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Sample records for rapeseed canola oil

  1. Canola/rapeseed protein-functionality and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanasundara Janitha P.D.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein rich meal is a valuable co-product of canola/rapeseed oil extraction. Seed storage proteins that include cruciferin (11S and napin (2S dominate the protein complement of canola while oleosins, lipid transfer proteins and other minor proteins of non-storage nature are also found. Although oil-free canola meal contains 36–40% protein on a dry weight basis, non-protein components including fibre, polymeric phenolics, phytates and sinapine, etc. of the seed coat and cellular components make protein less suitable for food use. Separation of canola protein from non-protein components is a technical challenge but necessary to obtain full nutritional and functional potential of protein. Process conditions of raw material and protein preparation are critical of nutritional and functional value of the final protein product. The storage proteins of canola can satisfy many nutritional and functional requirements for food applications. Protein macromolecules of canola also provide functionalities required in applications beyond edible uses; there exists substantial potential as a source of plant protein and a renewable biopolymer. Available information at present is mostly based on the protein products that can be obtained as mixtures of storage protein types and other chemical constituents of the seed; therefore, full potential of canola storage proteins is yet to be revealed.

  2. 7 CFR 457.161 - Canola and rapeseed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Canola and Rapeseed Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of... that contains at least 30 percent of an industrial type of oil as shown on the Special Provisions and... Official United States Standards for Grain including, but not limited to protein and oil, will not be...

  3. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  4. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  5. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions—Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled “Canola/Rapeseed Protein—Future Opportunities and Directions” that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015 addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry.

  6. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions-Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa; Rempel, Curtis B; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2016-04-13

    At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled "Canola/Rapeseed Protein-Future Opportunities and Directions" that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015) addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry.

  7. FUEL CELL POWERED WITH CANOLA OIL EMULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Piotr Włodarczyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using canola oil as active substance to fuel cell powering. For this purpose a prototype fuel cell was built. Cell was powered with canola oil emulsion. As a detergent Syntanol DS-10 was used. The mesh electrode with Pt catalyst was used as a anode, and mesh electrode with Ni-Co catalyst was used as a cathode. The measurements conducted in the temperature range 293-333K. The maximum current density reached the level of 2 mA/cm2, and maximum power reached the level of 21 mW (at temp. 333K. So, the possibility of delivery of canola oil (in emulsion form directly to the anode was shown. The obtain power is low, but was shown that it is possible to build the fuel cell powered with canola oil.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... sodium hydroxide catalyst, to 330 °F under partial vacuum and steam sparging agitation. (2) The..., bleached, and deodorized edible oil obtained from certain varieties of Brassica Napus or B. Campestris of...

  9. Rape-seed oil - a substitute for mineral oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badent, R.; Kist, K.; Schwab, A.J. [University of Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute of Electric Systems and High-Voltage Technology

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the study on the basic characteristics of rape-seed oil considered to be a substitute of mineral oil in power transformers. The results show that rape- seed oil is usable as an insulating liquid. Furthermore, results are presented concerning the breakdown behaviour in uniform (plane-plane geometry) and non-uniform (rod-plane geometry) fields under impulse conditions with gaps up to 40 mm and voltages up to 650 kV. A sufficient high 50 Hz breakdown voltage is the most important precondition for a medium to be used as an insulator. The dielectric strength of rape-seed oil exceeds more than 50 kV/2,5 mm and consequently fulfils the requirements of the standards. The measurement of the permittivity and tan {delta} at 90{sup o}C yields to 3,18 and 0,015, respectively and is comparable to the values of standard mineral oil. However, there are still some problems to be overcome. Beside the insulating task the liquid dielectric has also a cooling function in power apparatus. Since the dynamic viscosity of rape-seed oil (about 70 mm{sup 2}/s at 40{sup o}C) is higher than that of mineral oil, rape-seed oil has a lower ability for heat conduction. A further problem is the solidification of rape-seed oil below -5{sup o}C. (author)

  10. The phytotoxic effects and biodegradability of stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VAUHKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the phytotoxicity of stored rapeseed (Brassica rapa oil (RSO and rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME after "spill like" contamination on the growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare and the biodegradability of these substances in OECD 301F test conditions and in ground water. Rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester were both stored for a period of time and their fuel characteristics (e.g. acid number had changed from those set by the fuel standards and are considered to have an effect on its biodegradation. The phytotoxicity was tested using two different types of barley cultivars: ‘Saana’ and ‘Vilde’. The phytotoxic effect on the barley varieties was determined, after the growth season, by measuring the total biomass growth and the mass of 1000 kernels taken from the tests plots. Also visual inspection was used to determine what the effects on the barley growth were. These measurements suggest that both RSO and RME have a negative impact on barley sprouts and therefore the total growth of the barley. RSO and RME both decreased the total amount of harvested phytomass. The weight of 1000 kernels increased with low concentrations of these contaminants and high contamination levels reduced the mass of the kernels. The results of these experiments suggest that the stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester are both phytotoxic materials and therefore will cause substantial loss of vegetation in the case of a fuel spill. The RSO and RME biodegraded effectively in the measurement period of 28 days under OECD test conditions: the degree of biodegradation being over 60%. The biodegradation in the ground water was much slower: the degree of biodegradation being about 10% after 28 days.;

  11. Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants.

  12. Seed structure characteristics to form ultrahigh oil content in rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Hu

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding.Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition.Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding.

  13. characterisation of rapeseed oil based resins using infrared

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Rapeseed oil which is a triglyceride had undergone chemical modification on its structure to obtain hydroxyl groups. The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-p- phenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using ...

  14. Characterisation of Rapeseed Oil Based Resins Using Infrared and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapeseed oil which is a triglyceride had undergone chemical modification on its structure to obtain hydroxyl groups. The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-pphenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using the Attenuated ...

  15. Effect of Rapeseed Oil on Effective Protein Degradability and Intestinal Protein Digestibility of Oat, Rapeseed Meal and Dried Sugarbeet Pulp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potkanski, A; Nowak, W

    2000-01-01

    Potkanski, A. and Nowak, W. 2000. Effect of rapeseed oil on effective protein degradability and intestinal protein digestibility of oat, rapeseed meal and dried sugarbeet pulp. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 18: 81-89...

  16. Lipase-Catalyzed Modification of Canola Oil with Caprylic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Luan, Xia; Xu, Xuebing

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids. Six commercial lipases from different sources were screened for their ability to incorporate the caprylic acid into the canola oil. The positional distribution of FA on the glycerol backbone...

  17. characterisation of rapeseed oil based resins using infrared

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    CHARACTERISATION OF RAPESEED OIL BASED RESINS. USING INFRARED AND THERMOGRAVIMETRY TECHNIQUES. LY Mwaikambo. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,. University of Dar Es salaam, P.O. Box 35131, Dar Es salaam, Tanzania, lyrmwaikambo@udsm.ac.tz. ABSTRACT. Rapeseed ...

  18. Characteristics of rapeseed oil cake using nitrogen adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Z.; Bowanko, G.; Boguta, P.; Tys, J.; Skiba, K.

    2013-09-01

    Adsorption of nitrogen on the rapeseed oil cake and rapeseed oil cake with wheat meal extrudates was investigated. The results are presented as adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Brunauer-Emmet and Teller equation was used to analyse the experimental sorption data. To obtain estimates of the surface area and surface fractal dimension, the sorption isotherms were analyzed using the Brunauer-Emmet and Teller and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equations. Mesopore analysis was carried out using the Dollimore and Heal method. The properties and surface characteristic of rapeseed oil cake extrudates are related to different basic properties of particular samples and duration of the extrusion process. Extrusion conditions lead to essential differences in particular products. For all kinds of rapeseed oil cakes the amount of adsorbed nitrogen was different, but for the rapeseed oil cake extrudates a large amount of adsorbed nitrogenwas observed. The average surface area of the rapeseed oil cake extrudates was about 6.5-7.0 m2 g-1, whereas it was equal to about 4.0-6.0 m2 g-1 for rapeseed oil cake with the wheat meal extrudates. In the case of non-extruded rapeseed oil cake and wheat meal, the dominant group included ca. 2 and 5 nmpores. The values of surface fractal dimension suggested that the surface of the extrudates was more homogenous than that of the raw material. Duration of the extrusion process to 80 s resulted in a decrease in the specific surface area, surface fractal dimension, and porosity of the extrudates.

  19. Evaluation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... the canola cultivars are fit for human consumption; rather the oil is beneficial for health due to the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid. Analysis of variance (Table 1) for oil content revealed that genotypes were non significant for oil content. However the highest amount for oil percentage was ...

  20. Exploration for unknown substances in rapeseed oil that shorten survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Effects of super critical gas extraction fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Naoki; Naito, Yukiko; Nagata, Tomoko; Tatematsu, Kenjiro; Fuma, Shin-Ya; Tachibana, Shigehiro; Okuyama, Harumi

    2006-07-01

    To identify the causative substances for the shortening of survival time by rapeseed (Canola) oil in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP), SHRSP were fed on a standard chow supplemented with 10 w/w% soybean oil (control), rapeseed oil, one of the fractions of rapeseed oil obtained by super critical gas extraction (SCE) under a pressure of 180-bar or 350-bar, at 40 degrees C, or the residue from the extraction (with 0.5% NaCl in drinking water). In another series of experiment, SHRSP were fed for 8 weeks on the above-mentioned diets without salt loading and autopsied. Fatty acid compositions in these diets were similar, except in the soybean oil diet, and phytosterol contents were: (diet containing) 180-bar fraction>residue>rapeseed oil>350-bar fraction>soybean oil. Survival times in the rapeseed oil, 350-bar fraction and residue groups were shorter than, whereas that in the 180-bar fraction was similar to in the soybean oil group. In the 8-week feeding experiment, chronic nephropathy was found frequently in the groups other than the soybean oil group. The heart weights were higher in the rapeseed oil and residue groups. Cerebral necrosis was found in the residue group. Taken together, the followings are concluded, (1) Neither the fatty acid composition, nor the amount of phytosterols in the diets appeared to be decisive in the shortening of life. (2) SCE appeared to produce a safe (180-bar) fraction, though it failed to separate clearly the causative substances into specific fractions. (3) The factors that facilitate the genetic disease of SHRSP appear to exist in rapeseed oil. However, they might not be identical to those responsible for the life-shortening, since there were no findings common across the rapeseed oil, 350-bar and residue groups, which showed similar life-shortening.

  1. Quality evaluation of rapeseed oils used as engine fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Světlík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples from six reference decentralised facilities and one industrial production unit of rapeseed oils were taken for the evaluation of the influence of production processes to the properties specified in the technical standard; in the laboratories, the properties limited by the standard for rapeseed oils were determined. In addition, long-term monitoring of changes in the oxidation stability in the storage test of rapeseed oils additived in the quantities of 200, 400 and 600 mg.kg−1 of the Baynox antioxidant was started. The results confirmed that the critical points in the rapeseed oil production process consist in the contamination with ash-forming elements, such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and overall impurities. Not only in the case of hot pressing, but also in two-step cold pressing of rapeseed it is necessary to reduce the content of ash-forming elements using additional processes, such as degumming, neutralisation and whitening. The safety step consisting of filtration down to maximum particle size of 1 μm must be always in place before the oil distribution. A positive effect of the Baynox antioxidant was clearly proved. As 200 mg.kg−1 of Baynox was added, the oxidation stability value increased from 8 to 9.05 hrs immediately after the pressing with a consequent decrease to 6 hrs after 270 days. With using of addition 400 ppm Baynox decreased oxidation stability under 6 hours not until after 390 days of storage. With addition 600 ppm Baynox the oxidation stability of rapeseed oil even after 510 days of storage makes 6.5 hours. The quality monitoring brought about necessary findings and knowledge for the optimisation of the rapeseed oil production and distribution as engine fuels. In addition, it serves as an initial supporting document for the creation of the necessary quality control system.

  2. Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsete Juliana A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. Methods Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were evaluated by cell cycle analyses, propidium-iodide staining, trypan blue exclusion and phosphatidylserine externalization. mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR. Results There was a significant difference in the lipid profiles of the cells after treatment. Differential action of the oils on inflammatory molecules, following treatment at non-cytotoxic levels, indicated that canola oil mimetic was anti-inflammatory whereas corn oil mimetic was pro-inflammatory. Significance These results indicate that use of canola oil in the diet instead of corn oil might be beneficial for diseases promoted by inflammation.

  3. Dust Reduction in Broiler Houses by Spraying Rapeseed Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Hattum, van T.G.; Zhao, Y.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of spraying rapeseed oil on the reduction of dust and ammonia concentrations and emissions, and on animal parameters was investigated in a dose-response study in a broiler house during three growing periods in four (round 1) or five rooms (rounds 2 and 3). The spraying rates varied per

  4. Characterization of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Suat; Ozkan, Ahmet R

    2008-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the composition of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake in a fixed bed reactor at 400, 450, 500, 700 and 900 degrees C. The gas products mainly consisted of CO(2), CO, CH(4) and H(2)S at 500 degrees C. Empirical formula of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake was CH(1.59)O(0.16)N(0.116)S(0.003) for 500 degrees C. Bio-oils mainly contained oleic acid, 1H-indole, 2,3,5-trimethoxy toluene, toluene, (Z)-9-octadecanamide, psoralene, phenol and phenol derivatives at all pyrolysis temperatures. Both non-aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were determined in water phase of liquid product by Headspace-GC analysis. The heating values of bio-chars were found to be similar (24MJkg(-1)) at all pyrolysis temperatures.

  5. Predicting rapeseed oil content with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish a calibration equation and to estimate the efficiency of near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy for evaluating rapeseed oil content in Southern Brazil. Spectral data from 124 half-sib families were correlated with oil contents determined by the chemical method. The accuracy of the equation was verified by coefficient of determination (R² of 0.92, error of calibration (SEC of 0.78, and error of performance (SEP of 1.22. The oil content of ten genotypes, which were not included in the calibration with NIR, was similar to the one obtained by the standard chemical method. NIR spectroscopy is adequate to differentiate oil content of rapeseed genotypes.

  6. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents.

  7. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Paweł P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH and acidic (H2SO4 electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  8. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Paweł P.; Włodarczyk, Barbara; Kalinichenko, Antonina

    2017-10-01

    Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH) and acidic (H2SO4) electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  9. [Skin manifestations of toxic syndrome due to denatured rapeseed oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, E

    2009-12-01

    This article offered an extensive description of the clinical and pathological features and time-course of the skin manifestations of toxic syndrome caused by denatured rapeseed oil, also known as toxic oil syndrome. This new condition occurred in Spain in 1981 and was due to the ingestion of rapeseed oil intended for industrial use that had been denatured with anilines and subsequently refined and sold fraudulently as olive oil. In total, 20,000 cases and 400 deaths were reported. The disease affected mainly women, particularly in the late stages. In the acute phase, the predominant skin manifestations were toxic-allergic rashes reminiscent of allergic urticaria in the dermatopathologic study. In approximately 25% of cases, the patients' skin subsequently took on an edematous appearance, with pigmentary abnormalities shown to be related to cutaneous mucinosis. Finally, a characteristic sclerodermatous condition would develop that tended to improve spontaneously. The constant presence of mast cells in all biopsies and the development of mastocytosis in several patients pointed to an important role for these cells in the pathogenesis of the condition. This was subsequently confirmed in other sclerodermatous processes. In 1989, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome caused by toxins present in tryptophan food supplements was reported in the United States. This syndrome resembled toxic oil syndrome in many ways and demonstrated that mucinosis and toxic sclerodermatous processes do exist.

  10. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RAPESEED MEAL AND CANOLA MEAL ON BROILER PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. KHAN, A. AZIM AND M. I. ANJUM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 630 mixed sex day-old broiler chickens were reared for 7 weeks to study the production performance by feeding different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM and canola meal (CM in their diets. The chickens were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G having three replicates of 30 birds in each group. Group A was fed control diet (soyabean meal, whereas groups B, D and F were fed diets containing 5, 10 and 15 percent RSM which was replaced with CM on weight basis in the diets fed to groups C, E and G, respectively. Experimental diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum. Feed intake during 0-28 days of age was higher (p0.05. The study suggests that RSM up to 5% and CM up to 10% can be incorporated in broiler starter diets and both RSM and CM can be used up to 10% in finisher diets without any adverse effect on production parameters.

  11. Salt loading in canola oil fed SHRSP rats induces endothelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annateresa Papazzo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if 50 days of canola oil intake in the absence or presence of salt loading affects: (1 antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, (2 aortic mRNA of NADPH oxidase (NOX subunits and superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms and (3 endothelial function in SHRSP rats. SHRSP rats were fed a diet containing 10 wt/wt% soybean oil or 10 wt/wt% canola oil, and given tap water or water containing 1% NaCl for 50 days. Without salt, canola oil significantly increased RBC SOD, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, aortic p22 (phox , NOX2 and CuZn-SOD mRNA, and decreased RBC glutathione peroxidase activity. With salt, canola oil reduced RBC SOD and catalase activity, LDL-C, and p22 (phox mRNA compared with canola oil alone, whereas plasma malondialdehyde (MDA was reduced and RBC MDA and LDL-C were higher. With salt, the canola oil group had significantly reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilating responses to ACh and contractile responses to norepinephrine compared with the canola oil group without salt and to the WKY rats. These results indicate that ingestion of canola oil increases O2 (- generation, and that canola oil ingestion in combination with salt leads to endothelial dysfunction in the SHRSP model.

  12. IMPACTS OF IRON, NUTRIENTS, AND MINERAL FINES ON ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF CANOLA OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors affecting anaerobic biodegradation kinetics of canola oil in freshwater sediments were investigated. An optimum dose of ferric hydroxide (10.5 g Fe(III)·kg-1 sediment) was found to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil (18.6 g oil kg-1). ...

  13. Enhanced Seed Oil Production in Canola by Conditional Expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in Developing Seeds1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-01-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production. PMID:21562329

  14. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  15. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: a randomized crossover controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril-Gravel, L; Labonté, M-E; Couture, P; Vohl, M-C; Charest, A; Guay, V; Jenkins, D A; Connelly, P W; West, S; Kris-Etherton, P M; Jones, P J; Fleming, J A; Lamarche, B

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of various dietary fatty acids on pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. We investigated the effect of 5 oils containing various amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma inflammatory biomarkers and expression levels of key inflammatory genes and transcription factors in whole blood cells. In a randomized, crossover controlled nutrition intervention, 114 adult men and women with abdominal obesity and at least one other criterion for the metabolic syndrome consumed 5 experimental isoenergetic diets for 4 weeks each, separated by 4-week washout periods. Each diet provided 60 g/3000 kcal of different oils: 1) control corn/safflower oil blend (CornSaff; LA-rich), 2) flax/safflower oil blend (FlaxSaff; ALA-rich), 3) conventional canola oil (Canola; OA-rich), 4) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest OA content), 5) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; OA- and DHA-rich). Gene expression in whole blood cells was assessed in a subset of 62 subjects. CanolaDHA increased plasma adiponectin concentrations compared with the control CornSaff oil treatment (+4.5%, P = 0.04) and FlaxSaff (+6.9%, P = 0.0008). CanolaDHA also reduced relative expression levels of interleukin (IL)1B compared with CornSaff and Canola (-11% and -13%, respectively, both P = 0.03). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were lower after Canola than after FlaxSaff (-17.8%, P = 0.047). DHA-enriched canola oil exerts anti-inflammatory effects compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizge, Nadir; Keskinler, Buelent [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze 41400 (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    In the present work, a novel method for immobilization of lipase within hydrophilic polyurethane foams using polyglutaraldehyde was developed for the immobilization of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase to produce biodiesel with canola oil and methanol. The enzyme optimum conditions were not affected by immobilization and the optimum pH for free and immobilized enzyme were 6, resulting in 80% immobilization yield. Using the immobilized lipase T. lanuginosus, the effects of enzyme loading, oil/alcohol molar ratio, water concentration, and temperature in the transesterification reaction were investigated. The optimal conditions for processing 20 g of refined canola oil were: 430 {mu}g lipase, 1:6 oil/methanol molar ratio, 0.1 g water and 40 C for the reactions with methanol. Maximum methyl esters yield was 90% of which enzymatic activity remained after 10 batches, when tert-butanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase. The immobilized lipase proved to be stable and lost little activity when was subjected to repeated uses. (author)

  18. Adhesion-preventing properties of 4% icodextrin and canola oil: a comparative experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengizhan Yigitler

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Postsurgical abdominal adhesions are common, serious postoperative complications. The present study compared the usefulness of 4% icodextrin and canola oil in preventing postoperative peritoneal adhesions. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Following a laparotomy, a serosal abrasion was made by brushing the cecum, and 3 mL of 0.9% NaCl, 4% icodextrin, or 3 mL of canola oil were intraperitoneally administered for the control, icodextrin, and canola oil groups, respectively. The abdomen was then closed. All of the rats were sacrificed at day 10. Macroscopic, histopathological, and biochemical evaluations were performed. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA tests. RESULTS: Macroscopic analyses revealed that both canola oil and 4% icodextrin reduced adhesion formation, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.17. The histopathological examinations revealed no significant differences in terms of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, ICAM1, or PECAM1 scores. However, both canola oil and 4% icodextrin significantly reduced fibrosis (p = 0.025. In the canola oil group, the histiocytic reactions were significantly increased (p = 0.001, and the hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower than those in the other groups (p = 0.034. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, canola oil was determined to be superior to 4% icodextrin in lowering hydroxyproline levels and increasing histiocytic reactions. Considering these results, we believe that canola oil is a promising agent for preventing adhesion formation.

  19. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3 and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of...

  20. Impact of Endogenous Phenolics in Canola Oil on the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Moser, Jill

    Canola oil is low in saturated fat, high in monounsaturated fat and has a favourable omega-6:omega-3 ratio . Therefore, Canola oil has a healthier fatty acid profile compared to other plant oils such as soy oil. Therefore, canola oil is also an ingredient in many food products. However, the content...... of unsaturated lipid makes canola oil susceptible towards lipid oxidation. Many food products are lipid containing emulsions and a lot of efforts have been put into developing methods to protect the lipids against oxidation. Since lipid oxidation has a negative influence on the shelf life of the foods, efficient...... antioxidants will result in increased shelf life and thereby increased quality of the food products. Besides tocopherols, Canola oil contains different compounds with antioxidative properties. These compounds are Sinapic acid, Sinapine and Canolol; all belonging to the group of phenolic compounds. However...

  1. Metabolisable energy of Canola acid oil and Famarol acid oil for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Short paper and poster abstracts: 38th Congress of the South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 26. Metabolisable energy of Canola acid oil and Famarol acid oil for broiler chickens. G.J.M. Coetzee and L.C. Hoffman. #.

  2. Effect of Drying Operating Conditions on Canola Oil Tocopherol Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Laoretani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate two operating parameters of seed drying (temperature and initial moisture content on the tocopherol content of canola oil. The raw material was characterized by moisture, oil, protein, crude fiber and ash content. Seeds at 13.6% and 22.7% moisture content (dry basis, db were dried at temperatures in the range of 35–100 °C to a safe storage moisture of 7% db. Oil was extracted from each treated sample. The oil extracted from the samples dried at the extreme temperatures was analyzed by means of the acidity value, peroxide index and fatty acid composition, finding no significant differences among treatments or among untreated and treated samples. Tocopherol contents in the oils obtained for all the assayed temperatures were determined. Differences were found for the samples with 22.7% (db initial moisture content. Except at 35 °C, temperature affected negatively the oil tocopherol content. However, when 13.6% (db moisture seeds were processed, no significant differences were observed in the amount of this minor oil component among assays.

  3. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of Italiantype salami with canola oil addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcindo Nascimento Terra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of partial pork fat replacement with emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami. Three treatments were done: Control (100% pork fat, without fat replacement, T1 (15% pork fat was replaced by emulsified canola oil and T2 (30% pork fat was replaced by emulsified oil canola. There were evaluated the salamis’ physicochemical characteristics (pH, water activity, weight loss, color and lipid oxidation during the manufacture and storage period, and sensory evaluation after the manufacture process. The emulsified canola oil addition at different levels did not change the pH and color during the manufacture process, even though significant differences were found in these parameters during the storage period. The water activity did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, the treatments with emulsified canola oil added have a lower weight loss than the control. It was possible to observe an elevation on lipid oxidation values in the T2 during manufacture and storage periods, while in the T1, the values did not differ from the control at the end of manufactures and remained lower than the control during the storage period. Even more, the partial replacement of pork fat by emulsified canola oil did not affect the acceptance of the product for aroma, flavor, color, texture and visual appearance. Thus, the 15% pork fat replacement by emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami is a viable alternative for the product diversification.

  4. Influence of Teucrium polium L. essential oil on the oxidative stability of canola oil during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad, Ruhollah; Farahmandfar, Reza

    2017-09-01

    The susceptibility of Teucrium polium essential oil (EO) as an antioxidant for canola oil was studied. Major compounds of the EO were 11-acetoxyeudesman-4-α-ol (26.3%) and α-bisabolol (24.6%). Different concentrations (200, 600 and 1200 ppm) of EO and synthetic antioxidant BHA (200 ppm) were added to canola oil and incubated for 60 days at room temperature. Acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), iodine value (IV), total phenolics (TP), total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability index (OSI) of canola oil were determined. Antioxidant capacity of the EO was measured by DPPH and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Results exhibited that DPPH and β-carotene-linoleic acid experiment detections on the EO were analogous in high concentrations to those detected on BHA. Moreover, incorporated EO samples had better AV, PV, CV, IV, TP and TPC than control. EO at concentration of 600 ppm indicated higher antioxidant activity in canola oil compared with BHA.

  5. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg-1 and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg-1. It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  6. Rapeseed Oil as Renewable Resource for Polyol Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirna, Uldis; Fridrihsone, Anda; Misane, Marija; Vilsone, Dzintra

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important platform chemicals due to their accessibility, specific structure of oils and low price. Rapeseed oil (RO) polyols were prepared by amidization of RO with diethanolamine (DEA). To determine the kinetics of amidization reaction, experiments were carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), amine (NH) value was determined. Group contribution method by Fedor‵s was used to calculate solubility parameters, van der Waals volume was calculated by Askadskii. Obtained polyol‵s OH and NH value are from 304 up to 415 mg KOH/g. RO polyols synthesis meets the criteria of "green chemistry". In the present study, reaction of RO amidization with DEA was investigated, as well as optimum conditions for polyol synthesis was established to obtain polyols for polyurethane production. Calculations of solubility parameter and cohesion energy density were calculated, as RO polyols will be used as side chains in polymers, and solubility parameter will be used to explain properties of polymers.

  7. Oil-structuring characterization of natural waxes in canola oil oleogels: Rheological, thermal, and oxidative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) were utilized as canola oil structurants to produce oleogels and their physicochemical properties were evaluated from rheological, thermal, and oxidative points of view. The oleogels with candelilla wax exhibited the highest hardness, followe...

  8. Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil extraction plants. Handbook. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Herstellung von Rapsoelkraftstoff in dezentralen Oelgewinnungsanlagen. Handbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ) im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing oil prices, the dependence on petroleum imports and the desire to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions, are arguments to accelerate the production and utilization of biofuels. In 2007, 3.3 million tons of biodiesel and 772,000 tons of vegetable oil were used as fuel. The technically and economically successful production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills requires a quality assurance. Specifically, the brochure under consideration reports on the following: (1) Oilseed processing; (2) Centralized oil production in Germany; (3) Design of a decentralized oil mill; (4) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized systems; (5) Quality assurance for rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills; (6) Properties of rapeseed oil fuel; (7) Quality of rapeseed oil fuel from decentralized oil mills; (8) Economic aspects of decentralized oil extraction; (9) Legal framework conditions.

  9. Effect of strong electrolytes on edible oils part III: viscosity of canola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of strong electrolytes on the viscosity of canola oil in 1,4 dioxane was undertaken. The viscosity of oil in 1,4 dioxane was found to increase with the concentration of oil and decrease with rise in temperature. Strong electrolytes reduce the rate of flow of oil in 1,4 dioxane. It was noted that amongst these electrolytes, ...

  10. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2012-07-07

    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; ptest cycle than on the fuel. Our findings suggest that the genotoxicity of particulate emissions from the combustion of rapeseed oil is significant and is comparable to that from the combustion of diesel fuel. A more detailed study is ongoing to verify and extent these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasonic free fatty acids esterification in tobacco and canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffito, D C; Galli, F; Pirola, C; Bianchi, C L; Patience, G S

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound accelerates the free fatty acids esterification rate by reducing the mass transfer resistance between methanol in the liquid phase and absorbed organic species on Amberlyst®46 catalyst. The reaction rates of canola oil is three times greater than for tobacco seed oil but half the reaction rate of pure oleic acid as measured in a batch reactor. The beneficial effects of ultrasound vs. the conventional approach are more pronounced at lower temperatures (20°C and 40°C vs. 63°C): at 20°C, the free fatty acids conversion reaches 68% vs. 23% with conventional mechanical stirring. The increased conversion is attributed to acoustic cavitation that increases mass transfer in the vicinity of the active sites. The Eley-Rideal kinetic model in which the concentration of the reacting species is expressed taking into account the mass transfer between the phases is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Ultrasound increases the mass transfer coefficient in the tobacco oil 6 and 4.1 fold at 20°C and 40°C, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil Using Amberlyst-26 as a Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    İLGEN, Oğuzhan; AKIN, Ayşe Nilgün; BOZ, Nezahat

    2014-01-01

    The transesterification of canola oil to fatty acid methyl esters was studied using Amberlyst-26 as a solid catalyst. The influence of reaction conditions, such as the reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, amount of catalyst, effect of co-solvent, and alcohol and oil types, were determined. When the reaction was carried out at 45 °C with a canola oil to methanol molar ratio of 6:1, a reaction time of 1.5 h, and 3 wt.% of catalyst, oil conversion was about 67%. Methanol was muc...

  14. Characteristics of denatured rapeseed oil during storage and refining processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philen, R. M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, toxic oil syndrome, a progressive multi-system disease caused by consumption of rapeseed oil denatured with aniline occurred in Spain. To date, the causal toxic agent or agents remain unknown. Measures of acidity, moisture, impurities, phosphorous, soaps, and spectrophotometric determinations of color at 409 nm were performed. Since fatty acid anilide concentrations in these oils are associated with risk of disease, w e studied the formation of aniline-derived compounds over time after oil denaturation and by oil deodorization temperatures (200ºC, 215ºC, 230ºC, 245ºC, 260ºC, y 270ºC and times (3, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 and 6 hours. Formation of fatty acid anilide compounds increased with storage time. Deodorization led to a reduction of total anilides in all the samples, particularly at temperatures above 245ºC. Esters of 3-(N-phenylamino-1,2-propanediol were not detected.En 1981 tuvo lugar en España el llamado «Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico», una enfermedad progresiva multi-sistemática causada por el consumo de aceite de colza desnaturalizado con anilina. Hasta la fecha, el agente o agentes tóxicos causantes permanecen desconocidos. Se han realizado medidas de acidez, humedad, impurezas, fósforo, jabones y determinaciones espectrofotométricas de color a 409 nm. Puesto que las concentraciones de anilidas de los ácidos grasos en estos aceites se asocian al riesgo de padecer la enfermedad, se estudiaron la formación de compuestos derivados de anilina durante el tiempo de desnaturalización y con las temperaturas y tiempos de desodorización (temperaturas: 200ºC, 215ºC, 230ºC, 245ºC, 260ºC, y 270ºC y tiempos: 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 y 6 horas. La formación de anilidas de ácidos grasos aumenta con el tiempo de almacenamiento. La desodorización conlleva una reducción de la cantidad total de anilidas en todas las muestras, particularmente cuando la temperatura es superior a 245ºC. No fueron

  15. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jiqu Xu; Xiaoli Liu; Hui Gao; Chang Chen; Qianchun Deng; Qingde Huang; Zhonghua Ma; Fenghong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed ...

  16. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshui, Chen, E-mail: boshuichen@163.com; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Monodispersed stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. Their morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics were also characterized. • The surface-capped cerium borate nanoparticles exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. As new lubricating additives, they were also outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil in biodegradable rapeseed oil. The results presented in this paper would be of important significance for developing green lubricants and lubricant additives. • The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} in rapeseed oil were investigated and attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species on the tribo-surfaces. - Abstract: Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO{sub 3}, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO{sub 3} were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO{sub 3} were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO{sub 3} nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent

  17. Evaluation of seed and oil yield stability in NS rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed trials performed in the period 2007-2010 were analyzed to evaluate seed and oil yield stability in NS rapeseed cultivars in changeable environmental conditions of northern Serbia. Seed yield, oil content and yield for 40 winter and 9 spring rapeseed cultivars were analyzed. It was found that the influence of year on seed and oil yield was most significant. Genotype (cultivars by environment (year interaction was further analyzed using AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction model. In the environmental conditions present during the trial in Rimski Šančevi according to the analysis of regression coefficient (bi and ecovalence (Wi and AMMI model, winter cultivars Nena and NS-L-102 were the most stable and high seed yielding, and hybrid cultivar NS-H-R-3 was singled out for oil yield. These cultivars are recommended for implementation in future breeding programs and for growing in the conditions described in this paper.

  18. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshui, Chen; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO3, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO3 were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO3 as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO3 were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO3 nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO3 in rapeseed oil were attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species of B2O3, CeO2 and Fe2O3, and the adsorbates of SA/CeBO3 and rapeseed oil, on the tribo-surfaces.

  19. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Is chronic rapeseed oil diet more neuroprotective than chronic corn/sunflower diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Nicole

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and specifically omega3 have been shown to exert a potent protecting effect on both cardiac and neuronal functions. Rapeseed oil contains 9% of alphalinolenic acid (18-3n-3, ALA, whereas corn and sunflower oils (18:2n-6, linoleic acid rich do not. The aim of the present study was to compare in mice the putative protective effects of ALA, by testing two chronic diets containing either rapeseed oil (ALA rich or a corn/sunflower blend (devoided of ALA using an epilepsy model, allowing the detection of neurotoxic or neuroprotective activities: the MDDAS test (Magnesium Deficiency-Dependent Audiogenic Seizure test. After a 30 day-Mg-deprivation period, neuronal hyperexcitability appeared only in the corn/sunflower fed group, suggesting a protecting effect of the rapeseed oil. The number of convulsive mice was twice reduced in the rapeseed group and all of them recovered whereas in the corn/sunflower group all the mice had seizures and 43% died. The pattern of seizures with the rapeseed diet showed an increase in the first two step durations (latency and wild running, and a non significant slight decrease in the third (convulsions and the fourth (recovery ones. These results suggest a GABAergic-like effect. The increases in the first 2 phases were also indicative of a likely effect on Na+ channels, which was also observed using the maximum electroshock seizure test. These preliminary results indicate that adapted chronic dietary intake of rapeseed oil, an ALA rich monounsaturated oil, could help to control neuronal disorders as here shown in our model of magnesium-deficient mice.

  1. How canola and sunflower oils affect lipid profile and anthropometric parameters of participants with dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Sedigheh; Noroozi, Mona; Khosrotabar, Naghmeh; Mazandarani, Shadi; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Restricted intakes of saturated and trans-fatty acids and replacement with poly or monounsaturated fatty acids are emphasized in healthy diets. This study evaluates the effects of a six-month consumption of canola oil compared to sunflower oil on lipid profile and anthropometric parameters of people affected by dyslipidemia. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 96 patients with dyslipidemia, who were randomly assigned into canola oil or the sunflower oil groups. The participants were instructed to record the contents of their daily meals, beverages, fruits, and snacks a day before treatment, at the second clinic visit, in the third month, and at the end of study (i.e., six months). Lipid profile and anthropometric parameters were compared between the two groups. Student t-test or Mann Whitney U test was used for statistical comparisons of variables between groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to adjust the confounding factor effects. Results: Of the enrolled participants, 44 (45.8%) were on sunflower oil diet and 52 (54.2%) on canola oil diet. We observed no change in anthropometric parameters and thus no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). Significant reductions in LDL-C (psunflower oil. Conclusion: Dietary fats in the form of canola oil or sunflower oil effectively lower the serum cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations. They also result in an increase in serum concentration of HDL-C. These oils, however, did not modify general anthropometric parameters. PMID:28638812

  2. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  3. Short Distance Standoff Raman Detection of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Adulterated with Canola and Grapeseed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Bose, Nayana; Jackson-Davis, Armitra; Boateng, Judith; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup

    2017-06-01

    A short distance standoff Raman technique is demonstrated for detecting economically motivated adulteration (EMA) in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Using a portable Raman spectrometer operating with a 785 nm laser and a 2-in. refracting telescope, adulteration of olive oil with grapeseed oil and canola oil is detected between 1% and 100% at a minimum concentration of 2.5% from a distance of 15 cm and at a minimum concentration of 5% from a distance of 1 m. The technique involves correlating the intensity ratios of prominent Raman bands of edible oils at 1254, 1657, and 1441 cm-1 to the degree of adulteration. As a novel variation in the data analysis technique, integrated intensities over a spectral range of 100 cm-1 around the Raman line were used, making it possible to increase the sensitivity of the technique. The technique is demonstrated by detecting adulteration of EVOO with grapeseed and canola oils at 0-100%. Due to the potential of this technique for making measurements from a convenient distance, the short distance standoff Raman technique has the promise to be used for routine applications in food industry such as identifying food items and monitoring EMA at various checkpoints in the food supply chain and storage facilities.

  4. Abatement of particulate matter emission from experimental aviary housings for laying hens by spraying rapeseed oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, A.; Riel, van J.W.; Emous, van R.A.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    In alternative systems for laying hens, concentrations and emission rates of particulate matter (PM) give reason for concern with regard to working conditions, bird health and productivity, and health of residents living near farms. Previously, we found that spraying a film of rapeseed oil onto the

  5. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed butterfat interesterification with rapesee oil by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend and intere...

  6. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the biofuel production process from sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Requena, J.F.; Guimaraes, A.C.; Quiros Alpera, S.; Relea Gangas, E.; Hernandez-Navarro, S.; Navas Gracia, L.M.; Martin-Gil, J.; Fresneda Cuesta, H. [Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources; Valladolid Univ., Palencia (Spain). Dept. of Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Once ratified the Kyoto protocol, Spain arises the great challenge of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Among the measures proposed is the introduction of biofuels in the market, both for the transport sector and for the production of heat. This paper compares the environmental impact from the production of biofuels whose origin is the oil obtained from sunflower, rapeseed and soybeans. The environmental impact of each production is performed by applying the methodology of life cycle analysis (LCA). The categories where you get a greater impact are land use, fossil fuels, carcinogens, inorganic respiratory and climate change. The cause is mainly due to the processes of seed production. We have also found a significant impact on the drying and preparation processes of the seed as well as the crude soybean oil extracting process. Moreover as the LCA shows production of rapeseed and sunflower has a positive contribution to climate change. (author)

  7. The use of antioxidants in vegetable oils – A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Canola oil is a type of rapeseed oil with reduced erucic acid content (Applewhite, 1978). It is a stable oil used in salad dressings, margarine and shortenings. Soybean oil is an important oil with numerous increasing applications in the modern day world. It is classed as a linolenic acid oil since it contains.

  8. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of our ongoing experiments on optimization of the oxidative stability of fish oils in genuine food systems, this study investigated the oxidative deterioration of fish oil enriched milk emulsions during cold storage. The experimental data showed that addition of rapeseed oil to fish oil...... (1:1) prior to emulsification into milk significantly protected the emulsions against oxidative deterioration. Addition of propyl gallate and a citric acid ester to the fish oil prior to emulsification also protected the fish oil enriched milk during storage. Emulsions containing a rapeseed:fish oil...... mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...

  9. Effect of oil flushing with nitrogen on the quality and oxidative stability of coldpressed rapeseed and sunflower oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroniak, Małgorzata; Florowska, Anna; Rękas, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stability means resistance to oxidation during purchase, processing and storage and is a key quality indicator of edible fats. Oils ought to be stored in dark-glass bottles, at low temperatures  and with no access of light in order to effectively preserve their oxidative stability. Since all vegetable oils contain unsaturated fatty acids that can react with oxygen and deteriorate over time, displacement of oxygen with inert gases may result in a reduction of the rate of oxidation. In the study the effect of oil flushing with nitrogen on the quality and oxidative stability of cold-pressed rapeseed and sunflower oils was determinate. Commercial samples of cold-pressed rapeseed and sunflower oils were stabilized by generating anaerobic atmosphere in the bottles by blowing through with nitrogen and generation of a "nitrogen cushion". Oils were tested in accelerated at 63°C and long-term at 20°C storage tests. After 20 days of Schaal oven test, the peroxide value in the flushing with nitrogen rapeseed and sunflower oils was, respectively, 4 and 7 times lower than in the control samples (without nitrogen). In turn, of the long-term storage test (with access of light 20°C), the peroxide value of oil flushing with nitrogen after 6 months of storage was 2.3 to 2.8-fold lower, respectively, than in the control sample. In the oil samples flushed with nitrogen peroxide formation was inhibited, however, as a result of the breakdown of the peroxides already existed in the oil, gradual decrease of the oxidative stability (determined via Rancimat test) was observed along with prolonged storage of oils. Oil flushing with nitrogen was a very effective way to reduce the changes caused by oxidation in cold-pressed rapeseed and sunflower oil.

  10. A Canola Oil-Supplemented Diet Prevents Type I Diabetes-Caused Lipotoxicity and Renal Dysfunction in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio; Camargo, Estela Melendez; Esteves-Carmona, María Miriam; Oliart-Ros, Rosa Maria; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the effect of a canola oil-supplemented diet on the metabolic state and diabetic renal function of a type I diabetes experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normoglycemic+chow diet, (2) normoglycemic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet, (3) diabetic+chow diet, and (4) diabetic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet. For 15 weeks, animals were fed a diet of Purina rat chow alone or supplemented with 30% canola oil. Energetic intake, water intake, body weight, and adipose tissue fat pad were measured; renal function, electrolyte balance, glomerular filtration rate, and the plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were evaluated. The mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads were dissected and weighed. The kidneys were used for lipid peroxidation (LP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantifications. Diabetic rats fed with a canola oil-supplemented diet had higher body weights, were less hyperphagic, and their mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads weighed more than diabetic rats on an unsupplemented diet. The canola oil-supplemented diet decreased plasmatic concentrations of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol; showed improved osmolarity, water clearances, and creatinine depuration; and had decreased LP and ROS. A canola oil-supplemented diet decreases hyperphagia and prevents lipotoxicity and renal dysfunction in a type I diabetes mellitus model.

  11. Chemical modification of nanocellulose with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqing Wei; Umesh P. Agarwal; Kolby C. Hirth; Laurent M. Matuana; Ronald C. Sabo; Nicole M. Stark

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), produced from dissolving wood pulp, were chemically functionalized by transesterification with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester (CME). CME performs as both the reaction reagent and solvent. Transesterified CNC (CNCFE) was characterized for their chemical structure, morphology, crystalline structure, thermal stability, and hydrophobicity...

  12. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel FAME from rapeseed oil in a novel two-compartment reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakayama, Ryo-ichi; Imai, Masanao; Woodley, John

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been proposed as a promising technique for enzymatic transesterification. In contrast, excess ultrasonication causes an enzyme inactivation. This paper presents enzymatic transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed oil using Callera Trans L™ using...

  13. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil using Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    İLGEN, Oğuzhan; DİNÇER, İsmail; YILDIZ, Meltem; ALPTEKİN, Ertan

    2007-01-01

    Biodiesel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils is a promising alternative fuel to diesel because of limited fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns. The use of heterogeneous catalysts greatly simplifies the technological process by facilitating the separation of the post-reaction mixture. The purpose of the present work was to examine a heterogeneous catalyst, in particular, Mg-Al hydrotalcites, to produce methyl esters of canola oil. In this study, the tra...

  14. Extraction of oil and minor lipids from cold-press rapeseed cake with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uquiche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extraction of oil from cold-press rapeseed cake using Supercritical CO2(SC-CO2. The effects of pressure (20, 30, and 40 MPa, temperature (40, 50, and 60 ºC, and extraction time (60, 90, and 120 min on oil yield and composition (tocopherols and carotenoids were studied using response surface design. The results indicated that pressure influenced the most the yield of oil, followed by temperature and extraction time. Extraction time had no effect on oil composition. Extraction pressure and temperature did not affect the tocopherol concentration of the oil to a great extent, whereas temperature had no affect in its carotenoid concentration. A comparison was made between the relative qualities of oil extracted with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC and with n-hexane. Neither solvent affected the unsaponifiable matter content or the composition of phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol of the oils, although there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in tocopherol. Extraction with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC is recommended to obtain rapeseed-oil enriched with tocopherols and carotenoids as important functional components.

  15. Influence of metal loading on hydrocracking of rapeseed oil using bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, T.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    Hydrocracking of rapeseed oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, PtNiMo, Pt) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the support material and their metal loading influence the product selectivity as well as the deactivation tendencies of the catalyst sample. (orig.)

  16. Modified carbon paste electrode as a tool for the evaluation of oxidative stability of rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Žabčíková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon paste electrode was used for evaluation of oxidative stability of rapeseed oil samples using cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 mol.L-1 HCl as a supporting electrolyte. Rapeseed oil samples were exposed to daylight and oxygen in open glass baker at the laboratory condition in order to obtain oils with accelerated primary and secondary products of oxidation. The oxidation status was determinated by peroxide value and p-anisidine value. Total oxidative stability was expressed as TOTOX index. The edible oils were used for preparation (modification of the carbon paste composite material followed by the cyclic voltammetric measurement. Peroxide values significantly increased whereas p-anisinde value rather fluctuated during 40 days of storage in all the samples. Cyclic voltammograms showed anodic current peaks at 575 - 600 mV and cathodic current peaks at 400 - 425 mV. The oxidation and reduction waves diminished at pH ≥3.0 suggesting not only phenolic compounds contributed to the electrochemical characteristic of oil samples. The peroxide value or p-anisidine value did not correlate with oxidation or reduction peak currents at the potential 575 - 600 mV and 400 - 425 mV, respectively. Both cathodic and anodic currents increased with increasing TOTOX index exhibiting positive correlation with high Spearman correlation coefficient (r = 0.894 and r = 0.914 for anodic and cathodic current, respectively. Linear relationship was found for each sample individually. A caution has to be done when interpreting results since the correlation seems to be of oil sample specific. Nevertheless, the modified carbon paste electrode with rapeseed oil represents a suitable and alternative tool for determination of the oxidative state of edible oils without use of organic solvents.

