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Sample records for rape plant densities

  1. Effects of plant densities on yield, yield components and some morphological characters of two cultivators of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Barzinjy, M.; Stölen, O.; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2003-01-01

    Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)......Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)...

  2. Effects of Cycocel and Nitrogen Application on Yield and Yield Components of Autumn-Grown Oilseed Rape at Different Plant Densities

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    S. Majd

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, which was carried out as two experiments (in the field and greenhouse at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran, in 2009-2010 growing season, the effects of different levels of nitrogen, plant density and cycocel application on yield and yield components of autumn-grown oilseed rape (Talaye cultivar were investigated. The field experiment was designed as split-split plot based on completely randomized blocks design. Treatments included nitrogen level (80, 140, 200 and 260 kg/ha as the main plot, plant density (70 and 90 plants/m2 as sub-plot and cycocel rate (0, 1.4 and 2.8 L/ha as sub- subplot. The greenhouse experiment, which was arranged as a factorial based on complete randomized design, included nitrogen level (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha and cycocel rate (0, 1.4 and 2.8 L/ha. Results showed that the highest seed yield was achieved at 200 kg N/ha, 2.8 L/ha cycocel and plant density of 90 plants/m2 (533.17, 533.96 and 521.6 g/m2, respectively. Application of 2.8 L/ha cycocel was associated with increased number of siliques per plant and final plants dry weight. Increasing plant density from 70 to 90 plants/m2 was associated with decreased number of siliques per plant, plant dry weight and number of seeds per silique. It appears that application of 200 kg N/ha, 2.8 L/ha cycocel and plant density of 90 plants/m2 could be recommended for maximum grain yield of autumn-grown rapeseed cv. Talaye, in agroclimatic conditions similar to this research

  3. Leaf Senescence, Root Morphology, and Seed Yield of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. at Varying Plant Densities

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    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the yield and yield components were studied using a conventional variety Zhongshuang 11 (ZS 11 and a hybrid variety Zhongyouza 12 (ZYZ 12 at varying plant densities. The increase in plant density led to an initial increase in seed yield and pod numbers per unit area, followed by a decrease. The optimal plant density was 58.5 × 104 plants ha−1 in both ZS 11 and ZYZ 12. The further researches on physiological traits showed a rapid decrease in the green leaf area index (GLAI and chlorophyll content and a remarkable increase in malondialdehyde content in high plant density (HPD population than did the low plant density (LPD population, which indicated the rapid leaf senescence. However, HPD had higher values in terms of pod area index (PAI, pod photosynthesis, and radiation use efficiency (RUE after peak anthesis. A significantly higher level of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen utilization efficiency were observed, which resulted in higher yield. HPD resulted in a rapid decrease in root morphological parameters (root length, root tips, root surface area, and root volume. These results suggested that increasing the plant density within a certain range was a promising option for high seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  4. EXPRESSION OF CHITINASE GENE IN TRANSGENIC RAPE PLANTS

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    Lu Longdou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypocotyl and cotyledon of Brassica napus L. H165 and Brassica juncea DB3 were transformed with chitinase gene and herbicide-resistance gene by co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefacients LBA4404, and rape plants were obtained which could grow on the medium containing herbicide. The PCR result showed that exotic genes were integrated in the genome of the rape. Further study was performed to determine the impact of temperature on the transgenic rate and the differentiation of explants.

  5. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

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    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  6. [Differentiation of haploid and diploid rape plants at the cytological and morphological levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, A I

    2013-01-01

    Some cytological and morphological characteristics of haploid and dihaploid plants of winter rape obtained via anther culture were studied. It was shown that in haploid plants the number of chloroplasts in stomata guard cells and the size of the stomata guard cells themselves were much smaller, and the number of stomata per unit area was greater than in doubled haploids and diploids. Haploids were also characterized by a smaller size of petals and anthers, and in general, a smaller flower compared to dihaploids and diploids.

  7. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

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    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure.

  8. Crop Establishment Practices Are a Driver of the Plant Microbiota in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

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    Rathore, Ridhdhi; Dowling, David N.; Forristal, Patrick D.; Spink, John; Cotter, Paul D.; Bulgarelli, Davide; Germaine, Kieran J.

    2017-01-01

    Gaining a greater understanding of the plant microbiota and its interactions with its host plant heralds a new era of scientific discovery in agriculture. Different agricultural management practices influence soil microbial populations by changing a soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties. However, the impact of these practices on the microbiota associated with economically important crops such as oilseed rape, are still understudied. In this work we investigated the impact of two contrasting crop establishment practices, conventional (plow based) and conservation (strip–tillage) systems, on the microbiota inhabiting different plant microhabitats, namely rhizosphere, root and shoot, of winter oilseed rape under Irish agronomic conditions. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling showed that the plant associated microhabitats (root and shoot), are dominated by members of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The root and shoot associated bacterial communities displayed markedly distinct profiles as a result of tillage practices. We observed a very limited ‘rhizosphere effect’ in the root zone of WOSR, i.e., there was little or no increase in bacterial community richness and abundance in the WOSR rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. The two tillage systems investigated did not appear to lead to any major long term differences on the bulk soil or rhizosphere bacterial communities. Our data suggests that the WOSR root and shoot microbiota can be impacted by management practices and is an important mechanism that could allow us to understand how plants respond to different management practices and environments. PMID:28848510

  9. Crop Establishment Practices Are a Driver of the Plant Microbiota in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus

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    Ridhdhi Rathore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaining a greater understanding of the plant microbiota and its interactions with its host plant heralds a new era of scientific discovery in agriculture. Different agricultural management practices influence soil microbial populations by changing a soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties. However, the impact of these practices on the microbiota associated with economically important crops such as oilseed rape, are still understudied. In this work we investigated the impact of two contrasting crop establishment practices, conventional (plow based and conservation (strip–tillage systems, on the microbiota inhabiting different plant microhabitats, namely rhizosphere, root and shoot, of winter oilseed rape under Irish agronomic conditions. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling showed that the plant associated microhabitats (root and shoot, are dominated by members of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The root and shoot associated bacterial communities displayed markedly distinct profiles as a result of tillage practices. We observed a very limited ‘rhizosphere effect’ in the root zone of WOSR, i.e., there was little or no increase in bacterial community richness and abundance in the WOSR rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. The two tillage systems investigated did not appear to lead to any major long term differences on the bulk soil or rhizosphere bacterial communities. Our data suggests that the WOSR root and shoot microbiota can be impacted by management practices and is an important mechanism that could allow us to understand how plants respond to different management practices and environments.

  10. A high-density genetic map identifies a novel major QTL for boron efficiency in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Didi; Hua, Yingpeng; Wang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Hua; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen

    2014-01-01

    Low boron (B) seriously limits the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a high B demand species that is sensitive to low B conditions. Significant genotypic variations in response to B deficiency have been observed among B. napus cultivars. To reveal the genetic basis for B efficiency in B. napus, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the plant growth traits, B uptake traits and the B efficiency coefficient (BEC) were analyzed using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between a B-efficient parent, Qingyou 10, and a B-inefficient parent, Westar 10. A high-density genetic map was constructed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assayed using Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). The linkage map covered a total length of 2139.5 cM, with 19 linkage groups (LGs) and an average distance of 1.6 cM between adjacent markers. Based on hydroponic evaluation of six B efficiency traits measured in three separate repeated trials, a total of 52 QTLs were identified, accounting for 6.14-46.27% of the phenotypic variation. A major QTL for BEC, qBEC-A3a, was co-located on A3 with other QTLs for plant growth and B uptake traits under low B stress. Using a subset of substitution lines, qBEC-A3a was validated and narrowed down to the interval between CNU384 and BnGMS436. The results of this study provide a novel major locus located on A3 for B efficiency in B. napus that will be suitable for fine mapping and marker-assisted selection breeding for B efficiency in B. napus.

  11. A high-density genetic map identifies a novel major QTL for boron efficiency in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L..

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    Didi Zhang

    Full Text Available Low boron (B seriously limits the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., a high B demand species that is sensitive to low B conditions. Significant genotypic variations in response to B deficiency have been observed among B. napus cultivars. To reveal the genetic basis for B efficiency in B. napus, quantitative trait loci (QTLs for the plant growth traits, B uptake traits and the B efficiency coefficient (BEC were analyzed using a doubled haploid (DH population derived from a cross between a B-efficient parent, Qingyou 10, and a B-inefficient parent, Westar 10. A high-density genetic map was constructed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs assayed using Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array, simple sequence repeats (SSRs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. The linkage map covered a total length of 2139.5 cM, with 19 linkage groups (LGs and an average distance of 1.6 cM between adjacent markers. Based on hydroponic evaluation of six B efficiency traits measured in three separate repeated trials, a total of 52 QTLs were identified, accounting for 6.14-46.27% of the phenotypic variation. A major QTL for BEC, qBEC-A3a, was co-located on A3 with other QTLs for plant growth and B uptake traits under low B stress. Using a subset of substitution lines, qBEC-A3a was validated and narrowed down to the interval between CNU384 and BnGMS436. The results of this study provide a novel major locus located on A3 for B efficiency in B. napus that will be suitable for fine mapping and marker-assisted selection breeding for B efficiency in B. napus.

  12. Heterosis for hull number and seed yield per plant in oil rape (Brassica napus L.

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    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis for hull number and seed yield per plant was studied in the hybrid combinations of the F, genera­tion obtained by diallel-crossing five cultivars of winter oil rape. A trial with the parental lines and F, hybrids was established at the Rimski Šančevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The materials were hand-sown according to a randomized block design with three replications. The size of samples used to analyze the two traits was 33 plants per treatment (parents and F1 hybrids. The level of heterosis was calculated relative to the parental mean (according to the formula H1=F1/(P1+P2/2 x l00 and relative to the better parent (according to the formula H2=F1/BPxl00. Heterosis for hull number was found m a number of combinations. The largest heterosis value relative to the parental mean was recorded in the combination Jet Neuf x Banaćanka (67.78%, while heterosis relative to the better parent ranged from -20.22 to 48.52%. Heterosis for seed yield per plant were high and positive in most of the combinations, except for Sremica x Banaćanka. The values ranged between 17.61 and 159 68% relative to the parental mean and between 3.40 and 149.00% relative to the better parent. .

  13. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators.

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    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  14. Organogenesis and plant formation from cotyledon and callus culture of rape

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    Janina H. Rogozińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotyledon explants of rape were excised from aseptically germinated seedlings and cultured during 2 weeks on M u r a s h i g e and S k o o g medium supplemented with auxins, cytokinins, auxin-cytokinin combinations and abscisic acid. Callus formation occurred on medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, naphthalene-l-acetic acid (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and on their combinations with kinetin (K or 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP. Regeneration of roots was achieved on media with NAA, IAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and on combinations of these auxins with cytokinins. The presence of 2,4-D in the medium, though it promoted compact callus growth, had an inhibitory effect on root formation. Callus derived from the cotyledons had somewhat different requirements for growth in subculture and the root formation ability diminished in the course of the culture. Lower ABA concentrations stimulated callus growth whereas higher concentrations inhibited it similary as in the case of cotyledons. Shoot buds regenerated from the cotyledons after ca. 3 weeks on media supplemented with NAA + BAP. The 9-week-old plantlets transferred to the soil developed into complete plants. The plants which underwent vernalization formed flowers and normal seeds.

  15. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

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    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. TRANSGENIC PLANTS OF RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L. WITH GENE OSMYB4 HAVE INCREASED RESISTANCE TO SALTS OF HEAVY METALS

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    Raldugina G.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the response of the transgenic spring rape plants (Brassica napus L. var. ‘Westar’ with the rice transfactor-encoding gene Osmyb4 to treatment with salts of heavy metals (HM CuSO4 or ZnSO4 and accumulation in the leaves of biomass, metals, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant compounds: total phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant enzyme activity superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were determined. Vegetatively propagated transgenic plants and wild-type plants were grown on Hoagland-Snyder medium at 24°C, then at the 5-6th leaves-stage, CuSO4 (in concentration 25-150 mM or ZnSO4 (500 - 5000 mM were added to the growth medium, and plants were exposed to the salts for 15 days. Under the action of small concentrations of salts, the results obtained for the transgenic and untransformed plants did not differ, but at high concentrations strong differences between transgenic and untransformed plants were observed. In transgenic plants, accumulation of biomass was greater. Carotene and xanthophyll were destroyed in transgenic plants less than in the untransformed plants. They have accumulated in their leaves more metal, especially Zn, reaching almost to the accumulation of 7 mg per g of dry biomass, bringing these plants to the hyperaccumulation of Zn. In the tissues of transgenic plants exposed to high concentrations of salts, the content of total phenols, anthocyanins, and low molecular weight compounds, that are responsible for protection against ROS, increased significantly. All these results indicate a greater stability of the transgenic plants to the action of heavy metals, as evidenced also by less activity of lipid peroxidases in their tissue: at high salt concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA accumulated significantly less in transgenic plants than in non-transformed plant tissues. The greater stability of transgenic plants to stressful effect of HM is also evidenced by the

  17. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breath? Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Date Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Date Rape Print A ... Yourself Getting Help Reporting a Rape What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might ...

