WorldWideScience

Sample records for rape proclivity earlier

  1. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  2. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  3. Male Peer Support to Hostile Sexist Attitudes Influences Rape Proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Mercedes; Megías, Jesús L; Moya, Miguel

    2018-07-01

    Sexual assault affects a large proportion of women in the world. Although most rapes are committed by one man, the act itself may be influenced by many (e.g., the peer group). Hostile sexism (HS) has repeatedly been associated with men's rape proclivity, but the influence exerted by the HS of the peer group on rape proclivity has not been investigated. In this study, we explored the impact of perceived male peer support to HS on participants' rape proclivity. A sample of Spanish undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain ( N = 134) completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Immediately afterwards, they received feedback on the supposed sexist responses of a peer group (high vs. low in HS); we kept the benevolent sexism (BS) of the peer group at medium levels. Next, we assessed participants' rape proclivity using acquaintance rape scenarios. Results showed an interaction between participants' own levels of HS and information about the HS of the peer group. Men high in HS reported higher rape proclivity in the high-HS peer-group condition than in the low-HS peer-group condition. By contrast, information on the peer group did not affect self-reported rape proclivity of men low in HS. Results also corroborated the relationship between participants' levels of HS and rape proclivity, and expanded the literature by revealing an unexpected influence of participants' BS on rape proclivity.

  4. Community males show multiple-perpetrator rape proclivity: development and preliminary validation of an interest scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Wood, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The literature on Multiple Perpetrator Rape (MPR) is scant; however, a significant proportion of sexual offending involves multiple perpetrators. In addition to the need for research with apprehended offenders of MPR, there is also a need to conduct research with members of the general public. Recent advances in the forensic literature have led to the development of self-report proclivity scales. These scales have enabled researchers to conduct evaluative studies sampling from members of the general public who may be perpetrators of sexual offenses and have remained undetected, or at highest risk of engaging in sexual offending. The current study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multiple-Perpetrator Rape Interest Scale (M-PRIS), a vignette-based measure assessing community males' sexual arousal to MPR, behavioral propensity toward MPR and enjoyment of MPR. The findings show that the M-PRIS is a reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in MPR with high internal reliability and temporal stability. In a sample of university males we found that a large proportion (66%) did not emphatically reject an interest in MPR. We also found that rape-supportive cognitive distortions, antisocial attitudes, and high-risk sexual fantasies were predictors of sexual interest in MPR. We discuss these findings and the implications for further research employing proclivity measures referencing theory development and clinical practice.

  5. Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Rape (sexual assault) - overview URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  6. Defining, Developing, and Measuring "Proclivities for Teaching Mathematics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer M.; Fischman, Davida; Riggs, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a form of teacher reasoning that we call "proclivities for teaching mathematics." We define proclivities for teaching mathematics as the beliefs, knowledge, and dispositions that are actionable in the flow of instruction, and we argue that growth in this area contributes to positive change in mathematics…

  7. Metacognitive aspects of rape myths: subjective strength of rape myth acceptance moderates its effects on information processing and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  8. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravating...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  9. Lived Experience of Interracial Dialogue on Race: Proclivity to Participate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willow, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    The author conducted a qualitative inquiry of individuals' proclivity to participate in interracial dialogues. Lived experience of 20 participants in a race study circle yielded the overarching themes of education, self-reflection, advanced empathy, moral consciousness, universality, racial identity development, and social interest. Implications…

  10. Debriefing effectiveness following exposure to pornographic rape depictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamuth, Neil; Check, James

    1984-02-01

    Data are presented concerning the ethics of exposing undergraduate students to pornographic rape portrayals followed by a debriefing designed to dispel a number of rape myths. One hundred fifty males and females were randomly assigned to read pornographic stories. Some of these depicted a rape, whereas others depicted mutually consenting intercourse. Afterwards, those exposed to the rape version were given a debriefing which included statements concerning the true horror of rape and the existence of rape myths. About 10 days later, a "Public Survey" ostensibly conducted by a local committee of citizens was given to subjects in their classes. A postexperimental questionnaire confirmed that participants were not aware that this survey was related to the earlier phase of the research. As part of the survey, subjects were presented with actual newspaper articles about which their opinions were solicited. One of these articles, the dependent measure of the study, concerned rape. Subjects indicated their reactions to this article and their opinions about the general causes of rape. The results indicated that those exposed to the rape depictions followed by a "rape debriefing" were less accepting of certain rape myths than subjects exposed to mutually consenting intercourse depictions. Implications of the data for future research in this area are discussed both in terms of work focusing on the potential antisocial impact of violent pornography and of research specifically designed to identify the conditions most likely to change acceptance of rape myths.

  11. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  12. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  13. Forensic implications of rape

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Milan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. T...

  14. Microstructure, Macrostructure and the Steering of Material Proclivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This article reports upon recent and initial explorations by the author in the hydroforming of steel. The material processes involved and the resulting artefacts are reflected upon, providing a ground from which to speculate about implications for architecture as both artefact and practice...... are steerable but not exclusively dependant upon profile geometry. The definition of geometry leading to physical outcome is familiar design territory. The forming method can be arrested and resumed arbitrarily. The notion of an extended forming process presents interesting implications to the linear...... the ideal, predictive and pre‐determined. This is less familiar design territory. This work begins to define both a material language for, and a non‐deterministic design paradigm of, steered proclivity. A conceptual framework for this paradigm is sketched out and presented in the form of the Persistent...

  15. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  17. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  18. The Culture of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    or a prostitute and it wasn’t really rape because her job implies that she really doesn ’ t care about her body. As a society, we continue to make...FAULKNER, DYSFUNCTIONA.t FAMILY, AND THE OLD SOUTH; RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND VICTIM-BLAMING; AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCLICAL Circle one: Abstract- Tech...h &Fine Arts/333-7723 lRRESPONSIBILITY d1 2. WILLIAM FAULKNER, DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILY t) AND TIIE OLD SOUTH .. L 3. RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND

  19. Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm than good. Talking about rape in a safe environment with the help and support of a trained professional is the best way to ensure long-term healing. Working through the pain sooner rather than later can ...

  20. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  1. Rape Beyond Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Margo

    2017-02-01

    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  2. The Development of a Sexual Harassment Proclivity Scale: Construct Validation and Relationship to Communication Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Shereen G.; Burleson, Brant R.

    1996-01-01

    Develops and assesses the validity of a self-report measure of sexual harassment proclivities in men. Demonstrates the validity of the scale by its moderate correlations with attitude measures relevant to sexual harassment, its nonsignificant correlation with the need to provide socially desirable responses, and by showing that potential victims…

  3. If Your Child is Raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know Child Abuse Self-Defense Emergency Contraception Abuse Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Date Rape Abusive Relationships How Can I Help a Friend Who Was Raped? Drugs: What to Know Rape View more About Us ...

  4. Unacknowledged Rape in the Community: Rape Characteristics and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Layh, Marlee; Rudolph, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    Unacknowledged rape, labeling a rape as a nonvictimizing event, remains largely unstudied among non-college women. This study therefore sought to examine differences in assault characteristics, adjustment, and disclosure by rape acknowledgment status among a sample of lower income rape victims (n = 104) recruited from a reproductive health clinic (mean age = 28.8 years). Although unacknowledged rape was infrequent (17.1% of victims), unacknowledged victims reported that the perpetrator used less force and were less likely to have assertively resisted, as compared to acknowledged victims. There were no significant differences in disclosure, depression, and somatic complaints between unacknowledged and acknowledged rape victims. Implications of the findings for understanding rape acknowledgment and postrape adjustment among community women are discussed.

  5. The Malevolent Side of Revenge Porn Proclivity: Dark Personality Traits and Sexist Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Afroditi; Holland, James, Edward; James, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study, exploring a form of technology facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) known as revenge porn. Despite its emerging prevalence, little is known about the characteristics of revenge porn perpetrators. In the current study, a revenge porn proclivity scale was devised to examine participants' behavioural propensity to engage in revenge porn. One hundred adults, aged 18-54, were recruited online from a community sample. The correlational relationship between revenge p...

  6. Inherited proclivity: When should neurogenetics mitigate moral culpability for purposes of sentencing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, J Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Certain genes and neurobiology ('neurogenetics') may predispose some people to violent behavior. Increasingly, defendants introduce neurogenetic evidence as a mitigating factor during criminal sentencing. Identifying the cause of a criminal act, biological or otherwise, does not necessarily preclude moral or legal liability. However, valid scientific evidence of an inherited proclivity sometimes should be considered when evaluating whether a defendant is less morally culpable for a crime and perhaps less deserving of punishment. This Note proposes a two-pronged test to understand whether and when neurogenetic evidence should be considered to potentially mitigate an individual's culpability for criminal behavior. The first prong normatively assesses whether a defendant meets a threshold of having meaningfully managed his risk of harming others based on what he knew, or should have known, about his own proclivities to violence. The second prong considers the admissibility of the evidence based on whether the specific neurogenetic proclivity claimed by the defendant is relevant and adequately supported by science so as to be reliable. This proposed two-pronged test, beginning with an ethical threshold and followed by a scientific hurdle, can help judges and juries establish when to accept arguments for neurogenetic mitigation at sentencing, and when to reject them.

  7. Effect of sexual coercion proclivity, insult and fantasy on emotional reactivity and appeal of sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lindsey A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2012-08-01

    Fifty-nine heterosexual university males were assessed for Sexual Coercion Proclivity (SCP) and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Insult/nonsexually coercive fantasy material; no insult/sexually coercive fantasy material; or, insult/sexually coercive fantasy material. Although not differing in terms of anger or anxiety, the high SCP became more frustrated than the low group, particularly when exposed to both insult and sexually coercive (SC) fantasy material. Changes in negative affect predicted anticipated likelihood of engaging in SC among the low SCP group and anticipated enjoyment of SC in the high SCP group. Acculturation accounted for differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese men.

  8. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Tribal Proclivity and its Effects on the Cooperate Existence of Nigeria in the Centenary Era: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USMAN JIMOH MUHAMMAD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper consists of seven sub-sections namely, the introduction, a flash on the prevalence of tribal proclivity in Nigeria, causes of tribal proclivity among Nigerians and its effects. Other aspect of the paper includes the Islamic perspective on tribal proclivity in Nigeria, recommendations and conclusion. The introduction briefly appraises the historical composition of Nigeria in the early nineteen century and its amalgamation in the year 1914. Reference is being made in the paper to cases of tribal proclivity in Nigeria while the causes of tribal penchant include unemployment, selfishness of some politicians, lack of patience and endurance by citizens in their relationship among themselves. Tribal proclivity the paper affirms results into insecurity of lives and properties, portrays evidence of lack of unity and bad governance. The paper examines some relevant verses and prophetic traditions in a bid to redress the situation and recommends that the government and the well to problem of unemployment in the nation. In addition, religious do people in the society should join hands together towards addressing the scholars and other orientation bodies must reorient people towards peaceful coexistence among themselves.

  10. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  11. Transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants, rape blossoms and rape honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Klepsch, A.; Assmann-Wertmueller, U.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the test of atomic weapons and the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, the vegetation in Germany has been exposed to cesium contamination in the soil. It was to be expected that activity would migrate from soil to plants and to food products. In this work, the transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants (Brassica napus var. oleifera), rape blossoms and further to rape honey was investigated. By measuring the gamma activity of cesium using germanium detectors with measuring capacity up to 30 h per sample (limit of detection about 0.14 Bq/kg to 0.19 Bq/kg), we determined a mean transfer factor f cs = 0,116 ± 0,080 for the system soil-rape plant, f cs = 0.065 + 0.075 for the system soil-rape blossom and F!S = 0.098 + 0.044 for the system soil-rape honey (plants and honey wet mass, soil dry mass) (Table IV). Additionally, for the transfer of cesium from rape plants to rape honey, a factor of f cs = 2.04 ± 7.23 (both wet mass) was determined. Due to some environmental circumstances, which can hardly ever be taken into account, the results obtained sometimes differ considerably. Nevertheless, the mean transfer factors are within the range of values found in literature (Table V) [de

  12. [Rape by 2 assaillants and gang rape in Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Y; Boyer, R; Lamontagne, C; Giroux, J

    1984-11-01

    A survey was conducted in 230 cases of rape and rape attempts heard in the Judicial District of Montreal between January 1975 and May 1978. Data were compiled from the 30 assaults including two or more assaillants. Results show that in cases of rape committed by two men the aggressors are older than gang rapists, meet the victim mainly in her flat or in a bar, and rape her in her own home, in a car or a hotel. In these cases, voyeurism seems to be an important factor since, most of the time, rape is committed by only one of the two aggressors. On the other hand, gang rapists are younger, meet the victim in public places, on the street or when she is hitch-hiking and attack her in one of the aggressors' house, in public places or on the street. Exhibitionism seems more present in this group of rapists. For both groups the victims are mainly single, younger than the aggressors and have diverse occupations. Finally, regarding the legal outcome half of the subjects were liberated or acquitted in both groups. Rape committed by two men had never been studied or compared with gang rape up until now. Results of this survey show dynamic and demographic differences between these two groups of sexual delinquents.

  13. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  14. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  15. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. WOMEN ANTI-RAPE BELT

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath B Gadhe; Ganesh Chinchansure; Amar Kumar; Mritunjay Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Rape is fourth most common and frequently happening crime against women in India. Among metro cities, has more number of rape cases and compare to developed countries like Latin America developing countries like India has less number of such incidences, where very good security facilities are provided by government and ratio of education is higher. So it proves that illiteracy or security is not major reason behind such assaults but the unawareness about self-protection and inefficient self-p...

  17. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON MARITAL RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Endriyo Susila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law.    Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she

  18. Rape myth acceptance impacts the reporting of rape to the police: a study of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.

  19. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  20. The impact of rape acknowledgment on survivor outcomes: The moderating effects of rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Newins, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2017-11-13

    Little is known about how rape acknowledgment relates to posttrauma functioning; recent research suggests the effect may depend on additional factors. In the current study, the moderating effect of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the relationships between rape acknowledgment and mental health outcomes was examined. A sample of 181 female rape survivors recruited from a university completed an online survey assessing RMA, rape acknowledgment, depression symptoms, and alcohol use. Generally, the results supported that RMA moderated the influence of rape acknowledgment on depression symptoms and average quantity per drinking episode, but not frequency of alcohol use. The findings demonstrated that when individuals endorsed high levels of RMA, acknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than unacknowledged rape survivors. Among individuals low on RMA, unacknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than acknowledged rape survivors. It is recommended that clinicians recognize the role of survivor beliefs, such as RMA, in the relationship between labeling sexual assault experiences and mental health consequences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  2. Rape as a fuel crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling Nielsen, C.; Sandager, A.M.; Nielsen, V.; Oestergaard, C.; Poulsen, E.P.; Vaarlid, T.

    1993-01-01

    The European Community has decided to limit the production of excess amounts of corn so that 15% of an agricultural area should lie fallow. Rape can be cultivated on setaside areas and converted to the biofuel rape seed oil methyl ester (ROME). The aim was to discover whether ROME as a fuel pollutes less than diesel oil. The combustion of ROME and light diesel was investigated and compared and the economics of there respective life cycles were considered with emphasis on their pollutive properties. It was concluded that in urban areas the use of ROME produces emissions that are more dangerous to health than those emitted by diesel oil. In addition the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides which are necessary for the cultivation of rape constitute a further load on the environmental pollutive load. (AHJ) (44 refs.)

  3. Rape myth acceptance and rape acknowledgment: The mediating role of sexual refusal assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newins, Amie R; Wilson, Laura C; White, Susan W

    2018-05-01

    Unacknowledged rape, defined as when an individual experiences an event that meets a legal or empirical definition of rape but the individual does not label it as such, is prevalent. Research examining predictors of rape acknowledgment is needed. Sexual assertiveness may be an important variable to consider, as an individual's typical behavior during sexual situations may influence rape acknowledgment. To assess the indirect effect of rape myth acceptance on rape acknowledgment through sexual refusal assertiveness, an online survey of 181 female rape survivors was conducted. The indirect effects of two types of rape myths (He didn't mean to and Rape is a deviant event) were significant and positive. Specifically, acceptance of these two rape myths was negatively related to sexual refusal assertiveness, which was negatively associated with likelihood of rape acknowledgment. The results of this study indicate that sexual refusal assertiveness is associated with lower likelihood of rape acknowledgment among rape survivors. As a result, it appears that, under certain circumstances, women high in rape myth acceptance may be more likely to acknowledge rape when it results in decreased sexual refusal assertiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Women's attitudes toward forcible rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolor, A

    1978-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudes of women with diverse backgrounds toward possible responses to an attempted sexual assault and also ascertained their beliefs about how society should handle a convicted rapist. Additionally, the role which the personality dimensions of assertiveness and internal-external expectamcy play in shaping attitudes toward rape was investigated. Seventy-seven women and 25 men were administered the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, the Rotter I-E Scale, and a Rape Inventory. Women relied on a narrow range of options to deal with a rapist's attack, depending mostly on less active modes. They advocated humane approaches be taken with convicted rapists. Personality played only a minor role.

  5. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  6. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualise a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents’ gender; (3) to examine the ‘cultural lag’ theory of male rape where it was hypothesised that if the public perception of male rape l...

  7. Self-reported proclivity to harass as a moderator of the effectiveness of sexual harassment-prevention training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, L A; Doverspike, D

    2001-02-01

    The interaction between the likelihood of males engaging in sexual harassment and the effectiveness of a 1-hr. sexual harassment-prevention training was explored in a laboratory study. An interaction of scores on the Likelihood to Sexually Harass Scale and training condition for 90 undergraduate men was found, such that sexual harassment-prevention training had a small negative effect on the attitudes of males with a high proclivity to harass.

  8. The Psychological Impact of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the psychological impact of rape on adult female victims, and explores typical patterns of recovery, types of symptoms, and variables affecting recovery. Explores moderating and preassault variables, within-assault variables such as acquaintance status and level of violence, and postassault variables such as social…

  9. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    practice such defences are often acknowledged if the belief is reasonable by some general standard, even when this standard does not pertain to the rules currently governing the practice of intercourse in Denmark. As a result it has often been argued that the notion of negligent rape should be introduced...

  10. The influence of prior rape on the psychological and physical health functioning of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A; Sheffler, Julia; Arce, Darleine; Rushing, Nicole C; Corsentino, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Older adults who have experienced traumatic events earlier in life may be especially vulnerable to additional challenges associated with aging. In a cross-sectional study of older females, the present study examines whether a history of rape is associated with current psychological and health problems. This study used existing data from the female respondents (N = 1228) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a national probability sample of adults between the ages of 57 and 85 interviewed in their homes. It was determined whether or not the participant experienced forced sexual contact since the age of 18. Measures of psychological health (e.g., scales of depression, anxiety, and loneliness), the presence or absence of a number of serious health problems, and a one-item measure of self-esteem were obtained. Adult rape occurred in 7% of the sample. On average, 36 years had elapsed since the rape had occurred. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), rape was associated with lower self-esteem, psychological, and physical health functioning. Self-esteem partially mediated the association between rape and psychological functioning, but not health functioning. These associations were significant even after controlling for participant characteristics and risky health behaviors. Mechanisms linking prior rape to psychological and health problems in older age are discussed, as well as treatment recommendations for symptomatic older adults.

  11. Interpreting Rape: Differences Among Professionals and Non-Professional Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Lawrence G.

    Physicians and rape crisis counselors may play important roles in assisting a rape victim; their beliefs and perceptions about rape may influence their treatment of the victim. Physicians (N=10) and volunteer rape counselors (N=44) completed questionnaires focused on demographic characteristics, their experiences with rape victims, and personal…

  12. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  13. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  14. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Glanville; Yolanda Dreyer

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social) impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be awar...

  15. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    Little is known from research about barriers to seeking and receiving help following domestic violence, rape, attempted rape, and sexual assault in Denmark. This study examined possible regional differences in reporting rape and sexual assault in urban and rural communities in a large region...

  16. Rape: psychopathology, theory and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A; Collie, Rachael M; Ward, Tony; Thakker, Jo

    2008-07-01

    Whether treatment programs are effective at rehabilitating rapists is yet to be determined empirically. From a scientist-practitioner perspective, treatment should be based on an empirical understanding of rape and rapists, and evidence-based knowledge of treatment outcome with rapists. In this paper we comprehensively review the characteristics of rapists, etiological features implicated in the commission of rape, and relevant treatment outcome research. We pay particular attention to contemporary knowledge about the core vulnerabilities and features required to understand and treat rapists effectively, and, where possible, highlight similarities and differences between rapists, child molesters and non-sexual violent offenders. We use an epistemological framework to (a) critique the various etiological accounts of rape available and (b) help guide professionals' use of such knowledge in both treatment design and evaluation. Gaps in the understanding of rapists' characteristics and etiological features are highlighted, as are discrepancies between current knowledge and treatment approaches. We conclude by highlighting areas for future research and practice innovation.

  17. Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, A.; Glante, F.; Schlueter, C.; Golz, C.; Noeh, I.; Reinhard, G.; Hoepfner, U.; Satorius, R.; Benndorf, R.; Bluemel, H.; Schaerer, B.; Rodt, S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to answer the following central question: Is the environmental pollution burden resulting from the cultivation of rape and the use of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester to be rated less severe than that of the manufacture and use of diesel fuel, and should, therefore, farmland be used in Germany to grow rape for rape seed oil or rape methyl ester production as a substitute for diesel fuel? Firstly, the extent is investigated to which rape seed oil or rape methyl ester can contribute to cuts in emissions of climate-relevant trace gases as compared to diesel fuel from crude oil. Secondly, the environmental impact and hazards associated with the cultivation, transport and manufacture of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester (again as compared to diesel fuel) are investigated. The data analysed relate to the entire life cycle. (orig./UWA) [de

  18. Pornography and rape: theory and practice? Evidence from crime data in four countries where pornography is easily available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchinsky, B

    1991-01-01

    We have looked at the empirical evidence of the well-known feminist dictum: "pornography is the theory--rape is the practice" (Morgan, 1980). While earlier research, notably that generated by the U.S. Commission on Obscenity and Pornography (1970) had found no evidence of a causal link between pornography and rape, a new generation of behavioral scientists have, for more than a decade, made considerable effort to prove such a connection, especially as far as "aggressive pornography" is concerned. The first part of the article examines and discusses the findings of this new research. A number of laboratory experiments have been conducted, much akin to the types of experiments developed by researchers of the effects of nonsexual media violence. As in the latter, a certain degree of increased "aggressiveness" has been found under certain circumstances, but to extrapolate from such laboratory effects to the commission of rape in real life is dubious. Studies of rapists' and nonrapists' immediate sexual reactions to presentations of pornography showed generally greater arousal to non-violent scenes, and no difference can be found in this regard between convicted rapists, nonsexual criminals and noncriminal males. In the second part of the paper an attempt was made to study the necessary precondition for a substantial causal relationship between the availability of pornography, including aggressive pornography, and rape--namely, that obviously increased availability of such material was followed by an increase in cases of reported rape. The development of rape and attempted rape during the period 1964-1984 was studied in four countries: the U.S.A., Denmark, Sweden and West Germany. In all four countries there is clear and undisputed evidence that during this period the availability of various forms of pictorial pornography including violent/dominant varieties (in the form of picture magazines, and films/videos used at home or shown in arcades or cinemas) has developed

  19. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2018-04-01

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory.

  20. Fear of rape from behind prison walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.

  1. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  2. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  3. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    in the beginning of a year (January–March) leading to the setting of more flowers. On the other hand, the decrease in the number of open oilseed rape flowers during the flowering period seems to be governed exclusively by inherent characteristics of oilseed rape. A late flowering in 2013 was associated...

  4. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... on ASD severity and sexual problems following the rape accounted for only 28% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, the ASD diagnosis is not an optimal method for identifying those most at risk for PTSD. It remains to be seen whether a better way can be found....

  5. Detecting the True Nature of Allegations of Rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zutter, André; Horselenberg, Robert; van Koppen, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted to test whether it is possible to build a model to distinguish true and false allegations of rape based on the theory of fabricated rape. The theory is based on the principle that a false complainant of rape has not been raped and has to fabricate a story while the story of a

  6. Present and future instances of virtual rape in light of three categories of legal philosophical theories on rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in

  7. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  8. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  9. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  10. The associations of earlier trauma exposures and history of mental disorders with PTSD after subsequent traumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Bromet, E J; Gureje, O; Karam, E G; Koenen, K C; Lee, S; Liu, H; Pennell, B-E; Petukhova, M V; Sampson, N A; Shahly, V; Stein, D J; Atwoli, L; Borges, G; Bunting, B; de Girolamo, G; Gluzman, S F; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Kawakami, N; Kovess-Masfety, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Shalev, A Y; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Zaslavsky, A M

    2017-09-19

    Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear whether this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pretrauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34 676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (odds ratio (OR)=1.3-2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior and substance disorders before random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5-4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization and rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 years (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.194.

  11. Electrophoretic studies on rape seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Starr, A.; Bibi, N.

    1992-07-01

    Electrophoresis is a technique which separates biological molecules on the basis of charge and mass properties. The technique is used for separation, purification, characterization and identification of molecules/ compounds. Two major objectives for applications of electrophoresis have been studied in this report i.e. characterization of rape seed proteins and enzymes and identification of rape seed cultivars by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Gamma irradiation is being successfully used to create genetic variability and germination which brought about definite changes in the rape seed proteins reflected in different bands. These differences could be used to study variability in crop plants. (A.B.)

  12. Alzheimer's and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Earlier Diagnosis What if we could diagnose Alzheimer's before symptoms started? The hope is, future treatments ... diagnosis is among the most active areas in Alzheimer's science, and funding from the Alzheimer's Association has ...

  13. Progressive introgression between ¤Brassica napus¤ (oilseed rape) and ¤B-rapa¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Siegismund, H.R.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    We have earlier shown extensive introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and B. rapa in a weedy population using AFLP markers specific for the nuclear genomes. In order to describe the progress of this introgression, we examined 117 offspring from 12 maternal plants from the introgress...

  14. Estimation and change tendency of rape straw resource in Leshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu

    2018-04-01

    Rape straw in Leshan area are rape stalks, including stems, leaves and pods after removing rapeseed. Leshan area is one of the main rape planting areas in Sichuan Province and rape planting area is large. Each year will produce a lot of rape straw. Based on the analysis of the trend of rapeseed planting area and rapeseed yield from 2008 to 2014, the change trend of rape straw resources in Leshan from 2008 to 2014 was analyzed and the decision-making reference was provided for resource utilization of rape straw. The results showed that the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was very large, which was more than 100,000 tons per year, which was increasing year by year. By 2014, the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was close to 200,000 tons.

  15. Demography and findings of reported rape cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, M M; Rahman, M H; Kamal, M; Ahmed, A U; Saha, S K

    2010-01-01

    Six hundred and ninety nine cases of alleged rape were studied by the authors during the period from 2007-2008 at the Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Of these cases, 122 had positive findings of recent sexual intercourse; 250 cases had the positive findings of habituated sexual intercourse, and 327 cases had no findings of sexual intercourse but they complained of forcible sexual intercourse and found no sign of sexual intercourse. Most of the alleged victims of rape were nulliparous 87.12% and parous was only 12.87%. 430 (61.51%) cases of reported victims who were students of schools and colleges were not considered as rape cases considering their victim's history of love affairs, leaving home secretly with their lovers, living with them for many days. Gang rape was not so common (4.29% of raped cases) in our study. Age groups, their occupations, living areas, time of arrival for medico-legal examination have been studied. Most of the cases were students (61.51%). A few numbers of victims were subjected to gang rape. Examination and reporting the cases have been discussed.

  16. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production...

  17. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  18. La Violacion Sexual--The Reality of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Chris; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Hispanic rape victim often finds herself in a situation where discussing a rape may jeopardize not only her self esteem but her residency status, job and familial relations. Small wonder she prefers to remain silent. (Author/NQ)

  19. Date rape among undergraduates in southwestern Nigeria federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing number of date rapes occurring on University campuses and the need to decrease rape supportive attitudes point to the need for continued research on this field. Correlational survey design was adopted to examine the extent to which attitude towards date rape is associated with the respondents' emotional ...

  20. Management and Profile of Rape Victims attending the Karl Bremer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: The study was conducted at the rape centre at the Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. To describe the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in rape victims, all consecutive patients who presented to the rape centre over the one-year period from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007 were included ...

  1. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  2. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...--Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Proclamation 8823--Armed Forces Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Prison Rape Elimination Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Sexual... Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) was enacted with bipartisan support and established a ``zero...

  3. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  4. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  5. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rape and incest. 50.306 Section 50.306 Public... § 50.306 Rape and incest. Federal financial participation is available in expenditures for medical procedures performed upon a victim of rape or incest if the program or project has received signed...

  6. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  7. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  8. The Psychology of the Politics of Rape: Political Ideology, Moral Foundations, and Attitudes Toward Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Hilz, Emily N

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.

  9. "Nobody Told Me It Was Rape": A Parent's Guide for Talking with Teenagers about Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Caren; Fay, Jennifer

    This book was written to help parents talk to their adolescent children about acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation. It may also be useful to family life educators presenting units on rape and sexual exploitation. Acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation are explained in the first section. The second section discusses talking with teenagers…

  10. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  11. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  12. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  13. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention…

  14. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  16. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  17. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter.

  18. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  19. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  20. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  2. Dealing with rape in a new political landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Baroness Vivien

    2012-01-01

    Rape is controversial and constructing rape policy is complicated. Most victims, men and women, are raped by someone they know. The court case usually hangs on whether or not the complainant consented to the act. The defence feels free to portray the complainant in a negative light making the trial an ordeal. Some complainants decide it is one ordeal too many and withdraw from the process. Sustained criticism of the handling of rape cases over many years led to substantial improvements, with specially trained police officers, prosecutors and judges, and more defendants being convicted. Yet providing justice to rape victims requires more than an effective criminal justice response. It also requires recognition that victims are entitled to the support of the state. They should be treated with respect regardless of whether the case goes to trial or not. The rate of convictions for rape is not the only, or even the most important measure of a good policy.

  3. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  4. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  5. The incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, J M

    1997-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women. Sixty women in a residential treatment facility were interviewed about sexual trauma they had experienced in their lives. In this sample 73% had been raped, and 45% had been raped more than once. The stories of rape were classified in five categories: rape while in the context of using, when too high to resist, while prostituting, by a significant other, and by a family member. Some 35% of the rapist described were friends of the women with whom they were using drugs. Only 20% of the rapes were reported to the police. Clinical implications for treatment of addicted women who are also survivors of violence is discussed.