  17. Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters hepatic mitochondrial membrane lipid composition and disrupts bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João P; Pereira, Cláudia V; Silva, Ana M; Maciel, Elisabete; Baldeiras, Inês; Peixoto, Francisco; Domingues, Maria R; Jurado, Amália S; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2013-12-01

    Diet is directly related with physiological alterations occurring at a cell and subcellular level. However, the role of diet manipulation on mitochondrial physiology is still largely unexplored. Aiming at correlating diet with alterations of mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics, Wistar-Han male rats were fed for 11, 22 and 33 days with a rapeseed oil-based diet and mitochondrial bioenergetics, and membrane composition were compared at each time point with a standard diet group. Considerable differences were noticed in mitochondrial membrane lipid composition, namely in terms of fatty acyl chains and relative proportions of phospholipid classes, the modified diet inducing a decrease in the saturated to unsaturated molar ratio and an increase in the phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine molar ratio. Mass spectrometry lipid analysis showed significant differences in the major species of cardiolipin, with an apparent increased incorporation of oleic acid as a result of exposure to the modified diet. Rats fed the modified diet during 22 days showed decreased hepatic mitochondrial state 3 respiration and were more susceptible to Ca(2+)-induced transition pore opening. Rapeseed oil-enriched diet also appeared to promote a decrease in hydroperoxide production by the respiratory chain, although a simultaneous decrease in vitamin E content was detected. In conclusion, our data indicate that the rapeseed oil diet causes negative alterations on hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetics, which may result from membrane remodeling. Such alterations may have an impact not only on energy supply to the cell, but also on drug-induced hepatic mitochondrial liabilities.

  18. Notice and Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final Renewable Fuel Standard Program from Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule finalizes the determination that canola oil biodiesel meets the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction threshold of 50 required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).

  19. French environmental communication on sunflower and rapeseed oils based on life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badey Laureen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The French “Grenelle” laws sparked a French national experiment trialling the environmental labelling of fast-moving consumer goods. The data required for this labelling scheme are generated by carrying out a life cycle assessment (LCA. The aim of this study is to provide all necessary information to fit the national experiment for two standard oils: sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The complete oil life cycle was studied, from oilseed farming through to the end-of-life of the packaging. We focused heavily on the impacts of crushing and refining. The seed processing data was collected from different plants that are representative of the French crushing/refining industry and packaging site practice. The data inventory was used to calculate the identified environmental labelling indicators, i.e. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water consumption. The production of 100g of refined bulk sunflower and rapeseed emits 89 and 127 g equivalent CO2 and consumes 1.7 L and 0.8 L of water, respectively. Most impacts on the studied indicators stem from the farming phase. Energy and water consumptions during crushing and refining also weigh on the studied indicators. The results of this study provide a relevant overview of all sunflower and rapeseed oils produced in France, and are usable as standard values for vegetable oil producers and users. Oil supply chain operators can use these values to compare to their own process values and gauge the improvements brought about by their ecodesign strategies. For example, using a biomass boiler, using less packaging, and making different choices on seed suppliers can lead to a lower set of impact values.

  20. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ijaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.

  1. Physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of sodium alginate/gelatin emulsion based-films incorporated with canola oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifuddin, A.; Hasmiyani; Dirpan, A.; Mahendradatta, M.

    2017-12-01

    The development of mixed emulsion-based films formed by sodium alginate/gelatin incorporated with canola oil can offer particular properties such as water vapor barrier properties. The different ratios of sodium alginate/gelatin and sodium alginate/gelatin emulsion-based films incorporated with canola oil were developed and their effects on films’ physical, mechanical and barrier properties were assessed. Here we set out to examine whether canola oil addition and different ratio of sodium alginate/gelatin modified physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of films. To do so, the films were prepared by vary the ratio of sodium alginate/gelatin (2.5, 1, 0.5). Canola oil addition induced changes in moisture content, thickness, solubility, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), percent elongation at break (palginate to gelatin induced change the mechanical properties of films. The reduction of sodium alginate to gelatin decreased the tensile strength of both films. Improved values of WVTR, tensile strength and solubility at break were observed when the ratio of sodium alginate/gelatin emulsion film incorporated with canola oil was 2.5. Therefore, different ratio of sodium alginate/gelatin incorporated with canola oil can be used to tailor emulsion films with enhanced water vapor barrier and mechanical properties.

  2. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiqu; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Jing; Wan, Zhengyang; Yang, Jin?e; Huang, Fenghong

    2013-01-01

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lip...

  3. Evaluation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The per capita oil consumption increasing day by day is impaired by the growth rate of more than 3%. Hence there is no way, but to improve the oilseed production for getting self sufficiency in edible oils demand (Anonymous, 2007). The genus Brassica has over 150 species and repre- sented by 8 species ...

  4. Effects of endogenous and exogenous micronutrients in rapeseed oils on the antioxidant status and lipid profile in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qianchun; Yu, Xiao; Xu, Jiqu; Wang, Lan; Huang, Fenghong; Huang, Qingde; Liu, Changsheng; Ma, Fangli

    2014-12-19

    Micronutrients in oil reduce one or more risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, while the contents of micronutrients in oil are relatively poor, which is insufficient to reverse the metabolic disorders at different stages of progress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endogenous micronutrients in optimized cold-pressed rapeseed oil and restoratively added or fortified micronutrients in traditional refined rapeseed oil (restoring micronutrients to be nearly equal to or significantly higher than levels in crude rapeseed oil) on the antioxidant status and lipid profile in high-fat fed rats. Male Wistar rats were fed high-fat diets containing different rapeseed oils for 4 weeks, including the standard refined rapeseed oil(SRO), optimized cold-pressed rapeseed oil(CRO) and the traditional refined rapeseed oil with restorative addition or fortification of micronutrients (LF, HF-SRO). CRO exhibited significant increases in contents of tocopherols (+13%), phytosterols (+34%), polyphenols (+92%) and phospholipids (+725%) compared with SRO, as well as the total antioxidant capacities (+82-125%) (pmicronutrients was comparable to the optimized cold-pressed rapeseed oil in improving the antioxidant status and lipid profile of high-fat fed rats.

  5. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Fatty Acid Profiles Added with Calcium Soap of Canola/Flaxseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to assess the effect of adding canola oil and flaxseed oil which were protected with calcium soap (Ca-soap on the fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population, and the profile of fatty acids in the rumen during 4 and 8 hours in the in vitro fermentation. The research design used in this study was a completely randomized block design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of control ration (Napier grass and concentrate at the ratio of 60 : 40, control + 6% of Ca-soap of canola oil, and control + 6% of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil. Variables observed were pH value, NH3 concentration, volatile fatty acid (VFA, dry matter and organic matter digestibility, and fatty acid profile.  The results showed that the addition of Ca-soap of canola or flaxseed oil did not affect the pH value, NH3 concentration, dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, total population of bacteria and protozoa in the rumen. However, the total production of ruminal VFA was increased (P<0.05 with the addition of Ca soap of canola oil/flaxseed oil. The use of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil increased (P<0.05 the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen at 4 h incubation. The addition of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil resulted the lowest (P<0.05 level of unsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation compared to the other treatments at 4 h incubation. In conclusion, the addition of Ca soap of canola/flaxseed oil could improve VFA total production. Vegetable oils protected using calcium soap could inhibit unsaturated fatty acid biohidrogenation by rumen microbes. Ca-soap of flaxseed oil could survive from rumen biohydrogenation in the rumen better than Ca-soap of canola oil.

  6. Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil for Biodiesel Production with tert-Butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester that can be derived from any vegetable oil or animal fat via the process of transesterification. It is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel. In this paper, we have evaluated the efficacy of a transesterification process for rapeseed oil with methanol in the presence of an enzyme and tert-butanol, which is added to ameliorate the negative effects associated with excess methanol. The application of Novozym 435 was determined to catalyze the transesterification process, and a conversion of 76.1% was achieved under selected conditions (reaction temperature 40 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio 3:1, 5% (w/w) Novozym 435 based on the oil weight, water content 1% (w/w), and reaction time of 24h). It has also been determined that rapeseed oil can be converted to fatty acid methyl ester using this system, and the results of this study contribute to the body of basic data relevant to the development of continuous enzymatic processes.

  7. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  8. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without

  9. Effect of strong electrolytes on Edible oil Part II, Viscosity of maize oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paras

    fatty acids are pivotal in preventing heart disease, cancer and many other diseases. For people who cannot contemplate eating fish, the Omega-3 must come from alpha-linolenic acid. This can be achieved by increasing intake of Omega-3 rich food such as flaxseed (linseed oil), rapeseed (canola) oil, China seed, Walnut oil ...

  10. EFFECT OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakoor. H. I., M. L. Khan, Z. Nasir, N. Mukhtar and M. S. Rehman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola oil and soybean oil on production performance and serum lipid profile in layers. In this study 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 different dietary treatments viz control (A. containing 2.5 % canola oil (B, 5% canola oil (C, 2.5% soybean oil (D and 5% soybean oil (E for a period of 9 weeks. Effects of five treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg quality, weight gain and serum lipid profile, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were monitored. Serum lipid profile was determined 0.31 and 63 days from start of experiment. Significantly (P<0.05 less serum cholesterol was found in treatment C (295.1 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (321 mg/dl. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL was significantly (P<0.01 , less in treatment C ( 131.7 mg/dl as compared with treatment A. ( 161 mg/dl and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL was significantly (P<0.01 high in treatment C (31.76 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (25.42 mg/dl and triglyceride (TG was found significantly (P<0.01 less in treatment E ( 907.3 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (960 mg/dl. The results suggested that as the percentage of oils increased in the diet, serum lipid profile showed a positive trend.

  11. Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jin'e

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to cardiovascular system, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the refining process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO or fortified refined rapeseed oil with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients (L-, M- and H-FRRO. Forty male SD rats were divided into four groups. One group received RRO diet and other groups received L-, M- and H-FRRO diet for 10 weeks. Results Micronutrients supplementation significantly increased plasma antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These micronutrients also reduced the plasma contents of TG, TC and LDL-C and increased the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C. In addition, in parallel with the enhancement of these micronutrients, plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP declined remarkably. Conclusion Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent atherogenesis by ameliorating plasma oxidative stress, lipid profile and inflammation.

  12. Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to cardiovascular system, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the refining process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified refined rapeseed oil with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients (L-, M- and H-FRRO). Forty male SD rats were divided into four groups. One group received RRO diet and other groups received L-, M- and H-FRRO diet for 10 weeks. Results Micronutrients supplementation significantly increased plasma antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These micronutrients also reduced the plasma contents of TG, TC and LDL-C and increased the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C. In addition, in parallel with the enhancement of these micronutrients, plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP declined remarkably. Conclusion Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent atherogenesis by ameliorating plasma oxidative stress, lipid profile and inflammation. PMID:21663699

  13. valuation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , erucic acid (23.67 ìmol/g) and higher amounts of oleic acid (59.01%). Due to its high yield and oil quality, the genotype Siren is recommended for general cultivation in the area and further use in breeding programmes for Brassica napus.

  14. Technical and economic analysis of rapeseed oil for power generation; Technische und wirtschaftliche Wertung der energetischen Verwendung des Rapsoels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenczoel, S.; Bereczy, A.; Penninger, A.

    2001-07-01

    The authors investigated the combustion of raw (filtered) rapeseed oil, the combustion products, and the utilization of waste fat from slaughterhouses. The quality of atomization was investigated using pressure nozzle atomizers. A comparative analysis was made of gas oil, raw (filtered) rapeseed oil, and rapeseed methyl ester. [German] In der Landwirtschaft gibt es ein bedeutendes alternatives Brennstoffpotential, dessen energetische Verwendung am zweckdienlichsten innerhalb der landwirtschaftlichen energetischen Technologien zu verwirklichen ist. Daher untersuchten wir die Moeglichkeit der Verbrennung des rohen (filtrierten) Rapsoels im Waermekessel, den Verlauf der Verbrennung und die Zusammensetzung des Verbrennungsproduktes. Andererseits wird beansprucht, dass durch die Verbrennung des - durch die Fleischverarbeitung der Schlachthoefe entstandenen, nicht lebensmittelechten - Abfallfettes ein Teil des Energiebedarfes des verarbeitenden Betriebes gedeckt sein soll. Die Qualitaet der Zerstaeubung untersuchten wir mit Druckduesenzerstaeuber. Wir fuehrten eine vergleichende Analyse mit den Brennstoffen Gasoel, rohem (filtriertem) Rapsoel und Rapsmethylester (RME) durch. (orig.)

  15. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  16. Shear and Rapeseed Oil Addition Affect the Crystal Polymorphic Behavior of Milk Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Niels; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The effect of shear on the crystallization kinetics of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and blends with 20 and 30 % w/w added rapeseed oil (RO) was studied. Pulse 1H NMR was used to follow the a to b0 polymorphic transition. The NMR method was confirmed and supported by SAXS/WAXS experiments. Samples were...... faster in the presence of RO allowing more room for the conformational changes to occur. Final SFC decreased with increasing RO content. Shear applied in 20 and 30 % blends caused the destruction of b0-related 3L structure leaving only 2L packing. In AMF and statically crystallized samples, both 3L and 2...

  17. Transfer of dietary fatty acids from butyric acid fortified canola oil into the meat of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature reported positive beneficial effects of butyric acid and canola oil on production performance traits of broiler chickens. Three hundred hybrid Ross 708 (150 males and 150 females were randomly allotted to 10 pens per treatment with 5 males and 5 females per pen. Ten pens were administered a diet supplemented with soybean oil (control, ten pens the same basal diet but supplemented with a blend of mono-, di-, tri-glyceride of butyric acid added to soybean oil (T1 and ten pens the same basal diet supplemented with a mix of soybean and canola oil containing butyrate (T2. No differences in final body weight, dressing percentage, liver and thigh weight were found be- tween groups. The T2 birds showed the highest feed/gain ratio (P<0.05. The control group showed the highest value for breast weight while the highest quantity of abdominal fat was in T2 carcasses. Fatty acid profile was significantly influenced by the presence of oil supplements, not only quantitatively but also qualitatively.

  18. Anti-polymerization activity of tea and fruits extracts during rapeseed oil heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiecik, Dominik; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Korczak, Józef

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of natural antioxidants on polymerization of partially hydrogenated rapeseed oil heated in 170°C for 40h. In the research ethanolic extracts of green tea leaves (China Lung Ching), yellow tea leaves (China Kakecha), cranberry, blackberry, and lime were used. The yellow and green tea extracts were characterized by the highest content of total polyphenol and antioxidant activity. Polymers of triacylglycerols were found only in the polar fraction of heated oil. During heating, the increase of dimers, trimers, and oligomers was observed. However, it was dependent on the used additives and not directly related to the content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. The final content of polymers in oil samples increased in the fallowing order: green teaoil without additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  20. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Canola Oil and Vitamin A on Egg Characteristics and Egg Cholesterol in Laying Hens During Hot Summer Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmad*1, Ahsan-ul-Haq2, M Yousaf2, Z Kamran1, Ata-ur-Rehman3, MU Suhail1 and HA Samad1

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Canola oil and vitamin A were evaluated for their effects on egg characteristics, egg cholesterol and egg triglycerides (TG in laying hens prone to heat-stress during summer months. Four levels of canola oil (0, 2, 3 and 4% of diet in combination with two levels of vitamin A (3,000 or 10,000 IU/kg of diet were fed to laying hens for a period of 12 weeks. Various egg-quality parameters were measured on weekly basis while, serum TG, egg cholesterol and TG contents were analyzed during the last week of the trial. The results of the study showed that the egg weight, egg mass, yolk weight, Haugh unit score, shell thickness, shell weight and egg breaking-strength were similar (P>0.05 for all canola oil levels supplemented to the laying hens. Higher egg weight and egg mass (P0.05 by increasing canola oil or vitamin A levels in the diet of laying hens. It might be concluded from the results of the present study that canola oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids can be included in the diet of laying hens without compromising the quality characteristics of the eggs.

  2. Optimized rapeseed oil enriched with healthy micronutrients: a relevant nutritional approach to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Results of the Optim'Oils randomized intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladine, Cécile; Combe, Nicole; Vaysse, Carole; Pereira, Bruno; Huertas, Alain; Salvati, Serafina; Rossignol-Castera, Anne; Cano, Noël; Chardigny, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Rapeseeds are naturally rich in cardioprotective micronutrients but refining leads to substantial losses or the production of undesirable compounds. The Optim'Oils European project proposed innovative refining conditions to produce an optimized rapeseed oil enriched in micronutrients and low in trans linolenic acid. We aimed to investigate cardioprotective properties of this Optimized oil. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 59 healthy normolipidaemic men consumed either Optimized or Standard rapeseed oils (20 g/d) and margarines (22 g/d) for 3 weeks. The Optimized oil reduced the trans FA concentration (p=0.009) and increased the contents of alpha-tocopherol (p=0.022) and coenzyme Q10 (pmicronutrients represent a relevant nutritional approach to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving the cholesterol profile and reducing LDL oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical composition, microbiological properties, and fatty acid profile of Italian-type salami with pork backfat substituted by emulsified canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Backes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vegetable oils have been used to substitute pork backfat to improve the fatty acid profile of fermented sausages. The aim of this study was to assess the chemical composition, microbiological properties, and fatty acid profile of Italian-type salami with pork backfat substituted (15% and 30% by emulsified canola oil. Fat contents decreased while moisture contents increased in Italian-type salami with emulsified canola oil. The growth of lactic acid bacteria in salami was not affected by canola oil and absence of fecal coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and Salmonella were reported during processing of fermented sausages. Lower levels of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs, higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were observed in salami with emulsified canola oil. Together, our results indicated that substituting pork backfat with emulsified canola oil improved the nutritional values of Italian-type salami.

  4. Biocompounds from rapeseed oil industry co-stream as active ingredients for skin care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Rommi, K; Fernandes, M M; Lantto, R; Tzanov, T

    2015-10-01

    Despite the great number of substances produced by the skincare industry, very few of them seem to truly have an effect on the skin. Therefore, given the social implications surrounding physical appearance, the search for new bioactive compounds to prevent or attenuate skin ageing and enhance self-image is a priority of current research. In this context, being rich in valuable compounds, such as proteins, phenolics, lipids and vitamins, this study is focused on the potential activity of rapeseed press cake hydrolysates to be used as raw materials for skincare applications. In this study, the protein-rich press residue from the rapeseed oil industry was converted enzymatically into short-chain biologically active peptides using four protease products with varying substrate specificity - Alcalase 2.4L FG, Protex 6L, Protamex and Corolase 7089. The antioxidant, anti-wrinkle and anti-inflammatory activities of the obtained hydrolysates were evaluated in vitro while their biocompatibility with human skin fibroblasts was tested. All hydrolysates were biocompatible with skin fibroblasts after 24 h of exposure, while the non-hydrolysed extract induced cell toxicity. Alcalase 2,4L FG and Protex 6L-obtained hydrolysates were the most promising extracts showing improved bioactivities suitable for skin anti-ageing formulations, namely antioxidant activity, inhibiting approximately 80% cellular reactive oxidative species, anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle properties, inhibiting around 36% of myeloperoxidase activity and over 83% of elastase activity. The enzymatic technology applied to the rapeseed oil industry costream results in the release of bioactive compounds suitable for skincare applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Comparison of Pure Palm Olein Oil, Hydrogenated Oil-Containing Palm, and Canola on Serum Lipids and Lipid Oxidation Rate in Rats Fed with these Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Seyed-Asadollah; Ghatreh-Samani, Keihan; Habibi-Kohi, Arash; Jafari, Laleh

    2017-02-01

    Due to increased consumption of canola oil and hydrogenated oil containing palm and palm olein, and their possible effects on serum lipoproteins, the present study was conducted to determine the effects of these oils on lipids and lipid oxidation level. In this experimental study, 88 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Control group (A) was on a normal diet. Groups B, C, and D, in addition to normal diet, were fed with hydrogenated oil-contained palm oil, pure palm olein oil, and canola oil, respectively for 4 weeks. Serum Biochemical factors [total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL, HDL, LDL/HDL ratio, oxLDL, paraoxanase-1 (PON1), and malondialdehyde (MDA)] were measured. The lowest mean serum TC was seen in the control group and the highest in the group B. There were differences in TC, TG, HDL, MDA, and PON1 between the control group and other groups (P0.05). MDA was higher in groups C and D. Canola oil, hydrogenated oil-containing palm and palm olein may increase atherosclerosis risk through decreasing PON1 activity and elevating oxLDL. Palm olein oils in rats' diets cause a considerable decrease in LDL and help to increase HDL.

  6. A comparative study on the effect of unsaturation degree of camelina and canola oils on the optimization of bio-diesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yang; Tess Astatkie; Quan Sophia He

    2016-01-01

    Transesterification is the most common method of producing biodiesel from vegetable oils. A comparative study on the optimization of reaction variables for refined canola oil, unrefined canola oil, and unrefined camelina oil using a four-factor (temperature, time, molar ratio of methanol to oil, and catalyst loading) face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) was carried out. The optimum settings of these four factors that jointly maximize product, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and biodi...

  7. BnWRI1 coordinates fatty acid biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways during oil accumulation in rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Long; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Zhang-Hua; Huang, Rui-Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Photosynthesis in "green" seeds, such as rapeseed, soybean, and Arabidopsis, plays a substantial role in the improved efficiency of oil accumulation. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the coordinated expression of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related genes in such developing seeds remains to be elucidated. Here, we found that seed-specific overexpression of BnWRI1, a WRI1 homolog from rapeseed (Brassica napus cv. ZGY2), results in enhanced chlorophyll content in developing seeds and increased oil content and seed mass in matured seeds. BnWRI1 was co-expressed with BnBCCP and BnCAB, two marker genes of FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis during seed development, respectively. Overexpression of BnWRI1 increased expression of both marker genes. Further, the nuclear-localized BnWRI1 protein was found to act as a transcription activator. It could bind to the GT1-element and/or GCC-box, which are widespread in the upstream regions of genes involved in FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways. Accordingly, BnWRI1 could interact with promoters of BCCP2 and LHB1B2 in vivo. These results suggested that BnWRI1 may coordinate FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways in developing seeds via directly stimulating expression of GT1-element and/or GCC-box containing genes. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Production of biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil using sodium silicate as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yun-Duo; Guo, Feng; Fang, Zhen; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Li-Qun; Zhang, Fan

    2011-07-01

    Biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil was produced using sodium silicate as catalyst. The transesterification in the presence of the catalyst proceeded with a maximum yield of 99.6% under optimized conditions [3% (w/w) sodium silicate, methanol/oil molar ratio 9/1, reaction time 60 min, reaction temperature 60°C, and stirring rate 250 rpm]. After six consecutive transesterification reactions, the catalyst was collected and used for catalysis of the conversion of glycerol to lactic acid. A maximum yield of 80.5% was achieved when the reaction was carried out at a temperature of 300°C for 90 min. Thus, sodium silicate is an effective catalyst for transesterification and lactic acid production from the biodiesel by-product, glycerol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzymatic interesterification of butterfat with rapeseed oil in a continuous packed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Yang, Tiankui; Mu, Huiling

    2005-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of butterfat blended with rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) was investigated both in batch and in continuous reactions. Six commercially available immobilized lipases were screened in batch experiments, and the lipases, Lipozyme TL IM and Lipozyme RM IM, were chosen...... when the temperature was raised from 60 degrees C to 90 degrees C, whereas RM IM had a positive effect when the temperature was increased from 40 degrees C to 80 degrees C. Even though TL IM is an sn-1,3 specific lipase, small changes in the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol could be seen......, whereafter it dramatically decreased over the next 10 days to an activity level of 40%. In general, the study shows no significant difference for butterfat interesterification in terms of enzyme behavior from normal vegetable oils and fats even though it contains short-chain fatty acids and cholesterol...

  10. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  11. Canola oil rich in oleic acid improves diastolic heart function in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Raj, Pema; Louis, Xavier Lieben; Perera, Danielle; Yamanagedara, Prasanga; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Netticadan, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. It directly affects heart structure and function and contributes to heart failure. Diet is a major factor involved in the development of obesity along with genetic factors. We examined the effects of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oils on cardiac structure and function in the diet-induced rodent model of obesity (DIO). Obese prone (OP) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HF; 55% of kcal) for 12 weeks; Sprague-Dawley rats fed commercial chow served as control. Echocardiography was performed to assess the cardiac structure and function in all rats at 12 weeks. OP rats fed the HF diet showed significant impairment in diastolic function compared to control rats. The HF diet containing high oleic canola oil significantly improved diastolic function of OP rats compared to the HF diet with lard. In conclusion, canola oil rich in oleic acid, when incorporated into an HF diet, prevents the development of diastolic dysfunction in DIO rats.

  12. Fields of application for the by-products of extraction and transesterification of rapeseed oil; Anvaendningsomraaden foer biprodukterna vid pressning och omfoerestring av rapsolja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven

    2007-07-01

    Rapeseed contains 40-50% oil that can be extracted by pressing and possibly subsequent extraction. The residue, rapeseed cake, normally contains 10-25% oil, but rapeseed meal subjected to extraction only contains a few percent oil. Rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal can be used as animal feed, fuel, biogas substrate or fertiliser. If the extracted oil is used as a vehicle fuel it is normally transesterified to rapeseed oil methyl ester and then glycerol is produced as a by-product. Glycerol can be used for animal feed, fuel, biogas substrate or in the chemical industry as a raw material or additive in several products. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate how rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal, together with glycerol from transesterification of rapeseed oil, could be used in different applications, and to calculate their economic values in these uses. Used as a ruminant feed, current rapeseed cultivars can provide the entire dietary protein requirement. Up to 10% of the feed or concentrate mix for pigs, poultry and horses can comprise rapeseed feed. For piglets and horses, the palatability may limit the amount fed. The amount of rapeseed cake fed is restricted by its oil content. Normally, ruminants can manage 5% fat and horses about 2% fat in concentrate, and pigs 5% and poultry 1-1.5% fat in the overall diet. Glycerol can be an energy component of the feed mix. Cattle, sheep and pigs have been successfully fed a mixture containing 5-10% glycerol, and poultry a mixture containing 5%. Glycerol works well as a binding agent in feed pellet manufacture, with an admixture of 2-3% giving a more solid pellet. Rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal may be incinerated, but produce an ash with a relatively low melting-point, causes sintering and deposits to form in the furnace. The amount of ash is rather high, about 6%. The high nitrogen content (4-6% of dry matter) gives high nitric oxide emissions, often 2-3.6 times the emissions of fuels deficient in nitrogen. The high oil

  13. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  14. Laboratory Production of Biofuels and Biochemicals from a Rapeseed Oil through Catalytic Cracking Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siauw H; Shi, Yu; Heshka, Nicole E; Zhang, Yi; Little, Edward

    2016-09-02

    The work is based on a reported study which investigates the processability of canola oil (bio-feed) in the presence of bitumen-derived heavy gas oil (HGO) for production of transportation fuels through a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) route. Cracking experiments are performed with a fully automated reaction unit at a fixed weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 8 hr(-1), 490-530 °C, and catalyst/oil ratios of 4-12 g/g. When a feed is in contact with catalyst in the fluid-bed reactor, cracking takes place generating gaseous, liquid, and solid products. The vapor produced is condensed and collected in a liquid receiver at -15 °C. The non-condensable effluent is first directed to a vessel and is sent, after homogenization, to an on-line gas chromatograph (GC) for refinery gas analysis. The coke deposited on the catalyst is determined in situ by burning the spent catalyst in air at high temperatures. Levels of CO2 are measured quantitatively via an infrared (IR) cell, and are converted to coke yield. Liquid samples in the receivers are analyzed by GC for simulated distillation to determine the amounts in different boiling ranges, i.e., IBP-221 °C (gasoline), 221-343 °C (light cycle oil), and 343 °C+ (heavy cycle oil). Cracking of a feed containing canola oil generates water, which appears at the bottom of a liquid receiver and on its inner wall. Recovery of water on the wall is achieved through washing with methanol followed by Karl Fischer titration for water content. Basic results reported include conversion (the portion of the feed converted to gas and liquid product with a boiling point below 221 °C, coke, and water, if present) and yields of dry gas (H2-C2's, CO, and CO2), liquefied petroleum gas (C3-C4), gasoline, light cycle oil, heavy cycle oil, coke, and water, if present.

  15. The effect of the acidity of rapeseed oil on its transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, Jirí; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the transesterification of vegetable oil with a high acid number at unchanged reaction conditions. Rapeseed oil was used as the raw material and its acid number was changed by the addition of oleic acid (from 0.89 to 12.25 mg KOH/g). Methanol was used for transesterification (molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:6) and potassium hydroxide was used as a catalyst. After the reaction time, the residue of the catalyst was neutralised by gaseous carbon dioxide and the methanol excess was removed. After the separation of two phases, each of them was analyzed (in the ester phase: yield, content of methyl ester and acid number; in the glycerol phase: yield, density, viscosity, content of glycerol, soaps, methyl ester, potassium carbonate and hydrogen carbonate). The obtained data was compared with theoretical material balances and the effect on the saponification of oil was discussed. The results show that the yield of methyl ester (biodiesel) is significantly affected by a higher acid number, as well as enhanced soap formation. On the other hand, the conversion of the oil and acid number of the ester phase remain at constant values in studied borders.

  16. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Polyols from Rapeseed Oil and Properties of Flexible Polyurethane Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Dworakowska

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of raw materials derived from renewable feedstock has given rise to growing interest recently, as it can be exploited for the production of bio-based materials from vegetable oils. Their availability, biodegradability and low prices have been taken into account. In this work, vegetable oil-based polyols as a prospective replacement for petroleum polyols were investigated. A two-stage method for polyol preparation by incomplete epoxidation of natural oils and subsequent complete oxirane ring opening under microwave irradiation is presented. The course of epoxidation and oxirane ring-opening process was determined analytically by an evaluation of iodine, epoxy and hydroxyl values. The samples of oils and their derivatives were also analyzed by FT-IR and characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC in order to calculate their functionalities. Finally, polyols with two different hydroxyl values were obtained and used for the synthesis of flexible polyurethane (PUR foams. The scope of this research includes the determination of the relationship between the rapeseed oil-based polyol content and the properties of the resulting materials. It was found that applying bio-based polyols in conjunction with petroleum-based polyols for PUR foams formulations resulted in materials with good mechanical properties and a higher number of cells with smaller dimensions.

  17. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqu; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Jing; Wan, Zhengyang; Yang, Jin'e; Huang, Fenghong

    2013-03-06

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress.

  18. A comparative study on the effect of unsaturation degree of camelina and canola oils on the optimization of bio-diesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification is the most common method of producing biodiesel from vegetable oils. A comparative study on the optimization of reaction variables for refined canola oil, unrefined canola oil, and unrefined camelina oil using a four-factor (temperature, time, molar ratio of methanol to oil, and catalyst loading face-centered central composite design (FCCCD was carried out. The optimum settings of these four factors that jointly maximize product, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and biodiesel yields for each of refined canola, unrefined canola and unrefined camelina were determined. Results showed that the optimized conditions were associated with the fatty acid profile and physical properties of the parent oils. The optimum temperature of vegetable oil with low polyunsaturation degree was higher than that of oils with high polyunsaturation degree. High free fatty acid content in parent oils led to low optimized catalyst concentration, and the decreased reaction rate could be compensated by increased reaction temperature due to significant interaction effect between reaction temperature and catalyst loading in the transesterification process. The highest biodiesel yields from the optimum setting for refined canola oil, unrefined canola oil, and unrefined camelina oil were 97.7%, 95.2%, and 95.6%, respectively. This study provided guidelines on how to optimize different reaction variables taking economic viability and feedstock availability into consideration when producing biodiesel at plant scale.

  19. Validation of a headspace trap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of volatile compounds from degraded rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Lilia; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N; Watiez, Mickaël; Breton, Sylvie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Due to lipid oxidation, off-flavors, characterized by a fishy odor, are emitted during the heating of rapeseed oil in a fryer and affect the flavor of rapeseed oil even at low concentrations. Thus, there is a need for analytical methods to identify and quantify these products. To study the headspace composition of degraded rapeseed oil, and more specifically the compounds responsible for the fishy odor, a headspace trap gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and validated. Six volatile compounds formed during the degradation of rapeseed oil were quantified: 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, hexanal, nonanal, (E,E)-heptadienal, and (E)-2-heptenal. Validation using accuracy profiles allowed us to determine the valid ranges of concentrations for each compound, with acceptance limits of 40% and tolerance limits of 80%. This method was then successfully applied to real samples of degraded oils. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A simplified FTIR chemometric method for simultaneous determination of four oxidation parameters of frying canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, M Younis; Hassan, S Sara; Sherazi, S T H; Mahesar, S A; Kara, Huseyin; Kandhro, Aftab A; Sirajuddin

    2015-01-01

    Transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method using 100 μm KCl cell was applied for the determination of total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) in canola oil (CLO) during potato chips frying at 180 °C. The calibration models were developed for TPC, CV, CD and CT using partial least square (PLS) chemometric technique. Excellent regression coefficients (R(2)) and root mean square error of prediction values for TPC, CV, CD and CT were found to be 0.999, 0.992, 0.998 and 0.999 and 0.809, 0.690, 1.26 and 0.735, respectively. The developed calibration models were applied on samples of canola oil drawn during potato chips frying process. A linear relationship was obtained between CD and TPC with a good correlation of coefficient (R(2)=0.9816). Results of the study clearly indicated that transmission FTIR-PLS method could be used for quick and precise evaluation of oxidative changes during the frying process without using any organic solvent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The structural organization of seed oil bodies could explain the contrasted oil extractability observed in two rapeseed genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, Céline; Bardet, Michel; Chardot, Thierry; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Gromova, Marina; Guillermo, Armel; Miquel, Martine; Nesi, Nathalie; Yen-Nicolaÿ, Stéphanie; Jolivet, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The protein, phospholipid and sterol composition of the oil body surface from the seeds of two rapeseed genotypes was compared in order to explain their contrasted oil extractability. In the mature seeds of oleaginous plants, storage lipids accumulate in specialized structures called oil bodies (OBs). These organelles consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer in which structural proteins are embedded. The physical stability of OBs is a consequence of the interactions between proteins and phospholipids. A detailed study of OB characteristics in mature seeds as well as throughout seed development was carried out on two contrasting rapeseed genotypes Amber and Warzanwski. These two accessions were chosen because they differ dramatically in (1) crushing ability, (2) oil extraction yield and, (3) the stability of purified OBs. Warzanwski has higher crushing ability, better oil extraction yield and less stable purified OBs than Amber. OB morphology was investigated in situ using fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and pulsed field gradient NMR. During seed development, OB diameter first increased and then decreased 30 days after pollination in both Amber and Warzanwski embryos. In mature seeds, Amber OBs were significantly smaller. The protein, phospholipid and sterol composition of the hemi-membrane was compared between the two accessions. Amber OBs were enriched with H-oleosins and steroleosins, suggesting increased coverage of the OB surface consistent with their higher stability. The nature and composition of phospholipids and sterols in Amber OBs suggest that the hemi-membrane would have a more rigid structure than that of Warzanwski OBs.

  2. Preparation of Biodiesel with Liquid Synergetic Lipases from Rapeseed Oil Deodorizer Distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leping; He, Yaojia; Jiao, Liangcheng; Li, Kai; Yan, Yunjun

    2017-11-01

    To reduce industrial production cost, cheap and easily available rapeseed oil deodorizer distillates were used as feedstock to prepare biodiesel in this study. As a result, liquid forms of Candida rugosa lipase and Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) were functioned as new and effective catalysts with biodiesel yield of 92.63% for 30 h and 94.36% for 9 h, respectively. Furthermore, the synergetic effect between the two lipases was employed to enhance biodiesel yield with a result of 98.16% in 6 h under optimized conditions via response surface methodology. The obtained conversion rate surpassed both yields of the individual two lipases and markedly shortened the reaction time. The resultant optimal conditions were ROL ratio 0.84, water content 46 wt% (w/w), reaction temperature 34 °C, and reaction time 6 h.

  3. Glucosinolates in rapeseed as antinutritive factors in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed has multiple purposes: animal nutrition, production of oil and biodiesel. Content of oil and protein in dry seeds of rapeseed is 40-47% and 19-29%, respectively. However, the seed also contains harmful substances: glucosinolates, erucic acid, phytate and tannin. This paper describes the importance of rapeseed in animal nutrition and shows the possibility of its inclusion in animal meal depending on the content of glucosinolates. The main antinutritive factors present in this oil crop are glucosinolates, therefore this paper shows their biological effect in animal nutrition and their detoxification. Canola varieties have reduced glucosinolate content and they have almost entirely superseded the old varieties of rapeseed. Glucosinolates alone are biologically inactive molecules, but their degradation products are biologically active and well known for their diverse biological effects. The degree of negative impact of glucosinolates in the diet of animals depends on their level and composition of formed degradation products, but also the species and age of animals. In order to reduce glucosinolate content different methods are used which include their hydrolysis or decomposition before feeding the animals.

  4. Effect of ultrasound and green solvents addition on the oil extraction efficiency from rapeseed flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, A; Delsart, C; Boussetta, N; Grimi, N; Citeau, M; Vorobiev, E

    2017-11-01

    The current procedure of rapeseed oil extraction is based on a first extraction step by pressing followed by a second extraction step with hexane. This solvent being toxic for the users, the consumers and the environment, its use could be forbidden within the coming years. Stimulated by a stringent regulation, the research activity for the replacement of toxic solvents shows a significant development. The aim of this study was to select alternative solvent to hexane such as ethanol or isopropanol, and, to adjust the oil extraction process by developing an ultrasound assisted method. The objective was to reach a comparable efficiency but also to enhance the oil quality. When applied to isopropanol, the ultrasound assisted extraction method has shown promising results, and comparable to those obtained with hexane (oil yield of 80% for hexane and 79% for isopropanol at optimum extraction conditions (20min of ultrasound pretreatment followed by 2h of additional solid/liquid extraction)). Conversely, in studied conditions, ethanol did not seem to be an appropriate alternative solvent to hexane as the extraction yields obtained by using this solvent were quite low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty Acid Profile and Biological Activities of Linseed and Rapeseed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewinska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that fatty acids found in edible oils may exert beneficial health effects by the modulation of signaling pathways regulating cell differentiation and proliferation, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of selected edible oils—linseed (LO and rapeseed (RO oils—were tested in vitro on fibroblast cells. The fatty acid profile of the oils was determined using gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy. LO was found to be rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA, whereas oleic acid was the most abundant species in RO. Fatty acids were taken up by the cells and promoted cell proliferation. No oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxic or genotoxic effects were observed after oil stimulation. Oils ameliorated the process of wound healing as judged by improved migration of fibroblasts to the wounding area. As ALA-rich LO exhibited the most potent wound healing activity, ALA may be considered a candidate for promoting the observed effect.

  6. Kinetic Modeling of Glycerolysis – Hydrolysis of Canola Oil in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Media Using Equilibrium Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moquin, P.H.L.; Temelli, F.; Sovová, Helena; Saldana, M.D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-424 ISSN 0896-8446. [International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids. Orlando, 01.05.2005-04.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : canola oil * glycrolysis * kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.037, year: 2006

  7. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol......Elevated concentrations of fasting and non-fasting triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) as well as oxidative changes of lipoproteins may increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease. To compare the effects of different diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids on the concentrations and in vitro...

  8. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious...... deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...... in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic...

  9. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid to produce medium-, long- and medium-chain-type structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Xia, Luan; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids (SLs) containing medium-chain fatty acid (M) at position sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acid (L) at the sn-2 position in a solvent-free system. Six commercial lipases from different sources were...... screened for their ability to incorporate caprylic acid into the canola oil. The sn-1,3 regiospecificity toward the glycerol backbone of canola oil of the lipases with relatively higher acidolysis activity was compared by investigating the fatty acid profiles of the products. The results showed...

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  11. Effect of different levels of water deficit on rapeseed (Brassica napus L. crop Efeito de diferentes níveis de déficit hídrico na cultura da canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bilibio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different levels of water deficit applied during rapeseed crop development were assessed in a trial with metallic pots in greenhouse at the Department of Agricultural Engineering of Kassel University, Witzenhausen, Germany. A randomized block design was used with one cultivar (Ability Summer Rape and three levels of water deficit (0, 30, and 60% of evapotranspiration in three treatments and 20 replicates. Irrigation management was carried out through daily water balance, where ET = I - D; ET: evapotranspiration; I: irrigation; and D: drainage. The following evaluations were carried out weekly: stem diameter (mm; plant height (cm; number of leaves; number of branches and number of pods. At the end of the experiment, assessed total green matter (g plant-1, total dry matter (g plant-1, grain yield (g plant-1, grain protein content (% and grain oil content (% were also assessed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the effect of the treatments was assessed by regression analysis. Results showed significant differences between the treatments in all analysed variables except for plant height and grain protein content, by test F at 5% probability. Factor of response ky, indicator of crop sensitivity to water deficit, was lower than one for all assessed variables. Grain yield showed the highest sensitivity to water deficit.Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de déficit hídrico, aplicados durante o desenvolvimento da canola, foram avaliados por meio de um experimento conduzido em vasos de metal no interior de uma casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola, da Universidade de Kassel, Alemanha. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com a cultivar Ability (Summer Rape, e três níveis de déficit de água, 0%, 30%, 60% da evapotranspiração da cultura, totalizando três tratamentos com 20 repetições. O manejo da irrigação foi realizado por meio do balanço hídrico diário, em que ET = I - D, onde

  12. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-10-14

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet.

  13. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqu Xu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1 but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet.

  14. Product sampling during transient continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil and development of a kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2013-11-01

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed for the transient stage of the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Departure functions and group contribution methods were applied to determine the equilibrium constants of the four reversible reactions in the kinetic model. Continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil in subcritical water was conducted experimentally in a lab-scale reactor over a range of temperatures and the concentrations of all neutral components were quantified. Several of the rate constants in the model were obtained by modeling this experimental data, with the remaining determined from calculated equilibrium constants. Some reactions not included in the present, or previous, hydrolysis modeling efforts were identified from glycerolysis kinetic studies and may explain the slight discrepancy between model and experiment. The rate constants determined in this paper indicate that diglycerides in the feedstock accelerate the transition from "emulsive hydrolysis" to "rapid hydrolysis". © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Chemical modification of nanocellulose with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liqing; Agarwal, Umesh P; Hirth, Kolby C; Matuana, Laurent M; Sabo, Ronald C; Stark, Nicole M

    2017-08-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), produced from dissolving wood pulp, were chemically functionalized by transesterification with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester (CME). CME performs as both the reaction reagent and solvent. Transesterified CNC (CNCFE) was characterized for their chemical structure, morphology, crystalline structure, thermal stability, and hydrophobicity. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectroscopies showed that the long chain hydrocarbon structure was successfully grafted onto CNC surfaces. After transesterification the crystal size and crystallinity of nanocrystals were not changed as determined by Raman spectroscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). CNCFE showed higher thermal stability and smaller particle size than unmodified CNCs. Water contact angle measurement indicated the CNCFE surface has significantly higher hydrophobicity than unmodified CNCs. The transesterified CNCs could be potentially used as hydrophobic coatings and reinforcing agents to hydrophobic polymer for nanocomposites. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Microencapsulation of canola oil by lentil protein isolate-based wall materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C; Varankovich, N; Nickerson, M T

    2016-12-01

    The overall goal was to encapsulate canola oil using a mixture of lentil protein isolate and maltodextrin with/without lecithin and/or sodium alginate by spray drying. Initially, emulsion and microcapsule properties as a function of oil (20%-30%), protein (2%-8%) and maltodextrin concentration (9.5%-18%) were characterized by emulsion stability, droplet size, viscosity, surface oil and entrapment efficiency. Microcapsules with 20% oil, 2% protein and 18% maltodextrin were shown to have the highest entrapment efficiency, and selected for further re-design using different preparation conditions and wall ingredients (lentil protein isolate, maltodextrin, lecithin and/or sodium alginate). The combination of the lentil protein, maltodextrin and sodium alginate represented the best wall material to produce microcapsules with the highest entrapment efficiency (∼88%). The lentil protein-maltodextrin-alginate microcapsules showed better oxidative stability and had a stronger wall structure than the lentil protein-maltodextrin microcapsules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1 TAg mice offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardman W Elaine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Methods Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet. After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1 TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Results Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group, offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity; the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Conclusions Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter.

  19. Concurrent elevation of CO2, O3 and temperature severely affects oil quality and quantity in rapeseed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Stockmarr, Anders; Frenck, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Plant oil is an essential dietary and bio-energy resource. Despite this, the effects of climate change on plant oil quality remain to be elucidated. The present study is the first to show changes in oil quality and quantity of four rapeseed cultivars in climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3...... FAs remained unchanged or even increased. Most reduced was the FA essential for human nutrition, C18:3-ω3, which decreased by 39% and 45% in the combined scenarios with elevated [CO2]+T+[O3] and [CO2]+T, respectively. Average oil content decreased 3–17%. When [CO2] and T were elevated concurrently......, the seed biomass was reduced by half, doubling the losses in FAs and oil content. This corresponded to a 58% reduction in the oil yield per hectare, and C18:3-ω3 decreased by 77%. Furthermore, the polyunsaturated FAs were significantly decreased. The results indicate undesirable consequences for production...

