and climatic conditions in arid and cold regions, simulated the potential distribution probability and divided grow regions with climatic adaption for winter rapeseed.[Result]The total contribution rate of the potential to meteorological factors to the distribution of winter rape cultivation was 0.89, and according to the size of the contribution rate, there were 5 major climatic factors affecting the growth distribution of winter rapeseed, including annual average temperature, negative accumulated temperature, extreme low temperature, minimum temperature of the coldest month and the average temperature of the coldest month. The potential distribution probability of winter rapeseed ranges was 0-0.84 in arid and cold regions. Growth regions were divided into four levels according to climatic adaption: unsuitable, less suitable, suitable and optimum suitable. The northern boundary of winter rapeseed cultivation have reached the southern Jilin, Inner Mongolia, and southern Xinjiang as new boundaries, the northern boundary has expanded northward about 1 200 km, from the 39°N raised to 45°N compared with the traditional winter rapeseed planting northern boundary. [Conclusion] This

  6. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Jankulovska Mirjana


    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  7. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  8. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  9. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae

  10. Characteristics of a tractor engine using mineral and biodiesel fuels blended with rapeseed oil Características de um motor de trator alimentado com combustíveis mineral e biodisel misturados com óleo de colza

    Tone Godeša


    Full Text Available One of the most unfavourable characteristics of crude vegetable oil when used as the fuel is the high viscosity. To improve this weakness, oil can be blended with mineral diesel or biodiesel fuels. This study was designed to evaluate how the use of mineral diesel or biodiesel blend with cold pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus oil affects the engine power, torque and fuel consumption. A tractor equipped with direct injection, water cooling system and three-cylinder diesel engine was used for the experiment. Fuels used were standard diesel fuel (diesel, rapeseed oil methyl ester - biodiesel (B100 and their mixtures with 10, 30 and 50 vol. % of cold pressed rapeseed oil (RO. Increased portion of RO in diesel fuel blends had almost no effect on the torque measured on the tractor PTO shaft; it however decreased the maximal power. Fuel blends with B100 and rising RO content (up to 50% gave a positive correlation with maximal torque and power. By increasing the portion of RO from 0 to 50%, the minimal specific fuel consumption increased by 6.65% with diesel and decreased by 2.98% with B100 based fuel.Uma das características mais desfavoráveis dos óleos vegetais crus usados como combustível é a alta viscosidade. Para melhorar este ponto fraco, o óleo pode ser misturado com diesel mineral ou biodiesel. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar como o uso de diesel mineral ou biodiesel misturado a oleo de colza (Brassica napus extraído por pressão a frio afeta a potência do motor, o torque e o consumo de combustível, empregando um trator equipado com injeção direta, sistema de refrigeração de água e um motor de três cilindros. Os combustíveis utilizados foram o diesel padrão (diesel, éster metílico de óleo de sementes de colza - biodiesel (B100 e suas misturas com 10, 30 e 50 % vol. de óleo de semente de colza pressionado a frio (RO. Maiores proporções de RO nas misturas de diesel praticamente não tiveram efeito sobre o torque

  11. The Advances on the Proteomics of Rape%油菜蛋白质组学研究进展

    解伟; 陈社员; 张振乾


    Protein is the executor of the physiological function, and it is the direct embodiment of the life phenomena. So, the proteomics research must be carried on to obtain a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of complex activities of life. Rapeseed oil is a very important to China, with the development of rape industry, a variety of breeding objectives are needed. Then, the study of rape proteomics must be strengthened for the further understanding of the molecular mechanism. This paper reviewed the study of the rape protein extraction methods and the operation conditions of two-dimensional electrophoresis, the study of stress on rape, such as nutrient, temperature, salt, water and so on, the study of physiological and biochemical on different rape materials, such as seed, pollen, juice, leaf, seed coat, mitochondria and so on, and the study of disease resistance of rape proteomics. Then some shortcomings were founded, such as the current study did not linked with the necessary of agriculture production closely, which was not systematic, and the methods of rape proteomics research were lag behind the development of proteomics. If these aspects were strengthened in the future research, the development of rapeseed industry in China would be promoted, and then safeguard the oil security of China.%蛋白质是生理功能的执行者,是生命现象的直接体现者,要对生命的复杂活动有全面和深入的认识,就必须进行蛋白质组学方面的研究。菜籽油是中国重要的食用油,随着油菜产业的发展,出现了各种不同的育种要求,为了达到这些目标,需要了解其分子机理,为此要加强油菜蛋白质组学方面的研究。本研究总结了油菜蛋白质提取方法及双向电泳条件优化,营养元素、低温、盐和水等胁迫方面的研究,种子、汁液、花粉、叶片、种皮、线粒体等不同组织材料的生理生化研究和抗病研究等方面的蛋白质组学研究。

  12. Victims of Rape.

    Krasner William; And Others

    A scientific, multidisciplinary examination of the social and psychological effects of rape upon female victims is presented, which is then correlated with: (1) the circumstances that surrounded the rape; (2) the victim's personality and social adaptation before she was raped; and (3) the support available from organizations and people who were…

  13. Rape and Seduction Scripts.

    Ryan, Kathryn M.


    College students (N=18) wrote scripts about "typical" rape and "typical" seduction. Scripts were coded on 20 dimensions. Results showed that rape and seduction scripts were very different. Most subjects described blitz rape in which woman outdoors was attacked by male stranger. Seductions described were usually indoors and often involved alcohol.…

  14. The properties of the mixture of beef tallow and rapeseed oil with a high content of tallow after chemical and enzymatic interesterification

    Gruczynska, Eliza


    Full Text Available A mixture of beef tallow with rapeseed oil (3:1 wt/wt was interesterified using sodium metoxide or immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 as catalysts. Chemical interesterifications were carried out at 60 and 90 ºC for 0.5 and 1.5 h using 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 wt-% CH3ONa. Depending on the catalyst used enzymatic interesterifications were carried out at 60 ºC for 8 h (Lipozyme IM or at 80 ºC for 4 h (Novozym 435. The catalysts doses were kept constant (8 % but the water content in catalysts varied from 2 to 10 %. The starting mixture and the interesterified products were separated by column chromatography into a pure triacylglycerol fraction and a non-triacylglycerol fraction, which contained free fatty acids, mono- and diacylglycerols. It was found that the concentrations of free fatty acids and partial acylglycerols increased after interesterification. The slip melting points and solid fat contents of the triacylglycerol fractions isolated from interesterified fats were lower when compared with nonesterified blends. The sn-2 and sn-1,3 distributions of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol fractions before and after interesterification were determined.These distributions were random after chemical interesterification and near random when Novozym 435 was used. When Lipozyme IM was used, the fatty acid composition at the sn-2 position remained practically unchanged compared with the starting blend. The interesterified fats and isolated triacylglycerols had reduced oxidative stability, as assessed by Rancimat induction times. The addition of 0.02 % of BHA or BHT to the interesterified fats improved their stabilitie.Una mezcla de sebo con aceite de colza (3:1 p/p fue interesterificada usando metóxido de sodio y lipasas inmovilizadas de Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 como catalizadores. La interesterificación química se llevó a cabo a 60 ºC y 90

  15. Expression analysis of a novel pyridoxal kinase messenger RNA splice variant, PKL, in oil rape suffering abiotic stress and phytohormones


    Pyridoxal kinase is key enzyme for the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the biologically active form of vitamin B6, in the salvage pathway. A pyridoxal kinase gene, BnPKL (GenBank accession No. DQ463962), was isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) following water stress through rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends. The results showed that the gene had two splice variants: PKL and PKL2. PKL, the long cDNA, encodes a 334 amino acid protein with a complete ATP-binding site, pyridoxai kinase-binding site and dimer interface site of a pyridoxal kinase, while PKL2, the short cDNA, lacked a partial domain. Southern blot showed that there were two copies in Brassica napus. The expression of BnPKL cDNA could rescue the mutant phenotype of Escherichia coil defective in pyridoxai kinase. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the relative abundance of two transcripts are modulated by development and environmental stresses.Abscisic acid and NaCI were inclined to decrease PKL expression, but HO and cold temperatures induced the PKL expression. In addition, the PKL expression could be transiently induced by jasmonate acid at an early stage, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonate acid enhanced the PKL expression in roots. Our results demonstrated that BnPKL was a pyridoxal kinase involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  16. Direct nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed in Germany

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Köbke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suarez, Teresa; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heiner


    The production of first generation biofuels has increased over the last decade in Germany. However, there is a strong public and scientific debate concerning ecological impact and sustainability of biofuel production. The EU Renewables Directive requires biofuels to save 35 % of GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels. Starting in 2017, 50 % mitigation of GHG emissions must be achieved. This presents challenges for production of biofuels from rapeseed, which is one of the major renewable resources used for fuel production. Field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and GHG emissions during production of fertilizers contribute strongest to the GHG balance of rapeseed biofuel. Thus, the most promising GHG mitigation option is the optimization of nitrogen fertilization. Since 2012, field trials are conducted on five German research farms to quantify direct GHG emissions. The sites were selected to represent the main rapeseed production regions in Germany as well as climatic regions and soil types. Randomized plot designs were established, which allow monitoring (using manual chambers) impact of fertilization intensity on direct emissions and yield of the typical crop sequence (winter rape - winter wheat - winter barley). The effect of substituting mineral fertilizer with biogas digestate with and without addition of a nitrification inhibitor is also studied. Here we present results from the first cropping season. In 2013, annual direct N2O emissions as well as yield normalized N2O emissions from rape were low. This can be explained with the weather conditions as 2013 was characterized by a cold and long winter with snow until mid spring. As a result, emissions were smaller than predicted by the IPCC emission factors or by the Global Nitrous Oxide Calculator (GNOC). However, emissions still depend on nitrogen input.

  17. Synthesis of biodiesel from rapeseed oil catalyzed by Ca/A1 solid base%Ca/Al固体碱催化菜籽油制备生物柴油

    郑华艳; 李茜茜; 崔丽萍; 李忠


    Ca/Al solid basic catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method and used in the synthesis of biodiesel from rapeseed oil;the effect of preparation conditions such as precipitant selection, mole ratio of calcium to aluminum, precipitation temperature, pH value, aging temperature and time, and calcination temperature on their catalytic activity were investigated. Through orthogonal tests, the optimal conditions to prepare catalyst precursor are obtained as Ca/Al = 3, NaOH as precipitant, precipitation temperature of 60℃, pH value of 10, and aging at 90℃ for 18 h. Under the optimal conditions, the catalyst precursor obtained is in the form of Ca4 Al2O6( NO3 )2 ? 10H2O crystal. After calcination at 300℃ for 2 h in N2 atmosphere, Ca/Al mixed oxide is then highly dispersed on the catalyst surface with a pH value of above 26.5. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity in transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol;the conversion of rapeseed oil and selectivity to fatty acid methyl ester reach 95% and 95.9% , respectively.%采用共沉淀法制备了Ca/Al复合氧化物固体碱催化剂,考察了沉淀剂种类、Ca/Al摩尔比、沉淀温度、溶液pH值、老化时间和焙烧温度等制备条件对其催化剂活性的影响.采用正交实验方法得到制备Ca/Al复合固体碱催化剂前躯体的最佳制备条件为,沉淀剂NaOH,Ca/Al摩尔比为3,沉淀温度为60℃,沉淀过程中pH值保持在10,在90℃老化18h.在该最优条件下制备的催化剂前驱体主要以Ca4Al2 O6(NO3)2· 10H2O晶相存在,在N2气保护下300℃焙烧2h后,催化剂形成高分散钙铝复合氧化物,且碱性强度达到26.5以上.在催化菜籽油和甲醇的酯交换反应中,菜籽油的转化率达到95%,脂肪酸甲酯的质量分数为95.9%.

  18. Effects of microwave pretreatment on the degradation products of glucosinolates in rapeseed oil%微波预处理对菜籽油中硫甙降解产物的影响

    周琦; 杨湄; 郑畅; 黄凤洪; 王会


    Nitriles and isothiocyanates in glucosinolates degradation products were determined by GC -MS, and the principal component analysis ( PC A) combined with olfactory detector were used to evaluate the change law of glucosinolates degradation products in rapeseed oil in the process of microwave pretreatment. The results showed that there were seven kinds of nitrile compounds and three kinds of isothiocyanates. With the extension of microwave pretreatment time, 4 - Isothiocyanato - 1 - butane with pungent flavor and off-flavor decreased observably after microwave pretreatment for 3 min. With microwave pretreatment for 5 - 7 min, the contents of Methally cyanide, 5 - Cyano - 1 - pentene, 5 - ( Methylthio) -pentanenitrile and Benzenepropanenitrile increased significantly, but the rapeseed oil had no strong pungent odor.%利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)测定硫甙降解产物中的腈类和异硫氰酸酯类化合物,主成分分析方法(PCA)结合嗅觉检测器探讨微波预处理油菜籽过程中菜籽油中硫甙降解产物的变化规律.结果表明,菜籽油在微波预处理过程中共检测到7种腈类化合物和3种异硫氰酸酯,随着微波预处理时间的延长,具有刺激性菜青味的1-丁烯基-异硫氰酸酯在微波预处理3 min后大幅下降,不良风味减轻.微波预处理5 ~7 min,甲基氰化物、5-己腈、5-甲硫基-丁基腈、苯代丙腈含量明显增加,但均不具有强烈的刺激性气味.

  19. 冬油菜生产优势与栽培技术%production advantages and cultivation techniques of winter oilseed rape

    申淑萍; 郭元发; 王荣


      油菜是临夏州的主要油料作物,也是优势经济作物之一。临夏回族自治州地处青藏高原与黄土高原的接壤地带,大部分地区海拔在2000 m以上,年均气温6.3℃,无霜期130~180 d,日照充足,昼夜温差大,有利于油菜生长发育及油分的积累,油籽产量高、品质好,是全国春油菜的最适生态区之一。%Rape is a major oil crops and one of the advantage of economic crops in Linxia. is one. Linxia Hui Au-tonomous Prefecture is a border zone between Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Loess Plateau, most of the region is more than 2 000 m above sea level, the average annual temperature is 6.3 ℃, frost-free period is 130 ~ 180 d, sunshine is e-nough, big temperature difference between day and night, it is conducive to grow and accumulate rapeseed oil , it is easy to have good quality and it is the optimal ecological zones for spring rape.


    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU


    Full Text Available Rapeseed is currently one of the world's most important oil species. Rapeseed oil contains varying proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids: Oleic - 20%, linoleic 15%, linolenic - 9% -15% erucic, casenoic - 8%, palmitic - 4%, 1% stearic acid. Erucic acid from rapeseed oil used in diet has negative effects on the human body because it retards the growth of young organism causing diseases of the circulatory system and the adrenal glands, liver and thyroid gland. By reducing the erucic acid content has increased proportion of oleic acid, from 14-20% to more than 64%, and the percentage of linoleic acid from 13-15% to more than 24%, which increased the food quality of rapeseed oil which can replace in this respect the sunflower oil. It should be noted also that, rapeseed oil low in erucic acid content, has unique effects on serum total cholesterol, serum fatty acids and the level of antioxidants, compared to diets high in saturated fat or oil mono- or poly-unsaturated from sunflower. The work was born following the presentation of producer’s performance placed in another area of culture, rather than national, through different environmental conditions and production (production structure, way of organizing the activity, degree of capitalization of the producers etc..

  1. Change on storage quality of edible oil in different specification of tank%不同规格罐体内食用植物油储存品质变化

    朱丽琼; 朱启思; 吴秋婷; 曾彩虹; 邓常继


    The related indicators of edible oil quality during storage were monitored to compare the change of the oil quality,including peanut oil,soybean oil,rapeseed oil,stored in non -standard oil tank with standard oil tank.The results showed that the quality of peanut oil stored in non -standard tank was bet-ter than stored in standard tank.With stored in non -standard tank,the quality of soybean oil and rape-seed oil,was better than peanut oil.%监测食用油储存期间相关指标,对存放在标准油罐与非标油罐花生油的品质变化进行研究,非标罐中花生油、大豆油、油菜籽油的品质变化进行比较。结果表明非标准油罐存放的花生油品质好于标准罐存放;同是非标油罐存放,大豆油和油菜籽油储存品质优于花生油储存品质。

  2. Alleviation Effects of Rare Earth on Cd Stress to Rape

    马建军; 张淑侠; 朱京涛; 吴贺平


    Using rapes as test materials, the fastness expression and alleviation effect of rapes were studied under Cd stress condition, as the rapeseeds were dipped in the single element(La, Ce, Nd, Pr)and mixed rare earth(RE). The results indicate that, under Cd stress, the dry and fresh weight are increased by both the single element and mixed rare earth treatment, and the fastness of rape is improved.The single element of rare earth decreases the Cd content in rape roots and transmits Cd to the edible parts above the ground in which the alleviation effect of Ce is most significant.La treatment takes the second place, so that the poisonous effect of heavy metal Cd is eased.The mixed rare earth doesn't alleviate the assimilation of Cd in rape roots, but accelerates the transfer of Cd to the parts above the ground. The research puts forward that the alleviation of rare earth on Cd stress has connection with the decrease of Ca content.

  3. Secondary victims of rape

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask


    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  4. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H


    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield.

  5. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Nowsher Ali


    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  6. Rapeseed proteins – Production methods and possible application ranges

    Von Der Haar Daniela


    Full Text Available The worldwide increasing demand in proteins for human nutrition and animal feeding leads to a growing interest in novel protein sources. Therefore, rapeseed as an established raw material for the production of edible oils could be a promising alternative, as large amounts of press cakes and residues of oil extraction are available. Integrated fractionizing processes for simultaneous oil and protein isolation using aqueous-alcoholic extraction or adsorption techniques open many opportunities for new protein ingredients from rapeseed. The present manuscript compares two strategies to identify a suitable process for achieving highly functional ingredients for the use in food applications such as sausages, bakery products or mayonnaise. One process was based on hulling of the rapeseed kernels followed by an aqueous-alcoholic-extraction of the de-oiled flour. Based on this process, protein ingredients with about 60% protein content, but only poor functional properties could be produced. The application concentration of this ingredient was limited to 2%, because of oily and strawy off-flavors. Isolates with protein contents higher than 90% and improved sensory and functional properties could be achieved with an aqueous extraction followed by adsorption of secondary plant metabolites on specific resins and an ultrafiltration of the aqueous extract. This process enables the production of protein isolates with reduced off-flavors and optimized functional profiles. In several food applications a very promising utilization potential of these ingredients could be confirmed.

  7. Dispersion behaviour of rape oil methyl ester and rape-oil-based hydraulic oils in soils and on soil surfaces with due consideration to the technical performance capabilities of the hydraulic oils. Part-project 1: studies on model ecosystems. Part-project 2: provision of oils with defined degrees of ageing. Final report; Ausbreitungsverhalten von Rapsoelmethylester und Hydraulikoelen auf Rapsoelbasis im Boden und auf Bodenoberflaechen unter Beruecksichtigung der technischen Leistungsfaehigkeit der Hydraulikoele. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen an Modelloekosystemen. Teilvorhaben 2: Bereitstellung definiert gealterter Hydraulikoele. Abschlussbericht

    Paul, W.; Schuett, C.; Roemer, A.; Foelster, N.; Lemke, M.


    The purpose of the present cooperative research project is to study the toxicity, the degradation and in particular the dispersion behaviour of biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils and rape oil methyl esters (RME) in soils and waters with a special focus on hydraulic oils. This is to serve as a basis for developing guidelines for action in the event of accidents involving biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic fluids that ensure proper accident reporting and handling. The outcome of the cooperative research project is to permit a first risk assessment for the soil and water compartments in the event of accidents involving hydraulic oils and RME. Another task is to clarify to what extent it is permissible to deviate from the usual measures prescribed for oil accidents involving crude oil when biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils or RME are involved instead. [German] Ziel des Verbundvorhabens ist es, die Toxizitaet, den Abbau und insbesondere das Ausbreitungsverhalten von biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen und Rapsoelmethylester (RME) in Boden und Wasser zu untersuchen, wobei der Schwerpunkt der Arbeiten bei den Hydraulikoelen liegt. Damit sollen Verfahrensrichtlinien angegeben werden, die im Falle von Unfaellen mit biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikfluessigkeiten oder Biodiesel eine angemessene Unfallaufnahme und -abwicklung sicherstellen. Als Ergebnis des Verbundvorhabens soll eine erste Risikoabschaetzung fuer die Kompartimente Boden und Wasser bei Unfaellen mit Hydraulikoelen und RME moeglich sein. Darueber hinaus soll geklaert werden, inwieweit Abweichungen von den ueblichen Massnahmen bei Oelunfaellen mit Mineraloelprodukten im Vergleich zu biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen oder RME moeglich sind. (orig.)

  8. Determination of the Degree of Degradation of Frying Rapeseed Oil Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Partial Least-Squares Regression

    Chen, Jie Yu; Zhang, Han; Ma, Jinkui; Tuchiya, Tomohiro; Miao, Yelian


    ...) spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares (PLS) regression. One hundred and fifty-six frying oil samples that degraded to different degrees by frying potatoes were scanned by an FTIR spectrometer using attenuated total reflectance (ATR...

  9. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    Nadesan, K


    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  10. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape reduces weed competition, insect damage, and improves nitrogen use efficiency

    Cadoux Stéphane


    Full Text Available Mixing plant species in agroecosystems is highlighted as an agroecological solution to reduce pesticides and fertilizers while maintaining profitability. In the French context, intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is potentially interesting and began to be implemented by farmers. In this study we aimed at measuring the services and disservices of this intercrop with three different legume mixtures, in terms of growth and yield for rapeseed, ground cover of weeds in autumn and damage caused by rape winter stem weevil. The experiment was carried out at four sites from 2011 to 2014. We showed higher total aerial dry weights and total aerial nitrogen contents in the intercrops compared to sole winter oilseed rape in November. The companion plants contributed to the control of weeds and the mitigation of rape winter stem weevil damage, notably through the increase in the total aerial weight. In spring, after destruction of the companion plants, the intercrops had partially compensated a reduction in the N fertilization rate (–30 kg per hectare in terms of aerial nitrogen content in rapeseed, with no consequences on the yield which was maintained or even increased. There were probably other interactions such as an improvement in rapeseed root exploration. The consequences were an increase in the nitrogen use efficiency in intercrops. The intercrop with faba bean and lentil showed the best results in terms of autumn growth, weed control, reduction in rape winter stem weevil damage, and rapeseed N content in spring and yield. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is thus a promising way to reconcile yield and reduction in pesticides and fertilizer use and perhaps to benefit more widely to the cropping system.

  11. Explaining wartime rape.

    Gottschall, Jonathan


    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  12. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    Gertz Christian


    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  13. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasmic and maternal genetic correlations for seven essential amino acids in rapeseed meal (Brassica napus L.)

    Guo Lin Chen; Jian Guo Wu; Murali-Tottekkaad Variath; Zhong Wei Yang; Chun Hai Shi


    Genetic correlations of nutrient quality traits including lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine and threonine contents in rapeseed meal were analysed by the genetic model for quantitative traits of diploid plants using a diallel design with nine parents of Brassica napus L. These results indicated that the genetic correlations of embryo, cytoplasm and/or maternal plant havemade different contribution to total genetic correlations of most pairwise nutrient quality traits. The genetic correlations among the amino acids in rapeseed meal were simultaneously controlled by genetic main correlations and genotype × environment (GE) interaction correlations, especially for the maternal dominance correlations. Most components of genetic main correlations and GE interaction correlations for the pairwise traits studied were significantly positive. Some of the pairwise traits had negative genetic correlations, especially between valine and other amino acid contents. Indirect selection for improving the quality traits of rapeseed meal could be expected in rape breeding according to the magnitude and direction of genetic correlation components.