  6. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tiihonen Möller

    Full Text Available Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD.Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months.Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults.Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  7. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen Möller, Anna; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  8. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  9. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  10. Rape: Is it a lifestyle or behavioral problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Zeel N.; Kosambiya, Jayendrakumar K.; Chawada, Bansari L.; Verma, Mamtarani; Kadia, Abhinav

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In India, girl is raped every 20 min. The majority of reports reveals youth is vulnerable group for rape victimization. A set of prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapist exist in the community. Aims/Objectives: To study the attitude and myths toward rape among college going students of Surat City. Materials and Methods: College students of various streams were participated in the study based on attitude toward rape scale (21 items) and updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (22 items). A total of 332 participants from three different colleges of the city took part in the survey. Data analysis was done with the SPSS version 19. Results: Among the responders, 61.75% were female. Mean age of participants was 20.22 ± 1.27 years. Almost two-third (73%) of female participants and 42% of the male participants disagreed with the myth that “When a woman says ‘no’ she really means ‘yes’.” Around 30% of the participants were uncertain about the myth that “A woman cannot be raped by someone she previously knew or had sex with.” While almost 35% of participants believed that “Most rapes are carried out by strangers.” Strong sexual desire of guys, drunkenness, and girl's clothes were reported to be factors that provoke rape by 50%, 40%, and 33% of respondents, respectively, around 95% of female and 92% of male participants think that 7-year imprisonment for rape is not enough. Conclusions: Rape myths are found to be highly prevalent among youth and higher among males. PMID:28529364

  11. Energy rape seed - Non-food alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate possibilities to use agrobiomass for several energy end use sectors. The reference is common European approach where ethanol and rape seed oil is produced for transportation sector. The production costs are approximately 3 - 4 times higher compared to non taxed refinery price of gasoline and diesel fuel. This is also the case for energy crops compared to peat and coal. For Finnish conditions several other options are studied including technical and economical assessments. Solid fuels in form of energy crops like reed canary grass, salix-SRF and straw are evaluated as a feed to multifuel fluid bed boilers and as a futuristic scenario also for flashpyrolysis oil production. Rape seed oil is tested by Neste Oy as a biocomponent in heating oil and as a biocomponent in diesel fuel in engines by VTT. According to present results about 10 - 20 % rape seed oil can be mixed unprocessed to heating oils. Agrofibre production is studied in a laboratory phase with two advanced cooking methods to produce a high value product as a fraction of a biorefinery. The aim of the project is to identify possible research and development paths for future activities. With present prices no agrobiomass is today economically competitive with other fuels. (author)

  12. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  13. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  14. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.

  15. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Treatment of Rape and Incest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies indicate that at least 15% of the female population in western countries has experienced sexual abuse and severe sexual traumas. This paper explains how even serious sexual abuse and trauma can be healed when care and resources encourage the patient to return to the painful life events. When the physician cares and receives the trust of the patient, emotional holding and processing will follow quite naturally. Spontaneous regression seems to be an almost pain-free way of integrating the severe traumas from earlier experiences of rape and incest. This technique is a recommended alternative to classical timeline therapy using therapeutic commands. When traumatized patients distance themselves from their soul (feelings, sexuality, and existential depth, they often lose their energy and enjoyment of life. However, this does not mean that they are lost to life. Although it may seem paradoxical, a severe trauma may be a unique opportunity to regain enjoyment of life. The patient will often be richly rewarded for the extensive work of clearing and sorting out in order to experience a new depth in his or her existence and emotional life, with a new ability to understand life in general and other people in particular. So what may look like a tragedy can be transformed into a unique gift; if the patient gets sufficient support, there is the possibility of healing and learning. Consciousness-based medicine seems to provide severely traumatized patients with the quality of support and care needed for their soul to heal.

  16. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  17. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  18. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  19. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  20. Effect of chronic radiation on rape genotype formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Hannich, K.; Cerny, J.; Vyvadilova, M.

    1975-01-01

    The F 1 generation of hybrid plants of the Canadian erucic acid-free rape cross-bred with some European winter rape varieties with a high content of erucic acid were chronically irradiated in a gamma-field with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R er vegetation. In segregating F 2 generations, the irradiation significantly increased the proportion of winter genotypes; a matroclinous influence on the developmental characteristics of plants occurred in irradiated segregating F 2 hybrid populations. As against spring rape, winter rape varieties used as the maternal form during hybridization caused a statistically significant increase in the frequency of winter genotypes. The segregation of half-winter forms in irradiated segregating hybrid populations of the F 2 generation proved the incomplete dominance of the spring habit of oil rape. Chronic irradiation significantly increased erucic-free (0 - 10% of erucic acid) and low-erucic (10 - 20% of erucic acid) genotype frequencies in segregating F 2 generations. Chronic irradiation of the hybrid plants of erucic-free spring rapes and erucic winter rapes with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R per vegetation, together with the temperature screening of winter forms and with the determination of the fatty acid content, may be considered as an effective method of creating non-erucic and low-erucic winter forms of oil rape. (author)

  1. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  2. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  3. "Spreading the Love" and Using Performances to Prevent Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    While rape is ordinarily considered an invariable reality, Sharon Marcus argues that it is instead a cultural script, which casts women as victims and men as perpetrators. In imagining rape as a script, it may seem pertinent to suggest that the arts and performance have a role in its prevention. Performances can provide a forum to publicly reflect…

  4. A REVIEW OF LITERATURE: RAPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social change in the community; a positive change, from social vices such as rape, stealing ... Language cannot be separated from social life, and is logically connected to it. ..... This form of rape is incest, and is committed by the child's parents or close relatives, such as .... Emotional numbness or irritability. Flashbacks.

  5. 107 SPOUSAL RAPE IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD Abstract Sexual

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    5 Some have wondered why a married woman will cry foul and ... for the retention of spousal rape exemption among others is the fact that establishing rape within marriage is usually an uphill task, it is believed that such allegations can .... between unmarried persons is unlawful; it is noted that this act do not carry with it any ...

  6. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

    2011-06-01

    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  8. Effects of rape on men: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jayne; Archer, John; Davies, Michelle

    2005-02-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rape on men have focused mainly on clinical populations. This study extended current research by investigating the effects of rape on a non-clinical sample of men recruited from the general population by media advertising. A total of 40 male rape victims were asked to provide details of their assaults, levels of psychological disturbance, long-term effects, and reporting issues. Results revealed that most assaults had been carried out using physical or violent force, in a variety of different circumstances. All of the victims reported some form of psychological disturbance as a result of being raped. Long-term effects included anxiety, depression, increased feelings of anger and vulnerability, loss of self-image, emotional distancing, self-blame, and self-harming behaviors. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research in the area and perceptions of rape.

  9. Evaluation of an intervention to change attitudes toward date rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, C A; Elliott, M N; Martin, D W; Kapadia, A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of date rape among college students is a major concern. Although much research has been done on risk factors for date rape, few researchers have specifically described interventions for the various stages of developing a date-rape prevention program. Previous programs have often relied on educational videos that feature a "typical" date-rape scenario, a format that some researchers suggest may have a negative effect on the way people engage in aggressive sexual behavior. A less violent theatrical production based on social learning theory and risk-factor reduction that resulted in a significant improvement in attitudes related to date rape among both male and female students at an elite Texas university is described.

  10. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  11. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore

    2013-09-01

    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. "You Owe Me": Effects of Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported…

  13. Male Power and Female Victimization: Towards a Theory of Interracial Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFree, Gary D.

    1982-01-01

    Tests two models of Black offender/White victim (BW) rape, using data from 443 rape cases. Results did not support the normative model which correlates BW rape with increased social interaction between Black men and White women and only partially supported the conflict model that correlates BW rape with increased Black politicization. (Author/AM)

  14. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse: What Beliefs Persist about Motives, Perpetrators, and Survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and…

  15. Radiation-use efficiency in summer rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.J.; Stewart, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation-use efficiency (RUE) is a parameter that represents a crop canopy's ability to convert intercepted solar energy to dry matter. The RUE is used in simulation models and can vary with crop type and environment. The objective was to examine the effects of varying row width and seeding rate on the amount of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) and the RUE in summer rape (Brassica napus L.). 'Westar' summer rape was seeded at rates of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 kg ha-1 in rows spaced 15 or 30 cm apart. Plant sampling was done at key growth stages, and the leaf and pod areas and total plant dry weights were determined. After flowering, plants intercepted more PAR when grown in 15-cm-wide rows than 30-cm-wide rows. For both row widths, as seeding rate increased from 1.5 to 12.0 kg ha-1, IPAR increased. The RUE was greater for plants grown in 15-cm-wide rows than for those grown in 30-cm rows; however, RUE decreased with increasing seeding rate. The mean RUE value was 2.83 g MJ-1 PAR. When the pod area was added to the leaf area, the IPAR increased and the RUE decreased

  16. Receipt of Post-Rape Medical Care in a National Sample of Female Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Barr, Simone C.; Danielson, Carla K.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking are poorly understood. Purpose The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ≥14 years. Methods A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care–seeking among 445 female rape victims. Results A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Conclusions Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems. PMID:22813683

  17. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Rape in South Africa: an invisible part of apartheid's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, S

    1994-06-01

    Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases and other forms of gender violence have increased. Under an apartheid system, where only the rape of white women was prosecuted, and gender and race issues could diffuse the black struggle, there were difficulties in mobilizing support to end violence against black women. There was social acceptance that rape of black women was part of life. Police statistics on the incidence of rape were notoriously unreliable, because only a small percentage of cases are reported to police, and many women would be ashamed to admit to marital abuse, including rape. In women's groups, it was reported that 1 out of every 4 women had been raped, and raped at early ages, such as 14 years of age. In impoverished communities, there is widespread poverty, injustice, prejudice, alcohol abuse, and other conditions impacting on women. The rapists may be school classmates, or street fighters, or political activists. The sexual initiation of women worldwide and in South Africa frequently is accompanied by coercion. Abduction and forced sex is considered legitimate for young men, who believe that mental health is deleteriously affected by lack of sex. Girls may even be abducted from the classroom, as a way of preventing women's power and control over assets and resources and diminishing the potential threat to gender power relations. School girls who become pregnant are often forced to leave school. Victims of rape may be excluded from family life and forced to seek prostitution as a means of support. Rape is reportedly experienced among older women with bottles, tins, or other devices which inflict injury. Only rape with penal penetration is an

  19. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  20. Rape embryogenesis I. The proembryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the proembryo of rape Brassica napus L. from the zygote to the young embryo proper is described. A number of regularities were found in the direction, succession, and distribution of segmental and differentiating divisions of the proembryo. The direction of the divisions seems to foe determined by the direction of growth and the shape of the cells. The termyoung embryo proper is proposed to denote the globular embryo which already possesses separate plerome and periblem mother-cells and mother-cells of the iec layer and of clumella. The body of the embryo proper is derived from the apical cell ca which arose from the first division of the zygote and from the hypophysis - the only suspensor cell which closes the spheroid of the embryo. The development of the Brassica napus L. proembryo follows the sub-archetype Capsella bursa-pastoris in the IV megarchetype of Soueges.

  1. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  2. Schema Effects of Rape Myth Acceptance on Judgments of Guilt and Blame in Rape Cases: The Role of Perceived Entitlement to Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments (N = 330) examined conditions that facilitate biasing effects of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on judgments of blame in rape cases. In both experiments, participants read a short vignette depicting a rape case. In Experiment 1, the amount of case-irrelevant information about defendant and plaintiff was varied. As predicted, high-RMA…

  3. Bioenergy for farms - turnip rape oil, biodiesel and biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Kuisma, Miia

    2006-01-01

    One research and one development project concerning production and processing technique of organic turnip rape is going on in Finland in 2006-2008. The development project concerns also biogas production from biomass.

  4. An empirical investigation of campus demographics and reported rapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Martinez, Taylor

    2017-10-01

    Rape on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health issue with approximately 11% of women experiencing rape while in college. As such, it is important to examine factors unique to college campuses that influence the occurrences of rape. Using data from 1,423 four-year universities (public and private with at least 1,000 students) from the Office of Education and the Clery Act (2014), we examined institutional risk factors, such as tuition, liquor violations, Greek-life, athletic programs, institution type (public vs. private), and geographical location. Public institutions with higher tuition, more liquor violations, and greater numbers of fraternity men and athletes were more likely to report rape on their campuses. Findings suggest that there are university-level characteristics which may increase certain campuses propensity toward violence against women.

  5. A model for predicting depression in victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, C; Regehr, G; Bradford, J

    1998-01-01

    This article proposes a model for understanding the factors contributing to long-standing depression in women who have been raped. A path analysis of data obtained from 71 women who had been raped revealed that women with generalized beliefs that they could not control events in their lives were more likely to attribute responsibility for their rape to permanent intrapsychic factors and were more likely to be depressed. Women who perceived that they had higher levels of internal control tended to have higher levels of education, were more likely to be employed, and were less likely to be depressed more than one year after having been raped. Childhood sexual abuse was not associated with internal control or attributions of causality or depression in this analysis. Implications for the determination of prognosis and treatment recommendations in civil litigation assessments are discussed.

  6. 161 ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF RAPE AS A SOCIAL CANKERWORM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence that involves intercourse without consent or against someone being willing ... Rape is a global problem with women and children being mostly vulnerable .... allows their wards to spend too much time watching television where sex is ...

  7. Evolution of Rape Myths and Sexual Assaults in Newspaper Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen Tsai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the coverage of three newspapers of rape in the daily Press in Taiwan. The idea that rape is a sexual rather than an aggressive act encourages people not to take it seriously as a crime-an attitude frequently revealed in comments by defense attorneys and newspaper. The authors’ investigated that the female victim who did not know most of her attackers will be portrayed as helpless and not responsible for her victimization. The newspapers sustained and reinforced the myths that a woman who is having consensual sex cannot be raped, and if so, she is held culpable and perceived as “asking for it.” A content analysis of newspapers’ headlines and coverage between 2002 and 2013 showed that more than 50% endorsed a rape myth.

  8. Page | 131 RISING CASES OF RAPE OFFENCES IN NIGERIA: NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Rape, Rising Cases, New Measures, Penetration, Criminal Justice System, Tripod. 1. Introduction ... International Law and Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. .... 10 Sexual Offences Act 2003 of the UK.

  9. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... that exudation of organic acids by rape roots are probably involved in P ... Plant materials and seedling growth ..... Diversity in root architecture and ... froms, element distribution, and release of organic substances. Plant.

  10. An Empirical Exploration Into the Measurement of Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole L; Johnson, Dawn M

    2017-09-01

    Feminist scholars have long argued the presence of a "rape culture" within the United States; however, limited efforts have been made to quantify this construct. A model of rape culture was first proposed in 1980 and expanded in the 1990s in an effort to quantify rape myth acceptance. This model posits that five underlying components make up a rape culture: traditional gender roles, sexism, adversarial sexual beliefs, hostility toward women, and acceptance of violence. Although these components are proposed as cultural phenomenon and thus distinct from individually held beliefs, they have been exclusively explored on an individual level. Thus, to promote exploration of this phenomenon beyond individually held beliefs, the authors adapted a series of well-established measures to assess the perceived peer support of the constructs proposed to underlie rape culture and assess initial reliability and validity in a sample of 314 college students. Following determination of reliability and validity of these adapted measures, a hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis was run to examine the proposed model of rape culture. Results of this study highlight the uniqueness between individual and cultural factors as several items did not translate from an individual (i.e., personal endorsement) to a cultural level (i.e., perceived peer support) and were subsequently removed from the proposed final measurements. Furthermore, initial support for the aforementioned model of rape culture was identified. These findings are crucial given that limited conclusions may be drawn about the existence and in turn eradication of rape culture without an agreed upon definition and source of measurement.

  11. PTSD of rape after IS ("Islamic State") captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilhan, Jan Ilhan

    2018-03-10

    Research into the psychological consequences of rape on women in war and warlike situations is limited. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence and the nature of PTSD symptoms among Yazidi women reporting rape during IS captivity, (b) to describe comorbidity of other psychological disorders, and (c) to examine the risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.The study included 296 Yazidi women survivors of rape and has been conducted in Germany since January 2016 as part of a special-quota project in the German region of Baden-Wuerttemberg, designed to support the women and children who have escaped after being held hostage by IS.The survivors were recruited into a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Interviews in Germany were done through trained personnel to evaluate the mental health status of raped women.All the investigated women had been raped many times during IS captivity. About 82% of the women were also physically tortured. Of the sample, 67% suffered from somatoform disorder, 53% suffered from depression, 39% from anxiety, and 28% from dissociation. The prevalence of PTSD in those with rape events of more than 20 times was 57% (95% CI = 35.1-65.9%), less than 20 times was 41% (95%, CI = 28.7-4.8% and less than 10 times 39% [95% CI = 28.2-41.8%], respectively.The IS captivity and wartime rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women survivors. The high prevalence of PTSD emphasizes the need for culturally sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic services to address the intermediate and long-term consequences of wartime rape.

  12. Factors related to the reporting of childhood rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R F; Resnick, H S; Saunders, B E; Kilpatrick, D G; Best, C

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there would be differences in reported versus unreported cases of childhood rape on incident characteristics including life threat, physical injury, identity of the perpetrator, frequency of assault(s), and rates of posttraumatic stress disorder or major depression. In a telephone interview, a national probability sample of 4,008 (weighted) adult women was screened for a history of completed rape in childhood. Respondents were also assessed for DSM-III-R diagnoses of major depressive episode and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three hundred forty-one (8.5%) of these women were victims of at least one rape prior to the age of 18, for a total of 437 completed rapes. Of these 437 rape incidents, 52 (11.9%) were reported to the police or other authorities. Significant differences were obtained between reported versus nonreported cases on incident characteristics, including life threat, physical injury, identity of the perpetrator. Reported cases were more likely to involve life threat and/or physical injury, and were more likely to have been committed by a stranger than nonreported cases. No significant differences between reported and nonreported cases were found concerning whether the rape involved a single incident versus series of events, or rates of PTSD or major depression. Findings suggest that different characteristics are associated with reported versus unreported cases of childhood rape. Since few cases of childhood rape are actually reported to the authorities, it appears that we may be missing valuable information. Implications for research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  13. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  14. Religiousness and Rape Myth Acceptance: Risk and Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.

  15. Geographical Clusters of Rape in the United States: 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raid; Nabors, Nicole S.; Nelson, Arlene M.; Saqlain, Murshid; Kulldorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background While rape is a very serious crime and public health problem, no spatial mapping has been attempted for rape on the national scale. This paper addresses the three research questions: (1) Are reported rape cases randomly distributed across the USA, after being adjusted for population density and age, or are there geographical clusters of reported rape cases? (2) Are the geographical clusters of reported rapes still present after adjusting for differences in poverty levels? (3) Are there geographical clusters where the proportion of reported rape cases that lead to an arrest is exceptionally low or exceptionally high? Methods We studied the geographical variation of reported rape events (2003-2012) and rape arrests (2000-2012) in the 48 contiguous states of the USA. The disease Surveillance software SaTScan™ with its spatial scan statistic is used to evaluate the spatial variation in rapes. The spatial scan statistic has been widely used as a geographical surveillance tool for diseases, and we used it to identify geographical areas with clusters of reported rape and clusters of arrest rates for rape. Results The spatial scan statistic was used to identify geographical areas with exceptionally high rates of reported rape. The analyses were adjusted for age, and in secondary analyses, for both age and poverty level. We also identified geographical areas with either a low or a high proportion of reported rapes leading to an arrest. Conclusions We have identified geographical areas with exceptionally high (low) rates of reported rape. The geographical problem areas identified are prime candidates for more intensive preventive counseling and criminal prosecution efforts by public health, social service, and law enforcement agencies Geographical clusters of high rates of reported rape are prime areas in need of expanded implementation of preventive measures, such as changing attitudes in our society toward rape crimes, in addition to having the criminal

  16. Who Helps the Helpers? Social Support for Rape Crisis Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Greeson, Megan R

    2017-08-01

    Secondary exposure to trauma may have negative effects on rape victim advocates' well-being. Self-care can help to mitigate these negative effects on advocates' well-being, and prior research suggests that social support is an especially important aspect of advocates' self-care. However, there is a lack of research on how rape crisis advocates access and receive social support in relationship to their advocacy work. Therefore, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 rape crisis advocates who volunteered for a rape crisis center in Chicago to understand how they accessed social support from informal and formal support providers, and when they did receive support, what was helpful versus unhelpful. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results revealed that many advocates were able to seek out and receive positive instrumental and emotional social support that nurtured them and their work. However, advocates also experienced a variety of barriers to obtaining positive support from informal support providers, including fear of burdening providers and a reluctance or lack of preparedness of their support providers to speak about the issue. Advocates emphasized the need for rape crisis centers to provide resources for their informal social support systems in order to encourage helpful responses. In addition, advocates praised the rape crisis center for its built-in formal support structures, but also encouraged the organization to seek broader representation of persons from minority backgrounds among their advocates and mentors. Implications and future directions for research and rape crisis centers are also discussed. The present study highlights the importance of social support systems for advocates and potential barriers that may be addressed to reduce service provider burnout and vicarious trauma.

  17. Date rape among Cypriot female college students: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L; Pavlou, Susana Elisa

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and reporting of date rape among female college students (aged 18-24) in Cyprus and assessed the students' attitudes and awareness regarding date rape. In addition, the study examined how date rape is perceived among representatives of related private and governmental organizations in Cyprus. This is part of a larger multi-country study. This paper will focus only on the results pertaining to Cyprus. The study was coordinated by the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods. In total, 476 female college students responded to an anonymous questionnaire, two focus group discussions were carried out, and five key-informant interviews with relevant institutional representatives were conducted. The results of the study indicated that unwanted sexual experiences and sexual violence, including date rape, do exist among young Cypriot women. Specifically, 1.3% of the research participants reported experiencing an attempted rape by their date, and 1.9 % of the study participants reported being raped on a date. Often this was caused by their boyfriend, friend or sexual partner (54.2%). The results of the qualitative study showed that young female Cypriots agreed that many women give in to psychological pressure because they feel guilty about letting the other person down or because they 'didn't satisfy him' or fear they might lose him. Despite the explorative nature of the study, it is significant as research on date rape in Cyprus is almost non-existent. The authors anticipate that the results of the study will be useful to other researchers and policy-makers involved in this area of research.

  18. The unique associations between rape acknowledgment and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-11-01

    It is well documented in the sexual assault literature that more than half of rape survivors do not label their experience as rape. This is called unacknowledged rape. Although this phenomenon is common and undoubtedly has huge implications for psychotherapy, the impact of acknowledgment status on psychological adjustment is unclear. The present study aimed to delineate the unique impact of rape acknowledgment on psychopathology by examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level. To examine this, 178 female college students who reported rape completed an online survey, including an assessment of PTSD symptoms in the past month. The results suggested that, after accounting for several covariates, acknowledged rape survivors reported significantly greater levels of intrusion and avoidance symptoms compared to unacknowledged rape survivors. The findings suggest that examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level may provide more insight into the process of recovery following rape and therefore may better inform treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics DECEMBER 2014 Special Report NCJ 2484 71 Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995–2013 Sofi ... 18 to 24 had the highest rate of rape and sexual assault victimizations compared to females in ...

  20. Heat-resistant mechanism of transgenic rape by 45Ca isotope tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Falun; Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Liao Jiali; Yang Jijun; Tang Jun; Liu Zhibin; Yang Yi

    2012-01-01

    The Ca 2+ uptake differences of the rape with heat-resistant gene and the general rape were investigated by 45 Ca isotope tracer. The results showed that the rape with heat-resistant gene can strengthen the regulation of calcium absorption. The calcium regulation ability of the heat-resistant genes may be able to play in the rape aspect of the mechanism of resistance. (authors)

  1. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  2. 78 FR 77495 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of Hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on anonymous surveys by the BJS of inmates and youth...

  3. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  4. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... characteristics of prisons with the highest and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on an anonymous...

  5. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  6. 75 FR 27000 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... characteristics of juvenile facilities with the highest and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on an...

  7. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  8. A Socioecological Model of Rape Survivors' Decisions to Aid in Case Prosecution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Mary C.; Christopher, F. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify factors underlying rape survivors' post-assault prosecution decisions by testing a decision model that included the complex relations between the multiple social ecological systems within which rape survivors are embedded. We coded 440 police rape cases for characteristics of the assault and characteristics…

  9. Reading presence and absence in Fax from Sarajevo’s rape narrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in ‘t Veld, L. (Laurike)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn Joe Kubert’s Fax from Sarajevo, the chapter ‘The Rape Camp’ deals with the mass rape of women by Serb troops during the Bosnian War. Kubert’s rape narrative displays a tension between presence and absence that is analysed on different (extra)textual levels. Formally, the two

  10. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  11. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  12. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  13. Effect of cadmium on plants of oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesko, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of some production parameters of hydroponically grown plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent by cadmium and determine the amount of cadmium accumulated in plant organs. Studying the effect of cadmium on plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent confirmed that application of metal reduced the length and also fresh and dry weight of plant organs, while the inhibitory effect of Cd with increasing concentration of metal in solution increased. Plant roots responded to toxic effect of Cd more responsive. As a result of Cd applications occurred a significant decrease of content of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) in plant leaves. Species of rape Opponent is a significant Cd battery, and for these plants is characterized by a high rate of translocation of this metal into the shoots.

  14. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  15. Lifetime Economic Burden of Rape Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; DeGue, Sarah; Florence, Curtis; Lokey, Colby N

    2017-06-01

    This study estimated the per-victim U.S. lifetime cost of rape. Data from previous studies was combined with current administrative data and 2011 U.S. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey data in a mathematical model. Rape was defined as any lifetime completed or attempted forced penetration or alcohol- or drug-facilitated penetration, measured among adults not currently institutionalized. Costs included attributable impaired health, lost productivity, and criminal justice costs from the societal perspective. Average age at first rape was assumed to be 18 years. Future costs were discounted by 3%. The main outcome measures were the average per-victim (female and male) and total population discounted lifetime cost of rape. Secondary outcome measures were marginal outcome probabilities among victims (e.g., suicide attempt) and perpetrators (e.g., incarceration) and associated costs. Analysis was conducted in 2016. The estimated lifetime cost of rape was $122,461 per victim, or a population economic burden of nearly $3.1 trillion (2014 U.S. dollars) over victims' lifetimes, based on data indicating >25 million U.S. adults have been raped. This estimate included $1.2 trillion (39% of total) in medical costs; $1.6 trillion (52%) in lost work productivity among victims and perpetrators; $234 billion (8%) in criminal justice activities; and $36 billion (1%) in other costs, including victim property loss or damage. Government sources pay an estimated $1 trillion (32%) of the lifetime economic burden. Preventing sexual violence could avoid substantial costs for victims, perpetrators, healthcare payers, employers, and government payers. These findings can inform evaluations of interventions to reduce sexual violence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Use of chronic irradiation in formation of new rape genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Zukalova, H.; Cerny, J.; Folk, A.

    1980-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of hybrid plants of F 1 generation obtained by crossing the Canadian rape without erucic acid with European winter varieties containg this acid, doubled the frequency of winter genotypes and increased significantly the frequency of required recombinations of winter character and absence of erucic acid in F 2 -M 2 . Genotypes with a more favourable ratio between linoleic and linolenic acids were obtained in the irradiated F 2 -M 2 population. The obtained radio-induced mutants are used for the production of new varieties of winter rape without erucic acid at the Slapy Breeding Station. (author)

  17. Sexual rape in children and adolescents: a medical emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Piña Corina Araceli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual rape is defined as vaginal, anal or oral sex with violent and forceful penetration of the penis or of any other object. Patients who have been raped are a medical emergency which requires immediate attention, if possible, within 24 to 72 hours, since there is the risk of sustaining external and internal injuries and of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Detection and Centers for Disease Control (CDC have reported that the maximum effective- ness of HIV prophylaxis is obtained when given within the first 24 to 72 hours post exposure.

  18. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  19. The earlier identification of the seedless characteristic of the wampee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... the production of new seedless wampee cultivars in recent years were operated. ... increase burliness rate in hybridization. In order to earlier ... methods is greatly limited due to a long juvenile phase of ... Plant materials .... This fragment may be linked ... reduce high temperature which affected pollen germi-.

  20. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comprehensive methods for earlier detection and monitoring of forest decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...

  2. Attitude May Be Everything, But Is Everything an Attitude? Cognitive Distortions May Not Be Evaluations of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; White, Kristen; Pettersen, Cathrine; Bumby, Kurt

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive distortions are often referred to as attitudes toward rape in theory, research, and clinical practice pertaining to sexual aggression. In the social-psychological literature, however, attitudes are typically defined as evaluations; thus, in this context, attitudes toward rape are considered evaluations of rape (e.g., rape is negative vs. positive). The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a widely used measure of cognitive distortions (RAPE Scale; Bumby, 1996) assesses evaluation of rape, and, if not, whether evaluation of rape and the cognitions assessed by the RAPE Scale are independently associated with sexually aggressive behavior. Participants (660 male undergraduate students) completed the RAPE Scale as well as measures of evaluation of rape and sexually aggressive behavior. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the RAPE Scale items formed a correlated but distinct factor from the Evaluation of Rape Scale items. Regression analyses indicated that the Evaluation of Rape Scale and the RAPE Scale had small to moderate independent associations with self-report measures of sexually aggressive behavior. Our results suggest that evaluation of rape may be distinct from cognitive distortions regarding rape, and both evaluation and cognitive distortions may be relevant for understanding sexual violence.

  3. Unacknowledged Rape: The Influences of Child Sexual Abuse and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon.

  4. Rape: the journey from victim to survivor: a critical literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. The prevalence of rape in the world and particularly in South Africa, calls for the understanding of the factors involved in rape. In particular, it is necessary to understand rape in terms of the victim, not just in terms of the prevalence, causes and social consequences of rape. The victim’s experience of rape is complicated and takes place over a journey that progresses from the assault, through her responses and psychological and social reactions to her recovery from the trauma. I...

  5. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Visualising Shattered Lives: Potentiality in Representations of Rape Victimisation in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Lei Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how cinematic representations of rape can challenge the silence which surrounds the issue of rape and sexual violence in Japan. A textual analysis of two contemporary fictional Japanese films, DV: Domestic Violence [2005] and The Ravine of Goodbye [2013], was performed to illustrate how filmmakers can use narrative and cinematographic techniques to influence the viewer to reflect upon their attitudes to rape and rape victims. By examining how these two films depict rape and rape recovery, this article argues that there is discursive potential inherent within cinema to shape our imaginations and ideals about the world. But while the filmmaker can construct rape representations that encourage reflection, how the viewer decides to engage with the film has bearing on whether this potential for reflection is realised.