  20. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  1. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaihua Pu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial (COMIT, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: 1 conventional canola oil (Canola; 2 DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; 3 high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; and two PUFA-rich diets: 4 a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75 (CornSaff; and 5 a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40 (FlaxSaff. Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants produced a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01. Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI. Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae (F’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profiles, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower taxonomical levels

  2. Wheat bran extracts: a potent source of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of wheat (var. Inqalab 91 bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays using canola oil as the oxidation substrate. The bran samples were extracted with 80% and 100% methanol and acetone. A preliminary assessment of the antioxidant activity of the 80 and 100% acetone and methanolic extracts of wheat bran was done by the measurement of % inhibition of peroxidation in a linoleic acid system, total phenolic contents (TPC and bleachability of β-carotene in the linoleic acid system. Additionally, the canola oil samples were stabilized with crude concentrated extracts and subjected to ambient aging (6 months. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, and trienes- values. The results of ambient stored samples revealed a significant improvement in these oxidation parameters. The overall order of antioxidant activity of the extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was determined to be; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extracts . 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that extracts of the wheat bran indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for commercial and neutraceutical applications.

    En el presente trabajo la actividad antioxidante de diferentes extractos obtenidos con disolventes del salvado de trigo (var. Inqalab 91 fue evaluada mediante diferentes ensayos antioxidantes y aceite de canola como substrato de oxidación. Las muestras de salvado fueron extraídas con metanol y acetona al 80% y al 100%. La evaluación preliminar de la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de metanol y de acetona al 80% y 100% fue hecha mediante la medida del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en un sistema con ácido linoleico, el contenido total de fenoles

  3. Performance and emission evaluation of a CI engine fueled with preheated raw rapeseed oil (RRO)-diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazar, Hanbey [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    Many studies are still being carried out to find out surplus information about how vegetable based oils can efficiently be used in compression ignition engines. Raw rapeseed oil (RRO) was used as blended with diesel fuel (DF) by 50% oil-50% diesel fuel in volume (O50) also as blended with diesel fuel by 20% oil-80% diesel fuel in volume (O20). The test fuels were used in a single cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection compression ignition engine. The effects of fuel preheating to 100 C on the engine performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with rapeseed oil diesel blends were clarified. Results showed that preheating of RRO was lowered RRO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow Heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. It can be achieved by heating RRO to 100 C. It can also be concluded that preheating of the fuel have some positive effects on engine performance and emissions when operating with vegetable oil. (author)

  4. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, Seth R.; Porter, Paul; Jordan, Nicholas [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Borlaug 411, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States); Lazarus, William [Department of Applied Economics, 231 Classroom Office Building, 1994 Buford Avenue, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L{sup -1} of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L{sup -1} and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L{sup -1} depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L{sup -1} and from 0.14 to 0.33 L{sup -1}, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L{sup -1} for soybean and 0.44 L{sup -1} for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L{sup -1}. (author)

  5. Thermal degradation assessment of canola and olive oil using ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Tomasz; Lubinska, Martyna; Różańska, Anna; Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Oil blending is often used to enhance the properties of vegetable oils. The admixture of a more thermally stable oil makes the resulting blend more suitable for use in frying. A new method of quality assessment of vegetable oils used in frying is presented in this paper. In this method, ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and chemometrics is employed. Principal component analysis was used for data processing. The results obtained with this method were compared with the results of the Rancimat test and sensory evaluation. It is demonstrated that the addition of olive oil improves the stability of rapeseed oil, and also changes its flavour and aroma profile. In addition, it was found that ultra-fast GC coupled with chemometrics is an effective tool for the assessment of the quality of edible oils. The proposed method does not require sample preparation, and the total time of analysis is less than 2 min.

  6. Synergetic Use of Principal Component Analysis Applied to Normed Physicochemical Measurements and GC × GC-MS to Reveal the Stabilization Effect of Selected Essential Oils on Heated Rapeseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Lilia; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N; Lefèvre, Fanny; Watiez, Mickaël; Breton, Sylvie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2017-06-01

    Lipid oxidation leads to the formation of volatile compounds and very often to off-flavors. In the case of the heating of rapeseed oil, unpleasant odors, characterized as a fishy odor, are emitted. In this study, 2 different essential oils (coriander and nutmeg essential oils) were added to refined rapeseed oil as odor masking agents. The aim of this work was to determine a potential antioxidant effect of these essential oils on the thermal stability of rapeseed oil subject to heating cycles between room temperature and 180 °C. For this purpose, normed determinations of different parameters (peroxide value, anisidine value, and the content of total polar compounds, free fatty acids and tocopherols) were carried out to examine the differences between pure and degraded oil. No significant difference was observed between pure rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil with essential oils for each parameter separately. However, a stabilizing effect of the essential oils, with a higher effect for the nutmeg essential oil was highlighted by principal component analysis applied on physicochemical dataset. Moreover, the analysis of the volatile compounds performed by GC × GC showed a substantial loss of the volatile compounds of the essential oils from the first heating cycle. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major

  8. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  9. Effect of micella interesterification on fatty acids composition and volatile components of soybean and rapeseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi, Sherine M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Micella interesterification of soybean and rapeseed oils was carried out using 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percentages of nickel catalyst, each at different temperatures of 60, 90 and 120ºC for 2, 4, and 6 hours. The proposed interesterification reaction conditions to obtain an oil with low linoleic acid level were 0.2 % nickel catalyst at 120ºC for 4 hours, 0.4% nickel catalyst at 90ºC for 4 hours and 0.6% at 60ºC for 4 hours. Fatty acid composition and chemical analysis of the interesterified and non-esterified oils were estimated. Selected samples undergo heating at 180ºC for 4 hours determining the volatile components. The appearance of some components supported the interesterification process for modification of fatty acid constituents of the oils.Se ha llevado a cabo la interesterificación en fase miscelar de aceites de soja y de colza usando un 0.2%, 0.4% y 0.6% de níquel como catalizador, a diferentes temperaturas (60, 90 y 120ºC durante 2, 4 y 6 horas. Las condiciones de reacción de interesterificación propuestas para obtener un aceite con niveles de ácidos linolénicos bajos fueron 0.2 % de níquel a 120ºC durante 4 horas, 0.4 % de níquel a 90ºC durante 4 horas y 0.6 % a 60ºC durante 4 horas. Se han estimado la composición en ácidos grasos y el análisis químico de los aceites interesterificados y no-esterificados. Las muestras seleccionadas se sometieron a calentamiento a 180ºC durante 4 horas determinando los componentes volátiles. La aparición de algunos componentes apoyó el proceso de interesterificación por modificación de los ácidos grasos constituyentes de los aceites.

  10. The effect of short-term canola oil ingestion on oxidative stress in the vasculature of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexis Louise

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine if 25 days of canola oil intake in the absence of excess dietary salt or together with salt loading affects antioxidant and oxidative stress markers in the circulation. A further aim was to determine the mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase subunits and superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms in the aorta of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP rats. Methods Male SHRSP rats, were fed a defatted control diet containing 10% wt/wt soybean oil or a defatted treatment diet containing 10% wt/wt canola oil, and given tap water or water containing 1% NaCl. Blood was collected at the end of study for analysis of red blood cell (RBC antioxidant enzymes, RBC and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, plasma 8-isoprostane and plasma lipids. The aorta was removed and the mRNA expression of NOX2, p22phox, CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD and EC-SOD were determined. Results In the absence of salt, canola oil reduced RBC SOD and glutathione peroxidase, and increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared with soybean oil. RBC glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly lower in both the salt loaded groups compared to the soybean oil only group. In addition, RBC MDA and plasma HDL cholesterol were significantly higher in both the salt loaded groups compared to the no salt groups. Plasma MDA concentration was higher and LDL cholesterol concentration lower in the canola oil group loaded with salt compared to the canola oil group without salt. The mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase subunits and SOD isoforms were significantly reduced in the canola oil group with salt compared to canola oil group without salt. Conclusion In conclusion, these results indicate that canola oil reduces antioxidant status and increases plasma lipids, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, canola oil in combination with salt intake increased MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation and decreased NAPDH oxidase subunits and aortic SOD

  11. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of long-term optional ingestion of canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter on serum, muscle and liver cholesterol status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Farzad; Shahriari, Ali; Chahardah-Cheric, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of long-term optional intake of vegetable oils (canola, grape seed, corn) and yogurt butter on the serum, liver and muscle cholesterol status. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into five groups (n=5) as follows: control, canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and manually prepared yogurt butter. In each group, 24h two bottle choice (oil and water) tests were performed for 10 weeks. Serum cholesterol values showed a trend to decrease in grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter groups compared to the control. Optional intake of yogurt butter made a significant increase in HDL-C values (42.34+/-9.98 mg/dL) yet decrease in LDL-C values (11.68+/-2.06 mg/dL) compared to the corresponding control (19.07+/-3.51; 30.96+/-6.38 mg/dL, respectively). Furthermore, such findings were concomitant with a significant decrease in the liver TC levels (1.75+/-0.31 mg/g liver) and an increase in the muscle TC levels (1.85+/-0.32 mg/g liver) compared to the corresponding control (2.43+/-0.31; 0.94+/-0.14 mg/g liver, respectively). Optional intake of manually prepared yogurt butter has more beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein cholesterol values with some alterations in the liver and muscle cholesterol states than the vegetable oils. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of microwave heating on the quality characteristics of canola oil in presence of palm olein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Abbas; Nouruddeen, Zahrau Bamalli; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Latip, Razam Abd; Othman, Noor Hidayu

    2013-01-01

    Microwave heating is one of the most attractive cooking methods for food preparation, commonly employed in households and especially in restaurants for its high speed and convenience. The chemical constituents of oils that degrade during microwave heating do so at rates that vary with heating temperature and time in a similar manner to other type of processing methods. The rate of quality characteristics of the oil depends on the fatty acid composition and the minor components during heating. Addition of oxidative-stable palm olein (PO) to heat sensitive canola oil (CO), may affect the quality characteristics of CO during microwave heating. The aim of this study was to evaluate how heat treatments by microwave oven affect the quality of CO in presence of PO. The blend was prepared in the volume ratio of 40:60 (PO:CO, PC). Microwave heating test was performed for different periods (2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 min) at medium power setting for the samples of CO and PC. The changes in quality characteristics of the samples during heating were determined by analytical and instrumental methods. In this study, refractive index, free fatty acid content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, specific extinction, viscosity, polymer content, polar compounds and food oil sensor value of the oils all increased, whereas iodine value and C₁₈.₂ /C₁₆:₀ ratio decreased as microwave heating progressed. Based on the most oxidative stability criteria, PO addition led to a slower deterioration of CO at heating temperatures. The effect of microwave heating on the fatty acid composition of the samples was not remarkable. PO addition decelerated the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products in CO. However, effect of adding PO to CO on the formation of free fatty acids and polymers during microwave treatment was not significant (P < 0.05). No significant difference in food oil sensor value was detected between CO and PC throughout the heating periods. Microwave

  14. Formation of methanol and formate in Wistar rats after oral administration of methylated rapeseed oil: a fuel for lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Soenke; Tiefenbach, Birgit; Kobow, Manfred; Hennighausen, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    Low viscosity, low surface tension and low volatility are features of lamp oils contributing to chemical pneumonia that can occur after ingestion. Because lamp oils with such physico-chemical properties have been forbidden in the European Community from July 2000 onward, industry has developed different products, mostly based upon rapeseed oil. The fatty acids of these oils are methylated. The goal of this study is to demonstrate whether methanol is released in Wistar rats after oral administration of these new lamp oils. Applying a dose of 1 ml/kg body weight lamp oil, peak levels of methanol were reached at 1 h (54.6 +/- 18.6 microg/ml), methanol was not detectable at 8 h. After the instillation of 4 ml/kg of lamp oil peak levels occurred at 2 h (189.2 +/- 24.9 microg/ml). The metabolite formate increased with time, and was highest at 8 h after the administration of 1 ml/kg body weight lamp oil (32.9 +/- 2.9 microg/ml). Starvation before the administration of 1 ml/kg body weight lamp oil decreased the methanol serum concentrations, but the differences were not significant. Based upon these experimental data in rats, it can be concluded that in humans small amounts of methanol will be released after ingestion of these lamp oils. As these products are mainly ingested accidentally by toddlers in low quantities, the risk of a methanol intoxication seems to be very low.

  15. Biofuel by isomerizing metathesis of rapeseed oil esters with (bio)ethylene for use in contemporary diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Kai F; Baader, Sabrina; Baader, Mathias; Berndt, Silvia; Goossen, Lukas J

    2017-06-01

    Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and (bio)ethylene are converted into biofuel with an evenly rising boiling point curve, which fulfills the strict boiling specifications prescribed by the fuel standard EN 590 for modern (petro)diesel engines. Catalyzed by a Pd/Ru system, RME undergoes isomerizing metathesis in a stream of ethylene gas, leading to a defined olefin, monoester, and diester blend. This innovative refining concept requires negligible energy input (60°C) and no solvents and does not produce waste. It demonstrates that the pressing challenge of increasing the fraction of renewables in engine fuel may be addressed purely chemically rather than by motor engineering.

  16. Reduction in resident microflora, and experimentally inoculated Salmonella enterica, on spinach leaves treated with vinegar and canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Nancy G; Waldron, Toria; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we explored the use of vinegar, or vinegar and canola oil as a salad dressing, to reduce bacterial levels on spinach leaves. We found that incubation of spinach leaves with various types of vinegar substantially reduced the predominantly gram-negative microflora. A similar response was observed when spinach leaves were incubated with white vinegar mixed in various proportions with canola oil, as used in salad dressing. We assessed the effects of vinegar, or vinegar and oil, on spinach leaves that had been experimentally inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella enterica strains. Allowing the mixture to sit at room temperature for at least 20 min resulted in a substantial reduction (up to 2.0 log CFU) in numbers of S. enterica. Vinegar and oil caused a limited reduction in CFU (0.5 log) for spinach leaves experimentally inoculated with a cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes strains. These findings suggest that mixing spinach leaves with vinegar and oil as a salad dressing can reduce the bacterial load associated with the spinach leaves, including Salmonella if it is present.

  17. A rapid method for the simultaneous quantification of the major tocopherols, carotenoids, free and esterified sterols in canola (Brassica napus) oil using normal phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakelar, Clare L; Prenzler, Paul D; Luckett, David J; Howitt, Julia A; Doran, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously quantify several prominent bioactive compounds in canola oil vis. α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol. The use of sequential diode array detection (DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allowed direct injection of oils, diluted in hexane without derivatisation or saponification, greatly reducing sample preparation time, and permitting the quantification of both free sterols and intact sterol esters. Further advantages over existing methods included increased analytical selectivity, and a chromatographic run time substantially less than other reported normal phase methods. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was applied to freshly extracted canola oil samples as well as commercially available canola, palm fruit, sunflower and olive oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  19. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Ari; Pohjantähti-Maaroos, Hanna; Wallenius, Marja; Kankkunen, Päivi; Aro, Heikki; Husgafvel, Sari; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Oksanen, Kalevi

    2010-12-01

    Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of Virgino R CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol by 11% (p < 0.001). The level of oxidized LDL was 16% lower after oil period (p = 0.024). Minimal differences in arterial elasticity were not statistically significant. Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  20. Effects of Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba loads on these elements' uptake and oil content and fatty acid composition of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied in the present paper were the long-term effects of the application of high Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba rates (0, 90, 270, and 810 kg ha-1 on rapeseed oil content and oil fatty acid composition. The trace elements were applied in the spring of 1991, while the rapeseed was sown on a calcareous сhernozem soil in 2001. The trace elements differed significantly in their rates of accumulation in rapeseed plants. Relative to the control, the Mo content of the stem increased up to 1,000 times, that of the chaff over 100 times, and that of the seed around 60 times. The levels of the other trace elements increased considerably less relative to the control. The increases were typically twofold to threefold, depending on the plant part involved. The trace elements accumulated the most in the vegetative plant parts, except for Zn, a major quantity of which was found in the seed as well. The application of the high rates of Sr, Zn and, to an extent. Mo reduced the seed oil content of rapeseed. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of the trace elements had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the rapeseed oil, either. The increased levels of the trace elements found in the rapeseed plants indicate that 11 years after application significant amounts of the applied elements are still present in the soil in a form available to plants. However, the rates were not high enough to affect the synthesis of oil and its fatty acid composition.

  1. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  2. Study on membrane reactors for biodiesel production by phase behaviors of canola oil methanolysis in batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hua; Yen, Shih-Yang; Su, Li-Sheng; Chen, Junghui

    2010-09-01

    In comparison with the general stirring batch reactor, the membrane reactor has been reported to have higher molar ratios of methanol to oil but ultralow catalyst concentration in the biodiesel production. In this research, the methanolysis of canola oil is conducted in a stirring batch reactor in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. Based on the investigation of the effects of operating conditions, including methanol to oil molar ration, catalyst concentrations and temperatures, the time course of the reaction path for the reactant composition in the ternary phase diagram of oil-FAME-MeOH offers an effective way to understand the operation of membrane reactors in the biodiesel production. The results show that increasing the residence time of the whole reactant system within the two-phase zone is good for the separation operation through the membranes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  4. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiéli Caroline Welter

    Full Text Available To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4 kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil, 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis. The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  5. Rapeseed research and production in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Qiong; Hua, Wei; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xuekun; Liu, Lijiang; Shi, Jiaqin; Zhao, Yongguo; Qin, Lu; Chen, Chang; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and...

  6. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenius Marja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690

  7. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de óleo de soja e de canola não alteraram o consumo de ração, os pesos dos ovos, de albúmen, de gema e de casca, as porcentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca e a gravidade específica dos ovos. Houve influência significativa da interação tipo × nível de óleo sobre a produção de ovos e a conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos. Com o aumento do nível de óleo de soja, os resultados obtidos para estas variáveis melhoraram, entretanto, a conversão por massa de ovo piorou com o aumento dos níveis de óleo de canola. A adição de óleo de soja promoveu desempenho melhor que o obtido com óleo de canola.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of soybean and canola oil added in crescent levels on production performance indexes and internal and external egg quality of brown commercial layers of the strain Bovans Goldline during five periods of 28 days. Two hundred and eighty hens with 18 weeks old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with seven diets in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement (oil type and oil level, and an additional control, with 5 replicates of 8 hens per experimental unit. The soybean and canola oil levels did not affect the feed consumption; egg, albumen, yolk and shell weights; albumen, yolk and shell percentages, neither the specific gravity. There was an interaction between type and oils levels on egg production and mass

  8. Influence of α-lipoic acid on morphology of organs of rabbits fed a high fat diet with the addition of oxidised rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawiarska-Pięta Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of α-lipoic acid (ALA on the morphology of the aorta and liver of rabbits fed high fat diet with addition of oxidised (ORO and non-oxidised rapeseed oil (N-ORO.

  9. Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt - Dongen, S.H.F.; Beaufrere, B.; Riemersma, R.A.; Sebedio, J.L.; Chardigny, J.M.; Mensink, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    : Br J Nutr 2001 Mar;85(3):387-92 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Comment in: Br J Nutr. 2001 Mar;85(3):249-50. Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study. Vermunt SH, Beaufrere B, Riemersma RA, Sebedio JL,

  10. Production of biodiesel fuel from canola oil with dimethyl carbonate using an active sodium methoxide catalyst prepared by crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Takami; Mak, Goon Lum; Wada, Shohei; Nakazato, Tsutomu; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a novel method for the production of biodiesel under mild conditions using fine particles of sodium methoxide formed in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is proposed. Biodiesel is generally produced from vegetable oils by the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol. However, this reaction produces glycerol as a byproduct, and raw materials are not effectively utilized. Transesterification with DMC has recently been studied because glycerol is not formed in the process. Although solid-state sodium methoxide has been reported to be inactive for this reaction, the catalytic activity dramatically increased with the preparation of fine catalyst powders by crystallization. The transesterification of canola oil with DMC was studied using this catalyst for the preparation of biodiesel. A conversion greater than 96% was obtained at 65°C for 2h with a 3:1M ratio of DMC and oil and 2.0 wt% catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of environment on rapeseed (Brassica napus L. yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed seed is highly valuable raw material in oil and food industry. The main goals of rapeseed breeding are oil as the product with the highest commercial value, oil quality, and yield. Different winter and spring rapeseed cultivars and hybrids were tested at different locations in order to test their value. The environment had significant effect on seed yield. .

  12. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Ho Baek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON, 20% canola oil (CA and 20% flaxseed oil (FL. The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (p<0.05. The highest water holding capacity was also presented for CA; in other words, CA demonstrated a significantly lower water loss value among the treatments (p<0.05. CA had the highest lightness value (p<0.05. However, FL showed the highest yellowness value (p<0.05 because of its own high-density yellow color. The texture profile of the treatments manufactured with vegetable oils showed higher values than for the CON (p<0.05; furthermore, CA had the highest texture profile values (p<0.05 among the treatments. The replacement of pork back fat with canola and flaxseed oils in sausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (p<0.05 over 15 to 86 times, respectively. All emulsion sausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (p<0.05. The results show that using canola or flaxseed oils as a pork fat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality.

  13. Long-term experiences in the use of rapeseed oil fuel in tractors of the emissions levels I and II; Langzeiterfahrungen zum Einsatz von Rapsoelkraftstoff in Traktoren der Abgasstufe I und II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2013-06-01

    The operational behavior as well as the emission behavior should be clarified in long-term use by means of tractors which are powered by rapeseed oil fuel. This is based on the following measures: review of the quality of rapeseed oil fuel used; testing of the quality of the engine oil on a random basis; documentation of failures, maintenance and repair work; measurement of performance and fuel economy; measurement of exhaust emissions; diagnosis of engines.

  14. Optimal Cross Hedging Winter Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Woong; Brorsen, B. Wade; Yoon, Byung-Sam

    2014-01-01

    Winter canola in the southern Great Plains has shown large price fluctuations and there have been questions about which futures market could be used to reduce price risk. Our results indicate that the optimal futures contract to cross hedge winter canola is soybean oil futures.

  15. Rice bran oil and canola oil improve blood lipids compared to sunflower oil in women with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, single-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar, Azadeh; Faghih, Shiva; Pishdad, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Hypolipidemic effects of vegetable oils have been demonstrated in a number of studies, but there is no study, which compares the effects of canola oil (CO) and rice bran oil (RBO) on diabetic patient. We aimed to compare the effects of CO and RBO consumption on blood lipids in women with type 2 diabetes. Seventy-five postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes participated in this single-center, randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial in Shiraz, Iran. Participants were randomly allocated to three groups including a control group (balance diet + 30 g/d sunflower oil) and two intervention groups (balance diet + 30 g/day CO or RBO). At baseline and after 8 weeks, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. At 8 weeks, mean of serum levels of TG (mg/dL), TC (mg/dL), and LDL-C (mg/dL) significantly decreased in the CO group (-23.66, P sunflower oil could attenuate lipid disorders in type 2 diabetes women. Moreover, RBO could improve lipid profile more efficiently than CO. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of glycerol-free biofuel from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate using triazabicyclodecene in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul

    Due to the increasing awareness of the dwindling fossil fuel resources and environmental issues, biofuel became an alternative renewable fuel to meet the steady increase of energy consumption and environmental demands. This work was designed to produce biofuel free from glycerol, soap, catalyst and wastes from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using an organocatalyst, triazabicyclodecene (TBD). To achieve these goals, several interconnected research activities were undertaken. First, a flow sheet was developed for the process and operating criteria were identified by laboratory experimentation verified with Aspen Plus. Mass and energy integration studies were performed to minimize the consumption of materials and energy utilities. Next, kinetics of canola oil transesterification using TBD as homogeneous catalyst in dimethyl carbonate has been investigated and a model was developed. Kinetics data were vital in process assessment and kinetics model was essential in the study of chemical reaction and catalyst development. Finally, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed for use as a biofuel catalyst through the immobilization of TBD into MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) which can combine the advantages of homogeneous catalysis with the best properties of heterogeneous materials.

  17. Assessment of the antioxidant activity of Bifurcaria bifurcata aqueous extract on canola oil. Effect of extract concentration on the oxidation stability and volatile compound generation during oil storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agregán, Rubén; Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Dominguez, Ruben; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    In this research the antioxidant activity of water extracts of Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) at different dose against butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was evaluated in canola oil. Water extracts were firstly characterized in terms of total solid and polyphenolic compound contents, and their antioxidant activity together with that of BHT was evaluated using several in vitro tests (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC and FRAP). Next, the progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in canola oil added with five BBE concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000ppm) and two BHT concentrations (50 and 200ppm) using an accelerated oxidation test. The progress in lipid oxidation was monitored by assessing some chemical indices (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and conjugated dienes) during oil storage and some volatile compounds at the end of the storage period. BBE showed a significant antioxidant effect, being this ability concentration-dependent. The extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to BBE dose, specially with regard to primary oxidation products. At the highest level of BBE, significant decreases of primary and secondary oxidation products, with respect to the control, were obtained with reduction percentages of 71.53%, 72.78%, 68.17% and 71.3% for peroxides, conjugated dienes, p-anisidine and TOTOX values, respectively. A level of 600ppm or higher concentration of the extract inhibits the lipid oxidation in a similar way than BHT at 200ppm. Regarding the inhibition of the formation of volatile compounds, both BBE and BHT strongly inhibited the formation of volatiles during oil storage, being this inhibition similar for all the concentrations of BBE and BHT essayed. Overall, results indicated that BBE can be used as a potential natural additive for improving oxidative stability of canola oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids on threo-Ds-isocitric acid production from rapeseed oil by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Allayarov, Ramil K; Lunina, Julia N; Morgunov, Igor G

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids, the inhibitors of the isocitrate lyase, on the production of isocitric acid by the wild strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 grown in the medium containing rapeseed oil was studied. In the presence of oxalic and itaconic acids, strain Y. lipolytica accumulated in the medium isocitric acid (70.0 and 82.7 g/L, respectively) and citric acid (23.0 and 18.4 g/L, respectively). In control experiment, when the inhibitors were not added to the medium, the strain accumulated isocitric and citric acids at concentrations of 62.0 and 28.0 g/L, respectively. Thus, the use of the oxalic and itaconic acids as additives to the medium is a simple and convenient method of isocitric acid production with a minimum content of citric acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and seed oil contents of three cultivars of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola is the world third oil crop with 25 to 55 percent oil content (Hezbavi & Minaei, 2008. In recent years, tendency towards expansion of the acreage of canola in Iran has been increasing and for the years 2010-2011 an area of 93000 ha with a total production of 190000 tons has been reported (Ministry of Jihad of Agriculture, 2013. Application of biological fertilizers which are environmentally friendly agents have been reported to enhance yield and quality of different crops (Shoghi Kalkhoran et al., 2012; Afrasiabi et al., 2011. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of biological fertilizers on quantitative and quality criteria of canola. Material and methods For this study, a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design and three replicates was used. The experimental treatments were three canola cultivars namely Okapi, Zarfam and Modena which was combined with four levels of biological fertilizers: Nitroxin, Phosphat solubilizing bacteria (PSB, Nitroxin+PSB and a control. Seeds were planted in plots of 2×3 m2. All field managements were carried out based on conventional practices. The measured criteria were plant height, number of pods per plant, 1000- seed weight, biomass yield, harvest index, oil content and yield. Results and discussion The results showed that in all studied criteria except 1000- seed weight there were significant differences between cultivars. Different fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on all criteria except 1000- seed weight and HI. Modena cultivar had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. Composition of phosphate solubilizing bacteria+nitroxin also had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. The interactions between biofertilizer treatments and cultivars in all criteria were not significant. The result of this experiment indicated the effectiveness of use of biofertilizers. References Afrasiabi, M., Amini

  20. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-02-01

    Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam S. Vafa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control, 2% fish oil (FO, 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO, or 2% canola oil (CO according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001 and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05, but dry matter intake (DMI was lower (p0.05. The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids of short chain fatty acids (SCFA decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA increased (p0.05. The proportion of trans(t-18:1 increased (p<0.01 in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c-11 18:1 (p<0.01. The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 increased (p<0.05 in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of milk.

  2. Effect of a 6-month intervention with cooking oils containing a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (olive and canola oils) compared with control oil in male Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Priyanka; Bhatt, Suryaprakash; Misra, Anoop; Chadha, Davinder S; Vaidya, Meera; Dasgupta, Jharna; Pasha, Qadar M A

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary intervention with canola or olive oil in comparison with commonly used refined oil in Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This was a 6-month intervention study including 93 males with NAFLD, matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Subjects were randomized into three groups to receive olive oil (n=30), canola oil (n=33), and commonly used soyabean/safflower oil (control; n=30) as cooking medium (not exceeding 20 g/day) along with counseling for therapeutic lifestyle changes. The BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin levels, lipids, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA denoting β-cell function (HOMA-βCF), and disposition index (DI) were measured at pre- and post-intervention. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference multiple comparison test procedures. Olive oil intervention led to a significant decrease in weight and BMI (ANOVA, P=0.01) compared with the control oil group. In a comparison of olive and canola oil, a significant decrease in fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, HOMA-βCF, and DI (PAsian Indians with NAFLD.

  3. The effect of microwave pretreatment of seeds on the stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil during long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Ścibisz, Iwona; Siger, Aleksander; Wroniak, Małgorzata

    2017-05-01

    Storage stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil pressed from microwave treated seeds (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10min, 800W) during long-term storage (12months) at a temperature of 20°C was discussed in the current study. The dominant phenolic compound detected in rapeseed oil was canolol, followed by minor amounts of free phenolic acids and sinapine. The most pronounced effect of seeds microwaving was noted for canolol formation - after 10-min exposure the quantity of this compound was approximately 63-fold higher than in control oil. The degradation of phenolics during storage displayed pseudo first-order kinetics. Differences in the initial degradation rate (r0) demonstrated significant impact of the period of seeds microwave exposure on the degradation rates of phenolic compounds. Results of the half-life calculation (t1/2) showed that the storage stability of phenolic compounds was higher in oils produced from microwave treated rapeseeds than in control oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Key Odorants Causing a Fusty/Musty Off-Flavor in Native Cold-Pressed Rapeseed Oil by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-11-02

    The sensomics approach was used to clarify the formation of the fusty/musty off-flavor of native cold-pressed rapeseed oil. A "positive control" (PC) showing the desired sensory attributes and an oil eliciting a fusty/musty off-flavor (OF) were analyzed. Comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), identification experiments, quantitation by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), and aroma recombination resulted in 11 odorants with an OAV ≥ 1 in PC. Main differences between both oils were obtained for compounds caused by microbial influence revealing significantly higher concentrations in OF, e.g., for ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-methoxyphenol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (sotolon), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-methylphenol. Comparison of the key odorants in OF with those of the rapeseeds (OFS), from which it was pressed, showed the same 18 compounds proving that the grade of the seeds and their storage conditions are important criteria for the quality of the final oil. Finally, a further 7 native cold-pressed rapeseed oils, eliciting the same sensory defect, were analyzed to confirm aroma-active marker compounds responsible for the fusty/musty off-flavor.

  5. Enrichment of anhydrous milk fat in polyunsaturated fatty acid residues from linseed and rapeseed oils through enzymatic interesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguedo, Mario; Hanon, Emilien; Danthine, Sabine; Paquot, Michel; Lognay, Georges; Thomas, Annick; Vandenbol, Micheline; Thonart, Philippe; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Blecker, Christophe

    2008-03-12

    Lipozyme TL IM was used in a solvent-free batch and microaqueous system for enzymatic interesterification of anhydrous milkfat (AMF) with linseed oil (LO) in binary blends and with rapeseed oil (RO) in one ternary blend. The aim was to obtain and characterize physicochemically fats enriched with unsaturated C 18 fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and, especially, linolenic acids) from natural vegetable oils. Binary blends of AMF/LO 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40 (w/w) were interesterified. The change in triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles showed that quasi-equilibrium conditions were reached after 4-6 h of reaction. Free fatty acid contents plastic properties for the products originating from the blends 70/30 and 60/40. This was confirmed by textural measurements. Melting profiles determined by differential scanning calorimetry showed complete disappearance of low-melting TAGs from LO and the formation of intermediary species with a lower melting temperature. Oxidative stability of the interesterified products was diminished with increasing LO content, resulting in low oxidation induction times. A ternary blend composed of AMF/RO/LO 70/20/10 gave satisfactory rheological and oxidative properties, fulfilling the requirements for a marketable spread and, moreover, offering increased potential health benefits due to the enriched content in polyunsaturated fatty acid residues.

  6. Influence of supplemental canola or soybean oil on milk yield, fatty acid profile and postpartum weight changes in grazing dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Lerma-Reyes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Methods Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15; grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12; and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12 from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils; CII (soybean vs canola oil to compare the treatment effects. Results The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: −0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03 but did not improve milk production or affect kids’ growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (p<0.05 with respect to control. However, C12, C14, C16, C18, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C18:3n3 were reduced (p<0.05 in supplemented goats. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was increased (p<0.05 in goats supplemented with oils compared to the control group. Conclusion Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids’ performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.

  7. Influence of supplemental canola or soybean oil on milk yield, fatty acid profile and postpartum weight changes in grazing dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-Reyes, Israel; Mendoza-Martínez, German D; Rojo-Rubio, Rolado; Mejia, Mario; García-Lopez, J C; Lee-Rangel, Héctor A

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg) from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15); grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12); and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12) from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils); CII (soybean vs canola oil) to compare the treatment effects. The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: -0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03) but did not improve milk production or affect kids' growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (p<0.05) with respect to control. However, C12, C14, C16, C18, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C18:3n3 were reduced (p<0.05) in supplemented goats. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was increased (p<0.05) in goats supplemented with oils compared to the control group. Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids' performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.

  8. A jojoba beta-Ketoacyl-CoA synthase cDNA complements the canola fatty acid elongation mutation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassner, M W; Lardizabal, K; Metz, J G

    1996-02-01

    beta-Ketoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (KCS) catalyzes the condensation of malonyl-CoA with long-chain acyl-CoA. This reaction is the initial step of the microsomal fatty acyl-CoA elongation pathway responsible for formation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs, or fatty acids with chain lengths > 18 carbons). Manipulation of this pathway is significant for agriculture, because it is the basis of conversion of high erucic acid rapeseed into canola. High erucic acid rapeseed oil, used as an industrial feedstock, is rich in VLCFAs, whereas the edible oil extracted from canola is essentially devoid of VLCFAs. Here, we report the cloning of a cDNA from developing jojoba embryos involved in microsomal fatty acid elongation. The jojoba cDNA is homologous to the recently cloned Arabidopsis FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene that has been suggested to encode KCS. We characterize the jojoba enzyme and present biochemical data indicating that the jojoba cDNA does indeed encode KCS. Transformation of low erucic acid rapeseed with the jojoba cDNA restored KCS activity to developing embryos and altered the transgenic seed oil composition to contain high levels of VLCFAs. The data reveal the key role KCS plays in determining the chain lengths of fatty acids found in seed oils.

  9. Modification of oil and glucosinolate content in canola seeds with altered expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Nosheen; Duncan, Robert W; Stasolla, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, research focusing on canola (Brassica napus L.) seed oil content and composition has expanded. Oil production and accumulation are influenced by genes participating in embryo and seed development. The Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a well characterized regulator of embryo development that also enhances the expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis. B. napus lines over-expressing or down-regulating BnLEC1 were successfully generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The constitutive expression of BnLEC1 in B. napus var. Polo, increased seed oil content by 7-16%, while the down-regulation of BnLEC1 in B. napus var. Topas reduced oil content by 9-12%. Experimental manipulation of BnLEC1 caused transcriptional changes in enzymes participating in sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, and FA biosynthesis, suggesting an enhanced carbon flux towards FA biosynthesis in tissues over-expressing BnLEC1. The increase in oil content induced by BnLEC1 was not accompanied by alterations in FA composition, oil nutritional value or glucosinolate (GLS) levels. Suppression of BnLEC1 reduced seed oil accumulation and elevated the level of GLS possibly through the transcriptional regulation of BnST5a (Sulphotransferase5a), the last GLS biosynthetic enzyme. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that experimental alterations of BnLEC1 expression can be used to influence oil production and quality in B. napus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2008-01-01

    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... g were allocated to the four groups and kept pair-wise in metabolism cages. The chickens were fed similar amounts of metabolisable energy (ME) per day and similar amounts of essential amino acids relative to ME by adjusting with crystalline amino acids. The chickens were subjected to four balance...... periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy...

  11. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil. PMID:27668136

  12. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B; Thybaut, Joris W; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil.

  13. Candida antarctica Lipase B Immobilized onto Chitin Conjugated with POSS® Compounds: Useful Tool for Rapeseed Oil Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Zdarta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed for the production of a novel chitin-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS enzyme support. Analysis by such techniques as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the effective functionalization of the chitin surface. The resulting hybrid carriers were used in the process of immobilization of the lipase type b from Candida antarctica (CALB. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the effective immobilization of the enzyme. The tests of the catalytic activity showed that the resulting support-biocatalyst systems remain hydrolytically active (retention of the hydrolytic activity up to 87% for the chitin + Methacryl POSS® cage mixture (MPOSS + CALB after 24 h of the immobilization, as well as represents good thermal and operational stability, and retain over 80% of its activity in a wide range of temperatures (30–60 °C and pH (6–9. Chitin-POSS-lipase systems were used in the transesterification processes of rapeseed oil at various reaction conditions. Produced systems allowed the total conversion of the oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME and glycerol after 24 h of the process at pH 10 and a temperature 40 °C, while the Methacryl POSS® cage mixture (MPOSS was used as a chitin-modifying agent.

  14. Plasma Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B: Production of Biodiesel from Methanolysis of Rapeseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastian, Zahra; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Guo, Zheng; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh; Mortazavi, Yadollah

    2016-03-01

    Surface modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through functionalization could improve the characteristics of these nanomaterials as support for enzymes. Carboxylation of MWCNTs (MWCNT-COOH) has been carried out in this study using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor through humidified air. The chemical method was also used for further functionalization of the MWCNT-COOH through which the amidation of the surfaces with either butylamine (MWCNT-BA) or octadecylamine (MWCNT-OA) was performed. By immobilization of Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB) on these nanoparticles, performance of the immobilized enzyme in catalyzing methanolysis of rapeseed oil was evaluated. The CALB loading on the MWCNT-BA and MWCNT-COOH was 20 mg protein/g, while the value for MWCNT-OA was 11 mg protein/g. The yield of biodiesel was determined as percentage of mass of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced per initial mass of the oil, and the yield value for the two of these three supports namely, MWCNT-COOH and MWCNT-BA used for the CALB immobilization was similar at about 92 %, while 86 % was the yield for the reaction catalyzed by the lipase immobilized on MWCNT-OA. Thermal stability of the immobilized CALB and the catalytic ability of the enzyme in the repeated batch experiments have also been determined.

  15. Effect of soybean lecithin on iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of canola oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeesu; Oh, Boyoung; Choe, Eunok

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soybean lecithin addition on the iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of emulsions consisting of purified canola oil and water (1:1, w/w) was studied based on headspace oxygen consumption using gas chromatography and hydroperoxide production using the ferric thiocyanate method. Addition levels of iron sulfate, chlorophyll, and soybean lecithin were 5, 4, and 350 mg/kg, respectively. Phospholipids (PLs) during oxidation of the emulsions were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. Addition of soybean lecithin to the emulsions significantly reduced and decelerated iron-catalyzed oil oxidation by lowering headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide production. However, soybean lecithin had no significant antioxidant effect on chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of the emulsions. PLs in soybean lecithin added to the emulsions were degraded during both oxidation processes, although there was little change in PL composition. Among PLs in soybean lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were degraded the fastest in the iron-catalyzed and the chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation, respectively. The results suggest that addition of soybean lecithin as an emulsifier can also improve the oxidative stability of oil in an emulsion. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Effects of blend of canola oil and palm oil on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and fatty acids in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara; Alimon, Abd Rasak; Karim, Roselina; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sabow, Azad Behnan

    2016-09-01

    The study examined the effects of blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil (BCPO) on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and fatty acids (FA) in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly assigned to diets containing 0, 4 and 8% BCPO on a dry matter basis, fed for 100 days and slaughtered. Diet did not affect feed efficiency, growth performance, intake and digestibility of all nutrients except ether extract. Intakes and digestibilities of ether extract, unsaturated fatty acids (FA) and total FA were higher (P goats than the control goats. Total volatile FA, acetate, butyrate, acetate/propionate ratio and methane decreased (P goats compared with control goats. Dietary BCPO altered muscle lipids without having detrimental effects on nutrient intake and digestibility and growth performance in goats. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Quantification of vitamin A in fortified rapeseed, groundnut and soya oils using a simple portable device: comparison to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Cécile; Berger, Jacques; Laillou, Arnaud; Avallone, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is still one of the major public health problems in least developed countries. Fortification of vegetable oils is a strategy implemented worldwide to prevent this deficiency. For a fortification program to be effective, regular monitoring is necessary to control food quality in the producing units. The reference methods for vitamin A quantification are expensive and time-consuming. A rapid method should be useful for regular assessment of vitamin A in the oil industry. A portable device was compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for three plant oils (rapeseed, groundnut, and soya). The device presented a good linearity from 3 to 30 mg retinol equivalents per kg (mg RE.kg- 1). Its limits of detection and quantification were 3 mg RE.kg- 1 for groundnut and rapeseed oils and 4 mg RE.kg- 1 for soya oil. The intra-assay precision ranged from 1.48 % to 3.98 %, considered satisfactory. Accuracy estimated by the root mean squares error ranged from 3.99 to 5.49 and revealed a lower precision than HPLC (0.4 to 2.25). Although it offers less precision than HPLC, the device estimates quickly the vitamin A content of the tested oils from 3 or 4 to 15 mg RE.kg- 1.

  18. An improved extraction method of rapeseed oil sample preparation for the subsequent determination in it of azole class fungicides by gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail F. Zayats

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of 19 azole class pesticides in hexane/aqueous–organic mixtures systems and rapeseed oil (or oil solution in hexane/organic solvents has been studied at 20 ± 1 °C. The distribution constants (P and coefficients (D between hydrocarbon and polar phase are calculated. It is found that all the studied pesticides are hydrophobic, i.e., in hexane–water system logP ≫ 0. Replacement of water by organic solvents results in sharp logP falling, and their values become negative. It is revealed that solutions of strong inorganic acids in anhydrous acetonitrile extract azole class pesticides from hexane and vegetable oils most fully and selectively. In particular, the acidification of acetonitrile causes a drop of D values in 50–2000 times for the majority of the studied pesticides. This phenomenon was used for the development of the improved technique for the quantitative analysis of a widely used azole class pesticides, which can be presented at trace levels in rapeseed oil. The proposed methodology is based on dissociation extraction (DE of azoles using perchloric acid in anhydrous acetonitrile, with following clean-up of acetonitrile extract from organic impurities by hexane and aqueous solution of dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate, and final GC–ECD (gas chromatography with electron capture detection determination of azole fungicides. The values of obtained recoveries were between 85% and 115% with RSD values below 10%. The obtained limits of quantitation, ranged from 3.0 to 300 μg kg−1, are below the maximum residue levels (MRLs set by the European Union for the majority of pesticides. The developed method was successfully applied to different rapeseed oil samples.

  19. Improved tribological properties of the synthesized copper/carbon nanotube nanocomposites for rapeseed oil-based additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ren, Ruirui; Song, Haojie; Jia, Xiaohua

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with uniform copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were successfully prepared via a facile approach towards surface modification of CNTs with spontaneous polydopamine (PDA). The structures and morphologies of the nanocomposites were investigated by different kinds of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites were fabricated by growing the Cu NPs with an average diameter of 5 nm on the surfaces of PDA-modified CNTs. The CNTs functionalized with PDA layer not only provide an anchoring platform for the Cu NPs immobilization, but also endow Cu/PDA/CNTs with good dispersion stability when Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites were used as lubricant additive. The tribological performance of the nanocomposites as the rapeseed oil lubricant additive, as well as Cu NPs, CNTs, and Cu/CNTs, was also investigated using a MS-T3000 ball-on-disk tribometer. Results show that the 0.2 wt% Cu/PDA/CNTs nanoadditive simultaneously reduce the friction and wear by 33.5% and 23.7%, respectively, outperformed the tribological performance of Cu NPs, CNTs, and Cu/CNTs nanoadditives. In addition, the presence of active sites in Cu/PDA/CNTs was beneficial to reduce the time of running-in period, give rise to the fastest speed to be stable of the friction coefficient curve as compared to the other nanoadditives. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy of the worn surfaces lubricated by the soybean oil with Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites showed that formation of low shear strength tribofilms containing Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites and its self-lubricating property was key factor in reduction of the friction and protection against wear and deformation.

  20. The effect of whole cottonseed and processing of canola on the milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Introduction. The use of whole oilseeds such as whole cottonseed (WCS) to increase the energy density of dairy cattle diets is common practice today. Research has shown that certain varieties of canola (previously called rapeseed) are well adapted to the Western Cape and the area planted is expanding fast. Canola has a ...