  18. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravati...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  19. Plant regeneration from hypocotyl protoplasts of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

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    Wacław Orczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyls of six breeding lines and two cultivars of winter oilseed rape (B. napus L.. Under presented culture conditions almost all of the protoplasts regenerated cell walls. Division frequency depended on the genotype and was from 50% to 64%. Shoot regeneration (also depended on the genotype was induced with the frequency of 3.6% (for cv Bolko on the medium containing IAA (0.1 mg•dm-3, zeatin (0.5 mg•dm-3 and BAP (0.5 mg•dm-3 . All shoots were rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with sucrose 30 g•dm-3.

  20. Enhanced Cd extraction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) by plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

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    Pan, Fengshan; Meng, Qian; Luo, Sha; Shen, Jing; Chen, Bao; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Japenga, Jan; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2017-03-04

    Four plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were used as study materials, among them two heavy metal-tolerant rhizosphere strains SrN1 (Arthrobacter sp.) and SrN9 (Bacillus altitudinis) were isolated from rhizosphere soil, while two endophytic strains SaN1 (Bacillus megaterium) and SaMR12 (Sphingomonas) were identified from roots of the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of these PGPB on plant growth and Cd accumulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants grown on aged Cd-spiked soil. The results showed that the four PGPB significantly boosted oilseed rape shoot biomass production, improved soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value, enhanced Cd uptake of plant and Cd translocation to the leaves. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), we demonstrated the studied S. alfredii endophytic bacterium SaMR12 were able to colonize successfully in the B. napus roots. However, all four PGPB could increase seed Cd accumulation. Due to its potential to enhance Cd uptake by the plant and to restrict Cd accumulation in the seeds, SaMR12 was selected as the most promising microbial partner of B. napus when setting up a plant-microbe fortified remediation system.

  1. Sensitization to turnip rape and oilseed rape in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study.

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    Poikonen, Sanna; Puumalainen, Tuija J; Kautiainen, Hannu; Palosuo, Timo; Reunala, Timo; Turjanmaa, Kristiina

    2008-08-01

    Turnip rape and oilseed rape 2S albumins are new allergens in children with atopic dermatitis suspected for food allergy. We recently found that 11% (206/1887) of these children had a positive skin prick test to seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and/or turnip rape (Brassica rapa). In the present case-control study we examined how the children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to turnip rape and oilseed rape had been breast-fed and whether they had some common sensitization pattern to certain foods or pollens. A total of 64 children with atopic dermatitis and a positive skin prick test to turnip rape and/or oilseed rape (>or=5 mm) were examined. Sixty-four age- and sex-matched children with atopic dermatitis but negative skin prick tests to turnip rape and oilseed rape served as case controls. The turnip rape and/or oilseed rape sensitized children with atopic dermatitis had significantly more often positive skin prick tests reactions and IgE antibodies to various foods (cow's milk, egg, wheat, mustard; p children. They had been exclusively breast-fed for a longer period (median 4 months; p Children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to oilseed rape and turnip rape had high frequency of associated sensitizations to all foods and pollens tested showing that oilseed plant sensitization affects especially atopic children who have been sensitized to multiple allergens.

  2. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a good tool to study changing Leptosphaeria populations in oilseed rape plants and air samples

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    Małgorzata Jędryczka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LAMP is an innovative, simple, rapid, specific and cost-effective nucleic acid amplification method. Due to the use of a special enzyme – GspSSD polymerase, the reaction takes a short time and can be performed at isothermal conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP technique is significantly higher, than standard PCR techniques, as two or three specific primer pairs are used. The technique is regarded as a useful tool for the detection and identification of plant pathogens. In this work, LAMP was used to study the composition of the population of fungi of the genus Leptosphaeria, causing a damaging disease of oilseed rape, called blackleg or stem canker. The detection concerned DNA present in fungal spores contained in air samples obtained using Hirst-type volumetric trap, in Pomerania (north Poland in 2010. The results achieved using the LAMP technique were similar to these obtained with previously used, highly specific method of Real-time PCR. Conducting LAMP reaction was much easier and less time-and cost-consuming, due to a simplified method of DNA isolation of pathogens from plant tissues. Then, the LAMP technique was used to assess the composition of the population of Leptosphaeria spp. in plants of oil- seed rape collected from the field in the Opole region (south-we- stern part of Poland in 2013. In contrast to studies conducted in 2002–2003, the analysis of leaf symptoms showed a higher pro- portion of L. maculans compared to L. biglobosa, what reflects changes in the composition of pathogen population of fungi causing blackleg on oilseed rape in this part of Poland.

  3. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  4. Rape and Seduction Scripts.

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    Ryan, Kathryn M.

    1988-01-01

    College students (N=18) wrote scripts about "typical" rape and "typical" seduction. Scripts were coded on 20 dimensions. Results showed that rape and seduction scripts were very different. Most subjects described blitz rape in which woman outdoors was attacked by male stranger. Seductions described were usually indoors and…

  5. Effect of plant density on the characteristics of photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted to study green garlic response to the following plant densities: 300,000; 450,000; 600,000; 750,000 and 900,000 plants/ha. The experiment lasted for two years. Plant measurements started 40 days after planting (DAP) and were performed at ten-day intervals. Eight measurements per year ...

  6. Plant densities and modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Javier de Luca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean nitrogen (N demands can be supplied to a large extent via biological nitrogen fixation, but the mechanisms of source/sink regulating photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation in high yielding cultivars and current crop management arrangements need to be investigated. We investigated the modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] at different plant densities. A field trial was performed in southern Brazil with six treatments, including non-inoculated controls without and with N-fertilizer, both at a density of 320,000 plants ha−1, and plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii at four densities, ranging from 40,000 to 320,000 plants ha−1. Differences in nodulation, biomass production, N accumulation and partition were observed at stage R5, but not at stage V4, indicating that quantitative and qualitative factors (such as sunlight infrared/red ratio assume increasing importance during the later stages of plant growth. Decreases in density in the inoculated treatments stimulated photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation per plant. Similar yields were obtained at the different plant densities, with decreases only at the very low density level of 40,000 plants ha−1, which was also the only treatment to show differences in seed protein and oil contents. Results confirm a fine tuning of the mechanisms of source/sink, photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation under lower plant densities. Higher photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation rates are capable of sustaining increased plant growth.

  7. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production...

  8. Effect of plant density on the characteristics of photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... At such densities, garlic developed a powerful photosynthetic apparatus and the bulbs were large and uniform. Key words: Garlic, plant density, leaf number per plant, leaf area, LAI. INTRODUCTION. The photosynthetic apparatus performs photosynthesis, which involves the production of organic matter.

  9. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  10. Determination of Flowering Phenology, Number of Flowers, Nectar and Pollen Potential of Oil Rape (Brassica napus L., Plant in Black Sea Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necda Çankaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in 2011 and 2012 in order to determine the flowering phenology, number of flowers, nectar and pollen potential in the Samsun province of the oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., which is widely used in agriculture in our country. In the first year of the study (2011, it was determined that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 44 days, there were 2.694 flowers per plant, 1.89 kg/da nectar per day and 1330 kg/da pollen production. In the second year of the research (2012, it was revealed that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 39 days, there were 701 plants/flower in the plant, 0.38 kg/da nectar secreted daily and 331.57 kg/da pollen. According to the results of two years, the yield of rapeseed was found to be 41.5 days, the daily nectar production was 0.23 mg/flower/day, the nectar dry matter level was 20.25% and the pollen production was 0.48 mg/flower/day. In Samsun province, it was determined that rapeseed plants flowered before the flowering of many plants in the vicinity in the early spring, and provided honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and many other honey bees, nectar and pollen. It has been demonstrated that the cultivation of rapeseed is cultivated in the early spring, and it can be a convenient source of food for honey bees and other dusty insects.

  11. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  12. Effect of plant density on competitiveness of Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and S. arvensis under water stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maataoui, A; Talouizte, A; Benbella, M; Bouhache, M

    2005-01-01

    Under Mediterranean climate, oilseed rape is subjected especially to the competition of weeds with respect to water. Herbicides registered for this crop do not effectively control species of the same family, in particular Sinapis alba and Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, there are no results of the effect of plant density on the competitiveness of these species. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the competitiveness of the species varies according to the total density. The experiment was carried out in pots under greenhouse conditions, according to a replacement series method. Plant densities tested were 2, 4 and 8 plants per pot. The results of the replacement series diagram and those of relative crowding coefficients showed that Brassica napus was the most competitive, whatever the density is. This classification is explained primarily by leaf area. Indeed, the intraspecific competition due to B. napus has affected more its leaf area than the interspecific competition. Conversely, the intraspecific competition due to S. arvensis has less affected its leaf area than the interspecific competition. Regarding S. alba, the intraspecific competition effect was less severe than the interspecific competition effect due to B. napus and more severe than the interspecific competition effect due to S. arvensis on S. alba

  13. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  14. Study of Drought and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Radiation Use Efficiency and Dry Matter Partitioning Into Pod in Different Cultivars of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Arvin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the valuable oilseed crops which has been attracting attention in recent years (Arvin et al., 2011. Several factors such as water shortage, low relative humidity, heat and salinity can make drought stress. Radiation use efficiency and yield components are the effective factors of yield formation in oilseed rape. Drought tolerance in oilseed rape depends on other factors except radiation use efficiency. Studies have indicated that plant growth promoting rhizobacterias (PGPRs has a direct effect on growth and they can cause resistance to the abiotic stress as well. Hence, considering the drought climate in Iran and the effects of PGPRs on increasing resistance to abiotic stress and relief of drought effects and the importance of the cultivation of oilseed rape in Iran, the present research was done with the goal of study of drought and some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on radiation use efficiency and dry matter partitioning into pod in different cultivars of oilseed rape. Materials and methods The current study was done on the basis of two simultaneous experiments (under stress and non-stress experiments during 2010- 2011 growing season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station of Torogh, Mashhad is in East-North of Iran (36° N, 59° E, 1003 as.Two research sites (under stress and non-stress fields were beside each other. This region has a semi-arid climate (annual rainfall 286 mm. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized compeletly block design with three replications in each experiment. The first treatment was plant growth promoting rizobactria, including B0: no inoculation (control, B1:co-inoculation (Pseudomonas flourescens 169+P. putida 108, B2: inoculation with P. flourescens 169 and B3: inoculation with P. putida 108. Second treatment was cultivar, including Hayola401 and Hayola330 cultivars belong to Brassica napus, Parkland and Goldrush

  15. Explaining wartime rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  16. EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITY AND LAND RACE ON THE GROWTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPUTER UNIT

    potato. (Onunka and Nwokocha 2003). Tabo et al (2002) observed that the performance of crops can improve through plant populations densities and use of .... breeding activity. It would have been expected that lower population density would have produced fewer average number or roots per stand but this was not the ...

  17. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  18. What Is Rape and Date Rape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fault. What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any kind of sexual activity that you do not agree to, including: inappropriate touching vaginal, anal, or oral sex sex that you say ‘no’ to rape ...

  19. A systemic increase in the recombination frequency upon local infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with oilseed rape mosaic virus depends on plant age, the initial inoculum concentration and the time for virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youli eYao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, we showed that local infection of tobacco leaves with either Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV or Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV resulted in a systemic increase in the homologous recombination frequency (HRF. Later on, we showed that a similar phenomenon occurs in Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with ORMV. Here, we tested whether the time of removing the infected leaves as well as viral titer have any effect on the degree of changes in HRF in systemic tissues. An increase in HRF in systemic non-infected tissues was more pronounced when the infected leaves were detached from the infected plants at 60-96 hours post infection, rather than at earlier time. Next, we found that exposure to higher concentrations of inoculum was much more efficient in triggering an increase in HRF than exposure to lower concentrations. Finally, we showed that older plants exhibited a higher increase in HRF than younger plants. We found that an increase in genome instability in systemic tissues of locally infected plants depends on plant age, the concentration of initial inoculums and the time of viral replication.

  20. The Culture of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    h &Fine Arts/333-7723 lRRESPONSIBILITY d1 2. WILLIAM FAULKNER , DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILY t) AND TIIE OLD SOUTH .. L 3. RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND...Undergraduate Research Forum (CSURF). The presentations are titled respectively: REALITY OF VIOLENCE AS A PRODUCT OF IRRESPONSIBlllTY; WILLIAM ... FAULKNER , DYSFUNCTIONA.t FAMILY, AND THE OLD SOUTH; RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND VICTIM-BLAMING; AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCLICAL Circle one: Abstract- Tech

  1. Older women: victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyra, P A

    1993-05-01

    Older female rape victims usually live alone, are raped by strangers, experience physical force and injury, and also are robbed. Rape trauma syndrome, a nursing diagnosis, consists of an acute phase of disorganization, and a long-term phase of reorganization of the victim's lifestyle. Rape victims experience emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the trauma of rape. Nursing actions can include providing specific interventions to victims during the acute phase, identifying victims during routine exams, referring victims for ongoing counseling, conducting community education programs on primary prevention and available services, and participating in longitudinal rape studies.