  7. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  8. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  9. The right to protection from sexual assault: the Indian anti-rape campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoli, G

    1996-11-01

    This article reveals a viewpoint that emphasizes some dilemmas among Indian feminist practice, women's sexuality in legal terms, and case law in India. The Indian Women's Movement (IWM) was successful in 1983 in adding a legal amendment on rape and child abuse. The case that mobilized women to change the law occurred in 1980 when a court acquitted two policemen who were charged with raping and molesting a 16-year-old tribal girl. The Bombay High Court overturned the judgement and convicted both policemen. The case was appealed, and the policemen successfully argued that rape did not occur because the girl did not protest and was sexually experienced anyway. In 1980 the Forum Against Rape was formed to mobilize public support and to lobby the State for reform of the law on rape. The campaign focused on custodial rape and political repression, rape as civil rights issue, and rape as a women's issue. There was a distancing between the victim, who occupied a lower caste and class position, and her defenders in the women's groups. The campaign appealed to both the appropriate judgement of the State and the denial that the State was an effective vehicle for change. The campaign did not directly address incest and marital rape or domestic violence within families. The legislature debated the issue of legal change during 1982. The debate revealed deep divisions about sexuality and women's status. It was argued that chaste women were not rape victims, and unchaste women were of a socially inferior caste and class. It was argued that there should be a ban on child marriage rather than spousal rape laws. Child rape is a legal issue only when the perpetrator is outside the family. Rape was discussed as an act of lust and not violence. In 1992, a woman promoting an end to child marriage was raped and the men were acquitted. It was argued that the law was out-of-date and in need of revision.

  10. An Experimental Study on the Diesel Engine Performance with Rape Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeong Og

    2002-02-01

    A four cycle diesel engine performance test was performed with four kinds of oils such as rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil, activated clay rape seed oil and light oil. The experiment was conducted at full load condition with constant injection time of the engine and the test oil temperature was maintained at 70±2 .deg. C. 1. The torque and the horsepower with rape seed fuel is increased about 10% compare with light seed oil at full load condition of the engine. High viscosity of the rape makes oil films in the combustor which leads to higher compression ratio and explosion. The results of the high viscosity make higher torque of the engine. The brake specific fuel consumption of the rape seed fuel increased 8%∼10% than that of the light oil. This effect could be the difference of heating value between the two kinds of oil. 2. The emission of the smoke gas was decreased 29%, 38% and 52% compare with light oil in rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil and activated clay rape respectively due to the low volatility and high viscosity of the soot. The NOx emission with rape seed oil is twice larger than that of the light oil at full load condition. The reason is that the fuel temperature increment effects on the combustor temperature and it makes thermal NOx of the engine. 3. The test engine could be started over 40 .deg. C of the rape seed oil. Engine inspection results shows that the soot adherence amount of the cylinder head piston head is higher in following order; activated clay rape seed oil > effective micro-organism rape seed oil > rape seed oil > light oil

  11. Psychological Techniques In Helping Rape Victims | Ayinde | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling psychology is concerned with assisting people who have personal, social, educational and vocational problems to better understand themselves and solve their problems. Rape is seen as a problem that militates against the psychological well being of victims, because of the devastating aftermath of the incident ...

  12. Does DNA methylation pattern mark generative development in winter rape?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Janiak, A.; Szarejko, I.; Grabczynska, J.; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 61, 5-6 (2006), s. 387-396 ISSN 0939-5075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600040612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : DNA methylation * rape * vernalization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2006

  13. Evaluative effects of negative emotionality constructs on rape and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In everyday life, human beings are confronted with numerous psychological problems. These psychological problems are numerous and vital that at times they claim human life. One of such psychological problems is the one being face by victims of rape and sexual harassment in which many individual may be hesitant to ...

  14. Rape and Adultery in Ancient Greek and Yoruba Societies | Olasope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Athens and other ancient cultures, a woman, whatever her status and whatever her age or social class, was, in law, a perpetual minor. Throughout her life, she was in the legal control of a guardian who represented her in law. Rape, as unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman, warranted a capital charge in the ...

  15. The relationshp between rape experience and post-traumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the relationship between rape experience and of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among victims. One hundred and thirty-two female participants made up of seventy-two from Nasarawa State University and sixty from the general public in Keffi town of Nasarawa State participated in the ...

  16. [Medicolegal considerations about rape as a reason to decriminalize abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wilhelm, Leonardo; Moreno, Leonardo; Carnevali, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    The Chilean senate is discussing a proposal to decriminalize abortion in 3 causals. One of these is when the pregnancy occurs as a result of a rape. To be legally able to perform the abortion in this circumstance, a health care team must confirm the occurrence of the facts constituting the offence. Regardless of the patient’s will, the accusation will be reported to the justice. In our view, in its current status the proposed rule does not consider certain medicolegal and procedural topics. Those flaws may determine in certain scenarios critical problems, such as: a) a wrongful conviction as a consequence of a false allegation of rape; (b) some pregnant due to a rape will not have access to the abortion procedure; (c) some accusations of rape will not be accredited nor criminally sanctioned. Employing a fictional case, we illustrate how those scenarios can actually be seen in practice. We also emphasize the difficulties and limitations that the health care team will encounter if the project is approved under the current conditions. Finally, we encourage the professional societies implicated in the theme to contribute in the legislatorial debate. Therefore, we give a set of proposals aimed to improve the bill before it may be enacted as a law.

  17. Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…

  18. Application of rape pod sealants to reduce adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauša, Laimis; Steponavičius, Dainius; Jotautienė, Eglė; Kemzūraitė, Aurelija; Zaleckas, Ernestas

    2018-04-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) is a major global oilseed crop characterized by its high potential as an alimentary oil and in biodiesel production. The two most popular pod sealants (PS) used to reduce rape pod shattering are products in the pinolene range (di-1-p-menthene) and latex polymer products. Reports on the effective preservation of seed yield by these products are fairly contradictory. With this in mind, an experimental PS (PS4) that contained the active agents acrylic and trisiloxane was developed. Comparative experimental trials of the developed PS4 and three other PS (PS1, PS2 and PS3) containing active agents that are generally used for sealant production were conducted. The studies showed that the static and dynamic surface tension of PS4 was the lowest at the same concentration (2.0 g kg -1 ), consequently demonstrating the lowest spray drift. The chemical substances from PS had not penetrated the rape seeds in any of the PSs. The results indicate that treatment with PS4 exerts a beneficial effect in reducing rape seed yield loss (68-104 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 194-305 kg ha -1 in 2015) compared to other investigated PS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  20. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates,.

  1. Responding to the rape of Indonesian Chinese women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    In May 1998, 168 women and girls were gang-raped during the Jakarta riots. In response, the Humanity Volunteer Team, a nongovernmental organization, set up a Violence Against Women Division. This group is composed of 400 people from diverse backgrounds and ethnic groups who undergo training and then volunteer their services to provide psychological and physical support to the affected victims and their families and to investigate the crimes. The volunteers have adopted a holistic approach and work with the cooperation of private hospitals. They accomplish their work in a climate of fear because it is considered subversive simply to bring this issue to light. Rape survivors and their families, as well as medical staff and volunteers, have been intimidated to the point that many rape survivors have traveled abroad to seek treatment. Long-term prevention strategies should include 1) a state apology to rape survivors and their communities, 2) an independent investigation to expose the perpetrators, and 3) the protection of the civil rights of the minority Chinese in Indonesia.

  2. Victims of Rape: Repeated Assessment of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkeson, Beverly M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated depressive symptoms in rape victims (N=115) for one year following their assaults. Depressive symptoms were higher in victims than in controls. By four months postrape, depressive symptoms in the victim group had diminished, and the victims were no longer significantly different from the nonvictim control group. (Author)

  3. Maps of Woe Narratives of Rape in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By considering a selection of texts, both fictional and non-fictional, this study ad- dresses different representations of rape in early modern English culture. Its aim is to highlight the interconnections between aspects of culture and the creative exchange, the confrontation and mutual assimilation between ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultural forms.

  4. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of rape straw by the mixed-strain fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal ...

  5. Medico-legal documentation of rape or sexual assault: are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L Fouché

    Results: A response rate of 59.3% was achieved. ... on how to manage alleged rape or sexual assault cases, only 11.4% of the participants had hands-on exposure to an ..... atrocious crimes, constituting a huge human rights violation and.

  6. Knowledge and Perceptions of Date Rape among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    A semi-structured questionnaire which included a 6-point knowledge scale and a 21-points ... psychological harm or suffering to women; it .... Lack of self confidence. 6 .... One factor that promotes date rape is the belief that a man should go.

  7. Understanding the innermost nature of genocidal rape: A community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of societal norms, values, rules and taboos making sense of normality in sexual intercourse, the refusal of any link with the victim recalling togetherness, and the dismissal of humanity characterized by a total lack of guilt. Key words: genocidal rape, normality, togetherness, humanity, community-based approach, Rwanda ...

  8. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... rape straw substrate and the secretion of ligninolytic enzyme system including laccase (Lac), manganese ... results are mostly fields burning or natural degradation. The former ... Microbial conversion, especially fungal bio- conversion ... out at 27°C in plastic bags containing 200 g of lignocellulosic substrate ...

  9. Event characteristics and socio-demographic features of rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: On account of increasing awareness of the need for Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and availability of requisite drugs, victims of rape are now presenting at health facilities including ours to access PEP for HIV. This study set to document the socio-demographic features of these victims and the event ...

  10. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates, Streptomyces sp. isolate 422 ...

  11. Prescription Stimulant Use is Associated with Earlier Onset of Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Lauren V.; Masters, Grace A.; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M.; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R.P.; Ongur, Dost

    2015-01-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals...

  12. Misogyny, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Relation to Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Asian American College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim’s refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256

  13. Risk factors for PTSD and depression in female survivors of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgoqi-Mbalo, Nolwandle; Zhang, Muyu; Ntuli, Sam

    2017-05-01

    To investigate association of the sociodemographic factors, characteristics of rape and social support to the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at 6 months after the rape. A cross-sectional survey with female survivors of rape was carried out in 3 provinces of South Africa 6 months after the rape. One hundred female survivors s of sexual assault were interviewed. More than half (53%) were from Limpopo, 25% from Western Cape, and 22% from KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). 87% reported high levels of PTSD and 51% moderate to severe depression post rape. The major risk factors for PTSD and depression were the unmarried survivors of rape and those living in KZN. The female survivors of rape in KZN province were 7 times more likely to experience symptoms of depression compared to other provinces, while married/cohabiting female rape survivors were 6 times less likely to report symptoms of depression compared to the unmarried female rape survivors. These findings add support to existing literature on PTSD and depression as common mental health consequence of rape and also provide evidence that survivors' socio- demographics-marital status, employment status-are significant contributors to the development of symptoms of depression and PTSD after rape. The results have research and clinical practice relevance for ensuring that PTSD and trauma treatment focuses on an in-depth understanding of the various aspects of the sociodemographic factors and rape characteristics that contribute to survivors' mental state and how these compound stress and depression symptoms over time post rape victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-10-24

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  15. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Oilseed Rape in the Wheat-Oilseed Rape Strip Intercropping Influenced by Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amirmardfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum and oilseed rape (Brassica napus strip intercropping on yield components, seed and biological yields of oilseed rape, field experiments were carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran during 2010-2012 cropping seasons. The first factor consisted of four types of wheat and oilseed rape cropping system, sole crop of oilseed rape (A1,: strip intercropping with 8:3 (A2, 12:4 (A3 and 16:5 (A4 of wheat and oilseed rape rows, respectively and the other factor consisted of two fertilizer levels, B1: 100% chemical fertilizers (urea and triple superphosphate and B2: 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers (Nitrazhin and Barvar2. The results showed that strip intercropping of wheat- oilseed rape resulted in significant increase in yield components, seed yield per occupied unit area and biological yield per occupied unit area of oilseed rape as compared with mono-cropping. The number of silique per plant in intercropping systems was significantly higher than that of mono-cropping. The highest seed yield was obtained in the 16:5 rows of wheat-oilseed rape with 343.76 g.m-2 and the lowest mean was observed in mono-cropping of oilseed rape with 260.21 g.m-2. Biological yield per occupied unit area and seed yield per intercropped unit area in B1 were significantly greater than that of B2, but this treatment had no significant effect on the other traits. Because, B1 and B2 had no significant difference in seed yield per occupied unit area and due to the importance of reduction in chemical fertilizers consumption and food and environmental health care, strip intercropping of wheat-oilseed rape under 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers can be recommended as a suitable cultural method.

  16. An empirical study of rape in the context of multiple murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, multiple homicide offending has received increased research attention from criminologists; however, there is mixed evidence about the role of rape toward the perpetration of multiple murder. Drawing on criminal career data from a nonprobability sample of 618 confined male homicide offenders selected from eight U.S. states, the current study examines the role of rape as a predictor of multiple homicide offending. Bivariate analyses indicated a significant association between rape and murder charges. Multivariate path regression models indicated that rape had a significant and robust association with multiple murder. This relationship withstood the confounding effects of kidnapping, prior prison confinement, and prior murder, rape, and kidnapping. These results provide evidence that rape potentially serves as a gateway to multiple murder for some serious offenders. Suggestions for future research are proffered.

  17. Battles on women's bodies: war, rape and traumatisation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, J E; Olsson, P; Ahlberg, B M

    2011-01-01

    Rape has been used as a weapon in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in unprecedented ways. Research into the phenomenon of war-rape is limited, particularly in this context. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of local leaders in eastern DRC concerning rape and raped women in the war context. Local leaders were chosen for their ability to both reflect and influence their constituencies. Interviews were conducted with 10 local leaders and transcripts subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study suggests that mass raping and the methods of perpetration created a chaos effectively destroying communities and the entire society and that humanitarian aid was often inappropriate. Furthermore, an exclusive focus on raped women missed the extent of traumatisation entire communities suffered. More significantly, the lack of political will, corruption, greed and inappropriate aid creates a tangled web serving to intensify the war. This complexity has implications for humanitarian interventions including public health.

  18. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade.

  19. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account.

  20. Senescence-specific alteration of hydrogen peroxide levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and oilseed rape spring variety Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, Stefan; Riester, Lena; Stahl, Mark; Franzaring, Jürgen; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2012-08-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production in senescence in more detail, we manipulated intracellular H(2)O(2) levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogen-peroxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR, which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes. H(2)O(2) levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines, but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm. To transfer this knowledge to crop plants, we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart for H(2)O(2) and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development. H(2)O(2) levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time, but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence. With increasing H(2)O(2) levels, CAT and APX activities declined, so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H(2)O(2) levels. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H(2)O(2) levels, indicating that H(2)O(2) may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae. © 2012 Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Alcoholism. Earlier diagnosis and definition of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, D E; Carlton, B E

    1978-07-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected.

  2. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  3. Reading Playboy for the articles: the graying of rape myths in black and white text, 1953 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrey, Heather Hensman

    2013-08-01

    This longitudinal investigation analyzes the manner in which rape myths are conveyed through textual material published in Playboy. Results indicate that Playboy (a) portrays rape as a gender-neutral issue, ignoring patriarchal roots of sexual violence against women, and (b) promulgates ambiguous discourse, which is equally likely to endorse and refute rape myths. Interestingly, readers' contributions are most often the source of refutations of rape myths. Overall, findings suggest that little progress has been made over time in deconstructing rape myths promulgated to men, as this particular men's publication has consistently painted a gray picture in which refutations have remained unsuccessful in disempowering rape myths.

  4. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online treatment programs represent a potentially important alternative strategy for reaching such individuals. The current paper describes a pilot evaluation of...

  5. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Anna Tiihonen; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods: Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at S...

  6. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid formation in SSF. -- Highlights: ► Wet Oxidation pretreatment on rape straw for sugar and ethanol production. ► Variables were reaction time, temperature, and oxygen gas pressure. ► Also, other configurations for increase of water and energy efficiency. ► Short Wet oxidation pretreatment (2–3 min) produced highest ethanol yield. ► After these pretreatment conditions recovery of lignin in solids was 86%.

  7. Remote Diagnosis of Nitrogen Status in Winter Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Winter oilseed rape is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Compared with cereal crops, it requires high amount of nitrogen (N) supplies, but it is also characterized by low N use efficiency. The N nutrition index (NNI), defined as the ratio of the actual plant N concentration (PNC) to the critical PNC at a given biomass level, has been widely used to diagnose plant N status and to aid optimizing N fertilization. But traditional techniques to determine NNI in the lab are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing provides a promising approach for large-scale and rapid monitoring and diagnosis of crop N status. In this study, we conducted the experiment in the winter oilseed rape field with eight fertilization treatments in the growing season of 2014 and 2015. PNC, dry mass, and canopy spectra were measured during the different growth stages of winter oilseed rape. The N dilution curve was developed with measurements, and NNI was computed and analyzed for different treatments and different growth stage. For the same treatment, NNI decreased as more leaves were developing. Two methods were applied to remotely estimating NNI for winter oilseed rape: (1) NNI was estimated directly with vegetation indices (VIs) derived from canopy spectra; (2) the actual PNC and the critical PNC at the given biomass level were estimated separately with different types of VIs, and NNI was then computed with the two parts of the estimations. We found that VIs based solely on bands in the visible region provided the most accurate estimates of PNC. Estimating NNI directly with VIs had better performance than estimating the actual PNC and the critical PNC separately.

  8. A History of Rape in American Society Prior to 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Leslie

    By tracing the concept of rape as it has been defined by man in the earliest laws, it is evident that the criminal act was viewed with horror, and the deadly punishments that were seen fit to apply had little to do with an actual act of sexual violence that a woman might sustain. The past records indicate a gradual decrease in the prosecution rate…

  9. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nelson, Erik J; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G; Wright, John P; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C; Petkovsek, Melissa; Lewis, Roger; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2017-01-01

    An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. Ecological study. St. Louis, Missouri. Blood lead levels. Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03-1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99-1.03). Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure.

  10. Rape revisited: sexual violence against women in the former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentich, M

    1994-01-01

    This article presents information on the rape of women in the former Yugoslavia, focusing more on Muslim women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and examines the evolutionary, sociological, psychological, and feminist theories of this form of sexual violence. Using a case study approach, through documentation from newspapers and other media accounts, this paper investigated the sexual violence that featured strongly in the campaign of ethnic cleansing or genocide of Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It was noted that the variables of power, sex, and aggression in the context of war seem to be linked. This is particularly evident when authority legitimates sexual aggression. Without the backing of authority, some rape is expected, but not of such proportion or brutality. In terms of the theories, the evolutionary perspective appears to have limited applicability in explaining rape as an act of war. However, the feminist and macrosociological multivariate theories that focus on heterogeneity of the population, a cultural foundation of very traditional gender roles, and a historical tradition that legitimates sexual violence by armies in war-time, provide more persuasive insights.

  11. Investigation of telomere length and psychological stress in rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Stefanie; Hemmings, Sian; Kidd, Martin; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-12-21

    Women are at an increased risk of depression and other mental health problems following rape. Various etiological factors for depression, including predisposing genetic factors, have been identified. Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein structures located at chromosomal ends that protect them from premature degradation. Telomeres reduce in length with each cell division, resulting in cellular senescence and apoptosis. Relative quantification of telomeric repeats using qPCR was performed to investigate whether shorter relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a cohort of 64 rape victims was associated with resilience, the development of rape trauma-related major depressive disorder (MDD) or the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 3 months. Out of the 64 participants, 23 participants were diagnosed with MDD at baseline and 31 after 3 months. Nine participants were diagnosed with PTSD (MDD and PTSD specifically related to the trauma). No significant associations were observed between relative LTL and resilience or the development of MDD at either baseline or after 3 months in this cohort. However, a marginally significant association was evident between relative LTL and PTSD status. The significant association between relative LTL and PTSD suggests that shorter relative LTL might have acted as a predisposing factor in the development of PTSD after a severely traumatic event. The results of this study indicate that telomere shortening may be an important marker of PTSD risk, with implications for early intervention and timely treatment, and as such warrant replication in a larger cohort. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  13. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-09-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  14. Sexual Scripts and Criminal Statutes: Gender Restrictions, Spousal Allowances, and Victim Accountability After Rape Law Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ethan Czuy

    2018-03-01

    The author provides a mixed-methods assessment of U.S. rape statutes to assess progress in reform. Contemporary statutes offer restrictive frameworks for distinguishing criminal from noncriminal sexual violence, many of which are grounded in gendered and heterosexist assumptions. Fourteen states retain gender restrictions in rape statutes. Twenty maintain marital distinctions that limit accountability for spousal rape. Furthermore, whereas explicit resistance requirements have been eliminated nationwide, implicit resistance expectations manifest through emphasis on physical force and involuntary intoxication. Analyses conclude with recommendations for further legal reform and a discussion of the potential for legislation to affect broader social perceptions of rape.

  15. Men’s Perception of Raped Women: Test of the Sexually Transmitted Disease Hypothesis and the Cuckoldry Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rape is a recurrent adaptive problem of female humans and females of a number of non-human animals. Rape has various physiological and reproductive costs to the victim. The costs of rape are furthermore exaggerated by social rejection and blaming of a victim, particularly by men. The negative perception of raped women by men has received little attention from an evolutionary perspective. Across two independent studies, we investigated whether the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (the STD hypothesis, Hypothesis 1 or paternity uncertainty (the cuckoldry hypothesis, Hypothesis 2 influence the negative perception of raped women by men. Raped women received lower attractiveness score than non-raped women, especially in long-term mate attractiveness score. The perceived attractiveness of raped women was not influenced by the presence of experimentally manipulated STD cues on faces of putative rapists. Women raped by three men received lower attractiveness score than women raped by one man. These results provide stronger support for the cuckoldry hypothesis (Hypothesis 2 than for the STD hypothesis (Hypothesis 1. Single men perceived raped women as more attractive than men in a committed relationship (Hypothesis 3, suggesting that the mating opportunities mediate men’s perception of victims of rape. Overall, our results suggest that the risk of cuckoldry underlie the negative perception of victims of rape by men rather than the fear of disease transmission.

  16. A New Method of Earlier Kick Assessment Using ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Deregeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The late detection of the kick (the entrance of underground fluids into oil wells leads to oil well blowouts. It causes human life loss and imposes a great deal of expenses on the petroleum industry. This paper presents the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system designed for an earlier kick detection using measurable drilling parameters. In order to generate the initial fuzzy inference system, subtractive clustering is utilized. The training set contains 50 data samples and there are 362 data samples for testing the proposed method. Also, ANFIS structure is examined at different radii (the parameter of subtractive clustering. Different conformations are tested to get the earliest detection and the lowest false alarms while facing kick. Eventually, ANFIS verifies the danger exposure depth of about 28.6 meters before the depth that the kick was sensed by crew. Such an assessment gives the rig crew enough time to prepare for the danger and stop the operation before being exposed to high pressure zones.

  17. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Evalina; Duma, Sinegugu E; Mayers, Pat M

    2014-09-23

    Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner's rape. We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1) within 14 days of, (2) a month after, (3) three months after, and (4) six months after the rape. Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant's familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  18. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  19. Prospective study of rape perpetration by young South African men: incidence & risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation).

  20. Rape and its relation to social disorganization, pornography and inequality in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, L; Straus, M A

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical model seeks to integrate social disorganization and feminist theories of rape, reporting an empirical test of that model using data on rapes per 100,000 population known to the police in the 50 states of the United States. The model includes the following aspects of the social organization of the states: social disorganization (measured by a six item index), sexual inequality (measured by a status of women index to men), pornography (measured by a sex magazine circulation index for eight sexually explicit magazines) and the level of culturally legitimate violence (measured by a 12 item legitimate violence index using indicators like corporal punishment in schools. There were marked differences between states of the USA in the incidence of rape during the 1980-82. Path analysis was used to test the theoretical model, which posits rape as a function of the direct and indirect effects of social disorganization, sexual inequality, pornography, legitimate violence and seven control variables. The results show that all four variables play an important part in explaining differences between states in rape; and that together, the variables in the model explain 83 per cent of the state-to-state variation in rape. Women are in much greater danger of being raped in some American states than in others. Since the FBI began compiling statistics on rape, states like Alaska, Nevada, and California have consistently registered many more rapes per capita than North Dakota, Maine, and Iowa. What factors account for such differences between states? Could the variation in the rape rate be explained by four aspects of the social structure of states: (1) the proliferation of pornography (2) sexual inequality (3) culturally legitimate violence and (4) social disorganization. Each factor represents a theory which will be examined within the context of an integrated theory on rape.

  1. Wartime Women Rape: A Means of Moral Attack and Emasculation in Lynn Nottage’s Ruined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaff Ganim Salih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women rape at warfare was considered a consequence of war in the social, literary and political world for a long period of time. Some criminals of rape escaped justice and others were persecuted on the basis that they were involved in mass rape because it was a natural consequence of war. But, women are targeted with rape in time of war because they are the symbolic representation of a culture, ethnicity, and the unifying fabric of their people and nation. The objective of this paper is to show that war rape is not a result of war; instead it is a means of human destruction through moral attack and emasculation. It aims to show that women rape in warfare is neither a misogynist act nor a sexual violence but it is a pre-planned weapon used strategically and systematically to fulfill certain political and military agenda. The study focuses on the sexual abuse of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo in time of war in Lynn Nottage’s Pulitzer Prize play, Ruined (2007. The study applies Jonathan Gottschall’s Strategic Rape theory, which highlights war rape as a pre-planned military strategy. The enemy emasculates men and attacks them morally by raping their women. Consequently, men’s failure to protect their women causes them to give up resistance, leave their lands and families because of shame and humiliation. The study concludes that women rape in time of war is a tactic followed by conquerors intentionally to facilitate and guarantee the achievement of certain pre-planned goals as was the case of mass rape in the DRC.

  2. Factors that affect college students' perceptions of rape: what is the role of gender and other situational factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandiver, Donna M; Dupalo, Jessica Rager

    2013-05-01

    Prior research has shown that various situational factors and behaviors can affect one's perception of whether a rape has occurred. Moreover, some hold false beliefs about rape. This can also affect one's perception of ambiguous situations. This study included the administration of a survey to 584 college students; the survey examined the prevalence of rape myths and responses to vignettes of potential rape scenarios. It was found that although the majority of this sample did not support rape myths, male students were significantly more likely than female students to support rape myths. Furthermore, approximately 20% of students did support one subscale of the rape myth scale: He didn't mean to [commit rape]. The results also revealed an interaction effect between the observer's sex and the victim's sex, suggesting a complex gender relationship.

  3. Outcomes of arthroscopic lateral epicondylitis release: Should we treat earlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeur, L; Desmoineaux, P; Devillier, A; Pujol, N; Beaufils, P

    2016-10-01

    When managed conservatively, lateral epicondylitis often subsides only after considerable time, during which social and occupational activities are severely disrupted. If conservative management fails, a recently introduced option is arthroscopic release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB). The primary objective of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of this procedure according to preoperative symptom duration. Earlier arthroscopic release is associated with better functional outcomes. Consecutive patients with arthroscopically managed lateral epicondylitis were included in a retrospective study. Arthroscopy was performed only after at least 6 months of conservative treatment. The criteria to evaluate the clinical outcomes were the Nirschl and Quick-DASH scores, muscle strength, time to pain relief, and percentage of functional recovery. Thirty-five patients were evaluated at a median of 4 years (range: 1-12 years) after surgery. Mean preoperative symptom duration was 18 months (range: 6-106 months) with a mean sick leave duration of 2.3±4.9 months. Postoperatively, mean time to recovery was 37.5 days (range: 7 days to 5 years) and mean sick leave duration was 2.4±2.4 months. The mean Quick-DASH score was 15.9±19.1. The Nirschl score improved significantly, from 26.4±7.9 to 66.3±16.3. The initial muscle strength deficit was 10.1±33.2% and muscle strength at last follow-up was increased by 4.3±30.3%. Symptom duration showed no correlations with any of the clinical outcome measures. Outcomes after arthroscopic release were not associated with symptom duration in this study. Nevertheless, the good clinical outcomes support treatment with arthroscopic release after only 6 months of conservative management. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Hemodynamic parameters change earlier than tissue oxygen tension in hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Gunther J; Fukui, Kimiko; Kimberger, Oliver; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea; Hiltebrand, Luzius B

    2010-05-15

    Untreated hypovolemia results in impaired outcome. This study tests our hypothesis whether general hemodynamic parameters detect acute blood loss earlier than monitoring parameters of regional tissue beds. Eight pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial catheter were inserted. Tissue oxygen tension was measured with Clark-type electrodes in the jejunal and colonic wall, in the liver, and subcutaneously. Jejunal microcirculation was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Intravascular volume was optimized using difference in pulse pressure (dPP) to keep dPP below 13%. Sixty minutes after preparation, baseline measurements were taken. At first, 5% of total blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5% increment, and then in 10% increments until death. After withdrawal of 5% of estimated blood volume, dPP increased from 6.1% +/- 3.0% to 20.8% +/- 2.7% (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) decreased with a blood loss of 10% (P < 0.01). Cardiac output (CO) changed after a blood loss of 20% (P < 0.05). Tissue oxygen tension in central organs, and blood flow in the jejunal muscularis decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 20%. Tissue oxygen tension in the skin, and jejunal mucosa blood flow decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 40% and 50%, respectively. In this hemorrhagic pig model systemic hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive to detect acute hypovolemia than tissue oxygen tension measurements or jejunal LDF measurements. Acute blood loss was detected first by dPP. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rape oil for technical uses - a cost-benefit analysis. A cost-benefit analysis of the production and use of rape oil as fuels and lubricants and for technical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhanss, W.; Kerckow, B.; Schrader, H.

    1992-01-01

    A brief description of the methodical fundamentals of cost-benefit analyses, the quantitative analytical models and the relevant data basis is followed by a survey of existing and potential rape oil uses. Basic data for the economic evaluation of rape seed production, rape oil production and rape oil uses are compiled, and the potentials of rape oil marketing in the Federal Republic of Germany are evaluated. The results of an evaluation of the importance of rape oil to the national trade and industry are discussed considering the optimum large-scale expansion of rape oil production, the individual uses, technical concepts, and the economic significance of technical progress. The cost benefit analysis and subsequent evaluation are based on a comparative evaluation of the additional rape oil production and of the grain production which has been giving way to rape production. In accordance with the assumed world market reference conditions rape oil production and rape oil/byproduct uses compete with grain exports at world market prices. The rape oil production costs are estimated applying the marginal costing principle, i.e production costs and follow-up effects are quantified by means of a modified regionally differentiated simulation model assuming the local conditions applicable to the Federal Republic of Germany. Four scenarios for projection of EC agricultural prices, world market prices and energy prices through 2000 are made available to level the different basic economic conditions. (UA) [de

  6. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria: The Stark Realities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, women have always been subjugated and oppressed by men in most cultures in Nigeria. This situation is due to the inequality in gender relations between men and women. Rape has always been with mankind throughout the world. However, in recent times, the incidence of rape has increased in Nigeria.