    Muhammad Akram, M. Laiq Khan, Amer Tariq, Hasnat Ahmed and Rafia Firdous


    Full Text Available The effect of Digestarcom, a herbal feed additive on the performance of broiler chicks fed different levels of rapeseed cake was investigated. Fourteen experimental rations containing 7 rapeseed (0,2, 4, 6,8, 10 and 12% x 2 Digestarcom (0 and 150 9 per tone feed levels were formulated and fed to 14 treatment groups in three replications having 10 chick each. A higher weight gain per bird was observed for all the levels 0( rapeseed treated with Digestarcom as compared to non-supplemented control group. The maximum feed consumption was observed in group fed 10% rape seed cake treatment and maximum weight gain was observed in 6% level. More feed was consumed and more weight was gained by the broilers fed ration supplemented with digestarcom and exhibited better feed to gain ratio than non-supplemented control

  15. 不同油脂熬制的火锅底料熬煮过程中的油脂质量变化%Quality changes of oils in different kinds of hot pot soup stocks during boiling

    张丽珠; 唐洁; 卢靖; 车振明


    Four kinds of hot pot soup stocks were made by mixed oils of palm olein and rapeseed oil(vol-ume ratio of palm olein of 5 degrees to palm olein of 8 degrees to rapeseed oil 3: 2: 3), mixed oils of palm stearin and butter(volume ratio of palm stearin to butter 1: 2), rapeseed oil and butter respectively, and the quality changes of oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks during boiling were studied. The results showed that peroxide value, acid value and malondialdehyde content of oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks increased during boiling, and the quality of base oil of hot pot soup stock affected the quality of oil in hot pot soup stock directly during boiling;with the boiling time prolonging, the contents of unsat-urated fatty acids of the oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks all decreased;the relative contents of trans fatty acids of oil in hot pot soup stocks made by rapeseed oil and mixed oils of palm olein and rape-seed oil increased significantly after boiling for 16 h.%对棕榈液油菜籽油复合油脂(5度棕榈液油、8度棕榈液油、菜籽油体积比3:2:3)、棕榈硬脂牛油复合油脂(棕榈硬脂与牛油体积比1:2)、菜籽油以及牛油熬制的火锅底料在熬煮过程中的油脂质量变化进行研究。结果表明:4种火锅底料在熬煮过程中油脂过氧化值、酸值和丙二醛含量均出现增长的趋势,火锅底料基础油脂质量直接影响火锅底料熬煮过程中的油脂质量;随着熬煮时间的延长,4种火锅底料中油脂不饱和脂肪酸含量均降低,棕榈液油菜籽油复合火锅底料、菜籽油火锅底料经熬煮16 h 后,其油脂中反式脂肪酸含量明显升高。




    选择同一时期入库、入库质量均符合国家四级以上质量标准规定、在同一地理位置采用常规密闭储藏的罐存四级菜籽油,在近两年的储存期间,对其定期抽样测定酸值及过氧化值变化情况.结果表明,经过近两年的密闭储存,酸值、过氧化值均有不同程度的上升,但酸值上升的幅度非常小,过氧化值虽有明显升高,但上升幅度也不大.%4-class rape oil stored at the same time and the same place was chosen in this test. Its acid value and peroxide value were taken the regular measurement during 2 years storage. The results showed that both acid value and peroxide acid had increased in varying degrees, but acid value had a little rise, while peroxide acid had obviously rise, but the tendency of change kept stable.

  17. Morphological characterization of local landraces of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var toria of Nepal

    Salik Ram Gupta


    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var toria is the main source of edible oil for Nepalese people. 54 rapeseed lines were collected from different hilly district of Nepal ranging from 987 m to 2550 m altitude. These lines were planted in augmented design for its traits characterization in Khumaltar 2013. Different traits of local rapeseed were characterized, and evaluated. NGRC 02778 performed better followed by SR-02 than local checks Morang-2, Chitwan Local and Unnati in terms of yield, days to maturity and pest infestation. Similarly, genotype SR-18 was late and SR-16 was earlier in terms of days to maturity. In conclusion, SR-02 was found better genotype based on different characteristics measured among all local rapeseeds planted in Khumaltar 2013. Thus SR-2 can be used as parents in crossing material for further breeding purposes and it can also be tested in further trial.

  18. Biodiesel production from rapeseed oil catalyzed by surfacely modified calcium oxide efficiently%表面改性氧化钙高效催化菜籽油制备生物柴油

    王姗姗; 程栖桐; 汤颖; 张洁; 王小莉; 许亮红


    Using n-butyl bromide as modifier, calcium oxide was surfacely modified by chemical bonding method. The characterizations of modified calcium oxide were determined by FT -IR and XRD. Then biodiesel was prepared by transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol with modified calcium oxide as catalyst. The results showed that the catalytic performance of modified calcium oxide improved greatly con-tributing to well diffusion of reactants to the surface of catalyst and the catalytic efficiency was enhanced. The optimal reaction conditions were obtained as follows: reaction temperature 65℃, dosage of n-butyl bromide 0. 01% (based on the amount of substance of calcium oxide), molar ratio of methanol to rapeseed oil 15∶1, catalyst dosage 5% and reaction time 3 h. Under these conditions, the yield of biodiesel could reach 96. 6%. While the yield of biodiesel was only 89. 3% with calcium oxide as catalyst under the same conditions. Furthermore, the modified calcium oxide showed good water-resistance by keeping 79. 1% of biodiesel yield with 2. 0% water in the reaction system. The characterization results of FT-IR and XRD showed that the modifier had bonded on the surface of calcium oxide, and the phase structure and disper-sion state of modified calcium oxide didn’t change obviously.%以溴代正丁烷作为改性剂,采用化学键合法对氧化钙进行表面改性,用傅里叶红外光谱( FT-IR)和X-射线衍射( XRD)对改性氧化钙进行了表征,并以此为催化剂催化菜籽油与甲醇酯交换反应制备生物柴油。结果表明,氧化钙表面改性后能够促进反应物向催化剂表面的扩散,提高催化剂的催化效率。在反应温度65℃、溴代正丁烷改性剂用量0.01%(占氧化钙物质的量)、醇油摩尔比15∶1、催化剂用量5%、反应时间3 h条件下,生物柴油产率可达96.6%,而相同条件下未改性氧化钙催化制备生物柴油产率只有89.3%。同时,经过改性后的氧化钙

  19. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A


    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  20. Identification of molecular species of simple lipids by normal phase liquid chromatography-positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, and application of developed methods in comprehensive analysis of low erucic acid rapeseed oil lipids

    Kalo, P. J.; Ollilainen, V.; Rocha, J. M.; Malcata, F. X.


    Mono-, di- and triacylglycerol (MAG, DAG, TAG), sterol ester (SE), free sterol (S) and free fatty acid (FFA) standards were analyzed in the presence of ammonium ions and ammonia by flow injection MS2 and MS3, and by normal phase-liquid chromatography (NP-LC) MS2 positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS). The MS data recorded for ammonium adducts ([M + NH4]+) of TAGs, DAGs, and MAGs were consistent with stepwise fragmentation mechanisms. In the first step, ammonium ion in [M + NH4]+ donates proton to acylglycerol and ammonia is released. In the second step, FFA is cleaved from protonated TAG, water from protonated 1,3-DAG and MAG, both FFA and water from protonated 1,2-DAG, hence leading to formation of [DAG]+ ion from TAG and 1,3-DAG, [DAG]+ and [MAG]+ ions from 1,2-DAG, and [MAG]+ ion from MAG. In the third step, [DAG]+ ion of TAG is fragmented to yield [Acyl]+, [Acyl + 74]+, [DAG - 74]+ ions, [DAG] ion of 1,3-DAG to [Acyl]+ ions, and [MAG]+ ion of MAG to protonated FAs, which are decomposed to water and [Acyl]+ ions in the fourth step. A stepwise mechanism for fragmentation of FFA was also evident from MS2 and MS3 data. Molecular species of low erucic acid rapeseed oil simple lipids were identified from characteristic ions produced in the NP-LC-ESI-MS2 of [M + NH4]+ ions. The percentage composition of the molecular species of each lipid class was calculated from integrated extracted ion chromatograms of [(M + NH4)]+ ions of SE, TAG, MAG, and FFA, of the sum of [(M + NH4)]+ and [(M + NH4) - NH3 - H2O]+ ions of both regioisomers of DAGs, and of sterol fragment ions of S.

  1. Oil from algae; salvation from peak oil?

    Rhodes, Christopher J


    A review is presented of the use of algae principally to produce biodiesel fuel, as a replacement for conventional fuel derived from petroleum. The imperative for such a strategy is that cheap supplies of crude oil will begin to wane within a decade and land-based crops cannot provide more than a small amount of the fuel the world currently uses, even if food production were allowed to be severely compromised. For comparison, if one tonne of biodiesel might be produced say, from rape-seed per hectare, that same area of land might ideally yield 100 tonnes of biodiesel grown from algae. Placed into perspective, the entire world annual petroleum demand which is now provided for by 31 billion barrels of crude oil might instead be met from algae grown on an area equivalent to 4% of that of the United States. As an additional benefit, in contrast to growing crops it is not necessary to use arable land, since pond-systems might be placed anywhere, even in deserts, and since algae grow well on saline water or wastewaters, no additional burden is imposed on freshwater-a significant advantage, as water shortages threaten. Algae offer the further promise that they might provide future food supplies, beyond what can be offered by land-based agriculture to a rising global population.

  2. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    ... HIV. The process is called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Treat the person who was raped for other ... 67. Workowski KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. ...

  3. Investigations on the effects of rape oil quality, choline and methionine concentration in diets for laying hens on the trimethylamine content of the eggs, on trimethylamine metabolism and on laying performance.

    Dänicke, Sven; Ueberschär, Karl-Heinz; Reese, Kristina; Weigend, Steffen


    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of graded levels of choline addition (0, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg/kg diet) in laying hen diets prepared either with degummed or refined rape oil on the performance, sensory properties and trimethylamine (TMA) contents of the eggs. Furthermore, the diets containing no supplemented choline or 4000mg choline/kg diet were tested with adequate or inadequate methionine supply (4.2 vs. 2.8 g methionine/kg diet). TMA metabolism and N-balance were measured for the latter diet types, but only with the diets containing refined rape oil. Therefore, a total of 12 and 4 diets were tested in the feeding (n = 60) and balance study (n = 9). Laying performance (23 -75 weeks of age) was not significantly influenced by increasing choline additions with the exception of feed-to-egg mass ratio which decreased significantly linearly (P(linear) = 0.003). However, a significant interaction between choline addition and laying month was detected which was caused by a depression of performance of the unsupplemented control group occurring from the sixth laying month. The most obvious effect of an inadequate methionine supply was a temporary drop in performance between the third and sixth laying months. The mean TMA-concentration in pooled egg yolks [microg/g] increased with dietary choline concentration [mg/kg] in an exponentially related fashion (y = 1.14 + 4E(-10) x x(2.71), r2 = 0.962) and suggested only a minor influence of total dietary choline on TMA content up to approximately 2000mg choline/kg. Individual TMA-concentrations varied greatly from 0.4 - 1.5 microg/g, from 2.2 - 34 microg/g and from 18.4 - 75 microg/g for eggs with a normal, aberrant and heavily aberrant odour, respectively. It is concluded that a total choline concentration of at least approximately 1500 mg/kg is necessary to maintain a maximal laying performance. An inadequate methionine supply cannot be compensated by an increased addition of choline. Neither degummed nor

  4. Rape Beyond Crime.

    Kaplan, Margo


    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  5. Types of rape victimization

    Novaković Milan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavior of rape victims is an enigma associated with the following phenomena: poverty, transition, legal weaknesses, and unintegrated mental health network. The aim of the study was to investigate rape victimization in relation to anomie, stress and postwar transition-related weaknesses in B&H in the period 1996-2005; and perform a personal analysis of rape victims. Material and methods: The experimental group consisted of rape victims receiving psychiatric treatment: non-violent victimization (n=125. It included random female victims with mental diseases: victimization by abuse of power and unclear victimization. The control group consisted of violent victimization victims (n=125, females. This was a multicentric, longitudinal, prospective study. Intercorrelation, univariate and canonical discrimination analyses were performed. Results Rape offenders were of male gender (c2 = 29.970 statistical significance p<0.001, from broken families was (c2 = 0.830, migration (c2 = 0.064, and heredity (c2 = 0.406. Victimization was classified as non-violent, social, unclear and violent. Non-violent victimization occurred in 19.03% (2001 to 24.46% (2004. Abuse of mental patients was recorded in 16.08% (2002 and 22.61% (2000, and abuse of power in 2.12% (2000 and 3.55% (2000, whereas unclear rape occurred in 0.88% (2004 and 1.74% (2002. We have found that patients from the primary group are significantly more anxious and depressed in total score and in individual items. Conclusion: Non-violent victimization was committed by persons with impaired intelligence, acute psychotic crisis, and substance abuse. Social victimization and criminally unclear rapes were of transitional character. Victimization was caused by (postwar anomy, poverty, stress and violence. It is given insufficient significance because of high prevalence and "dark number" of victims. The study emphasizes the role of psychiatry as well as weakness of the system in the

  6. Nutritional properties of poppyseed oil relative to some other oils.

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L; Nera, E A; Levin, O L


    Male Wistar rats were fed a purified basal diet with 20% lard and corn oil (3:1), sunflower oil, poppyseed oil, low-erucic rapeseed oil from Brassica napus, cultivar Tower, or mixtures of these oils, for 1 or 26 weeks. None of the hearts exhibited lipidosis at 1 week. At 26 weeks, the level of serum triglycerides was higher in rats fed the mixture of lard and corn oil than in those fed only vegetable oil, and the incidence of cardiac necrosis and fibrosis was higher in rats fed the rapeseed oil than in the other animals. Cardiac phospholipids in rats fed the rapeseed oil contained an elevated level of omega 3 docosahexaenoic acid, particularly in phosphatidylethanolamine. Poppyseed oil exhibited properties similar to those of sunflower oil, was absorbed as well as olive oil, and appeared to be a promising oil for human consumption.

  7. The effect of mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis of lignite and rapeseed

    Onay, O [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School; Usta, C.; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    This study was conducted to determine the influence of lignite on the yield and chemical structure of bio-oil produced from rapeseed using a fast pyrolysis technique. The rapeseed and lignite mixtures were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor. Heating rates and temperatures were controlled by a PID controller. Char yield after pyrolysis was determined from the overall weight losses of the reactor tube, while the liquid phase was collected in a glass liner. Experiments were conducted using a range of blending ratios. While final pyrolysis temperatures were set at 550 degrees C. An elemental analyzer was used to characterize the rapeseed and pyrolysis bio-oils. Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) was used to conduct functional group compositional analyses. The study showed that conversion degree increased with temperature increases. Yields of both conversion and oil increased with biomass concentration. However, distribution between conversion and oil was influenced by the blending ratio. A maximum yield of oil was obtained with a 5 per cent blending ratio of lignite. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis of rapeseed and coal at a temperature of 550 degrees C increases production by more than 11 per cent. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. Monitoring `Renewable resources`. Vegetable oils and other fuels from plants. Third status report; Monitoring `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe`. Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen. Dritter Sachstandsbericht

    Roesch, C.


    The present status report `vegetable oils and other fuels from plants` deals with important developments on the utilization of biofuels in spark ignition engines and diesel engines since presentation of the report `growing raw materials` of the Enquete comission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. The report deals mainly with rapeseed oil and rape seed oil fatty acid methyl ester produced from this (mentioned short of biodiesel) as well as with bioethanol made from sugar beet and grain. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Sachstandsbericht `Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen` beschaeftigt sich mit den wichtigsten Entwicklungen beim Einsatz von Biokraftstoffen in Otto- und Dieselmotoren seit Vorlage des Berichts `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe` der Enquete-Kommission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. Der Bericht befasst sich schwerpunktmaessig mit Rapsoel und daraus hergestelltem Rapsoelfettsaeuremethylester (kurz Biodiesel genannt) sowie mit aus Zuckerrueben und Getreide erzeugtem Bioethanol. (orig./SR)

  9. Transesterification of rapeseed oil to biodiesel using hydrotalcite-supported potassium salt as catalyst%水滑石负载钾盐催化酯交换反应合成生物柴油

    吴雁; 王豪; 钟婷; 肖乐; 屈敏敏


    以水滑石为载体,负载钾盐作为酯交换合成生物柴油的催化剂,采用XRD、Hammett指示剂-苯甲酸滴定、N2吸附-脱附、TG-DSC研究了活性组分和载体类型、焙烧温度和时间以及负载量对催化剂碱性和酯交换活性的影响.H-介于9.3 ~15的中强碱量是决定催化剂活性的主要因素.钾与水滑石高温焙烧形成的相互作用物种是催化剂中强碱性的主要来源.在K2CO3、KF、KAc和KNO3活性组分中,K2co3中强碱量最高,以水滑石比以其焙烧产物为载体有更高的中强碱量和活性.过高的焙烧温度、时间和负载量都使中强碱量和活性下降.K2CO3负载量20%,450°C焙烧4h得到的催化剂有最高的中强碱量和活性,生物柴油转化率达98.5%.%A series of hydrotalcite-supported potassium salt catalysts were prepared to catalyze the tranaesterification of rapeseed oil for producing biodiesel. The hydrotalcite with Mg/Al molar ratio of 3.06 was synthesized by coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) , Hammett indicator-benzoic acid titration, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry(TG-DSC)were used to determine the effect of active species,support,preparation conditions and potassium contents on the crystal structure,basicity strength,basicity amount distribution and catalytic activity of the catalysts. It is found that the moderate-strong basic sites with the basicity strength of 9. 3

  10. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Hiroshi Maeda


    Evaluation of function-enriched edible oils: Preventive effect of lipid peroxidation; (a Heat exposure: Commercial rape-seed oil and extra virgin oil were used as controls. For preparation of the test samples (function fortified oils of tomato-juice waste-residue and grape wine- ferment waste-residues, it is described in above section (1. All oil preparations were exposed to high temperature at 150oC and peroxide value (POV, acid value and TBARS were measured at various times as described. The methods of measurements of POV, acid value and TBARS were adapted conventional standard method described elsewhere. (b Light exposure: Similar to (a they were exposed to excessive light using Nippon Ikaga Kikai (Tokyo, LH-200-RDS equipped with fluorescent light tube (x3, NEC FL40S-2XN, 3.2K lux at 390-730nm. Result and Discussions: (1 Extraction of carotenoids etc. Modern edible oil refining processes are highly elaborated and efficient. The most of the commercial edible oils in the market are so purified that many important antioxidant components are mostly removed during refining process. Oils became mostly colorless and odorless; and they lack are devoid of anti-oxidative or radical scavenging components. We measured anti-alkyl peroxy radical (ROO.-scavenging activity, and found that many commercial oils have very little such activity (Figure 1. Many disposal- of tomato juice or extraction waste-residues in wine making, yet contained significant amount of functionally useful components that may be recovered by immersing the dried waste residues in the functionally poor oil, ie., low grade oils. Figure 2A, B shows it was indeed possible to recover such component like lycopene and carotenoids, and the spectrum of this oil exhibits multiple peaks correspond tomato lycopene. (2 Antioxidation activity: (a Acid value after light and heat exposure. Commercial highly purified edible oils are vulnerable for oxidation and resulting in lipid or alkyl hydroperoxides formation (ROOH, which

  11. 利用GC/MS分析草鱼内脏鱼油和菜籽油的脂肪酸组成%Comparative analysis of fatty acids composition in grass carp oil and rapeseed oil using GC/MS method

    胡卫强; 宋军; 刘忠义


    采用气质联用法对草鱼内脏鱼油和菜籽油的脂肪酸组成进行分析测定.结果表明,草鱼内脏鱼油中共检测出19种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸有7种,不饱和脂肪酸有12种;菜籽油中共检出14种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸有5种,不饱和脂肪酸有9种,两者脂肪酸的主要组成均为不饱和脂肪酸.因此可以利用草鱼内脏鱼油制备生物柴油.%The compositions of fatty acids in both grass carp oil and rap-seed oil are investigated by gas chromatography - mass spectrom-etry (GC/MS). The results showed that nineteen fatty acids, including seven saturated fatty acids and twelve unsaturated fatty acids, were identified in grass carp oil, and fourteen fatty acids, including five saturated fatty acids and nine unsaturated fatty acids, were detected in rap-seed oil. Unsaturated fatty acids are the main compositions in both oils. The results could indicate the grass carp oil was used to prepare biodiesel.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.


    ... an emulsifier as defined in § 170.3(o)(8) of this chapter in shortenings for cake mixes. The use... served, of 4 percent of the shortening or 0.5 percent of the total weight of the cake mix. (c) Low...

  13. Using the GENESYS model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on gene escape from GM rape varieties to evaluate and design cropping systems

    Colbach Nathalie


    Full Text Available Gene flow in rapeseed is a process taking place both in space and over the years and cannot be studied exclusively by field trials. Consequently, the GENESYS model was developed to quantify the effects of cropping systems on transgene escape from rapeseed crops to rapeseed volunteers in neighbour plots and in the subsequent crops. In the present work, this model was used to evaluate the risk of rape harvest contamination by extraneous genes in various farming systems in case of co-existing GM, conventional and organic crops. When 50 % of the rape varieties in the region were transgenic, the rate of GM seeds in non-GM crop harvests on farms with large fields was lower than the 0.9 % purity threshold proposed by the EC for rape crop production (food and feed harvests, but on farms with smaller fields, the threshold was exceeded. Harvest impurity increased in organic farms, mainly because of their small field size. The model was then used to evaluate the consequences of changes in farming practices and to identify those changes reducing harvest contamination. The effects of these changes depended on the field pattern and farming system. The most efficient practices in limiting harvest impurity comprised improved set-aside management by sowing a cover crop in spring on all set-aside fields in the region, permanently banning rape crops and set-aside around seed production fields and (for non-GM farmers clustering farm fields to reduce gene inflow from neighbour fields.

  14. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A


    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  15. Strigolactones Improve Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, and Alleviate Oxidative Stress under Salinity in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by Regulating Gene Expression

    Ni Ma


    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is a very important edible oil crop in the world, and the production is inhibited by abiotic stresses, such as salinity. Plant hormones can alleviate the stress by regulating the physiological processes and gene expression. To study the plant responses to salinity in combination with GR24, a synthesized strigolactone, the oilseed rape variety (Zhongshuang 11 replications were grown in the pots in a controlled growth chamber under three levels of salinity (0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl and 0.18 μM GR24 treatments at the seedling stage for 7 days. The results showed that salinity depressed the shoots and roots growth, whereas GR24 improved the growth under salt stress. Leaf chlorophyll contents and gas exchange parameters (net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate were also reduced significantly with increasing salinity, and these effects could be partially reversed by GR24 application. Additionally, GR24 treatment significantly increased and decreased the photosystem II quantum yield and non-photochemical quenching, respectively, under salinity stress conditions. The activities of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased, and lipid peroxidation measured by the level of malondialdehyde reduced due to GR24 application. The transcriptome analysis of root and shoot was conducted. Three hundred and forty-two common differentially expressed genes (DEGs after GR24 treatment and 166 special DEGs after GR24 treatment under salinity stress were identified in root and shoot. The DEGs in root were significantly more than that in shoot. Quantitative PCR validated that the stress alleviation was mainly related to the gene expression of tryptophan metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and photosynthesis.

  16. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski,Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa


    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B....

  17. The costs of rape.

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M


    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization.

  18. Rapeseed market, worldwide and in Europe

    Carré Patrick; Pouzet André


    Global rapeseed production has undergone sustained growth over the past 20 years. Having surpassed cottonseed production in the early 2000’s, it is now the second most produced oilseed behind soybeans. The major producers are China, India, Canada and European Union (27). During this same period, rapeseed crushing has risen strongly, Europe being the major player in this expansion (development of biodiesel) followed to a lesser extent by ...

  19. Seed losses during the harvesting of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. at on-farm scale

    L. Pari


    Full Text Available In the Italian environments, the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is subjected, at ripening, to a seed shattering causing significant losses that reduce the yield and increase the oilseed rape seedbank in the soil. Meteorological events and mechanical harvesting are the main factors affecting the extent of seed dispersal. Lacking the availability of works investigating the actual losses during the harvest at large scale, the Consiglio per la sperimentazione e la ricerca in agricoltura, Unità di ricerca per l’ingegneria agraria (CRA-ING has conducted a study in order to determine the effective seed losses at on-farm scale. The amount of losses of two combine headers, traditional for wheat and specific for oilseed rape harvest, was compared. The rapeseed header had a hydraulic sliding cut-bar and two vertical electric blade on both sides in order to reduce the pulling and tearing action between the cut-off plants and those still standing. The seed losses were evaluated before and during the harvesting by using plastic trays placed on the ground within the crop rows. The trays were arranged in a layout allowing the estimation of the seed losses of three different sectors of the combine headers. The results have demonstrated that, at farm level, the use of a specific oilseed rape header adapted and optimized for the crop requirements allows to obtain a level of seed losses (0,97% of total production, below the values reported in literature. For rapeseed, the higher losses are localized at the final parts of the head, where the plants are strictly intertwined.