  1. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production in trickle-bed reactors packed with heterogeneous Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yong-Lu; Tian, Song-Jiang; Li, Shu-Fen; Wang, Bo-Yang; Zhang, Min-Hua

    2013-05-01

    A conventional trickle bed reactor and its modified type both packed with Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalysts were studied for biodiesel production by transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol. The effects of the methanol usage and oil flow rate on the FAME yield were investigated under the normal pressure and methanol boiling state. The oil flow rate had a significant effect on the FAME yield for the both reactors. The modified trickle bed reactor kept over 94.5% FAME yield under 0.6 mL/min oil flow rate and 91 mL catalyst bed volume, showing a much higher conversion and operational stability than the conventional type. With the modified trickle bed reactor, both transesterification and methanol separation could be performed simultaneously, and glycerin and methyl esters were separated additionally by gravity separation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preservation of micronutrients during rapeseed oil refining: a tool to optimize the health value of edible vegetable oils? Rationale and design of the Optim'Oils randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladine, C; Meunier, N; Blot, Adeline; Bruchet, Lucile; Pagès, X; Gaud, M; Floter, E; Metin, Z; Rossignol, A; Cano, N; Chardigny, J M

    2011-03-01

    Numerous micronutrients naturally abundant in oilseeds prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by reducing cholesterolemia and oxidative stress. These micronutrients include phytosterols and various antioxidants such as polyphenols, tocopherols and coenzyme Q10/Q9 but most of them are lost during the oilseed oil refining. The main objective of the Optim'Oil project was to modify the processes of oil refining in order to reduce the lost of micronutrients. Two clinical trials (cross-over, monocentric, randomized, double-blind and controlled) were designed to investigate the effect of an optimized rapeseed oil 1) on cardiovascular biomarkers (long-term study) and 2) on oxidative stress parameters (post-prandial study). For the long-term study, 59 volunteers ingested daily 20 g of oil and 22 g of margarine (optimized or standard) for 2 periods of 3 weeks separated by a 3-week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each period. For the post-prandial study, a sub-group of 16 volunteers came fasted at the laboratory and took 300 mL of a test meal containing 60% of the optimized or standard oils. Blood samples were collected before and during 6h after the test meal intake. In comparison with the standard oil and margarine, the optimized oil and margarine exhibit as expected an increased content of phytosterol (+22%), polyphenols (× 11), tocopherols (+131%) and coenzyme Q10/Q9 (+165%). Overall, conditions of this study were relevant to investigate the effect of the optimized rapeseed oil and margarine on the cardiovascular risk and the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Canola Oil Biodiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion, Performance, and Emissions Reduction in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ki Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% on a volume basis under various engine speeds. As the BD blend ratio increased, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at the low engine speed of 1500 rpm, while they increased at the middle engine speed of 2500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC increased at all engine speeds while the carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions were considerably reduced. On the other hand, the nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions only increased slightly. When increasing the BD blend ratio at an engine speed of 2000 rpm with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the combustion pressure and IMEP tended to decrease. The CO and PM emissions decreased in proportion to the BD blend ratio. Also, the NOx emissions decreased considerably as the EGR rate increased whereas the BD blend ratio only slightly influenced the NOx emissions.

  4. Spruce galactoglucomannans inhibit the lipid oxidation in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil-in-water emulsions are functional and industrially valuable systems, whose large interfacial area makes them prone to deterioration, due in part to as the oxidation and oligomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), wood biomacromolecules abundantly available f...

  5. Apparent and true ileal and total tract digestibility of fat in canola press-cake or canola oil and effects of increasing dietary fat on amino acid and energy digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2017-06-01

    Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal. The 4 CPC and 4 CO test diets were prepared by replacing identical portion of basal diet with 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% CPC, or 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% CO, respectively, to match the fat content of CPC diet with CO diet at each fat level. An N-free diet based on corn starch was prepared to measure basal endogenous losses of AA. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) were calculated for each diet. True ileal digestibility (TID) and true total tract (TTTD) digestibility of AEE in CPC and CO, and total endogenous losses of AEE were estimated by regressing apparent digestible AEE (g/kg of DMI) against dietary AEE intake (g/kg of DM) at the total tract and distal ileum, respectively. The mean AID and ATTD of AEE in CPC diets were 78.9% and 61.5%, which were lower ( AEE content in CPC and CO diets increased linearly ( AEE intake. Endogenous losses of AEE were greater ( 0.05) total tract or ileal endogenous losses of AEE. The TID and TTTD of AEE in CPC were 92.3% and 94.5%, respectively, lower ( AEE than CO. Dietary fat source did not affect endogenous losses of AEE. The lower digestibility of AEE in CPC than in CO indicates that fat digestibility of CPC should be considered to predict its nutritional value accurately. Dietary inclusion of CO may increase digestibility of CP and energy originating from the balance of the diet.

  6. Rapeseed oil methyl ester pyrolysis: on-line product analysis using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyl, Steven P; Schietekat, Carl M; Van Geem, Kevin M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Vercammen, Joeri; Beens, Jan; Marin, Guy B

    2011-05-27

    Thermochemical conversion processes play a crucial role in all routes from fossil and renewable resources to base chemicals, fuels and energy. Hence, a fundamental understanding of these chemical processes can help to resolve the upcoming challenges of our society. A bench scale pyrolysis set-up has been used to study the thermochemical conversion of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), i.e. a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters. A GC×GC, equipped with both a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), allows quantitative and qualitative characterization of the reactor feed and product. Analysis of the latter is accomplished using a dedicated high temperature on-line sampling system. Temperature programmed analysis, starting at -40°C, permits effluent characterization from methane up to lignoceric acid methyl ester (C(25)H(50)O(2)), in a single run of the GC×GC. The latter combines a 100% dimethylpolysiloxane primary column with a 50% phenyl polysilphenylene-siloxane secondary column. Modulation is started when the oven temperature reaches 40°C, thus dividing the chromatogram in a conventional 1D and a comprehensive 2D part. The proposed quantification approach allows to combine the quantitative GC×GC analysis with 2 other on-line 1D GC analyses, resulting in a complete and detailed product composition including the measurement of CO, CO(2), formaldehyde and water. The GC×GC reveals that the product stream contains a huge variety of valuable products, such as linear alpha olefins, unsaturated esters and aromatics, that could not have been identified and quantified accurately with conventional 1D GC because of peak overlap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 3 - Technical, Commercialization, and Application Issues Associated with Harvested Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-17

    series of steam- heated drum or stack-type cookers . Cooking serves to thermally rup- ture oil cells that have survived flaking; to reduce oil viscosity...temperature fuel cell systems. SOFCo-EFS has carried out an extensive investigation of distillate fuel processing ( Jet -A, JP-8, and diesel fuels with 7

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety......, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity...... in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation....

  9. Jasna: A new winter rapeseed cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The program of winter rapeseed breeding at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops covers the development of winter and spring rapeseed cultivars and hybrids. Winter rapeseed cultivars are selected for high and stabile grain and oil yield, good oil quality, low erucic acid and glucosinolate content (type 00 and tolerance to stresses caused by abiotic and biotic factors. This paper reviews agronomic characteristics and grain and oil quality of a new cultivar of winter rapeseed Jasna. In the trials of the Serbian Commission for new cultivars registration, cultivar Jasna had higher grain yield then standard, in the three locations and two years. In average the yield was 4566 kg/ha. Oil content is at the level of the standard. The erucic acid content and glucosinolate content are lower then that in the standard and that are positive characteristics. .

  10. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Mejicanos, G.; Sanjayan, N.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances i...

  11. Investigations of used hydraulic oils derived from rapeseed oil from a long-term practice test; Untersuchungen an gebrauchten Hydraulikoelen auf Rapsoelbasis aus einer Langzeit-Praxisstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosmann, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie und Physik der Fette; Sandner, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie und Physik der Fette; Spilker, M. [Fuchs Mineraloelwerke GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Ihrig, H. [Fuchs Mineraloelwerke GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Because of their excellent biodegradation and their low water pollution potential hydraulic oils derived from plant oils are suitable to replace the dominantly used hydraulic oils derived from mineral oil. In a long-term practice test a rapeseed based hydraulic oil (Plantohyd 40 N, Fuchs Mineraloelwerke GmbH) was tested for a period of 30 months in a sheet steel press. During the operating time (>7000 h) samples were taken in non-regular intervals. As a measure for oil aging, the acid value and the viscosity at 40 C were determined. Polymerisation has led to an increase of viscosity; the portion of the resulting dimeric and oligomeric triglycerides was determined by GPC. A determination of the oxidative stability by means of Rancimat apparatus only makes sense when applied for samples with short operating times (<1000 h) because of the short induction period. GPC also showed an increase of free fatty acids and other low molecular weight compounds. The polar compounds (including the non-polar dimeric triglycerides) were isolated. The structure determination of the resulting dimeric fatty acids and low molecular weight products remains to be done. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wegen ihrer ausgezeichneten biologischen Abbaubarkeit und des niedrigen Wasserverschmutzungspotentials sind Hydraulikoele aus Pflanzenoelen geeignet, die vorwiegend verwendeten Hydraulikoele auf Mineraloelbasis zu ersetzen. In einer Langzeit-Praxisstudie wurde ein Hydraulikoel auf Rapsoelbasis ueber einen Zeitraum von 30 Monaten in einer Stahlblechpresse verwendet. Waehrend der ca. 7000 Betriebsstunden wurden in unregelmaessigen Abstaenden dem Oel Proben entnommen. Als Mass fuer den Grad der Oelalterung wurden die Neutralisationszahl und Viskositaet bei 40 C bestimmt. Der Viskositaetsanstieg ist im wesentlichen auf Polymerisationsvorgaenge zurueckzufuehren; daher wurde der Anteil an dimeren und oligomeren Triglyceriden im Oel mittels Gel-Permeationschromatogrpahie (GPC) ermittelt. Eine Untersuchung der

  12. EFFECTS OF PLANT NUTRITION ON CANOLA (Brassica napus L. GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Süzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is an important edible oilseed crop in the World and in Turkey. It has a healthy vegetable oil because of its balance with omega 3-6-9 essential fatty acids, making canola oil a healthy vegetable oil throughout the World for cooking and processed food industry. Canola production of high yield and good quality usually depends on well-balanced plant nutrition and growing conditions. A well-balanced soil condition also affects canola plants responses to stress factors such as disease and bad weather conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK are some of the major nutrients required to significantly increase canola yield. Fertilizer application dosages in canola production vary because of the variable occurrence of NPK in the soil. A high yielding canola production needs a well-balanced fertilization program.

  13. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and canola oil on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes adverse effects on quality of eggs by modifying the fatty acid composition of the yolk. Supplementing oils prevent CLA-induced changes, but cause a decrease in the level of egg CLA. The objective of the study was to investigate the incorporation of CLA into the egg and its effect ...

  14. Antioxidant activities and interactions of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols within canola and soybean oil emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of differing concentrations and ratios of alpha- and gamma-TOH on oxidative stability over time was determined by measuring the development of hydroperoxides and volatile secondary oxidation products (hexanal) within a series of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion systems produced from both canol...

  15. Feeding of palm oil fatty acids or rapeseed oil throughout lactation: Effects on energy status, body composition, and milk production in Norwegian dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknæs, M; Chilliard, Y; Hove, K; Inglingstad, R A; Bernard, L; Volden, H

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine how supplements of rapeseed oil or palm oil fatty acids would affect milk production and composition, body lipid stores, and energy balance in 30 multiparous goats of Norwegian dairy goat breed. The experiment lasted 230 d, with 1 to 120 d in milk (DIM) for indoor feeding (P1), 120 to 200 DIM for mountain grazing (P2), and 200 to 230 DIM for indoor feeding (P3). Grass silage was fed according to appetite during indoor feeding periods. After an adjustment period (1-60 DIM) when the control diet was given to the goats, the animals were subdivided into 3 groups of 10 goats. Treatments (60-230 DIM) were (1) basal concentrate (control; no added fat); (2) control concentrate with 8% (added on air-dry basis) hydrogenated palm oil enriched with palmitic acid (POFA); and (3) control concentrate with 8% (added on air-dry basis) rapeseed oil (RSO). Individual energy balances based on energy intake and milk production were estimated on 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 200, and 230 DIM. At the same times, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), body mass index, and body tissue stores using computed tomography were monitored. Silage intake was depressed by POFA throughout the experimental period. Reduced BW and body mass index were observed in the POFA and RSO groups, whereas no effect on BCS or body composition was observed throughout lactation. Generally, a minor decrease in BW was observed from 10 to 120 DIM (only 0.6 kg on average) and the total amount of body lipid was reduced by 4.4 kg. During the mountain grazing period, a further reduction in body lipid stores (2.7 kg) was observed, and BW was reduced by 3.9 kg in the same period. The goats mobilized, on average, 72% of their fat reserves during the first 200 DIM. In this period, dietary fat supplementation did not reduce the mobilization of adipose tissue but resulted in greater milk fat yield (2 kg more, on average, compared with the control group). Milk yield was not affected

  16. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da; Carlos, Aluana Santana; dos Santos, Aline de Sousa; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves

    2011-01-01

    A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S), a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if pfat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200%) and a lower number (44%) of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively) compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25%) and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11%) and length (5%). Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health.

  17. Effect of water deficit on water use efficiency of canola (Brassica napus L. cultivars in Mashhad condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Mousavi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit is a major factor influencing yield of canola (Brassica napus L. seed yield and oil content. A field experiment was conducted during 2010 growing season in the Agriculture Research Station of Torogh, Mashhad, Iran to evaluate responses of canola cultivars to limited water. Experimental design was RCBD pattern with three replications. Treatments were two irrigation regimes (based on irrigation after 120 mm evaporation on class A pan for stress treatments and 80 mm evaporation for non stress treatments and six rapeseed cultivars(hyola 401, Hyola 330, Parkland, Goldrush, BP18 and landrace. Results showed that water use efficiency was significantly affected by drought stress. Average of water use efficiency at all cultivars in stress treatments was 6.6 Kg per m3 water by 3412.3 m3 water used and 4.5 Kg per m3 water by 4612.3 m3 water used in non stress treatments. The highest and the lowest water use efficiency observed in Hyola 401 and Goldrush by 7.4 and 2.6 kilograms per m3 water in drought stress treatment, respectively. In addition to the ability of oil production by rapeseed cultivars under drought stress was affected and became less in drought stress. Hyola 401 had the highest oil content by 0.28 kg oil per m3 water in non stress and BP.18 had the lowest oil content 0.06 kg oil per m3 water in stress treatment. Results showed that water deficit can affect oil content significantly.

  18. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejicanos, G; Sanjayan, N; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-01-01

    Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances in genetic improvements of canola that have led to production of cultivars with significantly lower ANF content and improved processing procedures, canola meal with a superior nutritive value for non-ruminant animals is now available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the recent studies in the use of canola meal as feedstuff for swine, the factors influencing its use and the strategies to overcome them. First a historical overview of the development of canola is provided.

  19. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mejicanos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates in canola meal. However, due to advances in genetic improvements of canola that have led to production of cultivars with significantly lower ANF content and improved processing procedures, canola meal with a superior nutritive value for non-ruminant animals is now available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the recent studies in the use of canola meal as feedstuff for swine, the factors influencing its use and the strategies to overcome them. First a historical overview of the development of canola is provided.

  20. Rapeseed research and production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Progress on functional genomics including the identification of QTL governing important agronomic traits such as yield, seed oil content, fertility regulation, disease and insect resistance, abiotic stress, nutrition use efficiency, and pod shattering resistance has been achieved. As a consequence, molecular markers have been developed and used in breeding programs. During 2005–2014, 215 rapeseed varieties were registered nationally, including 210 winter- and 5 spring-type varieties. Mechanization across the whole process of rapeseed production was investigated and operating instructions for all relevant techniques were published. Modern techniques for rapeseed field management such as high-density planting, controlled-release fertilizer, and biocontrol of disease and pests combined with precision tools such as drones have been developed and are being adopted in China. With the application of advanced breeding and production technologies, in the near future, the oil yield and quality of rapeseed varieties will be greatly increased, and more varieties with desirable traits, especially early maturation, high yield, high resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and suitability for mechanized harvesting will be developed. Application of modern technologies on the mechanized management of rapeseed will greatly increase grower profit.

  1. Structure of the Canola and Biodiesel Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Wilson, William W.; Duchsherer, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The biodiesel industry in the United States has grown significantly in recent years. Production increased from 25 million gallons in 2004 to an estimated 250 million gallons in 2006, and many new plants are being built. Most biodiesel in the United States is produced from soybean oil, but canola offers characteristics which make it a favorable feedstock for biodiesel production. Characteristics of canola oil also make it an increasingly popular choice for human consumption. This study examine...

  2. CFD simulation of transient stage of continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-08-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling of a continuous countercurrent hydrolysis process was performed using ANSYS-CFX. The liquid properties and flow behavior such as density, specific heats, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansivity as well as water solubility of the hydrolysis components triglyceride, diglyceride, monoglyceride, free fatty acid, and glycerol were calculated. Chemical kinetics for the hydrolysis reactions were simulated in this model by applying Arrhenius parameters. The simulation was based on actual experimental reaction conditions including temperature and water-to-oil ratio. The results not only have good agreement with experimental data but also show instantaneous distributions of concentrations of every component in hydrolysis reaction. This model provided visible insight into the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Removing antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake and their benevolent role in waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel: conjoining the valorization of two disparate industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Das, Subrata; Manhar, Ajay Kumar; Deka, Dhanapati; Mandal, Manabendra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-11-13

    Valorization of oilseed processing wastes is thwarted due to the presence of several antinutritional factors such as phenolics, tannins, glucosinolates, allyl isothiocyanates, and phytates; moreover, literature reporting on their simultaneous extraction and subsequent practical application is scanty. Different solvent mixtures containing acetone or methanol pure or combined with water or an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric) were tested for their efficiency for extraction of these antinutritive compounds from rapeseed press-cake. Acidified extraction mixtures (nonaqueous) were found to be superior to the nonacidified ones. The characteristic differences in the efficacy of these wide varieties of solvents were studied by principal component analysis, on the basis of which the mixture 0.2% perchloric acid in methanol/acetone (1:1 v/v) was deemed as "the best" for detoxification of rapeseed meal. Despite its high reductive potential, hemolytic activity of the extract from this solvent mixture clearly indicated the toxicity of the above-mentioned compounds on mammalian erythrocytes. Because of the presence of a high amount of antinutritive antioxidants, the study was further extended to examine the influence of this solvent extract on the stability of waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Treatment with the extract harbored significant improvement (p extract can, thereafter, be used as an effective exogenous antioxidant for biodiesel. In other words, integrated valorization of two different industrial wastes was successfully achieved.

  4. Electro-Catalytic Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil in Methanolic and Ethanolic Solutions with Low-Cost Stainless Steel and Hybrid Ion-Exchange Resin Grafted Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Marie Allioux

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a growing alternative to petroleum fuels and is produced by the catalyzed transesterification of fats in presence of an alcohol base. Transesterification processes using homogeneous catalysts are considered to be among the most efficient methods but rely on the feedstock quality and low water content in order to avoid undesirable saponification reactions. In this work, the electro-catalytic conversion of canola oil to biodiesel in a 1% aqueous methanolic and ethanolic reaction mixture was performed without the addition of external catalyst or cosolvent. An inexpensive stainless steel (SS electrode and a hybrid SS electrode coated with an ion-exchange resin catalyst were used as cathode materials while the anode was composed of a plain carbon paper. The cell voltages were varied from 10 to 40 V and the reaction temperature maintained at 20 or 40°C. The canola oil conversion rates were found to be superior at 40°C without saponification reactions for cell voltages below 30 V. The conversion rates were as high as 87% for the hybrid electrode and 81% for the plain SS electrode. This work could inspire new process development for the conversion of high water content feedstock for the production of second-generation biodiesel.

  5. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  6. Electro-catalytic biodiesel production from canola oil in methanolic and ethanolic solutions with low cost stainless steel and hybrid ion-exchange resin grafted electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allioux, Francois-Marie; Holland, Brendan J.; Kong, Lingxue; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2017-07-01

    Biodiesel is a growing alternative to petroleum fuels and is produced by the catalysed transesterification of fats in presence of an alcohol base. Transesterification processes using homogeneous catalysts are considered to be amongst the most efficient methods but rely on the feedstock quality and low water content in order to avoid undesirable saponification reactions. In this work, the electro-catalytic conversion of canola oil to biodiesel in a 1% aqueous methanolic and ethanolic reaction mixture was performed without the addition of external catalyst or co-solvent. An inexpensive stainless steel electrode and a hybrid stainless steel electrode coated with an ion-exchange resin catalyst were used as cathode materials while the anode was composed of a plain carbon paper. The cell voltages were varied from 10 to 40 V and the reaction temperature maintained at 20 or 40°C. The canola oil conversion rates were found to be superior at 40°C without saponification reactions for cell voltages below 30 V. The conversion rates were as high as 87% for the hybrid electrode and 81% for the plain stainless steel electrode. This work could inspire new process development for the conversion of high water content feedstock for the production of second-generation biodiesel.

  7. Effect-directed analysis of cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils by planar chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-11-15

    Cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils are healthy oils for human consumption as these are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive phytochemicals. However, bioactive information on the food intake side is mainly focused on target analysis. For more comprehensive information with regard to effects, single bioactive compounds present in the seed oil extracts were detected by effect-directed assays, like bioassays or an enzymatic assay, directly linked with chromatography and further characterized by mass spectrometry. This effect-directed analysis is a streamlined method for the analysis of bioactive compounds in the seed oil extracts. All effective compounds with regard to the five assays or bioassays applied were detected in the samples, meaning also bioactive breakdown products caused during oil processing, residues or contaminants, aside the naturally present bioactive phytochemicals. The investigated cold-pressed oils contained compounds that exert antioxidative, antimicrobial, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and estrogenic activities. This effect-directed analysis can be recommended for bioactivity profiling of food to obtain profound effect-directed information on the food intake side. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenolic extracts from Sorbus aucuparia (L.) and Malus baccata (L.) berries: antioxidant activity and performance in rapeseed oil during frying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Matthäus, Bertrand

    2014-09-15

    In the present study, phenolic extracts and fractions from Canadian rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia) and crabapple (Malus baccata) were screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Furthermore, rapeseed oil was supplemented with extracts/fractions and performance was assessed during accelerated storage at 65°C, under Rancimat at 120°C, and during frying at 180°C. A number of phenolic fractions showed significantly higher radical scavenging and antioxidant activity in the oil than the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). At the end of the 7-day storage, the peroxide value was reduced by up to 42% in the presence of extracts. The extent of thermooxidative degradation was significantly lower in oils fortified with the fruit extracts, with fractions from Sorbus species being more effective. Results from the present study suggested that polyphenolic extracts from these fruits can offer effective alternative to synthetic antioxidants during frying and storage of vegetable oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased EPA levels in serum phospholipids of humans after four weeks daily ingestion of one portion chicken fed linseed and rapeseed oil

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    Haug Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the amounts of arachidonic acid (AA and EPA in food may have implications for human health, we investigated whether a small change in chicken feed influenced the blood lipid concentration in humans ingesting the chicken. Forty-six young healthy volunteers (age 20–29 were randomly allocated into two groups in a double-blind dietary intervention trial, involving ingestion of about 160 g chicken meat per day for 4 weeks. The ingested meat was either from chickens given a feed concentrate resembling the commercial chicken feed, containing 4% soybean oil (SO, or the meat was from chickens given a feed where the soybean oil had been replaced by 2% rapeseed oil plus 2% linseed oil (RLO. Serum total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, serum phospholipid fatty acid concentration, blood pressure, body weight and C-reactive protein were determined at baseline and post-intervention. In subjects consuming chicken meat from the RLO group there was a significantly (p

  10. Effect of Tocotrienols enriched canola oil on glycemic control and oxidative status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

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    Mohammadreza Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tocotrienols have been shown to improve glycemic control and redox balance in an animal study, but their effects on patients with diabetes are unknown. The study aimed to investigate whether tocotrienols improves glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. A total of 50 patients, aged 35-60 years, with T2DM treated by noninsulin hypoglycemic drugs were randomly assigned to receive either 15 mL/day tocotrienols (200 mg enriched canola oil (n = 25 or pure canola oil (n = 25 for 8 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, fasting insulin, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were determined before and after the intervention. The data were compared between and within groups, before and after the intervention. Results: Baseline characteristics of participants including age, sex, physical activity, disease duration, and type of drug consumption were not significantly different between the two groups. In tocotrienol enriched canola oil, FBS (mean percent change: -15.4% vs. 3.9%; P = 0.006 and MDA (median percent change: -35.6% vs. 16.3%; P = 0.003 were significantly reduced while TAC was significantly increased (median percent change: 21.4% vs. 2.3%; P = 0.001 compared to pure canola oil. At the end of the study, patients who treated with tocotrienols had lower FBS (P = 0.023 and MDA (P = 0.044 compared to the pure canola oil group. However, tocotrienols had no effect on insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Tocotrienols can improve FBS concentrations and modifies redox balance in T2DM patients with poor glycemic control and can be considered in combination with hypoglycemic drugs to better control of T2DM.

  11. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat

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    Aaron Ross Flakemore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO was evaluated. Methods Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO: a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC; 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH. Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Results Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P < 0.05 higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3 and EPA + docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3 acids than those supplemented with DCCOM or DCCOC; Dorset sired lambs contained significantly (P < 0.05 more EPA and EPA + DHA than other sire breeds; diet and sire breed interactions were significant (P < 0.05 in affecting EPA and EPA + DHA concentrations. In cooked meat, ω3 LC-PUFA concentrations in DCCOM (32 mg/100 g, DCCOH (38 mg/100 g, Dorset (36 mg/100 g, White Suffolk (32 mg/100 g, ewes (32 mg/100 g and wethers (33 mg/100 g, all exceeded the minimum content of 30 mg/100 g of edible cooked portion of EPA + DHA for Australian defined ‘source’ level ω3 LC-PUFA classification. Conclusion These results present that combinations of dietary degummed crude canola oil, sheep genetics and culinary preparation method can be used as

  12. Maximizing content of Omega-3 (EPA and DHA) in the process of enzymatic acidolysis of canola oil and concentrated of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in supercritical CO2 conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cedano, José; Rodríguez, Alicia; Siche, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the content of EPA and DHA in the process of enzymatic acidolysis of canola oil and concentrated of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in structured triacylglycerols (TAGs). For this purpose, nonspecific lipase B from Candida antarctica immobilized in a supercritical CO2 was used. Crude salmon oil obtained from the industrial byproducts was used to obtain LCPUFA concentrate. Initially, a LCPUFAs concentrate was obtained by basic hydrolysis an...

  13. A general computation model based on inverse analysis principle used for rheological analysis of W/O rapeseed and soybean oil emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintila, Iuliana; Gavrus, Adinel

    2017-10-01

    The present research paper proposes the validation of a rigorous computation model used as a numerical tool to identify rheological behavior of complex emulsions W/O. Considering a three-dimensional description of a general viscoplastic flow it is detailed the thermo-mechanical equations used to identify fluid or soft material's rheological laws starting from global experimental measurements. Analyses are conducted for complex emulsions W/O having generally a Bingham behavior using the shear stress - strain rate dependency based on a power law and using an improved analytical model. Experimental results are investigated in case of rheological behavior for crude and refined rapeseed/soybean oils and four types of corresponding W/O emulsions using different physical-chemical composition. The rheological behavior model was correlated with the thermo-mechanical analysis of a plane-plane rheometer, oil content, chemical composition, particle size and emulsifier's concentration. The parameters of rheological laws describing the industrial oils and the W/O concentrated emulsions behavior were computed from estimated shear stresses using a non-linear regression technique and from experimental torques using the inverse analysis tool designed by A. Gavrus (1992-2000).

  14. Changes in Growth and Oil Yield Indices of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola 401 in Different Concentrations andTimes of Application of Supplementary Nitrogen Fertilizer

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    P. Tousi Kehal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of concentration and time of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer spray on growth indices of rapeseed (cv. Hyola 401, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran as a randomized complete blocks design with 16 treatments and 3 replications in 2008-2009. The treatments included concentration of nitrogen fertilizer (urea at two levels (5 and 10 ppm in seven levels of application time:1 spraying at 6-8- leaf stage, 2 beginning of stem elongation, 3 prior to flowering, 4 at 6-8- leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation, 5 at 6-8- leaf + prior to flowering, 6 beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, and 7 at 6-8- leaf + beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, which were compared with two control treatments (no fertilizer nitrogen and conventional soil fertilization. Results showed that significant difference was observed between spray treatments including concentration and times of nitrogen application, between controls and between controls with spray treatments, of grain and oil yield, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and leaf area duration (LAD. Application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages produced maximum grain yield (4221.7 kg/ha and oil yield (1771.1 kg/ha. Spray treatments produced maximum oil yield index (15.3% compared to controls. Maximum LAI (6.9 and 5.6 respectively, CGR (15.2 and 14.3 g/m2.10 GDD, respectively and LAD (1204 and 1029 cm2/10 GDD, respectively were also obtained from spray application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages and at 6-8-leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation + prior to flowering. According to the results of the present investigation, it seems that foliar application of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer at the end growth stages (beginning of stem elongation and prior to flowering of rapeseed plants may help to enhance growth indices

  15. The effect of low calorie structured lipid palm mid fraction, virgin coconut oil and canola oil blend on rats body weight and plasma profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Aftar Mizan Abu; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of low calorie cocoa butter substitutes, the structured lipids (SLs) on rats' body weight and plasma lipid levels. The SLs were developed from a ternary blending of palm mid fraction (PMF), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and canola oil (CO). The optimized blends were then underwent enzymatic acidolysisusing sn-1,3-specific lipase. This process produced A12, a SL which hasa solid fat content almost comparable to cocoa butter but has low calories. Therefore, it has a high potential to be used for cocoa butter substitute with great nutritional values. Fourty two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were force feed for a period of 2 months (56 days) and the group were Control 1(rodent chow), Control 2(cocoa butter), Control 3(PMF:VCO:CO 90:5:5 - S3 blend), High doseSL (A12:C8+S3), Medium dose SL (A12:C8+S3) and Low dose SL (A12:C8+S3). The body weight of each rat was recorded once daily. The plasma profile of treated and control rats, which comprised of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride was measured on day 0 (baseline) and day 56 (post-treatment). Low calorie structured lipid (SL) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction using sn 1-3-specific lipase of ThermomycesLanuginos (TLIM) among 25 samples with optimum parameter obtained from the RSM. Blood samples for plasma separation were collected using cardiac puncture and requiring anesthesia via tail vein(Anesthetics for rats: Ketamine/Xylazine) for day 0 and day 56. Results of the study showed that rats in group 1 and group 2 has gained weight by 1.66 g and 4.75 g respectively and showed significant difference (p0.05) between G3 on day 0 and 56 days for total cholesterol. Meanwhile, total plasma HDLcholesterol content of rats fed with C8:0 was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the baseline (day 0) and the total plasma LDL cholesterol levels of rats in G4, G5 and G6 were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the baseline (day 0

  16. Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L. Evaluación de Parámetros de Rendimiento del Raps (Brassica napus L. Polinizado por Abejas (Apis mellifera L.

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    Ximena Araneda Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L. contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1, partial exclusion (T2 and free pollination (T0 with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with three treatments and three replicates. Results obtained show that the parameter least affected by bee intervention was the grains per silique variable. In contrast, siliques per plant and 1000 grain weight parameters presented significant differences, contributing to a yield greater than 5 t ha-1; which represented a figure 50.34% higher than in the treatment without bees. It may be concluded that the inclusion of bees in crops is fully justified as a production tool.La reciente introducción de variedades híbridas plantea la interrogante de la contribución que pueda tener la presencia de abejas (Apis mellifera L. como agentes polinizadores para desarrollar en pleno el potencial productivo del raps (Brassica napus L.. Con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento alcanzado por B. napus cv. Artus polinizado por A. mellifera, se realizó un ensayo en la localidad de Freire, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Éste consistió en aislar o excluir las plantas de raps de los polinizadores mediante el uso de jaulas excluidoras. Los tratamientos consistieron en la exclusión total (T1, exclusión parcial (T2 y libre polinización (T0 con una densidad de 6,5 colmenas ha-1, con el fin de determinar

  17. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto,P.; Follegatti-Romero,L. A.; Batista,E. A. C.; Meirelles,A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  18. Energy balance of biodiesel production from canola

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Luis Felipe Lima e; Gonçalves,Wilson Magela; Maluf,Wilson Roberto; Resende,Luciane Vilela; Sarmiento,Christiany Mattioli; Licursi,Vicente; Moretto,Paulo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to estimate the energy balance (output/input ratio) of the canola crop for biodiesel production, under Brazilian conditions. Fossil energy expended in the production of 600kg of oil per hectare was 7,146,537kcal. The estimated energy yield per hectare was 9,930,000kcal from the production of 1,500kg ha-1 of seeds (40% oil and 60% oil cake), which resulted in an energy balance of 1.39. Results indicated the viability of biofuel production from canola,...

  19. Efeito da suplementação de linhaça, óleo de canola e vitamina E na dieta sobre as concentrações de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ovos de galinha Effect of dietary supplementation of flaxseed, canola oil and vitamin E upon polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs

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    M.C.G. Pita

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados (óleo de canola e semente de linhaça, acrescidas de diferentes teores de alfa-tocoferol nas dietas de poedeiras, sobre a composição de ácidos graxos da gema do ovo foi estudado. Foram utilizadas 288 galinhas da linhagem Babcock que receberam dietas com 6% de óleo de canola, 20% de semente de linhaça moída ou 3% de óleo de canola e 10% de linhaça moída com teores de 0, 100 e 200UI/kg de alfa-tocoferol. As dietas com 20% de semente de linhaça proporcionaram teores mais elevados de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados no ovo com aumento, em particular, dos teores de ácido alfa-linolênico e EPA (ácido eicosapentaenóico e diminuição de ácido araquidônico na gema. Os teores de vitamina E contidos nas rações experimentais não determinaram alteração significativa na deposição dos diferentes ácidos graxos na gema dos ovos, exceto com relação aos ácidos graxos saturados.The effect of dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids - canola oil and flaxseed - with different vitamin E supplementation on the fatty acid deposition into the eggs of 288 Babcock laying hens was investigated. Birds were fed diets containing 6% of canola oil, 20% of flaxseed or a combination of 3% of canola oil and 10% of flaxseed, enriched with 0, 100 or 200Ul of dl-alpha-tocopheril acetate. The inclusion of flaxseed in the diets increased the yolk polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly alpha-linolenic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid. The concentration of alpha-tocopherol in the diet did not change the egg yolk, fatty acids deposition but changed the saturated fatty acids deposition.

  20. Substituição parcial ou total de óleo de canola por lecitina de soja em rações para larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, pisces, Pimelodidae Partial or total replacement of canola oil by soybean lecithin in diets for South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen larvae , pisces, Pimelodidae

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    Oclecio Uliana

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Piscicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em um sistema para criação de larvas com recirculação de água termoregulada. O objetivo foi avaliar a substituição de óleo de canola por lecitina de soja na alimentação de larvas de jundiá durante os primeiros 21 dias de vida. No experimento, testaram-se sete tratamentos com três repetições, usando-se diferentes proporções de óleo de canola (0 a 5% e lecitina de soja (0 a 4%, incorporadas em uma ração preparada com fígado bovino e levedura de cana. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos no tratamento com 2% de lecitina de soja. Com ele, as larvas de jundiá apresentaram 80,25% de sobrevivência, peso médio individual de 184,89mg e 28,03mm de comprimento total, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos no experimento, conclui-se que a lecitina de soja em nível de 2% é mais eficiente que a lecitina usada em combinação com óleo de canola na nutrição de larvas de jundiá.This report was carried out at the Animal Sciences Department - Fish Culture Sector of the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, in a system for larvae raising with thermoregulation and recirculation of water, in order to assess the replacement of canola oil for soy lecithin in the feeding of south american catfish (Rhamdia quelen larvae during their 21 days of life. In the experiment, seven treatments with three replications were tested by using different proportions of canola oil (0-5% and soybean lecithin (0-4%, added to a diet prepared with beef liver and sugar canne yeast. The best results were obtained in treatment containing 2% of soy lecithin, in which catfish larvae presented 80.25% survival rate, 184.89mg average individual weight and 28.03mm total length, what significantly differs from the other treatments. According to the results obtained in the experiment, it is

  1. The transesterification of rapeseed and waste sunflower oils: Mass-transfer and kinetics in a laboratory batch reactor and in an industrial-scale reactor/separator setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofutar, B; Golob, J; Likozar, B; Klofutar, C; Zagar, E; Poljansek, I

    2010-05-01

    We have investigated the transesterification of rapeseed (RO) and waste sunflower (SO) oils with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The transesterification of tri-acylglycerols was first conducted in a batch reactor. The effect of the temperature on the reaction rates was studied at a constant molar ratio of the alcohol to tri-acylglycerols (6:1) and for a constant concentration of the catalyst (1.0wt%). Size-exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR spectroscopy were used to quantitatively monitor the transesterification reaction. The mass-transfer coefficients of the tri-acylglycerols during the initial transesterification stage were found to be 0.2-1.2x10(-5)mmin(-1), depending on the type of oil and the temperature. Calculated activation energies implied that at higher temperatures the formation of mono-acylglycerols and glycerole was favored for the SO (93kJ/mol for the forward and 48kJ/mol for the backward reaction) and the RO (47kJ/mol for the forward and 36kJ/mol for the backward reaction), respectively. For the continuous industrial reactor/separator setup, the optimum methanol recycle ratio was established as 0.0550. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

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    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  3. Influence of heating time and metal ions on the amount of free fatty acids and formation rates of selected carbonyl compounds during the thermal oxidation of canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Luciane Conceição Silva; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula

    2010-12-22

    Canola oil was heated continuously for 8 h at a typical frying temperature (180 °C) in the presence of various concentrations of the metal ions Fe(III), Cu(II), and Al(III) (9.2, 27.5, and 46.0 μg L(-1) of oil) to evaluate changes occurring in the amount of free fatty acids, expressed as acidity index, and in the formation rates of aldehydes. The aldehydes were collected and derivatized in silica cartridges functionalized with C18 and impregnated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, after which they were eluted with acetonitrile and analyzed by LC-DAD-MS. Among the substances emitted, the following were identified and quantified: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propanal, butanal, hexanal, (E)-2-heptenal, and octanal. During heating of the oil, the compounds presenting the highest mean formation rates were acrolein, hexanal, and acetaldehyde. In the study of the metal ions, the addition of ions to the samples generally led to a corresponding increase in the formation rates of the eight substances. The compounds showing the highest relative increases in formation rates were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, and heptenal. In terms of catalytic effect, copper proved to be the most efficient in promoting increased formation rates, followed by iron and aluminum.

  4. Characterization of 18:1 and 18:2 isomers produced during microbial biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids from canola and soya bean oil in the rumen of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, J J; Bandara, A B P A; Herbein, J H

    2002-12-01

    Ruminal production of biohydrogenation intermediates in response to unsaturated oils was assessed using 24 Jersey cows fed a control diet or the control diet supplemented at 35 g/kg dry matter (DM) with canola, soya bean, or a mixture of equal amounts of canola plus soya bean oil for 4-weeks. Total fatty acid content averaged 63 or 35 g/kg DM for oil-supplemented diets or control. Oleic acid accounted for 6, 29, 21 or 12 g/kg DM in the control, canola, mixture, or soya bean oil diet, respectively. Linoleic acid averaged 17, 19, 26, or 33 g/kg DM and linolenic acid 5, 5, 6 or 8 g/kg DM for control, canola, mixture, or soya bean oil. Concentrations of cis12-, trans11-, trans13+14, and trans15-18:1 were 0.81, 2.99, 2.24, and 0.73 mg/g rumen fluid, respectively, in response to soya bean oil and were 126, 90, 45, and 38% greater compared with other diets. Trans11cis15-, cis9trans11- and cis9 cis11-18:2 also were greater when soya bean oil (0.30, 0.34 and 0.01 mg/g, respectively) was fed compared with other treatments (0.12, 0.21 and 0.004 mg/g, respectively). Feeding canola oil resulted in greater concentrations of trans4-, trans5-, trans6+7+8-, trans9- and trans10-18:1 (0.20, 0.25, 0.87, 0.39 and 0.70 mg/g, respectively) compared with other diets (0.09, 0.15, 0.36, 0.20 and 0.46 mg/g, respectively). Trans10cis12-18:2 concentration did not differ as a result of diet and averaged 0.002 mg/g rumen contents. The pattern of 18:1 and 18:2 isomers formed during ruminal biohydrogenation depends greatly on dietary profile of unsaturated fatty acids.

  5. Characterization of the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant as a biomass energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.; Gurboy, B.; Sanli, I.

    1999-10-01

    Oil seed plants are important biomass energy sources. The rapeseed plant, which yields a high amount of vegetable oil, has a major position among other oil seed plants. In this study the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant (type 00 Brassica napus L.) has been investigated as a candidate for a biomass energy source. (author)

  6. Characterization of the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant as a biomass energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Guerboy, B.; Sanli, I. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Forestry

    1999-11-01

    Oil seed plants are important biomass energy sources. The rapeseed plant, which yields a high amount of vegetable oil, has a major position among other oil seed plants. In this study the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant (type 00 Brassica napus L.) has been investigated as a candidate for a biomass energy source.

  7. Impact of second line limiting amino acids' deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C Basavanta; Gloridoss, R G; Singh, K Chandrapal; Prabhu, T M; Siddaramanna; Suresh, B N; Manegar, G A

    2015-03-01

    To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a 'moderate SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a 'high SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP) and AA were studied. The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (pdeficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  8. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Efecto de la Fuente y Dosis de Fertilizantes Nitrogenados en el Rendimiento, Componentes de Rendimiento y Calidad de Semilla de Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Öztürk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has potential to become an alternate oilseed crop both for edible oil production and energy agriculture (biofuel production for Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the effect of year, N sources and doses on the yield and quality traits of winter rapeseed in a cereal system in calcareous soils over two seasons, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, in Central Anatolia. Three N sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea, were applied as hand broadcast on the soil surface at five doses (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1. The traits investigated were plant height, number of branches and pods per plant, number of seed per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, oil and protein content. There were significantly effects on seed yield, oil and protein content, and other yield components due to N sources and rates. In general, ammonium sulfate and urea gave higher seed yield than ammonium nitrate. Mean values of both seasons indicated that 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 rate increased significantly yield and quality traits with regard to other N treatments. The present results highlight the practical importance of adequate N fertilization and true N source in seed yield in winter rapeseed and suggest that ammonium sulfate at 150 kg N ha-1 will be about adequate to meet crop N requirements.El raps (Brassica napus L. tiene potencial para convertirse en un cultivo oleaginoso alternativo para producción de aceite comestible y agricultura energética (producción de biodiesel en Turquía. Este estudio fue conducido para determinar el efecto del año, fuente y dosis de N en las características de rendimiento y calidad de raps en un sistema cerealero en suelos calcáreos en dos temporadas, 2000-2001 y 2001-2002, en Anatolia Central. Se aplicaron al voleo tres fuentes de N (sulfato de amonio, nitrato de amonio y urea en cinco dosis (0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 kg N ha-1. Las características investigadas fueron altura de planta, n

  10. Combustion, Performance, and Emission Evaluation of a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Like Fuel Blends Derived From a Mixture of Pakistani Waste Canola and Waste Transformer Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qasim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a 5.5 kW four-stroke single-cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine operated with blends of biodiesel-like fuel (BLF15, BLF20 & BLF25 obtained from a 50:50 mixture of transesterified waste transformer oil (TWTO and waste canola oil methyl esters (WCOME with petroleum diesel. The mixture of the waste oils was named as biodiesel-like fuel (BLF.The engine fuelled with BLF blends was evaluated in terms of combustion, performance, and emission characteristics. FTIR analysis was carried out to know the functional groups in the BLF fuel. The experimental results revealed the shorter ignition delay and marginally higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE and exhaust gas temperature (EGT values for BLF blends as compared to diesel. The hydrocarbon (HC and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were decreased by 10.92–31.17% and 3.80–6.32%, respectively, as compared to those of diesel fuel. Smoke opacity was significantly reduced. FTIR analysis has confirmed the presence of saturated alkanes and halide groups in BLF fuel. In comparison to BLF20 and BLF25, the blend BLF15 has shown higher brake thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption values. The HC, CO, and smoke emissions of BLF15 were found lower than those of petroleum diesel. The fuel blend BLF15 is suggested to be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines without any engine modification.

  11. Economics of rapeseed production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Rade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed production in Serbia is characterized by an increasing trend, as a result of positive price signals from international market. Since previous researches on economics of rapeseed production were aimed at non-family farms, focus in this paper is on the same aspects on family farms from lowland production region. Results are analyzed in view of micro and macro-economic trends. Increase of world demand for oil crops, as a result of increasing production of renewable fuels and food needs, causes a trend of higher prices, which will probably remain in the following period. Due to this, opportunities are made for Serbian farmers in lowland production region to increase agriculture area under rapeseed. .

  12. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  13. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  14. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  15. A reproducible protocol for regeneration and transformation in canola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tommy

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... using five commercial canola cultivars grown under the Egyptian agricultural conditions. The ... important source of vegetable oil and protein-rich meal ..... with synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ab and cry1Ac genes. Plant.