  2. Climate change and genetically modified insecticidal plants. Plant-herbivore interactions and secondary chemistry of Bt Cry1Ac-toxin producing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, S.

    2008-07-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant plants producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline endotoxins are the first commercial applications of genetically modified crops and their use has steadily expanded over the last ten years. Together with the expanding agricultural use of transgenic crops, climate change is predicted to be among the major factors affecting agriculture in the coming years. Plants, herbivores and insects of higher trophic levels are all predicted to be affected by the current atmospheric climate change. However, only very few studies to date have addressed the sustained use and herbivore interactions of Bt-producing plants under the influence of these abiotic factors. The main objective of this study was to comparatively assess the performance of a Bt Cry1Ac toxin-producing oilseed rape line and its non-transgenic parent line in terms of vegetative growth and allocation to secondary defence compounds (glucosinolates and volatile terpenoids), and the performance of Bt-target and nontarget insect herbivores as well as tritrophic interaction functioning on these lines. For this, several growth chamber experiments with vegetative stage non-Bt and Bt plants facing exposures to doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} level alone or together with increased temperature and different regimes of elevated O{sub 3} were conducted. The main hypothesis of this work was that Bt-transgenic plants have reduced performance or allocation to secondary compounds due to the cost of producing Bt toxin under changed abiotic environments. The Bt-transgenic oilseed rape line exhibited slightly delayed vegetative growth and had increased nitrogen and reduced carbon content compared to the non-transgenic parent line, but the physiological responses (i.e. biomass gain and photosynthesis) of the plant lines to CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} enhancements were equal. Two aphid species, non-susceptible to Bt Cry1Ac, showed equal performance and reproduction on both plant lines under elevated CO{sub 2

  3. Assessing quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker in Brassica napus (oilseed rape in young plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ju Huang

    Full Text Available Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH lines A30 (susceptible and C119 (with quantitative resistance, quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases.

  4. Assessing quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) in Brassica napus (oilseed rape) in young plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ju; Qi, Aiming; King, Graham J; Fitt, Bruce D L

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases.

  5. Rape Beyond Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Margo

    2017-02-01

    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  6. Effect of plant density on the characteristics of photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... of stand density on the photosynthetic apparatus of the garlic plant. These effects were found to ... correlation between crop growth rate (CGR) and the leaf area index ..... and Quantity of garlic as Affected by Different Farming Systems and. Garlic Clones. Pak. ... light and carbon dioxide? Bioscience, 47(11): ...

  7. Effect of Plant Density on Morphological Characteristics, Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plot size was 3m width x 6m length and the spacings between replications and plots were 1.5m and 1m respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) effect in morphological characteristics of Napier grass due to plant density during the establishment year. However, the number of tillers, total leaves, internode number ...

  8. Nitrogen dose and plant density effects on popcorn grain yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popcorn (Zea mays everta Sturt.) is a popular and nutritious snack food. Environmental factors affecting grain yield and yield-related components of popcorn are needed to compensate increasing demand. This research was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilizer application rates and plant densities on grain ...

  9. Effect Of Cowpea Planting Density On Growth, Yield And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike (07° 33΄ E, 05° 29΄ N) in 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 cropping seasons to determine the effect of cowpea planting density on growth, yield and productivity of component crops in cowpea/cassava intercropping ...

  10. Maximizing plant density affects broccoli yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market bunch broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the United States east coast. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding southeastern commercial markets. This broccoli plant density study was carr...

  11. Ambit determination method in estimating rice plant population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar, B.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice plant population density is a key indicator in determining the crop setting and fertilizer application rate. It is therefore essential that the population density is monitored to ensure that a correct crop management decision is taken. The conventional method of determining plant population is by manually counting the total number of rice plant tillers in a 25 cm x 25 cm square frame. Sampling is done by randomly choosing several different locations within a plot to perform tiller counting. This sampling method is time consuming, labour intensive and costly. An alternative fast estimating method was developed to overcome this issue. The method relies on measuring the outer circumference or ambit of the contained rice plants in a 25 cm x 25 cm square frame to determine the number of tillers within that square frame. Data samples of rice variety MR219 were collected from rice plots in the Muda granary area, Sungai Limau Dalam, Kedah. The data were taken at 50 days and 70 days after seeding (DAS. A total of 100 data samples were collected for each sampling day. A good correlation was obtained for the variety of 50 DAS and 70 DAS. The model was then verified by taking 100 samples with the latching strap for 50 DAS and 70 DAS. As a result, this technique can be used as a fast, economical and practical alternative to manual tiller counting. The technique can potentially be used in the development of an electronic sensing system to estimate paddy plant population density.

  12. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  13. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  14. Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... traces of a sexual assault. But being examined right away is the best way to ensure you get proper medical treatment. Immediate medical attention also helps when people decide to report the crime, providing evidence needed to prosecute the rapist if a criminal case is pursued. If you've been raped ...

  15. Crop growth, light utilization and yield of relay intercropped cotton as affected by plant density and a plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, X.; Liu, S.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, S.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Modern cotton cultivation requires high plant densities and compact plants. Here we study planting density and growth regulator effects on plant structure and production of cotton when the cotton is grown in a relay intercrop with wheat, a cultivation system that is widespread in China. Field

  16. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  17. The costs of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization.

  18. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiloha, R C

    2013-07-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India 'rape laws' began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of 'rape and inclusion of 'marital rape' in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed.

  19. Maize yield and quality in response to plant density and application of a novel plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, L.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Farmers in China have gradually increased plant density in maize to achieve higher yields, but this has increased risk of lodging due to taller and weaker stems at higher plant densities. Plant growth regulators can be used to reduce lodging risk. In this study, for the first time, the performance

  20. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  1. Profile of rape victims attending the Karl Bremer Hospital Rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, there is a lack of available data on the per-episode risk of HIV infection with specific sexual encounters,1 and in combination with poor ... the incident of sexual assault. • To obtain data regarding the use of newly provided ARV therapy as ..... Baleta A. Journalist's rape adds to rising rape statistics. Lancet 1999 ...

  2. Effects of planting densities on water quality improvements and Pontederia cordata's physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Various planting densities (5, 10, or 20 plants per tank) of Pontederia cordata were water-cultivated in purifying tanks to treat polluted water. Seasonal effects of the planting densities on the water quality improvement and the morphology and physiology of the plant were analyzed. Results indicated that planting densities affected the nitrogen and phosphorus removal of water, and the morphology and physiology of plants, including activity of peroxidise and catalase, content of chlorophyll and soluble protein (SP), the length of root, stem and leaf, tiller number and root density. When planting density increased from 10 to 20 plants per tank, the morphology and physiology of plants, and the nitrogen and phosphorus removal by plants improved slowly, but caused a tiller number decline in individual plants. This variation was significant in autumn, and associated with seasonal variations of plant physiology. During autumn, there were 26 tillers in each plant with 10 plants per tank, compared to 14 tillers per plant with 20 plants per tank. Increase in the nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the plants for 5-10 plants per tank was 5.41 and 0.79 g kg(-1), compared to 1.17 and 0.12 g kg(-1) for 10-20 plants per tank, respectively.

  3. Yield gains of coffee plants from phosphorus fertilization may not be generalized for high density planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Vasconcelos Valadares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inconclusive responses of the adult coffee plant to phosphorus fertilization have been reported in the literature, especially when dealing with application of this nutrient in high density planting systems. Thus, this study was carried out for the purpose of assessing the response of adult coffee plants at high planting density in full production (in regard to yield and their biennial cycle/stability to the addition of different sources and application rates of P in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment with coffee plants of the Catucaí Amarelo 6/30 variety was carried out over four growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a full factorial design [(4 × 3 + 1] consisting of four P sources (monoammonium phosphate, simple superphosphate, natural reactive rock phosphate from Algeria (Djebel-Onk, and FH 550®, three P rates (100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 year-1 of P2O5, and an additional treatment without application of the nutrient (0 kg ha-¹ year-¹. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replicates. The four seasons were evaluated as subplots in a split plot experiment. The P contents in soil and leaves increased with increased rates of P application. However, there was no effect from P application on the yield and its biennial cycle/stability regardless of the source used over the four seasons assessed.

  4. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  6. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  7. A Synthesized (Biosocial) Theory of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Integrates features of contemporary theories of rape (feminist theory, social learning theory, evolutionary theory) with information on neurohormonal variables to formulate synthesized theory of rape. Synthesized theory of rape, consisting of four propositions, proposes that people are not all equally prone toward rape and that men are much more…

  8. Effect of planting date and crop density of autumn wheat (Triticum aestivum L. on density and biomass of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. fields have always been a big problem in Iran and worldwide and must be managed by non-chemical especially cultural methods. A field experiment as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications in a 1000 m2 field in Research Farm of Shirvan College of Agriculture was conducted during 2007-2008. Treatments included wheat densities of 400, 600 and 800 plants.m-2and planting dates of 1st of Nov., 20th of Nov., and 1st of Dec 2007. The results represented that the presence of Rapistrum rogusum, Phalaris spp., Descurainia sophia, Alopecurus myosurides and Hordeum murinum dominance. Delay in planting of wheat increased relative density of weeds. The lowest relative frequency of weeds was observed in planting date of 1st of November. Increase in crop density significantly decreased weed biomass, while it showed little effect on weed density trend. Effect of planting date was also significant on weed biomass. The highest weed biomass occurred in the planting date of Dec. the 1st. In conclusion, delay in planting of wheat create more chance and space for weed establishment, and therefore planting dense (600 plants.m-2 and early in season of wheat is recommended for lower weed damage.

  9. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  10. Effect of plant population density on the growth and yield of sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of resource use efficiency and yields is probably possible through the use of appropriate plant densities. Field trials were therefore conducted to study the effects of four plant densities, varying from 2.0 to 12.5 plants m-2 on water and radiation use and performance of two Masakwa sorghum varieties grown on ...

  11. Impact of shade and cocoa plant densities on soil organic carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest that cocoa planted at low plant density under shade stores more carbon per unit area of soil than an equivalent area of cocoa planted at high density without shade. It is concluded that cocoa farming could be an effective means to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions in cocoa growing countries. Key words: ...

  12. Effects of plant density and proportion on the interaction between wheat with alexandergrass plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of competitive relationships among plant species requires appropriate experimental designs and method of analysis. The hypothesis of this research was that two species growing in coexistence show different growth and development due to their relative competitiveness. This research aims to measure the relative competitiveness of wheat crop compared to Alexandergrass by the interpretation of plant density and proportional effects using replacement series experiments. Monocultures were cultivated in densities of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 plants per pot and analyzed by regression of dry mass data. Mixture experiment was cultivated in wheat:Alexandergrass proportions of 0:6, 1:5, 2:4, 3:3, 4:2, 5:1 and 6:0 plants per pot and analyzed by graphical interpretation of growth and production characteristics. Both experiments were carried out in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Alexandergrass was more sensitive to intraspecific competition than wheat. Alexandergrass was lightly more competitive than wheat. Number and weight of spikes and number of tillers were the wheat characteristics more affected by Alexandergrass interference.

  13. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. II. Evaluation of potential antagonistic fungi isolated from rape seeds against the main pathogens of rape crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro relationships between identified seed- and soil-borne fungi from rape samples have been investigated in order to evaluate their antagonistic ability as potential biocontrol agents. The bioproduct obtained from the Trichoderma viride Pers. (strain Td50 has been tested in vivo against the main phytopathogens of rape: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. in greenhouse at the Laboratory of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Biology Faculty, University of Bucharest – Romania and in the field at the Agricultural Experimental Research-Development Station Caracal (AERDS, Olt district. The T. viride (strain Td50 bioproduct formulated as a powder for the seed treatment has been effective in the protection of rape plantlets against the above mentioned phytopathogens.

  14. Performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears as affected by planting density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus da Silveira Pasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears at two planting densities. The experiment was carried out during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in one-year-old orchards (2011/2012 of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears, trained in a central-leader system and planted in two densities (2,000 and 4,000 trees per hectare. The assessed parameters were: production per hectare, production per tree, yield efficiency, number of fruit per tree, average fruit weight, trunk diameter increment, fruit firmness, and soluble solid contents. The cumulative yield of 'Rocha' is greater at the higher planting density, whereas the yield efficiency of 'Santa Maria' increases at the lower planting density, as the trees get more mature. Trunk diameter of 'Rocha' also increases at the lower planting density. However, fruit quality parameters in both cultivars are little affected by planting density.