  20. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Tao Ren


    Full Text Available Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR and cotton–rapeseed (CR rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg− 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha− 1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR. In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha− 1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  1. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.)

    Tao; Ren; Hui; Li; Jianwei; Lu; Rongyan; Bu; Xiaokun; Li; Rihuan; Cong; Mingxing; Lu


    Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed(RR) and cotton–rapeseed(CR) rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization,seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen(N)fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg- 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha- 1was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate(EONFR). In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha- 1lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  2. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Tao Ren; Hui Li; Jianwei Lu; Rongyan Bu; Xiaokun Li; Rihuan Cong; Mingxing Lu


    Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR) and cotton–rapeseed (CR) rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N) fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg−1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha−1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR). In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha−1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  3. Rape: Counseling the Traumatized Victim

    Heppner, P. Paul; Heppner, Mary


    There are at least three goals of intensive rape counseling: identifying and accepting feelings, reorienting perceptions, attributions, and self-statements, and resuming a normal lifestyle. Various counseling techniques can be employed to help rape victims restructure cognitions to reduce negative self-evaluations, physical distress, and loss of…

  4. If Your Child is Raped

    ... a program set up specially to care for rape victims. The national sexual assault hotline at (800) 656-HOPE is one you ... treated. A medical professional will perform an external examination on your ... by the rape. A medical professional or trained technician may look ...

  5. Rhizoremediation of Diesel-Contaminated Soil with Two Rapeseed Varieties and Petroleum degraders Reveals Different Responses of the Plant Defense Mechanisms

    Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Żukowska, Weronika; Graj, Weronika;


    -up process. To understand the response of plants upon bioaugmentation, the antioxidative and detoxification system was analyzed in high and low erucic acid rapeseed varieties (HEAR and LEAR, respectively), after 8 weeks of their treatment with petroleum degraders and 6000 mg diesel oil/kg dry soil...... nor HEAR experienced any changes in the photosynthetic capacity upon diesel pollution and presence of petroleum degraders, which supports the usefulness of rhizoremediation with rapeseed....

  6. 响应面法优化油菜秸秆真空热解液化工艺及生物油分析1%Bio-Oil Analysis and Optimization of Bio-Oil Yield from Vacuum Pyrolysis of Rape Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

    樊永胜; 蔡忆昔; 李小华; 张蓉仙; 尹海云; 俞宁


    Bio-oil yield from rape straw vacuum pyrolysis was optimized. Pyrolysis temperature, reactor pressure and heating rate were selected as independent variables and the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to obtain maximum bio-oil yield. Moreover, the physical properties and composition of the bio-oil produced under optimal conditions were analyzed. The results show that pyrolysis temperature,reactor pressure and heating rate have obvious effects on bio-oil yield, and pyrolysis temperature and heating rate have a significant interaction. The optimal conditions for bio-oil yield were obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 490.0℃, system pressure of 5.0 kPa and heating rate of 20.0℃?min?1. Confirmation runs gave 41.65% of bio-oil yield compared to 42.00% of predicted value. Water content and high heat value of the bio-oil were 33.85% and 18.65 MJ?kg?1 respectively, and its dynamic viscosity at room temperature, density and pH value were 4.16 mm2?s?1, 1.14 g?cm?3 and 2.32, respectively. The bio-oil obtained from rape straw is a complex mixture. It is highly-oxygenated with a great amount of organics, which mainly include aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, alcohols and aromatics. Some organic compounds could be further extracted as industrial raw materials. Further study on upgrading of bio-oil from vacuum pyrolysis of rape straw should be performed in future.%以油菜秸秆为原料,采用真空热解系统进行了制取生物油的中心组合实验研究,以热解终温、体系压力和升温速率为实验因子,生物油产率为实验指标,利用响应面法(RSM)对制备生物油的工艺参数进行了优化,并对在最优条件下制取的生物油进行了理化特性和化学组成分析.研究结果表明,热解终温、体系压力和升温速率对生物油产率有显著影响,热解终温和升温速率之间的交互作用显著;获得最佳热解液化工艺条件为:热解终温490.0℃、体系压力5.0 kPa、升温速率20.0

  7. Plasticity of seed weight compensates reductions in seed number of oilseed rape in response to shading at flowering

    Labra Fernandez, Marcelo; Struik, Paul C.; Evers, Jochem B.; Calderini, Daniel F.


    Understanding the response of the number of seeds and seed weight to the availability of assimilates is crucial for designing breeding strategies aimed to increase seed and oil yield in oilseed rape. This study aims to answer the questions: i) do seed number and seed weight in oilseed rape differ in

  8. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Boakye, Kofi E.


    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  9. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg;


    content and quality were significantly reduced, except in the scenario with elevated [CO2] alone. Of the six analyzed fatty acids five - oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3, omega-3), palmitic (C16:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1) - showed reductions, the only exception being...... stearic acid, C 18:0. For example we found that in the two factor treatment, where elevated [CO2] and temperature were combined, the essential fatty acid omega-3, C18:3, decreased by 45% and oil content declined 10%.Total losses in fatty acid and oil yields would be even larger, when also considering...... fatty acids was changed for the worse. Facing this outlook, breeding for climate tolerant cultivars seems essential for oil yield and quality. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V...

  10. 黑暗条件下逆境胁迫诱导油菜籽次生休眠%Induction of Secondary Dormancy in Rapeseeds under Various Stress Conditions in Darkness


    @@ Oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) harvested from mature plants require only imbibition of water and a suitable temperature. Despite this absence of primary dormancy, there is evidence that rapeseeds, due to the induction of secondary dormancy, are able to persist in the field for up to 10 years, and thus can emerge as volunteer plants in later crops. In addition, volunteers originate from seeds shed before and during harvest. The level of seed losses is influenced by the timing and technique of harvest, and can reach several thousand seeds per m2. As a consequence of both these effects, problems from volunteer rape occur frequently in subsequent crops.

  11. HZSM-5分子筛催化热裂解油菜秸秆制取精制生物油%Catalytic pyrolysis of rape straw for upgraded bio-oil production using HZSM-5 zeolite

    俞宁; 蔡忆昔; 李小华; 樊永胜; 尹海云; 张蓉仙


    Catalytic upgrading of the vapors from rape straw vacuum pyrolysis was conducted over HZSM-5 zeolite in a fixed bed reactor. Univariate analysis was employed in this study to investigate the effects of the operating parameters, including catalyst quality, Si/Al ratio of catalyst, and catalyzing temperature, on the product yields and the composition of upgraded bio-oil. Based on the univariate analysis, the preliminary operating parameters of catalytic reactor were optimized. The results showed that, when the catalyzing temperature was 500℃and HZSM-5 (Si/Al=50) quality was 60 g, a lower oxygen content (27.97 percent), higher heating value (30.14kJ/kg-1), and a lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (0.12) were obtained. Moreover, the components of the obtained bio-oil contained a small amount of high oxygen contents, such as aldehydes, acids, and ketones. Meanwhile, phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons obviously increased. Product distribution and yield between upgraded bio-oil and crude bio-oil was also compared to study the catalytic refining effects and catalytic deoxygenation performance of HZSM-5 zeolite. This capacity of HZSM-5 zeolite was the key to make up for the two shortcomings of crude bio-oil, which were corrosivity and instability. The catalyst quality had significant effects on the properties of the upgraded bio-oil. Catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors was incomplete when the catalyst quality was not high enough. However, when the catalyst quality was excessive, a decreased yield of upgraded oil resulted due to excessive secondary cracking reactions. In this study, the quality ratio of the catalyst to biomass was about 0.4. Catalyzing temperature also had an important effect on the properties of upgraded oil. When the catalyzing temperature was lower, the activation energy could not meet the needs of cracking reactions, and the catalytic effect was poor. When the catalyzing temperature was higher than optimal value, deactivation of the catalyst resulted

  12. Methane production and digestion of different physical forms of rapeseed as fat supplements in dairy cows.

    Brask, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R; Hellwing, A L F; Poulsen, M; Larsen, M K; Hvelplund, T


    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed fat on methane (CH4) mitigation properties, feed digestion, and rumen fermentation. Four lactating ruminal-, duodenal-, and ileal-cannulated Danish Holstein dairy cows (143 d in milk, milk yield of 34.3 kg) were submitted to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 rations: 1 control with rapeseed meal (low-fat, CON) and 3 fat-supplemented rations with either rapeseed cake (RSC), whole cracked rapeseed (WCR), or rapeseed oil (RSO). Dietary fat concentrations were 3.5 in CON, 5.5 in RSC, 6.2 in WCR, and 6.5% in RSO. The amount of fat-free rapeseed was kept constant for all rations. The forage consisted of corn silage and grass silage and the forage to concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Diurnal samples of duodenal and ileal digesta and feces were compiled. The methane production was measured for 4 d in open-circuit respiration chambers. Additional fat reduced the CH4 production per kilogram of dry matter intake and as a proportion of the gross energy intake by 11 and 14%, respectively. Neither the total tract nor the rumen digestibility of organic matter (OM) or neutral detergent fiber were significantly affected by the treatment. Relating the CH4 production to the total-tract digested OM showed a tendency to decrease CH4 per kilogram of digested OM for fat-supplemented rations versus CON. The acetate to propionate ratio was not affected for RSC and WCR but was increased for RSO compared with CON. The rumen ammonia concentration was not affected by the ration. The milk and energy-corrected milk yields were unaffected by the fat supplementation. In conclusion, rapeseed is an appropriate fat source to reduce the enteric CH4 production without affecting neutral detergent fiber digestion or milk production. The physical form of fat did not influence the CH4-reducing effect of rapeseed fat. However, differences in the volatile fatty acid pattern indicate that different

  13. Physiological Differences Between Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L.) with Different Testa Characteristics During Artificial Ageing

    ZHANG Xue-kun; YANG Gui-tang; CHEN Li; LI Jia-na; TANG Zhang-lin


    Yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a new kind of breeding resources with yellow color, increased oil and protein content and less unwanted crude fiber content due to the thinner and transparent testa compared with traditional black or brown-seeded rapeseed. To analyze the longevity of the yellow-seeded rapeseed during storage, the physiological differences between the yellow and black-seeded near-isogenic lines were studied by artificial ageing method. The testa rate, anthocyanin content and melanin content of yellow-seeded rapeseeds decreased by 20.1, 25.2, and 80.4% respectively than black-seeded rapeseed. During artificial ageing, the yellow-seeded rapeseed showed significantly different effect of ageing compared with the black-seeded, as demonstrated by faster deterioration with lower germination percentage, seed vigour index, reducing sugar and soluble protein contents than the black-seeded, as well as a drastic increase in electrical conductivity, malnodialdehyde (MDA) content and a rapid decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT)and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results suggested that the transparent testa of the yellow-seeded rapeseed lost some abilities to protect the embryo against adverse environmental conditions and thus led to a poor storability.

  14. The tribological behaviour and tribochemical study of B-N type borate esters in rapeseed oil—compound versus salt

    Yan, J.; Zeng, X.; Heide, van der E.; Ren, T.; Zhao, Y.D.


    Two novel borate ester additives, (2-(2-(bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)ethoxy)-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-4-yl)methyl oleate and a tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine salt of (2-hydroxy-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-4-yl)methyl oleate were prepared and used as anti-wear and extreme pressure agents in rapeseed oil. The tribological p

  15. Effect of Tocopherol on Antioxygenic Properties of Green Lubricating Oil

    XIAO Zhixin; SHI Chen; MAO Daheng


    Based on the needs of green motor oil, and in order to improve the antioxidation properties of green lubricating oil, the effect of tocopherol antioxidation properties of rapeseed oil was studied. Experiments of high temperature oxidation, antiwear and infra-red spectrum analysis were accomplished, the results show that the rapeseed oil including tocopherol can still keeps steady structure after high temperature oxidation, with a small variety of acid number, whose antioxygenic properties are improved evidently. Meanwhile, both thiocarbamate and vitamin C play an assistant role in tocopherol, which can make rapeseed oil to have better oxidation stability and keep excellent antiwear properties after high temperature oxidation.

  16. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg;


    significantly reduced, except in the scenario with elevated [CO2] alone. Of the six analyzed fatty acids five - oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3, omega-3), palmitic (C16:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1) - showed reductions, the only exception being stearic acid, C18:0. For example we...... found that in the two- factor treatment, where elevated [CO2] and temperature were combined, the essential fatty acid omega-3, C18:3, decreased by 45% and oil content declined 10%.Total losses in fatty acid and oil yields would be even larger, when also considering reported reductions in seed biomass...... in the future scenarios (2,3): We estimate that when [CO2] and temperature are elevated simultaneously, the oil yield per hectare will drop 58% and the production of omega-3 (C18:3) will be reduced by 77%/hectare. Also the proportion between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was changed for the worse...

  17. Erucic acid rapeseed: 1. Prospects of improvements

    Sanyal Anushree


    Full Text Available In the current context of boosting production of high erucic acid rapeseed, because of the wide range of its industrial applications, this literature review is designed to provide a general overview of available varieties, current knowledge of plant improvement and paths of developing research to increase competitiveness of varieties with high erucic acid content. A limited market dominated by a few companies, cropping burdens of high erucic acid rapeseed varieties among the majority “00” varieties and the still low erucic acid content in rapeseed, explains the reduced and uncompetitive varietal offers. To improve this situation, new varieties could be developed, thanks to the classical methods of selection and biotechnology.

  18. Effects of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-1 on roots of wheat and oil seed rape quantified using X-ray Computed Tomography and real-time PCR

    Craig J. Sturrock


    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes significant establishment and yield losses to several important food crops globally. This is the first application of high resolution X-ray micro Computed Tomography (X-ray µCT and real-time PCR to study host-pathogen interactions in situ and elucidate the mechanism of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease over a 6-day period caused by R. solani, anastomosis group (AG 2-1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gallant and oil seed rape (OSR, Brassica napus cv. Marinka. Temporal, non-destructive analysis of root system architectures was performed using RooTrak and validated by the destructive method of root washing. Disease was assessed visually and related to pathogen DNA quantification in soil using real-time PCR. R. solani AG2-1 at similar initial DNA concentrations in soil was capable of causing significant damage to the developing root systems of both wheat and OSR. Disease caused reductions in primary root number, root volume, root surface area and convex hull which were affected less in the monocotyledonous host. Wheat was more tolerant to the pathogen, exhibited fewer symptoms and developed more complex root system. In contrast, R. solani caused earlier damage and maceration of the taproot of the dicot, OSR. Disease severity was related to pathogen DNA accumulation in soil only for OSR, however reductions in root traits were significantly associated with both disease and pathogen DNA. The method offers the first steps in advancing current understanding of soil-borne pathogen behaviour in situ at the pore scale, which may lead to the development of mitigation measures to combat disease influence in the field.

  19. Food and biomass production in small oil expression facilities

    Kato, H.; Kanai, G.; Yakushido, K. [National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan). Biomass Production and Processing Research Team


    This paper reported on a study in which rapeseeds were separated into high quality seed for food oil and low quality seed for biofuels. A laboratory-scale oilseed screw press was then used to examine the effects of choke opening and seed preheating on the rapeseed pressing performance and the quality of food oil and biofuels oil. Oil recovery and chlorophyll content was found to increase as maximum pressure increased. In terms of pressing performance, the rapeseed heated by microwaves yielded more oil and chlorophyll than without heating. The NEB ratio of microwave heating press with an 8.0 mm choke opening was advantageous. Rapeseed oil extracted from low quality seeds was found to have a high acid value. The quality of oil extracted by oilseed screw press was found to be good and met the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for edible oils.

  20. Rape and the Serial Rapist


    his victim. This suggest a deliberate attempt to distance himself from his victim and dehumanize the act in much the same manner as prostitutes do...childhood history. Notes 1 U.S. Congress, Senate, Conunittee on the Judiciary, Violence Against Women ; The Increase of Rape in America 1990. hearing...9 April 1986, (Washington: GPO, 1986), 58. 3 U.S Congress, Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Violence Against Women . The Increase of Rape in

  1. Unusual effects of some vegetable oils on the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Huang, M Z; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Nagatsu, A; Sakakibara, J; Okuyama, H


    Preliminary experiments have shown that a diet containing 10% rapeseed oil (low-erucic acid) markedly shortens the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats under 1% NaCl loading as compared with diets containing perilla oil or soybean oil. High-oleate safflower oil and high-oleate sunflower oil were found to have survival time-shortening activities comparable to that of rapeseed oil; olive oil had slightly less activity. A mixture was made of soybean oil, perilla oil, and triolein partially purified from high-oleate sunflower oil to adjust the fatty acid composition to that of rapeseed oil. The survival time of this triolein/mixed oil group was between those of the rapeseed oil and soybean oil groups. When 1% NaCl was replaced with tap water, the survival time was prolonged by approximately 80%. Under these conditions, the rapeseed oil and evening primrose oil shortened the survival time by approximately 40% as compared with n-3 fatty acid-rich perilla and fish oil; lard, soybean oil, and safflower oil with relatively high n-6/n-3 ratios shortened the survival time by roughly 10%. The observed unusual survival time-shortening activities of some vegetable oils (rapeseed, high-oleate safflower, high-oleate sunflower, olive, and evening primrose oil) may not be due to their unique fatty acid compositions, but these results suggest that these vegetable oils contain factor(s) which are detrimental to SHRSP rats.

  2. Winter rape. The handbook for professionals; Winterraps. Das Handbuch fuer Profis

    Christen, O. [Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeinen Pflanzenbau/Oekologischen Landbau; Friedt, W. (eds.) [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Pflanzenzuechtung, IFZ


    Winter rape is a successive culture from the unloved step-child to an efficient and productive oil fruit with manifold possibilities of application. The handbook under consideration describes all relevant fundamentals of a successful cultivation of rape from preparation of the seed-bed up to sowing and harvest. Furthermore, problems of agricultural hygiene and plant protection are described. The storage and competent marketing are special challenges of each plant manager. The reader gains an insight into the entire application and use of winter rape in the range of food and non-food materials: to rape oil as an example for human range and in different possibilities of technical utilizations such as biofuel and machine oil. Furthermore, the use of winter rape as animal food is described. This book contains a lot of information about economical factors, performance of winter rape for the crop rotation and hints according to an optimization of the cultivation process. This book is an actual and valuable source for farmers, consultants as well as students and pupils.

  3. China's Rapeseed Trade Growth and Determinants%中国油菜籽贸易增长及其影响因素

    司伟; 吕新业


    Having the evolution of China's rapeseed trade policies and the prediction of rapeseed trade growth over the next 10 years by the international agencies as background,the paper studied China's rapeseed trade determinants in the future,and explained the economic phenomena of China's rapeseed import continuous growth,especially the import surge in 2009.The results showed that China's trade policies on oilseed crops settled the trade quantity and trade structure of rapeseed and its products.In addition,the price differentials between domestic and international market,the increasing opportunity cost of engaging in rape production and China's resources endowments in agricultural sector all determined the long-term trade trend of China's rapeseed and its products.%以油菜籽贸易政策的演变为背景,结合国际机构对油菜籽贸易的预测,研究了油菜籽贸易的决定因素,回答了2005年以来中国油菜籽进口的持续增长,特别是2009年进口激增,是偶然现象还是历史必然。结果表明,中国油料贸易政策决定了油菜籽及其制品的贸易规模和贸易结构,除此之外,中国市场和国际市场油菜籽价差、农户从事油菜生产机会成本的增加、中国农业生产的资源禀赋等3个因素决定了油菜籽及其制品的长期贸易发展趋势。

  4. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado


    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.


    Muhammad Endriyo Susila


    Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law.    Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she

  6. Can rapeseed lower methane emission from heifers?

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis


    Twelve heifers were assigned to either a control diet (CON) with 26 g fat per kg dry matter (DM) or a supplemented diet (FAT) with crushed rapeseed with 53 g fat per kg DM. Methane (CH4) emission was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for four days when the heifers weighed approximately...

  7. Rape reporting: "Classic Rape" and the behavior of law.

    Clay-Warner, Jody; McMahon-Howard, Jennifer


    Two theories of rape reporting, the Classic Rape perspective and Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law, are tested in this article. We offer the first comprehensive multivariate test of Classic Rape predictions among a nationally representative sample of victims, as well as the first test of Black's predictions for rape reporting. Through the construction of multinomial regression models, we are able to examine reporting patterns for both victims and third parties. Weapon use and physical injury consistently predicted reporting. The likelihood of victim reporting significantly increased when assaults occurred either in public or through a "home blitz," whereas place of assault did not affect the likelihood of third-party reporting. On the other hand, victim-offender relationship significantly affected the likelihood of third-party reporting but was not significant in the victim-reporting models. There were mixed findings regarding Black's stratification and morphology predictions, and we found no significant effects for culture, organization, or social control. Overall, these findings lend greater support to the Classic Rape perspective than to Black's model.

  8. Oppression through acceptance?: predicting rape myth acceptance and attitudes toward rape victims.

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Hoffman, Bethany H; Smith, Sara J; Craig, Adam W


    Feminist theories of rape motivation are based on research suggesting a relationship between dominance and sexual aggression. However, the relationship between dominance and rape myth acceptance (RMA), a predictor of rape proclivity and sexual aggression and a key component in feminist theory, is understudied. The current study tests the hypotheses that individuals' scores on sex-based oppression and intergroup dominance measures will improve the predictive models for RMA and attitudes toward rape and rape victims. The hypotheses are supported. Individuals' general intergroup dominance and sex-based oppression attitudes provide significant unique prediction beyond previously studied predictors of attitudes about rape and rape victims.

  9. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria


    in silence due to the stigma and humiliation attached to the public acknowledgement of rape ... interlocks with gender relations and inequality to deny justice to rape victims. ... the role of women lawyers and other women's organizations should.

  10. 基于Web of Science近10年油菜研究态势分析%Research Trends Analysis of Oilseed Rape During Recent 10 Years Based on Web of Science

    张文宇; 张伟欣; 葛道阔; 曹宏鑫; 刘岩; 冯春焕; 陈魏涛


    research papers and the highly cited papers were mainly from Europe countries and the United States. The research hotspots in oilseed rape were Brassica napus L., rapeseed oil, biodiesel, gene expression, and so on.