  16. A note on the combustion of blends of diesel and soya, sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils in a light boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose Alonso, J.; Lopez, E. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez Sastre, J.A.; Romero-Avila, C. [Dpto. Quimica Organica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the study of the vegetable oils (VO) used as fuel for heating. The properties of sunflower, rape and soya oils are studied and these are compared with the properties of C-diesel fuel (used for heating domestic purposes in Spain). The mixtures of VO and diesel are studied and characterized and, finally, the results of a series of combustion trials of the mixtures in a conventional heating installation with a mechanical pulverization burner are presented. The results show that viscosity of VO limits the use of blends up to 40% of them, and the oxygen present in their structures contributes to an efficiency gain. (author)

  17. Proximate composition, phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of the seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum, Bifurcaria bifurcata and Fucus vesiculosus. Effect of addition of the extracts on the oxidative stability of canola oil under accelerated storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agregán, Rubén; Munekata, Paulo E; Domínguez, Ruben; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Daniel; Lorenzo, José M

    2017-09-01

    Extracts from three macroalgae species (Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE), Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVE)) were tested for proximate composition (total solid, protein and total carbohydrate contents), total phenols content (TPC), and for their antioxidant activities in vitro in comparison to that of BHT compound by using four different assays (ABTS radical cation decolouration, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)). The inclusion of the extracts as oil stabilizers in canola oil in substitution of the synthetic antioxidant (BHT) was also evaluated by assessing lipid oxidation parameters (peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (AV), TBARS value, conjugated dienes (CD) and TOTOX index) under accelerated storage conditions (16days, 60°C). There was an inverse relationship between total solid content and total polyphenols content in the seaweed extracts. FVE showed an intermediate TPC (1.15g PGE/100g extract), but it presented the highest in vitro antioxidant activity when measured using the ABTS, DPPH and FRAP tests. BBE, that displayed the highest TPC (1.99g PGE/100g extract), only showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity when measured using the ORAC test. ANE showed the lowest TPC and the lowest antioxidant activity in all the tests performed. The seaweed extracts added in a 500ppm concentration significantly reduced the oxidation during canola oil storage at 60°C, being this antioxidant effect significantly higher than that of BHT added at 50ppm. Results indicate that seaweed extracts can effectively inhibit the oxidation of canola oil and they can be a healthier alternative to the synthetic antioxidants in the oil industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  19. POTENTIAL OF CANOLA IN MICHIGAN

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bishwa B.

    1996-01-01

    This study consists of four different aspects of canola in Michigan with special emphasis on northern Michigan. The economic feasibility of canola as an alternative cash crop, potential canola growing area, feasibility of establishing canola processing plant(s) in northern Michigan and the canola marketing situation in Michigan were appraised. Secondary data, previous research results, key informant interviews, informal visits, expert opinions and survey data were used to study these aspects ...

  20. 75 FR 59622 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... trends which might impact a 2022 assessment compared to earlier years such as improvements in crop yield... rule. The assumption is that the GHG reductions associated with the replacement of residual oil on an... don't have a direct replacement, but may nevertheless have indirect effects on the extent to which...

  1. Technical and Economical Evaluations of Canola Harvesting Losses in Different Maturity Stages Using Three Different Combine Harverster Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed cultivation in Iran is growing rapidly while this product has been facing specific problems. Every year a significant portion of edible oil is imported to the country from other countries. Despite this deficit, a great amount of canola is being lost every year. Therefore, in compliance with technical points, adding a suitable platform to the exisiting machineries may reduce the losses. A field study was conducted in Moghan Agricultural Research Centre to study the technical and economical characteristics of harvesting machineries and evaluate Canola harvesting losses in different maturity stages, using three different combine harvester heads. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized\tsplit split plot design with four replications. The main plot included seed maturity stage at three levels: A 60%, B 70% and C 80%, and the subplot was the harvester’s ground speed at three levels: A 1.5, B 2.5 and C 3.5 km h-1. The sub-subplot was combine head type with three forms: A Mechanical, B Hydraulically Joybar and C Hydraulically Biso's Head. The results of ANOVA showed that maximum cutter bar losses occurred with Mechanical Head (5.36% while the loss of Hydraulically Joybar's and Biso's head were 4.28 and 4.13 %, respectively. The results also showed that the maximum cutter bar losses occurred when 80% of seeds were matured and adequate time for canola harvesting was 70% of seeds maturity. The results of analysing the effects of harvesting ground speeds showed that the maximum cutter bar losses occurred with the speed of 3.5 km h-1. Finally, the results showed that the minimum cutter bar loss was obtained with Hydraulically Joybar's head considering the benefit per cost ratio. The cost for Mechanical head and Hydraulically Biso's head were 13500 and 262500 Rial ha-1, respectively.

  2. Energy balance of biodiesel production from canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Lima e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to estimate the energy balance (output/input ratio of the canola crop for biodiesel production, under Brazilian conditions. Fossil energy expended in the production of 600kg of oil per hectare was 7,146,537kcal. The estimated energy yield per hectare was 9,930,000kcal from the production of 1,500kg ha-1 of seeds (40% oil and 60% oil cake, which resulted in an energy balance of 1.39. Results indicated the viability of biofuel production from canola, but also showed the need to improve the technology used to increase the energy and economic balance ratios.

  3. Canola energy balance for bio diesel production; Balanco energetico da cultura da canola para a producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzoni, Decio Luiz; Avila, Marcio Turra de [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (Embrapa-Soja), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], Emails: gazzonid@cnpso.embrapa.br, marcio@cnpso.embrapa.br; Borges, Jose Luiz Bernardo [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)], Emails: borges@cnpso.embrapa.br; Felici, Paulo Henrique Nardon [Bunge Alimentos S.A., Orindiuva, SP (Brazil). Div. de Acucar e Etanol], Email: paulo.felici@bunge.com

    2009-10-15

    Energy balance is the best parameter to define technical viability and sustainability of an agroenergy programme, by establishing the relationship between bio fuel and co-products of a given feedstock energy output and the quantity of energy inputs during the production process, including the agricultural and industrial stages. In this study, the amount of energy necessary to produce bio diesel from canola (Brassica napus L.) was calculated as well as the energy contents of canola oil and cake. We took into account the activities requesting energy expenditure in the cultivation, transport and canola processing. Considering meal utilization, it was concluded that for each input energy unit for canola, 2.9 energy units are produced, and considering only oil production this relationship decrease to 1:1.4. (author)

  4. Fundamental Studies on Development of Environment Friendly Vegetable Oil Filled Transformer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masami Shinke; Kenji Miyazato; Toshiharu Tada; Yasuo Takeuchi; Yoshitake Nakagami; Rumiko Shimizu; Masaaki Kosaka; Motoo Wada

    2003-01-01

      In order to develop the environment-friendly transformer, the rapeseed ester oil which is vegetable oil was selected as the new insulating oil and various characteristics of rapeseed ester oil were...

  5. Vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Callaghan, C.

    1982-05-01

    There are a wide range of vegetable oils which may be used in the diesel engine such as palm oil, soyabean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. This paper reports on preliminary work with rapeseed oil as a possible alternative to diesel. The oil was degummed by hydration. Physical and chemical properties of the oil are compared to diesel fuel. Three types of fuel were tested in a tractor: (a) pure diesel oil; (b) a 50:50 mixture of diesel oil and rapeseed oil; and (c) pure rapeseed oil. Power-speed curves were constructed for each fuel type and observations on nozzle cooking and smoke emissions made.

  6. Fundamental Studies on Development of Environment Friendly Vegetable Oil Filled Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinke, Masami; Miyazato, Kenji; Tada, Toshiharu; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Nakagami, Yoshitake; Shimizu, Rumiko; Kosaka, Masaaki; Wada, Motoo

    In order to develop the environment-friendly transformer, the rapeseed ester oil which is vegetable oil was selected as the new insulating oil and various characteristics of rapeseed ester oil were investigated experimentally. These results showed that the basic characteristics of rapeseed ester oil surpasses as compared with mineral oil.

  7. Processing conditions affect nutrient digestibility of cold-pressed canola cake for grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, R W; Beltranena, E; Newkirk, R W; Goonewardene, L A; Zijlstra, R T

    2011-08-01

    Cold-pressed canola cake is a coproduct of biodiesel production that contains more residual oil than expeller-pressed and solvent-extracted canola meal. Cold-pressed canola cake might be an attractive feedstuff for swine due to local availability from small plants. However, the nutritional quality and content of anti-nutritional factors of cold-pressed canola cake are poorly defined and vary with processing conditions. This experiment evaluated cold-pressed canola cake processed using 4 different conditions: a nonheated and heated barrel at slow and fast screw speed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Seven ileally cannulated barrows (26 kg of BW) were fed twice daily at 2.8 × maintenance diets containing either 44% of 1 of the 4 cold-pressed canola cake samples, expeller-pressed canola meal, canola seed, or an N-free diet in a 7 × 7 Latin square. The objectives were to measure the energy and AA digestibility and to calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content. Each 9-d experimental period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation, followed by 2-d feces and 2-d ileal digesta collections, and 7 observations per diet were obtained. Cold-pressed canola cake contained 41% CP, 16% ether extract, and 5 µmol of total glucosinolates/g (DM basis). Both apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract energy digestibility of energy in cold-pressed canola cake was 36% greater (P canola cake was 13 and 118% greater (P canola meal and canola seed, respectively. Heat and speed interacted (P canola cake was 0.73 and 0.52 Mcal/kg greater (P=0.001; DM basis), respectively, than expeller-pressed canola meal and did not differ from canola seed. Cold-pressed canola cake averaged 4.17 Mcal of DE/kg, 2.84 Mcal of NE/kg, 0.87% SID Lys, 0.46% SID Met, and 0.79% SID Thr (DM basis). In conclusion, processing conditions greatly affected the digestible nutrient content of cold-pressed canola cake. Content of residual ether extract was an important determinant of the energy

  8. Effect of a low-fat diet enriched either with rapeseed oil or sunflower oil on plasma lipoproteins in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negele, L; Schneider, B; Ristl, R; Stulnig, T M; Willfort-Ehringer, A; Helk, O; Widhalm, K

    2015-03-01

    There is convincing evidence that unsaturated fatty acids exert favourable effects on plasma cholesterol levels. However, it is not clear which type of oil has the most pronounced effect, especially not in paediatric patients. The aim was to compare two low-fat diet regimes enriched with either monounsaturated fatty acids by rapeseed oil (RO) or polyunsaturated fatty acids by sunflower oil (SO) in children affected with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Twenty-one children aged 6-18 years affected with FH were enrolled in this randomized and double-blind pilot trial. The subjects and their families were trained to adhere to a low-fat/low-cholesterol diet. All visible fats were to be replaced by either RO or SO (14-27 g/day) for 13 weeks. Dietary adherence was controlled by repeated 4-day dietary records; plasma lipids, lipoproteins and risk markers were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Out of 21 subjects, 16 could be followed-up after 6 months. Both fat-modified diets resulted in significant reduction in total cholesterol concentrations of 9.4% (RO P<0.005 vs SO P<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations of 12.7% (P<0.005) for RO and 11.3% (P<0.05) for SO. The reduction of the LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (RO 9% vs SO 3.5%) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (RO 16.8% vs SO 1.7%) were not statistically significant, respectively. In most participating families, a change in eating habits could be observed. A fat-modified diet enriched with RO seems to have very similar effects on cholesterol levels as with SO. However, our study suggests that RO has possibly more favourable effects concerning cardiovascular risk profile. Both diets appear to be feasible and were well accepted among our subjects. Although these results are promising, larger trials will be required to validate our findings.

  9. Yield, irrigation response, and water productivity of deficit to fully irrigated spring canola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canola (Brassica napus) is an oil-seed crop that is adapted to the northern High Plains of the USA and is considered a viable rotational and biofuel crop. However, decreased ground water allocations have necessitated determining the impact of limited irrigation on canola productivity. The objectives...

  10. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  11. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae

  12. The properties of the mixture of beef tallow and rapeseed oil with a high content of tallow after chemical and enzymatic interesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruczynska, Eliza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of beef tallow with rapeseed oil (3:1 wt/wt was interesterified using sodium metoxide or immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 as catalysts. Chemical interesterifications were carried out at 60 and 90 ºC for 0.5 and 1.5 h using 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 wt-% CH3ONa. Depending on the catalyst used enzymatic interesterifications were carried out at 60 ºC for 8 h (Lipozyme IM or at 80 ºC for 4 h (Novozym 435. The catalysts doses were kept constant (8 % but the water content in catalysts varied from 2 to 10 %. The starting mixture and the interesterified products were separated by column chromatography into a pure triacylglycerol fraction and a non-triacylglycerol fraction, which contained free fatty acids, mono- and diacylglycerols. It was found that the concentrations of free fatty acids and partial acylglycerols increased after interesterification. The slip melting points and solid fat contents of the triacylglycerol fractions isolated from interesterified fats were lower when compared with nonesterified blends. The sn-2 and sn-1,3 distributions of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol fractions before and after interesterification were determined.These distributions were random after chemical interesterification and near random when Novozym 435 was used. When Lipozyme IM was used, the fatty acid composition at the sn-2 position remained practically unchanged compared with the starting blend. The interesterified fats and isolated triacylglycerols had reduced oxidative stability, as assessed by Rancimat induction times. The addition of 0.02 % of BHA or BHT to the interesterified fats improved their stabilitie.Una mezcla de sebo con aceite de colza (3:1 p/p fue interesterificada usando metóxido de sodio y lipasas inmovilizadas de Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 como catalizadores. La interesterificación química se llevó a cabo a 60 ºC y 90

  13. Effects of Dietary Rape Seed Oil, Copper(II) Sulphate and Vitamin E on Drip Loss, Colour and Lipid Oxidation of Chilled Pork Chops Packed in Atmospheric Air or in a High Oxygen Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C; Flensted-Jensen, M; Skibsted, L H; Bertelsen, G

    1998-10-01

    The effect of addition of rapeseed oil (canola), CuSO(4) and vitamin E (all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) to pig diets on pork meat quality (lipid oxidation, colour and drip loss) was studied. Pigs were reared on ten different diets, either a control diet (no supplementation of rapeseed oil, CuSO(4) or vitamin E) or 6% rapeseed oil diets supplemented with CuSO(4) (0, 35 or 175mg/kg) and vitamin E (0, 100 or 200mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg). The natural content of vitamin E originating from feed ingredients amounted to 9-23mg vitamin E (α-tocopherol) per kg feed. Muscle vitamin E levels reflected the dietary intake and pigs fed the control diet had significantly lower levels than pigs fed rapeseed oil diets. The quality of fresh pork chops packed in air or in 80% O(2):20% CO(2) was followed during chill storage for 8 and 13 days, respectively. Colour, as measured by tristimulus colorimetry of pork chops packed in 80% oxygen atmosphere, was significantly improved with respect to redness when compared to chops packed in air, regardless of dietary treatment. The low vitamin E content in pigs fed the control feed significantly decreased a values and the oxidative stability of pork chops during chill storage compared to the other feeding groups. Packing of chops in a high-oxygen atmosphere increased lipid oxidation, especially in chops with low levels of vitamin E. Supplementation of rapeseed oil diets with 100 or 200mg vitamin E significantly decreased lipid oxidation of chill stored chops. Supplementation with CuSO(4) did not influence meat quality attributes (drip loss, colour stability and lipid oxidation) for any of the storage conditions.

  14. Redirection of tryptophan leads to production of low indole glucosinolate canola.

    OpenAIRE

    Chavadej, S; Brisson, N; McNeil, J N; De Luca, V

    1994-01-01

    Cruciferous plants are known to produce over a hundred different mustard oil glycosides, which are derived from methionine, phenylalanine, or tryptophan. In oil-producing crops like Brassica napus (canola), the presence of indole glucosinolates in seed protein meals has decreased meal palatability and has limited their value as animal feed. We have transformed canola plants with a gene that encodes tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) in an attempt to redirect tryptophan into tryptamine rather than...

  15. Yield and yield components of six canola ( Brassica napus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design arrangement in split factorial with four replications The results demonstrated that late planting date and interrupting of irrigation at flowering stage significantly decreased growth, yield and yield components the of canola cultivars. In addition, oil yield ...

  16. Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Moser, Bryan R; Knothe, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6:1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The 1H NMR spectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel.

  17. Coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary nutrients from broiler feeds that include oil industry by-products (rapeseeds, grapes, buckthorn, flax and pumpkin meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 120, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 4 (C; E1; E2; E3 groups. The broilers were housed in three-tier digestibility cages (5 broilers/cage which allowed the daily recording of the feed intake and excreta located in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions (27.07±2.750 C; humidity 64,80±9,57%; light regimen 23h. During the starter stage (1-10 days all chicks received a conventional compound feed (C. During the grower and finisher stages, compared to C formulation, the experimental diets different proportions, varying with the stage of development, of rapeseeds and grape meals (E1, buckthorn and flax meals (E2, pumpkin meal (lot E3. The balance study was conducted for 5 days, during weeks 4 and 6. During this period, average weights from each two cages (6 samples/group of feed consumed and excreta voided (dry matter basis were recorded and sampled for: dry matter, nitrogen, fat, fibre, ash and gross energy analysis. The chicks from E1 group had a lower (P≤0.05 coefficient of dietary nitrogen absorption than E2 chicks. The coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary fat varied with the period of development. During the finishing stage, E3 chicks had a higher (P≤0.05 coefficient of fibre absorption than groups C, E1 and E2.

  18. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positively associated with ranked plant weight, daily minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature were negatively associated with plant weight, and that there may be specific optimal growth conditions regarding cumulative solar radiation and wind speed. The outlined multi-regression approach may be considered appropriate for ecological studies of canola establishment and pest communities elsewhere and therefore enable identification of suitable regions for successful canola production. We also demonstrated that aphids were about 35% more abundant on non-treated seeds than on treated seeds, but the sensitivity to seed treatment was only within four months after plant emergence. On the other hand, seed treatment had negligible effect on presence of thrips.

  19. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E.; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369326; Van Geem, Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.; Thybaut, Joris W.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas

  20. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  1. Effects of Agricultural Management on Nitrogen Nutrition and Yield of Canola (Brassica napus L. in Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behdadian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of management factors on nitrogen nutrition and seed yield of rapeseed farms in Gorgan areas, an experiment was conducted as a nested model arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in 2010. Fifteen canola fields were classified at three levels of management (optimum, medium, minimum studied at four growth stages. Questionnaires were filled out by farmers for the quantification of agricultural management levels during the experiment. The results showed that levels of management for nitrogen nutrition index, plant density, dry matter yield, seed yield and harvest index were different significantly (p

  2. Effects of type of canola protein supplement on ruminal fermentation and nutrient flow to the duodenum in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A; Racz, V; Mutsvangwa, T

    2009-10-01

    Ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion, and flows to the duodenum in growing cattle fed differently produced canola protein supplements were studied in a 4 x 4 Latin square design using Speckle Park heifers (initial BW = 451 +/- 26 kg). Canola protein supplement treatments consisted of the following: 1) 8.78% regular canola meal (RCM); 2) 9.25% RCM plus 1.80% canola oil (RCMO); 3) 11.1% canola presscake from biodiesel oil extraction (CPC); and 4) 8.14% high ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) canola meal (RUCM) plus 1.32% canola oil (RUCMO). Experimental diets also contained 39.9, 40.2, 39.9, and 39.9% barley grain; 31.7, 31.4, 31.2, and 31.4% barley silage; and 17.5, 15.2, 15.6, and 16.5% oat hulls for the RCM, RCMO, CPC, and RUCMO diets, respectively. Feeding the CPC, RCMO, and RUCMO diets decreased (P canola oil in the RCMO diet or residual oil in the CPC diet resulted in greater ruminal concentrations of propionate (P canola oil to the RCMO and RUCMO dietary treatments decreased the digestibility of ADF (P < or = 0.08) and NDF (P < or = 0.08) in the total tract compared with the RCM diet. Total tract digestibility of OM was also decreased (P = 0.02) in heifers fed the RUCMO compared with the RCM diet. Notwithstanding the different processing methods employed in making RCM, CPC, or RUCM, there were no differences among the diets for ruminally degraded protein, ruminal microbial protein synthesis, and the flow of N fractions to the duodenum.

  3. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  4. Adaptability and stability of canola hybrids in different sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Canola is an important crop in the world market, mainly for its oil being used for human consumption and biodiesel production, being a great economical option for the farmer, which are the reasons to the increase in its cultivation in Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and stability of canola hybrids, depending on the sowing dates. The canola hybrids (Hyola 61, Hyola 76, Hyola 411 and Hyola 433 were evaluated in three sowing dates (04/10, 04/25 and 05/10 in the agricultural years of 2013 and 2014, under a randomized complete block design with five replications. The response variables analyzed were seed yield and oil content. Adaptability and stability of the hybrids were evaluated by three methods: Wricke's ecovalence (1962; confidence index (ANNICCHIARICO, 1992 and method of maximum ideal deviation (LIN; BINNS, 1988. The methodology proposed by Wricke (1962 highlighted as stable the hybrids Hyola 61 for seed yield and Hyola 411 for oil content. In the methodology proposed by Lin and Binns (1988 and Annicchiarico (1992, the hybrids with higher general adaptability and stability were Hyola 411 and 433. These hybrids presented the highest means for seed yield and oil content with predictable and responsive behavior to changes in sowing dates tested in the region of Maringá-PR.

  5. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  6. Solubility and Permeability Studies of Aceclofenac in Different Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: UV spectrophotometeric method was used at the wavelength of 276 nm to measure the dissolved quantity of aceclofenac in each of the oils (almond oil, oleic acid, castor oil, paraffin oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, canola oil, sesame oil, isopropyl myristate (ipm), sunflower oil, corn oil, coconuts oil and eucalyptus oil) at ...

  7. Use of rapeseed and pea grain protein supplements for organic milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Grass-red clover silage was fed ad libitum. In experiment 1 a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design was used. A mixture of oats and barley was given at 8 kg (C. Three isonitrogenous protein supplements were a commercial rapeseed meal (218 g kg-1 dry matter (DM; RSM, crushed organic field pea (Pisum sativum L. (452 g kg-1 DM; P and a mixture of pea (321 g kg-1 DM and organic rapeseed (Spring turnip rape, Brassica rapa L. oleifera subv. annua (155 g kg-1 DM; PRS. Cows on P and PRS diets produced as much milk as cows on the RSM diet. Milk yield was higher but protein content lower with PRS diet than with diet P. In experiment 2 a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square design was used. A mixture of oats (395 g kg-1 , barley (395 g kg-1 and a commercial heat-moisture treated rapeseed cake (210 g kg-1 was given at 8 kg (RSC. The second diet (ORSC consisted (g kg-1 of oats (375, barley (375 and cold-pressed organic rapeseed cake (250. The third diet (RSCO consisted (g kg-1 of oat (395, barley (395 and commercial heat-moisture treated rapeseed cake (250 and additional rapeseed oil (0.38 kg to balance fat content between ORSC and RSCO diets. There was no dietary effect on the yield of energy corrected milk. Milk yield was higher with RSCO diet compared with other diets.;

  8. Effect of microwave radiation on seed viability, survival of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem and oil quality of oilseeds crops canola, soybean and safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad MOTALLEBI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave's radiation on seed viability of three different oilseed crops, spores of Aspergillus niger and quality of extracted oil from treated seeds over various exposure times was evaluated. The seeds were exposed to 2450 MHz. at five different power levels of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 W for two exposure times of three and five minutes. At a given time, a direct negative relationship between seed viability and microwave's radiation power level was detected. Substantial variation in the lethality of tested seeds to microwave's power levels was apparent in the fiducial limits of the estimated LD50 values in probit analysis approach. A similar trend of A. niger spores’ susceptibility to microwave radiation was detected. The microwaves' radiation and exposure time did not impact one another and a significant interaction was not detected. Short term fungal infection did not cause substantial quantitative and qualitative damage to the oilseeds. The oil quality was generally unaffected by microwave radiation and fungal infestation for tested oilseeds. Moreover, microwave radiation decreased seed germination percentage and vigor index. The microwave radiation could provide an effective and friendly environmental treatment technique for improving the dietary consumption of the oil in any seed disinfestation program.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study Dissects the Genetic Architecture of Seed Weight and Seed Quality in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Feng; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Kun; Wu, Jinfeng; Song, Weilin; Bancroft, Ian; Harper, Andrea L.; Trick, Martin; Liu, Shengyi; Gao, Guizhen; Wang, Nian; Yan, Guixin; Qiao, Jiangwei; Li, Jun; Li, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping can quickly and efficiently dissect complex agronomic traits. Rapeseed is one of the most economically important polyploid oil crops, although its genome sequence is not yet published. In this study, a recently developed 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was used to analyse an association panel with 472 accessions. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the array were in silico mapped using ‘pseudomolecules’ representative of the genome of rapeseed to establish their...

  10. Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.

  11. The effect of mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis of lignite and rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onay, O [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School; Usta, C.; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of lignite on the yield and chemical structure of bio-oil produced from rapeseed using a fast pyrolysis technique. The rapeseed and lignite mixtures were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor. Heating rates and temperatures were controlled by a PID controller. Char yield after pyrolysis was determined from the overall weight losses of the reactor tube, while the liquid phase was collected in a glass liner. Experiments were conducted using a range of blending ratios. While final pyrolysis temperatures were set at 550 degrees C. An elemental analyzer was used to characterize the rapeseed and pyrolysis bio-oils. Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) was used to conduct functional group compositional analyses. The study showed that conversion degree increased with temperature increases. Yields of both conversion and oil increased with biomass concentration. However, distribution between conversion and oil was influenced by the blending ratio. A maximum yield of oil was obtained with a 5 per cent blending ratio of lignite. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis of rapeseed and coal at a temperature of 550 degrees C increases production by more than 11 per cent. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Nutritional properties of poppyseed oil relative to some other oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L; Nera, E A; Levin, O L

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed a purified basal diet with 20% lard and corn oil (3:1), sunflower oil, poppyseed oil, low-erucic rapeseed oil from Brassica napus, cultivar Tower, or mixtures of these oils, for 1 or 26 weeks. None of the hearts exhibited lipidosis at 1 week. At 26 weeks, the level of serum triglycerides was higher in rats fed the mixture of lard and corn oil than in those fed only vegetable oil, and the incidence of cardiac necrosis and fibrosis was higher in rats fed the rapeseed oil than in the other animals. Cardiac phospholipids in rats fed the rapeseed oil contained an elevated level of omega 3 docosahexaenoic acid, particularly in phosphatidylethanolamine. Poppyseed oil exhibited properties similar to those of sunflower oil, was absorbed as well as olive oil, and appeared to be a promising oil for human consumption.

  13. OIL QUALITY OF CANOLA CULTIVARS IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS AND SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMER APPLICATION QUALIDADE DE ÓLEO DE CULTIVARES DE CANOLA EM RESPOSTA AO ESTRESSE HÍDRICO E APLICAÇÃO DE POLÍMERO HIDROABSORVENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zahedi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Water stress significantly limits plant growth and crop yield. Hence, the efficient management of soil moisture and the study of metabolic changes which occur in response to drought stress are important for agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of six oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. genotypes (Rgs003, Sarigol, Option500, Hyola401, Hyola330, and Hyola420, with and without drought stress, and with and without the use of super absorbent polymer, on oil quality and content. A complete randomized blocks design, with a split-plot arrangement, in a 2x2x6 factorial scheme (drought stress x polymer x genotypes, with three replications, was used. The research was carried out in a farm owned by the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, in Karaj, Iran. Results showed a significant difference for drought stress levels, presence of super absorbent and genotypes on oil content and composition, as well as on glucosinolate content in the oil. Drought stress conditions decreased the oil and linoleic acid contents, but increased the glucosinolate and stearic acid contents. The use of super absorbent polymer increased the linoleic acid content, but decreased other components. It was possible to conclude that, under drought stress conditions, the super absorbent polymer application, for reserving higher amounts of water in itself, increased the soil ability to store water, what increased the plant vegetative period and consequently the oil quality by decreasing saturate fatty acids and increasing unsaturated fatty acids.

    Biophenols and antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obied, Hassan K; Song, Yi; Foley, Sonia; Loughlin, Michael; Rehman, Ata-ur; Mailer, Rodney; Masud, Tariq; Agboola, Samson

    2013-09-25

    During the extraction of canola oil, large quantities of meal are produced. Extracting biophenols from Australian canola meal (ACM) adds value to an otherwise low-value agro-industrial byproduct. This study examined the biophenol content and the antioxidant activity of ACM, the impact of extraction conditions, and varietal differences. Sinapine was the principal biophenol in ACM. In crude and hydrolyzed extracts, 31 compounds were identified: 2 dihexosides, 2 organic acids, 4 glucosinolates, 17 sinapic acid derivatives, 2 cyclic spermidine alkaloids, caffeic acid and its dihexoside, kaempferol, and its C-glucoside. ACM showed significant free radical scavenging activity in DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) assays. Sinapine was the chief contributor to ACM antioxidant activity, whereas kaempferol sinapoyl triglucoside isomer was the most potent antioxidant. Biophenol content ranged between 12.8 and 15.4 mg GAE/g DW. Differences among studied cultivars were generally quantitative. The Tarcoola cultivar showed the highest biophenol content and antioxidant activity.

  14. Fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus L.), as affected by agronomical, genotypic and environmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Heshmat; Tahmasebi, Zeinaldin; Naghdi Badi, Hassan Ali; Torabi, Hossein; Miransari, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Vegetable oils with a high relative amount of unsaturated fatty acids are of great significance for human health. There is not any data on the effects of tillage practices on fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus L.). Hence, in a 2-year split plot experiment, the effects of different tillage systems (no (NT), minimum (MT) and conventional tillage (CT)), canola genotypes (Hyola 401 (V1) and PF (V2)) and sowing dates (including Sep. 8, 23 and Oct. 7) on the fatty acid composition of canola were evaluated. Tillage practices and the combination of canola genotypes and sowing dates were randomized to the main and sub-plots, respectively. The highest oleic acid content was the result of combining NT, V1 and Sep. 23, and the lowest was related to the combination of CT, V2 and Oct. 7. While the combination of NT, V1 and D1 resulted in the highest amount of unsaturated fatty acids, this amount was the lowest for the combination of CT, V2 and Sep. 23. For the selection of an appropriate canola producing strategy, all these parameters must be taken into account. The combination of NT, V1 and Sep. 23 may be the most favorable cropping strategy for canola production under a Mediterranean climate. Copyright 2009 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  16. Sinapinic and protocatechuic acids found in rapeseed: isolation, characterisation and potential benefits for human health as functional food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Leah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is one of the world’s major oilseeds, and rapeseed oil is produced by pressing of the seeds. This process results in the production of a low-economic-value by-product, rapeseed meal, which is commonly used as animal feed. Rapeseed meal is rich in bioactive phenolic compounds, including sinapinic acid (SA and protocatechuic acid (PCA. Isolation of these bioactive compounds from a by-product of rapeseed oil production is largely in agreement with the current concept of the circular economy and total utilisation of crop harvest using a biorefinery approach. In this review, current information concerning traditional and novel methods to isolate phenolic compounds – including SA and PCA – from rapeseed meal, along with in vitro and in vivo studies concerning the bioactivity of SA and PCA and their associated health effects, is collated. These health effects include anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes activities, along with histone deacetylase inhibition and protective cardiovascular, neurological and hepatic effects. The traditional extraction methods include use of solvents and/or enzymes. However, a need for simpler, more efficient methodologies has led to the development of novel extraction processes, including microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, pulsed electric field and high-voltage electrical discharge extraction processes.

  17. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    undergo formation lipid (alkyl peroxyl radicals which (ROO. in the presence of heme or other metallic compounds (ROOH à ROO. (Figure 1 [5, 11]. This peroxyradical can break DNA/RNA or damage proteins and lead to cell death [4-7, 11]. Time course of carotenoids extraction into the purified canola oil, in which 1 or 5% (dry wt/wt of tomato juice waste-residue yielded a significantly high carotenoid values, and extraction reached a plateau in about two to three weeks (Fig. 2A. The absorption spectrum shows multiple peaks corresponding lycopene (Fig. 2B. (b Anti-POV after heat and light exposure. Upon exposure to oxidation condition, POV was significantly suppressed to 25% after 5 hrs at 150oC and light exposure (above to the 5% (w/w tomato-residue-treated oil, and showed suppression of POV to about 25% (net at 5 hrs (Fig. 3. (c TBARS value after light and heat exposure. Figure 4C, D shows results of function fortified effect in oils treated with tomato- and wine ferment-waste-residues. They also showed significant suppression against the increase of acid value and POV (Figure 4A, B, which is consistent with absorption spectra. These results indicate antioxidant components in dried tomato juice-waste-residues and wine ferment waste-residues were extracted into commercial low functional grade rapeseed oil. The results warrant a simple procedure to convert low quality edible oils to function-enriched high grade oils. The procedure not only prevents oxidation of oils, but also beneficial in providing various functional components such as polyphenolics, flavonoids, carotenoid, or lycopene. This method and products thus obtained will ultimately benefit human health such as prevention of cancer and inflammation [8, 9, 11]. We have previously published that alkyl peroxyradical facilitates promotion step in carcinogenesis, and it was suppressed by various vegetable soup extracts, thus in suppressing promotion step in multistep carcinogenesis [2, 4, 10]. The step may be related to

  18. Molecular and systems approaches towards drought-tolerant canola crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Monroe, J Grey; Suhail, Yasir; Villiers, Florent; Mullen, Jack; Pater, Dianne; Hauser, Felix; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Bader, Joel S; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I; McKay, John K; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    1169 I. 1170 II. 1170 III. 1172 IV. 1176 V. 1181 VI. 1182 1183 References 1183 SUMMARY: Modern agriculture is facing multiple challenges including the necessity for a substantial increase in production to meet the needs of a burgeoning human population. Water shortage is a deleterious consequence of both population growth and climate change and is one of the most severe factors limiting global crop productivity. Brassica species, particularly canola varieties, are cultivated worldwide for edible oil, animal feed, and biodiesel, and suffer dramatic yield loss upon drought stress. The recent release of the Brassica napus genome supplies essential genetic information to facilitate identification of drought-related genes and provides new information for agricultural improvement in this species. Here we summarize current knowledge regarding drought responses of canola, including physiological and -omics effects of drought. We further discuss knowledge gained through translational biology based on discoveries in the closely related reference species Arabidopsis thaliana and through genetic strategies such as genome-wide association studies and analysis of natural variation. Knowledge of drought tolerance/resistance responses in canola together with research outcomes arising from new technologies and methodologies will inform novel strategies for improvement of drought tolerance and yield in this and other important crop species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Sulfur Application and Thiobacillus on Some Soil Chemical Characteristics and Yield of Canola in Wheat-Canola Rotation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Besharati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After soybean and palm oil, canola is third important oil seed in the world which belongs to the genus Brassicaceae, that its seeds contain about 40% oil. The per capita consumption of oil in Iran is about 14 kg, so approximately 900 thousand tons of oil will be required for each year. However, only less than 10% of this oil is produced in the country. In recent years, special attention has been paid to canola cultivation in order to increase oil production, so during recent years an apparent increase in canola cultivated lands is significant. In most of these canola cultivated lands, the soil is calcareous therefore; some available nutrients such as phosphorus, iron and zinc are less than the amounts required by plants. Increasing qualitative and quantitative yield of canola in calcareous soils is a priority to canola cultivation improvement. Sulfur plays an important role in oil content of oily seed crops. On the other hands sulfur oxidation in calcareous soils can improve some nutrients availability. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sulfur on yield, oil content and nutrients uptake and also its impact on soil chemical properties with 8 treatments, in 3 replications. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Ekbatan research station in Hamedan province for 2 years as completely randomized block design with 8 treatments and 3 repetitions. The treatments were: T1: Control (Without sulfur and Thiobacillus, T2: Application of 150 kg sulfur per ha, T3: T2+ Thiobacillus inoculums (2% of applied sulfur, T4: Application of 300 kg sulfur per ha, T5: T4+ Thiobacillus inoculums (2% of applied sulfur, T6: Application of 600 kg sulfur per ha, T7: T6+ Thiobacillus inoculums (2% of applied sulfur T8: Fertilizing based on soil test without sulfur and Thiobacillus. Thiobacillus inoculant containing about 107 cells of Thiobacillus bacteria which belonged to neutrophile Thiobacilli were prepared at soil biology

  1. Erucic acid rapeseed: 1. Prospects of improvements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanyal, Anushree; Pinochet, Xavier; Merrien, André; Laustriat, Marie; Decocq, Guillaume; Fine, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In the current context of boosting production of high erucic acid rapeseed, because of the wide range of its industrial applications, this literature review is designed to provide a general overview...

  2. Will Genetically Modified Canola be Adopted in WA?

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Bronwyn; Pluske, Johanna M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite approval being given by the Gene Technology Regulator to plant genetically modified (GM) canola varieties in Australia, the question as to whether farmers would be prepared to grow GM canola is still being explored. The purpose of this paper is to establish not only if producers would grow GM canola in south Western Australia but how they make this decision. Results from a survey aimed at canola producers found that adoption of GM canola will ultimately depend upon price premiums for ...

  3. SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 or HAIKU2 mixepression alters canola and Arabidopsis seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu-Guo; Sun, Qing-Bin; Kang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Chang-Bin; Ni, Min

    2016-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is a widely cultivated species and provides important resources of edible vegetable oil, biodiesel production and animal feed. Seed development in Arabidopsis and canola shares a similar path: an early proliferation of endosperm to form a large seed cavity, followed by a second phase in which the embryo grows to replace the endosperm. In Arabidopsis, the seed reaches almost its final volume before the enlargement of the embryo. SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) is a key regulatory gene of seed development with a broad expression beyond endosperm development. By contrast, its two target genes, MINISEED3 (MINI3) and HAIKU2 (IKU2), are narrowly expressed in early developing endosperm and early embryo. We overexpressed SHB1 in canola to explore the possibility of altering seed development. As an alternative strategy, we expressed the canola IKU2 ortholog in Arabidopsis endosperm under the control of a stronger MINI3 promoter. SHB1 targeted canola orthologs of Arabidopsis MINI3 and IKU2 and caused a significantly increased seed mass. Overaccumulation of IKU2 in the early stage of Arabidopsis seed development also significantly increased the final seed mass. Our studies provide a strong case for increasing the final seed mass by manipulating endosperm proliferation at a rather early developmental stage in crops. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Tobacco Rotated with Rapeseed for Soil-Borne Phytophthora Pathogen Biocontrol: Mediated by Rapeseed Root Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Fang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Black shank, caused by Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, is a widespread and destructive disease of tobacco. Crop rotation is essential in controlling black shank. Here, we confirmed that rotating black shank-infested fields with rapeseed (Brassica napus suppressed the incidence this disease. Further study demonstrated that rapeseed roots have a strong ability to attract zoospores and subsequently stop the swimming of zoospores into cystospores. Then, rapeseed roots secrete a series of antimicrobial compounds, including 2-butenoic acid, benzothiazole, 2-(methylthiobenzothiazole, 1-(4-ethylphenyl-ethanone, and 4-methoxyindole, to inhibit the cystospore germination and mycelial growth of P. parasitica var. nicotianae. Thus, rapeseed rotated with tobacco suppresses tobacco black shank disease through the chemical weapons secreted by rapeseed roots.

  5. Solubility and Permeability Studies of Aceclofenac in Different Oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microemulsion-based gel for improved bioavailability. Methods: UV spectrophotometeric method was used at the wavelength of 276 nm to measure the dissolved quantity of aceclofenac in each of the oils (almond oil, oleic acid, castor oil, paraffin oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, canola oil, sesame oil, isopropyl myristate (ipm), ...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polyurethane for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    as soybean oil, canola oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, linseed oil and nahar seed oil7–9 have been exten- sively studied as bases for various polyols used for the manufacture of PUs for different applications. The preparation of polymers from vegetable oils is currently receiving increasing attention because of the.

  7. Maximizing content of Omega-3 (EPA and DHA) in the process of enzymatic acidolysis of canola oil and concentrated of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in supercritical CO2 conditions

    OpenAIRE

    José Cedano Romero; Alicia Rodríguez; Raúl Siche

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue optimizar el contenido de ácidos grasos EPA y DHA en el proceso de acidólisis enzimática de aceite de canola y concentrado de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL) en triacilglicéridos estructurados (TAGs). Para ello, se empleó lipasa B inespecífica de Candida antarctica inmovilizada en condiciones CO2 supercrítico. El aceite crudo de salmón obtenido a partir de los subproductos industriales se utilizó para obtener concentrados de AGPICL. ...

  8. Identification and characterization of CBL and CIPK gene families in canola (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanfeng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Boya; Deng, Min; Liang, Wanwan; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-01-07

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil-producing crops in China and worldwide. The yield and quality of canola is frequently threatened by environmental stresses including drought, cold and high salinity. Calcium is a ubiquitous intracellular secondary messenger in plants. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) are Ca2+ sensors and regulate a group of Ser/Thr protein kinases called CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). Although the CBL-CIPK network has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in plant development and responses to various environmental stresses in Arabidopsis, little is known about their function in canola. In the present study, we identified seven CBL and 23 CIPK genes from canola by database mining and cloning of cDNA sequences of six CBLs and 17 CIPKs. Phylogenetic analysis of CBL and CIPK gene families across a variety of species suggested genome duplication and diversification. The subcellular localization of three BnaCBLs and two BnaCIPKs were determined using green fluorescence protein (GFP) as the reporter. We also demonstrated interactions between six BnaCBLs and 17 BnaCIPKs using yeast two-hybrid assay, and a subset of interactions were further confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). Furthermore, the expression levels of six selected BnaCBL and 12 BnaCIPK genes in response to salt, drought, cold, heat, ABA, methyl viologen (MV) and low potassium were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and these CBL or CIPK genes were found to respond to multiple stimuli, suggesting that the canola CBL-CIPK network may be a point of convergence for several different signaling pathways. We also performed a comparison of interaction patterns and expression profiles of CBL and CIPK in Arabidospsis, canola and rice, to examine the differences between orthologs, highlighting the importance of studying CBL-CIPK in canola as a prerequisite for improvement of this crop. Our findings indicate that CBL and CIPK family members may

  9. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38 is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH population, its reconstructed F(2 (RC-F(2 population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel. Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2 populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used

  10. Genome-wide association analyses reveal complex genetic architecture underlying natural variation for flowering time in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, H; Raman, R; Coombes, N; Song, J; Prangnell, R; Bandaranayake, C; Tahira, R; Sundaramoorthi, V; Killian, A; Meng, J; Dennis, E S; Balasubramanian, S

    2016-06-01

    Optimum flowering time is the key to maximize canola production in order to meet global demand of vegetable oil, biodiesel and canola-meal. We reveal extensive variation in flowering time across diverse genotypes of canola under field, glasshouse and controlled environmental conditions. We conduct a genome-wide association study and identify 69 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with flowering time, which are repeatedly detected across experiments. Several associated SNPs occur in clusters across the canola genome; seven of them were detected within 20 Kb regions of a priori candidate genes; FLOWERING LOCUS T, FRUITFUL, FLOWERING LOCUS C, CONSTANS, FRIGIDA, PHYTOCHROME B and an additional five SNPs were localized within 14 Kb of a previously identified quantitative trait loci for flowering time. Expression analyses showed that among FLC paralogs, BnFLC.A2 accounts for ~23% of natural variation in diverse accessions. Genome-wide association analysis for FLC expression levels mapped not only BnFLC.C2 but also other loci that contribute to variation in FLC expression. In addition to revealing the complex genetic architecture of flowering time variation, we demonstrate that the identified SNPs can be modelled to predict flowering time in diverse canola germplasm accurately and hence are suitable for genomic selection of adaptative traits in canola improvement programmes. ©2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  12. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, R.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S: 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20, and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of the oxidative stability was measured through peroxide value, quantitation of tocopherols and tocotrienols, and induction time (IT by means of Rancimat. Oil degradation during frying was very low as both polar compound percentages and natural antioxidant had similar levels to those present in refined oils. Evolution of analytical parameters during storage results indicated that oil unsaturation degree or P/S had a much more importance on stability of the product than had the content and type of natural antioxidants and the addition of AP. Nevertheless, addition of AP to the fried potatoes had a significant effect resulting in higher retention of natural antioxidants, higher IT and lower PV at any storage timeSe estudia la evolución de la oxidación a 60º C en patatas fritas con cuatro aceites vegetales de distinta relación ácidos grasos poliinsaturados/saturados (P/S: 5,4 para el aceite de girasol, 3,4 para el aceite de canola, 0,4 para una mezcla de oleína de palma (80 % y aceite de canola (20 % y 0,3 para la oleína de palma. Se estudia igualmente la influencia de la adición de palmitato de ascorbilo (AP durante la conservación del producto frito con especial atención a su efecto sinergista sobre los antioxidantes naturales. La evolución de la oxidación en lotes de patatas, con y sin adición de AP, se determinó mediante las siguientes determinaciones analíticas: índice de peróxidos (PV, cuantificación de tocoferoles y tocotrienoles, y periodos de

  13. Evaluation of Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Four Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars in drought condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jamshidi zinab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is one of the major crops cultivated mainly for oil, human consumption and renewable fuel all over the world. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic factors which adversely affect growth, metabolism and yield of crops in semiarid and arid area. Drought stress during any particular growth stage of crops causes yield reduction. In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on yield, physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics of rapeseed in flowering stage, this field experiment was carried out in Yazd agricultural research institute during 2011-2012. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications imposed. Irrigation was considered as the main plot at two levels including control (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A pan and stress in the anthesis stage (irrigation after 160 mm evaporation from class A pan and cultivars (Oise, Triangle, Karun and SLM046 were considered as sub plots. Sampling was carried out 7, 12 and 26 days after drought stress imposed. In each plot, 7, 12 and 26 days after stop irrigation from flowering stage (drought stress treatment, 4-5 expanded leaves from above of canopy were harvested. Relative water content of leaves and stomatal conductance were recorded. Soluble carbohydrate and proline content were measured. The lipid peroxidation level of the leaves was determined by measuring the content of malondealdehyde. Yield and yield components (number of grains per pod, number of pod per plant and weight of 1000 grains were recorded at maturity. Results and Discussion The results showed that drought and cultivar interaction on SPAD value was not significant after stress. The interaction of the drought on leaf relative water content was significant at 26 days after the stress. The results revealed that, drought stress led to a significant decrease in relative

  14. Maximizing content of Omega-3 (EPA and DHA in the process of enzymatic acidolysis of canola oil and concentrated of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA in supercritical CO2 conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cedano Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue optimizar el contenido de ácidos grasos EPA y DHA en el proceso de acidólisis enzimática de aceite de canola y concentrado de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL en triacilglicéridos estructurados (TAGs. Para ello, se empleó lipasa B inespecífica de Candida antarctica inmovilizada en condiciones CO2 supercrítico. El aceite crudo de salmón obtenido a partir de los subproductos industriales se utilizó para obtener concentrados de AGPICL. Como primer paso, se obtuvo un concentrado de AGPICL mediante una hidrolisis básica y posterior complejación con urea. Posteriormente se optimizó las variables del proceso de acidólisis enzimática mediante un diseño compuesto central rotacional 25-1 más estrella, de 5 factores con 30 ensayos experimentales, basado en la metodología superficie respuesta. Las condiciones óptimas que maximizaron el contenido de EPA a 3,92 g/100 g de ácidos grasos totales (AGT y de DHA a 9,09 g/100 g AGT en los TAGs purificados correspondieron a una relación AGPICL/Canola de 71,71 %, temperatura de 57,8 ºC, presión de 172,0 bar, tiempo de 23,97 h y concentración de enzima de 7,74%.