  15. Light response of sunflower and canola as affected by plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, A

    2017-08-01

    Crop response to light is an important parameter determining crop growth. Three field (split plots) experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization on the light absorption and light extinction of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.). A detailed set of plant growth, light absorption and crop yield and oil related parameters were determined. Light was measured at noon during the sunny days with clear sky. In experiment I, although the plant density (PD) of 14 resulted in the highest rate of sunflower light absorption (31.37%) and light extinction (0.756), the highest rate of grain yield and grain oil yield was resulted at PD12 at 3639 and 1457.9kg/ha, respectively; as well as by genotype SUP.A. In experiment II (canola), PD80 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (13.13%), light extinction (0.63), grain yield (2189.4kg/ha) and grain oil yield (556.54kg/ha). This was also the case for Genotype H. In experiment III (canola), although N150 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (10.74%) and light extinction (0.48), the highest rate of grain yield (3413.6kg/ha) and grain oil yield (891.86kg/ha) was resulted at N100 as well as by Genotype H401. Results indicate how light properties, crop growth and yield of sunflower and canola can be affected by plant and environmental parameters, which are also of practical use by farmers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rape trauma syndrome as scientific expert testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, A P

    1990-08-01

    Behavioral science studies conducted on rape victims reveal a posttraumatic stress disorder which follows the attack known as rape trauma syndrome. Evidence of rape trauma syndrome can be very useful in explaining the behavior of rape victims. Rape trauma syndrome can help corroborate the victim's assertion of lack of consent and also help the jury understand the typical reactions of rape victims. Courts have held that expert testimony of rape trauma syndrome is admissible as evidence of (i) lack of consent, (ii) the amount of damages in civil suits, (iii) a defense to culpable behavior, and (iv) an explanation for behavior of the victim that is inconsistent with the claim of rape. Rape trauma syndrome meets the requirements for admissibility when it is used for the proper purpose and with adequate safeguards to prevent any unfair prejudice. Based on case precedent on the admissibility of rape trauma syndrome as scientific expert testimony, rape trauma syndrome should be admissible if (i) the evidence presented only shows the typical reactions to rape and does not make any legal conclusions as to whether the victim was raped, (ii) the expert is qualified, (iii) a proper foundation is laid, (iv) liberal cross-examination of the expert is allowed, and (v) the defense can introduce its own expert testimony on rape trauma syndrome.

  17. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Oilseed Rape in the Wheat-Oilseed Rape Strip Intercropping Influenced by Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amirmardfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum and oilseed rape (Brassica napus strip intercropping on yield components, seed and biological yields of oilseed rape, field experiments were carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran during 2010-2012 cropping seasons. The first factor consisted of four types of wheat and oilseed rape cropping system, sole crop of oilseed rape (A1,: strip intercropping with 8:3 (A2, 12:4 (A3 and 16:5 (A4 of wheat and oilseed rape rows, respectively and the other factor consisted of two fertilizer levels, B1: 100% chemical fertilizers (urea and triple superphosphate and B2: 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers (Nitrazhin and Barvar2. The results showed that strip intercropping of wheat- oilseed rape resulted in significant increase in yield components, seed yield per occupied unit area and biological yield per occupied unit area of oilseed rape as compared with mono-cropping. The number of silique per plant in intercropping systems was significantly higher than that of mono-cropping. The highest seed yield was obtained in the 16:5 rows of wheat-oilseed rape with 343.76 g.m-2 and the lowest mean was observed in mono-cropping of oilseed rape with 260.21 g.m-2. Biological yield per occupied unit area and seed yield per intercropped unit area in B1 were significantly greater than that of B2, but this treatment had no significant effect on the other traits. Because, B1 and B2 had no significant difference in seed yield per occupied unit area and due to the importance of reduction in chemical fertilizers consumption and food and environmental health care, strip intercropping of wheat-oilseed rape under 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers can be recommended as a suitable cultural method.

  18. Growth limitation of Lemna minor due to high plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Nes, van E.H.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of high population densities on the growth rate of Lemna minor (L.) was studied under laboratory conditions at 23°C in a medium with sufficient nutrients. At high population densities, we found a non-linear decreasing growth rate with increasing L. minor density. Above a L. minor biomass

  19. EFFECTS OF PLANT DENSITY AND NPK APPLICATION ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.E. Law-Ogbomo

    There was no significant interaction effect on agronomic traits assessed as both factors acted independently on ... The low tuber yield per hectare is attributed to obsolete cultural practices, which include inappropriate plant population ... planting to protect it against nematode and fungi, respectively. After planting, each. 2206 ...

  20. Investigation of the plant species diversity, density, abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant species play very important role as they are not just planted to make the streets look beautiful but are a vital part of the ecosystem. They are a major source of the oxygen, help control, stabilise the climate and feed animals. The choice of planting alien trees instead of indigenous trees on the street was a big ...

  1. Aruscular mycorhizal fungi alter plant allometry and biomass - density relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lu; Weiner, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    fungi (AMF) can promote plant growth and affect plant form. Here experiments were carried out to test whether AMF affect plant allometry and the self-thinning trajectory. Methods Two experiments were conducted on Medicago sativa L., a leguminous species known to be highly dependent on mycorrhiza. Two...

  2. Bacillus megaterium A6 suppresses Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field and promotes oilseed rape growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China and other regions of the world. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the plant-growth promoting bacterium Bacillus megaterium A6 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rap...

  3. Differential growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant density in two wild plants belonging to contrasting functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Marisela; Urcelay, Carlos

    2009-10-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant growth was examined in two wild plant species belonging to contrasting functional types: an annual forb (Bidens pilosa, Asteraceae) and a deciduous shrub (Acacia caven, Fabaceae) at three contrasting plant densities (one, two, and three individuals per pot). AMF had a slightly negative effect on B. pilosa when the species grew in isolation while they positively affected A. caven. Positive effects of AMF on shoot mass of A. caven decreased at higher plant densities, while shoot mass of individuals of B. pilosa showed less marked differences between plant densities. When considering total biomass per pot, AMF positively affected A. caven growth while negatively affecting B. pilosa, at all three plant densities. Root/shoot ratio per pot was negatively affected by AMF but not plant density in both species. These findings highlight the importance of including plants belonging to different life forms and/or traits in research regarding the interaction between AMF and intraspecific plant competition.

  4. The effect of plant density with different row spacing on quality of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the superiority in the quality of the fatty acid composition was observed in the crops grown at lower density. Therefore, the row spacing of 0.8 m seems to be a good compromise between achene production and good acid composition of oil. Key words: Helianthus annuus L, plant distribution, plant density, achene ...

  5. Effect of planting date and density on yield and yield components of Medicinal plant pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh choopan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of planting date and planting density on quantitative traits of medicinal plant, Schneider squash (Cucurbita pepo L., an experiment was conducted at research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in year 2012. A split plot arrangement based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications was used. Treatments consisted of three planting date levels (1 May, 11 May and 21 May and two density levels (2.5 and 4 Plants per m-2 which were allocated to main plots and sub plots, respectively. At the end of the growing season, the seed yield, fruit yield, number of fruits (per ha-1, number of seed (per m-2, number of seed per fruit, seed weight per fruit, 1000- seed weight and harvest index were measured. Results showed that the second planting date (11 May results in highest amount of the quantitative study traits. The density of 2.5 plants per m-2, compared to the density of 4 plants per m-2, could result in highest yield and yield components. The interactions of planting date and density were not significant in terms of fruit and seed yield but among the other yield components, significantly affect the number of seed (per m-2, the number of seed per fruit and the seed weight per fruit at the probability level of 5%. Overall this study showed that the optimum planting date and suitable density can play an important role in increasing fruit and seed yield of the pumpkin plant, considering the usefulness of this plant in the food, cosmetics, and medicinal industry.

  6. An Application of Art Therapy to the Trauma of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave-Nykaza, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Explores rape in terms of specific trauma usually experienced after rape: posttraumatic stress disorder, rape trauma syndrome, and permanent life changes. Explores ways in which art therapy can help rape victim engage in healing. Reviews study of one rape victim and current literature as example of life-altering effects of rape and importance of…

  7. Rape reporting: "Classic Rape" and the behavior of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay-Warner, Jody; McMahon-Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Two theories of rape reporting, the Classic Rape perspective and Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law, are tested in this article. We offer the first comprehensive multivariate test of Classic Rape predictions among a nationally representative sample of victims, as well as the first test of Black's predictions for rape reporting. Through the construction of multinomial regression models, we are able to examine reporting patterns for both victims and third parties. Weapon use and physical injury consistently predicted reporting. The likelihood of victim reporting significantly increased when assaults occurred either in public or through a "home blitz," whereas place of assault did not affect the likelihood of third-party reporting. On the other hand, victim-offender relationship significantly affected the likelihood of third-party reporting but was not significant in the victim-reporting models. There were mixed findings regarding Black's stratification and morphology predictions, and we found no significant effects for culture, organization, or social control. Overall, these findings lend greater support to the Classic Rape perspective than to Black's model.

  8. Managing mepiquat chloride and plant density for optimal yield and quality of cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, X.; Zhang, L.; Du, M.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Tian, X.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The growth regulator mepiquat chloride (MC) is used in cotton production across the globe to control plant growth and maximize yield and quality of cotton. With the conversion from hand picking to mechanical harvesting in China, plant densities are increased, and more compact plants are required,

  9. The impact of rape acknowledgment on survivor outcomes: The moderating effects of rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Newins, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2017-11-13

    Little is known about how rape acknowledgment relates to posttrauma functioning; recent research suggests the effect may depend on additional factors. In the current study, the moderating effect of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the relationships between rape acknowledgment and mental health outcomes was examined. A sample of 181 female rape survivors recruited from a university completed an online survey assessing RMA, rape acknowledgment, depression symptoms, and alcohol use. Generally, the results supported that RMA moderated the influence of rape acknowledgment on depression symptoms and average quantity per drinking episode, but not frequency of alcohol use. The findings demonstrated that when individuals endorsed high levels of RMA, acknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than unacknowledged rape survivors. Among individuals low on RMA, unacknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than acknowledged rape survivors. It is recommended that clinicians recognize the role of survivor beliefs, such as RMA, in the relationship between labeling sexual assault experiences and mental health consequences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of Quality Traits of Forage Maize Cultivars as Affected by Different Plant Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Eskandari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize has an important role in livestock nutrition. Thus, improving its forage quality through agronomical managements seems to be of high importance. To evaluate quality traits of forage maize cultivars in response to plant densities, a factorial experiment based on RCBD with three replications was carried out at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh during 2013-2014 growing season. The first factor was plant density with three levels (93000, 105000 and 119000 plant.ha-1 and the second factor was maize cultivars with five levels (Zola, Simon, NS, 540 and 370. Results of the experiment indicated that dry matter production was affected by the interaction of plant density and cultivar, where cultivar 540 produced the highest dry forage (980 g.m-2 by density of 119000 plant.h-1 and cultivar NS the lowest (933 g.m-2 dry forage by density of 93000 plant.m-2. However, all cultivars under study produced higher dry matter under higher plant densities. It was also observed that Zola cultivar, with 638 g.kg-1 of hemicellulose, had the lowest forage quality. Other cultivars were in the same statistical group. Phosphorous content of forage was in its highest value in 93000 plant density, while calcium content was not affected by plant density. Lower plant densities resulted in higher crude protein content. Cultivar no. 540 produced the highest crude protein yield (kg.ha-1 suggesting its superiority to the other cultivar. This cultivar can be recommended for growing in this region and other regions with same climatic conditions for producing high quality and quantity of maize forage production.

  11. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Washington, DC. Medea , A. and Thompson, K. Against Rape. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroud, 1974. Rape: A Preventative Inquiry (film) 345-10 DN...programmed text study guide. UNITED STATES COAST GUARD The Coast Guard Training Center, Cape May, New Jersey, does not include rape awareness/prevention...82. September 1982. Arlington, Virginia. Connell, N. and Wilson, C. Rape: The First Resource Book for Women. New York: New American Library, 1974

  12. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  13. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    Feminist theory is used to explain rape, the societal reaction to it and the health outcomes for the victims. The paper concludes that many health problems suffered by women in Nigeria are as a result of rape. Public health practitioners should devise mechanisms of eliciting rape information from victims so as to effectively ...

  14. Hydroponic vs. Soilless Media: Interaction with Plant Density

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnock, Derek R.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Water stress can cause early heading in some plant species. ‘Super Dwarf’ rice was grown in hydroponic culture and soilless media to determine if a slight water stress, caused by the soilless media, would cause earlier heading.

  15. EFFECT OF MAIZE INTERCROP PLANT DENSITIES ON YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Ipomoea batatas L.) and quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) in combating vitamin A and protein malnutrition, small land holdings by rural poor farmers still limit the crops' overall production in Africa. As such, intercropping and optimum plant ...

  16. Why, when and how men rape: Understanding rape perpetration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research confirms that rape is highly prevalent in South Africa, with only a small proportion of incidents reported to the police. Many of the roots of the problem lie in our accentuated gender hierarchy. This highlights the importance of interventions and policies that start in childhood and seek to change the way in which ...

  17. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Xiafang [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail: xfsheng604@sohu.com; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape.