  11. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie


    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  12. Solid-liquid phase equilibrium of rapeseed protein and phenols%菜籽蛋白和酚的固-液相平衡

    刘晔; 沈娜娜; 刘大川


    With precipitation rate of rapeseed protein and partition coefficient of rapeseed protein-phe-nols as indexes, the solid-liquid phase equilibrium of coexistence system of rapeseed protein and phe-nols was studied so as to explore approaches for eliminating the phenols contamination in rapeseed pro-tein, and the improvement measures of extraction process of rapeseed protein was proposed based on the phase behavior characteristics. The results showed that in the alkaline environment, the coprecipitation of rapeseed protein with tannin or rapeseed polyphenols occurred and became more significant with concen-tration increasing;rapeseed protein showed the lowest solubility and its interactions with tannin or rape-seed polyphenols were the weakest at pH 4;the separation effect of rapeseed protein and phenols was fur-ther improved when 1% NaCl was added. Solvent dosage( ratio of liquid to solid) , pH and NaCl dosage had effects on the interactions between rapeseed protein and phenols in the extraction or enrichment process of rapeseed protein, and the optimization of these parameters was beneficial to enhance the selec-tivity of rapeseed protein extraction and reduce the contamination of phenols.%为探索消除菜籽蛋白中酚污染的技术途径,采用菜籽蛋白沉淀率和菜籽蛋白-酚分配系数为指标,考察了菜籽蛋白与酚共存体系的固-液相平衡关系,并基于相行为特征提出了菜籽蛋白提取工艺的改进措施。结果表明:在碱性环境下,酚酸和单宁均可与菜籽蛋白发生共沉淀作用,且浓度越高该作用越显著;在pH 4环境下,菜籽蛋白不仅溶解度最低,而且与单宁或菜籽多酚的结合作用最弱;而在溶液中添加1%的NaCl有利于进一步提升菜籽蛋白和酚的分离效果。在菜籽蛋白的富集或提取工艺中,溶剂用量(液固比)、pH以及盐添加量都可对菜籽蛋白和酚的相互作用产生影响,对这些参数的优化将有利于提

  13. Rapeseed and sunflower meal: a review on biotechnology status and challenges.

    Lomascolo, Anne; Uzan-Boukhris, Eva; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Fine, Frédéric


    Rapeseed and sunflower are two of the world's major oilseeds. Rapeseed and sunflower meal (RSM and SFM), the by-products of oil extraction, are produced in large quantities. They are mainly composed of proteins, lignocellulosic fibres and minerals. They were initially used as a protein complement in animal feed rations and sometimes as fertilizer or as combustible source. More recently, new alternatives to these traditional uses have been developed that draw on the structure and physicochemical properties of RSM and SFM, which are plentiful sources of nitrogen and carbon nutrients. This feature, together with their cheapness and ready availability, supports the cultivation of various microorganisms in both submerged cultures and solid-state fermentation. Recent studies have thus emphasized the potential utilisation of RSM and SFM in fermentative processes, including saccharification and production of enzymes, antibiotics, antioxidants and other bio-products, opening new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  14. Process optimization of biodiesel production from wild rapeseed (Brassica campestris

    Héctor Ramírez


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were, to optimize the performance of biodiesel from rapeseed wild oil depending on the molar ratio methanol / oil, the concentration of NaOH and KOH homogeneous catalysts, temperature and time of transesterification through the response surface methodology, and determining the physicochemical characteristics of biodiesel obtained under optimized conditions. A Plackett and Burman (PB12 design was applied for the screening stage and a rotatable central composite design (DCCR for the final optimization. The conditions that maximize the yield of biodiesel (77.8% were obtained at concentrations of 0 to 0.2% NaOH and 0.4 to 0.6% KOH, with time from 77 to 81 minutes, keeping constant the molar ratio of methanol/oil in 6/1 and a temperature of 60 °C. The physicochemical properties of biodiesel obtained under optimized conditions meet the technical specifications given by ASTM D6751 - 07 and EN14214

  15. Use of formulated Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 in combination with reduced rates of chemical pesticide for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorium on oilseed rape

    Sustainable strategies for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape are needed. Here we tested combinations of Trichoderma sp. Tri-1, formulated with oilseed rape seedcake and straw, with reduced application rates of the chemical pesticide Carbendazim for control of this pathogen on oils...

  16. Status of feral oilseed rape in Europe: its minor role as a GM impurity and its potential as a reservoir of transgene persistence

    Squire, Geoffrey R.; Breckling, Broder; Dietz Pfeilstetter, Antje


    Feral oilseed rape has become widespread in Europe on waysides and waste ground. Its potential as a source of GM impurity in oilseed rape harvests is quantified, for the first time, by a consistent analysis applied over a wide range of study areas in Europe. The maximum contribution of feral oils...

  17. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion

    Anke Belter


    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape—cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996—is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period.

  18. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción


    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  19. Marital rape: history, research, and practice.

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A


    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  20. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J


    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  1. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    . A one-way ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significant association between the number of victim calls and the distance to the rape crisis center. The closer the residence of the victim was to the rape crisis center the more victim calls were registered. The study also examined what types of help......Little is known from research about barriers to seeking and receiving help following domestic violence, rape, attempted rape, and sexual assault in Denmark. This study examined possible regional differences in reporting rape and sexual assault in urban and rural communities in a large region...... in Denmark. It was hypothesized that there would be a lower representation of rape victims, measured by the number of calls, to a regional rape crisis center in the rural communities further away from the regional rape crisis center of Aarhus compared to the urban communities closer to the rape crisis center...

  2. On rapeseed meals. Part XXVI. Some remarks on the biological value of rapeseed meal proteins after silage.

    Borowska, J; Cichon, R; Kozłowska, H; Rutkowski


    The influence of propionic bacteria on the biological value of potato-rapeseed meal protein ensilage was investigated. The inoculation of the ensilage with Propionibacterium Petersoni T 112 led to the reduction of the content of goitrogenous compounds (isothiocyanates and oxazolidinethiones) and to an increase of the nutritive value (NPU, PER) of the rapeseed protein. The increase of the protein value is greater by the application of propionic bacteria than by toasting of rapeseed meal.

  3. Valorization of rapeseed grain by-products

    Kormanjos Sandor M.


    Full Text Available After technological processing of rapeseed significant amounts of useful and useless waste products stand out. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, content of glucosinolates, microbiological safety, and presence of mycotoxins and heavy element contents of useful rapeseed by-products which are intended for animal nutrition. Feed components as well as complete mixtures for animal feed must be safe and in accordance with the requirements of the current national regulation. The investigated useful by-products contained significant amounts of proteins (21.80% and fat (33.78%. As a part of the research, extrusion of the mixture containing rapeseed by-products and maize in the ratio of 50:50% was performed. The process of extrusion was carried out at 130 °C. Based on the obtained results it was noticed that the investigated extruded mixture is a convenient protein-energy supplement suitable for animal feed production with significantly reduced glucosinolate content (from 10.30 to 7.82 µmol/g. It was also observed that the extrusion of feed mixture led to the reduction of the number of microorganisms which ensures safe feedstuff for animal feed production.

  4. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus

    Steffi eFritsche


    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q and relative kinship (K as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM+Q and the PK mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93 % of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48 % for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the 2nd panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  5. A re-examination of the technical feasibility and economic viability of rapeseed dehulling

    Carré Patrick


    Full Text Available The recent success of dehulled sunflower meals on the French market encourages reconsideration of the possibility of applying dehulling techniques to rapeseed. Hulls account for 18−20% of rapeseed mass; they contain mostly fibres (72%, 78% and 99%, respectively of the seeds’ NDF, ADF and ADL. Complete removal of these hulls would result in a high (43% protein meal with enhanced added value. However, the technical feasibility of producing such a meal is impeded by the relatively high oil content of the hull fraction. This article presents a model of mass balance that takes account both of the purity of the “hull” and “kernel” fractions and comparisons of gross margins between conventional processing and dehulling-based processing. The value of dehulled rapeseed meal is assessed against both a range of market scenarios and the composition and price of a selection of alternative feeds. The gross margin differential favours dehulling only in periods where proteins are expensive and oil relatively cheap, as at present. Reducing the oil content of the hulls affects considerably the profitability of dehulling whereas modification of the protein content has only a modest impact. An important unknown is the effect of antinutritional factors on the final price of dehulled meals. Management of the glucosinolates residues through processing might decrease their noxiousness though the information on this is scant. Since this lack of knowledge is an impediment to the implementation of dehulling technology, research and development investments should start by addressing this question. Technical solutions could be developed to recover the oil contained in the hulls. Such solutions include expelling, aqueous extraction or tail-end dehulling after direct extraction of the seeds.


    Sainath B Gadhe


    Full Text Available Rape is fourth most common and frequently happening crime against women in India. Among metro cities, has more number of rape cases and compare to developed countries like Latin America developing countries like India has less number of such incidences, where very good security facilities are provided by government and ratio of education is higher. So it proves that illiteracy or security is not major reason behind such assaults but the unawareness about self-protection and inefficient self-protection weapons currently available like Ninja key chain , pepper spray, handgun etc. It is also revealed that in 98% rape cases, culprit is someone close to victim like neighbour or relative, where bureaucrats can’t do much to control as it is not possible to keep watch on each house every time. This paper summarizes current safety weapons available for women self-protection in situations like rape, assaults and adds new perspective of using GPS system and android smartphones for women safety. By implementing and using our proposed system, not only safety of women but also of valuable things will be just a click away at very cheap price and that don't need to be carried separately.

  7. Guidelines For The Rape Examination

    Sullivan, Rebecca A.; Schaefer, Joanne; Goldstein, Frank


    The rape victim presents with legal and psychological problems as well as medical ones. In order to respond to all her needs, the physician must be aware of the legal questions to be answered in the record, the patient's psychological needs in this high stress situation, and the medical problems likely to be encountered.

  8. Uptake and speciation of vanadium in the rhizosphere soils of rape (Brassica juncea L.).

    Tian, Li-Yan; Yang, Jin-Yan; Huang, Jen-How


    The response of rape (Brassica juncea L.) to different vanadium (V) speciation in rhizosphere soils was investigated in pot experiments using an agricultural soil containing 147 mg V kg(-1) supplemented with 0-500 mg V kg(-1) of pentavalent V [V(V)] and a mining soil containing 774 mg V kg(-1). Tetravalent V [V(IV)] accounted for 76.1 and 85.9 % of total V in the untreated agricultural soil and mining soil, respectively. The proportion of both V(V) and water-extractable V increased with increasing concentrations of V(V) in the agricultural soil. The growth of rape substantially reduced the concentrations of V(V) but not V(IV) in the rhizosphere soil, suggesting that V(V) was actively involved in the soil-rape interaction of V. Both soil V(V) and water-extractable V were negatively related to the total rape biomass, but were positively correlated with the concentration of root V. No such relationships were found for total V and soil V(IV). Together, these results indicate that soil V(V) and water-extractable V might better reflect the toxicity of V in soils than total V and soil V(IV). Rape accumulated V in the sequence: roots > > stem > leaf > seed. As indicated by the remarkably low root bioconcentration factor of V(V) (0.41-7.24 %), rape had a lower ability to accumulate V than other plants reported in the literature (14.6-298 %). Only a small fraction of V in rape roots was translocated to the aboveground organs (the translocation factor was 3.57-46.9 %). No V was detectable in seeds in the soils at 147 and 197 mg V kg(-1), and no seed was produced in the soils at higher V concentrations. Thus, the risk of V intake by humans via the consumption of rapeseed-based foods under normal conditions is considered to be lower than that of other plants.

  9. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

    Friedt Wolfgang


    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  10. Degradation of tocopherols during rapeseed storage in simulated conditions of industrial silos

    Gawrysiak-Witulska, Marzena; Siger, Aleksander; Rusinek, Robert


    The investigations consisted in laboratory simulation of conditions prevailing in the real ecosystem in an industrial rapeseed storage facility. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of temperature, moisture, and static pressure on degradation of tocopherols contained in rapeseed. Rapeseed varieties with high oil content were analysed in the investigations. Samples of seeds with 7, 10, 13, and 16% moisture levels were stored at a temperature of 25, 30, and 35°C in specially designed airtight pressure silos for storage in controlled conditions. During the storage, the seeds were subjected to overpressure in the range of 20-60 kPa. The seeds were stored in these conditions for 28 days. It was demonstrated that primarily moisture induced the greatest loss of the total content of tocopherol and its α-T and γ-T homologues, followed by temperature and, to a lesser extent, pressure. In addition, the results obtained showed that, in the case of seeds characterised by higher moisture levels (13 and 16%), an increase in the storage temperature in the range of 25-30°C rather than 30-35°C intensified tocopherol loss more efficiently.

  11. Nutrient and heavy metal content of rapeseed (Brassica napus irrigated with treated wastewater

    Abd El Lateef E. M.


    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted in winter season in two sites located about 20km north east of Cairo; Gabal Asfar farm (fertile soil and Berka site (virgin soil.The trials aimed to evaluate the impact of rapeseed irrigation methods with secondary treated wastewater on yield ,quality trace elements and heavy metal content. The results clearly showed that rapeseed crop was not suited to the virgin soil as the crop produced 10% of the seed yield achieved at the fertile soil. There were significant increases in seed yield, straw and biological yields due to NPK application .Oil yields were 0.312 and 2.304 t ha-1 on virgin and fertile soils, respectively. Treated wastewater supplied rapeseed with 35,43and 156% of the recommended requirements of N, P and K, respectively in the virgin soil while the corresponding values in the fertile soil were 79,96 and191% for N,P and K, respectively. Trace elements and heavy metal additions from wastewater were very small Seed analysis indicated that the ranges of heavy metals were within the normal ranges expected and were far below levels that would be of concern due to the high pH of both sites.

  12. Fluidized bed treatment of rapeseed meal and cake as possibility for the production of canolol

    Pudel Frank


    Full Text Available Canolol (2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylsyringol, which is formed by thermally initiated CO2splitting off from sinapic acid, possesses a high antioxidant potential. Furthermore different positive physiological properties are described. Due to rapeseed’s high content of phenolic acids, particularly sinapic acid, it is obvious to produce canolol as by-product of rapeseed processing. Roasting of rapeseed meal or cake in a fluidized bed followed by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide of the formed canolol represents a production procedure which not impairs the commercial oil mill process. This article summarizes results from the roasting process with rapeseed meal and cake in fluidized bed equipments of different design and size showing that it is a suitable technique to transform sinapic acid into canolol. The achieved canolol contents are at 500 mg/kg in minimum, if the material is rapidly cooled-down after reaching the optimal temperature of 165 °C. Further roasting leads to a fast reduction of the canolol content. In addition it could be observed, that the sinapic acid content is not decreasing in the same amount as the canolol content increases. Sinapic acid seems to be “reproduced” during roasting. The reaction mechanisms of the described phenomena are not known.

  13. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D


    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  14. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu


    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  15. Novel Methodology for the Highly-Efficient Separation of Oil and Water (Briefing Charts)


    Fabric Pure PEGDA Pure PEGDA 10% POSS 20% POSS 10% POSS 20% POSS Water Rapeseed oil Water Rapeseed oil PEGDA surface reconfiguration leads to...Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2014- April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Novel Methodology for the Highly-Efficient Separation of Oil and...distrib tion unlimited. Novel Methodology for the Highly- Efficient Separation of Oil and Water Joseph Mabry, Anish Tuteja, Andrew Guenthner, Josiah Reams

  16. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    for cheaper protein rapeseed meal has been considered as an alternative to soya-protein. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. spp. oleifera) has a well-balanced amino acid profile for monogastrics, but it contains several compounds which are anti-nutritional and might lower the protein quality and limit the amount...

  17. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    for cheaper protein rapeseed meal has been considered as an alternative to soya-protein. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. spp. oleifera) has a well-balanced amino acid profile for monogastrics, but it contains several compounds which are anti-nutritional and might lower the protein quality and limit the amount...


    There are many theories that centre on communication strategies, but for the purpose of this ... It is critical of constructionist tendencies in communication .... rape, partner rape or intimate partner sexual assault (IPSA), is rape between a married ...

  19. Seed loss and volunteer seedling establishment of rapeseed in the northernmost European conditions: potential for weed infestation and GM risks

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio


    Full Text Available Rapeseed soil seed bank development and volunteer plant establishment represent substantial risk for crop infestation and GM contamination. This study was designed to complement such investigations with novel understanding from high latitude conditions. Four experiments were designed to characterise seed loss at harvest, persistence, viability and capacity for volunteer seedling establishment, as well as impact of management measures on soil seed bank dynamics. Oilseed rape was the primary crop investigated due to the availability of GM cultivars and because of the increasing importance. Harvest losses and soil seed bank development were significant. Volunteer seedlings emerged at reasonably high rates, especially in the first autumn after harvest, but about 10% of buried seeds maintained their viability for at least three years. Soil incorporation methods had no major effect on numbers of volunteer seedlings, but herbicide treatments controlled volunteer seedlings efficiently, though not completely, due to irregular timing of seedling emergence.

  20. Regulation of erucic acid accumulation in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Effects of temperature and abscisic acid.

    Wilmer, J.A.


    Vegetable oils are an important commodity world-wide with an annual production of about 70 million tonnes. Oilseed rape is one of the four major crops, providing about 10% of the total production. Quality of vegetable oils is determined by the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols (TAG) tha

  1. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Schott, Robin May


    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  2. Using herbicides in spring rapeseed and effect on quantity and quality parameters of yeald.

    Mitrović, P; Marinković, R; Marisavljević, D; Pavlović, D; Dolovac, E Pfaf


    Possibility to chemically control weeds in spring rapeseed has been tested in two locations ( Novi Sad and Kragujevac) and following herbicides (a.i.) : trifluralin, clomazone, quizalofop-p-ethyl and clopyralid. We tested the effect of the herbicides on yield and hectoliter weight of seed and oil and protein contents in seed. In the trial in Kragujevac, a large number of weed species were present, with somewhat increased density and uneven distribution of weed plants. This was particularly evident with grassy weeds and with the species Rubus caesius in several plots. Rapeseed yield and quality were determined by measuring and analyzing the following parameters: grain yield (kg/plot (30 m2), hectoliter weight, oil content (%) and protein content (%) in seed.Basic statistical calculations of rapessed yield and quality were done by the t-test. The tested herbicides showed no adverse effect on the yield and hectoliter weight of seed in either location, with the exception of quizalofop-p-ethyl in Kragujevac, which affected the control variants. Oil content was negatively affected by the combination, trifluralin + clopyralid in the location of Novi Sad and by quizalofop-p-ethyl in the other location. Trifluralin and quizalofop-p-ethyl exhibited a negative effect on protein content in the location of Novi Sad, while there were no statistically significant negative effects in the other location.

  3. Mineral-nitrogen leaching and ammonia volatilization from a rice-rapeseed system as affected by 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate.

    Li, Hua; Chen, Yingxu; Liang, Xinqiang; Lian, Yanfeng; Li, Wenhong


    3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) was validated as an effective nitrification inhibitor to reduce nitrate leaching. Its effects on ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization were not clear, especially on farmland scale with crop rotations. In this study, on-farm experiments at the Jiaxing (JX) and Yuhang (YH) sites in Taihu Lake Basin, China were conducted to evaluate the effect of DMPP application on mineral nitrogen (N) (NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) leaching and NH(3) volatilization losses in a rice-rapeseed cropping system. Treatments included urea alone (UA), urea + 1% DMPP (UD), and no fertilizer (CK). The results show that DMPP reduced NO(3)-N leaching fluxes by 44.9 to 59.9% and increased NH(4)-N leaching fluxes by 13.0 to 33.3% at two sites during rice and rape seasons compared with urea alone. Reductions in mineral-N leaching fluxes by DMPP in two seasons at the JX and YH sites were 9.5 and 14.3 kg N ha(-1), respectively, compared with UA treatment. The application of DMPP had no significant effects on NH(3) volatilization loss fluxes at either site. The rice and rapeseed yields were 5.3 to 7.4% higher in UD plots than in UA plots at two sites. These results that indicate DMPP could reduce leaching losses of mineral-N from crop fields and promote grain yields by conserving more applied N in soil in rice-rapeseed rotation systems.

  4. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.


    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  5. 国内外油菜籽脱皮(壳)冷榨生产技术比较%Technology comparison of peeling rapeseed (shell) cold pressing production at home and abroad

    胡健华; 刘培林


    对德国德宜宝油磨坊公司的菜籽心油生产技术和我国油菜籽脱皮冷榨生产纯天然菜籽仁油的技术进行分析比较。指出我国研制的生产工艺及设备完全可以达到国外的技术水平,生产出高档优质的食用油。%The German TEUTOBURGER rapesee d oil mill's production technology and production of cold-pressed rapeseed peeling natural rapeseed kernel oil technologies were analyzed and compared.We pointed out thatChina's development of production technology and equipment could reach the level of foreign technology to produce high-grade quality edible oil.

  6. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  7. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine


    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p crops (UNECE, Mills, 2004), can indeed be applied for spring oilseed rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  8. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.


    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  9. [Effect of rapeseed from different distributors on the rat liver].

    Alvizouri, M


    In previous papers it was reported that rapeseed could prevent the development of cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and at the same time can induce liver regeneration in the rat. In such experiments rapeseed was always obtained from the same distributor "Semillas Berentsen". When reseed of different distributors was used, neither cirrhosis prevention or liver regeneration was observed. The difference among the rapeseed used was that "Semillas Berentsen" utilizes a fungicide to preserve the seed and the other distributors do not use any preservative. This circumstance made think that the active principle responsible for the effects observed is probably the fungicide.

  10. Effect of Potassium and Moisture on Rape Growth and Its Nutrient Uptake



    The Interaction between potassium and moisture during the growth of and nutrient uptake by rapeseed plats grown on K-deficient soils has been investigated in this study.The results show that the dry weight of the above-ground parts of the plant appears to be somewhat reduced when the volume water content of the soil remains 0.15 for 3 successive days.As the shortage in the soil water continues,the weight of the plant root and the permeability of the root plasmalemma are markedly affected;the stem thickness and leaf area are reduced.However,K application can increase the dry matter weight of the above-ground parts,the thickness of the stem,and the area of the leaf.Application of K can also maintain a comparatively low water potential(ψ)and a comparatively high moisture content in the leaves,thus increasing the drought-resisting ability of the plant.When the volume water content of the soil is raised to 0.30,leaf yellowing as a symptom of nutrient deficiency appears on rapeseed plants grown on K-deficient soils.With increase in soil moisture content,the Ca concentration of the aerial parts of the rapeseed plant without K application increases while the K concentration decreases,Both K application and the soil moisture regime have very little effect on the Mg Concentration in the plant.Under soil mosture stress,the nitrogen content and total amount of amino acids in rape leaves increases;and thus more proline and glutamic acid is formed.On the other hand,the impact of soil moisture on pant's dry matter is governed by the status of potassium nutrition.On soils with low K.the moisture content has very little effect on yield;when K fertilizer is applied,however,the moisture content shows a very significant effect on yield increase.

  11. National Directory: Rape Prevention and Treatment Resources.

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD. National Center for the Control and Prevention of Rape.

    This directory is a result of a 1976 study to identify rape prevention and treatment programs and resources in the United States and Canada. Seven hundred listings are included in this updated version. They include rape crisis centers, community mental health centers, medical facilities, government and police agencies, and individuals. The…

  12. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  13. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    Bicanic, I.A.E.


    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  14. Action Mechanism of Antinutrition and Reducing Measures of Polyphenol from Rapeseeds%菜籽多酚的抗营养作用机理及减量措施

    刘世娟; 李吕木


    Rapeseed is the third oil crop in the world and is not only the main source of edible vegetable oils in China,but also the potential source of feed proteins. Polyphenol from rapeseeds mostly remains in rapeseed meal and the byproduct of rapeseed oil processing, which restricts the utilization of rapeseed meal. In particular, when being used as animal feed, it is not welcomed due to the black color. More, it is pungent and astringent and seriously affects the animals to digest and absorb nutritive materials and is noxious to animal bodies. In this paper, the components,structures,antinutrition mechanism and reducing measures of polyphenol from rapeseeds were summarized so as to provide reference for improving the value of rapeseed meal and developing a high - quality protein resource.%油菜籽是世界第三大油料,也是我国食用植物油的主要来源和潜在的饲用蛋白源.油菜籽加工过程中,大部分的菜籽多酚留在副产品菜籽粕中,使其合理利用受到制约,尤其作为动物饲料时,不仅其色泽深黑不受欢迎,而且其辛辣味和涩味严重影响动物的适口性,降低动物对营养物质的消化和吸收,对动物体有毒性作用.研究综述了菜籽多酚的组成、结构、抗营养作用机理和减量处理措施,以期为提高菜籽粕利用价值,开发优质蛋白资源提供参考.

  15. Effects of B, Mo, Zn, and Their Interactions on Seed Yield of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    YANG Mei; SHI Lei; XU Fang-Sen; LU Jian-Wei; WANG Yun-Hua


    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn) and their interactions on seed yield and yield formation of rapeseed (Brassiea napus L. war. Huashuang 4). Application of B fertilizer to a sandy soil increased the seed yield by 46.1% compared to the control and also created a considerably higher seed yield than the two treatments solely applying Mo and Zn fertilizers, which suggested that B was a main constraint for the seed yield of Huashuang 4 in this experiment. The effect of B fertilizer on the seed yield was attributed to an increase in the number of seeds per silique and siliques per plant. The combined application of B with Mo or Zn resulted in higher seed yield than the application of B, Mo or Zn alone, and the seed yield of the B+Mo+Zn treatment was the highest in all treatments, 68.1% above the control. Dry matter accumulation of seed followed a typical S-shaped curve and it was higher in plants supplied with B than in plants without B. A small but significant increase in the seed oil content and an improvement in the oil quality were also observed in all treatments compared with the control. These results suggested that optimal micronutrient application could provide both yield and quality advantages for rapeseed in poor soil.