  7. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  8. Exploring the Aesthetics of Rape in the Work of Juan de Moncayo y Gurrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Ted E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Interpreting the occurrence of sexual violation in seventeenth-century Spanish literary works necessitates for modem scholars the difficult task of understanding prevailing contemporary attitudes toward rape. Studies by Higgins and Silver, Casas, and Welles discuss how literary texts with rape scenes as narrative material often use the act or its…

  9. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  10. Perceptions of Appropriate Punishment for Committing Date Rape: Male College Students Recommend Lenient Punishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Theodore W.; Kline, Linda M.

    2004-01-01

    Past research has shown that date rape is a crime that is committed with surprising frequency, particularly on college campuses, and that college men may hold a number of rape-tolerant attitudes that make this crime more likely. In the present research, 300 men and women college students read one of three vignettes, varying the type of descriptive…

  11. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  12. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acquaintance Rape Workshops: Their Effectiveness in Changing the Attitudes of First Year College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The statistics on acquaintance rape and sexual assault against women are a clear indication that this is a problem that needs to be confronted. An increasing number of articles address the problems that rape survivors face and examine methods mental health professionals can use to assist survivors in dealing with these problems. Articles that…

  14. Pelvic floor muscle problems mediate sexual problems in young adult rape victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Riemke; Bicanic, Iva; van der Vaart, Huub; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have addressed sexual abuse and sexual function in adult women. No studies have focused on the effect of adolescence rape on sexual functioning. To investigate the effect of rape on sexual problems and on pelvic floor problems, as well as the mediating role of pelvic floor problems on

  15. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape: An Examination of Perpetrator Motivation, Relationship Length, and Gender Role Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J.; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding…

  16. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  17. Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a forensic epidemic? ... creates so much negative impact on the legal outcome. There is a need to provide a holistic support to the victims and to review Nigerian laws on sexual offences for the good of all. Keywords: Gang-Rape, Sexual violence, Forensic, Ep ...

  18. The victimology of rape in Nigeria: Examining victims' post-assault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The secondary victimisation suffered by rape victims in socially conservative Nigeria is not only in the hands of their families, friends, and significant others, but also through the agents and process of criminal justice system of the country. Previous research into rape in Nigeria has often neglected the aftermath of forcible ...

  19. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  20. Physical health status of female veterans: contributions of sex partnership and in-military rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M; Davis, Teri D; Cheney, Ann M; Mengeling, Michelle A; Torner, James C; Sadler, Anne G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether current physical health status in female veterans is associated with rape during military service and same-sex partnership. Retrospective computer-assisted telephone interviews of 1004 Midwestern US female veterans identified from Veterans Affairs electronic records were conducted. Data included rape history including rape in military, sex partnership history, demographics, and medical history including chronic pain, mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), and the physical health component of the Short-Form 12-item interview (PCS-12). Physical health in this sample was lower than norm values [PCS-12: mean (standard deviation) = 43 [12]; norm: mean (standard deviation) = 50 [10]). Fifty-one percent of the participants reported rape in their lifetime, 25% reported rape in military, 11% reported history of women as sex partners, and 71% reported history of chronic pain. Multiple regression analysis indicated that physical health (PCS-12) was associated with chronic pain history (β = -.40, p rape in military (β = -.09, p = .002), and current PTSD (β = .07, p = .03), adjusting for demographic data. Mediational analysis indicated that chronic pain history significantly mediated relationships of women who have sex with women, childhood rape, PTSD, depression, and current substance use disorder with PCS-12. Both rape and sex partnership are adversely associated with lower physical functioning in female veterans. Clinicians evaluating the physical health of this population should therefore consider obtaining detailed sexual histories, and a multidisciplinary team is needed to address mental health issues in female veterans.

  1. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  2. Men as Allies: The Efficacy of a High School Rape Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand-Gunn, Theresa L.; Heppner, Mary J.; Mauch, Pamela A.; Park, Hyun-joo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a Men as Allies--based intervention on high school students' rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. As hypothesized at posttest, the male and female experimental groups demonstrated a significant decrease in rape-supportive attitudes, which was maintained at follow-up. Male participants viewed peers'…

  3. How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in Selected Police Cells and the Central Prison in Kumasi, Ghana. ... Regarding punishment, some respondents expressed a preference for the handling of rape cases within the community, suggesting that the sanctions for those cases were less severe than ...

  4. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological

  5. 76 FR 56481 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... Law School; David L. Moss Criminal Justice Center (Tulsa, OK)--facility with a low prevalence of...

  6. Risk Factors for Physical Assault and Rape among Six Native American Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David

    2006-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…

  7. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  8. Avoidant Coping and Treatment Outcome in Rape-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…

  9. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  10. Use of sewage sludge - nitrogen availability and heavy metal uptake into rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M. H.; Lombi, E.; Herger, P.

    1998-07-01

    The results of a three years experiment with large pots in the field evaluating the effects of sewage sludge (sterilised by γ-irradiation or not sterilised) on rape growth, heavy metal-and N-uptake, using the 15 N-dilution technique, are presented. Mobile fractions of Cd, Cu and Zn increased significantly in the substrate due to sewage sludge treatments. However heavy metal transfer into rape plants did not respond clearly. Rape growth was clearly enhanced in the first and third year due to sewage sludge applications. The average N-utilization by rape from sewage sludge in a three years period decreased from 7.4 % (first year), 1.8 % (second year) to 1.1 % (third year), resulting in an overall utilization of 10.3 % of sewage sludge - N t by rape plants. Irradiation of sewage sludge did not result in any significant effect on the investigated parameters. (author)

  11. Surviving wife rape: how women define and cope with the violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, R K

    1995-06-01

    This article investigates how women define their experiences of marital rape and cope with the violence. The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted among 35 survivors of marital rape. It found out that women's definition of sexual violence often change over the course of the relationship in a similar manner, from seeing the sexual attacks as an aberrant incident, to redefining the incident as rape, to terminating the relationship with a ¿rapist¿. This study further describes the 6 stages through which women pass in coping with the violence, which include entering a violent relationship; managing the violence; experiencing a loss of self; redefining the violence; ending the violence; and recovering from the trauma. This study, however, gives particular attention to understanding how women manage the violence and redefine their experiences as rape. It concludes by acknowledging that marital rape is a serious problem with very real consequences for the women who experience it.

  12. Feminist Framework Plus: Knitting Feminist Theories of Rape Etiology Into a Comprehensive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Beverly A

    2016-07-01

    The radical-liberal feminist perspective on rape posits that the assault is motivated by power and control rather than sexual gratification and is a violent rather than a sexual act. However, rape is a complex act. Relying on only one early strand of feminist thought to explain the etiology of rape limits feminists' understanding of rape and the practice based upon the theory. The history of the adoption of the "power, not sex" theory is presented and the model critiqued. A more integrated model is developed and presented, the Feminist Framework Plus, which knits together five feminist theories into a comprehensive model that better explains the depth and breadth of the etiology of rape. Empirical evidence that supports each theory is detailed as well as the implications of the model on service provision, education, and advocacy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Reflections on the society’s reaction towards rape victims in Delhi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetu Vibha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, most people display stronger beliefs in ‘aggravated rape‘ or ‘real rape‘; including victims of such rape cases who often identify themselves as ‘rape victims’ than the victims of ‘simple rape’, where none of the aggravating circumstances are present. Despite myths to the contrary these ‘simple rape’ cases in fact make up the majority of cases. This article considers the implications of ‘real rape‘ and demonstrates how notions about what a ‘typical rape‘ should be, in the form of rape myths, directly impact on societal attitudes towards rape victims and how the media continue to reinforce and perpetuate the notion of real rape through their selective reporting of ‘serial rape’, ‘stranger rape’ or especially ‘violent rapes’.

  14. A Danish model for treating victims of rape and sexual assault: The multidisciplinary public approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Elklit, Ask; Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    2009-01-01

    Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards of and the......Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards...... of and the framework behind these centers must be assessed and developed further to accommodate the growing need for rape trauma services in Europe and worldwide. This paper describes the experiences of a public Danish center for rape victims and proposes a management model for current and future rape victim centers....

  15. Quality of durable cookies enriched with rape bee pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to enrich durable cookies with different additions of rape (Brassica napus var. napus bee pollen to increase nutritional properties of cookie samples and to improve technological and sensorial properties as well. Bee pollen is an important raw material due to its nutritional and functional properties. Cookie samples were prepared by substituting wheat flour with rape bee pollen in the amount of 16 % (1 g of bee pollen per cookie and 32 % (2 g of bee pollen per cookie using bee pollen from two localities Lenártovce and Nové Zámky. In baked samples beside sensory properties also chemical parameters and technological parameters of cookies were evaluated. It was found out that with the gradual addition of rape bee pollen the amount of ash content increased and the highest ash content was analysed in variants II and IV (0.71 and 0.77 % using 32 % addition of rape bee pollen. In terms of reducing sugars, addition of bee pollen caused that the content of reducing sugars in the products increased slightly. The highest reducing sugar content was determined in variant II. (24.59 %. On the other hand amount of crude protein the most considerably raised by addition of 2 g of pollen per cookie. The highest content of crude protein was analysed in variants II and IV (8.72 and 9.00 %. From the results of a linear models in which the dependent variables were the ash, crude protein and moisture it was determined the significant effect (p <0.05 only of the pollen addition. In the case of the model with the dependent variable reducing sugars it was found out significant effect (p<0.0001 of pollen addition and locality and their interactions. With the gradual addition of bee pollen values of technological parameters such as diameter and weight of cookies increased and thickness of products decreased. Based on sensory scores using a 9-point Hedonic scale the best sensorial acceptability (7.4 was found in variant I (1 g of bee

  16. Obtaining a new variety of rape by biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z H; Cun, S X; Zhang, Z Z; Wang, W F; Zhang, T H; Li, W B; Zhang, L H [Institute of Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); [Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming (China)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: High-frequency induction of pollen embryoids and plantlets of rape was obtained by stepped float anther culture. In addition, somatic embryoids and plantlets were induced with a high frequency from several species by cell suspension culture. The erucic acid (EA) content of embryoids was analysed by a micro-analysis technique and a semi-micro-analysis of glucosinolates (GS) content in culture was used. A new variety 'H86-166' with low EA and low GS content was selected by these techniques. It gave a yield of 3169 kg/ha and has been released for commercial production on about 1000 ha in Yunnan Province. (author)

  17. Interdisciplinary team communication among forensic nurses and rape victim advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Victim advocates and forensic nurses provide integrated care to address the complex legal, medical, and mental health needs of rape survivors. Research suggests that conflict exists between nurses and advocates, but it remains unknown how their communication patterns contribute to or resolve these conflicts. Utilizing a qualitative case study approach, the current study interviewed 24 nurses and advocates from a Midwest organization to better understand team communication patterns when addressing conflicts. The findings suggest that most nurses communicate concerns directly while advocates avoid direct communication. Factors that influenced direct and indirect communication and their implications for practice will be discussed.

  18. Practices Regarding Rape-related Pregnancy in U.S. Abortion Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rachel; Murphy, Molly; Rankin, Kristin M; Cowett, Allison; Harwood, Bryna

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to explore current practices regarding screening for rape and response to disclosure of rape-related pregnancy in the abortion care setting. We performed a cross-sectional, nonprobability survey of U.S. abortion providers. Individuals were recruited in person and via emailed invitations to professional organization member lists. Questions in this web-based survey pertained to providers' practice setting, how they identify rape-related pregnancy, the availability of support services, and their experiences with law enforcement. Providers were asked their perceptions of barriers to care for women who report rape-related pregnancy. Surveys were completed by 279 providers (21% response rate). Most respondents were female (93.1%), and the majority were physicians in a clinical role (69.4%). One-half (49.8%) reported their practice screens for pregnancy resulting from rape, although fewer (34.8%) reported that screening is the method through which most patients with this history are identified. Most (80.6%) refer women with rape-related pregnancy to support services such as rape crisis centers. Relatively few (19.7%) have a specific protocol for care of women who report rape-related pregnancy. Clinics that screen were 79% more likely to have a protocol for care than centers that do not screen. Although the majority (67.4%) reported barriers to identification of women with rape-related pregnancy, fewer (33.3%) reported barriers to connecting them to support services. Practices for identifying and providing care to women with rape-related pregnancy in the abortion care setting are variable. Further research should address barriers to care provision, as well as identifying protocols for care. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Localization of pain and self-reported rape in a female community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Helena K; Ciccone, Donald S; Raphael, Karen G

    2006-01-01

    Studies suggest that rape increases risk of medically unexplained pain in women. At present it is not clear whether rape is associated with pain at specific locations or at multiple locations. In this study we tested the hypothesis that rape was associated with a preferential increase in risk of pelvic pain that was not explained by pain at other sites. We relied on an existing community study that oversampled women with fibromyalgia and major depression. Localization was assessed by asking about pain at four sites: pelvic region; jaw/face; headache; and lower back. Three groups were identified using a structured telephone interview: Abuse Only (sexual/physical abuse excluding rape); Rape+Abuse (rape in addition to other sexual/physical abuse); and No Abuse. Compared with the No Abuse group, the Rape+Abuse group was eight times more likely to have pelvic pain and 3.7 times more likely to have jaw/face pain after we controlled for the effect of widespread pain. Rape was not associated with lower back pain or headache. The Abuse Only group did not show a preferential increase in risk of pain at any of the four locations that were assessed. After controlling for pain at other locations, we found that the Rape + Abuse group was 10 times more likely to report pelvic pain than the No Abuse group (Prape was uniquely associated with pelvic pain. Future efforts to account for pain in the aftermath of rape must specify a mechanism that can simultaneously cause widespread pain as well as increase risk of localized pain.

  20. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  1. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Xiafang; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng

    2008-01-01

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape

  2. Psychological consequences of rape on women in 1991-1995 war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncar, Mladen; Medved, Vesna; Jovanović, Nikolina; Hotujac, Ljubomir

    2006-02-01

    To explore the short- and long-term psychological consequences of rape on women victims of rape during the 1992-1995 war against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study included 68 women victims of rape and was conducted at the Medical Center for Human Rights, Zagreb, Croatia, from 1992 to 1995. Testimony method and a questionnaire were used to retrospectively obtain the description of rapes and symptoms women suffered immediately after rape and at the time of the study, ie, 11.9-/+2.4 after the trauma. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to diagnose psychiatric disorders that were present at the time of study, according to the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The raped women were Croatian and Muslim (Bosniak) women, residents of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forty-four of them were raped more than once, 21 were raped every day during their captivity, and 18 were forced to witness rapes. Most of the rapes (n=65) were accompanied by physical torture. The most frequent psychological symptoms felt immediately after the rape were depressiveness (n=58), avoidance of thoughts or conversations associated with the trauma (n=40), and suicidal ideas (n=25). Although none of the women had a psychiatric history before the rape, at the time of study 52 suffered from depression, 51 from social phobia, 21 from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 17 had sexual dysfunctions. These disorders were often comorbid. Out of 29 women who got pregnant after rape, 17 had artificial abortion. The decision to have an abortion was strongly predicted by suicidal thoughts and impulses (odds ratio, 25.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-263.2). War-time rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women victims of rapes and their social and interpersonal functioning.

  3. The impact of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-involved rape among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.

  4. There are no "innocent victims": the influence of just world beliefs and prior victimization on rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, Rebecca L; Carmody, Dianne Cyr

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing data from an online survey of 979 university students, this study explores the relationship between prior sexual assault victimization experiences, belief in a just world, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that men, younger respondents, and those with less education were more likely to support rape myths. Support for just world beliefs and rape myths were also positively associated, while rape victims exhibited less support for rape myths than non-victims. Implications for future studies are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The Relationship Between Television Sports Exposure and Rape Myth Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Sexism and Sexual Objectification of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; McNallie, Jenna

    2016-06-30

    Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance. These results suggest that sports programming contributes to the perpetuation of rape myths in society. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Nudity as a Disinhibiting Cue in a Date Rape Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Annabree; Kingston, Drew A; Lalumière, Martin L

    2016-05-01

    Situational factors likely play a role in date rape. The sexual inhibition hypothesis suggests that men are typically sexually inhibited by violence and non-consent, but that inhibition can also be disrupted. We attempted to determine if female nudity reduces inhibition of sexual arousal to non-consensual cues in sexually non-aggressive men. In two studies, heterosexual men (aged 18-25) were presented with six 2-min audiotaped narratives depicting consensual sexual interactions, non-consensual sexual interactions (rape), and non-sexual interactions (neutral) involving a man and a woman. In the first study, 20 participants saw pictures depicting nude or clothed women while listening to the stories. In the second study, 20 other participants saw videos depicting nude or clothed women exercising, also while listening to the stories. Genital responses and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggested that nudity may have a disinhibitory effect on sexual arousal to non-consensual cues, but only when presented in the form of moving images.

  7. Rape in World War II film: comparing narrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzadevych, Tetyana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.

  8. The cultural context of nondisclosure of alcohol-involved acquaintance rape among Asian American college women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Andrasik, Michele P; George, William H

    2015-01-01

    With high college enrollment and increasing alcohol use, Asian American (AA) college women may be at particular risk for experiencing alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Although AA women have expressed the weakest intentions to report rape when compared to other ethnic groups, cultural factors influencing these intentions remain unexamined. Guided by grounded theory, 17 self-identified AA college women were interviewed about how the average AA college woman would respond to an alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Despite awareness of benefits of disclosing rape, participants emphasized that nondisclosure would be the normative response. Three themes emerged from participants: institutional, sociocultural, and psychological contexts of nondisclosure. At an institutional level, nondisclosure referenced mental health and police services, which included Asian stereotypes and mistrust of police. Within a sociocultural context, rape nondisclosure focused on negative consequences on relationships with parents and, to a lesser extent, on friendships. Emotional avoidance and not labeling an acquaintance rape as rape were psychological strategies for rape nondisclosure. Participant's conceptualizations of mental and physical health concerns, specifically post-rape concerns, were framed within sociocultural/macrostructural contexts and may not match that of the more individualistic U.S. mainstream conceptualizations of health. Culturally sensitive rape education may be more effective in increasing rape prevention and support.

  9. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  10. Explicating the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in rape attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; White, Katherine M; Palk, Gavan R M

    2015-07-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that alcohol expectancies may influence people's rape perceptions, no study to date has measured context-specific expectancies comprehensively. This study represents an initial investigation of the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in young Australian adults' rape blame attributions. Using a vignette method, it was hypothesized that participants' stronger expectancy endorsement would predict lesser perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Participants (n = 210; 34.9% males; 18-25 years) read a hypothetical rape scenario and rated dimensions of blameworthiness attributed to the intoxicated sexual perpetrator and victim. Participants completed the Sexual Coercion and Sexual Vulnerability subscales of the Drinking Expectancy Sexual Vulnerabilities Questionnaire for the targets self, men, and women in addition to measures of traditional gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, as expected, stronger sexual coercion expectancy predicted lower perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Self-oriented expectancy predicted evaluations of the perpetrator whereas other-oriented expectancy predicted victim evaluations. These effects were robust after controlling for gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Alcohol expectancies appear to be part of a network of beliefs and attitudes which perpetuate biased rape attributions and may be useful to challenge in altering rape perceptions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Examining the Psychological Effect of Rape Acknowledgment: The Interaction of Acknowledgment Status and Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E; Leheney, Emma K; Ballman, Alesha D; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-07-01

    Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants. The participants completed measures of sexual assault experiences, ambivalent sexism, and depression and PTSD symptoms. The results supported a significant interaction between acknowledgement status and benevolent sexism in relation to both depression and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, the present study failed to find support for an interaction between acknowledgment status and hostile sexism. The clinical implications suggest that rather than seeing acknowledging rape as essential to the recovery process, clinicians should assess for and take into account other factors that may contribute to psychological functioning. Additionally, the findings support that more complex models of trauma recovery should be investigated with the goal of working toward a more comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal process of rape acknowledgment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. How Motherhood Triumphs Over Trauma Among Mothers With Children From Genocidal Rape in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeth Kantengwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rape is a common occurrence during genocide and the presence of children born as a result of rape poses a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper treats mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi as a separate category of survivors and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood in their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen women from Kigali city, Karongi District in the Western Province and Huye District in the Southern Province. Qualitative analysis of individual interviews and focus groups provided a means to explore in-depth the perceptions of mothers and the value of motherhood. It was found that mothers of children of rape experienced challenges raising their children, especially in the early stages of parenting. Social stigma related to rape and children born of rape created challenges, as did the lack of psychosocial resources for the women, particularly when faced with disclosing paternity to the children. However, despite these and other difficulties, motherhood played a positive role for many women, often providing a reason to live again after the genocide. These findings show that positive experiences of motherhood can be key to the recovery of survivors of genocidal rape in Rwanda and points to future directions for research and health promotion among populations affected by conflict-related sexual violence.

  13. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Yield in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Fang, S.; Liu, K.; Gong, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF) and yield in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI) vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate Flower Fraction (FF) in oilseed rape. Based on FF estimates, rape yield can be estimated using canopy reflectance data. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with estimation error below 6% and predict yield with estimation error below 20%.

  14. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies.

  15. Myths and legends: The reality of rape offences reported to a UK police force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve F. Waterhouse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rape myths affect many aspects of the investigative and criminal justice systems. One such myth, the ‘real rape’ myth, states that most rapes involve a stranger using a weapon attacking a woman violently at night in an isolated, outdoor area, and that women sustain serious injuries from these attacks. The present study examined how often actual offences reported to a central UK police force over a two year period matched the ‘real rape’ myth. Out of 400 cases of rape reported, not a single incident was found with all the characteristics of the ‘real rape’ myth. The few stranger rapes that occurred had a strong link to night-time economy activities, such as the victim and offender both having visited pubs, bars, and clubs. By contrast, the majority of reported rape offences (280 cases, 70.7% were committed by people known to the victim (e.g., domestic and acquaintance rapes, occurred inside a residence, with most victims sustaining no physical injuries from the attack. The benefits of these naturalistic findings from the field for educating people about the inaccuracy of rape myths are discussed.

  16. "One Problem Became Another": Disclosure of Rape-Related Pregnancy in the Abortion Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rachel; Murphy, Molly; Haider, Sadia; Harwood, Bryna

    2015-01-01

    We sought to explore the experiences of women who disclosed that their pregnancies resulted from rape in the abortion care setting, as well as the experiences of professionals involved in care of women with rape-related pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 9 patients who had terminated rape-related pregnancies and 12 professionals working in abortion care or rape crisis advocacy (5 abortion providers, 4 rape crisis center advocates, 2 social workers, and 1 clinic administrator). Transcribed interviews were coded and analyzed for themes related to the experiences of disclosing rape and the consequences of disclosure in the abortion care setting. Patients and professionals involved in care of women with rape-related pregnancy described opportunities arising from disclosure, including interpersonal (explaining abortion decision making in the context of assault, belief, and caring by providers), as well as structural opportunities (funding assistance, legal options, and mental health options). Whereas most patients did not choose to pursue all three structural opportunities, both patients and professionals emphasized the importance of offering them. The most important consequence of disclosure for patients was being believed and feeling that providers cared about them. Rape-related pregnancy disclosure in the abortion care setting can lead to opportunities for interpersonal support and open options for funding, legal recourse, and mental health care. Those working in abortion care should create environments conducive to disclosure and opportunities for rape survivors to access these additional options if they desire. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pelvic floor muscle problems mediate sexual problems in young adult rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Riemke; Bicanic, Iva; van der Vaart, Huub; Laan, Ellen

    2013-08-01

    Prior studies have addressed sexual abuse and sexual function in adult women. No studies have focused on the effect of adolescence rape on sexual functioning. To investigate the effect of rape on sexual problems and on pelvic floor problems, as well as the mediating role of pelvic floor problems on sexual problems, in a homogenous group of victims of adolescence rape without a history of childhood sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse. Sexual functioning and pelvic floor functioning were assessed using self-report questionnaires. In this cross-sectional study, a group of 89 young women aged 18-25 years who were victimized by rape in adolescence was compared with a group of 114 nonvictimized controls. The rape victims were treated for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 3 years prior to participation in the study. Three years posttreatment, rape victims were 2.4 times more likely to have a sexual dysfunction (lubrication problems and pain) and 2.7 times more likely to have pelvic floor dysfunction (symptoms of provoked vulvodynia, general stress, lower urinary tract, and irritable bowel syndrome) than nonvictimized controls. The relationship between rape and sexual problems was partially mediated by the presence of pelvic floor problems. Rape victims and controls did not differ with regard to sexual activities. Rape victims suffer significantly more from sexual dysfunction and pelvic floor dysfunction when compared with nontraumatized controls, despite the provision of treatment for PTSD. Possibly, physical manifestations of PTSD have been left unaddressed in treatment. Future treatment protocols should consider incorporating (physical or psychological) treatment strategies for sexual dysfunction and/or pelvic floor dysfunction into trauma exposure treatments. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Rape disclosure: the interplay of gender, culture and kinship in contemporary Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Nguyen Thu

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the social management of rape within kin groups in contemporary Vietnam, with a particular focus on the decision whether or not to seek legal redress. Post-rape management entails negotiations among families on matters such as apology and compensation before a decision is made about whether to report the incident to the authorities. By drawing on an ethnographic study of a limited number of respondents, this paper highlights how rape disclosure is often bound up with notions of family honour, with assumptions about kinship, gender relations, social belonging and shared responsibility in a collective society such as Vietnam.

  19. College Women’s Experiences With Rape Disclosure: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Disclosure of a rape to informal support sources (e.g., friends) is a relatively common experience, but it is not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of the characteristics and life experiences of disclosure recipients among a national sample of 2,000 female college students. Over 40% of respondents reported having received a rape disclosure, and more than two thirds of these recipients encouraged victims to formally report their rapes to the police or other authorities. Correlates of disclosure receipt and encouragement of reporting, including personal assault history, mental health history, and substance use, are presented and discussed. PMID:23651638

  20. The (unreceptive experiences of female rape victims who seek healthcare services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Amorim Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To know the structure and functioning of healthcare services from the perspective of women who have suffered rape. METHOD A qualitative study conducted with 11 women who experienced rape, monitored in a maternity in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were systematically based on content analysis. RESULTS It allowed for understanding the path taken by women in search of support from health services, as well as the limitations and capabilities of these services. CONCLUSION The assistance received in healthcare services leans towards a revictimization process of women who already carry trauma from the rape. It is necessary to reflect about care practices aimed at sexually victimized women.

  1. Changes in oil composition after chronic irradiation of winter and spring zero-erucic rape hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Cerny, J.

    1980-01-01

    Hybrid plants of the F1 generation of erucic-free spring Canadian rape and some winter rape cultivars containing erucic acid were irradiated in a gamma field with doses ranging between 5973 and 329 R during vegetation. Chronic irradiation increased significantly the frequency of zero- or low-erucic genotypes in the segregating F2 generation. Chronic irradiation disturbed the correlations between the contents of the studied fatty acids in the hybrid F1, F2 and F3 progenies. Lines of zero- and low-erucic winter rapes with a reduced content of linolenic acid and increased content of linoleic acid were obtained by selection. (author)

  2. Comprehensive care and pregnancy: The unmet care needs of pregnant women with a history of rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Michelle L.; Rietz, Melissa Foster

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for assessing the unmet needs of rape survivors during pregnancy based on the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) practice level theory and an empirical exploration of rape survivors’ health status in pregnancy via a secondary analysis. Our findings indicate that there may be unmet needs in pregnancy related to all five post-assault comprehensive care components: (1) physical care, (2) pregnancy prevention, (3) sexually transmitted infection screening, (4) psychological care, and (5) legal care. Rape history and its current impact on the survivor predicted somatic disorders, substance use, unwanted pregnancy, infections, posttraumatic stress disorder, and recent abuse. PMID:23215990

  3. Rape and Mental Health Outcomes Among Women: Examining the Moderating Effects of "Healthy" Fear Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Ryan; Wright, Emily M; Peterson, Johanna C

    2016-07-03

    This study examined the mediating and moderating impact of fear of victimization on the relationships between forcible and vicarious rape on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among college women. Forcible and vicarious rape positively affected PTSD and depression symptomology, but fear did not mediate these relationships. Fear moderated the impact of forcible rape on PTSD, but was not a moderator for depression. Findings suggest that there may be "healthy" levels of fear in the aftermath of victimization where having too little fear may leave women unnecessarily vulnerable to victimization, while having too much fear may lead to social isolation and withdrawal. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. The politics of rape: Traces of radical feminism in Disgrace by J. M. Coetzee

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, Lianne

    2013-01-01

    Disgroce can be read as a deliberation on rape in all its complexity, articulating and commenting upon many of the positions typical of the radical feminism of the seventies. Some feminists classify prostitution as a form of rape. Prostitution is the ideal form of sex for the main character, David, because it allows him to fantasize that a woman mirrors his wishes. The border between rape and consensual sex is shown to be problematic in the relationship between David and his young student, Me...