  18. Seed Filling Trend of Faba bean (Vicia faba L. as Affected by Planting Date and Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahemi Karizaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of planting date and plant density on phenology, seed yield, its components, seed filling rate and grain filling period of faba bean, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at Research Farm of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Gonbad University, Iran, during growing season of 2012-2013. The factors were three planting dates (4th of November, 4th of December 2013 and 3th of January 2014 and four planting densities (8, 12, 16 and 18 plant/m2. The results showed that planting dates significantly affected on phenology, yield and its components, seed filling rate and periods while the effect of plant density on seed filling period was not significant. Comparison of sigmoid equation coefficients showed that seed filling rates in three planting dates were different. The highest seed filling rate was obtained in 3th of January and the lowest at November 4, planting dates. The effect of planting date on seed filling duration was also significant, but it was not on plant density. Regression analysis showed that increasing 0.01g seed growth rate in seed unit, resulted in seed weight increase by 45.11, 32.43 and 26.66 g for November 4, December 4 and January 3 planting dates respectively. Delaying planting dates decreased seed filling period by 8.53 days and seed weight by 0.27 g. due to its effect on day length and temperature changes. Delayed planting dates were more effective on the rate and period of seed filling and phenology of faba bean. Delaying in planting date increased time to emergence, while decreased seed filling period and seed yield because of coincidence of this period with high temperatures.

  19. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  20. Marital rape: history, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A

    2003-07-01

    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  1. Mapping of QTL for seed dormancy in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzki, Jörg; Schoo, Burkhard; Ecke, Wolfgang; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Following winter oilseed rape cultivation, considerable numbers of volunteer oilseed rape plants may occur in subsequent years in following crops. The appearance of volunteer oilseed rape plants is based on the capability of the seeds to become secondary dormant and to survive in this stage for many years in the soil. Genetic reduction of secondary seed dormancy in oilseed rape could provide a means to reduce the frequency of volunteer plants and especially the dispersal of transgenic oilseed rape. The objective of the present study was to analyse the inheritance of primary and secondary seed dormancy in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population derived from the cross Express 617 × R53 and to study correlations to other seed traits. Field experiments were performed in Germany for 2 years at two locations with two replicates. Seeds harvested from open pollinated plants were used for all analyses, including a laboratory test for seed dormancy. A previously developed molecular marker map of the doubled haploid population was used to map QTL of the relevant traits. For primary, secondary and total seed dormancy, the results showed significant effects of the genotypes and their interactions, with years and locations. Two, four and five QTL were detected for primary, secondary and total seed dormancy which explained 19, 35 and 42 % of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Results show that secondary seed dormancy is a heritable trait and that selection for low secondary seed dormancy is possible.

  2. Effect of plant density on agronomic characteristics chlorophyll content and stem remobilization percentage in four grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed javady

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of optimal plant density and cultivar selection is one of yield increment approaches in grain sorghum. In this in regard, a field experiment with factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design (RCBD with tree replicates was done at Birjand in 2003. In order to evaluate the effects of plant desity (100000 , 180000 and 260000 plant/ha on seed yield , yield components, and some physiological traits in 4 grain sorghum varieties (Sepideh, Saravan Local , Payam and Kimia. The results showed that the density increment (from 100000 to 260000 plant/ha had advantage for seed yield. However, the lower density , due to reduction of plant competition, resulted in a significant increase in single plant yield, number of seeds per panicle , remobilization percentage of different parts of stem and stem remobilzation percentage. The highest stem remobilization percentage belonged to top of stem internode. Effect of density was not-significant on traits such as chlorophyll index and 1000 kernel weight. Cultivars were significantly different in all of studied traits. Intreaction between variety and density was significant on stem remobilization percentage and number of seed per panicle. There was a significant relationship between grain yield , 1000 kernel weight (r = 0.73** and number of seed per panicle (r = 0.62**. It was concluded that Saravan local variety with grain yield of 12.75 ton/ha and density of 260000 plant/ha were the best combinaton of tratments

  3. Effects of sowing time and plant density on yield and essential oil production of medicinal plant, peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jabarpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of two sowing time (middle of May and early June and four plant density (8, 12, 16 and 20 plants.m-2 on yield and essential oil content of peppermint at two cutting stages, an experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz during growing season of 2003-2004. These treatments were performed as factorial based of randomized complete block design with three replications. The result of the first cutting showed that plant sowing at the early June and eight plants.m-2densities had the highest leaf (4.47% and plant (2.92% essential oil percentage, but these factors and their interaction effects did not effect on the essential oil yield. In the second cutting, the highest plant essential oil was observed in plant sowing at early June and 12 plants/m2 densities. The highest essential oil yield in second cutting produced in middle of May sowing time. The results of two cutting stages showed that the fresh and dry yield decreased by delaying in sowing time.

  4. Patterns of rape and approaches to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiton-Rockwell, F

    1978-03-01

    The family physician is likely to be involved in the care of the rape victim. This paper focuses on the social and legal definitions of rape as well as the incidence of rape. The Rape Trauma Syndrome is explained and normative responses of victims are discussed. Eight common myths about rape are identified which the victim and the physician may share. In discussing the myths, guidelines for counseling the rape victim are delineated: encourage the victim to talk about her feelings; as the physician, remain nonjudgmental; provide information or resources to the victim; view the aftermath of rape as a response to a life-threatening event; and enlist the support of the victim's significant others. Finally, the importance of understanding the available community resources is stressed.

  5. Breaking the silence surrounding rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, S

    1999-12-11

    This article documents the turning points in the rape issue, which led to the acknowledgement of its prevalence in the world, especially in South Africa. November 25 marked the first day of the "Take a Stand" movement in South Africa, which coincided with the International Day Against Violence Against Women. This movement involves peaceful protests and poster campaigns, followed by months of sustained news coverage of rape. This was launched by a coalition of organizations, including women's groups, churches, businesses, and trades unions, that are speaking out against all forms of sexual violence. In the international community, rape is starting to be taken seriously. In 1996, sexual assault was cited as a crime against humanity by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. In addition, a forum in London, UK, on November 25, discussed rape issues and recommendations on how to prevent such violence were given. The need for a change in legal systems, which currently discourage women from taking legal actions, was also recognized. In view of this, the medical community is challenged to provide sensitive and appropriate help to women who have been assaulted.

  6. Romeo, Juliet, and Statutory Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierie, David M; Budd, Kristen M

    2016-07-15

    Statutory rape is an important yet understudied topic. There is broad public support for the prosecution of older adults who engage in sexual relationships with minors regardless of perceptions of consent by either party. However, some scholars worry that expansive definitions within these laws have led to the widespread involvement of the justice system in the lives of similarly aged teenagers engaging in relatively normal sexual behavior, so called "Romeo and Juliet" liaisons. This, in turn, has called into question the legitimacy of national policies, such as sex offender registration, because of the presumption that registries are likely filled with these kinds of cases which may not represent the intent of legislatures and the public. Despite the importance of these debates, there is little research assessing the prevalence of Romeo and Juliet cases in official crime statistics or that analyze differences in characteristics of statutory rape as a function of victim-offender age differences. Drawing on more than 20 years of police data from over 6,000 police departments in the United States, this study found statutory rape cases were rare and Romeo and Juliet cases were even rarer. Multivariate models showed several distinctions between statutory rape cases as a function of the age differences between victim and offender. Of note, the odds that additional forms of sexual aggression occurred in the incident grew as the age difference expanded. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Wild pollinators enhance oilseed rape yield in small-holder farming systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Xiao, Haijun; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Jauker, Frank; Luo, Shudong; van der Werf, Wopke

    2017-02-21

    Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination service providers from Asian smallholder farming systems, where fields are small, and variation among fields is high. We established 18 winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields along a large geographical gradient in Jiangxi province in China. In each field, oilseed rape plants were grown in closed cages that excluded pollinators and open cages that allowed pollinator access. The pollinator community was sampled by pan traps for the entire oilseed rape blooming period. Oilseed rape plants from which insect pollinators were excluded had on average 38% lower seed set, 17% lower fruit set and 12% lower yield per plant, but the seeds were 17% heavier, and the caged plants had 28% more flowers and 18% higher aboveground vegetative biomass than plants with pollinator access. Oilseed rape plants thus compensate for pollination deficit by producing heavier seeds and more flowers. Regression analysis indicated that local abundance and diversity of wild pollinators were positively associated with seed set and yield/straw ratio, while honey bee abundance was not related to yield parameters. Wild pollinator abundance and diversity contribute to oilseed rape yield by enhancing plant resource allocation to seeds rather than to above-ground biomass. This study highlights the importance of the conservation of wild pollinators to support oilseed rape production in small-holder farming systems in China.

  8. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    in Denmark. It was hypothesized that there would be a lower representation of rape victims, measured by the number of calls, to a regional rape crisis center in the rural communities further away from the regional rape crisis center of Aarhus compared to the urban communities closer to the rape crisis center....... A one-way ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significant association between the number of victim calls and the distance to the rape crisis center. The closer the residence of the victim was to the rape crisis center the more victim calls were registered. The study also examined what types of help...

  9. Life-form and Density of Valuable Non-timber Plants in Ukpom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Key words: Rainforest, Plants, Density, Non-Timber Products, Exploitation. Introduction. A forest is a natural resource of multiple values, but oftentimes, the value of a tract of forest is estimated from the population density or standing volume of timber tree species present, while much more valuable non-timber resources are ...

  10. Yield components and quality of intercropped cotton in response to mepiquat chloride and plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Lili; Zhang, Lizhen; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der Wopke; Liu, Shaodong; Zhang, Siping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Zhaohu

    2015-01-01

    Cotton yield is greatly improved by moderately increasing plant density and modifying the cotton plants to have a compact structure, which is also required by the increasing demand for mechanized harvest. However, in cotton strip intercropped with wheat, only limited knowledge on yield response

  11. Effect of plant density on the yield of maize ( Zea mays L.) in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted in four locations in Ghana in 1986 to determine the effect of seven planting densities: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 x 103 plants/ha on grain yield of three maize varieties differing in maturity: early, medium and full season. Maize grain yield was significanlly influenced by leaf area index, variety and ...

  12. Effects of Plant Density and NPK Application on the Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in a forest zone to examine the effect of increasing plant population and NPK application on the growth and tuber yield of Dioscorea rotundata (Poir) cv “Obiaoturugo”. This study involved three trials. The first was conducted in 2010 involving five plant densities (10000 ...

  13. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  14. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  15. Evaluation of Qualitative and Quantitative Traits of Maize (cv. 604 Under Drought Stress and Plant Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Vafa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of drought stress and plant density on yield and yields Components of maize (cv. 604, an experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications in Ilam station, Iran during 2007-2008 growing season. The treatment were three levels of irrigation (90, 120 and 150 evaporation (mm from pan (Class A as main plots, four planting densities (90000, 100000, 110000 and 125000 plants ha-1 as sub plot. The results showed that different levels of irrigation on the most of measured traits were significant at 1% probability level. Level of irrigation 90 mm evaporation (mm from pan had a highest a number grain per row, 1000 kernel weight, grain yield and biologic yield other than traits. Between plating density the most of measured traits were significant. The highest grain yield, row per ear, number grain per row, biologic yield and harvest index obtained in 110000 plants ha-1. Interaction effect of irrigation Ч plant density was effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield from 90 mm evaporationЧ110000 plants ha-1 and the lowest grain yield from 150 mm evaporationЧ90000 plants ha-1.

  16. Tree survival and maximum density of planted forests – Observations from South African spacing studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus v. Gadow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Among the most important aspects of risk and hazard studies relating to forest ecosystems are maximum forest density and density-dependent tree survival. Methods Long-term observations about the maximum density of unthinned Pinus patula and P. elliottii field plots based on the Correlated Curve Trend (CCT spacing studies which were established almost 8 decades ago by O’Connor (Forest Research with Special Reference to Planting Distances and Thinning, 1935 in South Africa. Three specific approaches were introduced for analysing maximum density and tree survival, namely the ‘limiting line’, Nilson’s sparsity and tree survival with the Weibull function. Results The main results are: a Maximum densities differ greatly among the two species grown on the same site and within the same species grown on different sites; it is possible to relate these differences to site index in both species. b The relationship between the quadratic mean diameter and the minimum average spacing of surviving trees (known as Nilson’s Sparsity appears to be surprisingly similar in both species. c An analysis of tree survival in response to different initial planting espacements shows that the Weibull survival function parameters can be estimated if the initial planting density is known. This result is presented for each of the eight large experiments used in this study. Conclusions This study contributes to a better understanding of tree survival and maximum density which are the key factors required for estimating risk and uncertainty. The risk of tree mortality is not constant, but varies with tree species, planting density, tree age and growing site. For estimating that risk, therefore, continuous long-term observation on different sites and with varying planting densities, as provided by the unthinned CCT series, are essential.

  17. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012...

  18. Floral herbivory increases with inflorescence size and local plant density in Digitalis purpurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Grindeland, John M.