  16. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg


    In every known society human sexual intercourse is enacted as a rule-bound practice that involves certain rights and obligations. In Denmark the official policy is that the rules to govern lawful sexual intercourse should be based on the idea of mutual and voluntary consent between two adults...... alike. This approach requires that in order for a man to be guilty of rape he not only has to force intercourse by violence or threat of violence, but also to believe this to be against the wants of the woman. Yet it does this without stipulating any obligations on behalf of the man to obtain what...

  17. Management of the rape victim.

    Robinson, G E


    A woman's response to rape can be divided into three phases: an acute reaction, an intermediate stage and a period of resolution. Proper management of the physical and emotional problems of each phase, ideally by the woman's family doctor or gynecologist, may prevent future problems. Treatment during the first phase includes responding to the emotional needs of the patient as well as doing a pelvic and general physical examination to detect any injuries; information for possible legal procedures may be obtained quickly and efficiently. Follow-up particularly psychological, is important in the second and third phases.

  18. Nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed cultivation in Germany

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Koebke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Walter, Katja; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heinz


    About 12 % of Germany's agricultural area is used for rapeseed cultivation and two third of the harvest is converted to biodiesel. Due to requirements of the EU Renewables Directive the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of rapeseed cultivation must be reported and sustainability criteria and GHG savings compared to fossil fuel must be achieved and certified. Current certified methodology estimates N2O field emissions from rapeseed cultivation using the IPCC Tier 1 approach based on a global emission factor (N2O emission per unit nitrogen fertilizer input) of 1 %, which is not specific for the crop. We present results from three years of measurements (2013 - 2015) on five field trials in Germany, which combined with data from a meta-analysis suggest that GHG emission factors of German rapeseed cultivation are lower than thought previously. Furthermore, results suggest that substitution of mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers is a valid mitigation option since it avoids GHG emissions during production of mineral fertilizers.

  19. Significance of cytogenetic research in sunflower and rapeseed breeding

    Atlagić Jovanka; Terzić Sreten; Marjanović-Jeromela Ana; Marinković Radovan


    Cytogenetic research of sunflower and rapeseed has a century long tradition. Chromosome number and morphology were studied at first in species from the Helianthus and Brassica genera, and than their cytotaxonomy and phylogenesis...

  20. Solutions for Foaming Problems in Biogas Reactors Using Natural Oils or Fatty Acids as Defoamers

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini


    results from our previous extensive research along with some unpublished data on defoaming by rapeseed oil and oleic acid in manure-based biogas reactors. It was found that both compounds exhibited remarkable defoaming efficiency ranging from 30 to 57% in biogas reactors suffering from foaming problems...... promoted by the addition of protein, lipid, or carbohydrate co-substrates. However, in most cases, the defoaming efficiency of rapeseed oil was greater than that of oleic acid, and therefore, rapeseed oil is recommended to be used in biogas reactors to solve foaming problems....

  1. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.


    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  2. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Madawala, S. R. P.; Kochhar, S. P.; Dutta, P. C.


    Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O{sub 2}/kg) but AV and Rancimat values at 100 degree centigrade (except for rapeseed oils) varied considerably at (0.5-15.5) and (4.2-37.0 h) respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4%) and walnut oil had the highest (71%) level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27%) compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%). In all the samples, {alpha}- and {gamma}- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 {mu}g/g oil. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol (61-85%) and campesterol (6-20%). Argan oil contained schottenol (35%) and spinasterol (32%). Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study. (Author) 33 refs.

  3. Application Prospect of SNP Array in Rapeseed Molecular Breeding%SNP芯片在油菜分子育种的应用

    华玮; 王汉中


    Rapeseed is one of the primary oil crops in China, which is laden with heavy responsibility to insure the supply of plant oil. Rapeseed oil accounts for over 57% of the oil production from all oil crops in China. In recent years, China faces severe security problem of edible oil, and over 60% are depended on import. The low yield and high production cost of Chinese rapeseed varieties are the main reasons which restrict the development of rapeseed growing in China. So, strengthening the rapeseed breeding technology is the effective approach for developing domestic rapeseed industry. SNP array, a high flux and new technology for molecular breeding, has brought an uncommon opportunity for promoting the development of rapeseed industry. Right now, we own the incomparable research foundations on the sequence of rapeseed and its elementary species and the technology of SNP marker developing, which offer the compelling advantages for developing SNP array. Rapeseed researchers are trying to introduce and develop the domestic platform for SNP array, which will offer the technical support for efficient development of rapeseed breeding.%油菜是我国最主要的油料作物之一,肩负着国内植物油供给的重任,所产菜油占国产油料作物产油的57%以上.近年来,中国面临严重的食用油供给安全问题,国产植物油短缺,进口依赖度达60%以上.我国的油菜产量低、生产成本高、市场竞争力相对较弱是制约我国油菜生产的主要原因之一.努力提高我国油菜育种水平是促进油菜产业发展、保障我国食用油供给安全的有效途径.新型高通量分子育种技术-SNP育种芯片的开发与利用为快速高效油菜育种带来了生机.在油菜及其基本种的基因组测序、SNP分子标记的开发等方面我国已具有良好的研究基础.我国油菜科技工作者正在致力于引进和建立国内自己的油菜育种SNP芯片,为提高油菜育种效率提供技术支撑.

  4. Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom

    Gholamali Peyvast


    Full Text Available Oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr. Singer] was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw/dw, and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75 and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was also shorter on oilseed rape straw. Protein content of the fruit bodies obtained with oilseed rape straw was highest among all substrates. Oilseed rape straw thus appears to be a suitable substrate for oyster mushroom production.

  5. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.


    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...

  6. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie


    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  7. Present and future instances of virtual rape in light of three categories of legal philosophical theories on rape

    Strikwerda, Litska


    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in virt

  8. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    James A. Glanville


    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  9. Institutional Perpetuation of Rape Culture: A Case Study of the University of Colorado Football Rape and Recruiting Scandal

    Folchert, Kristi Engle


    Heterosexual rape among university students is neither new nor uncommon. Research in rape prevention is largely limited to two areas: (1) what women can do to protect themselves from rape, which continues to place the burden of prevention on women; and (2) understanding why men rape. The studies in these fields have added to the body of knowledge surrounding rape on university campuses. The current study takes this information into consideration while using a different lens to examine the...

  10. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte


    With the aim of contributing to the development of models forecasting the melliferous characteristics and the potential honey yield of oilseed rape, we analyzed data on the temporal pattern of number of oilseed rape flowers, nectar secretion, sugar concentration, and weight of bee hives in relati...... by the amount of secreted sugar, as well as by the temperature conditions and the strength of the colony during flowering. Our results will assist beekeepers in predicting nectar production and sugar yield in oilseed rape and the ability of bees to exploit the sugar....

  11. Effect of traditional Chinese cooking methods on fatty acid profiles of vegetable oils.

    Cui, Yamin; Hao, Pengfei; Liu, Bingjie; Meng, Xianghong


    The effect of four frying processes (vegetable salad, stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying) on fatty acid composition of ten vegetable oils (peanut oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower seed oil, rice bran oil, olive oil, sesame oil, linseed oil, and peony seed oil) was investigated using GC-MS. The result showed that trans-fatty acid (TFA) was produced during all processes. Rapeseed oil had the highest TFA content in vegetable salad oil with 2.88% of total fatty acid. The TFA content of sunflower seed oil was 0.00% in vegetable salad oil, however, after stir frying and pan frying, it increased to 1.53% and 1.29%, respectively. Peanut oil had the lowest TFA content after deep frying for 12h with 0.74mg/g. It was concluded that a healthy cooking process could be acquired by a scientific collocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception.

    Anderson, Irina


    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualize a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents' gender; (3) to examine the 'cultural lag' theory of male rape, where it was hypothesized that if the public perception of male rape lags behind female rape, then a typical male rape will be conceptualized as the classic stranger rape stereotype. Findings showed that contrary to predictions, a typical female rape was conceptualized according to the stranger rape stereotype. It was also found that instead of lagging behind female rape along the stranger-acquaintance rape dimension, male rape was viewed predominantly in terms of 'other' factors (factors not found on the stranger-acquaintance dimension, e.g. victim/rapist sexual orientation, rapist calls victim names), which were erroneous, sexualizing and homophobic.

  13. Effects of specific organs on seed oil accumulation in Brassica napus L.

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Yang, Hongli; Guo, Tingting; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong


    Seed oil content is an important agricultural characteristic in rapeseed breeding. Genetic analysis shows that the mother plant and the embryo play critical roles in regulating seed oil accumulation. However, the overwhelming majority of previous studies have focused on oil synthesis in the developing seed of rapeseed. In this study, to elucidate the roles of reproductive organs on oil accumulation, silique, ovule, and embryo from three rapeseed lines with high oil content (zy036, 6F313, and 61616) were cultured in vitro. The results suggest that zy036 silique wall, 6F313 seed coat, and 61616 embryo have positive impacts on the seed oil accumulation. In zy036, our previous studies show that high photosynthetic activity of the silique wall contributes to seed oil accumulation (Hua et al., 2012). Herein, by transcriptome sequencing and sucrose detection, we found that sugar transport in 6F313 seed coat might regulate the efficiency of oil synthesis by controlling sugar concentration in ovules. In 61616 embryos, high oil accumulation efficiency was partly induced by the elevated expression of fatty-acid biosynthesis-related genes. Our investigations show three organ-specific mechanisms regulating oil synthesis in rapeseed. This study provides new insights into the factors affecting seed oil accumulation in rapeseed and other oil crops.

  14. Palm based frying oil for fish snack and its physical-chemical properties%以棕榈油为基础的鱼制品煎炸用油及其氧化稳定性研究

    季敏; 张剑; 谢凤; 黄清吉


    Palm based frying oil for fish snack was developed with most suitable frying performance and thermostability. The fatty acid compositions of the frying oil were analyzed by GC/MS. The blended oil with 70% palm olein(slip melting point 24 ℃)and 30% rapeseed oil contained 32.9%saturate,49.8% monounsaturate,15.3% polyunsaturate fatty acid and no trans. The optimum frying mass ratio of blended oil and fish was 10∶4,frying at 180 ℃ 30 minutes a day for 6 days,acid value (AV),peroxide value(PV)and carbonyl value(COV)of palm based frying oil were tested and all found to performed better than rape seed oil. The frying oil with 70% palm olein(slip melting point 24 ℃)and 30% rapeseed oil was confirmed as excellent quality stable frying oil.%以棕榈油为主要原料,研制适合于鱼制品煎炸加工的煎炸油。研究了煎炸油的配比及其热稳定性、油炸过程中理化性质的变化,并用气相–质谱方法分析了煎炸油的脂肪酸组成。结果表明:70%的24度棕榈液油和30%菜籽油组成的混合调和油的饱和脂肪酸为32.9%,单不饱和脂肪酸为49.8%,多不饱和脂肪酸为15.3%,不含反式脂肪酸。在油鱼质量比为10∶4,油炸温度180℃的条件下,每天煎炸30分钟,六天油炸鱼块后混合煎炸油的酸价(AV)、过氧化值(PV)羰基价(COV)都好于菜籽油。70%的24度棕榈液油和30%菜籽油组成的混合调和油是一种稳定性良好的煎炸油。

  15. Effects of Rapeseed-cake Fertilizer on Chemical Components and Sensory Quality of Tobacco in Luohe%菜籽饼肥对漯河烟叶化学成分及其感官质量的影响

    梁洪涛; 李莉; 孙明辉; 卢迪; 樊献玲; 张欣惠; 于建军


    In order to study the effects of rapeseed -cake fertilizer on the chemical components and sensory quality of tobacco in Luohe, we tested and analyzed the chemical components of C 3F-class and B2F-class tobacco leaves treated with different rates of rapeseed-cake fertilizer , and evaluated the sensory smoking quality of single -material cigarette made of the above leaves .The results showed that the application of rapeseed -cake fertilizer could reduce the chlorine content in tobacco leaf , increase its potassi-um content , and coordinate its chemical components;the treatment with 80%rapeseed-cake fertilizer was the best .Applying rape-seed-cake fertilizer could improve the sensory smoking quality of tobacco leaf , and the treatment with 80%rapeseed-cake fertiliz-er obtained the best effect .%为研究油菜籽饼肥对漯河烟叶化学成分及其感官质量的影响,选取施用不同比例菜籽饼肥处理的C3 F和B2 F等级的烟叶进行化学成分测定分析,单料烟评吸,并依据烟叶品质打分。结果表明:施用菜籽饼肥降低烟叶氯含量,提高烟叶钾含量,协调烟叶化学成分,漯河烟叶以施用80%菜籽饼肥效果最佳。施用菜籽饼肥可以提高感官评吸质量,其中施用80%菜籽饼肥的处理效果最好。

  16. JPRS Report, China.


    peanuts, sesame seeds, rapeseeds , huma seeds, sunflower seeds, oil tea seeds, and cotton seeds. These sources are known collectively as oil ...situation. When the new rape- seed crops was harvested in 1953, private merchants’ exports of rapeseed (or rapeseed oil ) to capitalist coun- tries were...ECONOMIES Lessons From USSR, East Europe on Price Reform [SICHUAN DAXUE XUEBAO No 2] 48 AGRICULTURE Buying Selling of Edible Oil [DANGDAI

  17. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  18. Examination of the rape victim.

    Wertheimer, A J


    Knowledge of the procedure of rape examination can benefit not only obstetrician-gynecologists but also family practitioners, emergency department physicians, and surgeons who may find themselves called upon to examine a victim of sexual assault. In this situation, the physician has a responsibility to the judicial system as well as to the patient. He or she must deliver the best medical and psychologic support possible and collect the appropriate evidence in such a fashion as to give the victim the greatest chance of success if she decides to prosecute. Alternatively, information may be obtained which may help release the accused from suspicion. Having gained an understanding of these steps, the physician can discharge his or her responsibility with confidence and precision.

  19. The Effect of Type of Oil and Degree of Degradation on Glycidyl Esters Content During the Frying of French Fries.

    Aniołowska, Magda; Kita, Agnieszka

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of oil degradation on the content of glycidyl esters (GEs) in oils used for the frying of French fries. As frying media, refined oils such as rapeseed, palm, palm olein and blend were used. French fries were fried for 40 h in oils heated to 180 °C in 30-min cycles. After every 8 h of frying, fresh oil and samples were analyzed for acid and anisidine values, color, refractive index, fatty acid composition, and content and composition of the polar fraction. GEs were determined by LC-MS. Hydrolysis and polymerization occurred most intensively in palm olein, while oxidation was reported for rapeseed oil. The degradation of oil caused increased changes in the RI of frying oils. Losses of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in all samples, with the largest share in blend. The highest content of GE found in fresh oil was in palm olein (25 mg kg(-1)) and the lowest content of GE was found in rapeseed oil (0.8 mg kg(-1)). The palm oil, palm olein and blend were dominated by GEs of palmitic and oleic acids, while rapeseed oil was dominated by GE of oleic acid. With increasing frying time, the content of GEs decreased with losses from 47 % in rapeseed oil to 78 % in palm oil after finishing frying.

  20. Rape--victiminological and psychiatric aspects.

    Mezey, G C


    Rape is a violent crime in which sexuality is used to express power, anger, and aggression. The nature of the victim's reactions, which resembles those of other violent crimes, is discussed in relation to its origin in the doctrine of victimology. The distress experienced by victims of rape should entitle them to the same standards of care and sympathy as victims of other life crises.

  1. Self-esteem of raped women

    Vianna, Lucila Amaral Carneiro [UNIFESP; Bomfim, Graziela Fernanda Teodoro [UNIFESP; Chicone, Gisele [UNIFESP


    This qualitative study shows the results of workshops held with health workers and public health users (raped women), aimed at raising these women's self-esteem and creating awareness among health workers who attend them. Neuro-Linguistic Programming techniques were used to bring back life experiences, which contributed to a re-reading and to minimize causal factors of low self-esteem. Themes like repugnance, fear and the fruit of rape; image and place; death; revenge; support and solidarity;...

  2. Effects of mineral and rapeseed phosphorus supplementation on phytate degradation in dairy cows.

    Haese, Eva; Müller, Karin; Steingass, Herbert; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet composition on phytate (InsP6) degradation in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, four diets that differed in the amount and source of phosphorus (P) were fed to 24 lactating cows in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. The control diet (Diet C) contained 4.18 g P/kg dry matter (DM). Diet MP contained additional mineral P (5.11 g P/kg DM), Diet RS contained rapeseed and rapeseed meal as organic P sources (5.26 g P/kg DM) and Diet RSM contained rapeseed meal and rapeseed oil (5.04 g P/kg DM). Total P (tP) and InsP6 excretion in faeces were measured. In Experiment 2, we used a rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) to estimate ruminal disappearance of tP and InsP6 from Diets C, MP and RSM. In Experiment 1, tP concentration in faeces increased with tP intake and was highest for Diets RS and RSM. The source of supplemented P had no influence on tP digestibility, but tP digestibility was reduced for Diets MP, RS and RSM in comparison to that for Diet C. InsP6 disappearance decreased in Diet MP (85.0%) and increased in Diets RS (92.7%) and RSM (94.0%) compared to that in Diet C (90.0%). In Experiment 2, P source influenced ruminal tP disappearance (Diet MP, 78.6%; Diet RSM, 75.3%). InsP6 disappearance for Diet C (98.1%) was higher than that for Diets MP (95.6%) and RSM (94.9%). The results confirmed the high potential of ruminants to degrade InsP6, but differences in diet composition influenced InsP6 disappearance. Further studies of the site of InsP6 degradation are required to understand the relevance of InsP6 degradation for the absorption of P.

  3. Demography and findings of reported rape cases.

    Quader, M M; Rahman, M H; Kamal, M; Ahmed, A U; Saha, S K


    Six hundred and ninety nine cases of alleged rape were studied by the authors during the period from 2007-2008 at the Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Of these cases, 122 had positive findings of recent sexual intercourse; 250 cases had the positive findings of habituated sexual intercourse, and 327 cases had no findings of sexual intercourse but they complained of forcible sexual intercourse and found no sign of sexual intercourse. Most of the alleged victims of rape were nulliparous 87.12% and parous was only 12.87%. 430 (61.51%) cases of reported victims who were students of schools and colleges were not considered as rape cases considering their victim's history of love affairs, leaving home secretly with their lovers, living with them for many days. Gang rape was not so common (4.29% of raped cases) in our study. Age groups, their occupations, living areas, time of arrival for medico-legal examination have been studied. Most of the cases were students (61.51%). A few numbers of victims were subjected to gang rape. Examination and reporting the cases have been discussed.

  4. Effect of Titanium Dioxide on Material Properties for Renewable Rapeseed and Sunflower Polyurethane

    A.Z. Mohd Rus


    Full Text Available Polyurethanes (PUs have been synthesised successfully from renewable resources namely as rapeseed and sunflower oil using 4,4’-methylen-bis-(phenylisocyanate (MDI as the cross-linking agent. The mechanical property of these materials was observed in the Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA test. A high tan delta peak is essential for a good damping material. These PUs can be strongly influenced on the addition of small (2.5-10 percentages of titanium dioxide, TiO2, e.g. the damping was improved on adding TiO2. Upon UV-induced aging, two important changes occur as observed in mechanical damping, such as a decrease in the height of the tan delta peak and a shift of the temperature of the tan delta peak to higher values with increased irradiation time. The loss tan delta peaks for the rapeseed-based PU loaded with 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10% of TiO2 were 0.58, 0.6, 0.68, and 0.71 respectively as compared with neat RSPU at only 0.43. These data show that the damping ability is enhanced through the introduction of TiO2 into the polymer. By doping with TiO2, the mechanical or physical properties of these PUs can be altered systematically, such as to get progressive increases in its stiffness and damping property.

  5. Seed bank modelling of volunteer oil seed rape: from seeds fate in the soil to seedling emergence Modelagem do banco de sementes de canola: do destino das sementes no solo à emergência das plântulas

    E. Soltani


    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to estimate parameters and relationships associated with sub-processes in soil seed banks of oilseed rape in Gorgan, Iran. After one month of burial, seed viability decreased to 39%, with a slope of 2.03% per day, and subsequently decreased with a lower slope of 0.01 until 365 days following burial in the soil. Germinability remained at its highest value in autumn and winter and decreased from spring to the last month of summer. Non-dormant seeds of volunteer oilseed rape did not germinate at temperatures lower than 3.8 ºC and a water potential of -1.4 MPa ºd. The hydrothermal values were 36.2 and 42.9 MPa ºd for sub- and supra-optimal temperatures, respectively. Quantification of seed emergence as influenced by burial depth was performed satisfactorily (R² = 0.98 and RMSE = 5.03. The parameters and relationships estimated here can be used for modelling soil seed bank dynamics or establishing a new model for the environment.Estudos foram realizados para estimar os parâmetros e as relações ligados a subprocessos em bancos de sementes de canola no solo, em Gorgan, Iran. Após um mês de enterrio, a viabilidade das sementes diminuiu para 39%, com inclinação de 2,03% ao dia; posteriormente, diminuiu com menor inclinação: de 0,01 até 365 dias após o enterrio no solo. A germinação manteve-se em seu maior valor no outono e inverno, reduzindo da primavera ao último mês do verão. Sementes de canola não dormentes não germinaram em temperaturas abaixo de 3,8 °C e potencial hídrico abaixo de -1,4 Mpaºd. Os valores hidrotermais foram de 36,2 e 42,9 Mpaºd para temperaturas sub e supraótima, respectivamente. A quantificação da emergência das sementes sob influência da profundidade de enterrio foi delineada de forma satisfatória (R²= 0,98 e RMSE = 5,03. Os parâmetros e as relações estimadas neste estudo podem ser utilizados em modelagens do banco de sementes do solo ou para estabelecer um novo modelo para

  6. Rapeseed napin and cruciferin are readily digested by poultry.

    Kasprzak, M M; Houdijk, J G M; Liddell, S; Davis, K; Olukosi, O A; Kightley, S; White, G A; Wiseman, J


    Rapeseed proteins have been considered as being poorly digestible in the gut of non-ruminants. The aim of the study was to assess the digestibility of napin and cruciferin in ileal digesta of broiler chickens, testing sixteen samples of rapeseed co-products with protein levels ranging from 293 g/kg to 560 g/kg dry matter. Each sample was included into a semi-synthetic diet at a rate of 500 g/kg and evaluated with broiler chickens in a randomised design. Dietary and ileal digesta proteins were extracted and identified by gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Three isomers of napin (a 2S albumin) and nine cruciferins (an 11S globulin) were identified in the rapeseed co-products, whereas six endogenous enzymes such as trypsin (I-P1, II-P29), chymotrypsin (elastase and precursor), carboxypeptidase B and α-amylase were found in the ileal digesta. It is concluded that as none of the rapeseed proteins were detected in the ileal digesta, rapeseed proteins can be readily digested by broiler chickens, irrespective of the protein content in the diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun


    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-NL-2010-87 for the placing on the market of genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape GT73 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, oilseed rape GT73 (with the exception of refined oil and food additives under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO


    Full Text Available This scientific opinion is a risk assessment for the placing on the market of the genetically modified (GM herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape (OSR GT73 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, OSR-GT73. OSR-GT73 contains a single insert consisting of the goxv247 and CP4 epsps expression cassettes. Both proteins confer tolerance against glyphosate-based-herbicides. Bioinformatic analyses of inserted DNA and flanking regions did not raise safety concerns. Levels of CP4 EPSPS and GOXv247 proteins in OSR-GT73 were analysed and the stability of the genetic modification was demonstrated. No biologically relevant differences were identified in the compositional/agronomic/phenotypic characteristics of OSR-GT73 compared with its conventional counterpart, except for the newly expressed proteins. No indication of potential concerns over the safety of the newly expressed CP4-EPSPS and GOXv247 proteins or the occurrence of unintended effects were identified in either OSR-GT73 pollen/pollen-containing dietary supplements or the adventitious presence of trace levels of seeds in human foods. An equivalent assessment with isolated seed protein could not be made because of the lack of availability of relevant consumption and safety data. There are no indications of increased establishment and spread of feral OSR-GT73 plants, or of hybridising wild relatives, unless exposed to glyphosate-based-herbicides. Potential interactions of feral plants with the biotic/abiotic environment do not raise concerns. Environmental risks of horizontal gene transfer into bacteria were not identified. The monitoring plan and reporting intervals are in line with the intended uses. The environmental risk assessment of OSR-GT73 did not identify any safety concerns, in the context of its intended uses. While the Panel is not in a position to conclude on the safety of OSR pollen as such, it concludes that the genetic modification

  9. Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom

    Gholamali Peyvast


    Oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer] was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw/dw), and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75) and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was also shorter on oilseed rape straw. Protein content of the fruit bodies obtained with oilseed rape straw was highest among all substrat...