  5. Recent Genetic Gains in Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Andreas; Pfeifer, Mara; Frisch, Matthias; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant growth, and N fertilization allows farmers to obtain high yields and produce sufficient agricultural commodities. On the other hand, nitrogen losses potentially cause adverse effects to ecosystems and to human health. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is vital to solve the conflict between productivity, to secure the demand of a growing world population, and the protection of the environment. To ensure this, genetic improvement is considered to be a paramount aspect toward ecofriendly crop production. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is the second most important oilseed crop in the world and is cultivated in many regions across the temperate zones. To our knowledge, this study reports the most comprehensive field-based data generated to date for an empirical evaluation of genetic improvement in winter oilseed rape varieties under two divergent nitrogen fertilization levels (NFLs). A collection of 30 elite varieties registered between 1989 and 2014, including hybrids and open pollinated varieties, was tested in a 2-year experiment in 10 environments across Germany for changes in seed yield and seed quality traits. Furthermore, NUE was calculated. We observed a highly significant genetics-driven increase in seed yield per-se and, thus, increased NUE at both NFLs. On average, seed yield from modern open-pollinated varieties and modern hybrids was higher than from old open-pollinated varieties and old hybrids. The annual yield progress across all tested varieties was ~35 kg ha−1 year−1 at low nitrogen and 45 kg ha−1 year−1 under high nitrogen fertilization. Furthermore, in modern varieties an increased oil concentration and decreased protein concentration was observed. Despite, the significant effects of nitrogen fertilization, a surprisingly low average seed yield gap of 180 kg N ha−1 was noted between high and low nitrogen fertilization. Due to contrary effects of N fertilization on seed yield per-se and seed

  6. Drug- and Alcohol-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape in Relation to Mental Health among a National Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. Our aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a community sample of women, with particular emphasis on evaluating the unique effects of lifetime exposure to three specific rape tactics. Methods A nationally representative sample of 3,001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18–86 years) participated in a structured telephone interview by use of Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology. Results Multivariable models showed that history of drug or alcohol facilitated rape tactics (OR = 1.87, prape tactics (OR = 3.46, prape was associated with depression (OR = 3.65, prape tactics were associated with a number of factors that may have contributed to their stronger association with mental health outcomes, including force, injury, lower income, revictimization history, and labeling the event as rape. Conclusions Our results underscore the importance of using a behaviorally specific assessment of rape history, as rape tactic and multiple rape history differentially predicted psychopathology outcomes. The association between drug or alcohol facilitated rape tactics and PTSD suggests that these are important rape tactics to include in assessments and future studies. PMID:20100896

  7. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André

    1989-01-01

    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  8. Prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders as a function of variant rape histories: results from a national survey of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2012-06-01

    Rape is an established risk factor for mental health disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episodes (MDE), and substance use disorders. The majority of studies have not differentiated substance-involved rape or examined comorbid diagnoses among victims. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of common trauma-related psychiatric disorders (and their comorbidity) in a national sample of women, with an emphasis on distinguishing between rape tactics. A secondary objective was to estimate the risk for psychiatric disorders among victims of variant rape tactics, in comparison to non-victims. A nationally representative population-based sample of 3,001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18-86 years) participated in a structured telephone interview assessing rape history and DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, MDE, alcohol abuse (AA), and drug abuse (DA). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. Women with rape histories involving both substance facilitation and forcible tactics reported the highest current prevalence of PTSD (36%), MDE (36%), and AA (20%). Multivariate models demonstrated that this victim group was also at highest risk for psychiatric disorders, after controlling for demographics and childhood and multiple victimization history. Women with substance-facilitated rapes reported higher prevalence of substance abuse in comparison to women with forcible rape histories. Comorbidity between PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was higher among rape victims in comparison to non-rape victims. Researchers and clinicians should assess substance-facilitated rape tactics and attend to comorbidity among rape victims. Empirically supported treatments are needed to address the complex presentations observed among women with variant rape histories.

  9. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (ptocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (ptocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars.

  10. Sowing properties of summer rape seeds depending on fertilizers and terms of harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Юник

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of research of sowing properties - emergence rate and laboratory germinating capacity seeds summer rape are resulted depending on variants of fertilizers and terms of harvesting.

  11. Investigating the Self-Protective Potential of Immobility in Victims of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke A; Jones, Lynn C

    2017-04-01

    Using a nationwide sample of reported rape cases collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI; 389 victims; 89% stranger rapes), this study investigates assumptions about self-protective behaviors for rape victims. Past research on victim resistance strategies often specifies active resistance as self-protective, inadvertently underestimating the potential for biologically based reactions, such as tonic immobility, to be self-protective as well. Results confirm that rape victims who were verbally and physically immobile during the attack were less likely to be injured and have force used against them. In addition, victims who were verbally immobile suffered a less severe attack. The results indicate that immobility may protect the victim from increased injury, force, and severity of the attack. Implications for the legal and public definition of consent are discussed.

  12. 75 FR 11077 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ..., social, and economic impacts of prison rape in the United States, and to provide to the Attorney General... Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the Office of Justice Programs, the Office for...

  13. The Effect of Electric Field on Callus Induction with Rape Hypocotyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Holda, M.; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan

    60c, 11/12 (2005), s. 876-882 ISSN 0939-5075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Electric Field * Rape * Growth Regulators Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2005

  14. Standard Rape Cases in the Criminal Justice System in Campinas, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Domingues Vargas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a longitudinal analysis of the records found in the Women’s Defense Division of the Public Ministry and in the Criminal Courts of the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State. The study identified both the characteristics of rape (the accused, victims and relations between them, as well as the processes of selection and filtering to which they are submit during their processing. The results found for Campinas reflect rape complaints found in international studies, which indicate that rape is a heterogeneous category, although the aggressors are invariably men and the victims young. On the other hand, when the criminal selection process is analyzed, a filtering of typologies is noticed, found in the complaint phase in three standards for the crime of rape: intrafamiliar, committed by an unknown aggressor and among youth who know each other.

  15. Judgments toward male and transgendered victims in a depicted stranger rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Hudson, Jenefer

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing amount of research interest into perceptions of male rape in recent years. However, no research has assessed how people react when a transgendered person is raped. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transgendered status and sexuality on victim blame and perceived severity in a depicted rape scenario. The sexuality of the victim was manipulated to include a heterosexual, homosexual, cross-dresser, female-to-male transsexual, and male-to-female transsexual. It was predicted that the heterosexual victims would be judged the most positively and that heterosexual male participants would make the most anti-victim judgments. One hundred thirty-three lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual members of the general population read a scenario depicting a rape and then completed a questionnaire measuring victim blame and perceived severity of the assault. Results conformed to the predictions. Results are discussed in relation to traditional gender roles and homophobia.

  16. From rape to sexual assault: Legal provisions and mental health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C Jiloha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual assault in various forms has been recognized as a crime by almost all religions and cultures throughout the recorded history. It is a crime against basic human rights of an individual and a most common crime against women in India. In India, "rape laws" began with the enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments, and the main issue of focus remained the definition of rape which has been recently broadened to include a wide range of sexual activities. The inclusion of "marital rape" in the ambit of rape remains a matter of debate. With a long history, the sexual offence in the form of sexual assault has been discussed from legal and mental health perspective in this presentation. Social and psychological impact of sexual assault on the victim has also been discussed.

  17. Clinical factors associated with rape victims' ability to testify in court ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This can be emotionally ... Keywords: Rape victims; Court referral; Psycho-legal assessment; Ability to testify in court; .... specifically been assessed and no psychometric intelligence .... abilities and self-esteem become compromised and their.

  18. Effect of spraying rape with Nd on N, P, K, Ca and Nd uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.Z.; Zhou, X.B.; Maalim, M.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: When 20 mg/L,100 mg/L Nd(NO 3 ) 3 were applied at rape seedling stage, the uptake of N, P, K by rape was significantly increased. The main characters of economic importance in rape were also improved, such as dry weight, root length, pod number and 1000-seed weight. Yields of rape seeds were 110.77% and 122.50% of control, respectively. The contents of Nd, Ca in plant and soluble Nd in the soil were also analysed. It was found that Nd could be absorbed from leaves and transported to the top as well as the roots. The uptake of Nd from soil was inhibited by Nd absorption from leaves. Nd might replace Ca partly

  19. Prospective study of rape perpetration by young South African men: incidence & risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial.We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models.The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49, had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01, had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03 and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97. A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97.The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation.

  20. Prospective Study of Rape Perpetration by Young South African Men: Incidence & Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. Methods We followed 1,147 men aged 15–26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. Results The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation). PMID:22675449

  1. Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in South African Female Rape Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development. The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were...

  2. Purported false allegations of rape, child abuse and non-sexual violence: Nature, characteristics and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Rumney, P.; McCartan, K.

    2017-01-01

    The subject of false rape allegations is a subject shrouded in anxiety, confusion and misunderstanding. Despite a growing body of quality research there continue to be significant gaps in our knowledge about the topic, including the phenomenon of false allegations beyond rape and other sexual offences. The purpose of this article is to seek to deepen our understanding by examining a unique dataset comprising 701 cases involving individuals who purport to have been the subject of false accusat...

  3. Acute stress among adolescents and female rape victims measured by ASC-Kids: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris; Nordenstam, Carin; Green, Sara; Wetterhall, Annika; Lundin, Tom; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-01-01

    Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often with durable consequences. How the aftermath of rape is for young adolescents' girls considering acute stress is an overlooked field and remains to be studied. In this study, we wanted to investigate acute stress among adolescent victims of rape and the psychometric properties of the Acute Stress Checklist for Children (ASC-Kids). A clinical sample (n = 79) of raped girls, 13-17 years old who had turned to a special rape victim unit for treatment, answered the ASC-Kids. ASC-Kids was also given to a group of minor stressed, non-raped adolescents in the same age range (n = 154) together with the University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD RI), and the Sense of Coherence Scale 13 (SOC-13). The scores from the groups were compared and showed significant differences in mean values on all the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder. In the clinical group, 36.7% obtained full ASD criteria. ASC-Kids could discriminate well between groups. Cronbach's alpha was found to be excellent, and the correlation between the UCLA PTSD RI and ASC-Kids found to be good; both ASC-Kids and UCLA PTSD RI had a good and moderate negative correlation with SOC-13. Adolescent female rape victims were shown to have a very high level of acute stress, and the ASC-Kids was found to have sound psychometrics and can be a valuable screening instrument to support clinicians in their assessments of an indication of adolescents after potentially stressful events such as rape.

  4. Rapid Determination of Thiabendazole Pesticides in Rape by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Dong, Tao; Nie, Pengcheng; Qu, Fangfang; He, Yong; Chu, Bingquan; Xiao, Shupei

    2018-04-04

    Thiabendazole is widely used in sclerotium blight, downy mildew and black rot prevention and treatment in rape. Accurate monitoring of thiabendazole pesticides in plants will prevent potential adverse effects to the Environment and human health. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive fingerprint with the advantages of simple operation, convenient portability and high detection efficiency. In this paper, a rapid determination method of thiabendazole pesticides in rape was conducted combining SERS with chemometric methods. The original SERS were pretreated and the partial least squares (PLS) was applied to establish the prediction model between SERS and thiabendazole pesticides in rape. As a result, the SERS enhancing effect based on silver Nano-substrate was better than that of gold Nano-substrate, where the detection limit of thiabendazole pesticides in rape could reach 0.1 mg/L. Moreover, 782, 1007 and 1576 cm −1 could be determined as thiabendazole pesticides Raman characteristic peaks in rape. The prediction effect of thiabendazole pesticides in rape was the best ( R p 2 = 0.94, RMSEP = 3.17 mg/L) after the original spectra preprocessed with 1st-Derivative, and the linear relevance between thiabendazole pesticides concentration and Raman peak intensity at 782 cm −1 was the highest ( R² = 0.91). Furthermore, five rape samples with unknown thiabendazole pesticides concentration were used to verify the accuracy and reliability of this method. It was showed that prediction relative standard deviation was 0.70–9.85%, recovery rate was 94.71–118.92% and t value was −1.489. In conclusion, the thiabendazole pesticides in rape could be rapidly and accurately detected by SERS, which was beneficial to provide a rapid, accurate and reliable scheme for the detection of pesticides residues in agriculture products.

  5. Rapid Determination of Thiabendazole Pesticides in Rape by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thiabendazole is widely used in sclerotium blight, downy mildew and black rot prevention and treatment in rape. Accurate monitoring of thiabendazole pesticides in plants will prevent potential adverse effects to the Environment and human health. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS is a highly sensitive fingerprint with the advantages of simple operation, convenient portability and high detection efficiency. In this paper, a rapid determination method of thiabendazole pesticides in rape was conducted combining SERS with chemometric methods. The original SERS were pretreated and the partial least squares (PLS was applied to establish the prediction model between SERS and thiabendazole pesticides in rape. As a result, the SERS enhancing effect based on silver Nano-substrate was better than that of gold Nano-substrate, where the detection limit of thiabendazole pesticides in rape could reach 0.1 mg/L. Moreover, 782, 1007 and 1576 cm−1 could be determined as thiabendazole pesticides Raman characteristic peaks in rape. The prediction effect of thiabendazole pesticides in rape was the best ( R p 2 = 0.94, RMSEP = 3.17 mg/L after the original spectra preprocessed with 1st-Derivative, and the linear relevance between thiabendazole pesticides concentration and Raman peak intensity at 782 cm−1 was the highest (R2 = 0.91. Furthermore, five rape samples with unknown thiabendazole pesticides concentration were used to verify the accuracy and reliability of this method. It was showed that prediction relative standard deviation was 0.70–9.85%, recovery rate was 94.71–118.92% and t value was −1.489. In conclusion, the thiabendazole pesticides in rape could be rapidly and accurately detected by SERS, which was beneficial to provide a rapid, accurate and reliable scheme for the detection of pesticides residues in agriculture products.

  6. War of Images and Images of War: Rape and Sacrifice in the Iraq War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Rial

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses one of the great issues about which global media remains silent: the rape of Muslim women by U.S. soldiers in Iraq. Contemporary mediascape is prolix. But some silences remain, such as the issue of rape during war. With an anthropological approach to the meaning of war and through the analysis of images, the article focuses on the participation of women in this male space.

  7. Bt-transgenic oilseed rape hybridization with its weedy relative, Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Millwood, Reginald J; Raymer, Paul L; Stewart, C Neal

    2002-10-01

    The movement of transgenes from crops to weeds and the resulting consequences are concerns of modern agriculture. The possible generation of "superweeds" from the escape of fitness-enhancing transgenes into wild populations is a risk that is often discussed, but rarely studied. Oilseed rape, Brassica napus (L.), is a crop with sexually compatible weedy relatives, such as birdseed rape (Brassica rapa (L.)). Hybridization of this crop with weedy relatives is an extant risk and an excellent interspecific gene flow model system. In laboratory crosses, T3 lines of seven independent transformation events of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) oilseed rape were hybridized with two weedy accessions of B. rapa. Transgenic hybrids were generated from six of these oilseed rape lines, and the hybrids exhibited an intermediate morphology between the parental species. The Bt transgene was present in the hybrids, and the protein was synthesized at similar levels to the corresponding independent oilseed rape lines. Insect bioassays were performed and confirmed that the hybrid material was insecticidal. The hybrids were backcrossed with the weedy parent, and only half the oilseed rape lines were able to produce transgenic backcrosses. After two backcrosses, the ploidy level and morphology of the resultant plants were indistinguishable from B. rapa. Hybridization was monitored under field conditions (Tifton, GA, USA) with four independent lines of Bt oilseed rape with a crop to wild relative ratio of 1200:1. When B. rapa was used as the female parent, hybridization frequency varied among oilseed rape lines and ranged from 16.9% to 0.7%.

  8. Date and acquaintance rape. Development and validation of a set of scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J F; Devellis, B M; Devellis, R F

    1997-02-01

    Increasing recognition of the prevalence of date/acquaintance rape (DAR) in the US, especially among college women, has led to an understanding that the techniques needed to fend off attacks from friends and acquaintances differ from those used to prevent rape by strangers. This study developed and tested the reliability and validity of the following DAR constructs: perceived vulnerability (underestimation of vulnerability discourages adequate self-protection), self-efficacy, relational priority (neglecting self-interest to save a relationship), rape myth acceptance (subscribing to myths about rape allows women to avoid facing their own vulnerability), and commitment to self-defense. These constructs were also correlated with scales measuring masculinity, self-esteem, and degree of belief in a "just world." Data were gathered to test these constructs via a questionnaire administered to 800 female undergraduate dormitory residents (47% response rate). Analysis of the data allowed refinement of 50 items into 25 items that constitute reliable scales of perceived vulnerability, self-efficacy, and self-determination and a marginally reliable scale of victim-blaming (rape myth). Support was found for 5/6 predicted correlates between DAR scales and 3/5 hypothesized correlations between DAR scales and convergent/discrimination validity scales. Research into this rape prevention tool will continue.

  9. Readiness to reconcile and post-traumatic distress in German survivors of wartime rapes in 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, S; Stammel, N; Glaesmer, H; Klauer, T; Freyberger, H J; Knaevelsrud, C; Kuwert, P

    2015-05-01

    Sexual violence and wartime rapes are prevalent crimes in violent conflicts all over the world. Processes of reconciliation are growing challenges in post-conflict settings. Despite this, so far few studies have examined the psychological consequences and their mediating factors. Our study aimed at investigating the degree of longtime readiness to reconcile and its associations with post-traumatic distress within a sample of German women who experienced wartime rapes in 1945. A total of 23 wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched controls with WWII-related non-sexual traumatic experiences. Readiness to reconcile was assessed with the Readiness to Reconcile Inventory (RRI-13). The German version of the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) was used to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Readiness to reconcile in wartime rape survivors was higher in those women who reported less post-traumatic distress, whereas the subscale "openness to interaction" showed the strongest association with post-traumatic symptomatology. Moreover, wartime rape survivors reported fewer feelings of revenge than women who experienced other traumatization in WWII. Our results are in line with previous research, indicating that readiness to reconcile impacts healing processes in the context of conflict-related traumatic experiences. Based on the long-lasting post-traumatic symptomatology we observed that our findings highlight the need for psychological treatment of wartime rape survivors worldwide, whereas future research should continue focusing on reconciliation within the therapeutic process.

  10. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  11. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Is disclosure of childhood rape associated with mental health outcome? Results from the National Women's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Smith, Daniel W; Hanson, Rochelle F; Resnick, Heidi S; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Best, Connie L

    2004-02-01

    Clinicians often assert that disclosure of childhood rape is beneficial to victims because it sets the occasion for protective action and can bring them into contact with professionals trained to address rape-related mental health needs. Consistent with this is the hypothesis that victims of childhood rape who disclose their victimization soon after it occurs are at lower risk for later psychosocial difficulties relative to those who delay disclosure or never disclose. We explored this issue with a nationally representative sample of 3,220 adult women; 288 (8.9%) endorsed at least one instance of forcible sexual penetration prior to age 18. Results revealed a significantly higher past-year prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episodes among women who waited longer than 1 month to disclose their rape relative to nondisclosers and women who disclosed within 1 month of the rape. Delayed disclosure remained associated with PTSD after controlling for demographic and rape characteristics. Patterns of disclosure were not associated with past-year substance-use problems.

  13. Randomized controlled evaluation of an early intervention to prevent post-rape psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Waldrop, Angela E; King, Lynda; King, Daniel; Danielson, Carla; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2007-10-01

    A randomized between-group design was used to evaluate the efficacy of a video intervention to reduce post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems, implemented prior to the forensic medical examination conducted within 72 h post-sexual assault. Participants were 140 female victims of sexual assault (68 video/72 nonvideo) aged 15 years or older. Assessments were targeted for 6 weeks (Time 1) and 6 months (Time 2) post-assault. At Time 1, the intervention was associated with lower scores on measures of PTSD and depression among women with a prior rape history relative to scores among women with a prior rape history in the standard care condition. At Time 2, depression scores were also lower among those with a prior rape history who were in the video relative to the standard care condition. Small effects indicating higher PTSD and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores among women without a prior rape history in the video condition were observed at Time 1. Accelerated longitudinal growth curve analysis indicated a videoxprior rape history interaction for PTSD, yielding four patterns of symptom trajectory over time. Women with a prior rape history in the video condition generally maintained the lowest level of symptoms.

  14. Media Construction of Gender: Framing Analysis of Rape Cases in the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the printed media which tends to dramatize and blow up the reporting of rape cases has in fact discredited the rape victim, resulting in gender bias. This is due to the fact that media present the news content concerning on the victim and the perpetrator in imbalanced reporting, in that the victims are scrutinized from diverse facets. This paper analyze the coverage of printed media in rape cases by means of framing analysis. The result shows that printed media coverage generally goes beyond the rape case itself as the victim’s identity and images of the incident are also revealed. The using of visual image (victim’s image is probably aimed to present an overview on the fact or the truth from the media viewpoint. This presentation, however, obscures the differences between factual and fictional reality and this might lead to different interpretation on the readers’ side. Furthermore, inappropriate reporting might become the society’s reference concerning on the modus operandi, in that the society learn or imitate the aspects they once did not know of. Visual image will create a second rape by the media toward the victim, in addition to the stereotyping developed in public, which often brings out psychological impact to the victim and the family. This is called the third rape.

  15. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva A. E. Bicanic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods: Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years, who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results: In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR 2.05, confidence intervals (CI 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46, and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60 contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion: The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services.

  16. Correlates of reasons for not reporting rape to police: results from a national telephone household probability sample of women with forcible or drug-or-alcohol facilitated/incapacitated rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-02-01

    Rape tactics, rape incident characteristics, and mental health problems (lifetime depression, PTSD, and substance abuse) were investigated as correlates of eight different reasons for not reporting a rape to police among women who had experienced but did not report a rape to police (n = 441) within a national telephone household probability sample. Rape tactics (nonmutually exclusive) included drug or alcohol-facilitated or incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR; n = 119) and forcible rape (FR; n = 376). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted to extract a dominant set of patterns among the eight reasons for not reporting, and to reduce the set of dependent variables. PCA results indicated three unique factors: Not Wanting Others to Know, Nonacknowledgment of Rape, and Criminal Justice Concerns. Hierarchical regression analyses showed DAFR/IR and FR were both positively and significantly associated with Criminal Justice Concerns, whereas DAFR/IR, but not FR, was associated with Nonacknowledgment as a reason for not reporting to police. Neither DAFR/IR nor FR emerged as significant predictors of Others Knowing after controlling for fear of death or injury at the time of the incident. Correlations among variables showed that the Criminal Justice Concerns factor was positively related to lifetime depression and PTSD and the Nonacknowledgement factor was negatively related to lifetime PTSD. Findings suggest prevention programs should educate women about the definition of rape, which may include incapacitation due to alcohol or drugs, to increase acknowledgement and decrease barriers to police reporting.

  17. Gender Inequitable Masculinity and Sexual Entitlement in Rape Perpetration South Africa: Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert; Dunkle, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. Design Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. Methods 1737 South African men aged 18–49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. Results In all 27.6% (466/1686) of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251) of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. Conclusions Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important. PMID:22216324

  18. Study on the Occurrence and Epidemic Model of Rape Sclerotinia Stem Rot of ‘Zheyou 50’

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Sen-fu; Wang Hui-fu; Yu Shanhong; Wang En-guo

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate invading and epidemic rules of rape sclerotinia stem rot of ‘Zheyou 50’ and promote the development of brassica campestris industry, this paper studied the outbreak regularity and epidemic model of rape sclerotinia stem rot according to field investigation and infection. The result showed that machinery direct seeding rape was good for the occurrence of sclerotinia stem rot for the reason of late seeding and high density. The period from water damage appeared to wiltin...

  19. Supporting Rape Survivors Through the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme: An Exploration of English and Welsh Independent Sexual Violence Advisors' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Olivia; Galey, Jessica

    2018-07-01

    English and Welsh responses to rape have long been critically examined, leading to attempted improvements in the criminal justice system. Despite this, little attention has been paid to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (CICS) and the difficulties applying it to rape. To begin addressing this gap, researchers interviewed three, and qualitatively surveyed 22, Independent Sexual Violence Advisors. The findings suggest that CICS may not only reinforce rape myths and disadvantage vulnerable survivors, but is also a source of validation and contributes to survivor justice. The study, while exploratory, therefore, highlights the need for further discussion about rape survivor compensation.

  20. Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, Alison; Ringrose, Jessica; Renold, Emma; Jackson, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction to Special Issue of Journal of Gender Studies entitled Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: Researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence.

  1. Self-defense or undermining the self? Exploring the possibilities and limitations of a novel anti-rape technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Deborah; Rees, Gethin

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of feminist-inspired law reforms, rape remains highly prevalent. While many continue to fight for broad cultural and institutional changes, some argue that more immediate interventions are required. Self-defense techniques represent a key strategy of resistance to rape, and empirical evidence suggests that women's active resistance may hold a number of positive benefits. In this essay, we compare the aims and objectives of a novel anti-rape technology, known as the Rape-aXe, with traditional self-defense techniques, focusing upon the potential for both to resist individual acts of sexual aggression and, more broadly, end gendered sexual violence.

  2. Self-rated health in relation to rape and mental health disorders in a national sample of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-04-01

    Overall health status is associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Existing research on the correlates of mental health effects of rape suggests that rape victims are at higher risk for poor overall health status. Little is known, however, about how different rape tactics may relate to health status in rape victims. Our aim was to examine prevalence and correlates of self-rated health in a community sample of women, with particular emphasis on lifetime rape history (distinguishing between rape tactics), psychopathology, and substance use outcomes. A nationally representative sample of 3,001 U.S. women (age range: 18-86 years) residing in households with a telephone participated in a structured telephone interview. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 11.4% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (pdepressive episode (MDE; p=.01), and history of forcible rape (p=.01). Self-rated health was associated with three potentially modifiable variables (forcible rape, PTSD, and MDE). Therefore, trauma-focused interventions for rape victims should include collaboration on treatment or prevention modules that specifically address both mental and physical health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  3. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeid, Muzdalifat; Muganyizi, Projestine; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth; Axemo, Pia

    2014-08-18

    Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania's contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence.

  4. A longitudinal study of the aftermath of rape among rural South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu; Zhang, Muyu; Wong, Lauren H; Nicholson, Fiona; Sarkissian, Alissa Der; Makhado, Lufuno; Myers, Hector F

    2017-05-01

    Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual-and potentially modifiable-influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up. Two hundred nine (N = 209) South African women were recruited from rural rape clinics in the Limpopo Province (LP) and North West Province (NWP) of South Africa. Interviews were conducted at baseline (within 6 months of the rape incident) and at 6 and 12 months by trained staff at the clinics in English or the women's native languages. Women were interviewed after services were provided in a private room. One hundred thirty-two (n = 132) women were lost to follow-up at 12 months, resulting in 77 women with interview data for all time points. Undermining by the survivor's social support system and an increased belief in myths about rape were associated with increased dysfunctional sexual practices and symptoms of depression. These findings demonstrate the need for interventions that address the most pervasive effects of rape over time. These behaviors can increase risks for revictimization and reduce psychological well-being in the aftermath of rape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  6. Components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with trichoderma sp. Tri-1 control sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. In two field trials conducted at the same location in consecutive years, a treatment containing formulated Trichoderma harzianum-1 (Tri-1) resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than...

  7. Mutation breeding of rape by using proton ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, J. S.; Chang, Y. S.; Han, S. G.; Choi, S. R.; Kim, J. S.

    2006-04-01

    This experiment was carried out by irradiation the proton ion beam and gamma-ray at level 100 to 2,000 Gy on dry seeds of 3 varieties, 'Naehan', 'Hanla' and 'Tammi' to increase the cultivation area and develope for biodiesel in rape (Brassica napus) and checked the radiosensitivity test including germination rate, emergence rate and chromosome aberration and the occurrence of morphological mutant in M1 generation. The germination rate and emergence rate were 98∼100% because they had no relation with radiation source, dosage and variety. There was no significance in survival rate up to 1,000 Gy dosage after sowing of 7 days and remarkably reduced from 39.5 to 69.6% at 1,500 to 2,000 Gy dosage. The length and area of cotyledon, and hypocotyl length were highly reduced with significance by increasing dosage of proton ion and gamma-irradiation in all 3 varieties and showed the sensitive responses on 'Naehan', 'Hanla' and 'Tammi' in order. By the way, there was a radiation hormesis in 'Tammi' by increasing the length and area of cotyledon in the proton ion treatment at 100∼200 Gy dosage compared to the control (no treatment). With the same effect, it had the similar results in the fresh weight of above-aerial parts in 3∼4 weeks after sowing

  8. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Pollen and Blossom Honey from Rape Seed Brassica Napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borutinskaitė Veronika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the study, honey from oilseed rape Brassica napus L., and both hand-collected (winter rape Visby and Cult and bee-collected pollen of oilseed rape were analyzed for their proteome content, in order to see if any plant proteins were present to allow the proteo-typing of the oilseed rape honey. Proteins were fractionated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE, stained by Coomassie blue and then analyzed by mass spectrometry. All identified proteins were divided into few groups due to their biological function. In 2DE gels with separated proteins from blossom honey, only bee (Apis mellifera main proteins (Major royal jelly protein 1-5 and Glucosidase were found. So we analyzed all proteins using gel-free based analysis with the SYNAPT G2 high definition mass spectrometry. We identified proteins that were present in both oilseed rape pollen and honey (Bna, Polygalacturonase, Non-specific lipid-transfer protein, GAPDH and others. We believe that these proteins are important for the nutritional value of plant pollen-enriched honey and further research is required on honey and honeybee pollen protein.

  10. Awareness of a rape crisis center and knowledge about sexual violence among high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sara H; Stark, Amrita K; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Lazebnik, Rina

    2015-02-01

    This study examined awareness among adolescents of a local rape crisis center as well as their knowledge about sexual violence. The Cleveland Rape Crisis Center (CRCC) conducts sexual violence prevention programs for high school students. A written, anonymous survey was distributed to students prior to the start of the program. Students were asked if they had heard of the CRCC; knowledge about sexual violence was assessed with a series of 7 statements (rape myths) that participants identified as true or false. Surveys were reviewed retrospectively. Analyses were carried out for individual questions and frequencies compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 1633 surveys were collected; 1118 (68.5%) participants were female and 514 (31.5%) were male; ages ranged from 12 to 19 years. Respondents described themselves as being of European descent (45.9%), African descent (26.2%), or mixed race (17.7%). Just over half (863, 52.9%) of survey respondents had heard of the CRCC. Over half (950, 58.2%) of participants answered 5 or more questions correctly (range of correct answers 0 to 7). In general, more participants who were aware of the CRCC were able to identify statements about rape correctly (P rape. Females were consistently more likely to get an answer correct, as were participants of European descent. Awareness of the CRCC was associated with increased knowledge about sexual violence. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Encouragement by Others Increase Rape Reporting? Findings from a National Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    Our study explores the role of victims' consultation with others about whether or not to report their rape to police. Three groups were observed within this sample of 435 rape victims from a national telephone household probability sample of women: those who did not consult with anyone about reporting (n = 364), those who consulted with someone and were encouraged to report to police (n = 40), and those who consulted with someone and were not encouraged to report (n = 31). Descriptive analyses indicated that the encouraged group was more likely to report to police than either of the other two groups (which did not differ from each other). Because there were no differences between the two consulting groups on demographic or rape-related variables, they were combined in subsequent analyses. Consulting with others about whether to report, peri-traumatic fear of injury or death, assault perpetration by a stranger, and concerns about contracting a sexually transmitted disease were significant predictors of reporting to police after controlling for other significant predictors in a multivariate regression analysis. Implications of these findings are discussed, including the benefits and consequences of formal rape reporting for victims, and the role that disclosure recipients may have in assisting victims post-rape (e.g., encouragement of reporting, emotional support). PMID:25431519

  12. Measurement Matters: Comparing Old and New Definitions of Rape in Federal Statistical Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierie, David M; Davis-Siegel, James C

    2015-10-01

    National statistics on the incidence of rape play an important role in the work of policymakers and academics. The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) have provided some of the most widely used and influential statistics on the incidence of rape across the United States over the past 80 years. The definition of rape used by UCR changed in 2012 to include substantially more types of sexual assault. This article draws on 20 years of data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System to describe the impact this definitional change will have on estimates of the incidence of rape and trends over time. Drawing on time series as well as panel random effects methodologies, we show that 40% of sexual assaults have been excluded by the prior definition and that the magnitude of this error has grown over time. However, the overall trend in rape over time (year-to-year change) was not substantially different when comparing events meeting the prior definition and the subgroups of sexual assault that will now be counted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Conscientious objection, barriers, and abortion in the case of rape: a study among physicians in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristião

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on mutagenic activity of 60Co γ-ray irradiated rape pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Weishun; Liu Aihua; Lin Shiying; Xiong Xikun

    1989-01-01

    In the present study on disinfection, the rape pollen was irradiated with 2.5 kGy 60 Co γ-ray. Micronuclei, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) of bone marrow cells and chromosomal aberrations of meiotic cells in mice were used as an indicater of chromosomal damage to study the mutagenicity of irradiated rape pollen. The results are as follows: (1) The frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes is 2.00 per mille; nucleated cells is 0.8 per mille in control group. In the numbers of polychromatic erythrocytes and nucleated cells with micronuclei, there is no obviously difference in irradiated and unirradiated groups. (2) SCE incidence of control group is 2.01 ± 0.12/cell. No significant difference in the frequency of SCE exists between non-irradiated rape pollen and the control groups. But the frequency of SCE in irradiated rape pollen group (3000 mg/kg/day x 7) is 2.36 ± 0.12/cell; high dose group (6000 mg/kg/day x 7) is 2.96 ± 0.14/cell. In comparison with control group, there is a significant difference. (3) The chromatid breaks, fragments, and univalents in primary spermatocytes have been obseved. The frequencies of chromosomal aberration showed no obviously difference among irradiated and non-irradiated rape pollen groups

  15. Predictors of sexual aggression in adolescents: Gender dominance vs. rape supportive attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Moyano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between sexual double standard and rape supportive attitudes in regard to an individual's likelihood to perpetrate sexual aggression. We examined an adolescent sample of 448 boys from Peru, of whom 148 (33.3% reported to have committed sexual aggression. Sexual contact with an unwilling partner was perpetrated by 24.8% of the total sample, sexual coercion by 14.3%, attempted rape by 12.5%, and finally, rape was perpetrated by 10.3%. In all these types of aggression, the most frequent victim was a dating partner. Compared to non-aggressors, male aggressors reported more sexual double standard and supportive attitudes towards rape. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the most relevant variable in the prediction of sexual aggression was the subject having been a victim of sexual abuse during adolescence and having rape supportive attitudes. Our findings suggest that violent attitudes are more important than the endorsement of non-egalitarian beliefs (sexual double standard in the perpetration of sexual violence. These findings provide data from Peru, which contribute to the worldwide data on risk factors for sexual aggression in adolescent males.