    2008-07-01

    Insect herbivores search for their host plants in heterogeneous environments, and the efficiency of host location may be influenced by plant architecture and abundance. In this study, we ask how plant and habitat characteristics traditionally thought to attract pollinators are related to attack rates by floral herbivores. Patterns of floral herbivory by the moth larva Eupithecia pulchellata were studied in relation to inflorescence size and local plant density in two years in a natural population of the facultative biennial Digitalis purpurea. Overall levels of herbivory were low, 84% of the infested plants lost less than 10% of their flowers. Only 9% of the plants lost more than 20% of their flowers. Probability of herbivory at the plant level increased strongly with inflorescence height, and it was considerably higher in dense patches compared to sparse ones. There was no effect of local plant density on the functional relationship between inflorescence size and probability of herbivory. Both number and proportion of damaged flowers per plant increased with inflorescence height. The results suggest that E. pulchellata is attracted to dense patches and large individuals of D. purpurea, and that negative effects of herbivory increase with plant size. This implies diminishing returns for investment in more flowers in D. purpurea, and indicates that herbivory may select for smaller flowering size and flower number in this monocarpic species.

  19. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the development of models forecasting the melliferous characteristics and the potential honey yield of oilseed rape, we analyzed data on the temporal pattern of number of oilseed rape flowers, nectar secretion, sugar concentration, and weight of bee hives in relation...... with significantly reduced quality of the nectar in terms of both volume and sugar concentration, and our results suggest that the oilseed rape in this year did not contribute notably to bee colony development. In years in which the oilseed rape flowered around the normal time (beginning of May), the amount...... of secreted sugar decreased over the flowering period, being governed by inherent oilseed rape characteristics modified by climatic factors preceding the onset of flowering, as well as climatic conditions during flowering. The exploitation of oilseed rape nectar by bee colonies was found to be influenced...

  20. Winter rape. The handbook for professionals; Winterraps. Das Handbuch fuer Profis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, O. [Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeinen Pflanzenbau/Oekologischen Landbau; Friedt, W. (eds.) [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Pflanzenzuechtung, IFZ

    2007-07-01

    Winter rape is a successive culture from the unloved step-child to an efficient and productive oil fruit with manifold possibilities of application. The handbook under consideration describes all relevant fundamentals of a successful cultivation of rape from preparation of the seed-bed up to sowing and harvest. Furthermore, problems of agricultural hygiene and plant protection are described. The storage and competent marketing are special challenges of each plant manager. The reader gains an insight into the entire application and use of winter rape in the range of food and non-food materials: to rape oil as an example for human range and in different possibilities of technical utilizations such as biofuel and machine oil. Furthermore, the use of winter rape as animal food is described. This book contains a lot of information about economical factors, performance of winter rape for the crop rotation and hints according to an optimization of the cultivation process. This book is an actual and valuable source for farmers, consultants as well as students and pupils.

  1. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  2. Rape and the Serial Rapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    suffered from various personality disorders . "Twenty-two (16 percent) were diagnosed as borderline personalities , and thirteen (10 percent) showed...75 percent) were predominantly diagnosed as suffering from a personality disorder . Richard T. Rada in his study found that the category of the...Rape: The Psychology of the Offender (New York: Plenum Press), 109. 45 Fritz A. Kenn et al., " Forensics Psychiatry: Profiles of Two Types of Sex

  3. Rape: psychopathology, theory and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A; Collie, Rachael M; Ward, Tony; Thakker, Jo

    2008-07-01

    Whether treatment programs are effective at rehabilitating rapists is yet to be determined empirically. From a scientist-practitioner perspective, treatment should be based on an empirical understanding of rape and rapists, and evidence-based knowledge of treatment outcome with rapists. In this paper we comprehensively review the characteristics of rapists, etiological features implicated in the commission of rape, and relevant treatment outcome research. We pay particular attention to contemporary knowledge about the core vulnerabilities and features required to understand and treat rapists effectively, and, where possible, highlight similarities and differences between rapists, child molesters and non-sexual violent offenders. We use an epistemological framework to (a) critique the various etiological accounts of rape available and (b) help guide professionals' use of such knowledge in both treatment design and evaluation. Gaps in the understanding of rapists' characteristics and etiological features are highlighted, as are discrepancies between current knowledge and treatment approaches. We conclude by highlighting areas for future research and practice innovation.

  4. Forage yield and nutritive value of Tanzania grass under nitrogen supplies and plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Paiva de Freitas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the nitrogen and plant density influence on the yield, forage dissection and nutritive value of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.. The design was of completely randomized blocks with three replications in a factorial arrangement with four nitrogen levels (0, 80, 160 or 320 kg/ha N and three plant densities (9, 25 or 49 plants/m². The plots were cut at 25 cm from soil level when the canopy reached 95% of light interception. The total dry matter forage yield and dry matter forage yield per harvest increased linearly with the nitrogen fertilization. The leaf and stem yield had the same response. The senesced forage yield was quadratically influenced by the nitrogen. The stems ratio in the morphologic composition was high in the high nitrogen levels and in the low plant densities. The leaf:stem ratio showed high values in this trial, but it was increased in plots without nitrogen and high plant density. The pre-grazing height was reduced with the increase in plant density. The nutritive value was favored by the nitrogen fertilization, which increased the crude protein level and reduced neutral detergent fiber and lignin. These factors increased the leaf and stem in vitro digestibility of organic matter. Nitrogen fertilization increases the forage yield of Tanzania grass under rotational grazing. After the establishment, plant density has little influence on the Tanzania grass yield and its forage dissection. The harvest with 95% light interception improves the structure and nutritive value of Tanzania grass pastures.

  5. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Schulze

    Full Text Available Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto. The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  6. Densidade de plantas e produção de amendoim Plant density and peanut yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nakagawa

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o efeito da densidade de plantas sobre a produção de vagens e seus componentes na cultura do amendoim cv. Tatu, em solos com diferentes fertilidades, foram realizados três experimentos, em condições de campo, no município de Pontal, SP, em um Latossolo Roxo, em anos agrícolas distintos, no cultivo das águas. As densidades estudadas foram 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 e 26 plantas por metro, em espaçamento de 0,60 m entre linhas. O componente de produção responsável pela variação da produção de vagens por planta foi o número de vagens, tendo diminuído com o aumento da densidade de plantas. Nas maiores densidades de plantas, as produções por planta foram menores, todavia devido à maior população de plantas, foram obtidas nestas as maiores produtividades de vagens. Produtividades de vagens, sem perdas significativas em relação às maiores densidades, foram obtidas nas densidades de 14 plantas por metro em solo de alta fertilidade e de 11 plantas por metro em solos de média/baixa fertilidades, que originaram, respectivamente, 12,92, 10,67 e 10,93 plantas por metro à colheita.The effect of plant density on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. yield, cv. ‘Tatu’, was studied in soils of various fertility levels. Three experiments were carried out under field conditions, on a soil classified as Oxisol, at Pontal, SP, Brazil, during the wet seasons of 1987-88, 1988-89 and 1989-90. The densities studied were 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 26 plants per meter of row, with a row spacing of 0.60 m. The yield component responsible for the variation of pod production per plant was number of pods per plant, which decreased with increasing plant density. However, the low pod production per plant under high plant densities was compensated by the high population of plants, with high yield. Thus, good pod yield, without significant losses in relation to the highest densities, were obtained at the density of 14 plants per meter for the

  7. Plant Response to Soils, Site Preparation, and Initial Pine Planting Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Gale L. Wolters; Ronald E. Thill; Alton Martin; V. Clark Baldwin

    1995-01-01

    This study described the effects of soils, site preparation, and initial pine regeneration spacings on tree growth and the associated understory woody and herbaceous plant succession. Although Sawyer soils appeared more productive than Ruston soils before the harvest and regeneration treatments, woody and herbaceous plant differences were not apparent between the...

  8. Measuring bitterbrush seed production on plants with variable crown density...complete counts per plant suggested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald W. Seegrist; Donald L. Neal; Richard L. Hubbard

    1966-01-01

    A sampling study was made of the number of bitterbrush seeds per trap from plots in northeastern California. The count per trap had a large variation for each plant. This variation was not reduced to an acceptable low level by grouping the seed traps according to their position relative to the plant crown. In the absence of additional information, it is recommended...

  9. Does fallow planted soybean and sweet sorghum reduce plant cane density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane is planted to approximately 172,000 hectares in Louisiana annually and nearly 25% of a sugarcane growers’ land that is to be planted to sugarcane remains fallow 8 to 10 months each year. During the fallow period land is regraded to improve drainage, and weeds are controlled by herbicides a...

  10. Estimation of Wheat Plant Density at Early Stages Using High Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyang Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crop density is a key agronomical trait used to manage wheat crops and estimate yield. Visual counting of plants in the field is currently the most common method used. However, it is tedious and time consuming. The main objective of this work is to develop a machine vision based method to automate the density survey of wheat at early stages. RGB images taken with a high resolution RGB camera are classified to identify the green pixels corresponding to the plants. Crop rows are extracted and the connected components (objects are identified. A neural network is then trained to estimate the number of plants in the objects using the object features. The method was evaluated over three experiments showing contrasted conditions with sowing densities ranging from 100 to 600 seeds⋅m-2. Results demonstrate that the density is accurately estimated with an average relative error of 12%. The pipeline developed here provides an efficient and accurate estimate of wheat plant density at early stages.

  11. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of tri-trophic interactions: Spatial variation and effects of plant density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Moreira, Xoaquín; Ramos-Zapata, José

    2017-02-01

    The factors driving variation in species interactions are often unknown, and few studies have made a link between changes in interactions and the strength of selection. We report on spatial variation in functional responses by a seed predator (SP) and its parasitic wasps associated with the herb Ruellia nudiflora. We assessed the influence of plant density on consumer responses and determined whether density effects and spatial variation in functional responses altered natural selection by these consumers on the plant. We established common gardens at two sites in Yucatan, Mexico, and planted R. nudiflora at two densities in each garden. We recorded fruit output and SP and parasitoid attack; calculated relative fitness (seed number) under scenarios of three trophic levels (accounting for SP and parasitoid effects), two trophic levels (accounting for SP but not parasitoid effects), and one trophic level (no consumer effects); and compared selection strength on fruit number under these scenarios across sites and densities. There was spatial variation in SP recruitment, whereby the SP functional response was negatively density-dependent at one site but density-independent at the other; parasitoid responses were density-independent and invariant across sites. Site variation in SP attack led, in turn, to differences in SP selection on fruit output, and parasitoids did not alter SP selection. There were no significant effects of density at either site. Our results provide a link between consumer functional responses and consumer selection on plants, which deepens our understanding of geographic variation in the evolutionary outcomes of multitrophic interactions. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Seed dressings to control slug damage in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Louise C; Mullins, Christopher E; Wilson, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    Slugs are major pests of oilseed rape that are poorly controlled by conventional bait pellets. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the potential of seed-dressings to control slug damage in this crop. Four compounds: metaldehyde, methiocarb, cinnamamide and 3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) were tested at a range of doses for phytotoxicity and ability to reduce damage by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Metaldehyde and methiocarb were not phytotoxic at any doses, whereas all doses of cinnamamide and DMCA were. All compounds reduced slug damage, but metaldehyde and methiocarb consistently performed better than cinnamamide and DMCA. Metaldehyde and methiocarb seed-dressings were compared with baited pellets containing the same active ingredients at recommended field doses. The seed-dressings protected plants from damage by D reticulatum and Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud) as well as, or better than, baited pellets. We therefore recommend that metaldehyde and methiocarb should be field-tested as seed dressings to control slugs in oilseed rape.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter plant allometry and biomass–density relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lu; Weiner, Jacob; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant biomass–density relationships during self-thinning are determined mainly by allometry. Both allometry and biomass–density relationship have been shown to vary with abiotic conditions, but the effects of biotic interactions have not been investigated. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can promote plant growth and affect plant form. Here experiments were carried out to test whether AMF affect plant allometry and the self-thinning trajectory. Methods Two experiments were conducted on Medicago sativa L., a leguminous species known to be highly dependent on mycorrhiza. Two mycorrhizal levels were obtained by applying benomyl (low AMF) or not (high AMF). Experiment 1 investigated the effects of AMF on plant growth in the absence of competition. Experiment 2 was a factorial design with two mycorrhizal levels and two plant densities (6000 and 17 500 seeds m−2). Shoot biomass, root biomass and canopy radius were measured 30, 60, 90 and 120 d after sowing. The allometric relationships among these aspects of size were estimated by standardized major axis regression on log-transformed data. Key Results Shoot biomass in the absence of competition was lower under low AMF treatment. In self-thinning populations, the slope of the log (mean shoot biomass) vs. log density relationship was significantly steeper for the high AMF treatment (slope = –1·480) than for the low AMF treatment (–1·133). The canopy radius–biomass allometric exponents were not significantly affected by AMF level, but the root–shoot allometric exponent was higher in the low AMF treatment. With a high level of AMF, the biomass–density exponent can be predicted from the above-ground allometric model of self-thinning, while this was not the case when AMF were reduced by fungicide. Conclusions AMF affected the importance of below-ground relative to above-ground interactions and changed root vs. shoot allocation. This changed allometric allocation of biomass and altered

  14. Fear of rape from behind prison walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.

  15. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  16. Rape victim assessment: Findings by psychiatrists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    valid at the lower end of the IQ range. The assessment of rape victims is a sensitive matter and poses a number of challenges to the clinician. Rape victims are often traumatised by their experience, and this can make them reluctant to talk about the incident. In a study done by Elklit et al.,[2] it was found that ~70% of sexual ...