  10. Cold stress causes rapid but differential changes in properties of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of camelina and rapeseed.

    Kim, Hyun-Sung; Oh, Jung-Min; Luan, Sheng; Carlson, John E; Ahn, Sung-Ju


    Camelina (Camelina sativa) and rapeseed (Brassica napus) are well-established oil-seed crops with great promise also for biofuels. Both are cold-tolerant, and camelina is regarded to be especially appropriate for production on marginal lands. We examined physiological and biochemical alterations in both species during cold stress treatment for 3 days and subsequent recovery at the temperature of 25°C for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, and 24h, with particular emphasis on the post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC3.6.3.14). The activity and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase, as well as 14-3-3 proteins, increased after 3 days of cold stress in both species but recovery under normal conditions proceeded differently. The increase in H(+)-ATPase activity was the most dramatic in camelina roots after recovery for 2h at 25°C, followed by decay to background levels within 24h. In rapeseed, the change in H(+)-ATPase activity during the recovery period was less pronounced. Furthermore, H(+)-pumping increased in both species after 15min recovery, but to twice the level in camelina roots compared to rapeseed. Protein gel blot analysis with phospho-threonine anti-bodies showed that an increase in phosphorylation levels paralleled the increase in H(+)-transport rate. Thus our results suggest that cold stress and recovery in camelina and rapeseed are associated with PM H(+)-fluxes that may be regulated by specific translational and post-translational modifications.

  11. Evaluation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...



    Dec 15, 2009 ... damaging to honeybees and other pollinating insects. Crop of B. napus is .... reported that seed/pod is also affected by spacing and plant density. ... It is suggested that the canola cultivars are fit for human consumption; rather.

  12. Spruce galactoglucomannans in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Xu, Chunlin; Berton-Carabin, Claire; Schroën, Karin


    Food emulsions can be stabilized by various components, and their cost is important for the food industry that is always looking for cheaper alternatives. Consumer demand is leading food companies toward a clean label policy, and natural ingredients are the way to go. Modern forestry biorefinerie

  13. Rape, Statutory Rape, and Child Abuse: Legal Distinctions and Counselor Duties.

    Mitchell, Clifton W.; Rogers, Reagan E.


    This article explains the legal distinctions between rape, statutory rape, and child abuse and school counselors' obligations related to each. In addition, complicating issues such as cultural differences as well as the potential effect of mandated reporting on counselors' roles are addressed. (Contains 18 references.) (GCP)

  14. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L


    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  15. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from rapeseed plant in a biorefinery concept

    Luo, Gang; Talebnia, Farid; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov;


    , results from continuous experiments demonstrated that the two-stage hydrogen and methane fermentation process could work stably at organic loading rate up to 4.5 gVS/(L d), while the single-stage methane production process failed. The energy recovery efficiency from rapeseed plant increased from 20......The present study investigated the utilization of the whole rapeseed plant (seed and straw) for multi-biofuels production in a biorefinery concept. Results showed that bioethanol production from straw was technically feasible with ethanol yield of 0.15 g ethanol/g dry straw after combined alkaline......% in the conventional biodiesel process to 60% in the biorefinery concept, by utilization of the whole rapeseed plant for biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen and methane production....

  16. Suitability of Soil and Climate for Oilseed Rape Production in the Republic of Croatia

    Milan Pospišil


    Full Text Available The paper describes the suitability of soil and weather conditions for oilseed rape production in the agricultural region of the Pannonian Plain in the Republic of Croatia. Soil suitability was estimated on the basis of the existing soil properties. There are 1,169,626 ha of soils suitable for oilseed rape production in the Pannonian agricultural region of the Republic of Croatia, of which 229,839 ha are highly suitable soils (class S-1, 351,392 ha are moderately suitable soils (class S-2, and 588,395 ha are marginally suitable soils (class S-3. On marginally suitable soils oilseed rape should not be grown. To satisfy the planned raw oil requirements of the Republic of Croatia, 60,000- 70,000 ha should be allotted to oilseed rape production. Suitability of climate conditions for oilseed rape production was assessed on the basis of the analysis of weather conditions for seven locations in the Pannonian agricultural region over 30 years (1971-2000. Oilseed rape had almost optimal temperature conditions for good emergence and strong initial growth and autumn growth (mean monthly air temperature 15.4°C. In the winter period (November, December, January, February, mean monthly air temperature was 2°C, and mean minimum air temperature was -1.5°C. In the spring period, mean monthly air temperature was 8.4°C. In the last part of the growing period (May, June, mean monthly air temperature was 17.3°C. From 528 mm (Osijek to 718 mm (Sisak of precipitation was recorded over the growing period, which fully satisfies water requirements of oilseed rape. The analysis clearly shows that, under the agroecological conditions prevailing in the Republic of Croatia, there are no expressly critical parts of the growing period with regard to lack of precipitation. The most critical period is the sowing-emergence time, since very dry August and September, i.e. lack of moisture for satisfactory and uniform emergence of oilseed rape, were recorded in eastern Croatia

  17. La Violacion Sexual--The Reality of Rape

    Garcia, Chris; And Others


    The Hispanic rape victim often finds herself in a situation where discussing a rape may jeopardize not only her self esteem but her residency status, job and familial relations. Small wonder she prefers to remain silent. (Author/NQ)

  18. Examination and treatment of the male rape victim.

    Schiff, A F


    The number of known male rape victims is on the increase. Rape treatment centers which formerly cared only for female victims have now opened their doors to male victims. The examination and treatment of these victims are discussed.

  19. Composition, ileal amino acid digestibility and nutritive value of organically grown legume seeds and conventional rapeseed cakes for pigs



    Full Text Available Eight white-flowered pea (Pisum sativum and two white-flowered field bean (Vicia faba cultivars grown organically were analysed for proximate composition and amino acid content. In vivo ileal amino acid digestibilities and faecal energy digestibility were predicted from the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of nitrogen and organic matter, respectively. The crude protein (CP content of the pea and field bean cultivars ranged from 244 to 279 and from 320 to 347 g/kg dry matter (DM, respectively. The concentrations of several essential amino acids in protein decreased as the CP content increased. In peas, predicted in vivo digestibilities did not correlate with chemical composition, and in field beans were lower than in peas. A digestibility trial was carried out on six cannulated barrows according to a 6 ´ 5 cyclic change-over design to determine the faecal and ileal nutrient digestibilities of organically grown leafed peas (cv. Sohvi, 199 g CP/kg DM, semileafless peas (cv. Karita, 240 g CP/kg DM, field beans (cv. Kontu, 320 g CP/kg DM, narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Pershatsvet, 220 g CP/kg DM, and conventional warm- and cold-pressed rapeseed cakes (360 and 313 g CP/kg DM, respectively. The net energy contents of the leafed and semileafed peas, field beans, lupins, and cold- and warm-pressed rape seed cakes were 10.8, 11.2, 9.8, 9.7, 9.4 and 12.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The apparent ileal digestibilities of lysine and threonine were similar, but the digestibility of methionine was poor in all legume seeds. Cystine digestibility was highest in lupins and lowest in field beans. With the exception of phenylalanine, there was no difference in apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities between rapeseed cakes.;

  20. Influence of top dressing on yield and seed quality components of oilseed rape

    Vujaković Milka


    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is an agronomically important species grown for seed that contains 40-48% oil and 18-25% proteins. Oilseed rape has high demands for nitrogen. The research was performed on four varieties of oilseed rape (Banaćanka, Valeska, Slavica and Express developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, during vegetative seasons 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. During vegetation, top dressing was applied with different amounts of KAN: control (0 kg N ha-1, 50 kg N ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1, 150 kg N ha-1 and the N quantity determination were performed applying the balancing method (also known as N-min method. Yield, 1000-seed weight, seed germination, oil and protein content were determined after harvest. Yield and seed germination depended on seed production year. 1000-seed weight depended on seed production year and genotype. Oil and protein content in seed depended on production year, genotype and amount of the N-fertilizer applied by top dressing.

  1. Effect of Lanthanum on Disease Resistance Related Enzymes of Rape

    曾青; 朱建国; 谢祖彬; 褚海燕; 张雅莉


    The effects of lanthanum on the protective enzymes of rape (Brassica juncea) were studied in hydroponics experiment. Results show that when treated with 0.3 mg*kg-1 La, the content of chlorophyll and the activities of peroxidase(POD), catalase(CAT), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and polyphenoloxidase(PPO) in rape increase, but the content of malondialdehyde(MDA) in rape decreases. However, the treatments do not change the content of soluble protein in rape significantly.


    Ioana NICULAE


    Full Text Available To ensure a high economic efficiency of productive work is necessary to determine the optimal location of the objective investment. Optimal location creates a prerequisite for approaching the maximum level of investment efficiency both in the national economy and the economic agent. The problem of optimal location of the investment objective must be addressed in a broad vision to solve it using: economic criteria, functional criteria - technological, social, plus natural factors. From the research it was found that the future investment objective on the processing rapeseed in bio fuel and edible oil in Calarasi County is conveniently located in the city being Lehliu Station due to the fact that it has the coordinates close to those resulting from the calculation.

  3. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C


    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rape and incest. 50.306 Section 50.306 Public... § 50.306 Rape and incest. Federal financial participation is available in expenditures for medical procedures performed upon a victim of rape or incest if the program or project has received...

  5. "Friends" Raping Friends. Could It Happen to You?

    Hughes, Jean O'Gorman; Sandler, Bernice R.

    This publication concerning rape committed by acquaintances and "friends" is designed to provide information and support for college students. The early warning signs and how to react to potential "acquaintance" or "date" rape are addressed. Consideration is given to why this type of rape occurs and information is provided on how to avoid date…

  6. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act


    ... May 23, 2012 Part VI The President Memorandum of May 17, 2012--Implementing the Prison Rape... 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act... assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003...

  7. Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture.

    Abrams, Julie M.; And Others

    This publication is a collection of 20 supporting documents for a conference program, "Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture." Contents include: (1) "Presenter Contact Information"; (2) "Characteristics of Rape-Prone versus Rape-Free Cultures"; (3) "Dater's Bill of Rights"; (4)…

  8. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Allen, Mike; And Others


    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  9. 菜籽粕中抗营养因子及其去除方法的研究进展%Research progress on anti-nutrients and detoxification methods of rapeseed meal

    金晶; 徐志宏; 魏振承; 池建伟; 刘军


    Rapeseed meal ,the byproduct of rapeseed oil processing, has an extensive application prospect. However, rapeseed meal contains glucosinolates and other anti-nutrients,which restrict its utilization. The anti -nutrients and their role,and removal of these anti-nutrients in rapeseed meal were summarized.The main anti -nutrients in rapeseed meal were glucosinolates and their degradation products,phytic acid,tannin,and sinapine.The detoxification could be performed by physical method,chemical method,biological method and genetic method.%油菜籽加工过程中的副产品菜籽粕具有广阔的应用前景,然而由于菜籽粕中硫代葡萄糖甙以及其他一些抗营养因子的存在,使菜籽粕的合理利用受到制约.论述了菜籽粕中的抗营养物质及其毒害作用和去除这些抗营养物质的方法.菜籽粕中的抗营养物质主要有硫代葡萄糖甙及其降解产物、植酸、单宁和芥子碱,可采用物理方法、化学方法、生物方法和遗传学方法对菜籽粕进行脱毒.

  10. Characterisation and foaming properties of hydrolysates derived from rapeseed isolate

    Larré, C.; Mulder, W.J.; Sánchez-Vioque, R.; Lazko, J.; Bérot, S.; Guéguen, J.; Popineau, Y.


    Two hydrolysis methods used to obtain rapeseed isolate derivates were compared: chemical hydrolysis performed under alkaline conditions and pepsic proteolysis performed under acidic conditions. The mean molecular weights obtained for the hydrolysates varied from 26 to 2.5 kDa, depending on the level

  11. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.


    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  12. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul


    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  13. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.


    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  14. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul


    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  15. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)


    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  16. Bio-oil fuelled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)


    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 pyrolysis oil made of wood was tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  17. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  18. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    %) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...

  19. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Hiroshi Maeda; Takao Satoh; Waliul Islam


    Background: Previously, we (HM) found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO.), or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1). Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of...


    Piotr Kardasz


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present an effective use of the mixture consisting of waste oil and rapeseed oil. The results of laboratory tests for fuel consumption and exhaust emission prove significant similarity of the mixture to diesel oil. This paper describes the use of the mixture as: alternative fuel to an internal combustion engine, the source of electricity and heat; as well as its other positive aspects.

  1. Epoxy Resins Modified with Vegetable Oils



    1 Results The application of modified natural oils, nontoxic, biodegradable and renewable materials, for the modification and the synthesis of epoxy resins were presented. Firstly, the application of epoxidized vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed and sunflower):as reactive diluents for epoxy resins was proposed and studied[1-2]. Viscosity reducing ability of epoxidized oils was tested in the compositions with Bisphenol A based low-molecular-weight epoxy resins. The rheological behaviour of the mi...

  2. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa


    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids.

  3. Rape of S.A. journalist brings attention to PEP.


    Female rape victims in South Africa may have difficulties obtaining post-exposure prophylaxis, even if they can afford treatment. South Africa has one of the highest rates of rape reported in the world. In addition, because adult HIV rates in South Africa are estimated at 33 percent, the issue of post-rape preventive treatment is important. The government is reluctant to allocate resources to treat HIV in rape victims, because the chances of contracting the disease through rape are unknown. Also, it is generally believed that funds should be reserved for the use of antiretroviral drugs in preventing mother-to-fetus transmission, which has shown to be effective.

  4. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production

    Krička, T.; Matin, A.; Voća, N.; Jurišić, V.; Bilandžija, N.


    The objective of this paper is to investigate usability of rapeseed cake from biodiesel fuel production as an energy source. For this research, rapeseed was grown at the research site of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, Croatia. The investigated rapeseed cake, residue from cold pressing, was divided in two groups of samples. The first group was a mix of three varieties (Bristol, Express and Navajo), while the other group consisted of three hybrids (Artus, Baldur, Titan). The utilization of rapeseed cake for energy via two routes was evaluated; namely, utilization of rapeseed cake as (1) solid biofuel (pellets) with addition of 3% of glycerol, and (2) as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD). In investigation of cake as solid fuel, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon and volatile matter), ultimate (content of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) and physical and calometry analyses (abrasion, diameter, length, density, higher and lower heating value were carried out. As for its use in AD, production of biogas during 40 days was monitored with a view of assessing the use of digested residue as fertilizer in agricultural production. Both groups of digested residues were analysed (pH, electroconductivity, moisture content, ash content, content of nitrogen and carbon, C/N ratio, content of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na). The analysis indicated that the investigated raw material is usable as solid and gas biofuel, and digested residue as fertilizer in ecological agriculture. The two groups of samples analysed here did not show significant differences. (Author)

  5. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production

    Tajana Krička


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate usability of rapeseed cake from biodiesel fuel production as an energy source. For this research, rapeseed was grown at the research site of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, Croatia. The investigated rapeseed cake, residue from cold pressing, was divided in two groups of samples. The first group was a mix of three varieties (Bristol, Express and Navajo, while the other group consisted of three hybrids (Artus, Baldur, Titan. The utilization of rapeseed cake for energy via two routes was evaluated; namely, utilization of rapeseed cake as (1 solid biofuel (pellets with addition of 3% of glycerol, and (2 as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD. In investigation of cake as solid fuel, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon and volatile matter, ultimate (content of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and physical and calometry analyses (abrasion, diameter, length, density, higher and lower heating value were carried out. As for its use in AD, production of biogas during 40 days was monitored with a view of assessing the use of digested residue as fertilizer in agricultural production. Both groups of digested residues were analysed (pH, electroconductivity, moisture content, ash content, content of nitrogen and carbon, C/N ratio, content of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na. The analysis indicated that the investigated raw material is usable as solid and gas biofuel, and digested residue as fertilizer in ecological agriculture. The two groups of samples analysed here did not show significant differences.

  6. [Application of successive projections algorithm to nondestructive determination of total amino acids in oilseed rape leaves].

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Hui; Jin, Zong-Lai; Zhou, Wei-Jun; He, Yong


    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for the fast and nondestructive determination of total amino acids (TAA) in oilseed rape leaves. Total amino acids are important indices of the growing status of oilseed rape. A total of 150 leave samples were scanned, the calibration set was composed of 80 samples, the validation set was composed of 40 samples and the prediction set was composed of 30 samples. The optimal partial least squares (PLS) model was developed for the prediction of total amino acids in oilseed rape leaves after the performance comparison of different pretreatments, including smoothing method, standard normal variate (SNV), the first derivative and second derivative. Simultaneously, successive projections algorithm was applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths (EWs), which were thought to have least collinearity and redundancies in the spectral data. The selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM). Then the SPA-MLR, SPA-PLS and SPA-LS-SVM models were developed for performance comparison. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices. The results indicated that both SPA-MLR and SPA-PLS models were better than full-spectrum PLS model, and the best performance was achieved by SPA-LS-SVM model with R2 = 0.983 0 and RMSEP = 0.396 4. An excellent prediction precision was achieved. In conclusion, successive projections algorithm is a powerful way for effective wavelength selection, and it is feasible to determine the total amino acids in oil-seed rape leaves using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in the response of stress and on

  7. Women's rape fantasies: an empirical evaluation of the major explanations.

    Bivona, Jenny M; Critelli, Joseph W; Clark, Michael J


    This study evaluated explanations of rape fantasy in a sample of female undergraduates (N = 355) using a sexual fantasy checklist which included eight types of rape fantasy, participants' detailed descriptions of a rape fantasy they have had, a rape fantasy scenario audio presentation, and measures of personality. Three explanations of rape fantasy were tested: openness to sexual experience, sexual desirability, and sexual blame avoidance. Women who were higher in erotophilia and self-esteem and who had more frequent consensual sexual fantasies and more frequent desirability fantasies, particularly of performing as a stripper, had more frequent rape fantasies. Women who were higher in erotophilia, openness to fantasy, desirability fantasies, and self-esteem reported greater sexual arousal to rape fantasies. Sexual blame avoidance theory was not supported; sexual desirability theory was moderately supported; openness to sexual experience theory received the strongest support.

  8. Energy balances of bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, maize, rapeseed) and their CO2-mitigation potential on a regional farm scale

    Felten, D.; Emmerling, C.


    Increasing cultivation of energy crops in agriculture reveals the progressive substitution of fossil fuels, such as crude oil or brown coal. For the future development of renewable resources, the efficiency of different cropping systems will be crucial, as energy crops differ in terms of the energy needed for crop cultivation and refinement and the respective energy yield, e.g. per area. Here, balancing is certainly the most suitable method for the assessment of cropping system efficiency, contrasting energy inputs with energy outputs and the related CO2 emissions with potential CO2 credits due to substitution of fossil fuels, respectively. The aim of the present study was to calculate both energy and CO2 balances for rapeseed and maize, representing the recently most often cultivated energy crops in Germany, on a regional farm scale. Furthermore, special emphasis was made on perennial Miscanthus x giganteus, which is commonly used as a solid fuel for combustion. This C4-grass is of increasing interest due to its high yield potential accompanied by low requirements for soil tillage, weed control, and fertilization as well as long cultivation periods up to 25 years. In contrast to more general approaches, balances were calculated with local data from commercial farms. The site-specific consumption of diesel fuel was calculated using an online-based calculator, developed by the German Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (KTBL). By balancing each of the aforementioned cropping systems, our research focused on (i) the quantification of energy gains and CO2 savings due to fossil fuel substitution and (ii) the assessment of energy efficiency, expressed as the ratio of energy output to input. The energy input was highest for maize sites (33.8 GJ ha-1 yr-1), followed by rapeseed (18.2 GJ ha-1 yr-1), and Miscanthus (1.1 GJ ha-1 yr-1); corresponding energy yields were 129.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1 (maize), 83.6 GJ ha-1 yr-1 (rapeseed), and 259.7 GJ ha-1 yr-1

  9. Production of unusual fatty acids in rapeseed

    Roscoe Thomas


    Full Text Available Vegetable-derived oils are of interest for industrial applications partly because of the chemical similarity of plant oils to mineral oils but also because of the economic need to reduce overproduction of seed oils for nutritional use. Complex oils can be produced in seeds as a low cost agricultural product based on renewable solar energy that requires less refining and is biodegradable and thus produces less adverse effects on the environment. In addition, biotechnologies have accelerated selection programmes and increased the genetic diversity available for the development of new varieties of oilseeds with specific fatty acid compositions. In the developing oilseed, energy and carbon are stored as lipid under the form of triacylglycerol, that is, a glycerol molecule to which three fatty acids are esterified. Fatty acids comprise a linear chain of carbon atoms, the first of which carries an organic acid group. The chain length and the presence of double bonds determine the properties of the fatty acid which in turn determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil of storage lipids and hence their economic value. In addition to the common C16- and C18-saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids, the seed storage lipids of many plant species contain unusual fatty acids (UFAs which can vary in chain length, in the degree of unsaturation, possess double bonds in unusual positions, or can contain additional functional groups such as hydroxy, epoxy, cyclic and acetylenic groups [1]. These unusual fatty acids are of value as industrial feedstocks and their uses include the production of fuels and lubricants, soap and detergents, paints and varnishes, adhesives and plastics (Figure 1.

  10. Genetic Diversity of Testa Pigments and RAPD Marker of Yellow-Seeded Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; CHEN Li; YIN Jia-ming; TANG Zhang-lin; LI Jia-na


    14 yellow-seeded rapeseed lines (Brassia napus L. ) from different genetic sources were used toanalyze diversity of testa pigments content, oil and protein content, and RAPD markers. The results showedthat the anthocyanin and melanin were the most important pigments in testa and their content were responsiblefor the variation in seed color ranging from orange to black yellow, 14 yellow-seeded lines could be classifiedinto 3 groups., high anthocyanin content group with anthocyanin content over 2.54 mg g-1 DW, the seed colorwas light yellow or orange; low pigments content group with low content of anthocyanin and melanin, the testawas transparent and the seed color was light yellow, greenish yellow or twany; high melanin content groupwith melanin content over 178.4U(A290nm), the testa was black, the seed color was black yellow. Oil eantentchanged from 36.2% to 45.5%, protein content from 21.1% to 27.7%, and the correlation analysis revealedthat the oil content is highly significantly negatively correlated with the protein content. The cluster analysisshowed that the extensive genetic variation existed among 14 yellow-seeded lines by using unweighted pairedgroup method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) based on RAPD markers which were amplified with decamerprimers, the genetic similarity among them ranged from 0.25 to 0. 909, and 14 yellow-seeded lines could putinto 2 clusters corresponding to genome difference.