  16. In-utero cigarette smoke exposure and the risk of earlier menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honorato, Talita C; Haadsma, Maaike L; Land, Jolande A; Boezen, Marike H; Hoek, Annemieke; Groen, Henk

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for earlier menopause. Animal studies show that in-utero smoke exposure is toxic to developing ovaries. Our aim was to evaluate whether in-utero smoke exposed women reach menopause earlier compared with nonexposed women. METHODS: This is a cohort study

  17. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  18. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  19. Binge Drinking and Rape: A Prospective Examination of College Women with a History of Previous Sexual Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…

  20. Blaming the Victim and Exonerating the Perpetrator in Cases of Rape and Robbery: Is There a Double Standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieneck, Steffen; Krahe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research in legal decision making has demonstrated the tendency to blame the victim and exonerate the perpetrator of sexual assault. This study examined the hypothesis of a special leniency bias in rape cases by comparing them to cases of robbery. N = 288 participants received descriptions of rape and robbery of a female victim by a male…

  1. Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape in Relationship to Mental Health among a National Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a…

  2. Prevalence and pattern of rape among girls and women attending Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayi, Robsam S; Ezugwu, Euzebus C; Chigbu, Chibuike O; Arinze-Onyia, Susan U; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and pattern of rape in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. A prospective descriptive study was conducted among female survivors of rape who presented at the emergency gynecologic and/or forensic unit of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital between February 2012 and July 2013. Data were collected via a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Among 1374 gynecologic emergencies, there were 121 (8.8%) rape cases. The mean age of the rape survivors was 13.1±8.1 years. Ninety (74.4%) survivors were younger than 18 years. At least 72 hours had passed since the rape for 74 (61.2%) cases. The perpetrator was known to 74 (82.2%) patients younger than 18 years and 18 (58.1%) aged at least 18 years (P=0.013). The location of the rape was the bush or an uncompleted building for 36 (29.8%) and the perpetrator's residence for another 36 (29.8%). Four (3.3%) individuals became pregnant after the rape. A considerable proportion of patients with gynecologic emergencies had been raped. Individuals should be encouraged to report to the hospital quickly to prevent unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Rape Victims: A Comparison between Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Edna B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Assigned 45 rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to stress inoculation training (SIT), prolonged exposure (PE), supportive counseling, or wait-list. All conditions produced improvements on PTSD symptoms, rape-related distress, general anxiety, and depression. SIT produced significantly more improvement on PTSD symptoms than did…

  4. Plasticity of seed weight compensates reductions in seed number of oilseed rape in response to shading at flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labra Fernandez, Marcelo; Struik, Paul C.; Evers, Jochem B.; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the response of the number of seeds and seed weight to the availability of assimilates is crucial for designing breeding strategies aimed to increase seed and oil yield in oilseed rape. This study aims to answer the questions: i) do seed number and seed weight in oilseed rape differ

  5. Challenging women’s vulnerability : Feminist representations of rape in Sexto Sentido, a Nicaraguan soap opera for social change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Donzelli (Stefania)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers explanations of rape related to perceptions of women’s vulnerability and of men’s violence and strength as problematic, because of the limitations they impose on women’s agency. Under the framework of poststructuralist feminist politics of rape and politics of

  6. You reap what you sow - or do you? volunteers in organic row-sown and broadcast-sown oilseed rape fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Naja Steen; Rasmussen, Jesper; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    The frequency and origin of oilseed rape volunteers in organic row and broadcast-sown oilseed rape fields was evaluated using DNA markers (ISSR) for analysis of potential volunteers in nine organic oilseed rape fields with different history. Using the software AFLPOP, the potential volunteers wer...

  7. Traumatic dissociation as a predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder in South African female rape survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-04-01

    Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development.The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were completed to measure dissociation, childhood traumas, resilience, depression, and PTSD.Traumatic dissociation was a significant predictor of PTSD and depression. The linear combination of prior dissociation, current dissociation, and resilience significantly explained 20.7% of the variance in PTSD. Dissociation mediated the relationship between resilience and PTSD.As traumatic dissociation significantly predicts PTSD, its early identification and management may reduce the risk of developing PTSD. Interventions focused on promoting resilience may also be successful in reducing the risk of dissociation following rape.

  8. Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism: the Kobe Bryant case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franiuk, Renae; Seefelt, Jennifer L; Cepress, Sandy L; Vandello, Joseph A

    2008-03-01

    Two studies examine the prevalence and effects of rape myths in the print media covering a real-life case of alleged sexual assault. Study 1 was an archival study of 156 sources from around the country. Articles about the Kobe Bryant case were coded for instances of rape myths, among other variables. Of the articles, 65 mentioned at least one rape myth (with "she's lying" being the single most common myth perpetuated). Study 2 assessed participants' (N = 62) prior knowledge of the Bryant case and exposed them to a myth-endorsing or myth-challenging article about the case. Those exposed to the myth-endorsing article were more likely to believe that Bryant was not guilty and the alleged victim was lying. The implications for victim reporting and reducing sexual assault in general are discussed.

  9. Antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis in children and adolescents victims of rape in Abidjan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehui, E; Couitchéré, L S; Kouakou, G A; Doumbia, A; Kassi, A N; Mossou, C M; Guié, P Y; Eholié, S

    2015-08-01

    We described the use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV transmission among children and adolescents victims of rape in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study on children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years) victims of rape between 2000 and 2013. We analyzed the patients' socio-demographic characteristics and the modality of the chemoprophylaxis. We included 10 children and 89 adolescents in the study. The median age was 16 years old (3-19 years). The median time to consultation was 23.5 hours (5-152 hours). The antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis was administered to 92 patients (93%). No HIV and HBV seroconversion was observed after a 3-month follow-up. A better management of rape victims is required in Abidjan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in South African Female Rape Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development. The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were completed to measure dissociation, childhood traumas, resilience, depression, and PTSD. Traumatic dissociation was a significant predictor of PTSD and depression. The linear combination of prior dissociation, current dissociation, and resilience significantly explained 20.7% of the variance in PTSD. Dissociation mediated the relationship between resilience and PTSD. As traumatic dissociation significantly predicts PTSD, its early identification and management may reduce the risk of developing PTSD. Interventions focused on promoting resilience may also be successful in reducing the risk of dissociation following rape. PMID:25906104

  11. Studies on nitrogen uptake and utilization by rape (Brassica napus L.) under different sowing dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qixin; Nie Guangming

    1992-01-01

    The nitrogen uptake and utilization by low erucic acid variety, Zhong You Di Gai No.2, of rape (Brassica napus L.) under different sowing dates were studied. Total N uptake, the percentage N derived from the fertilizer, the rate of utilization of nitrogenous fertilizer, the production efficiency of N-fertilizer (seed yield g/gN derived by rape plant from the fertilizer), total P uptake and the production efficiency of phosphorus (seed yield g/gP derived by rape plant from fertilizer and soil) were all significantly higher at early sowing than that at later sowing within the range of normal sowing dates. Therefore, the biomass yield, the seed yield and oil content all increased significantly at early sowing treatment, but erucic acid content showed no significant difference

  12. The Role of Psychopathy and Exposure to Violence in Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola, Susanna; Meller-Prunska, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    The main aim of the present study was to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationships between four psychopathy dimensions (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behavior), childhood exposure to violence, and rape myth acceptance while controlling for gender, age, sample type (prisoner vs. non-prisoner), and relationship status. Participants were a sample of non-offending adults (n = 319) recruited from the University of Security in Poznan, and a sample of prisoners (n = 129) incarcerated in Stargard Szczecinski Prison. Results indicated that the model provided a good fit for the data, and that Callous Affect and childhood exposure to violence had a significant positive effect on attitudes toward rape and rape victims. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Authoritarian personality and rape sentence length in conservative and liberal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2009-06-01

    The author tested the claim that authoritarians desire exceptionally strong punishment for rapists. Given data on 55,966 felons sentenced in 32 U.S. states in 1986 for homicide, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, larceny, and drug offenses (D. A. Bowers & J. L. Waltman, 1993) and given state conservatism scores of 141,798 respondents to 122 1976-1988 CBS and The New York Times national telephone polls (R. Erikson, G. Wright, & J. McIver, 1993) as proxies for authoritarianism, regression analyses showed state conservatism accounted for 18.9%, F(1, 18) = 7.11, p < .01, of the rape sentence length variance when sentence lengths for the 7 other offenses were controlled for and 12.5%, F(1, 27) = 8.16, p < .01, with means substituted for missing data. In both analyses, state conservatism and rape sentence length were positively correlated.

  14. From arrest to sentencing: A comparative analysis of the criminal justice system processing for rape crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Domingues Vargas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article is intended to demonstrate the advantages of prioritizing an analysis of court caseload processing for a given type of crime and proceeding to a comparison of the results obtained from empirical studies in different countries. The article draws on a study I performed on rape cases tried by the court system in Campinas, São Paulo State, and the study by Gary LaFree on rape cases in the United States, based on data in Indianapolis, Indiana. The comparative analysis of determinants of victims' and law enforcement agencies' decisions concerning the pursuit of legal action proved to be productive, even when comparing two different systems of justice. This allowed greater knowledge of how the Brazilian criminal justice system operates, both in its capacity to identify, try, and punish sex offenders, and in terms of the importance it ascribes to formal legal rules in trying rape cases, in comparison to the American criminal justice system.

  15. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  16. Rape myth attitudes in rural Kenya: toward the development of a culturally relevant attitude scale and "blame index".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavrow, Paula; Withers, Mellissa; Obbuyi, Albert; Omollo, Vidalyne; Wu, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Rape myth attitudes (RMAs) can excuse men for rape, placing blame on female victims. This study identified and classified RMAs in rural western Kenya through 31 focus group discussions with youths and adults. We found that about half of the participants were likely to blame victims unconditionally. Stereotypes about rape victims and perpetrators were rife. Five of seven standardly used RMA categories emerged spontaneously in focus groups, along with a new category: "she owed him." Based on the data, we developed a "blame index" to assess the likelihood of community victim blaming in Kenya. To reduce victim blaming and bring about more prosecutions for rape, community education, teacher training, and reforms of rape laws are highly recommended.

  17. A brief report on rape myth acceptance: differences between police officers, law students, and psychology students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A common perception is that police officers hold very negative attitudes about rape victims. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to establish whether police officers do accept stereotypical rape myths at a higher level compared to members of other populations. There were 3 comparison samples, composed of police officers, law students, and psychology students, that completed the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale. Male and female police officers accepted "she lied" myths at a higher level than the student samples. Student samples were found to accept 2 types of rape myths ("she asked for it" and "he didn't meant to") at a higher level compared to police officers. No significant differences were found in the other 4 subfactors. Therefore, the pattern of results suggests that police officers do not adhere to stereotypical myths about rape victims more than do other populations.

  18. Risk factors for rape, physical assault, and posttraumatic stress disorder in women: examination of differential multivariate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, R; Resnick, H; Kilpatrick, D G; Saunders, B; Best, C L

    1999-01-01

    The National Women's Study, a 2-year, three-wave longitudinal investigation, employed a national probability sample of 3,006 adult women to: (a) identify separate risk factors for rape and physical assault, and (b) identify separate risk factors associated with post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-physical assault PTSD. This investigation differed from previous studies in that it prospectively examined risk factors at the multivariate, as opposed to univariate level. Overall, past victimization, young age, and a diagnosis of active PTSD increased women's risk of being raped. By contrast, past victimization, minority ethnic status, active depression, and drug use were associated with increased risk of being physically assaulted. Risk factors for PTSD following rape included a history of depression, alcohol abuse, or experienced injury during the rape. However, risk factors for PTSD following physical assault included only a history of depression and lower education.

  19. Sexuality, substance use, and susceptibility to victimization: risk for rape and sexual coercion in a prospective study of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Coates, Aubrey A; Gaffey, Kathryn J; Johnson, Carrie F

    2008-12-01

    An 8-month prospective study examined behavioral, personality, and psychological variables thought to increase vulnerability for college women's experience of rape and verbal sexual coercion. Participants were 276 college women who completed self-report surveys. During 1 academic year, 9.5% of women were raped and 11.7% reported verbal sexual coercion. Elevated levels of sexual concerns, dysfunctional sexual behavior, and impaired self-reference were associated with both verbal sexual coercion and rape. Alcohol and marijuana use increased risk only for rape, whereas self-criticism and depression increased risk only for verbal coercion. Findings suggest that multiple aspects of sexuality, such as shame regarding sexuality and using sex to meet nonsexual needs, may increase risk for both types of sexual victimization. Results support conclusions that rape and verbal sexual coercion have both shared and unique risk factors. Implications for future research and intervention programs are discussed.

  20. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  1. Statements by non-UBA experts on the 'Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)' in its wording of September 28, 1992. Annex to UBA-Texte 4/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This annex to ''Publications of the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), No. 4/93'' contains eleven statements by experts regarding the agency's report ''Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel'' of October/November 1992. Scientific research institutions, associations and groups representing the interests of the sectors of industry concerned have their say. (UWA) [de

  2. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape.

  3. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Flower Fraction in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF and Flower Fraction (FF in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. The results showed that the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARIgreen worked most accurately for estimating VF in flower-free samples with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 3.56%, while the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2 was the best in flower-containing samples with an RMSE of 5.65%. Based on reflectance in green and NIR bands, a technique was developed to identify whether a sample contained flowers and then to choose automatically the appropriate algorithm for its VF estimation. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate FF in oilseed rape. No significant correlation was observed between VI and FF when soil was visible in the sensor’s field of view. Reflectance at 550 nm worked well for FF estimation with coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.6. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with RMSE below 6%.

  4. Assessing the impact of mass rape on the incidence of HIV in conflict-affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supervie, Virginie; Halima, Yasmin; Blower, Sally

    2010-11-27

    To quantify the potential impact of mass rape on HIV incidence in seven conflict-afflicted countries (CACs), with severe HIV epidemics, in sub-Saharan Africa. Uncertainty analysis of a risk equation model. A mathematical model was used to evaluate the potential impact of mass rape on increasing HIV incidence in women and girls in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, southern Sudan and Uganda. The model was parameterized with data from UNAIDS/WHO and the US Census Bureau's International Database. Incidence data from UNAIDS/WHO were used for calibration. Mass rape could cause approximately five HIV infections per 100,000 females per year in the DRC, Sudan, Somalia and Sierra Leone, double the number in Burundi and Rwanda, and quadruple the number in Uganda. The number of females infected per year due to mass rape is likely to be relatively low in Somalia and Sierra Leone at 127 [median (interquartile range [IQR] 55-254)] and 156 [median (IQR 69-305)], respectively. Numbers could be high in the DRC and Uganda: 1120 [median (IQR 527-2360)] and 2172 [median (IQR 1031-4668)], respectively. In Burundi, Rwanda and Sudan, the numbers are likely to be intermediate. Under extreme conditions, 10,000 women and girls could be infected per year in the DRC and 20 000 women and girls could be infected per year in Uganda. Mass rape could increase annual incidence by approximately 7% [median (IQR 3-15)]. Interventions and treatment targeted to rape survivors during armed conflicts could reduce HIV incidence. Support should be provided both on the basis of human rights and public health.

  5. Immediate and Long-Term Mental Health Outcomes in Adolescent Female Rape Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshodi, Yewande; Macharia, Muiruri; Lachman, Anusha; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-12-01

    Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often has long-lasting health consequences. Compared with adult females, limited data exist on the psychological impact of rape in adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of emotional distress in a cohort of adolescent rape survivors in Cape Town. Participants in this prospective longitudinal study were 31 adolescent female rape survivors recruited from a rape clinic in Cape Town and assessed within 2 weeks of the assault. Assessment measures included a sociodemographic questionnaire and initial screening with the Child and Adolescent Trauma Survey (CATS), the patient-rated Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). The CATS, CDI, and MASC were repeated at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post enrollment. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the clinician-administered Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Child and Adolescent version (MINI-Kid). At baseline, on the MINI-Kid, a definitive diagnosis of major depressive episode was endorsed in 22.6% of the participants. Stress-related disorders were found in 12.9%, whereas 16.1% had anxiety disorders. There was no diminution of symptoms on self-reported psychopathology measures at follow-up assessment over the five follow-up time points, suggesting persistent psychopathology over a 1-year period despite repeated clinical assessments and supportive counseling. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in this sample of adolescent female rape survivors were high at enrollment and found to be persistent, underlining the need for long-term support, screening, and evidence-based follow-up care.

  6. Prevalence of rape-related pregnancy as an indication for abortion at two urban family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rachel; Zimmerman, Lindsay; Al-Saden, Iman; Fatima, Aisha; Cowett, Allison; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    We sought to estimate the prevalence of rape-related pregnancy as an indication for abortion at two public Chicago facilities and to describe demographic and clinical correlates of women who terminated rape-related pregnancies. We performed a cross-sectional study of women obtaining abortion at the Center for Reproductive Health (CRH) at University of Illinois Health Sciences Center and Reproductive Health Services (RHS) at John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital between August 2009 and August 2013. Gestational age limits at CRH and RHS were 23+6 and 13+6weeks, respectively. We estimated the prevalence of rape-related pregnancy based on billing code (CRH) or data from an administrative database (RHS), and examined relationships between rape-related pregnancy and demographic and clinical variables. Included were 19,465 visits for abortion. The majority of patients were Black (85.6%). Prevalence of abortion for rape-related pregnancy was 1.9%, and was higher at CRH (6.9%) than RHS (1.5%). Later gestational age was associated with abortion for rape-related pregnancy (median 12days, prape-related pregnancy at CRH only (prape-related pregnancy than among those terminating for other indications. Rape-related pregnancy as an indication for abortion had a low, but clinically significant prevalence at two urban Chicago family planning centers. Later gestational age was associated with abortion for rape-related pregnancy. Rape-related pregnancy may occur with higher prevalence among some subgroups of women seeking abortion than others. Efforts to address rape-related pregnancy in the abortion care setting are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. "Rape Culture" language and the news media: contested versus non-contested cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April COBOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The American news media has recently reported on several rape and sexual assault cases in various cultural settings, sparking public conversations about rape culture in different cultural contexts. The article is focused as a Critical Discourse Analysis that compares the language use in news articles from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal over a six months period in order to more clearly understand the way the news media uses language in regards to gender and sexual assault and creates a spectrum of valid versus contested reports of sexual assault in different cultural settings.

  8. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... females) to B. campestris resulted in a much lower seed set, average 0.7 seed per pollination. In the single backcross progeny where a large enough population (92 plants) was obtained for analysis, 33 B. napus specific RAPD markers were investigated to determine the extent of transfer of oilseed rape...

  9. Sleep difficulties and alcohol use motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishith, P; Resick, P A; Mueser, K T

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between sleep difficulties and drinking motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-four participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep difficulties, and drinking motives. Results demonstrated that neither PTSD symptoms nor depression were related to any motives for using alcohol. On the other hand, after controlling for education, sleep difficulties were significantly related to drinking motives for coping with negative affect, but not pleasure enhancement or socialization. The findings suggest that sleep difficulties may be an important factor contributing to alcohol use in rape victims with PTSD.

  10. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  11. Polymorphism in ficolin-1 ( FCN1 ) gene is associated with an earlier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -1 (FCN1) gene is associated with an earlier onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents from northeast Brazil. ZILMA PEREIRA DOS ANJOSA MANUELLA MARIA SILVA SANTOS NATASSIA JAVORSKI RODRIGUES ...

  12. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    In species where chloroplast inheritance is exclusively or predominantly maternal, pollen-mediated flow of transgenes is reduced if transgenes are inserted in chloroplast DNA instead of nuclear DNA. However, transmission of chloroplast-encoded transgeneswill still occur if transgenic individuals ...... affected the thousand-kernel weight significantly. It was concluded that further introgression of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape to B. rapa is mostlikely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed....

  13. Relationship between single and multiple perpetrator rape perpetration in South Africa: A comparison of risk factors in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Jewkes; Y, Sikweyiya; K, Dunkle; R, Morrell

    2015-07-07

    Studies of rape of women seldom distinguish between men's participation in acts of single and multiple perpetrator rape. Multiple perpetrator rape (MPR) occurs globally with serious consequences for women. In South Africa it is a cultural practice with defined circumstances in which it commonly occurs. Prevention requires an understanding of whether it is a context specific intensification of single perpetrator rape, or a distinctly different practice of different men. This paper aims to address this question. We conducted a cross-sectional household study with a multi-stage, randomly selected sample of 1686 men aged 18-49 who completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. We attempted to fit an ordered logistic regression model for factors associated with rape perpetration. 27.6 % of men had raped and 8.8 % had perpetrated multiple perpetrator rape (MPR). Thus 31.9 % of men who had ever raped had done so with other perpetrators. An ordered regression model was fitted, showing that the same associated factors, albeit at higher prevalence, are associated with SPR and MPR. Multiple perpetrator rape appears as an intensified form of single perpetrator rape, rather than a different form of rape. Prevention approaches need to be mainstreamed among young men.

  14. A system justification view of sexual violence: legitimizing gender inequality and reduced moral outrage are connected to greater rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Rape is a pervasive social problem that causes serious physical and psychological repercussions. Rape victims' recovery is often complicated by the public's failure to believe the victim and restore justice. This study applied system justification theory to examine whether the justification of gender inequality is related to moral outrage (an emotional precursor to corrective action) and rape myth acceptance; we also examined whether rape myth acceptance is associated with moral outrage at injustice. Results showed that gender-specific system justification correlated with less moral outrage at human suffering as well as greater rape myth acceptance. The relationships between these variables were similar for men and for women, a finding that suggests that rape myths are system justifying for women. When we controlled for gender-specific system justification, rape myth acceptance correlated with less moral outrage. Results are discussed in the context of how legitimizing ideologies reduce moral outrage at injustice and perpetuate a system of sexual violence.

  15. The Effects of Feminist Mobilization and Women's Status on Universities' Reporting of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kaitlin M.; Barr, Ashley; Clay-Warner, Jody

    2017-01-01

    When establishing the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault, President Obama reminded universities of their obligation to report accurate rape statistics to the Department of Education. Research has not determined, on a national scale, what factors explain variation in (under)reporting. Using data from 413 top…

  16. Sexual violence in the protracted conflict of DRC programming for rape survivors in South Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz K Peter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area.

  17. Interventions to Reduce Distress in Adult Victims of Rape and Sexual Violence: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Alaggia, Ramona; Dennis, Jane; Pitts, Annabel; Saini, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing distress in adult victims of rape and sexual violence. Method: Studies were eligible for the review if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Results:…

  18. Sexual violence in the protracted conflict of DRC programming for rape survivors in South Kivu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Birthe; Benner, Marie T; Sondorp, Egbert; Schmitz, K Peter; Mesmer, Ursula; Rosenberger, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area. PMID:19284879

  19. Fear of rape: its perceived seriousness and likelihood among young Greek women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softas-nall, B; Bardos, A; Fakinos, M

    1995-06-01

    This paper examines the magnitude and prevalence of fear of crime as a function of seriousness and probability of occurrence among Greek female university students aged 17-29 years. The findings show that rape is the most fear producing of all offenses in young Greek women. Fear of rape is even greater than fear of murder, robbery, threat with a dangerous object, and other serious crimes. Consequently, Greek women distance themselves from possible sources of danger; thus, most of them are deprived of some of their basic freedoms. This finding is interpreted in light of rape's reported likelihood in conjunction with its reported seriousness. The findings are similar to those reported in other countries and in line with the feminist claim regarding the universality of the fear of rape in the daily life of young women. Explanations of high fear in terms of physical and social vulnerability and as a possible reflection of hidden violence against Greek women are also included in the discussion.

  20. Questioning the Question: How can a husband rape his wife? : A Discussion in an International Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Nicole Walquist

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I assume that upon reading this you already have some reaction or answer. I have one, too. The interesting part is that they can be very different. Some people think along the lines of “Yes, I can't imagine how a husband can rape his wife because that is so cruel.” Other people may think something like “Yes, how is this even possible, that a husband having sex with his wife could be considered rape.” These views are quite different, and it is this difference that interests me.In this essay, I will reflect upon the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I will discuss my personal background, and describe the situation and experience in which this question was brought up. Next, I will discuss various reflections I have had about this difference. I will then reflect on how this idea, or even the definitions of the terms, may be based on a person’s culture, gender, and/or opinions. After that, I will look at how this topic may affect social workers, service users and social work as a profession. Lastly, I will also explain how this has helped me gain a better understanding of this issue.

  1. Collateral Damage Related to Rape and Interpersonal Violence in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Collegiate communities are often faced with difficult situations from sexual assault, rape, and other forms of interpersonal violence. These events are not only tragic or traumatic for the individuals involved but also have ripple effects and create collateral damage within the campus community. Many universities are instituting bystander training…

  2. Self-Blame in Rape Victims: A Control-Maintenance Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie

    Two types of self-blame were investigated: characterological self-blame, corresponding to the popular negative view of self-blame; and behavioral self-blame, representing a positive attempt to reestablish a belief in control. Results of a questionnaire completed by rape crisis centers located across the country attest to the pervasiveness of…

  3. Sexual specificity, rape law reform and the feminist quest for justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The few possible advantages of a gender neutral approach to rape are offset by a series of disadvantages regarding gender justice when viewed from a feminist perspective. Formal gender neutrality does not safeguard against the effective influence of pervasive and enduring symbolic constructions pertaining to male and ...

  4. Rape-related cognitive distortions: Preliminary findings on the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the important focus on the notion of cognitive distortions in the sexual offending area, the relevance of underlying cognitive schemas in sexual offenders has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and cognitive distortions in rapists. A total of 33 men convicted for rape completed the Bumby Rape Scale (BRS), the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short form-3 (YSQ-S3), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Results showed a significant relationship between the impaired limits schematic domain and the Justifying Rape dimension of the BRS. Specifically, after controlling for psychological distress levels and social desirability tendency, the entitlement/grandiosity schema from the impaired limits domain was a significant predictor of cognitive distortions related to Justifying Rape themes. Overall, despite preliminary, there is some evidence that the Young's Schema-Focused model namely the impaired limits dimension may contribute for the conceptualization of cognitive distortions in rapists and further investigation is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sorority Women's and Fraternity Men's Rape Myth Acceptance and Bystander Intervention Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, R. Sean; Brosi, Matthew W.; Foubert, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Sorority women and fraternity men are more likely than other students to be survivors and perpetrators of sexual assault, respectively. The present study examined sorority and fraternity members' rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and bystander willingness to help in potential sexual assault situations. Sorority women were more rejecting of…

  6. The Effect of Music Videos on College Students' Perceptions of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Melinda C. R.; Burpo, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of sexualized portrayals of female artists in music videos on college students' perceptions of date rape. 132 college students were randomly assigned to view a music video that contained either high or low levels of sexuality and sexual objectification and were then asked to rate the guilt of the male in a scenario…

  7. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  8. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of the Revictimization of Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…

  9. Substance Use and PTSD Symptoms Impact the Likelihood of Rape and Revictimization in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Ward, Rose Marie; Brown, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study utilized a mixed retrospective and prospective design with an 8-month follow-up period to test a model of revictimization that included multiple childhood (i.e., child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse) and situational variables (i.e., substance use, sexual behavior) for predicting rape among 276 college women. It was of…

  10. Biowaste-derived hydrolysates as plant disease suppressants for oilseed rape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Barbora; Burketová, Lenka; Montoneri, E.; Francavilla, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 183, MAY 10 (2018), s. 335-342 ISSN 0959-6526 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14056 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Biogas digestate * Compost * Induced resistance * Leptosphaeria maculans * Oilseed rape Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.715, year: 2016

  11. Rising cases of rape offences in Nigeria: new measures to the rescue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before now the offence of rape in Nigeria was an isolated incident. It occurred once in a while and when it did it was greeted with incredulity and surprise. However, despite the fact that the offence carries a life term imprisonment, it has now become a daily occurrence Nigeria. It seems that the law as it is, is incapable of ...

  12. Ethical problems of rape as a social cankerworm in our present day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is essentially library researched while incorporating internet sources using expository and phenomenological designs. It is discovered that the perpetrators of rape in Nigeria cut across all age brackets involving security personnel, close associates, and even relations all caught up in the crime. The paper submits ...