  15. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  16. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-09-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  17. Food and biomass production in small oil expression facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, H.; Kanai, G.; Yakushido, K. [National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan). Biomass Production and Processing Research Team

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which rapeseeds were separated into high quality seed for food oil and low quality seed for biofuels. A laboratory-scale oilseed screw press was then used to examine the effects of choke opening and seed preheating on the rapeseed pressing performance and the quality of food oil and biofuels oil. Oil recovery and chlorophyll content was found to increase as maximum pressure increased. In terms of pressing performance, the rapeseed heated by microwaves yielded more oil and chlorophyll than without heating. The NEB ratio of microwave heating press with an 8.0 mm choke opening was advantageous. Rapeseed oil extracted from low quality seeds was found to have a high acid value. The quality of oil extracted by oilseed screw press was found to be good and met the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for edible oils.

  18. Canola response to nitrogen sources and split application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João E. Kaefer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the canola crop to nitrogen (N sources and split application. The experiment was carried out in two agricultural years (2009 and 2010, at the experimental unit of the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná - PUCPR, Campus of Toledo. A completely randomized design in 5 x 2 factorial scheme was adopted in the experiment. The treatments consisted of five split applications of N at sowing and/or as top dressing (0 and 0, 120 and 0, 0 and 120, 40 and 80, 80 and 40 kg of N ha-1 and two N sources (ammonium sulfate and urea, with four replicates. The canola genotype Hyola 61 was used in the experiment, which was evaluated for plant height, number of plants m-2, shoot dry matter, leaf area, mass of seedpods plant-1, thousand-grain weight, yield and the contents of protein and oil in the grains. The results show that the variables were not influenced by the evaluated sources of N fertilization, but were significantly influenced by the split application of N, with the highest results obtained for the application of 1/3 at sowing and 2/3 as top-dressing (40 and 80 kg ha-1 of N.

  19. 7 CFR 810.301 - Definition of canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of canola. 810.301 Section 810.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined § 810.301 Definition of canola. Seeds of the...

  20. Management of Fresh Wheat Residue for Irrigated Winter Canola Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter canola is popular with many irrigated growers as it provides excellent disease control benefits for potatoes grown in rotation. There is a belief among irrigated canola growers that fresh wheat residue must be burned and the soil then heavily tilled before winter canola is planted. These grow...

  1. Influences of Fuel Additive, Crude Palm and Waste Cooking Oil on Emission Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Basharie, Mariam

    2017-08-01

    Major research has been conducted on the use of input products, such as rapeseed, canola, soybean, sunflower oil, waste cooking oil (WCO), crude palm oil (CPO) and crude jatropha oil as alternative fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable and oxygenated, where it can be easily adopted by current existing conventional diesel engine without any major modification of the engine. To meet the future performance and emission regulations, is urged to improve the performance and exhaust emissions from biodiesel fuels. Hence, further investigation have been carried out on the emission characteristics of small diesel engine that fuelled by variant blending ratio of WCO and CPO with booster additive. For each of the biodiesel blends ratio from 5 to 15 percent volume which are WCO5, WCO10 and WCO15 for WCO biodiesel and CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 for CPO biodiesel. The exhaust emissions were measured at engine speeds varied at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm with different booster additive volume DRA (biodiesel without additive), DRB (0.2 ml) and DRC (0.4 ml). Emissions characteristics that had been measured were Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), and smoke opacity. The results showed that increased of blending ratio with booster additive volume significantly decreased the CO emission, while increased in NOx and CO2 due to changes of fuel characteristics in biodiesel fuel blends.

  2. Light response of sunflower and canola as affected by plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, A

    2017-08-01

    Crop response to light is an important parameter determining crop growth. Three field (split plots) experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization on the light absorption and light extinction of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.). A detailed set of plant growth, light absorption and crop yield and oil related parameters were determined. Light was measured at noon during the sunny days with clear sky. In experiment I, although the plant density (PD) of 14 resulted in the highest rate of sunflower light absorption (31.37%) and light extinction (0.756), the highest rate of grain yield and grain oil yield was resulted at PD12 at 3639 and 1457.9kg/ha, respectively; as well as by genotype SUP.A. In experiment II (canola), PD80 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (13.13%), light extinction (0.63), grain yield (2189.4kg/ha) and grain oil yield (556.54kg/ha). This was also the case for Genotype H. In experiment III (canola), although N150 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (10.74%) and light extinction (0.48), the highest rate of grain yield (3413.6kg/ha) and grain oil yield (891.86kg/ha) was resulted at N100 as well as by Genotype H401. Results indicate how light properties, crop growth and yield of sunflower and canola can be affected by plant and environmental parameters, which are also of practical use by farmers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of rapeseed press-cake on Maillard reaction in a cookie model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Wilkin, Jonathan Desmond; Fiore, Alberto

    2018-03-15

    Rapeseed press-cake (RPC) is a byproduct of rapeseed oil production, rich in proteins and fiber. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of cold pressed RPC, RPC fiber isolate and RPC alkaline extract on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfufural (HMF) in cookies. Both compounds were influenced by the ingredients: the addition of RPC led to a significant dose-dependent increase of HMF in the cookies and to an increase of acrylamide up to 66.9%. On the contrary, acrylamide concentration was reduced down to 39.6% in presence of the alkaline extract and down to 4.4% in the presence of the fiber extract. The Michael addition of free amino acids to acrylamide was further investigated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) revealing that cysteine was the preferred nucleophile for acrylamide elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapeseed and sunflower meal: a review on biotechnology status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomascolo, Anne; Uzan-Boukhris, Eva; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Fine, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Rapeseed and sunflower are two of the world's major oilseeds. Rapeseed and sunflower meal (RSM and SFM), the by-products of oil extraction, are produced in large quantities. They are mainly composed of proteins, lignocellulosic fibres and minerals. They were initially used as a protein complement in animal feed rations and sometimes as fertilizer or as combustible source. More recently, new alternatives to these traditional uses have been developed that draw on the structure and physicochemical properties of RSM and SFM, which are plentiful sources of nitrogen and carbon nutrients. This feature, together with their cheapness and ready availability, supports the cultivation of various microorganisms in both submerged cultures and solid-state fermentation. Recent studies have thus emphasized the potential utilisation of RSM and SFM in fermentative processes, including saccharification and production of enzymes, antibiotics, antioxidants and other bio-products, opening new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  5. Seed bank modelling of volunteer oil seed rape: from seeds fate in the soil to seedling emergence Modelagem do banco de sementes de canola: do destino das sementes no solo à emergência das plântulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Soltani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to estimate parameters and relationships associated with sub-processes in soil seed banks of oilseed rape in Gorgan, Iran. After one month of burial, seed viability decreased to 39%, with a slope of 2.03% per day, and subsequently decreased with a lower slope of 0.01 until 365 days following burial in the soil. Germinability remained at its highest value in autumn and winter and decreased from spring to the last month of summer. Non-dormant seeds of volunteer oilseed rape did not germinate at temperatures lower than 3.8 ºC and a water potential of -1.4 MPa ºd. The hydrothermal values were 36.2 and 42.9 MPa ºd for sub- and supra-optimal temperatures, respectively. Quantification of seed emergence as influenced by burial depth was performed satisfactorily (R² = 0.98 and RMSE = 5.03. The parameters and relationships estimated here can be used for modelling soil seed bank dynamics or establishing a new model for the environment.Estudos foram realizados para estimar os parâmetros e as relações ligados a subprocessos em bancos de sementes de canola no solo, em Gorgan, Iran. Após um mês de enterrio, a viabilidade das sementes diminuiu para 39%, com inclinação de 2,03% ao dia; posteriormente, diminuiu com menor inclinação: de 0,01 até 365 dias após o enterrio no solo. A germinação manteve-se em seu maior valor no outono e inverno, reduzindo da primavera ao último mês do verão. Sementes de canola não dormentes não germinaram em temperaturas abaixo de 3,8 °C e potencial hídrico abaixo de -1,4 Mpaºd. Os valores hidrotermais foram de 36,2 e 42,9 Mpaºd para temperaturas sub e supraótima, respectivamente. A quantificação da emergência das sementes sob influência da profundidade de enterrio foi delineada de forma satisfatória (R²= 0,98 e RMSE = 5,03. Os parâmetros e as relações estimadas neste estudo podem ser utilizados em modelagens do banco de sementes do solo ou para estabelecer um novo modelo para

  6. Effect of pressing and combination of three storage temperatures and times on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of canola expellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guadagnin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the effects of combinations of three temperatures and storage times on chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and oxidative stability of canola expellers obtained from the cold-pressing extraction of oil. Canola seeds were single-crushed at moderate temperatures (60°C during 3 pressing sessions. Nine samples (100±1 g of each session were collected, inserted into sealed bags, stored at three temperatures (12, 24, 36°C over 3 periods of time (10, 20, 30 d. Then, samples (100±1 g of canola seeds collected before each pressing session and canola expellers collected before and after each storage time were analyzed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, peroxide number and Kreis test. Before storage, the fatty acid profile of canola seeds and expellers differed significantly, except for myristic (P=0.18, palmitic (P=0.57, oleic (P=0.07, and α-linolenic acids (P=0.45. Compared to canola seeds, expellers showed greater content of saturated, poly-unsaturated, and n-6 fatty acids (P<0.01, but a lower content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P<0.01. Peroxide values were definitely (P<0.01 greater for expellers and averaged 4.22 and 4.11 mEq/kg fat before and after storage, respectively. The Kreis test was negative for all samples. Under different temperatures and times of storage, canola expellers showed to maintain a good oxidative stability, as highlighted by low peroxide values (<10 mEq/kg fat and negative response for Kreis test. Canola expellers obtained by on-farm cold extraction, despite great oil residual (from 17 to 19% ether extracts on dry matter basis, can be stored at farm without significant chemical and nutritional changes.

  7. The rapeseed and sunflower biodegradable oils to the Erika's pollution assistance; Les huiles biodegradables de colza et de tournesol au secours de la pollution de l'Erika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This technical paper presents the practical use of vegetable oils methyl esters (EMHV) in the coasts cleaning, after a black tide. In the case of the Erika's shipwreck the EMHV allowed to fluidify the heavy fuel oil at 120 meters deep in order to realize the pumping. The characteristics of the product, the cleaning by thinner action and the example of the EMHV utilization at Belle-ile are presented. (A.L.B.)

  8. Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Sulphate Fertilizers and Azotobacter and Azospirillum Biofertilizer on Yield and Growth Traits of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jafari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of simultaneous application of nitrogen (N and ZnSO4 fertilizers and biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum on grain yield and growth traits of rapeseed, Hyola308 cultivar, a field experiment, with split plot factorial layout based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran, during 2007-2008 growing season. Nitrogen fertilizer at four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha were the main plot and ZnSO4 fertilizer at two levels (0 and 50 kg/ha and biofertilizer at two levels (with and without biofertilizer were arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that maximum and minimum leaf area indices at flowering stage (average of 1.29 and 0.95, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and in 50 kg/ha N+ no ZnSO4+ no biofertilizer treatments. Maximum and minimum crop growth rates at flowering stage (average of 5.89 and 3.19 g/m2.GDD, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and control treatments. Maximum and minimum grain yields (2568, 2468 and 543 kg/ha, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ with/without ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and control (no fertilizer treatments. Maximum and minimum oil yields (42.8 and 37.3%, respectively were measured in 0 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and 150 kg/ha N+ no ZnSO4+ no biofertilizer treatments. Since there was no significant difference between 150 and 100 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer treatments in terms of impact on canola grain yield and growth traits, it seems that application of biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum, without any reduction in yield, increased grain production and oil content and saved 50 kg/ha of N fertilizer. Biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum, along with zinc and sulfur, produced phytohormones, and N fertilizer increased dry matter accumulation and leaf area index (by increasing carbohydrate conversion

  9. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  10. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. as a protein plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of plant origin have a profound impact on human and animal lives. It is impossible to solve worldwide nutrition problem without taking into concern needs for proteins. Inadequate nutrition can only be improved by providing adequate proteins. Humans need c. 120g proteins daily, a third of which should come from meat and milk. Certain population categories, such as the sick, children, pregnant women and sportspeople are more sensitive to lack of protein. Oil crops synthesise oil, which is the basic reserve material in seed, but they also synthesise high levels of protein and can serve as protein source for human and animal nutrition. Generally speaking, protein content in seed of rapeseed at site R. Šančevi was from 19.60% (NS-L-74 to 25.93% JR-NS-36, and at site Sombor from 19.26% (NS-L-74 to 24.06% and 24.09% (NS-L-46 and cultivar Mira. Genotype NS-L-74 had the lowest protein content at both testing sites. Higher protein content was evident with spring genotypes than with winter gentypes. .

  11. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi eFritsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q and relative kinship (K as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM+Q and the PK mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93 % of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48 % for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the 2nd panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  12. A re-examination of the technical feasibility and economic viability of rapeseed dehulling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of dehulled sunflower meals on the French market encourages reconsideration of the possibility of applying dehulling techniques to rapeseed. Hulls account for 18−20% of rapeseed mass; they contain mostly fibres (72%, 78% and 99%, respectively of the seeds’ NDF, ADF and ADL. Complete removal of these hulls would result in a high (43% protein meal with enhanced added value. However, the technical feasibility of producing such a meal is impeded by the relatively high oil content of the hull fraction. This article presents a model of mass balance that takes account both of the purity of the “hull” and “kernel” fractions and comparisons of gross margins between conventional processing and dehulling-based processing. The value of dehulled rapeseed meal is assessed against both a range of market scenarios and the composition and price of a selection of alternative feeds. The gross margin differential favours dehulling only in periods where proteins are expensive and oil relatively cheap, as at present. Reducing the oil content of the hulls affects considerably the profitability of dehulling whereas modification of the protein content has only a modest impact. An important unknown is the effect of antinutritional factors on the final price of dehulled meals. Management of the glucosinolates residues through processing might decrease their noxiousness though the information on this is scant. Since this lack of knowledge is an impediment to the implementation of dehulling technology, research and development investments should start by addressing this question. Technical solutions could be developed to recover the oil contained in the hulls. Such solutions include expelling, aqueous extraction or tail-end dehulling after direct extraction of the seeds.

  13. Metabolomics differentiation of canola genotypes: toward an understanding of canola allelochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Pratley, James E.; An, Min; Luckett, David J.; Lemerle, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is one crop attribute that could be incorporated in an integrated weed management system as a supplement to synthetic herbicides. However, the underlying principles of crop allelopathy and secondary metabolite production are still poorly understood including in canola. In this study, an allelopathic bioassay and a metabolomic analysis were conducted to compare three non-allelopathic and three allelopathic canola genotypes. Results from the laboratory bioassay showed that there were significant differences among canola genotypes in their ability to inhibit root and shoot growth of the receiver annual ryegrass; impacts ranged from 14% (cv. Atr-409) to 76% (cv. Pak85388-502) and 0% (cv. Atr-409) to 45% (cv. Pak85388-502) inhibition respectively. The root length of canola also differed significantly between genotypes, there being a non-significant negative interaction (r = -0.71; y = 0.303x + 21.33) between the root length of donor canola and of receiver annual ryegrass. Variation in chemical composition was detected between organs (root extracts, shoot extracts) and root exudates and also between canola genotypes. Root extracts contained more secondary metabolites than shoot extracts while fewer compounds were recorded in the root exudates. Individual compound assessments identified a total of 14 secondary metabolites which were identified from the six tested genotypes. However, only Pak85388-502 and Av-opal exuded sinapyl alcohol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5,6,7,8-pentahydroxy flavones in agar growth medium, suggesting that the synergistic effect of these compounds playing a role for canola allelopathy against annual ryegrass in vitro. PMID:25620971

  14. Landfill gas, canola, and biodiesel. Working towards a sustainable system [Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  15. Fluidized bed treatment of rapeseed meal and cake as possibility for the production of canolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudel Frank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canolol (2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylsyringol, which is formed by thermally initiated CO2splitting off from sinapic acid, possesses a high antioxidant potential. Furthermore different positive physiological properties are described. Due to rapeseed’s high content of phenolic acids, particularly sinapic acid, it is obvious to produce canolol as by-product of rapeseed processing. Roasting of rapeseed meal or cake in a fluidized bed followed by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide of the formed canolol represents a production procedure which not impairs the commercial oil mill process. This article summarizes results from the roasting process with rapeseed meal and cake in fluidized bed equipments of different design and size showing that it is a suitable technique to transform sinapic acid into canolol. The achieved canolol contents are at 500 mg/kg in minimum, if the material is rapidly cooled-down after reaching the optimal temperature of 165 °C. Further roasting leads to a fast reduction of the canolol content. In addition it could be observed, that the sinapic acid content is not decreasing in the same amount as the canolol content increases. Sinapic acid seems to be “reproduced” during roasting. The reaction mechanisms of the described phenomena are not known.

  16. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciunel, Krzysztof; Klugmann-Radziemska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a by-product of fatty acid methyl esters production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage; the sources ofbiomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products, fossil coal and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer's own energetic demand is obtained. In this article, the experimental results of combusting rapeseed pellet in a calorimeter, combustion in a boiler heater and the analysis of the emissions level of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation are presented. It has been proved that the pellet, a by-product of biodiesel production, is not only a valuable substitute of animal fodder, but also an excellent renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, viable for use in household tap water heating installations.

  17. USING OF SECONDARY PRODUCTS OF RAPESEED PROCESSING IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Raksha-Slusareva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When oil and biodiesel are extracted from rapeseed, secondary derived products are formed, which are not used effectively at the moment. The article deals with the problems of possible their use in food industry. During food product preparation for special dietary consumption we used electrophysical (processing by hydroelectropulse and physical (drying, grinding, steam treatment processing of raw materials. Through the developed technology for rapeseed cake processing, we received raw materials suitable for use in food industry. On the basis of these raw materials, the «Nutrition product for special dietary consumption “Ripakovyi”» was developed. It is a part of rape seed meal obtained from the seeds with low content of glucosinolates and erucic acid processed by hydroelectropulse dried in the cabinet oven or in the convective dryer, crushed and disinfected based on a developed soft technology for biologically active substances conservation. The production of this product solves the problem of rational utilization of rapeseed meal and diversification of foods for special dietary consumption.

  18. Dependence of rapeseed quality and yield on density, variety and year of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is an important industrial plant in the world. In Vojvodina region of Serbia it is grown on well aerated and deep soils. Most often it is sown with the distance between the rows of 25 cm, and 5-6 cm within the row. The trial with three winter rapeseed genotypes (Banaćanka, Slavica and NS-H-2 was set up at Rimski Šančevi (Vojvodina during growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Seed was sown with inter row spacing of 25 cm, and spacing within the rows of 5 cm, 8 cm, 10 cm and 16 cm. The following parameters were tested upon harvesting: seed germination, 1000 seed weight, test weight, seed yield, oil content and total protein in seed. No effect of planting density was observed on rapeseed seed quality produced in 2009/10 and 2010/11, which should be kept in mind when determining the quantity of seed required for sowing.

  19. Genomic Prediction of Testcross Performance in Canola (Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib U Jan

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a modern breeding approach where genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker profiles are simultaneously used to estimate performance of untested genotypes. In this study, the potential of genomic selection methods to predict testcross performance for hybrid canola breeding was applied for various agronomic traits based on genome-wide marker profiles. A total of 475 genetically diverse spring-type canola pollinator lines were genotyped at 24,403 single-copy, genome-wide SNP loci. In parallel, the 950 F1 testcross combinations between the pollinators and two representative testers were evaluated for a number of important agronomic traits including seedling emergence, days to flowering, lodging, oil yield and seed yield along with essential seed quality characters including seed oil content and seed glucosinolate content. A ridge-regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP model was applied in combination with 500 cross-validations for each trait to predict testcross performance, both across the whole population as well as within individual subpopulations or clusters, based solely on SNP profiles. Subpopulations were determined using multidimensional scaling and K-means clustering. Genomic prediction accuracy across the whole population was highest for seed oil content (0.81 followed by oil yield (0.75 and lowest for seedling emergence (0.29. For seed yieId, seed glucosinolate, lodging resistance and days to onset of flowering (DTF, prediction accuracies were 0.45, 0.61, 0.39 and 0.56, respectively. Prediction accuracies could be increased for some traits by treating subpopulations separately; a strategy which only led to moderate improvements for some traits with low heritability, like seedling emergence. No useful or consistent increase in accuracy was obtained by inclusion of a population substructure covariate in the model. Testcross performance prediction using genome-wide SNP markers shows

  20. Genomic Prediction of Testcross Performance in Canola (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Habib U; Abbadi, Amine; Lücke, Sophie; Nichols, Richard A; Snowdon, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a modern breeding approach where genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker profiles are simultaneously used to estimate performance of untested genotypes. In this study, the potential of genomic selection methods to predict testcross performance for hybrid canola breeding was applied for various agronomic traits based on genome-wide marker profiles. A total of 475 genetically diverse spring-type canola pollinator lines were genotyped at 24,403 single-copy, genome-wide SNP loci. In parallel, the 950 F1 testcross combinations between the pollinators and two representative testers were evaluated for a number of important agronomic traits including seedling emergence, days to flowering, lodging, oil yield and seed yield along with essential seed quality characters including seed oil content and seed glucosinolate content. A ridge-regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) model was applied in combination with 500 cross-validations for each trait to predict testcross performance, both across the whole population as well as within individual subpopulations or clusters, based solely on SNP profiles. Subpopulations were determined using multidimensional scaling and K-means clustering. Genomic prediction accuracy across the whole population was highest for seed oil content (0.81) followed by oil yield (0.75) and lowest for seedling emergence (0.29). For seed yieId, seed glucosinolate, lodging resistance and days to onset of flowering (DTF), prediction accuracies were 0.45, 0.61, 0.39 and 0.56, respectively. Prediction accuracies could be increased for some traits by treating subpopulations separately; a strategy which only led to moderate improvements for some traits with low heritability, like seedling emergence. No useful or consistent increase in accuracy was obtained by inclusion of a population substructure covariate in the model. Testcross performance prediction using genome-wide SNP markers shows considerable

  1. In vitro rumen fermentation and effect of protein fractions of canola meals on methane production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Efrén Ramirez-Bribiesca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Canola provides oil for human consumption and a by-product from the extraction of its oil canola meal (CM, is used as a good quality protein and lipid supplement for ruminants. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and fermentation profile associated with the potential for methane production of three types of CM: solvent-extracted CM of Brassica napus (CMBN, B. juncea (CMBJ and cold press-extracted CM from B. napus (CPCM used to feed ruminants. The protein content of canola meal ranged from 36 to 41 %. The acid and neutral detergent insoluble in nitrogen ranged from 1 to 2 % and 4 to 5 %, respectively. The lipid content of canola meal samples ranged from 2 % (CMBN, CMBJ to 14 % (CPCM. In vitro, dry matter disappearance of CMBJ was higher than that of other types of CM at 4 h, 24 h and 48 h. Gas production from CMBJ was greater than that of CPCM and CMBN at 24 h and 48 h of incubation. CPCM produced lower methane than CMBJ at 48 h of incubation. CPCM produced a higher (p < 0.05 molar proportion of propionate from 12 h to 48 h of incubation. In conclusion, this study found that CPCM could be a good source of protein (mainly PB2 and lipids in the feed of ruminants; it will decrease methane production and enhance propionate production. There was correlation between less methane production, and the content of lipids and PB2 in the three types of CM studied.

  2. Role of integrated use of nitrogen fertilizer sources in improving seed quality of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL Sabagh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary for developing strategies of integrated fertilization for crops to maximize production of crops and reducing the risk of pollution from chemical fertilizers. Therefore, the objectives of this study to evaluate the impact of bio-organic, chemical nitrogen on seed quality of canola. A study was conducted for two consecutive years (2005 to 2006 at the Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Egypt. Bio fertilizer (control and bio-fertilizer, compost (control, 6, 12 and 18 ton ha-1 and chemical nitrogen (control, 36, 72 and 108 kg N ha-1. The result indicated that, bio-fertilizer was significantly effects on protein % and iodine value except oil percent was decreased. On the other hand, the Maximum values oil and protein were recorded by using compost fertilizer at (18 ton ha-1. In respect to chemical fertilizer, adding nitrogen affected significantly on protein % and the maximum value was obtained at (108 N ha-1 while, oil percent and iodine value were decreased. Interestingly, it is clear that from results that cultivar belongs to canola (LEAR that contains < 2% erucic acid and a nitrogen source has almost slight effect on oil physical properties. Totally, the interaction among treatments application compost (6ton ha-1 and (72 N kg ha-1 with combined bio- fertilizer was achieved suitable oil percent and could be improve canola seed yield and quality and environment would have a better condition.

  3. Effect of N on yield and chemical profile of winter canola in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Vick, Brady; Ebelhar, Wayne; Buehring, Normie; Astatkie, Tess

    2013-01-01

    There is increased interest in winter canola as an oilseeds crop for production of oil or biodiesel in the southeastern United States, but research has been limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N (0, 60, 120, 180 kg N ha⁻¹) on productivity, oil content and oil composition of winter canola grown for two cropping seasons at three locations in Mississippi (Stoneville, and two locations at Verona: Verona upland silt loam, Verona-SL and Verona upland clay, Verona-C). Overall, increasing N application rates resulted in corresponding stepwise increase in seed yields in the two locations at Verona, whereas yields in the 60 and 120 kg N ha⁻¹ at Stoneville were not different from each other. Seed yields reached 3,383 and 3,166 kg ha⁻¹ in the 180 kg N treatment at Verona and at Stoneville, respectively. Oil yields were also increased with increasing N rates, however, oil yields at 60 and 120 kg N ha⁻¹ at Verona-C were not different from each other. Oil yields in the 180 kg N ha⁻¹ treatment reached 1,363 and 1,151 kg ha⁻¹ at Verona-SL and Stoneville, respectively. At Verona-SL location, higher N rates resulted in increased stearic acid compared to the lower N rates. However, the reverse effect was observed on the concentration of linolenic acid, which was lower at higher N rates. Also at that location, N application reduced the concentration of linoleic acid. At the Verona-C location, N application at 180 kg N ha⁻¹ reduced concentration of linolenic acid relative to the other fertility treatments. Overall, the increase in N application rates resulted in greater yield (kg FA ha⁻¹) of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, eicosanoic, behenic, lignoceric and nervonic acids in all three locations, with N at 0 kg ha⁻¹ providing the lowest yields and N at 180 kg ha⁻¹ providing the highest yields. Winter canola production in the hot humid environment of southeastern United States can be

  4. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Anther at Different Development Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Li

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen

  5. Identification, expression and interaction analyses of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanfeng; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Zhang, Yupeng; Deng, Min; Niu, Fangfang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Boya; Liang, Wanwan; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-03-19

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil-producing crops in China and worldwide. The yield and quality of canola is frequently threatened by environmental stresses including drought, cold and high salinity. Calcium is a well-known ubiquitous intracellular secondary messenger in plants. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases found only in plants and some protozoans. CPKs are Ca2+ sensors that have both Ca2+ sensing function and kinase activity within a single protein and play crucial roles in plant development and responses to various environmental stresses. In this study, we mined the available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of B. napus and identified a total of 25 CPK genes, among which cDNA sequences of 23 genes were successfully cloned from a double haploid cultivar of canola. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that they could be clustered into four subgroups. The subcellular localization of five selected BnaCPKs was determined using green fluorescence protein (GFP) as the reporter. Furthermore, the expression levels of 21 BnaCPK genes in response to salt, drought, cold, heat, abscisic acid (ABA), low potassium (LK) and oxidative stress were studied by quantitative RT-PCR and were found to respond to multiple stimuli, suggesting that canola CPKs may be convergence points of different signaling pathways. We also identified and cloned five and eight Clade A basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) genes from canola and, using yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), determined the interaction between individual BnaCPKs and BnabZIPs or BnaPP2Cs (Clade A). We identified novel, interesting interaction partners for some of the BnaCPK proteins. We present the sequences and characterization of CPK gene family members in canola for the first time. This work provides a foundation for further crop improvement and improved understanding of signal transduction in plants.

  6. Evaluation of the Use of Spring Rapeseed in Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Trace Elements and Their Effect on Yield Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Piotr Mirosław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material was made up by the plant organs of Brassica napus L. from a pot experiment during one vegetation period. There was investigated the effect of relatively high concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil on the rapeseed yield, the content of protein and oil in seeds. The impact of metals was defined based on the content of selected fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds. The highest contents of zinc and copper were found in leaves, lead - in roots and cadmium - in stems. The biological concentration factor values were respectively calculated for all the rapeseed organs. For Cu and Pb the values of biological concentration factor were low and very low for all the plant organs. The doses of Zn (300 mg × kg-1, 600 mg × kg-1 and Cu (80 mg × kg-1, 160 mg × kg-1 applied in the pot experiment resulted in the translocation of metals from the roots to the leaves. The doses of lead (400 mg × kg-1, 1600 mg × kg-1 did not trigger any translocation of that metal from the roots to the above-ground rapeseed plant parts, however, after the application of the cadmium doses (2 mg × kg-1, 6 mg × kg-1, there was recorded a clear translocation of Cd to the rapeseed stems and the leaves. A relatively high content of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil had a significant effect neither on the yield parameters and nor on the qualitative characters of the rapeseed seed. Neither did they affect the content of protein, fat and fatty acids in seed-extracted oil. The results of the pot experiment suggest that spring rapeseed is suitable for the phytoremediation of moderately heavy-metalcontaminated soils.

  7. Using herbicides in spring rapeseed and effect on quantity and quality parameters of yeald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, P; Marinković, R; Marisavljević, D; Pavlović, D; Dolovac, E Pfaf

    2011-01-01

    Possibility to chemically control weeds in spring rapeseed has been tested in two locations ( Novi Sad and Kragujevac) and following herbicides (a.i.) : trifluralin, clomazone, quizalofop-p-ethyl and clopyralid. We tested the effect of the herbicides on yield and hectoliter weight of seed and oil and protein contents in seed. In the trial in Kragujevac, a large number of weed species were present, with somewhat increased density and uneven distribution of weed plants. This was particularly evident with grassy weeds and with the species Rubus caesius in several plots. Rapeseed yield and quality were determined by measuring and analyzing the following parameters: grain yield (kg/plot (30 m2), hectoliter weight, oil content (%) and protein content (%) in seed.Basic statistical calculations of rapessed yield and quality were done by the t-test. The tested herbicides showed no adverse effect on the yield and hectoliter weight of seed in either location, with the exception of quizalofop-p-ethyl in Kragujevac, which affected the control variants. Oil content was negatively affected by the combination, trifluralin + clopyralid in the location of Novi Sad and by quizalofop-p-ethyl in the other location. Trifluralin and quizalofop-p-ethyl exhibited a negative effect on protein content in the location of Novi Sad, while there were no statistically significant negative effects in the other location.

  8. Present state and prospects of breeding rapeseed (Brassica napus) with a maximum erucic acid content for industrial applications. Stand und Perspektiven der Zuechtung von Raps (Brassica napus L. ) mit hohem Erucasaeure-Gehalt im Oel fuer industrielle Nutzungszwecke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhs, W. (Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung 1, Giessen (Germany)); Friedt, W. (Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung 1, Giessen (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Rapeseed oil with proportions of erucic acid (C22:1) substantially higher than the level found in traditional cultivars (ca. 50% C22:1) are sought by breeders and chemists for use in wellknown industrial processes and products. In a first step available rapeseed and Brassica germplasm was screened for high erucic acid content. Following conventional breeding procedures (e.g. pedigree selection) promising rapeseed genotypes were crossed and the progeny were selected due to genetic variation of oil content and quality. Since rapeseed (B. napus L.) is amenable to improvement through biotechnology as well, further breeding progress was achieved by application of cell and tissue culture techniques, e.g., microspore culture for the production of doubled-haploid lines. Furthermore, an impressive strategy to increase genetic variation is the resynthesis of rapeseed, i.e., by crossing the original ancestors, B. rapa and B. oleracea, accomplished by embryo rescue technique circumventing existing incompatibility barriers. Following this way we have carried out crosses between b. rapa ssp. trilocularis ('Yellow sarson') and several selected cauliflowers in order to create new oilseed rape germplasm with high erucic acid content. The offspring display desirable variation in the content of major fatty acids. Through introgression of resynthesized germplasm into conventional high-erucic acid rapeseed material it should be possible to produce recombinant breeding lines with an erucic acid content of 60% or even more. (orig.)

  9. Neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulping of rapeseed residues

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; LATIBARI, Ahmad Jahan; FAEZIPOUR, Mehdi; HEDJAZI, Sahab

    2014-01-01

    Neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulping of rapeseed residues from Karadj rapeseed growing fields was investigated. Rapeseed residue was collected from the research field at the Agriculture and Natural Resources Campus, University of Tehran located in Karadj. Cellulose, lignin, holocellulose, extractives soluble in alcohol acetone, 1% NaOH solubility, and ash were determined as 42 ± 2%, 17 ± 1%, 77.5 ± 2%, 2.2 ± 0.1%, 50.3 ± 1.6%, and 6%, respectively. Fiber length, width, and cell wall t...

  10. [Effect of rapeseed from different distributors on the rat liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvizouri, M

    1993-01-01

    In previous papers it was reported that rapeseed could prevent the development of cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and at the same time can induce liver regeneration in the rat. In such experiments rapeseed was always obtained from the same distributor "Semillas Berentsen". When reseed of different distributors was used, neither cirrhosis prevention or liver regeneration was observed. The difference among the rapeseed used was that "Semillas Berentsen" utilizes a fungicide to preserve the seed and the other distributors do not use any preservative. This circumstance made think that the active principle responsible for the effects observed is probably the fungicide.

  11. Response study of canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars to multi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-14

    Sep 14, 2011 ... To study the interaction of genotype and environment in canola crop, a study was carried out in 2010. Ten genotypes (Modena, Okapi, Hyola 401, Licord, Opera, Zarfam, RGS 003, SLM046, Sarigol, and Hyola. 308) of canola were studied under normal conditions of irrigation in four locations (Karaj, Birjand,.

  12. Nutritional evaluation of treated canola straw for ruminants using in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... male cattle. Experimental materials were collected from different regions of Parsabad province. (Ardabile, Iran). Experimental group were: untreated canola straw (control) and 4% molasses treated canola straw. After providing uniform mix, chemical composition for untreated straw including dry matter (DM) ...

  13. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  14. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40, 1510...

  15. Evaluation of canola seeds of different cultivars with special emphasis on the quantification of erucic acid and glucosinolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the characterization of the seeds and seed oils of five locally grown canola cultivars: Zafar-2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar and Con-11. The oil contents from canola seeds ranged from 34.3 to 39.3%. The levels of protein, fiber, ash and moisture were found to be 22.1-41.0, 12.0-14.0, 3.0-3.5 and 4.0-7.5%, respectively. The glucosinolate (GSL contents in the canola seeds examined ranged from 49.7 to 78.1 mmol g-1. The extracted canola seed oils revealed an iodine value of 118.2-124.6 g of I/100g of oil; refractive index (40 °C, 1.460-1.464; density (24 °C, 0.914-0.919 mg m-1; saponification value, 187-195; unsaponifiable matter, 0.51-1.10%; acidity (% as oleic acid, 0.40-1.40, and color (1-in. cell, 1.35-1.73 R + 21.0-38.0 Y. Peroxide value (meq/ kg of oil and specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were determined to be 2.00-7.08, 2.17-3.16 and 0.44-0.91, respectively. The seed oils of the five canola cultivars mainly consisted of oleic (C18:1, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 acids at levels of 49.16-62.14, 14.61, 23.45 and 6.97-9.10%, respectively. The concentrations of palmitic (C16:0, stearic (C18:0, erucic (C22:1 and gadoleic (C20:1 acids ranged from 3.47 to 6.00, 1.51 to 2.10, traces to 13.03 and 1.30 to 10.63%, respectively. A small amount of arachidic acid (20:0 with a contribution below 1% was also detected. The contents of tocopherols (α, γ, and δ in the canola oils accounted for 77.1-270.3, 191-500, 3.5-15.6 mg kg-1, respectively.The presence of rather high levels of erucic acid and GSL in the present analysis of canola emphasized the need to further reduce the contents of these two antinutritional constituents in the investigated cultivars.Este estudio describe de la caracterización de semillas y de sus aceites de cinco cultivos locales de canola: Zafar2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar y Con 11. El contenido de aceite de las semillas de canola varió entre un 34.3 y un 39.3%. Los niveles

  16. Can rapeseed lower methane emission from heifers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    300 kg. Dry matter intake (DMI; P=0.01) and daily CH4 emission (P=0.002) were lowest on the FAT. However, CH4 emission per kg DMI (P=0.21) or per kg weight gain (P=0.44) was not different. The loss of CH4 as a percentage of gross energy intake tended to be lower on FAT (6.4%) than on CON (6.8%; P=0......Twelve heifers were assigned to either a control diet (CON) with 26 g fat per kg dry matter (DM) or a supplemented diet (FAT) with crushed rapeseed with 53 g fat per kg DM. Methane (CH4) emission was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for four days when the heifers weighed approximately.......08). It is concluded that the FAT may have potential to reduce CH4 emission from heifers, but further studies are warranted to document this effect....

  17. Water and Temperature Stresses Impact Canola (Brassica napus L.) Fatty Acid, Protein, and Yield over Nitrogen and Sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammac, W Ashley; Maaz, Tai M; Koenig, Richard T; Burke, Ian C; Pan, William L

    2017-12-06

    Interactive effects of weather and soil nutrient status often control crop productivity. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) fertilizer rate, soil water, and atmospheric temperature on canola (Brassica napus L.) fatty acid (FA), total oil, protein, and grain yield. Nitrogen and sulfur were assessed in a 4-yr study with two locations, five N rates (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg ha-1), and two S rates (0 and 17 kg ha-1). Water and temperature were assessed using variability across 12 site-years of dryland canola production. Effects of N and S were inconsistent. Unsaturated FA, oleic acid, grain oil, protein, and theoretical maximum grain yield were highly related to water and temperature variability across the site-years. A nonlinear model identified water and temperature conditions that enabled production of maximum unsaturated FA content, oleic acid content, total oil, protein, and theoretical maximum grain yield. Water and temperature variability played a larger role than soil nutrient status on canola grain constituents and yield.

  18. Genome-wide association study dissects the genetic architecture of seed weight and seed quality in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Kun; Wu, Jinfeng; Song, Weilin; Bancroft, Ian; Harper, Andrea L; Trick, Martin; Liu, Shengyi; Gao, Guizhen; Wang, Nian; Yan, Guixin; Qiao, Jiangwei; Li, Jun; Li, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Zhang, Tianyao; Wu, Xiaoming

    2014-08-01

    Association mapping can quickly and efficiently dissect complex agronomic traits. Rapeseed is one of the most economically important polyploid oil crops, although its genome sequence is not yet published. In this study, a recently developed 60K Brassica Infinium(®) SNP array was used to analyse an association panel with 472 accessions. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the array were in silico mapped using 'pseudomolecules' representative of the genome of rapeseed to establish their hypothetical order and to perform association mapping of seed weight and seed quality. As a result, two significant associations on A8 and C3 of Brassica napus were detected for erucic acid content, and the peak SNPs were found to be only 233 and 128 kb away from the key genes BnaA.FAE1 and BnaC.FAE1. BnaA.FAE1 was also identified to be significantly associated with the oil content. Orthologues of Arabidopsis thaliana HAG1 were identified close to four clusters of SNPs associated with glucosinolate content on A9, C2, C7 and C9. For seed weight, we detected two association signals on A7 and A9, which were consistent with previous studies of quantitative trait loci mapping. The results indicate that our association mapping approach is suitable for fine mapping of the complex traits in rapeseed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  19. Redirection of tryptophan leads to production of low indole glucosinolate canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavadej, S; Brisson, N; McNeil, J N; De Luca, V

    1994-03-15

    Cruciferous plants are known to produce over a hundred different mustard oil glycosides, which are derived from methionine, phenylalanine, or tryptophan. In oil-producing crops like Brassica napus (canola), the presence of indole glucosinolates in seed protein meals has decreased meal palatability and has limited their value as animal feed. We have transformed canola plants with a gene that encodes tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) in an attempt to redirect tryptophan into tryptamine rather than into indole glucosinolates. Transgenic plants that expressed this decarboxylase activity accumulated tryptamine while correspondingly lower levels of tryptophan-derived indole glucosinolates were produced in all plant parts compared with nontransformed controls. Of particular significance, the indole glucosinolate content of mature seeds from transgenic plants was only 3% of that found in nontransformed seeds. These results demonstrate how the creation of artificial metabolic sinks could divert metabolite flow and be used to remove these undesirable indole glucosinolates, thereby increasing the value of the oilseed meals, which are produced after extraction of oil from the seed.

  20. Comparison of protein chemical and physicochemical properties of rapeseed cruciferin with those of soybean glycinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Salleh, Mohamad Ramlan Bin; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Adachi, Motoyasu; Hontani, Naho; Saka, Shiori; Kato, Noboru; Ohkawa, Yasunobu; Utsumi, Shigeru

    2002-12-04

    Rapeseeds contain cruciferin (11S globulin), napin (2S albumin), and oleosin (oil body protein) as major seed proteins. The effects of oil expression and drying conditions on the extraction of these proteins from rapeseed meal were examined. The conditions strongly affected the extraction of oleosin and only weakly affected the extraction of cruciferin and napin. The protein chemical and physicochemical properties of cruciferin, the major protein present, were compared with those of glycinin (soybean 11S globulin) under various conditions. In general, cruciferin exhibited higher surface hydrophobicity, lower thermal stability, and lower and higher solubility at mu= 0.5 and mu = 0.08, respectively, than did glycinin. At the pHs (6.0, 7.6, and 9.0) and ionic strengths (mu= 0.08 and 0.5) examined, the emulsifying ability of cruciferin was worse than that of glycinin, except at mu= 0.08 and pH 7.6. The emulsifying abilities of cruciferin and glycinin did not correlate with thermal stability and surface hydrophobicity. Higher protein concentration, higher heating temperature, higher pH, and lower ionic strength were observed to produce harder gels from cruciferin. Gel hardness partly correlated with the structural stability of cruciferin.

  1. South African seed oils are safe for human consumption | Opperman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared three oils, i.e. canola, sunflower and olive oil, against internationally accepted standards, to determine the quality of these oils using gaschromatographic analysis, to determine whether or not there was any foundation to the statement pertaining to the toxicity of South African seed oils. Reported parameters ...

  2. Nutritional imbalance in smallholder oil palm plantations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, L.S.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an exceptionally efficient producer of vegetable oil. Its potential production is estimated to
    be well over 10 tons of oil per hectare per year, at least three times more than the second most efficient vegetable oil producer,
    canola. The cultivation of

  3. Localization and composition of seed oils of Crithmum maritimum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... The C. maritimum L. seed oil was rich with oleic acid (78.6%), low level of palmitic acid (4.8%) and non negligible amount of linoleic acid (15.4%). This composition is similar to olive oil and canola oil. These results confirmed the good quality of C. maritimum L. seed oils. Keys word: Halophytes; Crithmum ...

  4. Developing selenium-enriched animal feed and biofuel from canola planted for managing Se-laden drainage waters in the westside of central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, G S; Da Roche, J; Robinson, J

    2010-03-01

    We studied the reuse of selenium (Se)-laden effluent for producing canola (Brassica napus) and subsequent bioproducts in central California. Canola was irrigated with poor quality waters [electrical conductivity (EC) of approximately 5 dS m(-1) sulfate-salinity, 5 mg B L(-1), and 0.25 mg Se L(-1)]. Typical seed yields were 2.2 metric tons ha(-1). Seeds were processed for their oil, and transesterified to produce ASTM-quality biodiesel (BD) blends. The resulting Se-enriched seed cake meal (containing approximately 2 mg Se kg(-1) DM) was used in a dairy feed trial. Seventy-two Jersey and Holstein cows, 36 respectively, were fed Se-enriched canola meal as 6.2% of their daily feed ration for five weeks. Blood and milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for total Se. This study showed that Se-enriched canola meal did not significantly increase total blood Se content in either cow breed. Milk Se concentrations did, however, significantly increase to safe levels of 59 microg Se L(-1) and 52 microg Se L(-1) in Jersey and Holstein cows, respectively. The production of BD 20 biofuels and Se-enriched feed meal from canola irrigated with poor quality waters may help sustain similar phytomanagement strategies under Se-rich conditions.