  11. Investigation the Response of Rapeseed Cultivars to Moisture Regimes in Different Growth Stages

    Abouzar ABBASIAN


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response of rapeseed cultivars to moisture regimes and correlation analysis in different growth stages, a field experiment was conducted in 2006-7 in seed and plant improvement institute of Karaj, Iran. Results showed that number of pods per plant, pod length, stem diameter, 1000-seed weight, oil seed content and branch numbers per plant were reduced significantly under water deficit stress. Also, grain yield was decreased more than biological yield and this resulted in decreased harvest index. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed that number of pods per plant, number of seeds per main and secondary pod, 1000-seed weight, pod length, biological yield and oil seed content had positive and significant correlation with seed yield. Stopping the irrigation from flowering stage also had undesirable effect on seed yield and its components. Among cultivars, Opera cultivar produced more seed yield (4053 kg ha-1 than the others under normal irrigation and under water deficit stress conditions, Zarfam cultivar had the maximum seed yield during stem elongation (3569 kg ha-1, flowering (2135 kg ha-1 and podding stages (2476 kg ha-1. Okapi had the least changes of oil content than other cultivars. Based on the result of this study can be concluded that Zarfam cultivar had better capability to tolerate drought stress and could produce greater seed yield under stress conditions

  12. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)


    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting rap

  13. Numbing after rape, and depth of therapy.

    Barglow, Peter


    The author considers the reactions of four women who had been sexually assaulted, with a focus on the rape trauma of two women with the diagnosis of "Complex-PTSD." Both patients also had prolonged episodes of illegal drug dependence. The article investigates a variety of therapeutic responses to ameliorate disabling post-rape psychological symptoms, especially an intense feeling of numbing. Psychodynamic treatment was chosen for investigation rather than Prolonged Exposure (PET), or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Choice of these two treatments is supported by substantial statistical evidence. But many therapists continue to use psychoanalytic based approaches to treat rape victims. Schottenbauer et al, (2008) concluded that PET and CBT approaches had high non-response and dropout rates. Also psychodynamic comprehension may be particularly suitable for "complex PTSD" as defined below in this article. Two vignettes contrast the treatment processes and outcomes of these two women to two other patients who had been sexually assaulted, but whose psychopathology was less severe. The author proposes that full comprehension of severe numbing is essential in the selection of the best intervention strategy because this symptom (or affect) may determine the prognosis of raped patients.

  14. Attribution of Fault to Rape Victims.

    Feinman, Saul

    An experimental design, the impact of the marital status, physical attractiveness, amount of victim resistance, and immediate reaction of the victim as well as sex of observer on attributions of fault to hypothetical rape victims were investigated. Participants were 440 undergraduate students at the University of Wyoming. Each participant was…

  15. Forcible Rape: The Criminal Justice System Response.

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Seattle, WA. Law and Justice Study Center.

    This annotated bibliography contains 11 documents that describe, analyze and recommend procedures for investigating and prosecuting rape cases. The documents are grouped according to intended audience; there are four volumes for police, three for prosecutors, and one for victims. Also listed are a book analyzing legal issues; a literature review…

  16. Coping with the Experience of Rape

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki


    The coping strategies that a victim of a rape engages in can have a strong impact on the development and persistence of psychological symptoms. Research provides evidence that victims who rely heavily on avoidance strategies, such as suppression, are less likely to recover successfully than those who rely less heavily on these strategies. The…

  17. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)


    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter. Depic

  18. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women).

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon


    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  19. Economics of vegetable oil processing

    Scheithauer, R.; Dripchak, K.


    Vegetable oils offer great promise as a diesel fuel substitute, given the similarity in their physical and chemical properties. This report examines the cost of converting oilseeds to oil, as a first step in evaluating the potential competitiveness of vegetable oil fuels. Processing costs for typical existing US facilities - including solvent, prepress-solvent, and mechanical extraction technologies - were reviewed. The capital costs of a dedicated rapeseed oil processing facility in the southeastern US were also estimated. A third objective was to estimate the costs of modifying existing processing facilities to crush multiple oilseeds, since the oilseed industry has considerable excess capacity. Using existing excess capacity to crush oilseeds for 60 days per year resulted in savings for each of the three extraction technologies with prepress-solvent extraction being the minimum cost technology. The 17 southeastern prepress-solvent facilities identified could produce over 34 million gallons of rapeseed oil per year if each are operated for an additional 60 days per year. This would require over 312,000 acres of winter rapeseed production, providing an excellent opportunity for early introduction of this crop for energy purposes. 57 figs.

  20. Gas assisted mechanical expression of oilseeds: Influence of process parameters on oil yield

    Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.


    Gas assisted mechanical expression (GAME) utilizes the solubility of supercritical CO2 in vegetable oils to enhance the oil yields of mechanical expression of oil seeds. The general applicability of GAME was demonstrated with experiments with sesame, linseed, rapeseed, palm kernel and jatropha

  1. Biological effects of soaking rapeseeds in light rare earth metals under Cd and Cr stress%轻稀土浸种对油菜镉铬胁迫的生物学效应

    任学军; 任艳军; 杜彬; 马建军


    [目的]研究轻稀土抗油菜镉(Cd)铬(Cr)重金属胁迫下的生物学效应,为重金属污染土壤中稀土农用提供理论参考.[方法]采用单一轻稀土(La、Ce、Nd、Pr)浸种处理,通过盆栽试验,研究重金属Cd和Cr胁迫条件下油菜生长发育对Cd、Cr元素吸收累积的影响.[结果]土壤Cd、Cr胁迫未对油菜生长发育产生明显影响,但增加了Cd、Cr含量和累积量,以重金属Cd累积幅度最明显;La、Ce、Nd、Pr浸种处理均抑制土壤中重金属Cd和Cr向油菜茎叶转移与吸收,抑制效果因油菜发育状况、土壤污染程度及稀土元素种类不同而存在差异,随重金属污染程度的加重,其抑制重金属毒害能力增强,以Ce浸种处理效果最佳,同时促进了油菜茎叶中干物质积累.[结论]稀土浸种处理是一种抑制和减少蔬菜重金属吸收和积累的有效途径.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to find out the biological effects of soaking rapeseeds in light rare-earth metals (La, Ce, Nd, Pr) on resistance of rapeseed plants to Cd and Cr stress in order to provide a theo-retical reference for agricultural application of rare earth metals in soils polluted with heavy metals. [Method]The growth and development of rapeseed plants and Cd and Cr uptake and accumulation in rape plant was investigated under Cd and Cr stress by soaking rapeseeds in single light rare earth metals, viz., La, Ce, Nd, Pr in pot culture. [Result]The results showed that the Cd and Cr stress in soil had no significant effects on the growth and development of rapeseed plants, rather it increased Cd and Cr content and their accumulation. La, Ce, Nd and Pr seed-soaking treatments inhibited the uptake and translocation of Cd and Cr from soil to stem and leaf of rapeseed plant, and the inhibitory effects differed with respect to growth and development stage, soil pollution extent and rare earth element type. At higher heavy metal pollu-tion , the ability of rape to

  2. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Ewa Święch


    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  3. Environmental and agronomic impact of the herbicide tolerant GM rapeseed

    Zdjelar Gordana R.


    Full Text Available The introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant rapeseed has raised questions concerning the possible transfer of transgenes into wild relatives or neighbouring fields with similar crops. Pollen of rapeseed can be spread in the area and if a non-GM crop is fertilised by GM pollen, some percentage of the collected seed product will contain GM. Current regulation in the EU limits the allowed content. For conventional crops the critical level of GM contamination is in practice below 0.9%, which is the threshold value for labelling of GM in food and feed by the EU, although the limit for seeds is 0.1% in Serbia. In organic farming, the regulations do not allow the use of genetic engineering in the grain production system.

  4. Effect of oil lamination between plasticized starch layers on film properties.

    Basiak, Ewelina; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Lenart, Andrzej


    To reduce the hygroscopic character of biodegradable starch-based films, rapeseed oil was incorporated by lamination (starch-oil-starch 3-layers technique). The lipid lamination followed by starch solution casting step induced an emulsion type structure of dried films. Composite films are more opalescent and glossier than fatty free starch films. For all the films, structure is heterogeneous in the cross-section only. Adding fat induced a twice decrease of the tensile strength. Thermal gravimetry analysis did not show differences between films with and without oil. Lipid reduced the moisture absorption particularly at higher RH as well as the surface swelling index, when water droplet contact occurred. Addition of lipids always decreases the contact angle for all liquid tested, except for water. Surface affinity of films for liquids less polar that water increased with rapeseed oil addition. The addition of rapeseed oil significantly reduces water vapour and oxygen permeability.

  5. Assessing transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractionation products

    Milena Bojanowska


    Full Text Available Background: Having considered increasing production of liquid and solid biofuels from rapeseed and bearing in mind its stable and unquestionable position in  the food and animal feed industries, a rational approach towards technologically and logistically efficient utilization of by-products from rapeseed processing is required. The aim of the research presented in the article is to assess the transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractions, varying according to particle size and chemical composition. Methods: Resistance to changes stimulating self-heating has been assumed as the main criterion of transport susceptibility. The following diagnostic variables have been experimentally determined: total protein, crude fat and crude fiber content, porosity, and water activity in the fraction of examined meal. In order to organize a set of particles and to indicate their optimal applications according to criteria chosen with regard to both  utilization and transportation, two aggregate indicators have been calculated. Results: It has been proved that medium-sized particle fractions (0.075-0.4 mm exhibit the lowest transport susceptibility, whereas the those with the largest granulations (>3 mm -have the highest. One significant relationship is the decline of feeding value and concurrent increase in the transport susceptibility of meal fractions, which in practice means that those fractions least-favoured by the animal feed industry can be least cumbersome to transport. Conclusions: It has been suggested that there should be a division of rapeseed meal into two products with different applications and different transport susceptibility. The fractioning of meal can bring numerous, measurable benefits for the meal industry and logistics processes for solid biofuels, where storage and transport properties have considerable importance, alongside commodity price and transport costs.

  6. Biosorption of lead ions from aqueous effluents by rapeseed biomass.

    Morosanu, Irina; Teodosiu, Carmen; Paduraru, Carmen; Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Tofan, Lavinia


    Lead, as well as other heavy metals, is regarded as priority pollutant due to its non-biodegradability, toxicity and persistence in the environment. In this study, rapeseed biomass was used in the biosorption of Pb(II) ions in batch and dynamic conditions, as well as with tests for industrial wastewater. The influence of initial concentration (5-250mg/L), pH and contact time (0.5-6h) was investigated. The kinetic data modeling resulted in good correlations with the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The maximum sorption capacities of Pb(II) were 18.35, 21.29 and 22.7mg/L at 4, 20 and 50°C, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated the spontaneity and endothermic nature of lead biosorption on rapeseed biomass. The biosorption mechanism involves both physical and chemical interactions. The breakthrough curves at 50 and 100mg/L were determined and evaluated under dynamic conditions. The breakthrough time lowered with increasing the influent Pb(II) concentration. The experimental data obtained from fixed-bed column tests were well fitted by Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The calculated sorption capacities were in good agreement with the uptake capacity of Langmuir model. The applicability of rapeseed to be used as a sorbent for Pb(II) ions from real wastewater was tested, and Pb(II) removal efficiency of 94.47% was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of heating rate on the pyrolysis yields of rapeseed

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Chemical Engineering Department, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)


    The pyrolysis yields of rapeseed were investigated applying thermogravimetric analysis technique. The pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 1273K at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50K/min in a dynamic nitrogen flow of 40cc/min. Effects of heating rate on the mass losses from the rapeseed were examined using the derivative thermogravimetric analysis profiles. This study showed that important differences on the pyrolytic behavior of rapeseed are observed when heating rate is changed. At the lower heating rates, the maximum rates of mass losses were relatively low. When the heating rate was increased, maximum rates of mass losses also increased. These variations were interpreted by the heterogeneous structure of biomass. Heating rates also concluded to affect the shape of the peaks. Increase in the heating rate shifted the main peak on the DTG profile to the lower temperatures. At low heating rates, there is probably resistance to mass or heat transfer inside the biomass particles. However, increase in heating rate overcame these restrictions, and led to higher conversion rates. The final pyrolysis temperatures were also affected from the variation of the heating rate. Activation energy values were first increased and then decreased depending on the heating rates. (author)

  8. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick


    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  9. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.


    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  10. Nightmares of a hospitalized rape victim.

    Lansky, M R


    The author presents case material, including nightmares, of a recently raped female psychiatric inpatient. The material shows dream dynamics that include latent content, dreamwork, secondary revision, and unconscious wishes that attempted to deal with this woman's sense of fragility, guilt, and especially shame. The author suggests that such dreams deal not simply with the trauma of forced sexual contact, but also with the coexisting fear and humiliation related to the risk of being murdered; with preexisting trauma that amplifies the shame and guilt; and with the anticipation of retraumatization during heightened posttraumatic vulnerability. Although conclusions from a single case cannot be generalized to all rape victims, a close examination of the clinical data suggests that treatment needs go far beyond consideration of the traumatic event in isolation.

  11. Mental health assessment of rape offenders

    Sarkar, Jaydip


    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental ...

  12. Ending Rape in War: How Far Have We Come?

    Lucy Fiske


    Full Text Available The rape of women has for centuries been an endemic feature of war, yet perpetrators largely go unpunished. Women were sanctioned as the spoils of war in biblical times and more recently it has been claimed that it is more dangerous to be a woman than a soldier in modern conflict. Nevertheless, until the establishment of the ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia – there was very little concern regarding the need to address the rape of women in conflict. This paper briefly maps historical attitudes towards rape in war, outlines some analyses and explanations of why rape in war occurs and finally turns more substantively to recent efforts by the international community to prosecute rape as a war crime and a crime against humanity. We argue, that while commendable in some ways, contemporary approaches to rape in war risk reinforcing aspects of women’s status which contribute to the targeting of women for rape and continue to displace women from the centre to the margins in debates and practices surrounding rape in both war and peace time.  We conclude by arguing that criminal prosecutions alone are insufficient and that, if we are to end the rape of women and girls in war (and peace we need a radical restructuring of gender relations across every sphere of social and political life.

  13. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... based more on experimental findings, and less to literature review. In Chapter 1, the problem context and background theory for biorefineries is presented. Finally, latest developments of upscaled biorefineries in Europe are summarized. In Chapter 2, a scenario about upgrading and expanding a typical...

  14. Rape: Past and present legal regulation

    Đapović Lasta S.


    Full Text Available Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC. In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapists. Laws following the Second Serbian Uprising, also provide severe punishment for sexual violence, especially towards women but also male minors. Legal and court practice, following the Second World War, indicate that the protection of women from sexual violence is completely inadequate and this at a time when women had achieved equal rights with men in many spheres of life. World events at the end of the 20th century: collapse of the Soviet Union: as well as the happenings in this region,: war, ethnic and religious conflicts resulted in massive rape of women, opening of brothels, trading women and family violence. Non state organizations, mainly women in expert associations, invest great effort to rectify this very unsatisfactory situation. They exert pressure for change in the law and in court practice, by which women would have more effective defense against sexual violence, as well as organized assistance for women victims of traffic, and warning of the possible danger.

  15. Effect of different levels of water deficit on rapeseed (Brassica napus L. crop Efeito de diferentes níveis de déficit hídrico na cultura da canola

    Carolina Bilibio


    Full Text Available Effects of different levels of water deficit applied during rapeseed crop development were assessed in a trial with metallic pots in greenhouse at the Department of Agricultural Engineering of Kassel University, Witzenhausen, Germany. A randomized block design was used with one cultivar (Ability Summer Rape and three levels of water deficit (0, 30, and 60% of evapotranspiration in three treatments and 20 replicates. Irrigation management was carried out through daily water balance, where ET = I - D; ET: evapotranspiration; I: irrigation; and D: drainage. The following evaluations were carried out weekly: stem diameter (mm; plant height (cm; number of leaves; number of branches and number of pods. At the end of the experiment, assessed total green matter (g plant-1, total dry matter (g plant-1, grain yield (g plant-1, grain protein content (% and grain oil content (% were also assessed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the effect of the treatments was assessed by regression analysis. Results showed significant differences between the treatments in all analysed variables except for plant height and grain protein content, by test F at 5% probability. Factor of response ky, indicator of crop sensitivity to water deficit, was lower than one for all assessed variables. Grain yield showed the highest sensitivity to water deficit.Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de déficit hídrico, aplicados durante o desenvolvimento da canola, foram avaliados por meio de um experimento conduzido em vasos de metal no interior de uma casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola, da Universidade de Kassel, Alemanha. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com a cultivar Ability (Summer Rape, e três níveis de déficit de água, 0%, 30%, 60% da evapotranspiração da cultura, totalizando três tratamentos com 20 repetições. O manejo da irrigação foi realizado por meio do balanço hídrico diário, em que ET = I - D, onde

  16. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.


    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  17. Productivity of spring rape depending on the coenotic tension in conditions of left-bank forest steppe of Ukraine

    Артур Олександрович Рожков


    Full Text Available The formation of productivity and seed quality of spring rape and oil yield per area unit depending on the effect of sowing methods and seed norms as factors that can manage the development of crops and provide the better disclosure of genetically conditioned plant productivity is considered. Based on statistical analysis using the Waller-Duncan rank test is analyzed the effectiveness of the investigated gradations of seeding rate and seeding methods.

  18. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik


    by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  19. 膨化菜子在肉鸭中的应用研究%The Research of Extruded Rapeseed as Duck Feed Resources

    张巍; 杨雪海; 严念东; 郭万正; 魏金涛; 赵娜; 黄少文


    21-35 days old duck feeding value. The results showed that the addition of feed consumption 0-14 days old test duck puffing rape-seed, feed conversion ratio than the control group (P<0.05), and with the increase in the proportion puffed rapeseed add weight gain, feed consumption were increased,feed conversion ratio decreased (P<0.05). 18-35d growth stage, add the feed to gain ratio also puffed rapeseed group than the control group. Expanded rapeseed group ALP levels, oxidative index was significantly higher than the two other groups (P<0.05).The results showed that puffed rapeseed can be used as a high-quali-ty protein feed for the preparation of high-energy fast large duck diets.

  20. "Spreading the Love" and Using Performances to Prevent Rape

    Murphy, Aurora


    While rape is ordinarily considered an invariable reality, Sharon Marcus argues that it is instead a cultural script, which casts women as victims and men as perpetrators. In imagining rape as a script, it may seem pertinent to suggest that the arts and performance have a role in its prevention. Performances can provide a forum to publicly reflect…

  1. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    McMahon, Sarah


    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  2. Emergency management of the adult female rape victim.

    Beebe, D K


    Estimates are that one in every six women is raped during her lifetime. The family physician must be able to evaluate and treat the rape victim in the emergency setting. A detailed history, careful physical examination, collection of medical specimens for legal purposes, assessment of the patient's psychologic state, prophylaxis of venereal disease and pregnancy counseling are required.

  3. Press characteristics of rapeseed and flaxseed%油菜籽、亚麻籽压榨特性的研究

    程园园; 刘大川; 刘晔; 张麟


    以油菜籽、亚麻籽为原料,压榨饼残油率为指标,研究两种油料的压榨特性。通过单因素实验考察油料入榨水分含量、入榨温度、环境温度对两种油料压榨饼残油率的影响。在单因素实验基础上,通过正交实验优化得到:油菜籽最佳压榨工艺条件为入榨水分含量3%、入榨温度65℃、环境温度25℃,在最佳工艺条件下油菜籽压榨饼残油率为9.32%;亚麻籽最佳压榨工艺条件为入榨水分含量3%、入榨温度65℃、环境温度30℃,在最佳工艺条件下亚麻籽压榨饼残油率为8.01%。物性测试结果表明,亚麻籽的硬度、脆性大于油菜籽的;两种油料子叶细胞及其压榨饼的透射电镜结果表明,经过压榨油料细胞结构严重变形并被破坏,实现了油脂与压榨饼的液固分离。%With residual oil rate of pressed cake as index, the press characteristicses of rapeseed and flax-seed were studied. The effects of water content and temperature of pressing material and environmental temperature on the residual oil rates of pressed rapeseed cake and flaxseed cake were investigated by sin-gle factor experiment. On this basis,the press conditions of rapeseed were optimized by orthogonal experi-ment as follows:water content of pressing material 3%, temperature of pressing material 65℃, environ-mental temperature 25℃; and the optimal press conditions of flaxseed were obtained by orthogonal experiment as follows:water content of pressing material 3%, temperature of pressing material 65℃, en-vironmental temperature 30℃. Under these conditions, the residual oil rates of pressed rapeseed cake and flaxseed cake were 9. 32% and 8. 01% respectively. Texture analysis results showed that the hardness and brittleness of flaxseed were higher than those of rapeseed. Transmission electron microscope results of cotyledon cells and pressed cakes of rapeseed and flaxseed showed that the cell structure of oil plant se

  4. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    . The oil source was either fish oil, linseed oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil or grapeseed oil. Rainbow trout was stored on ice for up to 14 days. In both studies, the effect of the feeding regime on the fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation in the fish fillet was determined. In the first study......Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...... will discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were...

  5. 油菜角果外表面浸润性试验研究%Experimental Study of Wetting Property of Rape Pod Surface

    徐立章; 马征; 李耀明


    油菜脱出物的浸润特性研究有助于解决其粘筛堵孔难题。本文以油菜脱出物中主要成分之一的油菜角果为研究对象,以两种典型液体为液相,采用 CAM 101型接触角测量仪对6个品种的油菜角果外表面接触角进行测试试验,并对试验结果进行了对比分析和方差分析。结果表明:油菜角果外表面普遍显示出亲水亲油特性,油菜品种对油菜角果外表面的浸润性无直接影响,但油菜品种会因对其成熟度的影响而间接地对其角果外表面浸润性产生影响。%Research on permeability of threshed oilseed rape mixture helps to solve the problems of adhesion onto sieve and blocking of sieve opening .Silique is one of the main oilseed rape mixtures and considered as study object in this pa-per .With two typical liquid as liquid , outside surface contact angles of six types of rape silique were tested by contact an-gle meter CAM101, and the test result was analyzed by comparison and contrast method and variance method .The result showed that outside surfaces of silique were universally oil-wet and water-loving .Rape variety had no direct influence on permeability of rape silique outside surface , but it may impact on rape maturity and then it brought some influences on permeability of rape silique outside surface indirectly .

  6. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass of Winter Oilseed Rape Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Data at Parcel Scale under Waterlogging Conditions

    Jiahui Han


    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the three most important oil crops in China, and is regarded as a drought-tolerant oilseed crop. However, it is commonly sensitive to waterlogging, which usually refers to an adverse environment that limits crop development. Moreover, crop growth and soil irrigation can be monitored at a regional level using remote sensing data. High spatial resolution optical satellite sensors are very useful to capture and resist unfavorable field conditions at the sub-field scale. In this study, four different optical sensors, i.e., Pleiades-1A, Worldview-2, Worldview-3, and SPOT-6, were used to estimate the dry above-ground biomass (AGB of oilseed rape and track the seasonal growth dynamics. In addition, three different soil water content field experiments were carried out at different oilseed rape growth stages from November 2014 to May 2015 in Northern Zhejiang province, China. As a significant indicator of crop productivity, AGB was measured during the seasonal growth stages of the oilseed rape at the experimental plots. Several representative vegetation indices (VIs obtained from multiple satellite sensors were compared with the simultaneously-collected oilseed rape AGB. Results showed that the estimation model using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI with a power regression model performed best through the seasonal growth dynamics, with the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.77, the smallest root mean square error (RMSE = 104.64 g/m2, and the relative RMSE (rRMSE = 21%. It is concluded that the use of selected VIs and high spatial multiple satellite data can significantly estimate AGB during the winter oilseed rape growth stages, and can be applied to map the variability of winter oilseed rape at the sub-field level under different waterlogging conditions, which is very promising in the application of agricultural irrigation and precision agriculture.

  7. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator


    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics. Many researchers are investigating the use of inexpensive substrates derived from waste streams. Waste frying oil is abundant and can be used in PHA production without filtration. Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a versatile organism for the production of PHAs. Small-scale batch fermentation studies have been set up, using different concentrations of pure vegetable oil, heated vegetable oil and waste frying oil. These oils are all rapeseed oils. It has been shown that Cupriavidus necator produced the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from the rapeseed oils. The achieved PHB concentration from waste frying oil was 1.2 g/l, which is similar to a concentration that can be obtained from glucose. The PHB harvest from pure oil and heated oil was 0.62 g/l and 0.9 g/l respectively. A feed of waste frying oil could thus achieve more biopolymer than pure vegetable oil. While the use of a waste product is beneficial from a life-cycle perspective, PHB is not the only product that can be made from waste oil. The collection of waste frying oil is becoming more widespread, making waste oil a good alternative to purified oil or glucose for PHB production. PMID:21906352

  8. [The knowledge about "date rape drugs" among Polish students].