  17. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  18. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    In every known society human sexual intercourse is enacted as a rule-bound practice that involves certain rights and obligations. In Denmark the official policy is that the rules to govern lawful sexual intercourse should be based on the idea of mutual and voluntary consent between two adults......; and as a matter of fact such rules are accepted and followed by far the most. Yet, the approach taken by Danish Criminal Law to rape does not pay heed to these rules, but is rather based on a most narrow conception of male responsibility and obligation that stands in clear opposition with practice and policy...

  19. Effects of tillage operations and plant density on leaf spot disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two seasons experiments conducted in 2002 and 2003 revealed that Tillage operations significantly influenced leafspot disease severity; Percentage lodging 3.14; 2.08 and Grain yield 3.02; 3.84 in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Plant density also had significant difference on leafspot disease severity; Percentage lodging ...

  20. The influence of poultry manure application and plant density on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of poultry manure application and plant density on the growth and yield of egusi melon (Colocynthis citrullus) on the Nsukka plains of south ... average fruit weight, 1000 - seed weight and seed yield ha-1 increased with increase poultry manure application giving seed yield increase of 51% and 41% for 5 and ...

  1. Agronomics and economics of plant population density on processing sweet corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed analysis of the effect of plant population density on processing sweet corn is lacking in the peer-reviewed literature. Therefore, field experiments were conducted utilizing six hybrids commonly grown in the North Central Region (NCR), a primary production region of processing sweet corn ...

  2. Impact of shade and cocoa plant densities on soil organic carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Cropping systems have influence on the conservation of soil organic matter. Soil samples were taken from a long term experiment that was designed to study the impact of shade and cocoa plant densities on cocoa yields. The impact of the treatments on soil organic carbon sequestration rates and the gains or losses of soil ...

  3. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  4. Plant diversity increases with the strength of negative density dependence at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. LaManna; Scott A. Mangan; Alfonso Alonso; Norman A. Bourg; Warren Y. Brockelman; Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin; Li-Wan Chang; Jyh-Min Chiang; George B. Chuyong; Keith Clay; Richard Condit; Susan Cordell; Stuart J. Davies; Tucker J. Furniss; Christian P. Giardina; I. A. U. Nimal Gunatilleke; C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke; Fangliang He; Robert W. Howe; Stephen P. Hubbell; Chang-Fu Hsieh; Faith M. Inman-Narahari; David Janík; Daniel J. Johnson; David Kenfack; Lisa Korte; Kamil Král; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz; Sean M. McMahon; William J. McShea; Hervé R. Memiaghe; Anuttara Nathalang; Vojtech Novotny; Perry S. Ong; David A. Orwig; Rebecca Ostertag; Geoffrey G. Parker; Richard P. Phillips; Lawren Sack; I-Fang Sun; J. Sebastián Tello; Duncan W. Thomas; Benjamin L. Turner; Dilys M. Vela Díaz; Tomáš Vrška; George D. Weiblen; Amy Wolf; Sandra Yap; Jonathan A. Myers

    2017-01-01

    Theory predicts that higher biodiversity in the tropics is maintained by specialized interactions among plants and their natural enemies that result in conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD). By using more than 3000 species and nearly 2.4 million trees across 24 forest plots worldwide, we show that global patterns in tree species diversity reflect not only...

  5. The effect of planting density on the wood quality of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a wood property and sawn board quality study performed on disc samples and sawlogs taken from a 23-year-old Eucalyptus grandis Nelder 1a spacing trial at J.D.M. Keet plantation near Tzaneen. Ten trees from each of four markedly different planting densities were chosen to provide ...

  6. Early impact of oil palm planting density on vegetative and oil yield variables in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonneau Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A range of various different planting distances (from 7.5 to 9.5 m between oil palms were tested using an equilateral triangle design in a plantation density experiment which was settled in an oil palm commercial plantation in Nigeria. Climatic conditions were quite stable, with two seasons and around 2000 mm of annual rainfall. The soil was of desaturated ferralitic type, sandy on the surface, deep and without coarse elements. The early impact of plantation density was analysed at eight years after planting. Some early signs of depressive effect on yields were found for high planting densities (180 and 205 p/ha. Such a negative impact was not severe enough to counteract the effects of a higher number of palms per hectare. As a consequence, a gradient could be observed as yields (in tons of bunches per hectare increased with density. We can anticipate that the competition effect between palms will increase over time with high densities, so that the counteracting point ought to be reached in a few years. A thinning treatment has been included in the protocol. Thinning was carried out at the end of the eight-year period.

  7. Herbivore-specific, density-dependent induction of plant volatiles: honest or "cry wolf" signals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Shiojiri

    Full Text Available Plants release volatile chemicals upon attack by herbivorous arthropods. They do so commonly in a dose-dependent manner: the more herbivores, the more volatiles released. The volatiles attract predatory arthropods and the amount determines the probability of predator response. We show that seedlings of a cabbage variety (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, cv Shikidori also show such a response to the density of cabbage white (Pieris rapae larvae and attract more (naive parasitoids (Cotesia glomerata when there are more herbivores on the plant. However, when attacked by diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella larvae, seedlings of the same variety (cv Shikidori release volatiles, the total amount of which is high and constant and thus independent of caterpillar density, and naive parasitoids (Cotesia vestalis of diamondback moth larvae fail to discriminate herbivore-rich from herbivore-poor plants. In contrast, seedlings of another cabbage variety of B. oleracea (var. acephala: kale respond in a dose-dependent manner to the density of diamondback moth larvae and attract more parasitoids when there are more herbivores. Assuming these responses of the cabbage cultivars reflect behaviour of at least some genotypes of wild plants, we provide arguments why the behaviour of kale (B. oleracea var acephala is best interpreted as an honest signaling strategy and that of cabbage cv Shikidori (B. oleracea var capitata as a "cry wolf" signaling strategy, implying a conflict of interest between the plant and the enemies of its herbivores: the plant profits from being visited by the herbivore's enemies, but the latter would be better off by visiting other plants with more herbivores. If so, evolutionary theory on alarm signaling predicts consequences of major interest to students of plant protection, tritrophic systems and communication alike.

  8. Effects of Thrips Density, Mode of Inoculation, and Plant Age on Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Transmission in Peanut Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Anita; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G; Abney, Mark R; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2015-02-01

    Spotted wilt caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; family Bunyaviridae; genus Tospovirus) is a serious disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the southeastern United States. Peanut genotypes with field resistance to TSWV are effective in suppressing spotted wilt. All commercially available genotypes with field resistance to TSWV were developed through conventional breeding. As a part of the breeding process, peanut genotypes are regularly screened under field situations. Despite numerous advantages associated with field screening, it is often limited by inconsistent vector (thrips) and TSWV pressure. A greenhouse transmission protocol would aid in thorough screening of selected genotypes and conserve time. In this study, various parameters associated with TSWV transmission, including tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) density, mode of inoculation, and plant age, were evaluated. Greater incidences of TSWV infection were obtained with thrips-mediated inoculation when compared with mechanical inoculation. TSWV inoculation with three, five, and 10 thrips resulted in greater incidences of TSWV infection in plants than inoculation with one thrips. However, incidences of TSWV infection did not vary between plants inoculated with three, five, and 10 viruliferous thrips. With both thrips-mediated and mechanical inoculation methods, incidences of TSWV infection in 1-wk-old plants were greater than in 4-wk-old plants. TSWV copy numbers, as determined by qPCR, also decreased with plant age. Results suggest that using at least three thrips per plant and 1- to 2-wk-old plants would maximize TSWV infection in inoculated plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Fractionation of plant protoplast types by iso-osmotic density gradient centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, C T; Potrykus, I

    1978-09-01

    A simple effective technique for the fractionation of protoplast populations is described. Protoplasts are separated by low-speed centrifugation in an iso-osmotic, discontinuous density gradient system on the basis of differences in their buoyant densities. At a constant osmolality of 660±20 mOs/kg H2O, the gradients provide a density range from 1.017 to 1.069 g/cm(3) at 20 °C which corresponds to the buoyant densities of most protoplast types studied. Characteristics of the KMC/S-density gradient system and factors affecting the fractionation were investigated. Protoplasts were isolated from various tissues and cultivars of tobacco, barley, wheat, rye, oat and maize. Their density-dependent distribution profiles in KMC/S-gradients and their average buoyant densities were determined under standardized conditions. Great differences in the buoyant densities were found between protoplasts of different tissues. Mixed populations of two types of protoplasts, differing in buoyant density by about 15-20 mg/cm(3), were separated to give highly purified fractions. Factors affecting the buoyant densities of protoplasts have been investigated. Ploidy level and species differences did not significantly affect the fractionation profiles. However, an age-dependent variation in the average buoyant density of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts was observed. Fractionation of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts and their subsequent regeneration to plants demonstrates the practicability and physiological compatibility of the KMC/S-density gradient system under sterile conditions. The morphogenetic potential of protoplasts was not affected by the separation procedure or the gradient components.

  10. Shortening of the development cycle in winter rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera L. by grafting nonvernalized scions on generative stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Dubert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditions were investigated under which the development cycle in winter rape could be markedly reduced by grafting. Scions from non vernalized seedlings were grafted onto stock plants beginning their generative phase. Winter rape plants vernalized under natural field conditions and spring rape plants in the initial generative phase were used as stock. Best results were obtained by grafting scions from plants at the stage of 4 leaves, i.e. after 3 weeks of growth, onto winter rape stock. With such scions the effectiveness of graftings was high and seed crops were obtained 170 days earlier than under natural field conditions of growth and 80 days earlier than under artificial conditions. Scions grafted onto winter rape stock produced more siliques than those on spring rape. Grafting of scions after cutting off their apical meristems allowed formation of side shoots and consequently resulted in higher yields of siliques; the formation of siliques, however, was delayed by about 10 days as compared to grafts with apical meristems.

  11. Experimental evidence that density dependence strongly influences plant invasions through fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer L; Levine, Jonathan M

    2018-01-20

    Populations of range expanding species encounter patches of both favorable and unfavorable habitat as they spread across landscapes. Theory shows that increasing patchiness slows the spread of populations modeled with continuously varying population density when dispersal is not influence by the environment or individual behavior. However, as is found in uniformly favorable landscapes, spread remains driven by fecundity and dispersal from low density individuals at the invasion front. In contrast, when modeled populations are composed of discrete individuals, patchiness causes populations to build up to high density before dispersing past unsuitable habitat, introducing an important influence of density dependence on spread velocity. To test the hypothesized interaction between habitat patchiness and density dependence, we simultaneously manipulated these factors in a greenhouse system of annual plants spreading through replicated experimental landscapes. We found that increasing the size of gaps and amplifying the strength of density dependence both slowed spread velocity, but contrary to predictions, the effect of amplified density dependence was similar across all landscape types. Our results demonstrate that the discrete nature of individuals in spreading populations has a strong influence on how both landscape patchiness and density dependence influence spread through demographic and dispersal stochasticity. Both finiteness and landscape structure should be critical components to theoretical predictions of future spread for range expanding native species or invasive species colonizing new habitat. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Plant host range of Verticillium longisporum and microsclerotia density in Swedisch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, A.; Goud, J.C.; Dixelius, C.

    2006-01-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne fungal pathogen causing vascular wilt of Brassica crops. This study was conducted to enhance our knowledge on the host range of V. longisporum. Seven crop species (barley, oat, oilseed rape, pea, red clover, sugar beet and wheat) and five weed species (barren

  13. Biomass of tree species as a response to planting density and interspecific competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Planting trees is an important way to promote the recovery of degraded areas in the Caatinga region. Experiments (E1, E2, and E3 were conducted in a randomized blocks design, with three, three, and five replicates, respectively. The objectives were to evaluate biomass of the shoots of: a gliricidia (G and sabiá (S, as a response to planting density; b G, S, and neem (N in competition; c G, and S in agroforestry. E1 was conducted in split-plots, and planting densities (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 plants ha-1 as subplots. E2 consisted of a factorial comprising the following plots: GGG, NGN, SGS, NNN, GNG, SNS, SSS, GSG, NSN (each letter represents a row of plants. E3 was conducted with G and S in agroforestry experiment. The trees were harvested after 54, 42, and 27 months old, in E1, E2 and E3, respectively. In E1, G presented higher green biomass of the stems and leaf at smaller densities than S, but lower green biomass of branches at most densities. The species did not differ for mean stem dry biomass and leaf dry biomass, but G showed higher branch dry biomass at most densities. Higher planting densities increased green and dry biomass of stems, branches, and leaves in S, but decreased those characteristics in G, with the exception of leaf dry mass, which was not influenced by density. In E2, the behavior of each species was identical in plots containing the same or different species. Griricidia showed the highest green biomass of stems and branches, and the highest values for geren biomass of the leaf were observed for gliricidia and neem. The highest stem, branch, and leaf dry biomass values were obtained for G, S, and N, respectively. In E3, G was superior for stem and leaf green biomass, and for stem and branch dry biomass. There were no differences between species for the other biomass values.