  5. Potential for optimized production and use of rapeseed biodiesel. Based on a comprehensive real-time LCA case study in Denmark with multiple pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Jørgensen, Andreas; Bruun, Sander

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Several factors contribute to the current increased focus on alternative fuels such as biodiesel, including an increasing awareness of the environmental impact of petrochemical (PC) oil products such as PC diesel, the continuously increasing price of PC oil, and the depletion of PC oil...... methods. The modeling of the LCA is based on a specific Danish biodiesel production facility. Methods: The functional unit is “1,000 km transportation for a standard passenger car.” All relevant process stages are included, such as rapeseed production including carbon sequestration and N2O balances...... for improvement include the increased use of residual straw from rapeseed fields for combustion in a power plant where carbon sequestration is considered, and a change in transesterification from a conventional process to an enzymatic process when using bioethanol instead of PC methanol. This research also...

  6. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madawala, S. R. P.; Kochhar, S. P.; Dutta, P. C.

    2012-11-01

    Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O{sub 2}/kg) but AV and Rancimat values at 100 degree centigrade (except for rapeseed oils) varied considerably at (0.5-15.5) and (4.2-37.0 h) respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4%) and walnut oil had the highest (71%) level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27%) compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%). In all the samples, {alpha}- and {gamma}- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 {mu}g/g oil. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol (61-85%) and campesterol (6-20%). Argan oil contained schottenol (35%) and spinasterol (32%). Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study. (Author) 33 refs.

  7. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  8. Effects of frying in various cooking oils on fatty acid content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was to describe the effects of frying with various oils on the fatty acid content of rainbow trout. Four different oils were evaluated (peanut oil, high oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, and canola oil). Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were sliced into three portions and eac...

  9. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (poil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (poil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

  10. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing genetically modified canola meal from event DP-Ø73496-4, near-isogenic canola meal, or commercial canola meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Rice, D; Smith, B; Hong, B; Delaney, B; Iiams, C

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) canola (Brassica napus L.) line containing event DP-Ø73496-4 (hereafter referred to as 73496 canola) was produced by the insertion of the glyphosate acetyltransferase (gat4621) gene derived from Bacillus licheniformis. Expression of the GAT4621 protein present in 73496 canola plants confers in planta tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate. The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of broiler chickens fed canola meal from 73496 canola seed with that of broiler chickens fed non-GM canola meal in a 42-d feeding trial. Diets were prepared using meal processed from seed from unsprayed 73496 plants or from plants sprayed with an in-field application of glyphosate herbicide [73496(S)]. For comparison, additional diets were produced with canola meal obtained from the non-GM near-isogenic control or non-GM commercial reference DuPont Pioneer brand varieties 42H72, 42H73, 46A65, and 44A89. Diets were fed to Ross 708 broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases: starter and grower phases containing 10 or 20% canola meal, respectively, and a finisher phase with a common corn-soybean meal diet without any canola meal. No statistically significant differences were observed in growth performance measures or organ and carcass yields between broilers consuming diets produced with canola meal from unsprayed or sprayed 73496 seed and those consuming diets produced with canola meal from control seed. Additionally, all performance, organ, and carcass measures from control, 73496, and 73496(S) canola treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from the reference canola groups. It was concluded from these results that meal processed from 73496 canola seed (unsprayed plants or plants sprayed with glyphosate) was nutritionally equivalent to meal processed from non-GM near-isogenic control canola seed. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Perspectives on the use of seed oils in the South African diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    better understanding. Opperman et al1 addressed the suggestion made in The Real Meal Revolution2 that seed oils are toxic, high in trans fat and genetically modified in this issue of the SAJCN. The authors concluded in their findings that South African seed oils,. i.e. sunflower oil, olive oil and canola oil are of good quality ...

  12. Seed bank persistence of genetically modified canola in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Douglas J; Brittan, Kent L; Lanini, W Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Canola, which is genetically modified (GM) for tolerance to glyphosate, has the potential to become established as a new glyphosate resistant weed, thus reducing the effectiveness of glyphosate. Volunteer from dormant canola seeds produced thousands of plants per hectare in the fourth year (2011) following a 2007 crop harvest. This occurred with no additional canola seed production since the 2007 harvest. Volunteer plants following harvests of annual crops are typically only a problem for the first year after harvest. In California, glyphosate is the core herbicide on over a million hectares of high value row, tree, and vine crops and new glyphosate resistant weeds reduce the effectiveness of glyphosate. The combination of dormant seed and herbicide resistance makes GM glyphosate-resistant canola a new and difficult California weed which was first observed in the winter of 2009.

  13. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    Bconcentrations. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, plasma cholesterol ester and platelets was alsodetermined. RESULTS: Significantly (P ...: Partially replacing milk fat with rapeseed oil seems to yield amore healthy spread. Stearic acid had a HDL-C lowering effect compared to milk fat, but did not affect LDL-Csignificantly. The addition of stearic acid did not improve the plasma lipoprotein profile for young men with lowcholesterol levels....... grams of the fat content of the habitualdiets was replaced by either butter/grapeseed oil (90:10) (BG); butter oil and low erucic rapeseed oil (65:35) (BR) orbutter blended in a 1:1 ratio with a interesterified mixture of rapeseed oil and fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil (70: 30)(BS). SUBJECTS: Thirteen...

  14. Xerophilic mycopopulations isolated from rapeseeds (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation related to mycological populations of rapeseed samples produced in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad (location: Rimski Šančevi, Novi Sad, with a special emphasis on the potentially toxigenic mycopopulations. Mycological investigations were performed on the samples that were treated with 4% solution of Na-hypochlorite, and on the ones that were not submitted to this treatment. Isolation and determination of total mould count was carried out using Dichloran Glycerol Agar (DG18. The identification of isolated moulds was done according to modern keys for fungal determination. From 20 untreated tested samples, 17 were contaminated with moulds (10.0 to 4.7x102 cfu/g. When the samples were treated with 4% solution of Na-hypochlorite, moulds were isolated only form 4 samples, and the total mould count ranged from 10.0 to 60.0 cfu/g. In the isolated mycopopulations, xerophilic moulds dominated, especially those from the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium. In the isolated mycopopulations, high degree of isolated species belonged to toxigenic species from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Eurotium and Penicillium. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009 i br.TR31025

  15. Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uloth, V; Shewchuk, D; Guy, E; van Heek, R

    2009-01-01

    .... Lab tests showed that the addition of tall oil fatty acids, or waste fatty acids from canola processing, could decrease tall oil soap solubility and potentially increase soap skimming efficiency in the affected mills...

  16. Effect of traditional Chinese cooking methods on fatty acid profiles of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yamin; Hao, Pengfei; Liu, Bingjie; Meng, Xianghong

    2017-10-15

    The effect of four frying processes (vegetable salad, stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying) on fatty acid composition of ten vegetable oils (peanut oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower seed oil, rice bran oil, olive oil, sesame oil, linseed oil, and peony seed oil) was investigated using GC-MS. The result showed that trans-fatty acid (TFA) was produced during all processes. Rapeseed oil had the highest TFA content in vegetable salad oil with 2.88% of total fatty acid. The TFA content of sunflower seed oil was 0.00% in vegetable salad oil, however, after stir frying and pan frying, it increased to 1.53% and 1.29%, respectively. Peanut oil had the lowest TFA content after deep frying for 12h with 0.74mg/g. It was concluded that a healthy cooking process could be acquired by a scientific collocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapeseed oil as feedstock for high functionality polyol synthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirpluks, M.; Kalnbunde, D.; Walterová, Zuzana; Cabulis, U.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, 3-4 (2017), s. 258-270 ISSN 2164-6325 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyols * polyurethane foam s * renewable raw materials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2016

  18. Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

    2010-06-01

    Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of Canola Residue Characteristics Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami L. Stubbs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been done to characterize and quantify the residue traits affecting decomposition of winter and spring canola (Brassica napus L. residue in dryland farming systems of the Pacific Northwest United States. Traditional methods of characterizing residue fiber and nutrients are time-consuming and expensive and require large quantities of chemical reagents. The goal of this research was to determine whether near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS could accurately predict neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL, carbon (C, and nitrogen (N of canola stems, litter, and roots and decomposition of canola stems. Canola residue varied in decomposition, fiber, and nutrients by year, location, and type. NIRS predictions were successful for NDF and ADF in 2011 (standard error of prediction SEP0.95 and NDF, ADF, and N in 2012 (SEP0.91. Other predictions for residue fiber and nutrient characteristics were considered moderately successful. Prediction of canola residue decomposition with NIRS was useful for screening purposes. Near-infrared spectroscopy shows promise for rapidly and reproducibly predicting some canola residue fiber and nutrient traits and may be useful for estimating residue decomposition potential in dryland conservation cropping systems.

  20. Cold stress causes rapid but differential changes in properties of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of camelina and rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sung; Oh, Jung-Min; Luan, Sheng; Carlson, John E; Ahn, Sung-Ju

    2013-06-15

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) and rapeseed (Brassica napus) are well-established oil-seed crops with great promise also for biofuels. Both are cold-tolerant, and camelina is regarded to be especially appropriate for production on marginal lands. We examined physiological and biochemical alterations in both species during cold stress treatment for 3 days and subsequent recovery at the temperature of 25°C for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, and 24h, with particular emphasis on the post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC3.6.3.14). The activity and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase, as well as 14-3-3 proteins, increased after 3 days of cold stress in both species but recovery under normal conditions proceeded differently. The increase in H(+)-ATPase activity was the most dramatic in camelina roots after recovery for 2h at 25°C, followed by decay to background levels within 24h. In rapeseed, the change in H(+)-ATPase activity during the recovery period was less pronounced. Furthermore, H(+)-pumping increased in both species after 15min recovery, but to twice the level in camelina roots compared to rapeseed. Protein gel blot analysis with phospho-threonine anti-bodies showed that an increase in phosphorylation levels paralleled the increase in H(+)-transport rate. Thus our results suggest that cold stress and recovery in camelina and rapeseed are associated with PM H(+)-fluxes that may be regulated by specific translational and post-translational modifications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    . Glucosinolates can be transformed enzymatic by the enzyme myrosinase (EC. 3.2.1.147), or non-enzymatic by heat treatment or under the acidic and reducing conditions in the stomach of monogastrics. The type of transformation product depends on the parent glucosinolate and of the chemical conditions, and in some...... for cheaper protein rapeseed meal has been considered as an alternative to soya-protein. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. spp. oleifera) has a well-balanced amino acid profile for monogastrics, but it contains several compounds which are anti-nutritional and might lower the protein quality and limit the amount...... cake was included, while losses up to 88% were observed when cold-pressed rapeseed caked was used. N-balance trials with rats clearly demonstrated effects on the biologic value caused by high glucosinolate concentrations, active myrosinase and long temperature treatments. The second study (manuscript...

  2. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  3. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from rapeseed plant in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Talebnia, Farid; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the utilization of the whole rapeseed plant (seed and straw) for multi-biofuels production in a biorefinery concept. Results showed that bioethanol production from straw was technically feasible with ethanol yield of 0.15 g ethanol/g dry straw after combined alkaline......, results from continuous experiments demonstrated that the two-stage hydrogen and methane fermentation process could work stably at organic loading rate up to 4.5 gVS/(L d), while the single-stage methane production process failed. The energy recovery efficiency from rapeseed plant increased from 20...

  4. Evaluation Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield Canola Cultivars under end Seasonal Drought Stress in Weather Condition of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Seyed Ahmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate canola cultivars response to physiological characteristics and grain yield end seasonal drought stress in weather condition of Ahvaz, farm experiments were done at research farm of Khuzestan agriculture and natural resources center. During 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 crop years. Farm test comprised drought stress was done as split plot form with randomize complete block design with four replication, treatments consist of drought stress (main factor including 50, 60 and 70 percent of water use content, which was applied from early heading stage until physiological maturity, and three spring canola cultivar including Shirali, Hayola 401 and R.G.S. were considered as sub plots. Measurements include biological yield, grain yield, harvesting index, number of pod per plant 1000 grain weight, number of grain in pod, plant height, and stem diameter, oil and protein percentage. Results showed that drought stress reduced significantly grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and the average of reduction of them during 2 years for per unit reduce moisture from 50% to 70% were 2, 1.35, and 0.81 percent, respectively. During two years, 1000 grain weight, number of pods per plant and number of grain per pod reduced 27, 36 and 20 percent, respectively. Terminal Drought stress reduced significantly plant height, stem diameter, stem number per plant and pod length, this reduced were 12, 46, 36 and 14 percent, respectively. Stem diameter, and stem number per plant reduced more than other characteristics. In this study oil grain decreased 12 % and protein grain increased 18.5% but oil and protein yield decreased 44.9% and 27.1% respectively..Finally, in weather condition of Khuzestan, terminal drought stress on February and March in which has simultaneous with early flowering stage and filling seed, significantly, reduced yield and compounded yield and affects on stem growth and qualities oil and protein negatively. Therefore, with irrigation

  5. Effect of Different Levels of Sulphur Bentonite on Yield and Yield Components of Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rahimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of different levels of sulfur bentonite on yield and yield components of canola a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad in 2009-2010 growing season. Factors included four levels of sulfur bentonite (0, 300, 400 and 500 kg.h-1 and two varieties of canola (Modena and Zarfam. The result showed that the increase in sulfur increased some vegetative traits such as leaf area index and plant height. Using sulfur caused increased pod number, seed weight, in addition of oil and protein content and seed yield. Grain yield increase was due to seed weight and LAI. Two varieties were different to responses the sulfur. While in no sulfur application there was no significant difference in seed yield, in 500 Kg sulfur application yield of Zarfam compared to Modena increased about 29.63. According to the results there are significant differences between cultivars in terms of response to the sulfur fertilizer. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate effect of sulfur application of canola productivity in different climate conditions of Iran.

  6. Effects of osmopriming on seed germination of canola (Brassica napus L.) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M; Tavakkol-Afshari, R

    2006-01-01

    Canola has good yield and performance in weak and saline soils that other oil crops can not be cultivated in them. Performance and production of this crop can be improved by increasing the vigor of its seeds. Priming is one of the techniques for enhancing seed vigor under stress condition. Pretreatment of seeds in osmotic solutions is called osmopriming, which is used to increase the seed moisture content and speed of germination. In this study, seeds of three varieties of canola (SLM046, Okapi and Licord) were primed in osmotic solutions and then were germinated under salinity stress at laboratory conditions. Osmotic solutions were made by polyethylene glycol 6000 in osmotic potentials of -10, -12, -14, -16 and -18 bar for 24 h. NaCl solutions with electrical conductivities of 0, 6, 12 and 18 ds/m were used to make salinity stress. Results of this study showed that osmopriming could be used to increase the performance of seeds under normal and salinity stress.

  7. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.304 Grades and grade requirements for canola. Grading factors Grades, U.S. Nos...

  8. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  9. Comparative proteome analysis of drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant rapeseed roots and their hybrid F1 line under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Payam Pour; Moieni, Ahmad; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-11-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), which is the third leading source of vegetable oil, is sensitive to drought stress during the early vegetative growth stage. To investigate the initial response of rapeseed to drought stress, changes in the protein expression profiles of drought-sensitive (RGS-003) and drought-tolerant lines (SLM-003), and their F1 hybrid, were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Seven-day-old rapeseed seedlings were treated with drought stress by restricting water for 7 days, and proteins were extracted from roots and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the sensitive rapeseed line, 35 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins related to metabolism, energy, disease/defense, and transport were decreased. In the tolerant line, 32 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins involved in metabolism, disease/defense, and transport were increased, while energy-related proteins were decreased. Six protein spots in F1 hybrid were common among expressed proteins in the drought-sensitive and -tolerant lines. Notably, tubulin beta-2 and heat shock protein 70 were decreased in the drought-sensitive line and hybrid F1 plants, while jasmonate-inducible protein and 20S proteasome subunit PAF1 were increased in the F1 hybrids and drought-tolerant line. These results indicate that (1) V-type H(+) ATPase, plasma-membrane associated cation-binding protein, HSP 90, and elongation factor EF-2 have a role in the drought tolerance of rapeseed; (2) The decreased levels of heat shock protein 70 and tubulin beta-2 in the drought-sensitive and hybrid F1 lines might explain the reduced growth of these lines in drought conditions.

  10. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Krička

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate usability of rapeseed cake from biodiesel fuel production as an energy source. For this research, rapeseed was grown at the research site of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, Croatia. The investigated rapeseed cake, residue from cold pressing, was divided in two groups of samples. The first group was a mix of three varieties (Bristol, Express and Navajo, while the other group consisted of three hybrids (Artus, Baldur, Titan. The utilization of rapeseed cake for energy via two routes was evaluated; namely, utilization of rapeseed cake as (1 solid biofuel (pellets with addition of 3% of glycerol, and (2 as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD. In investigation of cake as solid fuel, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon and volatile matter, ultimate (content of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and physical and calometry analyses (abrasion, diameter, length, density, higher and lower heating value were carried out. As for its use in AD, production of biogas during 40 days was monitored with a view of assessing the use of digested residue as fertilizer in agricultural production. Both groups of digested residues were analysed (pH, electroconductivity, moisture content, ash content, content of nitrogen and carbon, C/N ratio, content of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na. The analysis indicated that the investigated raw material is usable as solid and gas biofuel, and digested residue as fertilizer in ecological agriculture. The two groups of samples analysed here did not show significant differences.

  11. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  12. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M; Sujan, S.M.A; Jamal, M.S

    2013-01-01

    Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation s...

  13. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Over-Expressing MicroRNA394

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Shen, Qi; Li, Bo Wen; Song, Jun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus) miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS (BnLCR) to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS) and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA) composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (BnLEC1), BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3). Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development. PMID:25978066

  14. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  15. Digestibility and intestinal fermentability of canola meal from Brassica juncea and Brassica napus fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M.H.A.; Buchet, A.D.G.; Beltranena, E.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Zijlstra, R.T.

    2017-01-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica (B.) juncea is a novel canola species. Therefore, its meal co-product requires feed quality evaluation and comparison to conventional, dark-seeded B. napus canola meal for pigs. The B. juncea canola meal contains less fibre than B. napus canola meal (190 vs. 260 g NDF/kg, as

  16. Localization and composition of seed oils of Crithmum maritimum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of oils was 44.4% dry weight basis. The C. maritimum L. seed oil was rich with oleic acid (78.6%), low level of palmitic acid (4.8%) and non negligible amount of linoleic acid (15.4%). This composition is similar to olive oil and canola oil. These results confirmed the good quality of C. maritimum L. seed oils.

  17. Energy balances of bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, maize, rapeseed) and their CO2-mitigation potential on a regional farm scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, D.; Emmerling, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing cultivation of energy crops in agriculture reveals the progressive substitution of fossil fuels, such as crude oil or brown coal. For the future development of renewable resources, the efficiency of different cropping systems will be crucial, as energy crops differ in terms of the energy needed for crop cultivation and refinement and the respective energy yield, e.g. per area. Here, balancing is certainly the most suitable method for the assessment of cropping system efficiency, contrasting energy inputs with energy outputs and the related CO2 emissions with potential CO2 credits due to substitution of fossil fuels, respectively. The aim of the present study was to calculate both energy and CO2 balances for rapeseed and maize, representing the recently most often cultivated energy crops in Germany, on a regional farm scale. Furthermore, special emphasis was made on perennial Miscanthus x giganteus, which is commonly used as a solid fuel for combustion. This C4-grass is of increasing interest due to its high yield potential accompanied by low requirements for soil tillage, weed control, and fertilization as well as long cultivation periods up to 25 years. In contrast to more general approaches, balances were calculated with local data from commercial farms. The site-specific consumption of diesel fuel was calculated using an online-based calculator, developed by the German Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (KTBL). By balancing each of the aforementioned cropping systems, our research focused on (i) the quantification of energy gains and CO2 savings due to fossil fuel substitution and (ii) the assessment of energy efficiency, expressed as the ratio of energy output to input. The energy input was highest for maize sites (33.8 GJ ha-1 yr-1), followed by rapeseed (18.2 GJ ha-1 yr-1), and Miscanthus (1.1 GJ ha-1 yr-1); corresponding energy yields were 129.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1 (maize), 83.6 GJ ha-1 yr-1 (rapeseed), and 259.7 GJ ha-1 yr-1

  18. Effects of intensive and alternative production systems on the technological and quality parameters of rapeseed seed (Brassica napus L. 'Siska').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinek, Maja; Bavec, Martina; Repič, Milan; Turinek, Matjaž; Krajnc, Andreja Urbanek; Möllers, Christian; Tres, Alba; Bavec, Franc

    2017-06-01

    Organic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics, compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. 'Siska' seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed. The BD and ORG production systems positively influenced oleic fatty acid and oil content in comparison to INT, which had higher levels of protein and water content (19.8% and 4.7%, respectively), as well as linolenic (3.8%), gadoleic (12.6%) and hexadecadienoic (15.5%) fatty acids. Increases in the listed parameters were linked to mineral fertilizer application in the INT production system. With principal component analysis (PCA) the INT samples were clearly differentiated. The PCA results were influenced by differences in linolenic, gadoleic and behenic fatty acid levels as well as protein and water content. Because quality parameters in rapeseed are increased in alternative production systems, production with an understanding of the soil processes and yield formation presents an opportunity for ORG and BD farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. One Novel Multiple-Target Plasmid Reference Molecule Targeting Eight Genetically Modified Canola Events for Genetically Modified Canola Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuqing; Li, Xiang; Wang, Canhua; Song, Guiwen; Pi, Liqun; Zheng, Lan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2017-09-27

    Multiple-target plasmid DNA reference materials have been generated and utilized as good substitutes of matrix-based reference materials in the analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Herein, we report the construction of one multiple-target plasmid reference molecule, pCAN, which harbors eight GM canola event-specific sequences (RF1, RF2, MS1, MS8, Topas 19/2, Oxy235, RT73, and T45) and a partial sequence of the canola endogenous reference gene PEP. The applicability of this plasmid reference material in qualitative and quantitative PCR assays of the eight GM canola events was evaluated, including the analysis of specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and performance of pCAN in the analysis of various canola samples, etc. The LODs are 15 copies for RF2, MS1, and RT73 assays using pCAN as the calibrator and 10 genome copies for the other events. The LOQ in each event-specific real-time PCR assay is 20 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and PEP assays are between 91% and 97%, and the squared regression coefficients (R2) are all higher than 0.99. The quantification bias values varied from 0.47% to 20.68% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.06% to 24.61% in the quantification of simulated samples. Furthermore, 10 practical canola samples sampled from imported shipments in the port of Shanghai, China, were analyzed employing pCAN as the calibrator, and the results were comparable with those assays using commercial certified materials as the calibrator. Concluding from these results, we believe that this newly developed pCAN plasmid is one good candidate for being a plasmid DNA reference material in the detection and quantification of the eight GM canola events in routine analysis.

  20. Nutritional value of full-fat green canola seed fed to growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Yánez, J; Young, M G; Lanz, G; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Immature green canola seed (full-fat green canola seed [FFGC]) is rejected by canola crushing plants due to chlorophyll staining of oil destined for human consumption. With >35% oil, FFGC can contribute energy to pig diets. The nutritive value of FFGC for growing-finishing pigs was determined in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (46.5 kg BW) were fed 3 diets as a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square to determine standardized ileal digestible (SID) coefficients of AA and calculate DE and NE values for FFGC. A diet including 40% FFGC replaced wheat in a basal diet and a cornstarch-based N-free diet were fed to determine energy and nutrient digestibility by difference and to estimate basal endogenous AA losses to calculate SID of AA. In Exp. 2, 1,100 pigs (32.9 kg BW), housed in 50 pens of 22 barrows or gilts per pen, were fed 5 diets including 0, 5, 10, and 15% constant or declining amounts (15, 10, 5, 0, and 0%, respectively) of FFGC over 5 phases to determine effects of feeding FFGC on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Phase diets were formulated to provide 4.00, 3.60, 3.25, 2.90, and 2.65 g SID Lys/Mcal NE for d 0 to 21, d 22 to 42, d 43 to 62, d 63 to 74, and d 75 to 123 kg market weight. Carcass characteristics were measured using the Destron grading system. On DM basis, FFGC contained 43% ether extract, 25% CP, 22% NDF, 10 μmol/g glucosinolates, 1.35% Lys, 0.5% Met, 0.9% Thr, and 0.27% Trp. In FFGC, SID coefficients of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were 86.9, 87.3, 76.9, and 84.3%, respectively, and calculated DE and NE values were 4.92 and 3.50 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. Overall, increasing dietary FFGC inclusion from 0 to 15% linearly decreased (P barley and reducing wheat, soybean meal, and tallow in diets. Inclusion of FFGC in swine diets should, therefore, be based on targeted G:F and relative cost to other feedstuffs.

  1. Genetic basis of nitrogen use efficiency and yield stability across environments in winter rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Anne-Sophie; Laperche, Anne; Bissuel-Belaygue, Christine; Baron, Cécile; Morice, Jérôme; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Dheu, Jean-Eric; George, Pierre; Pinochet, Xavier; Foubert, Thomas; Maes, Olivier; Dugué, Damien; Guinot, Florent; Nesi, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    Nitrogen use efficiency is an important breeding trait that can be modified to improve the sustainability of many crop species used in agriculture. Rapeseed is a major oil crop with low nitrogen use efficiency, making its production highly dependent on nitrogen input. This complex trait is suspected to be sensitive to genotype × environment interactions, especially genotype × nitrogen interactions. Therefore, phenotyping diverse rapeseed populations under a dense network of trials is a powerful approach to study nitrogen use efficiency in this crop. The present study aimed to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with yield in winter oilseed rape and to assess the stability of these regions under contrasting nitrogen conditions for the purpose of increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Genome-wide association studies and linkage analyses were performed on two diversity sets and two doubled-haploid populations. These populations were densely genotyped, and yield-related traits were scored in a multi-environment design including seven French locations, six growing seasons (2009 to 2014) and two nitrogen nutrition levels (optimal versus limited). Very few genotype × nitrogen interactions were detected, and a large proportion of the QTL were stable across nitrogen nutrition conditions. In contrast, strong genotype × trial interactions in which most of the QTL were specific to a single trial were found. To obtain further insight into the QTL × environment interactions, genetic analyses of ecovalence were performed to identify the genomic regions contributing to the genotype × nitrogen and genotype × trial interactions. Fifty-one critical genomic regions contributing to the additive genetic control of yield-associated traits were identified, and the structural organization of these regions in the genome was investigated. Our results demonstrated that the effect of the trial was greater than the effect of nitrogen nutrition

  2. Visualizing tissue molecular structure of a black type of canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-20

    Heat-related processing of cereal grains, legume seeds, and oil seeds could be used to improve nutrient availability in ruminants. However, different types of processing may have a different impact on intrinsic structure of tissues. To date, there is little research on structure changes after processing within intact tissues. The synchrotron-based molecular imaging technique enables us to detect inherent structure change on a molecular level. The objective of this study was to visualize tissue of black-type canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way using the synchrotron imaging technique. The results showed that the chemical images of protein amides were obtained through the imaging technique for the raw, wet, and dry heated black type of canola seed tissues. It seems that different types of processing have a different impact on the protein spectral profile in the black type of canola tissues. Wet heating had a greater impact on the protein α-helix to β-sheet ratio than dry heating. Both dry and wet heating resulted in different patterns in amide I, the second derivative, and FSD spectra. However, the exact differences in the tissue images are relatively difficult to be obtained through visual comparison. Future studies should focus on (1) comparing the response and sensitivity of canola seeds to various processing methods between the yellow-type and black-type of canola seeds; (2) developing a sensitive method to compare the image difference between tissues and between treatments; (3) developing a method to link images to nutrient digestion, and (4) revealing how structure changes affect nutrient absorption in humans and animals.

  3. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Święch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  4. Canola traits and some soil biological parameters in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the effects of fertilization and tillage methods on soil microbial community and canola traits. A field experiment was carried out in 2009 to 2010 growing season. Experiments were arranged in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots consisted of no ...

  5. Glucosinolates and other anti-nutritive compounds in canola meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canola meals from six varieties cultivated in Egypt (Seru4 and Pactol) and Japan (Kirariboshi, Tohoku95, Oominantane and Kizakinonatane) were investigated regarding anti-nutritive compounds, namely glucosinolates, phytic acid, sinapine and total phenols. All varieties except Kirariboshi contained a high level of total ...

  6. Effect of cottonseed and canola seed on unsaturated fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    Abstract. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of extruded cotton seed (ECOS) and canola seed. (ECAS) in the diet of male Mehraban lambs on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in their plasma, erythrocytes and livers. The treatments were: (1) control (C); (2) diet C+6% ECAS, (3) diet C+6% ECOS,.

  7. Identification of Turnip mosaic virus isolated from canola in northeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During March and April of 2011, 436 samples showing viral disease symptoms were collected from canola fields in the Khorasan Razavi province. The samples were tested by double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Among the 436 ...

  8. Nutritional evaluation of treated canola straw for ruminants using in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and estimate the nutritive value of molasses treated with canola straw using in vitro gas production technique with Taleshi native male cattle. Experimental materials were collected from different regions of Parsabad province (Ardabile, Iran).

  9. Assessing transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractionation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bojanowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Having considered increasing production of liquid and solid biofuels from rapeseed and bearing in mind its stable and unquestionable position in  the food and animal feed industries, a rational approach towards technologically and logistically efficient utilization of by-products from rapeseed processing is required. The aim of the research presented in the article is to assess the transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractions, varying according to particle size and chemical composition. Methods: Resistance to changes stimulating self-heating has been assumed as the main criterion of transport susceptibility. The following diagnostic variables have been experimentally determined: total protein, crude fat and crude fiber content, porosity, and water activity in the fraction of examined meal. In order to organize a set of particles and to indicate their optimal applications according to criteria chosen with regard to both  utilization and transportation, two aggregate indicators have been calculated. Results: It has been proved that medium-sized particle fractions (0.075-0.4 mm exhibit the lowest transport susceptibility, whereas the those with the largest granulations (>3 mm -have the highest. One significant relationship is the decline of feeding value and concurrent increase in the transport susceptibility of meal fractions, which in practice means that those fractions least-favoured by the animal feed industry can be least cumbersome to transport. Conclusions: It has been suggested that there should be a division of rapeseed meal into two products with different applications and different transport susceptibility. The fractioning of meal can bring numerous, measurable benefits for the meal industry and logistics processes for solid biofuels, where storage and transport properties have considerable importance, alongside commodity price and transport costs.

  10. Gas assisted mechanical expression of oilseeds: Influence of process parameters on oil yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Gas assisted mechanical expression (GAME) utilizes the solubility of supercritical CO2 in vegetable oils to enhance the oil yields of mechanical expression of oil seeds. The general applicability of GAME was demonstrated with experiments with sesame, linseed, rapeseed, palm kernel and jatropha

  11. Production Potential Prediction and Quantitative Land Suitability Evaluation for Irrigated Cultivation of Canola (Brassica napus, North of Shahrekord District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Givi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Land suitability evaluation and land production potential estimation are considered as prerequisites for land use planning. In quantitative land suitability evaluation, land suitability is evaluated based on production per surface area unit. In this kind of evaluation, first, radiation thermal production potential is calculated, using different models such as FAO model. This potential is a genetical one which is not under influence of water, soil and management limitations. If soil limitations are exerted in the radiation thermal production potential, land production potential is resulted. The difference between the land production potential and the farmer yield is that the first one is not under influence of management limitation but the second one is under influence of management. Management level is determined based on management index. Canola (Brassica napus is one of the oil crops which is cultivated in Iran and provides more than 90% of the required oil of the country. This crop is effective in the control of pests, diseases and weeds. Oil of the edible varieties of canola has good quality. After extraction of the oil, the remained meal is full of protein and is appropriate for animal nutrition. The aims of this research have been land production potential prediction and quantitative land suitability evaluation for irrigated canola in the north of Shahrekord. In the present research, for the first time, canola growth requirements were rated for different suitability classes. Materials and Methods: The studied land with a total surface area of 25 hectares is located north of Shahrekord, in the vicinity of the previous Saman industrial district. The average annual precipitation in the studied area is 370 mm and the mean annual temperature is 13.1 OC. 19 soil profiles were dug and described. Leaf area index, harvest index and canola grain moisture percentage were measured. Farmer yield was also measured for each profile and

  12. Biosorption of lead ions from aqueous effluents by rapeseed biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosanu, Irina; Teodosiu, Carmen; Paduraru, Carmen; Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Tofan, Lavinia

    2017-10-25

    Lead, as well as other heavy metals, is regarded as priority pollutant due to its non-biodegradability, toxicity and persistence in the environment. In this study, rapeseed biomass was used in the biosorption of Pb(II) ions in batch and dynamic conditions, as well as with tests for industrial wastewater. The influence of initial concentration (5-250mg/L), pH and contact time (0.5-6h) was investigated. The kinetic data modeling resulted in good correlations with the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The maximum sorption capacities of Pb(II) were 18.35, 21.29 and 22.7mg/L at 4, 20 and 50°C, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated the spontaneity and endothermic nature of lead biosorption on rapeseed biomass. The biosorption mechanism involves both physical and chemical interactions. The breakthrough curves at 50 and 100mg/L were determined and evaluated under dynamic conditions. The breakthrough time lowered with increasing the influent Pb(II) concentration. The experimental data obtained from fixed-bed column tests were well fitted by Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The calculated sorption capacities were in good agreement with the uptake capacity of Langmuir model. The applicability of rapeseed to be used as a sorbent for Pb(II) ions from real wastewater was tested, and Pb(II) removal efficiency of 94.47% was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Water Deficit Stress on Several Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad HOSSEINI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit stress considered as one of the most important limiting factors for oil seed canola (Brassica napus L. growth and productivity in Iran. To evaluate the effects of water deficit stress on some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of canola cultivars, this experiment in a greenhouse trial carried out as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz (Iran. Canola cultivars, including ‘Hyola 308’, ‘Hyola 401’ and ‘RGS 003’ as first factor, and the second one was three levels of water deficit stress, including stress at early stem elongation stage to early flowering (D1, early flowering stage to early emergence of sacs (D2, beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs (D3 and normal irrigation (C, as check. Results showed that the interaction between water deficit stress and cultivars affected biological yield, seed oil yields and harvest index (p≤0.01, dry matter and economic yield (p≤0.05. Water deficit stress reduced grain oil yields. ‘Hyola 308’ under stress at beginning stem elongation stage to early flowering had the lowest oil yields (1.1 g plants-1 and ‘Hyola 401’ under non-stress conditions showed highest oil yields (4.3 g plants-1. The decrease of oil yields at the flowering stage to stem elongation stage was more than the other stages. In addition, water deficit stress reduced harvest index in the three stress levels due to reduced economic yield and reduced biological yield. Stress susceptibility index for ‘Hyola 401’ at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs was 0.914 and the ‘Hyola 308’ showed 1.12 at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs respectively, which it can implies that ‘Hyola 308’ is more sensitive than ‘Hyola 401’ to water deficit stress.

  14. Different irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer treatments on some agro-physiologic traits in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Mashallah; Sarvestani, Zeinalaabdine Tahmasebi; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres

    2008-06-15

    In order to investigate the effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on agronomical and physiological traits of two winter rapeseed varieties, an experiment was established in a randomized complete block design as split-plot factorial arrangement with four replications in 2005-2006 at Agricultural Research Station of Khorramabad, Iran. Irrigation as main-plot factor consisted of four levels (I60, I90, I120 and I150). Sub-plot factors included nitrogen in four levels (N0, N70, N140, and N210 kg N ha(-1)) and two varieties (Zarfam and SLM046). Thousand-seed weight (TSW) in all irrigation and nitrogen levels was lower in the 2006 than that of the 2005. Seed oil percentage (SOP) was decreased with increasing water use only in second year. As nitrogen rate increased, SOP decreased and seed oil yield (SOY) increased in the 2006 significantly (p < 0.05). With increasing water supply, SOY increased in first year. Zarfam variety had a higher TSW and SOP in both years. According to combined analysis results, seed and oil yield were not significantly affected by irrigation treatments and rapeseed varieties. Seed yield had not significant difference between 70 to 210 kg N ha(-1) treatments. Both Water Use Efficiency (WUE) and dry matter remobilization efficiency (DMRE) were increased by decreasing water supply in I90 to I150 treatments. But N0 and N210 resulted in the lowest WUE and DMRE, respectively. Considering all traits, the first year of experiment was better than second year. The irrigation x variety interaction had a significant (p < 0.01) effect on seed yield and WUE. Generally, I150N70V1 combination is recommended in the region of the study due to high performance in production of seed and oil yield.

  15. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on performance of lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canola meal (CM) has been shown to be a more effective crude protein (CP) source than soybean meal (SBM) for lactating dairy cows. Treating CM may increase its rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction and improve the amount of absorbable amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...

  16. The Effect of Feeding Different Dietary Oil Source on Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shahram

    2016-03-11

    Mar 11, 2016 ... Abstract. Twenty-six-week-old laying hens (90 Lohmann Classic Brown) received dietary treatments containing canola and linseed oil at 2% inclusion levels and a control diet for 21 days. The 2% dietary linseed oil, which had higher total polyunsaturated fatty acids (ΣPUFA) and linolenic fatty acid contents, ...

  17. Effect of Zeolite, Selenium and Silicon on Yield, Yield Components and Some Physiological Traits of Canola under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bybordi

    2016-07-01

    chlorophyll, relative water content, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, as well as malondialdehyde, sodium and potassium content in the leaves. The samples were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept in -80° C freezer. At the end of the growing season, agronomic traits such as silique number, seed number on silique, 1000- grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were recorded. Total oil percentage and fatty acids (oleic, linolenic and linoleic percentage were measured. Results and Discussion The combined analysis of variance indicated that the effect of year was significant on all studied traits, except for silique number, grain number in silique, linoleic acid, chlorophyll content and peroxidase activity. In addition, the results showed that the main effect of zeolite, selenium and silicon were significant on all canola studied traits. However, relative water content and peroxidase activity were not affected by silicon application. Comparison of means indicated that triple interaction was significant at 1000- grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate, relative water content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Some traits such as 1000- grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil percentage, linolenic percentage and superoxide dismutase activity as well as sodium content in leaves were found to be higher in the second year compared with the first year. Zeolite significantly increased silique number and grain number in silique. Furthermore, harvest index increased with the increase of zeolite level. According to the results, selenium increased silique number, grain number in silique and harvest index in canola plants. Silicon foliar application also significantly increased silique number, grain number in silique and harvest index. The highest chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis rate and relative water content were registered when zeolite was applied at 10% w: w and

  18. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  19. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, and omasal nutrient flow in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treated canola meal (TCM) was produced as an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM) with the goal of enhancing amino acid (AA) availability for absorption in the small intestine of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to measure nutrient and micr...

  20. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs...... with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater (P...... N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased (P canola meal increased. Serum concentrations of IgG were reduced if canola meal was included in the diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case...

  1. Liquid transportation fuels from algal oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daichuan

    Liquid transportation fuels from renewable sources are becoming more prominent and important in modem society. Processing of hydrocarbon oils from algae has not been studied in detail in the past, so components which have been proposed for incorporation in algal oils via genetic engineering, such as cuparene, farnesene, phytol and squalene, have been subjected to processing via catalytic cracking in a pulse reactor at different temperatures. The cracking results showed that liquid products contained numerous high octane molecules which make it feasible for use in automobiles. Additionally, canola oil, chosen as an algal oil model compound, was studied as a feed for catalytic cracking in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure over different types of zeolites. The results showed that MFI catalysts gave the highest yield of gasoline range products and lowest coke formation. Gallium loaded MFI zeolites increased the total aromatics yield for the canola oil cracking relative to the acid form of the zeolite. Finally, algal oils were cracked on several selected zeolites, and the results showed the same trend as canola oil cracking. MFI gave the highest gasoline yield (43.8 wt%) and lowest coke (4.7 wt%). The total aromatics yield from algae oil cracking is improved 7.8 wt% when MFI is loaded with gallium.

  2. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  3. Use of Mass Spectrometry with Electrospray Ionization and Exploratory Analysis for Classification of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Adulterated with Vegetable Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Hery Mitsutake; Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; Lucas C. Gontijo; Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; Felipe B. Santana; Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; Eloiza Guimarães; Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; Lilian Lúcia da Rocha; Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora; Waldomiro Borges Neto; Universidade Federal de Uberlândia

    2015-01-01

    Due to the economic value and health benefits of the extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), this product is mainly the subject of adulteration by addition of cheaper vegetable oils. Thus, this study evaluated the detection of extra virgin olive samples oil adulterated with oils of canola, sunflower, corn and soybeans through exploratory multivariate analysis. The oil fingerprints were obtained by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in positive ion mode (ESI(+)-MS). The mass spectrometry da...

  4. Oxygen content and oxidation in frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Mori, Terutoshi; Hammond, Earl G

    2013-01-01

    The relation between oxygen content and oxidation was investigated in frying oils. When canola oil, a canola-soybean oil blend or a trioctanoylglycerol (glycerol tricaprate) sample were heated with stirring, their dissolved oxygen content decreased abruptly at about 120°C and the carbonyl values (CV) increased gradually with heating and reached values of 6-7 at 180°C in the blended and canola oils, while the CV of trioctanoylglycerol was zero up to 150°C. Probably this abrupt decrease in oxygen content above 120°C can be attributed to the solubility of oxygen in oil rather than because of oxidative reactions. The oxygen content of oil that has been stripped of part of its oxygen, increased at temperatures between 25 and 120°C. In oils that have lost their oxygen by being heated to 180°C, standing at room temperature will slowly restore their oxygen content as the oil cools. Intermittent simple heating of oil promoted oxygen absorbance during cooling periods and standing times, and it resulted in an elevated content of polar compounds (PC). Domestic deep-frying conditions also favor the presence of oxygen in oil below 120°C and during the oil's long standing at room temperature. The oxygen content in oil was low during deep-frying, but oxidation was active at the oil/air interface of bubbles generated by foods being fried. Repeated use of oil at temperatures between 25-180°C resulted in oil with low oxygen values.

  5. Enhancement of growth and nutrient uptake of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by applying mineral nutrients and biofertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasari, Esmaeil; Azadgoleh, M A Esmaeili; Mozafari, Saedeh; Alashti, Mahsa Rafati

    2009-01-15

    For investigating the effect of chemical fertilizer as well as biofertilizers on seed yield and quality i.e. oil, protein and nutrients concentration of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), a split-plot fertilizers application experimental design in 4 replications was carried out during the 2005-2006 growing season, at the Gharakheil Agricultural Research Station in the Mazandaran province of Iran. Rapeseed was grown as a second crop in rotation after rice. Biofertilizers treatments were two different levels: control (no seed inoculation) and seeds inoculation with a combination of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azosprillum brasilense and Azosprillum lipoferum, as main plot and chemical fertilizers comprised N, P, K and their combinations, NPKS and NPK Zn as sub plots. The maximum value of seed yield obtained at (BF+NPK Zn) 3421.2 kg h(-1) corresponding to 244.5 pods per plant and maximum concentration of Zn in leaves as well as seeds. The highest weight of 1000 seeds (4.45 g) happened to obtain at (BF+NPK S) which coinciding with the maximum K levels in leaves. The highest number of branches was obtained at (BF+NPK Zn) with 4.43 branches per plant i.e., 46.2% increase over the control. The maximum value of rapeseed oil content 47.73% obtained at T16 (BF+NK) but maximum protein concentration of seed obtained at T12 (BF+N). Overall the results indicated that inoculation resulted in increase in seeds yield (21.17%), number of pods per plant (16.05%), number of branches (11.78%), weight of 1000 grain (2.92%), oil content of seeds (1.73%) and protein (3.91%) but decrease (-0.24%) in number of seeds per pods comparing to non-Biofertilizers treatments. Irrespective to the treatments, results showed that application of Biofertilizers coincided with 3.86, 0.82, 2.25, 0.75 and 0.91% increase in concentrations of N, P, K, S and Zn in the seeds over the non-Biofertilizers treatments.

  6. Direct nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Köbke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suarez, Teresa; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heiner

    2014-05-01

    The production of first generation biofuels has increased over the last decade in Germany. However, there is a strong public and scientific debate concerning ecological impact and sustainability of biofuel production. The EU Renewables Directive requires biofuels to save 35 % of GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels. Starting in 2017, 50 % mitigation of GHG emissions must be achieved. This presents challenges for production of biofuels from rapeseed, which is one of the major renewable resources used for fuel production. Field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and GHG emissions during production of fertilizers contribute strongest to the GHG balance of rapeseed biofuel. Thus, the most promising GHG mitigation option is the optimization of nitrogen fertilization. Since 2012, field trials are conducted on five German research farms to quantify direct GHG emissions. The sites were selected to represent the main rapeseed production regions in Germany as well as climatic regions and soil types. Randomized plot designs were established, which allow monitoring (using manual chambers) impact of fertilization intensity on direct emissions and yield of the typical crop sequence (winter rape - winter wheat - winter barley). The effect of substituting mineral fertilizer with biogas digestate with and without addition of a nitrification inhibitor is also studied. Here we present results from the first cropping season. In 2013, annual direct N2O emissions as well as yield normalized N2O emissions from rape were low. This can be explained with the weather conditions as 2013 was characterized by a cold and long winter with snow until mid spring. As a result, emissions were smaller than predicted by the IPCC emission factors or by the Global Nitrous Oxide Calculator (GNOC). However, emissions still depend on nitrogen input.

  7. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  8. Oxidation stability of rapeseed biodiesel/petroleum diesel blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Anderson, James E.; Mueller, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    of the oxidation of a biodiesel fuel blend consisting of 30% (v/v) rapeseed methyl ester in petroleum diesel (B30) was conducted at 70 and 90 °C with three aeration rates. Oxidation rates increased with increasing temperature as indicated by decreases in induction period (Rancimat), concentrations of unsaturated......, and then decreased reflecting volatilization of fuel and volatile oxidation products. Peroxide concentration showed a peak that coincided with the most rapid rate of oxygen incorporation, acid formation, and polyunsaturated FAME degradation. Net oxygen incorporation exhibited a plateau at approximately 5-6 wt % O...