    Dziuban', Agata; Ratecka, Anna; Brzyski, Piotr; Foryś, Zofia; Gomółka, Ewa; Ogonowska, Dorota


    The Main Department of Police in Poland notes about 2000 rapes a year. Some of the crimes are performed with "Date Rape Drugs". The term means substances helping comitting a rape such as GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), ketamine, flunitrazepam and other benzodiazepines derivatives, MDMA ("ecstasy"), marihuana, amphetamine. The substances are often joined with alcohol. The victims are usually young women, and not all the cases are recorded by the police or physicians, because the victims often do not remember details of the event. The toxicological analysis of blood or urine would be helpful to explain the circumstances of the case and to prove using "Date Rape Drug". The samples for toxicological determinations should be collected as soon as possible (24 to 72 hours after admission). Preventing violence with "Date Rape Drugs" include wide education by media, police, teachers and parents. The purpose of the research was to check the level of knowledge about "Date Rape Drugs". The consciousness of risk behavior when the kind of substances is used and the ways of preventing the risk of being a sexual victim were checked. Material for the research were the results of questionnaire prepared by The Department of Medicine Sociology Collegium Medicum Jagiellonian University in Krakow, carried out on 740 students. Most of respondents (77%) were women. The age of respondents was between 19-36 years (mean 21.41; SD - 1.29). The results of the research showed, that respondents didn't have completed knowledge about "Date Rape Drugs". They did not know the ways of recognizing and preventing the risk of being given this kind of substances. The main source of information about "Date Rape Drugs" were internet and colleagues. There is a need to start education about "Date Rape Drugs" by serious institutions such as the police and schools in Poland. This is the best way to prevent young people against a risk of being given "Date Rape Drugs" and being a victim of sexual crimes.

  9. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Marinković Darko


    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  10. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  11. Mental health assessment of rape offenders.

    Sarkar, Jaydip


    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper.

  12. Effect of Microwave Drying on Quality and Volatile Profiles of Rapeseeds%微波干燥对油菜籽品质及气味成分的影响

    和珊; 丁超; 杨国峰; 朱江明; 赵娟


    利用不同的微波功率将菜籽干燥至安全水分8%,测定干燥后菜籽发芽势、发芽率、油的酸值和过氧化值,并使用固相微萃取-气质联用仪分析菜籽挥发性成分.结果表明:微波功率越高,干燥速率越大;高功率的微波对菜籽的生命力有显著的破坏作用;在110~1 480 W微波功率范围内,菜籽油的酸值变化在合理范围之内,过氧化值在1 170W功率干燥后呈显著上升趋势;微波功率的增加会导致硫甙分解有害产物的相对含量增加.菜籽的挥发性气体成分中含有硫甙分解生成物、烃类、醛类、酯类、醇类、杂环类、酮类等,其相对含量依次降低.%The rapeseeds were dried to final moisture content of 8% (wet basis)with different microwave power levels. Then the germinating capacity of seeds, acid value and peroxide value of rapeseed oil were determined. Volatile profiles of rapeseeds were analyzed by using SPME/GC -MS method. The results were as follows:The higher the microwave power level was, the faster the drying rate was; high microwave power could distinctively destroy germinating capacity; the acid value of rapeseed oil remained in a reasonable range within 110~1 480 W microwave power levels; peroxide value of rapeseed oil rise distinctively above 1 170 W microwave power level; content of glucosinolate decomposition products increased with higher microwave power level. After microwave drying, the volatile profiles of rapeseeds consisted of glucosinolate decomposition products, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, heterocycles, ketones,etc. The relative content decreased successively.

  13. Rapid authentication of adulteration of olive oil by near-infrared spectroscopy using support vector machines

    Wu, Jingzhu; Dong, Jingjing; Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cuiling


    A classification method of support vector machines with linear kernel was employed to authenticate genuine olive oil based on near-infrared spectroscopy. There were three types of adulteration of olive oil experimented in the study. The adulterated oil was respectively soybean oil, rapeseed oil and the mixture of soybean and rapeseed oil. The average recognition rate of second experiment was more than 90% and that of the third experiment was reach to 100%. The results showed the method had good performance in classifying genuine olive oil and the adulteration with small variation range of adulterated concentration and it was a promising and rapid technique for the detection of oil adulteration and fraud in the food industry.

  14. Effects of Super-Absorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Fariborz SHEKARI


    Full Text Available Limitation of water resources and its great impact on agricultural and natural resources play a crucial role in the efficiency of water use. Applying super absorbent polymer to the soil may be one of the methods to minimize the stress of weather dryness in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic polymer application on yield and water use efficiency of rapeseed plants, an experiment was conducted under field condition in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh. Treatments’ factors were: (i 3 super absorbent polymers (SAP (Taravat A200 levels of 0 (without application, 75 and 150 kg ha-1 A200 application, (ii three irrigation levels of 80, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from class A basin in main plots, (iii two cultivars ʻHyola 401ʼ and ʻRVSʼ in sub plots as factorial split plot combination based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that in all of the measured traits within the experiment there were significant differences between SAP levels. Furthermore, increasing irrigation interval led to an increase in a thousand seeds’ weight, but decreased seed yield. Increasing water stress raised seed oil percent and infertile silique and subsequently resulted in reduced oil yield. ʻHyola 401ʼ was more susceptible to embryo abortion compared with ʻRVSʼ. As a conclusion of the research, SAP (A200 application in quantities smaller than 75 kg ha-1 may be recommended for rapeseed production under field condition.

  15. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Marini, Lorenzo; Vaissière, Bernard E


    The relationships between landscape intensification, the abundance and diversity of pollinating insects, and their contributions to crop yield, quality, and market value are poorly studied, despite observed declines in wild and domesticated pollinators. Abundance and species richness of pollinating insects were estimated in ten fields of spring oilseed rape, Brassica napus var. SW Stratos™, located along a gradient of landscape compositions ranging from simple landscapes dominated by arable land to heterogeneous landscapes with extensive cover of semi-natural habitats. In each field, we assessed the contribution of wind and insect pollination to seed yield, seed quality (individual seed weight and oil and chlorophyll contents), and market value in a block experiment with four replicates and two treatments: (1) all flowers were accessible to insects, self and wind pollination, and (2) flowers enclosed in tulle net bags (mesh: 1 × 1 mm) were accessible only to wind and self pollination. Complex landscapes enhanced the overall abundance of wild insects as well as the abundance and species richness of hoverflies. This did not translate to a higher yield, probably due to consistent pollination by honey bees across all fields. However, the pollination experiment showed that insects increased seed weight per plant by 18% and market value by 20%. Seed quality was enhanced by insect pollination, rendering heavier seeds as well as higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents, clearly showing that insect pollination is required to reach high seed yield and quality in oilseed rape. Our study demonstrates considerable and previously underestimated contributions from pollinating insects to both the yield and the market value of oilseed rape.

  16. Identification of cytoplasm types in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) accessions by a multiplex PCR assay.

    Zhao, H X; Li, Z J; Hu, S W; Sun, G L; Chang, J J; Zhang, Z H


    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has widely been used as an efficient pollination control system in rapeseed hybrid production. Identification of cytoplasm type of rapeseed accessions is becoming the most important basic work for hybrid-rapeseed breeding. In this study, we report a simple multiplex PCR method to distinguish the existing common cytoplasm resources, Pol, Nap, Cam, Ogu and Ogu-NWSUAF cytoplasm, in rapeseed. Cytoplasm type of 35 F(1) hybrids and 140 rapeseed open pollinated varieties or breeding lines in our rapeseed breeding programme were tested by this method. The results indicated that 10 of 35 F(1) hybrids are the Nap, and 25 the Pol cytoplasm type, which is consistent with the information provided by the breeders. Out of 140 accessions tested, 100 (71.4%), 21 (15%) and 19 (13.6%) accessions possess Nap, Cam and Pol cytoplasm, respectively. All 19 accessions with Pol cytoplasm are from China. Pedigree analysis indicated that these accessions with Pol cytoplasm were either restorers for Pol CMS, including Shaan 2C, Huiyehui, 220, etc. or derived from hybrids with Pol CMS as female parent. Our molecular results are consistent with those of the classical testcross, suggesting the reliability of this method. The multiplex PCR assay method can be applied to CMS "three-line" breeding, selection and validation of hybrid rapeseed.

  17. Electricity generation from rapeseed straw hydrolysates using microbial fuel cells.

    Jablonska, Milena A; Rybarczyk, Maria K; Lieder, Marek


    Rapeseed straw is an attractive fuel material for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to its high content of carbohydrates (more than 60% carbohydrates). This study has demonstrated that reducing sugars can be efficiently extracted from raw rapeseed straw by combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis followed by utilization as a fuel in two-chamber MFCs for electrical power generation. The most efficient method of saccharification of this lignocellulosic biomass (17%) turned out hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Electricity was produced using hydrolysate concentrations up to 150 mg/dm(3). The power density reached 54 mW/m(2), while CEs ranged from 60% to 10%, corresponding to the initial reducing sugar concentrations of 10-150 mg/dm(3). The COD degradation rates based on charge calculation increased from 0.445 g COD/m(2)/d for the hydrolysate obtained with the microwave treatment to 0.602 g COD/m(2)/d for the most efficient combination of hydrothermal treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  18. Artificial Neural Network Analysis of Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Biodiesel from Rapeseed Soapstock

    Ying, Yanjie; Shao, Ping; Jiang, Shaotong; Sun, Peilong

    Refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high costs render the resulting fuels unable to compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) on chitosan catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock with methanol was carried out. Methanol substrate molar ratio, enzyme amount, water content and reaction temperature were four important parameters employed. Back-Propagation algorithm with momentous factor was adopted to train the neural network. The momentous factor and learning rate were selected as 0.95 and 0.8. ANN analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The coefficient of determination (R2) between experimental and predicted values was 99.20%. Biodiesel conversion of 75.4% was obtained when optimum conditions of immobilized lipase catalysed for biodiesel production were methanol substrate molar ratio of 4.4:1, enzyme amount of 11.6%, water content of 4% and reaction temperature of 45°. Methyl ester content was above 95% after short path distillation process. Biodiesel conversion was increased markedly by neural network analysis.

  19. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Gateau Paul


    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  20. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.


    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  1. Rape in war: the humanitarian response.

    Shanks, L; Schull, M J


    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting.

  2. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve


    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…

  3. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    stability than their respective control TAG blends. However, they had a significantly less salty and buttery flavour, which was ascribed to a much smaller water droplet size causing a delayed sensory perception in the mouth. The butter blend with DAG oil from rapeseed had a very neutral flavour...

  4. Physicochemical and functional properties of rapeseed protein isolate: influence of antinutrient removal with acidified organic solvents from rapeseed meal.

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Gogoi, Jyotchna; Kalita, Dipankar; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Goyary, Danswrang; Mahanta, Charu Lata


    The presence of antinutritional constituents in rapeseed protein products (RPI), such as polyphenols, phytates, allyl isothiocyanates, and glucosinolates, is a formidable constraint. The effect of antinutrient removal from rapeseed meal with an organic solvent mixture (methanol/acetone, 1:1 v/v, combined with an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric)) on the physicochemical and functional properties of RPI was investigated. The extraction resulted in a substantial reduction of antinutrients from RPI, especially polyphenols and phytates, with concomitant decreases in protein yield and solubility. Treatment harbored significant improvement in the degree of whiteness, which was highest in the perchloric acid case. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl group of RPI changed considerably, with perchloric acid-treated samples showing higher values, whereas the disulfide content remarkably increased in trichloroacetic acid- and phosphoric acid-treated samples, signifying aggregation. Intrinsic emission fluorescence and FTIR spectra showed significant changes in proteins' tertiary and secondary conformations, and the changes were more pronounced in samples treated with higher concentrations of acids. No appreciable alteration appeared among the electrophoretic profiles of proteins from pristine meal and those treated with lower levels of acids. Interfacial surface properties of proteins were variably improved by the solvent extraction, whereas the converse was true for their extent of denaturation. The results suggest that the physicochemical and conformational properties of RPI are closely related to its functional properties.

  5. Cruciferous weeds in oil seed rape – appearance and control

    Klingenhagen, Günter


    Full Text Available Different cruciferous weeds were drilled in autumn 2011 and 2012 in a field near Münster. Beside common species like hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale Scop., shepherd`s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris, pennycress (Thlaspiarvense, tall hedge mustard (Sisymbrium loeselii and flixweed (Descurainia sophia, we tried to establish weeds that are not common on arable land in Germany until now. These were: Yellow rocket (Barbarea vulgaris, hoary cress (Lepidium draba and Turkish rocket (Bunias orientalis. In autumn 2011 emergence of the sown weeds was poor. In the second year of experiment we got good emergence of the named weeds excluding hoary cress (Lepidium draba. In autumn 2011 and 2012 different herbicidecombinations were applied across the stripes. The best results were achieved with Colzor Trio (clomazone + dimethachlor + napropamid which was applied in pre-emergence state, a spray sequence Butisan Gold (metazachlor + quinmerac + dimethenamid-P applied in pre-emergence followed by Salsa (ethametsulfuronmethyl + Trend (adjuvant in post-emergence and Clearfield-Vantiga (metazachlor + quinmerac + imazamox + Dash (adjuvant, also applied in post-emergence state of the weeds.

  6. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly


    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance.

  7. ["Biastophilia"--rape as a form of paraphilia?].

    Knecht, Thomas


    Rape is primarily regarded as a crime against sexual integrity. If rape is the only way for an individual to get sexual satisfaction, it meets the criteria of paraphilia, i.e. a disorder of sexual preference. The correct technical term is "biastophilia". The author investigates the evolutionary origins of this deviant form of copulation behavior, whose crucial characteristic is breaking the will of the sexual object. He shows that in a primeval environment this type of mating behavior may have been a promising strategy to pass on one's genes to the next generation. Thus, the behavioral pattern of raping had the chance to become widely spread in spite of its social undesirability.

  8. More Than a Magazine: Exploring the Links Between Lads' Mags, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Rape Proclivity.

    Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Toro-García, Virginia; Horvath, Miranda A H; Megías, Jesús L


    Exposure to some magazines aimed at young male readers-lads' mags-has recently been associated with behaviors and attitudes that are derogatory toward women, including sexual violence. In the present study, a group of Spanish adult men was exposed to the covers of a lads' mag while a second group was exposed to the covers of a neutral magazine. Results showed that, compared with participants in the second group, participants who were exposed to covers of lads' mags who also showed high rape myth acceptance and legitimized the consumption of such magazines reported higher rape proclivity in a hypothetical situation. These findings suggest the need to further explore the possible detrimental effects of some sexualized media that are widely accepted in many Western countries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Changing attitudes and perceptions of Hispanic men ages 18 to 25 about rape and rape prevention.

    Lawson, Sarah Lynn; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gutman, Lauren Samantha; Siman, Matilde Nathalia


    This exploratory study was designed to test the effectiveness of Foubert's intervention, The Men's Program, on a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Hispanic men who are not enrolled at a University or College. We explored participants' perceptions of, reactions to, and experience of the program. The information collected will be used to adapt the program to this specific population in order to increase cultural relevancy and specificity and create lasting attitudinal change. Three groups of six-eight Hispanic males (n = 22) were exposed to the intervention program. The Bystander Attitude Scale and the Rape Attitude and Beliefs Scale were administered as pre- and post-test measures. A short focus group was conducted to ask the men about their experience of the intervention. Analysis showed a significant increase in participants' willingness to intervene (p = 0.005) along with a decrease in rape myth acceptance in four of the five subscales (Justice p = 0.03; Status p = 0.004; Tactics p = 0.04; and Gender p = 0.002) after exposure to the intervention. Analysis of focus group material yielded several interesting themes about knowledge of rape, family and culture, perceptions of women, and the program material. This study showed promising change in attitudes about rape beliefs and bystander behaviors in Hispanic males exposed to an educational intervention. Through the information obtained, a cultural adaption from the analysis of the focus group data will be implemented during Phase 2 of the study. The adapted intervention will be tested before, after, and 1- and 3-months post-intervention to test whether the change in attitudes and behaviors are sustainable over time.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Microorganisms for Degradation of Minimal Oils and Fats at Low Temperatures

    陈熹兮; 杨虹; 李道棠; 李堃宝


    The isolation of microorganisms for biodegradation of minimal fats and oils at low temperatures was reported. By using rapeseed oil as a sole carbon source, six strains were isolated from five kinds of oils/fats contaminated wastewater, soil, and active sludge. Among them, two strains which show the highest oil removal ratios were identified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes and Pseudomonas mendocina, respectively. The experiments of orthogonal impact conditions show that the optimal oil degradation condition is at pH 8.0, 5 C and 100 mg/L oil.Under this condition, the rapeseed oil degradation ratios of two strains after 24 hours amount to 92. 6% and 92.0% respectively, whereas the removal ratios of lard decrease to 39.5% and 54.3%.

  11. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry


    The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T-cannula or a ......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T.......05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P ... meal, rapeseed cake, and especially lupine, although all tested feedstuffs seem appropriate for inclusion in diets for organic pigs....

  12. Ethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw and the process simulation using artificial neural networks

    Talebnia, Farid; Mighani, Moein; Rahimnejad, Mostafa


    Rapeseed straw was utilized as a cheap raw material for ethanol production. Effects of steam explosion on chemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were studied. Changes in the pretreatment conditions showed strong effects...

  13. Analysis of Peanut Oil Adulterated with Other Edible Oils by Spectrophotometry

    SU Rui; WANG Xing-hua; ZHAO Tian-qi; YU Wen-zhi; FENG Xu-dong; ZHANG Han-qi; YU Ai-min


    Since peanut oil(PO) is more expensive than other seed oils,some PO is adulterated with other cheap seed oils,such as soybean oil,palm olein,cottonseed oil,corn oil and rapeseed oil.The conventional method for determining whether PO was adulterated is to detect the freezing point of oils.The proposed method for the determination of adulterants in PO was based on monitoring the change of absorbance when the sample was refrigerated.A special spectrophotometer was developed.A total of 10 kinds of POs from different suppliers were chosen and adulterated with other seed oils at the volume fraction levels ranging from 5% to 30%.A total of 150 samples were analyzed by the proposed method and the results were satisfactory.

  14. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-BE-2010-81 for the placing on the market of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 (with the exception of processed oil under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Bayer

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO


    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion is a risk assessment for the placing on the market of the genetically modified (GM herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape (OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 for food containing or consisting of, and food produced from or containing ingredients produced from, these GM plants. OSR Ms8 (male sterile and Rf3 (fertility restorer are the parents of OSR Ms8xRf3, which is fertile, contains the bar, barstar and barnase genes, and is tolerant to glufosinate-ammonium-containing herbicides. Integrity of the inserts present in the single events was demonstrated in the stack. Molecular characterisation did not reveal any safety issues. No biologically relevant differences were identified in the composition or agronomic and phenotypic characteristics of OSR Ms8xRf3, as compared with its non-GM comparator, except for the newly expressed proteins. The safety assessment identified no concerns regarding the potential toxicity and allergenicity of OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3. A broiler study confirmed that OSR Ms8xRf3 is as nutritious as its non-GM comparator. There are no indications of an increased likelihood of establishment and spread of feral OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 plants, or of hybridising wild relatives, unless exposed to glufosinate-ammonium-containing herbicides. Considering the intended uses, potential interactions of feral OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 plants with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered an issue. Environmental risks associated with a possible horizontal transfer into bacteria have not been identified. The monitoring plan and reporting intervals are in line with the intended uses. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that the information available for OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 addresses the scientific comments raised by Member States and that OSR Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3 are unlikely to have an adverse effect on human and animal health or on the environment, in the context of their intended

  15. Antioxidant Capacity of Rapeseed Extracts Obtained by Conventional and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction


    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional solid–liquid extraction were applied to extract total antioxidants from two rapeseed varieties. The antioxidant capacities (AC) of winter and spring rapeseed cultivars were determined by four different analytical methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The average AC of the studied r...

  16. 发酵菜籽饼用作肥育猪饲料的营养价值评定%Evaluation on Nutritional Value of Fermented Rapeseed Cake as Finishing Pigs Feed

    吴东; 钱坤; 徐鑫; 李吕木


    The experiment aims to study mixed microbial strains solid-state aerobic fermentation of rapeseed cake,and to study its nutrient value on finishing pigs.Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus cereus,mixed solid-state aerobic fermented rapeseed cake.A total of 3 healthy crossbred(Duroc×Landrace×Large White) barrows with an initial body weight of (75 ±1.34) kg.The indicator method was used.Using corn starch-semi-purified protein feed diets,rapeseed cake,fermented rapeseed cake and casein was respectively as the sole protein source.The loss of endogenous nitrogen was measured by casein group.The results showed that under the best conditions the degradation rates of glucosinolates,isothiocyanates and oxazolidine-thione were 67.26%,60.38%and 53.24%,re-spectively.Crude protein and small peptide content increased by 2.74 percentage and 2.4 percentage,respectively. Digestible energy and metabolizable energy of fermented rapeseed cake were 12.11 and 10.99 MJ/kg,respective-ly,significantly higher than rapeseed cake (P<0.05).The apparent digestibility of DM and CP of fermented rape-seed cake were increased by 7.67% and 13.66% respectively compared with rapeseed cake.The apparent ileal (true) digestibility of CP was 79.38%(86.67%),significantly higher than rapeseed cake (P<0.05).In addition to va-line,phenylalanine,arginine and cystine,the apparent and true digestibility of essential amino acids and non-es-sential amino acids of fermented rapeseed cake were significantly higher than rapeseed cake.Mixed bacteria sol-id-state fermentation could effectively improve forage quality,and improve digestion and utilization of nutrients of rapeseed cake.%为研究微生物混菌固态好氧发酵菜籽饼并评价其在肥育猪上的营养价值,选择植物乳杆菌和蜡样芽孢杆菌混菌固态好氧发酵菜籽饼,制得发酵菜籽饼,选择3头(75±1.34) kg健康回肠末端安装"T"型瘘管的杜长大杂种阉公猪,采用指示剂法进行氨基酸回肠末

  17. Rape embryogenesis I. The proembryo development

    Teresa Tykarska


    Full Text Available The development of the proembryo of rape Brassica napus L. from the zygote to the young embryo proper is described. A number of regularities were found in the direction, succession, and distribution of segmental and differentiating divisions of the proembryo. The direction of the divisions seems to foe determined by the direction of growth and the shape of the cells. The termyoung embryo proper is proposed to denote the globular embryo which already possesses separate plerome and periblem mother-cells and mother-cells of the iec layer and of clumella. The body of the embryo proper is derived from the apical cell ca which arose from the first division of the zygote and from the hypophysis - the only suspensor cell which closes the spheroid of the embryo. The development of the Brassica napus L. proembryo follows the sub-archetype Capsella bursa-pastoris in the IV megarchetype of Soueges.


    article is essentially library researched while incorporating internet sources using ... Rape is a global problem with women and children being mostly vulnerable ..... "Human Trafficking in Nigeria: A Christian Response", in Nsukka Journal.

  19. Rapeseed is an efficient energy crop which can still improve

    Flenet Francis


    Full Text Available The ability of biofuels to contribute efficiently to the replacement of fossil energy and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has been a matter of debate. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately the energy balance of biofuels and their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in order to evaluate and to improve the benefit for society. In rapeseed, the energy ratio (energy produced per unit of non-renewable energy input is well above 2 whatever the method of calculation. In order to investigate the variability of energy ratios and to identify ways of improvement, a study was conducted in France in 2005 and 2006. The method of mass allocation of input energy was used for calculations, instead of the substitution method, because with this method the results do not depend on the utilization of co-products. Hence, this method is better adapted to follow improvements. A great variability in the energy ratio was observed in 2005 and 2006. Seed yields and energy cost of fertilizer N explained most of this variability. Hence, improvements should focus on increasing yield with little increase in energy cost, and on decreasing wasting of N fertilizer. However the farmer incomes, and the net production of energy per hectare, must also be a matter of concern. The inventories of greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are still uncertain because of the great variability of soil emissions, due to environmental and management factors. Hence, in order to assess the effect of rapeseed on greenhouse gas emissions, methods based on process-oriented models accounting for these factors must be used. Such models give promising results, but further testing is still needed.

  20. Retardation Of Lipid Oxidation In Fish Oil-Enriched Fish Pâté- Combination Effects

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    stored at 2 or 10C were equally stable. Mixing fish oil with rapeseed oil before emulsification slightly increased the stability of the fish pâtés. Addition of antimicrobial agents, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate increased oxidative stability. It is recommended to produce enriched fish pâté...