  13. Judge grants defendant leniency because of risk of rape in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-26

    A gay man convicted of larceny and having a history of sexual abuse has escaped incarceration and was placed on probation because his appearance and mannerism would make him a target for rape. The argument that the defendant's HIV infection would endanger others if he were released was rejected by the judge because no evidence suggested the defendant exhibited harmful behavior to others.

  14. Rape as a legal indication for abortion: implications and consequences of the medical examination requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, K I; Smith, C Hord

    2004-01-01

    A number of countries adopt abortion laws recognizing rape as a legal ground for access to safe abortion service. As rape is a crime, these abortion laws carry with them criminal and health care elements that in turn result in the involvement of legal and medical expertise. The most common objective of the laws should be providing safe abortion services to women survivors of rape. Depending on purposes of a given abortion law, the laws usually require women to undergo a medical examination to qualify for a legal abortion. Some abortion laws are so vague as to result in uncertainties regarding the steps health personnel must follow in conducting medical examination. Another group of abortion laws do not leave room for regulation and remain too rigid to respond to changing socio-economic circumstances. Still others require medical examination as a prerequisite for abortion. As a result, a number of abortion laws remain on the books. The paper attempts to analyze legal and practical issues related to medical examination in rape cases.

  15. The epidemiology of physical attack and rape among crack-using women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, R S; Wang, J; Carlson, R G; Siegal, H A

    2001-02-01

    This prospective study examines the epidemiology of physical attack and rape among a sample of 171 not-in-treatment, crack-cocaine using women. Since initiating crack use, 62% of the women reported suffering a physical attack. The annual rate of victimization by physical attack was 45%. Overall, more than half of the victims sought medical care subsequent to an attack. The prevalence of rape since crack use was initiated was 32%, and the annual rate was 11%. Among those women having been raped since they initiated crack use, 83% reported they were high on crack when the crime occurred as were an estimated 57% of the perpetrators. Logistic regression analyses showed that duration of crack use, arrest for prostitution, and some college education were predictors of having experienced a physical attack. Duration of crack use and a history of prostitution were predictors of suffering a rape. Drug abuse treatment programs must be sensitive to high levels of violence victimization experienced by crack-cocaine using women. Screening women for victimization, and treating the problems that emanate from it, may help make drug abuse treatment more effective.

  16. Reducing Rape-Myth Acceptance in Male College Students: A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Stephen A.; Hartlaub, Mark G.

    1998-01-01

    Studies evaluating interventions designed to reduce rape-supportive beliefs are examined to identify effective strategies. Searches were conducted on several databases from 1980 to present. Results indicate that human-sexuality courses, workshops, video interventions, and other formats appear to be successful strategies, although these…

  17. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  18. Randomized Controlled Evaluation of an Early Intervention to Prevent Post-Rape Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Waldrop, Angela E.; King, Lynda; King, Daniel; Danielson, Carla; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2007-01-01

    A randomized between-group design was used to evaluate efficacy of a video intervention to reduce PTSD and other mental health problems, implemented prior to the forensic medical exam conducted within 72 hours post-sexual assault. Participants were 140 female victims of sexual assault (68 video/72 nonvideo) ages 15 or older. Assessments were targeted for 6 weeks (Time 1) and 6 months (Time 2) post-assault. At Time 1, the intervention was associated with lower scores on measures of PTSD and depression among women with prior rape history relative to scores among women with prior rape history in the standard care condition. At Time 2, depression scores were also lower among those with a prior history who were in the video relative to standard care condition. Small effects indicating higher PTSD and BAI scores among women without a prior history in the video condition were observed at Time 1. Accelerated longitudinal growth curve analysis indicated a video x prior rape history interaction for PTSD, yielding four patterns of symptom trajectory over time. Women with a prior rape history in the video condition generally maintained the lowest level of symptoms. PMID:17585872

  19. Thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues using thermogravimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yuzhu Chen; Feng Li

    2017-01-01

    The thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues with respect to liquefaction condition and pyrolysis conversion were investigated using a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer at the heating rates of 5, 20, 50 °C min-1. The hemicellulose decomposition peak was absent at the derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG...

  20. Rape myth acceptance and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault: An internet experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohner, G.; Danner, U.; Siebler, F.; Samson, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    Processing strategies in risk assessment were studied in an Internet experiment. Women (N = 399) who were either low or high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) were asked to recall either two or six behaviors that either increase or decrease the risk of being sexually assaulted. Later they judged their

  1. Persistence of seeds from crops of conventional and herbicide tolerant oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutman, Peter J W; Berry, Kate; Payne, Roger W; Simpson, Euan; Sweet, Jeremy B; Champion, Gillian T; May, Mike J; Wightman, Pat; Walker, Kerr; Lainsbury, Martin

    2005-09-22

    A series of rotation experiments at five sites over four years has explored the environmental and agronomic implications of growing herbicide tolerant oilseed rape and sugar beet. This paper reports on the population dynamics of volunteer rape (Brassica napus). The experiments compared four winter oilseed rape (WOSR) cultivars: a conventional cultivar (Apex) and three developmental cultivars either genetically modified (GM) to be tolerant to glyphosate or glufosinate, or conventionally bred to be tolerant to herbicides of the imidazolinone group. Seed losses at harvest averaged 3575 seeds m(-2) but ranged from less than 2000 up to more than 10000 seeds m(-2). There was a rapid decline in seed numbers during the first few months after harvest, resulting in a mean loss of seeds of 60%. In subsequent seasons, the seedbank declined much more slowly at four of the five sites (ca 20% per year) and the models predicted 95% seed loss after approximately 9 years. Seed decline was much faster at the fifth site. There were no clear differences between the four cultivars in either the numbers of seeds shed at harvest or in their subsequent persistence. The importance of the persistence of GM rape seeds, in the context of the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops and the role of good management practices that minimize seed persistence, are discussed.

  2. Examining Sex Differences in Altering Attitudes About Rape: A Test of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Intervention sought to improve first-year college students' attitudes about rape. Used the Elaboration Likelihood Model to examine men's and women's attitude change process. Found numerous sex differences in ways men and women experienced and changed during and after intervention. Women's attitude showed more lasting change while men's was more…

  3. Salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in adolescent rape victims with post traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Postma, Riemke M.; Sinnema, Gerben; de Roos, Carlijn; Olff, Miranda; van Wesel, Floryt; van de Putte, Elise M.

    2013-01-01

    In chronic sexual abuse victims with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated. In single rape victims, PTSD symptoms are hypothesized to function as a chronic stressor leading to similar HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of the

  4. In vitro selection of rape variants resistant to oxalic acid using haploid stem apexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yifei; Huang Jianhua; Lu Ruiju; Sun Yuefang; Zhou Runmei; Zhou Zhijiang; Xie Zhujie; Liu Chenghong

    2002-01-01

    Mutagenic treatment was made of the haploid stem apexes rape strain '9841' and '9885' with Pingyangmycin. As a result of positive selection with oxalic acid providing selection pressure, variants with significantly higher tolerance to oxalic acid than the original ones were obtained. 3 germplasm with significantly higher resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than cultivar Hu You 12 were selected from field test

  5. The health, mental health, and well-being benefits of rape crisis counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmarland, Nicole; Alderson, Sue

    2013-11-01

    There is very little research on interventions to alleviate the distress experienced following rape. This action research project developed and piloted the "Taking Back Control" tool that measured the impact of rape crisis counseling over time. Five rape crisis centers in the North of England agreed to pilot the tool, which was administered by the client's counselor, either on Week 1 or 2, and then repeated every 6 weeks until the end of counseling. Eighty-seven clients completed at least two questionnaires. This allowed us to measure change from their first compared with their last data collection point. The most change was made in relation to the statement "I feel empowered and in control of my life," where 61% strongly/disagreed at the first data collection point compared with 31% at the last data collection point. Large shifts were also seen in relation to "I have 'flashbacks' about what happened" and "I have panic attacks." Overall, some degree of positive change was seen for all measures. This research, despite some limitations, begins to develop an evidence base for rape crisis centers to demonstrate their benefits and to assess and develop their own practice.

  6. Nutritional value of seed rape meal in relation to different processing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurang-Zeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1990-01-01

    Rat bioassays were conducted to study the effects of different processing methods on the nutritive value of rape seed meal. Treatments given to rape seed were irradiation alone, irradiation + autoclaving, irradiation + dry heating and sprouting. Results revealed that feeding rape seed as the sole source of dietary protein resulted in severe weight loss with control as well as all the treated samples. However, replacing half the maintenance level protein with wheat resulted in remarkable improvement in the nutritional quality of meal. There were weigh gains in all the groups. Weight gains were 32.15, 20.06, 17.36, 34.00, 19.93 and 26.27 g/rat in casein, control, sprouting, radiation, radiation + heat and radiation + autoclving groups, respectively. Protein efficiency ratios (PER) when adjusted to casein, were 2.10 for radiation + autoclaving and 2.03 for sprouting. Protein digestibility ranged from 92.68 to 96.79% among all the rape seed groups as compared to 97.77% for casein. Among organs, heart weight was influenced most by different diets (0.43 to 0.48% of body weight), while differences in weights of lungs, liver, spleen and kidney were negligible. (author)

  7. The Influence of Gender Ideology, Victim Resistance, and Spiking a Drink on Acquaintance Rape Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Smith, Danielle

    2016-02-24

    The current study examined observer's attributions about the victim and perpetrator of an alleged acquaintance rape. Participants included 504 college students from a public university in the northeastern United States who read a brief crime report and completed a series of questionnaires for course credit. While men tended to attribute more blame to the victim than women, gender ideology emerged as a stronger predictor of rape attributions, and some types of sexist beliefs were associated with greater victim blaming and others with less victim blaming. Endorsement of hostile sexism, rape myths, and heterosexual intimacy was generally associated with the attribution of greater victim culpability, as well as less perpetrator culpability, perpetrator criminality, and victim credibility. However, complementary gender differentiation was associated with greater perpetrator culpability and criminality, while protective paternalism was associated with greater victim credibility. Observers attributed lower victim culpability and greater perpetrator criminality when the victim's drink was spiked, and attributed greater perpetrator culpability when the victim verbally resisted the perpetrator's advances. Given the implications that observer attitudes can have on professional and personal support for survivors, as well as juror decision making, the ongoing examination of the complex interplay between the person and situational factors affecting attributions of rape is essential. Sexual assault prevention programs may also benefit from a psychoeducational component that targets reducing traditional gender ideology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Medico-legal findings, legal case progression, and outcomes in South African rape cases: retrospective review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771, 14% (209 of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31 of adults and 7% (44 of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22 of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87-18.13, p = 0.003. In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14-34.3, p = 0

  9. Optimization Analysis on Parameters of Cleaning Sieve of Rape Combine of "Bi Lang 4LZ(Y)-1.0"

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Mingliang; Tang Lun; Guan Chunyun; Tang Chuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Against the phenomenon of high impurity rate and cane and pod shell are difficult to discharge at the end of the sieve for rape combine of "Bi Lang 4LZ(Y)-1.0". This study take cleaning sieve of rape combine of "Bi Lang 4LZ(Y)-1.0" as study object, analyzed the movement of materials on sieve, established the virtual prototype model of the cleaning sieve of this rape combine, taken materials and cleaning sieve all at the best motion state as constraint conditions and optimized the structure an...

  10. A rapid appraisal of the status of mental health support in post-rape care services in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the well-known impact of rape on mental health and the widespread problem of rape in South Africa, mental health services for rape victims are scant and not a priority for acute-phase services. Survivors encounter multiple mental health struggles in this period including adherence to the post-exposure prophylaxis drugs to prevent HIV and finding support from important others. We have little information on what mental health is provided, by whom and how it is integrated into the post-rape package of care. Aim: The aim of the study was to do a rapid appraisal of mental health services for rape survivors to gain a better understanding of the current acute and long-term (secondary mental health services. Method: We conducted a qualitative study using a rapid assessment with a purposive sample of 14 rape survivors and 43 service providers recruited from post-rape sexual assault services in urban and rural Western Cape Province. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and observations of survivor sessions with counsellors, nurses and doctors. The data were coded thematically for analysis. Results: Survivors of rape experienced a range of emotional difficulties and presented varying levels of distress and various levels of coping. Receiving support and care from others assisted them, but the poor integration of mental health within post-rape services meant few received formal mental health support or effective referrals. Multiple factors contributed to the poor integration: mental health was not given the same level of priority as other rape services (i.e. clinical care, including forensic management, the inadequate capacity of service providers to provide mental healthcare, including mental health illiteracy, the lack of continuity of care, the poor linkages to ongoing mental healthcare, and the mental health challenges caused by vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue. Conclusion: Providing effective

  11. Factors Associated With Follow-Up Attendance Among Rape Victims Seen in Acute Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Doyanne; Peterson, Roselyn; Berliner, Lucy; Stewart, Terri; Russo, Joan; Whiteside, Lauren; Zatzick, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Rape is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related comorbidities. Most victims do not obtain treatment for these conditions. Acute care medical settings are well positioned to link patients to services; however, difficulty engaging victims and low attendance at provided follow-up appointments is well documented. Identifying factors associated with follow-up can inform engagement and linkage strategies. Administrative, patient self-report, and provider observational data from Harborview Medical Center were combined for the analysis. Using logistic regression, we examined factors associated with follow-up health service utilization after seeking services for rape in the emergency department. Of the 521 diverse female (n = 476) and male (n = 45) rape victims, 28% attended the recommended medical/counseling follow-up appointment. In the final (adjusted) logistic regression model, having a developmental or other disability (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.77), having a current mental illness (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.13-0.49), and being assaulted in public (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28-0.87) were uniquely associated with reduced odds of attending the follow-up. Having a prior mental health condition (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.86-4.91), a completed Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner's (SANE) examination (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.84-4.81), and social support available to help cope with the assault (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = 1.76-7.11) were associated with an increased odds of attending the follow-up. Findings point to relevant characteristics ascertained at the acute care medical visit for rape that may be used to identify victims less likely to obtain posttraumatic medical and mental health services. Efforts to improve service linkage for these patients is warranted and may require alternative service delivery models that engage rape survivors and support posttraumatic recovery.

  12. A family study of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder following rape trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J R; Tupler, L A; Wilson, W H; Connor, K M

    1998-01-01

    There is evidence that familial factors serve as determinants of risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), especially familial anxiety. This study investigates the relationship between chronic PTSD and family psychiatric morbidity. The sample was drawn from 81 female rape survivors with or without lifetime PTSD, 31 major depressive disorder controls, 20 anxiety disorder controls and 39 healthy controls. First-degree family members were directly interviewed (n = 285) and diagnoses assigned of major depressive, anxiety and alcohol or substance use disorder. Information was also available by family history for 639 relatives. In the directly interviewed sample, no consistently increased morbidity risk was observed for anxiety, PTSD, or alcohol/substance abuse in the rape survivor groups, but there was an increase in depression relative to the anxiety in healthy control groups. When comorbid depression in rape survivor probands was taken into account post hoc, an increased risk for depression was noted in family members of PTSD probands with depression, but not in relatives of PTSD probands without lifetime depression. Among rape survivor probands with non-comorbid PTSD, rates by history of familial anxiety and depression were negligible. In a logistic regression analysis, individual vulnerability to depression served as an independent predictor of chronic PTSD, along with specific trauma-related variables. In the family history group, results were consistent with those obtained from the directly interviewed group. Our findings clearly support the view that PTSD following rape is associated with familial vulnerability to major depression, which may thus serve as a risk factor for developing PTSD. The exact nature of this predisposition calls for further inquiry and there is a need to expand this study to include other PTSD populations. PTSD may on occasion represent a form of depression which is induced and/or modified neurobiologically and phenomenologically by

  13. Biological consequences of earlier snowmelt from desert dust deposition in alpine landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltzer, Heidi; Landry, Chris; Painter, Thomas H; Anderson, Justin; Ayres, Edward

    2009-07-14

    Dust deposition to mountain snow cover, which has increased since the late 19(th) century, accelerates the rate of snowmelt by increasing the solar radiation absorbed by the snowpack. Snowmelt occurs earlier, but is decoupled from seasonal warming. Climate warming advances the timing of snowmelt and early season phenological events (e.g., the onset of greening and flowering); however, earlier snowmelt without warmer temperatures may have a different effect on phenology. Here, we report the results of a set of snowmelt manipulations in which radiation-absorbing fabric and the addition and removal of dust from the surface of the snowpack advanced or delayed snowmelt in the alpine tundra. These changes in the timing of snowmelt were superimposed on a system where the timing of snowmelt varies with topography and has been affected by increased dust loading. At the community level, phenology exhibited a threshold response to the timing of snowmelt. Greening and flowering were delayed before seasonal warming, after which there was a linear relationship between the date of snowmelt and the timing of phenological events. Consequently, the effects of earlier snowmelt on phenology differed in relation to topography, which resulted in increasing synchronicity in phenology across the alpine landscape with increasingly earlier snowmelt. The consequences of earlier snowmelt from increased dust deposition differ from climate warming and include delayed phenology, leading to synchronized growth and flowering across the landscape and the opportunity for altered species interactions, landscape-scale gene flow via pollination, and nutrient cycling.

  14. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.

  15. Earlier Right Ventricular Pacing in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for a Patient with Right Axis Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo

    2017-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.

  16. The role of rape tactics in risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: results from a national sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2010-08-01

    College women are at high risk for substance-involved rape. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape and have not differentiated these tactics from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of lifetime exposure to forcible rape (FR), incapacitated rape (IR), and drug-alcohol facilitated rape (DAFR) tactics on risk for PTSD and depression. A secondary purpose was to examine the role of different incident characteristics, including relationship to the perpetrator, fear, injury, force, memory, and acknowledgement. A national sample of 2,000 college women completed structured telephone interviews assessing demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, and rape experiences. Multivariate logistic regression analyses including demographic variables, multiple rape history, and rape tactics indicated that all three tactics were associated with increased risk for PTSD and depression. Correlational analyses revealed that rape tactics differed in relation to incident characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only physical injury was positively associated with depression and no characteristics were related to PTSD. The strong association between IR/DAFR and psychiatric diagnoses suggests that the definition of rape experiences be expanded to include substance-involved tactics. Differing incident characteristics imply that IR/DAFR experiences are associated with different pathways to psychiatric symptoms in comparison to FR experiences. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Nondestructive determination of nutritional information in oilseed rape leaves using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Fei, [No Value; Nie PengCheng, [No Value; Huang Min, [No Value; Kong WenWen, [No Value; He Yong, [No Value

    Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content are the three most important nutritional parameters for growing oilseed rape. We investigated visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for the fast and nondestructive determination of nutritional information in oilseed

  18. “A most detestable crime”. Representations of Rape in the Popular Press of Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In early modern England the legal definition of rape underwent an important revision and gradually, from crime against property, rape became a crime against the person. While reflecting the classical, medieval and biblical assumptions, the period brought about new concerns. The purpose of this article is to explore representations of rape in a variety of popular texts of the English early modern period, by focussing attention on broadside ballads, cheap pamphlets as well as accounts of trials that took place at the Old Bailey. These texts constitute valuable sources of information about people’s attitudes and beliefs and help us construct the views of rape circulating in early modern English culture.

  19. Headline violence and silenced pleasure: contested framings of consensual sex, power and rape in Delhi, India 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Emme; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-05-01

    Though coercion and rape have cast a persistent shadow over prospects of sexual health and consent in contemporary India, other narratives, agency and tools are quietly emerging to transform collective claims of power and bodily dignity. In these narratives from collectives, NGOs, on social media and among friends, dialogues about consent and pleasure feature prominently. This paper analyses statements in the news made by highly visible political and public figures regarding the subject of rape in the context of themes emerging from ethnography and semi-structured interviews with middle class people in Delhi. Using the device of social frameworks, contested framings of rape and consent are examined in order to interrogate essentialist gender norms, compare putative "causes" of rape, and highlight local efforts promoting sexual consent, health and well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Smoking is associated with earlier time to revision of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Tat; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Harris, Alex H S; Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Maloney, William J; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is associated with early postoperative complications, increased length of hospital stay, and an increased risk of revision after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of smoking on time to revision TKA is unknown. A total of 619 primary TKAs referred to an academic tertiary center for revision TKA were retrospectively stratified according to the patient smoking status. Smoking status was then analyzed for associations with time to revision TKA using a Chi square test. The association was also analyzed according to the indication for revision TKA. Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to non-smokers (274/357, 77%, p=0.031). Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to ex-smokers (168/221, 76%, p=0.028). Subgroup analysis did not reveal a difference in indication for revision TKA (p>0.05). Smokers are at increased risk of earlier revision TKA when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. The risk for ex-smokers was similar to that of non-smokers. Smoking appears to have an all-or-none effect on earlier revision TKA as patients who smoked more did not have higher risk of early revision TKA. These results highlight the need for clinicians to urge patients not to begin smoking and encourage smokers to quit smoking prior to primary TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Family history of atrial fibrillation is associated with earlier-onset and more symptomatic atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, Anna; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We addressed whether patients with a family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) were diagnosed as having AF earlier in life, were more symptomatic, and had worse outcomes compared with those without a family history of AF. METHODS: Using the ORBIT-AF, we compared symptoms and disease...

  2. Optimal HIV testing and earlier care: the way forward in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coenen, T; Lundgren, J; Lazarus, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The articles in this supplement were developed from a recent pan-European conference entitled 'HIV in Europe 2007: Working together for optimal testing and earlier care', which took place on 26-27 November in Brussels, Belgium. The conference, organized by a multidisciplinary group of experts rep...

  3. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H.; Mooij, Thea M.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Verhoef, Senno; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Adank, Muriel A.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Doorn, Helena C.; van Os, Theo A.; Bos, Anna M.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ausems, Margreet G.

    Objective: It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature.

  4. Earlier activity from XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 detected by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Beckmann, V.; Kuulkers, E.

    2008-01-01

    The recently reported outburst from the supergiant fast X-ray transient XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 (ATEL #1466) began already about five hours earlier than the Swift/BAT trigger on 2008-04-08. The INTEGRAL/JEM-X monitor detected a flare starting at 16:18 (UTC) on the same day during recent Gal...

  5. Use of metformin earlier in pregnancy predicts supplemental insulin therapy in women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Rachel T; Glastras, Sarah J; Hocking, Samantha; Fulcher, Gregory R

    2016-06-01

    The use of metformin in gestational diabetes is safe and effective, yet some women require additional insulin therapy to achieve glycaemic targets. We found a significant association between earlier gestational age at initiation of metformin therapy and the necessity for supplemental insulin in women treated with metformin during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accumulation of selenium and assessment of the microelements contents in rape spring on meadow-black soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermokhin, Yu.I.; Sindireva, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative correlation was installed as a result of work between arrival of the selenium on meadow-black soil and contents of this element in green mass of the rape spring. Correlation between the contents of Se and Cd, Ni, Zn in green mass at the rape spring was studied. In this article the assessment of the microelements contents depending on doses and methods of using selenium is offered

  7. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Schulze

    Full Text Available Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto. The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  8. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  9. Cardiac Complications, Earlier Treatment, and Initial Disease Severity in Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Joseph Y; Belay, Ermias D; Uehara, Ritei; Maddox, Ryan A; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2017-09-01

    To assess if observed higher observed risks of cardiac complications for patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) treated earlier may reflect bias due to confounding from initial disease severity, as opposed to any negative effect of earlier treatment. We used data from Japanese nationwide KD surveys from 1997 to 2004. Receipt of additional intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (data available all years) or any additional treatment (available for 2003-2004) were assessed as proxies for initial disease severity. We determined associations between earlier or later IVIG treatment (defined as receipt of IVIG on days 1-4 vs days 5-10 of illness) and cardiac complications by stratifying by receipt of additional treatment or by using logistic modeling to control for the effect of receiving additional treatment. A total of 48 310 patients with KD were included in the analysis. In unadjusted analysis, earlier IVIG treatment was associated with a higher risk for 4 categories of cardiac complications, including all major cardiac complications (risk ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.15). Stratifying by receipt of additional treatment removed this association, and earlier IVIG treatment became protective against all major cardiac complications when controlling for any additional treatment in logistic regressions (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00). Observed higher risks of cardiac complications among patients with KD receiving IVIG treatment on days 1-4 of the illness are most likely due to underlying higher initial disease severity, and patients with KD should continue to be treated with IVIG as early as possible. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Attrition and Rape Case Characteristics: A Profile and Comparison of Female Sex Workers and Non-Sex Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Susan J; Callaghan, Lynne; Grafton, Iain; Falcone, M Aurora; Shaw, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The attrition of rape cases from the criminal justice system (CJS) remains high and there is a paucity of research in relation to marginalized groups. Sex workers (SWs) are vulnerable to sexual violence due to the nature of their work. They are also unlikely to report such violence to police for a range of reasons. Two stages of research sought to describe the victim, perpetrator, and offense characteristics of SW rape and to examine the attrition of these cases. All rapes and attempted rapes (N = 1,146) reported to police in a large city in the South West of England over a 21-year period were examined; 67 cases involved SWs. Data were extracted from police files in line with the variables of interest. Secondary analysis of the total number of SW rapes (n = 67) resulted in a profile of these cases. A matched pairs study revealed significant differences in victim, perpetrator, and assault characteristics between SW (n = 62) and non-sex-worker (NSW) samples (n = 62). Although no significant difference was found in terms of attrition from the CJS, SW cases were observed to secure more convictions for rape than NSW cases. The implications of the findings for practice and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Uptake of soil-, foliar-and pod-applied nitrogen and phosphorus by rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinzheng; Xi Haifu; Lang Xianhua

    1992-01-01

    Uptake of soil-applied and foliar-and pod applied N, P by rape was studied by using 32 P and 15 N labelled fertilizer under pot culture condition. Application of phosphorus fertilizer to purplish clayey paddy soil which was poor in available P had influence on utilization of basal-dressed NH 4 HCO 3 by rape and subsequently on its growth and seed yield. Utilization rate of applied N in whole plant and seeds were 3.66 and 5.13 fold respectively as compared with control when 187.5 kg/ha of superphosphate were applied and increased with increasing application of superphosphate (187.5-562.5 kg/ha). Application of P fertilizer not only increased uptake of N but also promoted transportation of N from vegetative organs to seeds. Rape plant uptook 69.09% of foliar-and pod-applied N in form of 2% solution of urea after flowering and transported the N to seeds in greater proportion than that of soil-applied N. In the same period, 60% of foliar- and pod-applied P in form of 0.2% KH 2 PO 4 was absorbed by rape plant, most of which was in leaves. Uptake of N and P by rape increased 17.89% and 27.78% respectively when urea and phosphate was applied together compared with using urea and phosphate alone. Uptake of basal-dressed P by rape plant was 6% at early growing stage

  12. Judge me, judge me not: The role of eye size and observer gender on acquaintance rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Clara Ferrão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of eye size and observer gender on perceived initial attraction, honesty, and attributions of responsibility for rape. A 3 (eye size: small vs. normal vs. large x 2 (observer gender: female vs. male experimental design was tested. Ninety participants (45 women and 45 men observed one of three randomly assigned female faces (with eye size manipulation, and rated initial attraction and honesty. They were then asked to read an acquaintance rape scenario with a traditional woman, rating the victim and perpetrator responsibility. Eye size was shown to affect all the study variables: the female face with large eyes was seen as more attractive and honest, was held less responsible for her own victimization, and the offender was held more responsible. Gender was proven to affect perceived initial attraction and victim responsibility. Theoretical and práctical implications were discussed.

  13. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  14. Rape Survivors' Experiences of the Silent Protest: Implications for Promoting Healing and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhanunni, Anita; Edwards, David

    2016-05-01

    This article examines the experiences of nine rape survivors who participated in the Silent Protest, an annual protest march at Rhodes University that aims to highlight the sexual abuse of women, validate the harm done, and foster solidarity among survivors. Participants responded to a semi-structured interview focusing on the context of their rape and its impact, and their experiences of participation in the Protest In the first phase of data analysis, synoptic case narratives were written. In the second, themes from participants' experience were identified using interpretative phenomenological analysis. In the third, the data were examined in light of questions around the extent to which participation contributed to healing. Participants reported experiences of validation and empowerment but the majority were suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. In some cases, participation had exacerbated self-blame and avoidant coping. Recommendations are made about the provision of psychoeducation and counseling at such events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The linkage between secondary victimization by law enforcement and rape case outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that almost half of rape victims are treated by law enforcement in ways that they experience as upsetting (termed secondary victimization). However, it remains unknown why some victims have negative experiences with law enforcement and others do not. The purpose of this study is to explore victims' experiences with secondary victimization by detectives, comparing how these experiences vary in cases that were ultimately prosecuted by the criminal justice system to those that were not prosecuted. A total of 20 rape victims are interviewed within one county. The study uses grounded theory qualitative analysis, which showed that participants whose cases were eventually prosecuted described the detectives' treatment toward them considerably different than participants with nonprosecuted cases. The study findings further show that victims with cases that were not prosecuted primarily described their detectives as engaging in secondary victimization behaviors and that victims with cases that were ultimately prosecuted primarily described their detectives as responding compassionately toward them.

  16. Effects of Field Conditions on Emergence of Oilseed Rape Seed lots Grown in Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yanegh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen irrigated farms of canola from six cities of Khorasan selected to assess the seedling emergence one month after sowing in 2009. Soil texture of each farm determined using the Hydrometer method. The results showed that weather conditions of sowing areas had no significant effect on emergence of oilseed rape. With increasing the temperature (within the range of 19.5 to 21.5 ˚C emergence percentage was not increased significantly. Rainfall also caused no significant effect on seedling emergence. The percentage of emergence in machine-sowing and hand-sowing were 38.4% and 28%, respectively. Soils with loam silt, silt clay loam and loam texture had emergence of 27.2%, 31.2% and 47% respectively. It seems soil texture plays a great roll on the emergence of oilseed rape with epigeal seedlings.

  17. X Views and Counting: Interest in Rape-Oriented Pornography as Gendered Microaggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, David A; Morczek, Amber L

    2016-07-01

    Academics and activists called to attention decades prior the importance of identifying, analyzing, and tracking the transmission of attitudes, behaviors, and norms correlated with violence against women. A specific call to attention reflected the media as a mode of transmission. This research builds on prior studies of media, with an emphasis on Internet search queries. Using Google search data, for the period 2004 to 2012, this research provides regional analysis of associated interest in rape-oriented pornography and pornographic hubs. Results indicate minor regional variations in interest, including the use of "BDSM" or "bondage/discipline, dominance/submission, and sadomasochism" as a foundational query for use in trend analysis. Interest in rape-oriented pornography by way of pornographic hubs is discussed in the context of microaggression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  19. Induction and selection of superior genetic variables of oil seed rape (brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.S.; Ali, I.; Rehman, K.