  9. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Oil Sources With or Without Vitamin E on Body Composition and Meat Oxidation Level in Broilers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EÖ Taşdelen

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapeseed oil substitution and vitamin E supplemantation on performance and meat quality. 4 replacement levels of rapeseed oil with sunflower oil ( 0, 33.3 , 66.7 and 100% and 2 levels of vitamin E (0 (50 I.U. from vitamin premix 300 mg/kg in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 treatments with 4 replicates each, containing 10 day-old male Ross 308 broilers, were examined in the experiment. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on carcass parameters, feed conversion (FCR and mortality (p>0.05. However, a significant interaction was observed between oil replacement and vitamin E: the negative effect of 100% sunflower oil on BWG (p<0.01 was alleviated by the addition of vitamin E. On the other hand, inclusion of rapeseed oil improved BWG (p<0.01. Rapeseed oil substitution significantly increased amount of total n-3 PUFA and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio in thigh and breast meat (p<0.01. Vitamin E supplemantation contributed to deposition of n-3 PUFA (p<0.01. Replacement of rapeseed oil without vitamin E tended to increase (p<0.01 malonaldehyde production. However, the dietary supplementation of vitamin E markedly (p<0.01 decreased the susceptibility of meat to peroxidation. Inclusion of rapeseed oil did not cause any negative perception on olfactory, texture, and taste of broiler meat. So, it can be concluded that rapeseed oil substitution significantly increased n-3 PUFA deposition without altering performance and sensory properties of broiler meat and, vitamin E had strong potential to prevent the meat lipids from oxidation.

  10. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...... of 50 [mu]m iron to yoghurt did not promote oxidation. The results obtained may indicate an antioxidative effect of EDTA and pro-oxidative effect of vitamin K. All yoghurts had similar viscosity and droplet size. In summary, fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt is very stable towards oxidation....

  11. Evaluation the effects of Tomato pomace and herbal and animal oil sources on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone parameters of heat stressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Hosseini Vashan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of supplementation of Tomato pomace (TP, canola, soybean and tallow oils on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone parameters of heat stressed broilers, 792 d-old Arian broiler were divided to 36 pens. Each dietary treatment had 4 replicate with 22 birds each. These factorial experiment (3*3 involved 3 kinds of canola, soybean and tallow oils and 3 levels of 0, 3, and 5 percentage tomato pomace was done in a completely randomized design. The daily heat stress schedule was done from 29-42 days for 5 h (32-34oc. Two blood samples from each replicate were gathered at 28 and 42 d. The kind of oils and levels of TP did not affect body weight, feed intake, FCR, production index, energy efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio and immune response. The canola oil reduced the relative weight of liver and abdominal fat pre heat stressed birds. The relative weight of spleen, and burs and bone parameters involved diaphysis diameter and external bone layer thickness were improved when heat stressed birds fed canola oil or TP diets. The canola and TP diets decreased abdominal fat in heat stressed birds. Therefore experimental diets did not affect performance and immune system. The inclusion of canola oil and TP diets improved spleen, burs, bone parameters and abdominal fat.

  12. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-08

    will create new jobs in America’s heartland. Biodiesel fuels are produced with fatty substances, such as soybean oil, canola oil, animal fats, or...and include: hybrid gasoline-electric, flexible-fuels, ethanol, and biodiesel vehicles. Hydrogen powered and pure battery-only vehicles are also...recycled cooking fats. Biodiesel is available in pure form or as a blend with traditional diesel fuel. Most diesel vehicles can run off a blend of

  13. Evaluation of Application Methods Efficiency of Zinc and Iron for Canola(Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of application method efficiency of zinc and iron microelements in canola, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Eastern Azerbaijan province in 2008. The experimental design was a RCBD with eight treatments (F1: control, F2: iron, F3: zinc, F4: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility, F5: iron, F6: zinc, F7: iron+ zinc in the form of solution foliar application, and F8: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility and foliar application. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among treatments on given traits, antioxidant enzymes activity, fatty acids percentage, plant height, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio, protein percentage, oil percentage, oil yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium percentage of leaves, zinc and iron content of leaves and capitulum diameters. The highest seed yield, oil yield, oil percentage, 1000 seed weight, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and protein percentage were obtained from the soil and foliar application of iron + zinc treatments (F8. Also, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration in leaves were achieved from control treatment which was an indication of non-efficiency of iron and zinc on the absorption rate of these substances in the leaves. The correlation between effective traits on the seed yield, such as, capitalism diameter, number of seed rows in capitulum, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and 1000 seed weight were positively significant. In general, foliar and soil application of zinc and iron had the highest efficiency in aspect of seed production. The comparison of the various methods of fertilization showed that foliar application was more effective than soil application. Also, micronutrient foliar application increased concentration of elements, especially zinc and iron. Antioxidant enzymes activity was different in response to treatments also the

  14. Comparison of Technical and Economical Effect of Different Planters using Varied Seed Rates on Canola Yield in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important agricultural crops is rape seed oil as its special features can play an important role in the agricultural region. Due to the presence of more than 40% oil and 25% protein in the grain can play an important role in the supply of edible oil. After determining of various factors such as uniformity of planting depth, evenness between shrub, plant height and grain yield concluded that Nordsten drill along the seeding density of 75 cm for mechanized planting is acceptable yield. Afzali nia et al. (1999 in one study aimed to assess the performance of common grain drills in Iran in Zarghan area in Fars Province showed that differences between treatments in terms of seed distribution uniformity factor, plant population per unit area and yield product is not significant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and select the most suitable types of canola planter and variable seed rate planting density and aims to increase the canola cultivated area by the highest yield. Materials and Methods Moghan Plain, located in the north areas of Ardebil province, is considered as an important areas of canola planting in Iran. This study was performed in the agricultural research center of Ardabil Province (Moghan (39°39´N; 48°88´E; 78 m a.s.l. in Northwest of Iran. To evaluate different planters with varied seed rates on canola yield. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block design with strip splits (varied seed rates 6, 8 and10 kg per hectare and different drills consist of B1: Barzagar Hamadani drill (conventional method B2: Amazon drill pals teeth harrow, B3: Gaspardo drill pals teeth harrow and B4: Agromaster drill and four replications. To investigatethe different treatments in the experiment, various parameters such as percent germination, seeding uniformity of width and depth intervals, plant establishment, effective field capacity, fuel consumption rate andgrain yield were measured

  15. Artificial Neural Network Analysis of Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Biodiesel from Rapeseed Soapstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yanjie; Shao, Ping; Jiang, Shaotong; Sun, Peilong

    Refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high costs render the resulting fuels unable to compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) on chitosan catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock with methanol was carried out. Methanol substrate molar ratio, enzyme amount, water content and reaction temperature were four important parameters employed. Back-Propagation algorithm with momentous factor was adopted to train the neural network. The momentous factor and learning rate were selected as 0.95 and 0.8. ANN analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The coefficient of determination (R2) between experimental and predicted values was 99.20%. Biodiesel conversion of 75.4% was obtained when optimum conditions of immobilized lipase catalysed for biodiesel production were methanol substrate molar ratio of 4.4:1, enzyme amount of 11.6%, water content of 4% and reaction temperature of 45°. Methyl ester content was above 95% after short path distillation process. Biodiesel conversion was increased markedly by neural network analysis.

  16. Pressurized pyrolysis of dried distillers grains with solubles and canola seed press cake in a fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Funda; Miskolczi, Norbert; Saricaoğlu, Beyza

    2015-02-01

    Pressurized pyrolysis of biomasses was carried in a fixed bed reactor to obtain gases, bio-oils and chars at elevated temperatures. The products were characterized by GC-MS, FTIR, viscometer, SEM, BET and EDXRFS methods. Experiments were performed at 1, 5 and 10 bar pressure and 400, 500 and 600°C temperatures. The experimental results show that in all the experimental condition the yield of bio-oil from DDGS as higher than that of canola. Yield of non-condensable gases and chars increased, while that of liquid products decreased by pressure. Increasing pressure favoured the formation of low molecular weight gas, such as H2. Maximum surface area of chars was obtained at atmospheric pressure and the surface areas decreased rapidly with increasing pressure. GC/MS results shows that the amount of fatty acids in bio-oils was increased by increasing pressure and bio-oils showed non-Newtonian behavior. Based on EDXRFS results, bio-oils and char contained lots of elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical Localization and Genetic Mapping of Fertility Restoration Gene Rfo in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogu cytoplasm for male fertility and its fertility restorer gene Rfo in canola (Brassica napus L.) were originally introgressed from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and have been widely used for canola hybrid production and breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the physical locati...

  18. Anti-nutritional factors in canola produced in the Western and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of low erucic acid, low glucosinolate cultivars of canola seed has led to the availability of a feed ingredient with considerable potential to replace soyabean meal in diets for all classes of farm animals. The sinapine and glucosinolate content of various canola cultivars cultivated in two areas of the Western ...

  19. Effect of phosphorus, potassium, and chloride nutrition on cold tolerance of winter canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether fertility treatments improve cold hardiness of canola (Brassica napus L.). Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and overwinter survival of field-grown canola were used to evaluate the effect of chloride (Cl), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P)...

  20. Allelopathic effect of methanolic extracts of genetically modified and non-genetically modified canola on soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    This study on the effect of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola on soybean was carried out for physiological and biochemical biosafety assessment of GM canola. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.) under sterilized conditions. The extracts applied were of 3, 5, and 10% concentrations. The results showed that methanolic extracts of both GM and non-GM canola improved the germination percentage. However, germination rate index was significantly decreased with concomitant increase in mean germination time of soybean. A significant rate of decrease was observed in root fresh weight while increase in shoot length took place; when treatment of GM canola extracts were applied, however, no effect was observed in shoot fresh weight. A significant increase in protein contents, as well as phenolic, carotenoids, proline, and chlorophyll a content, was observed when different GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean; however, a significant rate of reduction in chlorophyll b content was observed by the application of GM canola treatment. Similar results were observed for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activities. A significant increase in the sugar content levels was observed when GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Building a lasting partnership - small-scale canola biodiesel experiment may go big

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006, the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT) of north central Washington, with assistance from USDA-ARS, hand-planted several rows of spring canola in Omak, Washington on Tribal land. The objective of this small-scale experiment was to determine if canola could be grown in this region to ultimate...

  2. Degree days to 50% flowering for 12 cultivars of spring canola-like mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous growth modeling efforts for canola simulations have been based on the growth parameters previously established in the Northern Great Plains. However, with advances in canola genetics, establishing parameters for newly developed cultivars is essential for best modeling projections. The nul...

  3. Additive impacts on particle emissions from heating low emitting cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, M.; Zhao, Y.; Hopke, P. K.; Rossner, A.; Ferro, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    The effect of five additives, including table salt, sea salt, black pepper, garlic powder, and turmeric, on the emission of PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UFP) from heated cooking oil (200 °C) were studied. One hundred milligrams of the additives were added individually to either canola or soybean oil without stirring. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt reduced the PM2.5 emission of canola oil by 86% (p Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt also decreased the total particle number emissions of canola oil by 45% (p = 0.003), 52% (p = 0.001), and 53% (p garlic powder showed no changes in the PM2.5 and total number emissions of canola oil. Table salt and sea salt, decreased the level of PM2.5 emissions from soybean oil by 47% (p Black pepper, sea salt, and table salt reduced the total particle number emissions from the soybean oil by 51%, 61% and 68% (p garlic powder had no effect on soybean oil with respect to total particle number emissions. Our results indicate that table salt, sea salt, and black pepper can be used to reduce the particle total number and PM2.5 emissions when cooking with oil.

  4. Physicochemical and functional properties of rapeseed protein isolate: influence of antinutrient removal with acidified organic solvents from rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Gogoi, Jyotchna; Kalita, Dipankar; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Goyary, Danswrang; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2014-08-06

    The presence of antinutritional constituents in rapeseed protein products (RPI), such as polyphenols, phytates, allyl isothiocyanates, and glucosinolates, is a formidable constraint. The effect of antinutrient removal from rapeseed meal with an organic solvent mixture (methanol/acetone, 1:1 v/v, combined with an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric)) on the physicochemical and functional properties of RPI was investigated. The extraction resulted in a substantial reduction of antinutrients from RPI, especially polyphenols and phytates, with concomitant decreases in protein yield and solubility. Treatment harbored significant improvement in the degree of whiteness, which was highest in the perchloric acid case. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl group of RPI changed considerably, with perchloric acid-treated samples showing higher values, whereas the disulfide content remarkably increased in trichloroacetic acid- and phosphoric acid-treated samples, signifying aggregation. Intrinsic emission fluorescence and FTIR spectra showed significant changes in proteins' tertiary and secondary conformations, and the changes were more pronounced in samples treated with higher concentrations of acids. No appreciable alteration appeared among the electrophoretic profiles of proteins from pristine meal and those treated with lower levels of acids. Interfacial surface properties of proteins were variably improved by the solvent extraction, whereas the converse was true for their extent of denaturation. The results suggest that the physicochemical and conformational properties of RPI are closely related to its functional properties.

  5. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Rob Aj; Hill, David J; Kenward, Melvin A; Williams, Craig D; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Radecka, Iza K

    2011-06-10

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics. Many researchers are investigating the use of inexpensive substrates derived from waste streams. Waste frying oil is abundant and can be used in PHA production without filtration.Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a versatile organism for the production of PHAs. Small-scale batch fermentation studies have been set up, using different concentrations of pure vegetable oil, heated vegetable oil and waste frying oil. These oils are all rapeseed oils.It has been shown that Cupriavidus necator produced the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from the rapeseed oils. The achieved PHB concentration from waste frying oil was 1.2 g/l, which is similar to a concentration that can be obtained from glucose. The PHB harvest from pure oil and heated oil was 0.62 g/l and 0.9 g/l respectively. A feed of waste frying oil could thus achieve more biopolymer than pure vegetable oil. While the use of a waste product is beneficial from a life-cycle perspective, PHB is not the only product that can be made from waste oil. The collection of waste frying oil is becoming more widespread, making waste oil a good alternative to purified oil or glucose for PHB production.

  6. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G.T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  7. An analysis of growth factors of rapeseed at modern resource-saving technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, M.; Zheleva, I.; Sulejmenova, N.; Abildaev, E.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the production of rapeseed has grown due to the variety of existing possibilities for its using. This calls the search for new, resource-saving technologies for its growing in Republic of Kazakhstan. For these new technologies it is needed to know which are the factors that influence the production of rapeseed and how each factor influence the production and the quality of this culture. The careful study of these factors is necessary for better understudying the process of the growing aimed increasing the yields and quantity of the rapeseed.

  8. Physiological biosafety assessment of genetically modified canola on weed (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out for the assessment of physiological biosafety and effects of genetically modified (GM) canola on Avena sativa, which is a common weed plant of South Asia. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of A. sativa under sterilized conditions. The extracts were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% concentrations of methanol. Results showed that the extract of GM canola increases the number of roots and root fresh weight. However, root length was significantly decreased. Similarly, a significant rate of increase was observed in shoot fresh weight and shoot length of A. sativa by treatment of GM canola. Emergence percentage, germination index, and emergence rate index show a significant effect of decrease when treated with GM canola. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Effect of Zeolite and Foliar Application of Selenium on Growth, Yield and Yield Component of Three Canola Cultivar under Conditions of Late Season Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein ZAHEDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study effect of zeolite soil application and selenium foliar application on growth, yield and yield components of three canola cultivar under conditions of late season drought stress an experiment was conducted in two growing season in 2006 and 2007. Site study was field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block arrangement in factorial split plot with three replications. Irrigation factors were chosen at two levels, included complete irrigation and irrigation holding at stem elongation stage. Zeolite was used at two levels, non application and 10 ton per hectare. Also selenium was sprayed at three concentrations, 0, 15 and 30 gr per liter from sodium selenate. These treatments were randomized in main plots while three canola cultivars (�Zarfam�, �Okapi� and �Sarigol� were randomized in sub plots. The results showed that, main effects of different irrigation levels have significant effect on all traits and drought stress decreased significantly all traits. Foliar application of selenium had significant and additive effect on plant height, number of pods in plant, number of seeds in pod, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield. There was significant difference between zeolite application and non application on all traits except oil percent and harvest index. It was shown that canola cultivars were different in all of studied traits. Comparison of means showed that, four critical traits that is seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield were affected by experimental treatments. Different cultivars have different responses under unlike conditions inside upon traits. Under different treatment conditions especially drought stress, zeolite and selenium application have positive and significant effect on traits related to yield. In finally, zeolite and selenium application in dry lands that are exposure to late season drought

  10. Effect of different methods of soil fertility increasing via application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on grain yield and quality of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different resource of fertilizers had an effect on grain yield, oil and grain quality. Information regarding the effect of simultaneous application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on canola (Brassica napus L. traits is not available. In order to study the effect of different systems of soil fertility on grain yield and quality of canola (Talayeh cultivar, an experiment was conducted at experimental farm of Agricultural Research Center of Sanandaj, Iran, during two growing seasons of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The experimental units were arranged as split plots based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Main plots consisted of five methods for obtaining the basal fertilizers requirement including (N1: farm yard manure; (N2: compost; (N3: chemical fertilizers; (N4: farm yard manure + compost and (N5: farm yard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers; and control (N6. Sub plots consisted four levels of biofertilizers were (B1: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida; (B2: Trichoderma harzianum; (B3: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4: control, (without biofertilizers. Results showed that basal fertilizers and biofertilizers have a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from N5 treatment in which organic and chemical fertilizers were applied simultaneously applied. Basal fertilizers, biofertilizers have a significant effect on leaf chlorophyll. The highest nitrogen content (42.85 mg.g-1 and least amount of (N/S were obtained from N5 treatment. The highest oil percent was obtained from N1 and N2 treatments and highest oil yield was obtained from N5 treatment. Finally, application of organic manure and biofertilizers with chemical fertilizer led to an increase in yield and quality of canola grain.

  11. Effect of Zeolite and Foliar Application of Selenium on Growth, Yield and Yield Component of Three Canola Cultivar under Conditions of Late Season Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein ZAHEDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study effect of zeolite soil application and selenium foliar application on growth, yield and yield components of three canola cultivar under conditions of late season drought stress an experiment was conducted in two growing season in 2006 and 2007. Site study was field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block arrangement in factorial split plot with three replications. Irrigation factors were chosen at two levels, included complete irrigation and irrigation holding at stem elongation stage. Zeolite was used at two levels, non application and 10 ton per hectare. Also selenium was sprayed at three concentrations, 0, 15 and 30 gr per liter from sodium selenate. These treatments were randomized in main plots while three canola cultivars (Zarfam, Okapi and Sarigol were randomized in sub plots. The results showed that, main effects of different irrigation levels have significant effect on all traits and drought stress decreased significantly all traits. Foliar application of selenium had significant and additive effect on plant height, number of pods in plant, number of seeds in pod, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield. There was significant difference between zeolite application and non application on all traits except oil percent and harvest index. It was shown that canola cultivars were different in all of studied traits. Comparison of means showed that, four critical traits that is seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield were affected by experimental treatments. Different cultivars have different responses under unlike conditions inside upon traits. Under different treatment conditions especially drought stress, zeolite and selenium application have positive and significant effect on traits related to yield. In finally, zeolite and selenium application in dry lands that are exposure to late season drought stress can be helpful

  12. Effect of Different Salinity levels on some Photosynthetic Characters of Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tahmasbi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity is one of the most important factors limiting crop production in arid and semiarid regions of the world that affects crop yield. Salt tolerance of Brassica species are very complex due to genetic relationships. Because of low erucic acid (less than 2% of total fatty acids and glucosinolates contents (less than 3 µmol g-1, oil of Canola has many consumers around the world. Because Canola have tolerance potential against toxicity of salinity and its minerals, its growth can be successful in saline condition. According to the recent ongoing drought and the need to use low quality irrigation water for crops such as Canola, aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of salinity on changes in carbon fixation process and photosynthetic pigments of three Canola genotypes under salinity as well as determine most salt tolerant genotype for use in saline regions. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of Shahid Chamran University during 2007-2008 growing season in factorial test based on a completely randomized design with four replications. The first factor (genotype included Hayola 401, RGS0003 and Shiraly and the second factor (salinity levels had four levels of salinity (50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl as well as distilled water as a control. Sources of salinity were NaCl and CaCl2 with equal ratio as most resembles to lower water quality resources in the region. Date and time of stress were considered four weeks after planting (four-leaf stage. A Stepped irrigation method using saline water was done every 12 days over three steps period. To perform this study 10 liters volume pots were used. Three pots per each treatment, and totally 144 pots were used. SAS (version 9.1, Excel and MSTAT-C software's was used for statistical analysis. The comparison of means was done by Duncan method. Results and Discussion The results showed that content of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids in all three genotypes

  13. Rapid authentication of adulteration of olive oil by near-infrared spectroscopy using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingzhu; Dong, Jingjing; Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cuiling

    2016-10-01

    A classification method of support vector machines with linear kernel was employed to authenticate genuine olive oil based on near-infrared spectroscopy. There were three types of adulteration of olive oil experimented in the study. The adulterated oil was respectively soybean oil, rapeseed oil and the mixture of soybean and rapeseed oil. The average recognition rate of second experiment was more than 90% and that of the third experiment was reach to 100%. The results showed the method had good performance in classifying genuine olive oil and the adulteration with small variation range of adulterated concentration and it was a promising and rapid technique for the detection of oil adulteration and fraud in the food industry.

  14. [Three-Iindex-Value Method for Rapid Screening Unqualified Vegetable Oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-xuan; Hong, Gui-shui; Fang, Run; Cai, Xian-chun; Huang, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, by measuring the A3 005 (representing unsaturation), A985 (representing conjugated fatty acids), A960 + A985 (representing trans-fatty acid ) of southern common vegetable oils (peanut oil, corn oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, tea seed oil and olive oil), "waste oil" and overdue vegetable oils, the pass-setting-range of these three index values for the vegetable oils was obtained. On this basis, a method for rapid screening unqualified vegetable oil (expired, adding low-cost oil, adding "waste oil") was established. The method effectively improved the monitoring efficiency of vegetable oil. With this method of screening a number of suspected substandard oils were proved unqualified by determination of fatty acid composition and 11, 12, 13, 17 fatty acid content. Through the combination of several detection methods, the causes for disqualification of vegetable oils can be further inferred.

  15. Influence of alcohol: oil molar ratio on the production of ethyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of alcohol:oil molar ratio on the canola oil transesterification reaction in solvent-free medium using free lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Burkholderia cepacia was studied. The experiments conducted in batch reactor for 72 h at 37°C in cosolvent-free reaction system with ethanol addition in three ...

  16. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  17. Large scale purification of rapeseed proteins (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérot, S; Compoint, J P; Larré, C; Malabat, C; Guéguen, J

    2005-04-15

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cruciferin (12S globulin), napin (2S albumin) and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) were purified at a multi-g scale. The procedure developed was simple, rather fast and resolutive; it permitted the recovery of these proteins with a good yield, such as 40% for cruciferin and 18% for napin. Nanofiltration eliminated the major phenolic compounds. The remaining protein fraction was fractionated by cation exchange chromatography (CEC) on a streamline SP-XL column in alkaline conditions. The unbound neutral cruciferin was polished by size exclusion chromatography. The alkaline napin isoforms and LTP, adsorbed on the beads, were eluted as a whole fraction and further separated by an other CEC step at acidic pH. Napins were polished by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The fractions were characterized by reverse phase HPLC, electrophoresis, N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. All the fractions contained less than 5% of impurities.

  18. Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii from rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Linares, Juan Carlos; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the possibility of using rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate as a fermentation medium for xylitol production. Two yeast strains, namely Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii, were used for this bioconversion process and their performance to convert xylose int...

  19. Characterizing Variation of Branch Angle and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Wenxiang; Mei, Desheng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Li; Liu, Daoming; Li, Yunchang; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, a natural population of rapeseed was grown in three environments and evaluated for branch angle trait to characterize their phenotypic patterns and genotype with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array...

  20. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…

  1. Rapeseed is an efficient energy crop which can still improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flenet Francis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofuels to contribute efficiently to the replacement of fossil energy and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has been a matter of debate. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately the energy balance of biofuels and their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in order to evaluate and to improve the benefit for society. In rapeseed, the energy ratio (energy produced per unit of non-renewable energy input is well above 2 whatever the method of calculation. In order to investigate the variability of energy ratios and to identify ways of improvement, a study was conducted in France in 2005 and 2006. The method of mass allocation of input energy was used for calculations, instead of the substitution method, because with this method the results do not depend on the utilization of co-products. Hence, this method is better adapted to follow improvements. A great variability in the energy ratio was observed in 2005 and 2006. Seed yields and energy cost of fertilizer N explained most of this variability. Hence, improvements should focus on increasing yield with little increase in energy cost, and on decreasing wasting of N fertilizer. However the farmer incomes, and the net production of energy per hectare, must also be a matter of concern. The inventories of greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are still uncertain because of the great variability of soil emissions, due to environmental and management factors. Hence, in order to assess the effect of rapeseed on greenhouse gas emissions, methods based on process-oriented models accounting for these factors must be used. Such models give promising results, but further testing is still needed.

  2. Solutions for Foaming Problems in Biogas Reactors Using Natural Oils or Fatty Acids as Defoamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Foaming is one of the most common and important problems in biogas plants, leading to severe operational, economical, and environmental drawbacks. Because addition of easily degradable co-substrates for boosting the biogas production can suddenly raise the foaming problem, the full-scale biogas...... promoted by the addition of protein, lipid, or carbohydrate co-substrates. However, in most cases, the defoaming efficiency of rapeseed oil was greater than that of oleic acid, and therefore, rapeseed oil is recommended to be used in biogas reactors to solve foaming problems....... results from our previous extensive research along with some unpublished data on defoaming by rapeseed oil and oleic acid in manure-based biogas reactors. It was found that both compounds exhibited remarkable defoaming efficiency ranging from 30 to 57% in biogas reactors suffering from foaming problems...

  3. Rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soil with two rapeseed varieties and petroleum degraders reveals different responses of the plant defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Zukowska, Weronika; Graj, Weronika; Małecka, Arleta; Piechalak, Aneta; Ciszewska, Liliana; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Lisiecki, Piotr; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Voss, Ingo; Scheibe, Renate; Tomaszewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Plant-assisted bioremediation (rhizoremediation) stands out as a potential tool to inactivate or completely remove xenobiotics from the polluted environment. Therefore, it is of key importance to find an adequate combination of plant species and microorganisms that together enhance the clean-up process. To understand the response of plants upon bioaugmentation, the antioxidative and detoxification system was analyzed in high and low erucic acid rapeseed varieties (HEAR and LEAR, respectively), after 8 weeks of their treatment with petroleum degraders and 6000 mg diesel oil/kg dry soil. The oxidative stress was enhanced in LEAR being exposed to sole diesel oil, in comparison with HEAR. However, when LEAR plants were additionally inoculated with bacteria, suppression of total catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed. Interestingly, glutathione transferase (GST) activity was found in these plants at a much higher level than in HEAR, which correlated with a more efficient diesel removal performed by LEAR in the polluted soil and upon bioaugmentation. A distinct profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was detected in leaves of these plants. Neither LEAR nor HEAR experienced any changes in the photosynthetic capacity upon diesel pollution and presence of petroleum degraders, which supports the usefulness of rhizoremediation with rapeseed.

  4. Comparative study of rapeseed, monofloral types and multifloral honey by some physicochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zhelyazkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of the present study is to make a comparative analysis of some basic qualitative parameters of rapeseed (Brassica napus honey, monofloral (acacia Robinia pseudoacacia, sunflower Helianthus annuus, coriander Coriandrum sativum, lime Tilia sp., and multifloral honey. The study uses 26 samples of bee honey from different regions in the country. The physicochemical study was carried out at the Scientific Research Laboratory of Trakia University according to the harmonized methods of the International Honey Commission and the methods described in Bulgarian State Standard (BSS 3050- 80 and Regulation No. 48/2003. The following indicators have been investigated: water, glucose, fructose and sucrose content (%; hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, mg/kg; electrical conductivity (mS/cm. Based on the results obtained for glucose (G and fructose (F content in the honey samples, the sum total of G + F has been calculated. It has been found that the average values of the studied physico-chemical parameters in all analyzed honey samples (incl. rapeseed honey are within the tolerable limits according to national regulations. The established deviations from the requirements concerning HMF content in rapeseed honey samples can be explained by technological errors rather than by plant origin. By glucose content the analyzed rapeseed honey samples have values close to those of sunflower honey (over 30%. These results can explain the rapid crystallization of rapeseed and sunflower honey. The lowest average electrical conductivity values have been established for rapeseed and acacia honey, which is a characteristic feature of light coloured honey types. Rapeseed and multifloral honey have higher average active acidity value (pH compared to the average for the monofloral honey types. Based on the results, it can be concluded that rapeseed bee honey (Brassica napus is of quality, does not differ from the monofloral and multifloral types produced

  5. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  6. Consumo e digestibilidade em ovinos alimentados com grãos e subprodutos da canola Intake and digestibility of sheep fed grains and by-products of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silva Neubern de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de 8% de grãos e subprodutos da canola (farelo ou torta nas dietas sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade. Seis ovinos machos não-castrados da raça Santa Inês (210 e 240 dias de idade e peso corporal de 44,8 + 4,2kg receberam dietas contendo 40% de feno de capim Tifton e 60% de concentrado composto por milho em grão, farelo de soja, mistura mineral, além de canola em grão integral, farelo de canola e torta de canola, que constituíram os três tratamentos. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 para o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, extrato etéreo (EE, energia bruta (EB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos totais (CT e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF entre as dietas experimentais, no ensaio de digestibilidade. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 de tratamento para a digestibilidade de MS, MO, EE, PB, EB, FDN, CT e CNF. Recomenda-se incluir até 8% de grãos e subprodutos da canola (farelo ou torta na dieta de ovinos.The effect of feeding 8% of grains and byproducts (meal or cake of canola on intake and digestibility was evaluated. Six non castrated Santa Ines sheep (from 210 to 240 days old and body weight of 44.8 + 4.2kg were fed diets composed by 40% of Tifton hay and 60% of concentrate based on corn grain, soybean meal, whole grain canola, canola meal, canola cake and mineral mixture. No differences on the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non fiber carbohydrate (NFC were observed among treatments, in the digestibility trial. No treatment effect on the digestibilities of DM, OM, EE, CP, GE, NDF, TC and NFC was observed. It is recommended to include up to 8% of grains and byproducts (meal or cake of canola in the sheep diet.

  7. Evaluation of Radiation Absorption and Use Efficiency in Row Intercropping of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate radiation absorption and use efficiency in row intercropping for wheat and canola, a field experiment was conducted based on a randomized block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during two growing seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Treatments included four combinations of row intercropping of wheat and canola (one row of wheat + one row of canola (1:1, two rows of wheat + two rows of canola (2:2, three rows of wheat + three rows of canola (3:3 and four rows of wheat + four rows of canola (4:4 and their monoculture. Results indicated that the effect of row intercropping was significant on radiation use efficiency of wheat and canola. The highest radiation use efficiency based on biological yield of wheat and canola were observed in monoculture (with 1.6 and 1.04 g.MJ-1 and three rows wheat+ three rows canola (with 1.4 and 0.57 g.MJ-1, respectively. The maximum radiation use efficiency based on economical yield of wheat and canola were obtained in monoculture (with 0.52 and 0.3 g.MJ-1 and three rows wheat+ three rows canola (0.49 and 0.23 g.MJ-1, respectively. The range of land equivalent ratio for radiation absorption efficiency in different row intercroppings of wheat and canola was 1.31-1.61. In general, row intercropping of wheat with canola increased radiation use efficiency and combination of three rows of wheat + three rows of canola was the most promising one.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Long

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  9. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus) under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Weihua; Zou, Xiling; Zhang, Xuekun

    2015-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control) and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  11. Increase of protein extraction yield from rapeseed meal through a pretreatment with phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ivo M; Carvalho, M Graça Vs; Rocha, Jorge Ms

    2017-06-01

    Rapeseed meal is a good source of high-quality vegetal protein but contains antinutritional compounds that limit its use for human and animal feed. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to enhance alkaline protein extraction of rapeseed meal and to produce protein-rich products with low levels of phytic acid. Different phytase dosages and operating conditions were used for rapeseed meal pretreatment followed by alkaline extraction at different temperatures, time, pH and solid/liquid ratios (S/L). The highest protein extraction yield attained was 72.1%, for 2 h at 55 °C, with a phytase dosage of 0.8 U g(-1) when the alkaline extraction was performed at 75 °C, pH 12.5 and 60 min for an S/L ratio of 10 g 100 mL(-1) water. The extraction yields were higher than those previously obtained without enzymatic pretreatment. Phytase pretreatment enhanced alkaline extraction yield of proteins from rapeseed meal. This procedure allowed also the production of rapeseed protein concentrates with very low levels of phytic acid, ∼1 g kg(-1) , improving their nutritional properties and commercial value. Moreover, after the pretreatment, the amount of phytic acid in the remaining rapeseed meal decreases about 25%. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Characterization of the Factors that Influence Sinapine Concentration in Rapeseed Meal during Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Jiang, Mulan; Guo, Mian; Wan, Chuyun; Hu, Shuangxi; Jin, Hu; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed and compared the difference in sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal between the filamentous fungus, Trametes sp 48424, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in both liquid and solid-state fermentation. During liquid and solid-state fermentation by Trametes sp 48424, the sinapine concentration decreased significantly. In contrast, the liquid and solid-state fermentation process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae just slightly decreased the sinapine concentration (P ≤ 0.05). After the solid-state fermented samples were dried, the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal decreased significantly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the measurement of laccase activity, we observed that laccase induced the decrease in the concentration of sinapine during fermentation with Trametes sp 48424. In order to eliminate the influence of microorganisms and the metabolites produced during fermentation, high moisture rapeseed meal and the original rapeseed meal were dried at 90°C and 105°C, respectively. During drying, the concentration of sinapine in high moisture rapeseed meal decreased rapidly and we obtained a high correlation coefficient between the concentration of sinapine and loss of moisture. Our results suggest that drying and enzymes, especially laccase that is produced during the solid-state fermentation process, may be the main factors that affect the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal. PMID:25606856

  13. Characterization of the factors that influence sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal during fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Niu

    Full Text Available We analyzed and compared the difference in sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal between the filamentous fungus, Trametes sp 48424, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in both liquid and solid-state fermentation. During liquid and solid-state fermentation by Trametes sp 48424, the sinapine concentration decreased significantly. In contrast, the liquid and solid-state fermentation process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae just slightly decreased the sinapine concentration (P ≤ 0.05. After the solid-state fermented samples were dried, the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal decreased significantly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the measurement of laccase activity, we observed that laccase induced the decrease in the concentration of sinapine during fermentation with Trametes sp 48424. In order to eliminate the influence of microorganisms and the metabolites produced during fermentation, high moisture rapeseed meal and the original rapeseed meal were dried at 90 °C and 105 °C, respectively. During drying, the concentration of sinapine in high moisture rapeseed meal decreased rapidly and we obtained a high correlation coefficient between the concentration of sinapine and loss of moisture. Our results suggest that drying and enzymes, especially laccase that is produced during the solid-state fermentation process, may be the main factors that affect the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal.

  14. Identification and quantification of glucosinolates in rapeseed using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Silvia; Sampedro, M Carmen; Gallejones, Patricia; Castellón, Ander; Ibargoitia, Maria L; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2009-07-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the speciation and quantification of glucosinolates in rapeseed is described. The method combines liquid chromatography (LC) with ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) detection. Electrospray ionization (ESI) has been chosen as the ionization technique for the on-line coupling of LC with ITMS. Glucosinolates are extracted from different rapeseeds with MeOH and the extracts are cleaned-up by solid phase extraction with Florisil cartridges. Aqueous extracts are injected into LC system coupled to an ITMS, leading to accurately quantify eight of the most important glucosinolates in rapeseed, by MS2 mode and confirming their structure by MS3 acquisition. All the glucosinolates found in rapeseeds provide good signals corresponding to the deprotonated precursor ion [M-H]-. The method is reliable and reproducible, and detection limits range from 0.5 nmol g(-1) to 3.7 nmol g(-1) when 200 mg of dried seeds of certified reference material are analyzed. Within-day and between-day RSD percentages range between 2.4-14.1% and 3.9-16.9%, respectively. The LC-ESI-ITMS-MS method described here allows for a rapid assessment of these metabolites in rapeseed without a desulfatation step. The overall process has been successfully applied to identify and quantify glucosinolates in rapeseed samples.

  15. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Some of Winter Canola Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rashidifar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate terminal drought tolerance in different Canola cultivars based on drought tolerance indices, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications at experimental field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII, Karaj in 2008-09. Results using stress tolerance index (STI, geometric mean productivity (GMP and mean productivity (MP indices revealed Zarfam, Talaye and GKH305, were as cultivars with highest yield in both optimum irrigation and terminal drought conditions. High and positive correlation between STI, GMP and MP indices with yield in optimum and drought conditions indicated that they were as the best indices for introduction and characterization of drought tolerant canola cultivars. Biplot graph showed that MP, GMP and STI indices had high correlation coefficient with each other, and tolerant genotypes were located near tolerance indices. Also results of three dimensional scatter plot indicated that cultivars Zarfam, GKH 305 and Tassilo were recognized as tolerant genotypes to drought stress, and cultivars ES Astrid, GK Helena, Modena and Okapi were identified as sensitive genotypes.

  16. Processing and characteristics of canola protein-based biodegradable packaging: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yachuan; Liu, Qiang; Rempel, Curtis

    2018-02-11

    Interest increased recently in manufacturing food packaging, such as films and coatings, from protein-based biopolymers. Among various protein sources, canola protein is a novel source for manufacturing polymer films. It can be concentrated or isolated by aqueous extraction technology followed by protein precipitation. Using this procedure, it was claimed that more than 99% of protein was extracted from the defatted canola meal, and protein recovery was 87.5%. Canola protein exhibits thermoplastic properties when plasticizers are present, including water, glycerol, polyethylene glycol, and sorbitol. Addition of these plasticizers allows the canola protein to undergo glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability. Normally, canola protein-based bioplastics showed low mechanical properties, which had tensile strength (TS) of 1.19 to 4.31 MPa. So, various factors were explored to improve it, including blending with synthetic polymers, modifying protein functionality through controlled denaturation, and adding cross-linking agents. Canola protein-based bioplastics were reported to have glass transition temperature, T g , below -50°C but it highly depends on the plasticizer content. Canola protein-based bioplastics have demonstrated comparable mechanical and moisture barrier properties compared with other plant protein-based bioplastics. They have great potential in food packaging applications, including their use as wraps, sacks, sachets, or pouches.

  17. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chengming Sun; Benqi Wang; Lei Yan; Kaining Hu; Sheng Liu; Yongming Zhou; Chunyun Guan; Zhenqian Zhang; Jiana Li; Jiefu Zhang; Song Chen; Jing Wen; Chaozhi Ma; Jinxing Tu; Jinxiong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson-Darling (A-D) test....

  19. Modeling the yield potential of dryland canola under current and future climates in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, N.; Kaffka, S.; Beeck, C.; Bucaram, S.; Zhang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Models predict that the climate of California will become hotter, drier and more variable under future climate change scenarios. This will lead to both increased irrigation demand and reduced irrigation water availability. In addition, it is predicted that most common Californian crops will suffer a concomitant decline in productivity. To remain productive and economically viable, future agricultural systems will need to have greater water use efficiency, tolerance of high temperatures, and tolerance of more erratic temperature and rainfall patterns. Canola (Brassica napus) is the third most important oilseed globally, supporting large and well-established agricultural industries in Canada, Europe and Australia. It is an agronomically useful and economically valuable crop, with multiple end markets, that can be grown in California as a dryland winter rotation with little to no irrigation demand. This gives canola great potential as a new crop for Californian farmers both now and as the climate changes. Given practical and financial limitations it is not always possible to immediately or widely evaluate a crop in a new region. Crop production models are therefore valuable tools for assessing the potential of new crops, better targeting further field research, and refining research questions. APSIM is a modular modeling framework developed by the Agricultural Production Systems Research Unit in Australia, it combines biophysical and management modules to simulate cropping systems. This study was undertaken to examine the yield potential of Australian canola varieties having different water requirements and maturity classes in California using APSIM. The objective of the work was to identify the agricultural regions of California most ideally suited to the production of Australian cultivars of canola and to simulate the production of canola in these regions to estimate yield-potential. This will establish whether the introduction and in-field evaluation of better

  20. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...

  1. Vegetable, Fish and Mineral Oils Control Grapevine Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Martín

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments were performed on vegetable, fish and mineral oils to evaluate their phytotoxic effects on grapevine and their effectiveness in the control of grapevine powdery mildew. None of the oils tested showed detectable phytotoxic effects at concentrations of 2% or less applied up to 4 times per week. In greenhouse trials, the efficacy of paraffin oil, refined rapeseed oil and partially refined fish oil against powdery mildew was similar to that obtained with the standard fungicides (tebuconazole or colloidal sulphur. In field trials, the three oils tested (paraffin oil, crude soya oil, and fish oil: 1% in aqueous emulsion were at least as effective as the standard fungicide Quinoxifen, with crude soya oil being the most effective. The oils used in the field trials were also effective for controlling eriophyd mites such as Calepitrimerus vitis.

  2. Genetic diversity and population differentiation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum collected from canola in China and in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and phenotypic diversity and population differentiation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates infecting canola from China and the United States were investigated. Genetic diversity was assessed with eight microsatellite markers and mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs). Phenotypic diversity wa...

  3. Impact of endogenous canola phenolics on the oxidative stability of oil‐in‐water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Winkler‐Moser, Jill K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of phenolics naturally present in canola seeds and meal. Individual phenolics were extracted from ground, defatted canola seeds, and meal. Fractionated extracts rich in sinapic acid, sinapine, or canolol as well as a non......‐fractionated extract were used. These extracts (100 and 350 µM) were evaluated as antioxidants in stripped canola oil‐in‐water (o/w) emulsion. For comparison, the antioxidative effect of phenolic standards for sinapic acid and sinapine (as sinapine thiocyanate) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BTH) as a positive control....... The differences in effectiveness may be ascribed to mainly the different chain attached to the phenolic ring, which results in different polarity and thus different location in the emulsions. Practical applications: The result showed stronger antioxidant activity of canola extracts than phenolic standards...

  4. Protein digestibility of soybean, canola and sunflower meal, and its effect on growth performance and body

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothwa, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The apparent protein digestibility of three feed ingredients, namely soybean, canola and sunflower meal, was studied for Tilapia rendalli, using chromic oxide as a dietary marker. The effect of these ingredients on the growth performance and body...

  5. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Abert Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm2 for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumptio...

  6. Organic food for sustainable and healthy diets - lessons from the nordic diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, Susanne; Damsgaard, C. T.; Larsen, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    foods from the wild countryside and 3) more foods from sea and lakes. In many ways, the New NND is very similar to a Mediterranean diet but relies on rapeseed (canola) oil instead of olive oil and ramson instead of garlic. The diets differ in their types of produce due to regional differences in climate...

  7. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  8. Harmonised GHG accounting of decentralized rapeseed fuel production in Bavaria; Harmonisierte THG-Bilanzierung der dezentralen Rapsoelkraftstoffproduktion in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, Daniela [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ), Straubing (Germany); Engelmann, Karsten; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Directive 2009/28/EG (RED) requires a minimum level of greenhouse gas reduction for biofuels to be marketed. Site-specific production conditions are not considered in default values, which are specified by RED for calculating the greenhouse gas emissions. However, calculations of regional and farm specific GHG balances in accordance to the method of ExpRessBio for the production of rape seed show a considerable range of GHG-emissions in CO{sup 2}-eq (25.2-43.6 g MJ{sup -1}). For the complete product system of decentralized rapeseed oil fuel production in Bavaria a GHG reduction of 58 % can be achieved. This is slightly higher than the default value of 57 % as specified in Directive 2009/28/EG. The reason for this is that the default value under Directive 2009/28/EG is based on an industrial oil production process whereas decentralized production leads to less GHG emissions. In comparison to the application of the energy allocation method the substitution method for the assessment of rape seed cake as protein feed leads to a distinct higher GHG reduction rate of 85%.

  9. Green Sonoextraction of Protein from Oleaginous Press Rapeseed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Boukroufa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extraction of soluble proteins from rapeseed cake using different conventional and innovative extraction processes in order to maximize the extraction yield has been investigated. Firstly, various extraction techniques including ultrasound, microwave, and percolation were tested to increase the protein recovery efficiency. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD approach was applied to investigate the influence of process variables on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. Statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions providing a protein yield of 4.24 g/100 g DM were an ultrasound power of 5.6 W·cm−2 and temperature of 45 °C. Quantitatively UAE followed by two stages of conventional extraction gave the best total protein yield of 9.81 g/100 g DM. Qualitatively, the protein efficiency ratio (PER used as measure of the nutritive value (12S/2S ratio which indicates protein quality in terms of S-containing essential amino acids, was similar to that of the conventional extraction method. Small amounts of protein aggregate were observed in the HPLC profile of the extract.

  10. Enhanced phyto-extraction of cadmium and zinc using rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.; Slycken, S.V.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Naz, F. [National Insect Museum, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, S. [Agriculture Department, University of Haripur, Haripur (Pakistan)

    2013-07-01

    In a green house pot experiment, the effects of three amendments, sulphur (S), ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) were tested for phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn by rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Elemental sulphur was applied as 20.00, 60.00, and 120.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. EDTA was tested at a dose of 585.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) at a rate of 0.23 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. All treatments received a base fertilization (Hogland) before sowing. Plants were harvested after 51 days of growth and shoot dry matter and soil samples were analysed for metal contents. All amendments caused a significant increase in Cd and Zn contents in plant shoots of all treatments than control treatment. Further, EDTA was most effective for extraction metals concentrat