    1990-01-01

    Dry and uniform seeds of two rape seed varieties, Ganyou-5 and Tower, were subjected to different doses of gamma rays. Genetic variation in yield and yield components generated in M1 was studied in M2 and 30 useful variants were isolated from a large magnetized population. The selected mutants were progeny tested for stability of the characters in M3. Only five out of 30 progenies were identified to be uniform and stable. Further selection was made in the segregating m3 progenies. Results on some of the promising mutants are reported. The effect of irradiation treatment was highly pronounced on pod length, seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. The genetic changes thus induced would help to evolve high yielding versions of different rape seed varieties under local environmental conditions. (author)

  20. The adoption of sustainable innovations: The role of instrumental, environmental, and symbolic attributes for earlier and later adopters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Noppers, E.; Keizer, K.; Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated motivations of potential earlier and later adopters for adopting sustainable innovations. A large questionnaire study revealed that potential earlier adopters of innovative cars evaluated the symbolic attributes of electric cars, but not the instrumental and environmental attributes,

  1. Reduction of Glucose Metabolism in Olfactory Bulb is an Earlier Alzheimer's Disease-related Biomarker in 5XFAD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-An Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The decline of (18F-FDG uptake in the olfactory bulb occurs earlier than other incidents, serving as an earlier in vivo biological marker of AD in 5XFAD mice and making early diagnosis of AD possibly.

  2. Rape phosphatide concentrate in the technologies of surfactants production by the Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koretska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Due to the fact that the production of microbial surfactants is limited by the low yield of end products and high cost of processes, the actual task is to optimize and reduce the cost of the technology of biosurfactants synthesis. One of the solutions of this problem is to use the industrial wastes, including rape phosphatide concentrate (PC. Materials and methods. Hexadecane and rape phosphatide concentrate (2% were used as a carbon source in a nutrient medium for the cultivation of bacteria. Lipids were extracted from a cell mass and supernatant by the mixture of chloroform-methanol 2:1. The qualitative analysis of metabolites was performed by a thin layer chromatography. Results and discussion. The peculiarities of synthesis of biosurfactants by strains G. rubripertincta UCM Aс-122 and R. erythropolis Au-1 during the growth on the nutrient media with rape phosphatide concentrate as a carbon source was studied. Quantity of biomass was 9.4 – 10.1 g/l, exopoly mers –8.9-9.5 g/l and the content of cellbound trehalose lipids was 1.37 – 2.26 g/l; whereas the content of exogenous trehalose lipids –metabolites of R. erythropolis Au-1 was 2.95 g/l. It was found that the addition of trehalose lipids (0.01 g/l to the nutrient medium caused the increase of biomass on 14.6 –17.0 % and cell-bound lipids on 13.9 –15.5 %. Conclusions. Rape phosphatide concentrate is economically viable carbon source in the technologies of surfactant production by Actinobacteria. Its use promotes an increasing of exogenous surfactants strain R. erythropolisAu-1 in 3-fold compared with cultivation on nutrient medium with hexadecane. Trehalose lipids show a stimulating effect on growth and synthesis of biosurfactants by strains of G. rubripertincta UCM Ac-122 and R. erythropolisAu-1.

  3. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  4. Sleep Difficulties and Alcohol Use Motives in Female Rape Victims With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishith, Pallavi; Resick, Patricia A.; Mueser, Kim T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between sleep difficulties and drinking motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-four participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep difficulties, and drinking motives. Results demonstrated that neither PTSD symptoms nor depression were related to any motives for using alcohol. On the other hand, after controlling for education, sleep difficulties were significantly related to dr...

  5. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar; Albin Gunnarson; Fredrik Hansson; Anders Jonsson

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to plantin...

  6. The image of the family among the victims of rape in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Bouzidi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic clinic research showed that a highly traumatic event, such as rape, is able to upset the balance of the victim and her family. Indeed, as a result of rape, feeling like the shame, the guilt and the inability to cope with the each other’s gaze arise among families of the victims, particularly in some cultural contexts as is the case in Algeria. We recorded attitudes as the refusal and family abandonment among families of the victims, which made them more vulnerable and urged them to develop a chronic PTSD. It seems, in fact, that the negative attitudes of families are the cause of great suffering for the victims.  This is the finding that we made during our clinical work with a dozen victims of rape in Algeria. In this article, I try to identify and analyze, through the dreamlike stories provided by only three of these victims, in our clinical meetings, the multi-faceted or even images related to the representation of the family circle in the context of trauma.                                                                              Keywords: Rape, Victim, Family, Algerian Girl, Dream, Speech, Clinical Interview.

  7. Genital Responses to Rape Vignettes Among Young Men: The Influence of Mood and Directed Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumière, Martin L; Fairweather, Annabree; Harris, Grant T; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Seto, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Although it is clear that men with a history of sexual assaults against women produce higher relative genital responses to rape vignettes in the laboratory than do men without such a history, it remains unclear what aspects of the vignettes are eliciting these responses, and whether the genital responses are affected by situational factors. The antisocial tendencies hypothesis states that many men are inhibited by cues of violence, suffering, and coercion in rape vignettes, but other men, particularly antisocial and sexually aggressive men, are not so inhibited. In this study, we investigated whether the hypothesized inhibition to rape vignettes among nonoffenders could be affected by manipulation of mood and directed attention. A total of 48 young men were exposed to audio-recorded vignettes describing mutually consenting and nonviolent sexual interactions, mutually consenting and violent sexual interactions, nonconsenting and violent sexual interactions, and nonsexual and nonviolent social interactions (within-subjects). Participants were randomly assigned to a mood manipulation designed to induce a happy, neutral, or sad mood (between-subjects). All were asked to pay attention to either sex words or violent words while listening to the vignettes (within-subjects). As is typically observed, genital responses were lower (inhibited) when vignettes included cues of violence or nonconsent. Both happy and sad mood inductions reduced this inhibition, so that men induced into a happy or sad mood showed greater relative responding to cues of violence or nonconsent compared with men in a neutral mood. The attention manipulation had no significant effect. Results suggest that genital responses to rape cues can be situationally influenced, but not necessarily as predicted by the antisocial tendencies hypothesis.

  8. Rape Myth Acceptance at the US Air Force Academy: A Preliminary Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    was cited as, “contributing to an environment that tolerates sexual misconduct” and its climate as marred with ongoing sexual harassment (Fowler et...briefing the day prior to this survey about sexual assault to include definitions of unwanted sexual contact, harassment , rape, etc., and an...or man’s role in a sexual situation that may lead to assault. This form only addresses women as the victims of assault and men as the perpetrators

  9. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  10. Evaluation of the safety of the operating nuclear power plants built to earlier standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menteseoglu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide practical assistance on judging the safety of a nuclear power plant, on the basis of a comparison with current safety standards and operational practices. For nuclear power plants built to earlier standards for which there are questions about the adequacy of the maintenance of the plant design and operational practices, a safety review against current standards and practices can be considered a high priority. The objective of reviewing nuclear power plants built to earlier standards against current standards and practices is to determine whether there are any deviations which would have an impact on plant safety. The safety significance of the issues identified should be judged according to their implications for plant design and operation in terms of basic safety concepts such as defence in depth and safety culture. In addition, this paper provides assistance on the prioritization of corrective measures and their implementation so as to approach an acceptable level of safety

  11. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  13. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ihsan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Demirci, Selim; Altiparmak, Emin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most important etilogical factors of HCC. In this case report, a patient with HCC previously infected and having ongoing immunity against hepatitis B virus will be discussed. Ates I, Kaplan M, Demirci S, Altiparmak E. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):82-83.

  14. Perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds during speech categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilp, Christian E; Assgari, Ashley A

    2018-02-28

    Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F 1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F 1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization. This obscures the lower limit of perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds, i.e., when SCEs begin to bias speech categorization. Listeners categorized vowels (/ɪ/-/ɛ/, Experiment 1) or consonants (/d/-/g/, Experiment 2) following a context sentence with little spectral amplification (+1 to +4 dB) in frequency regions known to produce SCEs. In both experiments, +3 and +4 dB amplification in key frequency regions of the context produced SCEs, but lesser amplification was insufficient to bias performance. This establishes a lower limit of perceptual sensitivity where spectral differences across sounds can bias subsequent speech categorization. These results are consistent with proposed adaptation-based mechanisms that potentially underlie SCEs in auditory perception. Recent sounds can change what speech sounds we hear later. This can occur when the average frequency composition of earlier sounds differs from that of later sounds, biasing how they are perceived. These "spectral contrast effects" are widely observed when sounds' frequency compositions differ substantially. We reveal the lower limit of these effects, as +3 dB amplification of key frequency regions in earlier sounds was enough to bias categorization of the following vowel or consonant sound. Speech categorization being biased by very small spectral differences across sounds suggests that spectral contrast effects occur

  15. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissman

    2015-12-01

    Discussion: The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders.

  16. Oilseed rape in energetic circle; Uljana repica u energetsko proizvodnom krugu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliestic, S; Kricka, T [Agronomski fakultet, Zavod za poljoprivrednu tehnologiju, skladistenje i transport, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    The usage of methyl-ester (biofuel) on the basis of oilseed rape in some countries of West Europe is investigated as energy source, and a few years ago was in experimental application. Oilseed rape is one of the major oilseed crops intended for the production of methyl-ester, especially for internal combustion engines. But, except for primary methyl-ester, secondary produces are: 1. Oil cakes or crushed oil seeds - usage value is enormous, especially if it is used as a feed for all livestock categories. 2. Oilseed rape hay -its use as a means of energy source is gaining in importance. 3. Remains of the plant are used for activating the soil fauna and improving the whole soil structure. New `00` cultivars have high - quality oil and improved meal quality; also, then have reduced amount of glucosinolates - below 5 mmol/g, and ERUCA acid, which enabled their use as feed in serve quantity. (author). 5 tabs., 2 figs., 7 refs.

  17. Rape and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis: addressing the dual epidemics in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Julia C; Martin, Lorna J; Denny, Lynette

    2003-11-01

    In South Africa, a country notable for both a rapidly escalating AIDS epidemic and high levels of sexual violence, the issue of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following rape has recently come to the fore, and a policy supporting provision of PEP has been approved by the national government. This paper compares the conditions for providing PEP in Europe and North America with the conditions faced by two initiatives in South Africa, one serving a primarily rural base, and one urban. It is based on a review of the literature on sexual violence in South Africa and use of PEP following occupational and non-occupational exposure. It incorporates perspectives from in-depth interviews in 2000 with 18 key informants, including survivors of sexual violence, gender and HIV activists, domestic violence NGOs, rape crisis centres, physicians, lawyers, researchers and HIV/AIDS advisors in the Department of Health. The paper argues that given the scientific evidence for PEP, and the nature of the dual epidemics of HIV and sexual violence in South Africa, the public health and social justice rationale for implementing PEP equals and indeed exceeds that put forward in industrialised countries. However, delays in accessing PEP caused by the public justice system and lack of training for service providers constitute significant obstacles to effective implementation. In this respect, provision of PEP presents an opportunity to reform and strengthen existing services for post-rape care and to link attention to the epidemic of sexual violence to HIV/AIDS prevention.

  18. Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus supplier to cereals and oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of meat and bone meal (MBM on cultivation of winter triticale, winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and maize. The average annual yields and protein yield achieved in crop rotation were studied. The field trials were carried out in north-eastern Poland in 2006–2010. The factor was dose of MBM: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 year-1 or 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 t ha-1 every other year. The four-year experiment has proven that MBM is a valuable nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer in cultivation of cereals and oilseed rape. By amendment of the tested meal into the soil it produced crop yield and protein yield similar to that achieved by mineral fertilization. However, the crude fat yield of rape was significantly higher under the influence of all the MBM doses. The yield-stimulating effect of MBM did not depend on the frequency of its application; therefore it is more convenient to apply it once every two years. Increasing MBM from 1.5 to 2.5 t ha-1 did not significantly increase any of the four crop yields, therefore for soils that had satisfactory nutrients content, 1 or 1.5 t ha-1 MBM is enough and increasing MBM will only increase economic burden for farmers and environmental risks.

  19. Influence of top dressing on yield and seed quality components of oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is an agronomically important species grown for seed that contains 40-48% oil and 18-25% proteins. Oilseed rape has high demands for nitrogen. The research was performed on four varieties of oilseed rape (Banaćanka, Valeska, Slavica and Express developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, during vegetative seasons 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. During vegetation, top dressing was applied with different amounts of KAN: control (0 kg N ha-1, 50 kg N ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1, 150 kg N ha-1 and the N quantity determination were performed applying the balancing method (also known as N-min method. Yield, 1000-seed weight, seed germination, oil and protein content were determined after harvest. Yield and seed germination depended on seed production year. 1000-seed weight depended on seed production year and genotype. Oil and protein content in seed depended on production year, genotype and amount of the N-fertilizer applied by top dressing.

  20. The effect of phytohormones on the 133Cs and 88Sr accumulation in oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Mengluo; Xu Changhe; Li Xinlei; Wang Dan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of uptake and distribution of 133 Cs and 88 Sr in the common plant-India mustard (Brassica napus L.) by exogenous phytohormones (Gibberelin-A 3 GA 3 , Salicylates, SA, 3-indole acetic acid, IAA) treatments were studied by using hydroponic experiment. The results shown as follows: the biomass of above-ground and that of roots of oilseed rape were obviously higher than that of contrary (non-hormone), and the accumulation of 133 Cs and 88 Sr increased as well, under the three phytohormones treatments. The distribution sequence of 133 Cs and 88 Sr in oilseed rape was roots>above-grounds, and the contents was 1 3 3 Cs> 88 Sr. The accumulation ability of phytohormones was GA>SA>IAA, the accumulation of 133 Cs or 88 Sr increased with the phytohormone concentration. The treatment of mid-level of Gibberelin-A 3 (500 mg/L) and Salicylates acid (500 μmol/L) increased the biomass, enrichment and the translocation factors under the low concentration of 133 Cs and 88 Sr stress (1 mmol/L). Therefore, the phyto-extraction efficiency was enhanced in oilseed rape by using exogenous phytohormones. (authors)

  1. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Quality Characteristic and Microbiological Safety of Rape (Brassica napus) Pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Jeong, Su-Ji; Kim, Dam; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kwang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This study is carried out to sanitize rape (Brassica napus) pollen by gamma irradiation. Rape pollens were treated with 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy gamma irradiations, and then analyzed for the following: general composition, microbial population, reducing sugar, Hunter color values, TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values, and VBN (volatile basic nitrogen). Mold and coliform bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 5 kGy or more. Yeasts and total aerobic bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 10 kGy or more (102 CFU/g). Moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrate, reducing sugar and the contents of volatile basic nitrogen in the irradiated pollen did not show any significant changes by irradiation. Hunter color values, L, a and b values were decreased with increment of irradiation dose. TBARS values were increased with an increment of irradiation dose. In conclusion, gamma irradiation at 5 kGy was considered to be an effective treatment to control for mycotoxin producing fungi in rape pollen to minimize changes of general composition and physicochemical properties. Further studies should be investigated to reduce the detrimental effects induced by irradiation

  2. Hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation of rape straw. Cofermentation of pentoses and hexoses by Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Linares, J.C.; Cara-Corpas, C.; Ruiz-Ramos, E.; Moya-Vilar, M.; Castro-Galiano, E.; Romero-Pulido, I.

    2015-07-01

    Bioconversion of hemicellulose sugars is essential for increasing fuel ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass. We report for the first time with rape straw, bioethanol production from hemicellulose sugars. Rape straw was pretreated at mild conditions with sulfuric acid to solubilize the hemicellulose fraction. This pretreatment allows obtaining a prehydrolysate, consisting basically in a solution of monomeric hemicellulosic sugars, with low inhibitor concentrations. The remaining water insoluble solid constitutes a cellulose-enriched, free of extractives material. The influence of temperature (120ºC and 130ºC), acid concentration (2-4% w/v) and pretreatment time (30-180 min) on hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation was evaluated. The highest hemicellulosic sugars recovery, 72.3%, was achieved at 130ºC with 2% sulfuric acid and 60 min. At these conditions, a concentrated sugars solution, 52.4 g/L, was obtained after three acid consecutive contacts, with 67% xylose and acetic acid concentration above 4.5 g/L. After a detoxification step by activated charcoal or ion-exchange resin, prehydrolysate was fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli. An alcoholic solution of 25 g/L and 86% of theoretical ethanol yield was attained after 144 h when the prehydrolysate was detoxified by ion-exchange resin. The results obtained in the present work show sulfuric acid pretreatment under mild conditions and E. coli as an interesting process to exploit hemicellulosic sugars in rape straw. (Author)

  3. Incapacitated and forcible rape of college women: prevalence across the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kate B; Durney, Sarah E; Shepardson, Robyn L; Carey, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the point and cumulative prevalence of incapacitated rape (IR) and forcible rape (FR) among first-year college women. Female students (N = 483) completed a health questionnaire (1) on arrival on campus; (2) at the end of the fall semester; (3) at the end of the spring semester; and (4) at the end of the summer following their first year of college. Before entering college, 18% reported IR (attempted and/or completed), and 15% reported FR (attempted and/or completed). During the first year of college, 15% reported IR (attempted or completed) and 9% reported FR (attempted or completed). By the start of the second year (lifetime prevalence), 26% and 22% had experienced IR and FR (attempted or completed), respectively. Both incapacitated and forcible sexual assaults and rape have reached epidemic levels among college women. Interventions to address sexual violence on campus are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of strontium stress on antioxidant characteristics of oilseed rape seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Jia; Tang Yunlai; Chen Mei; An Bing; Wang Dan; Tao Yang

    2010-01-01

    Seedlings of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were treated with different concentration of Sr 2+ (0, 10, 20, 40 mmol/L SrCl 2 ) for 0, 7, 14, 21 days under quartz sand and Hoagland solution culture, and the antioxidant characteristics and Sr 2+ accumulation of seedling were investigated. Rape seedlings showed high accumulation capacity for strontium, especial the leaves. But the accumulation capacity declined with the increasing of Sr 2+ concentration. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the increasing of Sr 2+ concentration and then declined with the extention of the stress time. The activity of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) declined with the increasing of the Sr 2+ accumulation capacity. This study showed that oilseed rape had a very high strontium-tolerant and strontium-uptake capacity, and leaf was the organ that accumulates most of strontium. The accumulation capacity and activity of CAT, POD exhibited a significantly-negative correlation. (authors)

  5. An audit of competency assessments on court-referred rape survivors in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Anthony L

    2008-12-01

    This report concerns rape survivors with mental retardation referred by the courts for evaluation of their competencies to (i) provide testimony in court and (ii) consent to sexual intercourse. Being a relatively new area of work in South Africa, it seems important to document findings to (i) examine the challenges facing such rape survivors, (ii) inform quality improvement in this forensic mental health task, and (iii) inform and support advocacy programmes for this vulnerable group. Of 106 rape survivors referred by courts over a 3-yr. period, 91.5% were females, 21.7% were under 16 years of age, and over two-thirds were from rural communities. In 77.4% of the cases the alleged perpetrators were people they had previously seen in the community but had not befriended. Almost 80% were classified as showing Moderate or Severe Mental Retardation, and over 90% were able to testify. However, almost two-thirds were not able to make an informed decision to consent to sexual intercourse.

  6. Application of Hyperspectral Imaging to Detect Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Kong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging covering the spectral range of 384–1034 nm combined with chemometric methods was used to detect Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SS on oilseed rape stems by two sample sets (60 healthy and 60 infected stems for each set. Second derivative spectra and PCA loadings were used to select the optimal wavelengths. Discriminant models were built and compared to detect SS on oilseed rape stems, including partial least squares-discriminant analysis, radial basis function neural network, support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The discriminant models using full spectra and optimal wavelengths showed good performance with classification accuracies of over 80% for the calibration and prediction set. Comparing all developed models, the optimal classification accuracies of the calibration and prediction set were over 90%. The similarity of selected optimal wavelengths also indicated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to detect SS on oilseed rape stems. The results indicated that hyperspectral imaging could be used as a fast, non-destructive and reliable technique to detect plant diseases on stems.

  7. Hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation of rape straw. Cofermentation of pentoses and hexoses by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lopez-Linares

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulose sugars is essential for increasing fuel ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass. We report for the first time with rape straw, bioethanol production from hemicellulose sugars. Rape straw was pretreated at mild conditions with sulfuric acid to solubilize the hemicellulose fraction. This pretreatment allows obtaining a prehydrolysate, consisting basically in a solution of monomeric hemicellulosic sugars, with low inhibitor concentrations. The remaining water insoluble solid constitutes a cellulose-enriched, free of extractives material. The influence of temperature (120ºC and 130ºC, acid concentration (2-4% w/v and pretreatment time (30-180 min on hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation was evaluated. The highest hemicellulosic sugars recovery, 72.3%, was achieved at 130ºC with 2% sulfuric acid and 60 min. At these conditions, a concentrated sugars solution, 52.4 g/L, was obtained after three acid consecutive contacts, with 67% xylose and acetic acid concentration above 4.5 g/L. After a detoxification step by activated charcoal or ion-exchange resin, prehydrolysate was fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli. An alcoholic solution of 25 g/L and 86% of theoretical ethanol yield was attained after 144 h when the prehydrolysate was detoxified by ion-exchange resin. The results obtained in the present work show sulfuric acid pretreatment under mild conditions and E. coli as an interesting process to exploit hemicellulosic sugars in rape straw.

  8. Impacts of adding different components of wood vinegar on rape (Brassica napus L.) seed germiantion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xue; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Qian

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, wood vinegar has been widely used in the agricultural production. It can be used as the soil amendment, antibacterial agent and organic fertilizer. This study investigated the effect of wood vinegar on rape (Brassica napus L.) seed germination. The results in this study showed that 1% (v/v) wood vinegar had the greatest inhibition effect on the seed germination of rape (Brassica napus L.). The wood vinegar (WV) and the distilled wood vinegar at 98 - 130 °C (D2) significantly inhibited seed germination by 100%, compared to the control treatment. However, the distilled wood vinegar (D1) had significantly increased the shoot length and root length by 58.4% and 31.7%, respectively. These positive effects could be attributed to the improved soil fertility, increased nutrient supply, and further stimulated plant growth. Overall, the D1 could be a promising soil amendment to promote plants growth and enhance crop yields. Effect of adding different components of distilled wood vinegar on the seed germination of rape

  9. RAPE CASES: GENRE AND RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF CONTROVERSIAL MALAYSIAN LEGAL JUDGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kachru and Smith (2008 emphasize that effectual communication in the context in which different varieties of world English are used, entails awareness of the varieties in use and their cultural, social, and ideational functions. Court reports by Malaysian Judges are part of legal documents, which may be considered as a genre. Investigating the linguistic details of these reports may be helpful in understanding the argumentative and persuasive strategies used in these judgments. The issue of rape and justice is an important concern in society. The aim of this study is to investigate Malaysian judgment reports in the English language on rape cases from a linguistic perspective. Specifically, the aim of the study is to identify court of appeal judgment reports of rape cases as a Genre and to identify the moves used in this genre. The moves within the genre were identified by studying two controversial reports which showed that the judgments might suffer from relying on pathos argumentation in one critical move.

  10. Changes in seed weight in response to different sources: sink ratio in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little knowledge exists about the degree of source, sink and source: sink limitations on mean seed weight in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.. The objective of this work was to analyze the nature and magnitude on seed weight response to assimilate availability during the effective seed-filling period in oilseed rape. Three Argentinean varieties, Eclipse, Impulse, and Master, were grown under field conditions, and at the beginning of the effective seed filling period, a broad range of source: sink manipulation combinations were produced. Source manipulations consisted of two incoming radiation (R level reductions: 0% (Rn and ~50% (Rs combined with three different sources: sink treatments were applied: C, control; PR, ~50% pod removal, and D, 100% defoliation. Rs significantly reduced yield (15% and MSW (12% with respect to Rn, without significant effects on the rest of the sub yield components. Source:sink manipulation treatments significantly affected all yield components. PR diminished yield by 29%, reducing ca. 40% seeds pl-1 by reductions pods pl-1 (41% with respect to Rn, whereas PR increased MSW by 19%, counterbalancing the reduction in seeds pl-1 and thereby in yield. When considering different seed positions along the main raceme, Rs reduced MSW by 12% independently of seed positions onto the raceme. On the contrary, PR increased MSW in average 17% with respect to C. Results reported here suggest that oilseed rape has source: sink co-limitation during the effective seed filling period, which is apparently higher than wheat and lower than maize.

  11. Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Direct measurements were made of 3 HHO and 32 P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3 HHO and 32 P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3 HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32 P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3 HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32 P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

  12. Ethanol production from rape straw by a two-stage pretreatment under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Inmaculada; López-Linares, Juan C; Delgado, Yaimé; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio

    2015-08-01

    The growing interest on rape oil as raw material for biodiesel production has resulted in an increasing availability of rape straw, an agricultural residue that is an attractive renewable source for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Pretreatment is one of the key steps in such a conversion process. In this work, a sequential two-stage pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid (130 °C, 60 min, 2% w/v H2SO4) followed by H2O2 (1-5% w/v) in alkaline medium (NaOH) at low temperature (60, 90 °C) and at different pretreatment times (30-90 min) was investigated. The first-acid stage allows the solubilisation of hemicellulose fraction into fermentable sugars. The second-alkaline peroxide stage allows the delignification of the solid material whilst the cellulose remaining in rape straw turned highly digestible by cellulases. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with 15% (w/v) delignified substrate at 90 °C, 5% H2O2 for 60 min, led to a maximum ethanol production of 53 g/L and a yield of 85% of the theoretical.

  13. Sexual Violence against Migrant Women: a Study of the Prevalence of and Responses to the Rape of Migrant Women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine BOYD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the prevalence of and responses to the rape of migrant women in South Africa through the analysis of legislation, secondary sources and interviews conducted by the author with migrant women raped in South Africa. The article considers the legal protections afforded to migrant women in South Africa and the extent to which these safeguard migrant women from rape. The article also assesses whether these legal protections are implemented in practise. It additionally suggests how migrant women could be better protected from rape in South Africa.

  14. Perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students in Southwest Nigeria: validation of a 5-item gender scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekitan, Afe Taiwo; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Osalusi, Bamidele; Adeleye, Olufunke; Ale, Ayotunde

    2017-08-29

    Our study focused on the perception of victims of rape and the relationship with the perception of social roles for gender among college students in southwest Nigeria using a 5-item gender social scale and a perception of victims of rape questionnaire. The study was done among 312 college students in Southwest Nigeria and explored the perception of victims of rape and gender social roles. The aim was to determine the relationship between perception of rape victims and view of gender social roles. We used a perception of rape victims questionnaire and a validated 5-item gender social roles scale to assess the views of participants. The findings revealed that females had better perception of victims of rape than males. Females also had more positive views of females' social roles involving gender. However, there was poor perception on work-related social roles and the traditional concept of headship in the varied situations described on the 5-item gender social scale. Old stereotypes of typically blaming victims of rape were not common beliefs among college students. There were no significant correlations between perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students. Seemingly, the perception of victims of rape does not have a significant relationship with the concept of gender social roles.

  15. Rape Crime, Law and Victim’s Right an Analysis from Indian Penal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu VIJAYA KUMAR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available God endowed man and women with same sense of emotion, passion, pain and pleasure, yet both differ from each other. Her gentle tenderness and tolerance make her different from her fellow partner. Indeed women are given place of pride in almost all the religion. Her importance, rights and privileges are recognized by almost all religious scripture. Even then she is subjected to several socialprejudices. Causing carnal catastrophe is one of the most demeaning devices adopted to subjugate women. Today the greater challenging before her is to protect her dignity chastity and virginity.Women are sexually exploited in almost all sphere of life. This crime has neither face of its own nor any territorial boundary but with the fact that women are to greater extent its victim, the degree of thiscrime and the victims’ status aftermath the crime differ. In India the incident of rape seems to be less when compared with the foreign country. Numerically, among all crime rape is relatively in frequentphenomenon (0.3 % of total crime in India but among the crime against the women the rape constitute the highest percentage. Case study reveals that there has been a strong increase in offenceof rape in past decade. There has been almost 2,487 rape cases reported between 1971 to 1978, which had increased to 4,621 cases in the same year. According to the official statistic produce by theNational Human right commission Delhi in the year 1991, one woman is molested every 26 minute. These are statistic reported cases, which if include unreported cases the matter would have been ofevery second rather than minute. In response to this government of India approached Law commission with a request to suggest substantive and procedural reformation of criminal law. In spite of amendment made to the criminal law in 1983, the legal system could hardy control the crime, perhaps there is a necessity of awaking calls from the victims’ side on one hand and rapid

  16. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  17. Earlier Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Down Syndrome Patients Following Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2017-08-01

    The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.

  18. Earlier time to aerobic exercise is associated with faster recovery following acute sport concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Wyndham; Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0-20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury.

  19. Insight Into Illness and Cognition in Schizophrenia in Earlier and Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Menon, Mahesh; Pollock, Bruce G; Mamo, David C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-04-01

    Impaired insight into illness in schizophrenia is associated with illness severity and deficits in premorbid intellectual function, executive function, and memory. A previous study of patients aged 60 years and older found that illness severity and premorbid intellectual function accounted for variance in insight impairment. As such, we aimed to test whether similar relationships would be observed in earlier life. A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 large sample of participants (n = 171) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia aged 19 to 79 years acquired from 2 studies: (1) a psychosocial intervention trial for older persons with schizophrenia (June 2008 to May 2014) and (2) a diffusion tensor imaging and genetics study of psychosis across the life span (February 2007 to December 2013). We assessed insight into illness using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) item G12 and explored its relationship to illness severity (PANSS total modified), premorbid intellectual function (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading [WTAR]), and cognition. Insight impairment was more severe in later life (≥ 60 years) than in earlier years (t = -3.75, P insight was explained by PANSS total modified (Exp[B] = 1.070, P insight, they did not independently contribute to its variance. However, the relationships between impaired insight and illness severity and between impaired insight and cognition, particularly working memory, were stronger in later life than in earlier life. These results suggest an opportunity for intervention may exist with cognitive-enhancing neurostimulation or medications to improve insight into illness in schizophrenia across the life span. Original study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00832845). © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. Assumption and program of the earlier stage construction of L/ILW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuequn; Chen Shi; Li Xinbang

    1993-01-01

    The authors analysed the production and treatment of low- and intermediate-level radwastes (L/ILW) in China. Some problems and situation in this field are introduced. Over the past ten years, preliminary efforts have been made by CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation) in policy, law and rules, developing program, management system, siting, engineering techniques, and safety assessment for radwaste disposal. The investment of the earlier stage work of L/ILW disposal site construction is estimated, the program and assumption to disposal site construction of the L/ILW are reviewed