  14. Filocrono em diferentes densidades de plantas de batata Phyllochron at different plant densities in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacso Dellai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O conceito do filocrono, ou seja, o intervalo de tempo necessário para a emissão de duas folhas consecutivas, pode ser usado para simular o aparecimento de folhas em plantas. O número de folhas, além de afetar o índice de área foliar da planta, é considerado uma excelente medida de tempo fisiológico. O objetivo do trabalho foi estimar o filocrono em batata cultivada num sistema hidropônico com substrato em diferentes densidades de plantas. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, RS, no período de 03/09/2004 a 26/10/2004. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram os espaçamentos de 5x5, 10x10, 15x15 e 20x20cm entre covas. Os valores de filocrono para cada densidade foram relacionados com o número de covas m-2 e de hastes m-2. Os valores de filocrono estimados variaram em função da densidade de plantas. As maiores densidades promoveram aumentos no filocrono, indicando que a densidade de plantas afeta a velocidade de surgimento de folhas em batata, e esta resposta deve ser contemplada em modelos de simulação do número de folhas nesta cultura.The phyllochron, defined as the time interval between the appearance of successives leaves, can be used to simulate leaf appearance in plants. The number of leaves affects the leaf area index of the plant and is considered an excellent measure of physiological time. The objective of this work was estimate the phyllochron in potato plants cultivated in hydroponic system with substrate in different plant densities. The experiment was carried out in a protected environment at the Department of Fitotecnia, UFSM, RS, from 03/09/2004 to 26/10/2004. The experimental design was a completely randomized, with three repititions. The treatments were the densities of 5x5, 10x10, 15x15 and 20x20cm between hills. The phyllochron values for each density were related to the number of hills m-2 and

  15. Drought Stress and Plant Density Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Maize KSc 301 Hybrid in Varamin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jafari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of drought stress and plant density on yield and yield components of maize KSc 301 hybrid, a two-year study (2007-2008 was carried out in Varamin Agricultural Research Center by using strip split plot randomized based on complete block design in three replications. Four water stress levels (before flowering, during flowering and grain filling stage and no stress were assigned as vertical factor and three plant densities (60, 75 and 90 thousand plants ha-1, were assigned made up of horizontal factor. The effects of water stress and plant density were statistically significant on yield and its components. Water stress at flowering stage reduced the grain yield by 42% compared to the control treatment. Water stress before flowering and grain filling periods, although yield was significantly lower than control but there was no significant difference between treatments. Reduce the number of grains per ear and increased the interval between the pollination of flowers until silking were the main reasons for reduced yield in the treatment of water stress at the flowering stage. Density of 75 thousand plants ha-1 was determined the best density for grain yield. Among the tested density, density of 90 thousand plants ha-1, compared to the control treatment had the greatest reduction in yield (25% reduction. Water stress and plant density interaction was statistically significant at 1% level. The highest and lowest grain yield, respectively, related to the 75 thousand plants ha-1 and without water stress (9100kg ha-1 and water stress at the flowering stage and 90 thousand plants ha-1 (3700 kg ha-1.Water stress at flowering stage, and densities of less than 75 thousand plants ha-1 or higher than 75 thousand plants ha-1 was significantly decreased harvest index. The results showed that the density of 75 thousand plants per hectare and avoid stress, especially at the flowering stage appropriate yields can be expected from hybrid KSc

  16. Frequency-dependent fitness of hybrids between oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) and weedy ¤B. rapa¤ (Brassicaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Damgaard, C.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    Fitness of interspecific hybrids is sometimes high relative to their parents, despite the conventional belief that they are mostly unfit. F-1 hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. rapa can be significantly more fit than their weedy parents under some conditions; however, under...... other conditions they are less fit. To understand the reasons, we measured the seed production of B. napus, B. rapa, and different generations of hybrid plants at three different densities and in mixtures of different frequencies (including pure stands). Brassica napus, B. rapa, and backcross plants (F...... and reproductive interactions may be responsible for these effects. Our results show that the fitness of both parents and hybrids is strongly frequency-dependent and that the likelihood of introgression of genes between the species thus may depend on the numbers and densities of parents and their various hybrid...

  17. Interaction Effects between Light Level and Plant Density on Plant Growth, Development and External Quality in Year-around Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Bakker, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims of this study are to analyze growth pattern and development Of Cut chrysanthemum and test simple regression models in relation to light level and plant density. Cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), cv. Reagan Improved, was grown at four different plant densities of 16, 32, 64 or 80

  18. Present and future instances of virtual rape in light of three categories of legal philosophical theories on rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in

  19. Male rape--the silent victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Colin Derek

    2002-10-01

    This literature review examines the issue of male rape and the possible counselling strategies that may assist in recovery. There are several misconceptions surrounding male rape which can result in the under-reporting and secondary or sanctuary victimisation of the survivor. Men who have been raped may believe that it attacks the very essence of what it is to be masculine and male. Many may not seek help unless they perceive a need for immediate attention, such as physical trauma requiring medical assistance. The literature also reveals that when men do seek help they may be treated poorly. Secondary victimisation or sanctuary trauma results when there is a lack of empathy and understanding of the effect that rape can have on the survivor, such as rape-trauma syndrome. Training in this area is needed for the police, emergency department staff, nurses, general practitioners, and community health services. Management of survivors starts with examining our own beliefs about male rape. Many of the reported counselling strategies are based on therapists' observations, trauma theories, and research related to child abuse or sexual assault of females which may not be transferable to men who have been raped. Education and counselling of survivors' support networks must be considered as part of a holistic approach to management. Secondary prevention strategies aimed at the broader community are required to assist survivors to come forward without fear of further victimisation because of stereotyping.

  20. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  1. Tillage and planting density affect the performance of maize hybrids in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Baladur Karki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To find out whether the different tillage methods at different planting densities affect the performance of maize hybrids, an experiment was carried out at National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring season of 2013 and 2014. The experiment was laid out in strip plot design with three replications having 12 treatments. The vertical factor was tillage with conservation tillage (No Tillage + residue=NT and conventional tillage (CT and the horizontal factor were genotypes (Rampur Hybrid-2 and RML-32/RML-17 and in split planting geometries (75cm × 25cm =53333 plants/ha, 70cm × 25cm=57142 plant/ha and 60cm ×25cm= 66666 plants/ha. In both the years, the highest number of cobs (73,177 and 67638/ha was recorded at planting density of 66666/ha. NT had the highest no of kernel rows/cob (14.01 as against 12.12 in CT in 2014. The highest number of kernels (27.3 and 29.29 per row was recorded in NT during 2013 and 2014 respectively. Similarly, in 2014, the highest number of kernels were found in RML-32/RMl-17 (29.17/row and planting density of 53333/ha (28.46/row. In 2013, RML-32/RML-17 produced the highest test weight of 363.94g over the Rampur hybrid-2 with 362.17g. Significantly the highest grain yield of 9240.00 kg/ha in 2013 and 7459.80 kg/ha in 2014 at planting geometry of 65cm ×25cm were recorded. No effects was found by tillage methods for grain yields of maize in 2013, but was found in 2014 (7012.18 kg in NT compared to 6037.59 kg/ha in CT. NT and wider spaced crop matured earlier in both the years; however Rampur hybrid-2 matured earlier to RML-32/RML-17 in 2013. In 2014, harvest index of 47.85 % was recorded in planting geometry of 66666/ha, the highest benefit cost ratio of 1.36 was worked out in NT and 1.46 at the density of 66666/ha. The highest value of 2.46% of soil organic matter was recorded in NT as compared to 2.43% in CT.

  2. Selective herbivory by mammals on 19 species planted at two densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Christine; Lamont, Byron B.

    2007-07-01

    The impact of mammalian herbivory, particularly macropods, upon seedling establishment in a post-fire environment was studied experimentally at Whiteman Park Reserve, Perth, Western Australia. Nineteen plant species of contrasting morphology and chemistry were established at low and high densities in protective exclosures, and half of the plants later exposed to herbivores. After one year of exposure, 16 species showed evidence of greater mortality and/or reduced shoot mass due to mammal herbivory. Two species had reduced shoot mass at high density (competition) and two had the reverse (facilitation), both annulled in the presence of herbivores due to poor growth at both densities. There was no preference by herbivores for high over low density plots. A general preference (high percentage plants eaten, large difference between biomass inside and outside exclosures) for species high in K, N or P and leaf mass: area, and low in initial shoot mass, spinescence, moisture and height was evident from principal components and canonical variates analyses. Grass-like species were more vulnerable to herbivory than seedlings of shrubs.

  3. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  4. Effect of temperature, wetness duration, and planting density on olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Jurado-Bello, José; Sánchez, M Isabel; de Oliveira, Rodrígues; Trapero, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    The influence of temperature, wetness duration, and planting density on infection of olive fruit by Colletotrichum acutatum and C. simmondsii was examined in laboratory and field experiments. Detached olive fruit of 'Arbequina', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Picual' were inoculated with conidia of several isolates of the pathogen and kept at constant temperatures of 5 to 35°C in humid chambers. Similarly, potted plants and stem cuttings with fruit were inoculated and subjected to wetness periods of 0 to 48 h. Infection occurred at 10 to 25°C, and disease severity was greater and the mean latent period was shorter at 17 to 20°C. Overall, C. acutatum was more virulent than C. simmondsii at temperatures olive trees/ha) than in the high-density plantings (204 to 816 olive trees/ha) and caused severe epidemics in the super-high-density planting even with the moderately resistant Arbequina. Data in this study will be useful for the development of a forecasting system for olive anthracnose epidemics.

  5. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Pollen and Blossom Honey from Rape Seed Brassica Napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borutinskaitė Veronika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the study, honey from oilseed rape Brassica napus L., and both hand-collected (winter rape Visby and Cult and bee-collected pollen of oilseed rape were analyzed for their proteome content, in order to see if any plant proteins were present to allow the proteo-typing of the oilseed rape honey. Proteins were fractionated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE, stained by Coomassie blue and then analyzed by mass spectrometry. All identified proteins were divided into few groups due to their biological function. In 2DE gels with separated proteins from blossom honey, only bee (Apis mellifera main proteins (Major royal jelly protein 1-5 and Glucosidase were found. So we analyzed all proteins using gel-free based analysis with the SYNAPT G2 high definition mass spectrometry. We identified proteins that were present in both oilseed rape pollen and honey (Bna, Polygalacturonase, Non-specific lipid-transfer protein, GAPDH and others. We believe that these proteins are important for the nutritional value of plant pollen-enriched honey and further research is required on honey and honeybee pollen protein.

  7. Researches of Optimum Leaf Area Index Dynamicmodels for Rape(brassica Napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chunlei; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhao, Suolao; Wang, Baoqing; Jin, Zhiqing; Zhu, Dawei; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Xiufang

    The objectives of developing optimum leaf area index dynamic models for rape (OLAIDM) was to develop Rape Cultivation Simulation-Optimization- Decision Making System(Rape-CSODS) , to design its planting , to regulate and control its growth and development, and to fulfill its high yield, good quality, high benefits and standard production eventually. The OLAIDM were developed based on field experiments with 3 cultivars, 6 sowing dates, 2 types of plant pattern and 4 sites from 2002 to 2007 in middle and lower valley of Yangtze river in China and relative data from references of rape researches, employed ideas of R/WCSODS (Rice/Wheat Cultivation Simulation- Optimization-Decision Making System), and in the same time, the OLAIMR and its parameters also were assessed, calibrated and tested. The average absolute deviation(de), correlation coefficients(r) and the standard errors of their absolute deviation(Sde) of between the observed and simulated values for LAI of two cultivars in Wuhan and Nanjing were -0.03~0.1533, 0.9707~0.9997 and0.1332~0.4032, respectively. 1:1 line of them were in Fig. 1 to 4. Multi-factors such as the ramification types, cultivars, and light et al. were taken into account in this study, therefore, the OLAIDM with general adaptability, clear yield aim, mechanism, and dynamic characteristic can simulate optimum LAI dynamic for rape under different sites, cultivars and ramification types, and yielding levels.

  8. Responses of the trunk routes of a harvester ant to plant density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, F; Acosta, F J; Serrano, J M

    1993-02-01

    Messor barbarus is a Mediterranean harvester ant that constructs physically defined trunk routes on the ground to connect nest entrances with foraging areas. Some responses of these trunk routes to plant density (and therefore resource abundance) were analyzed by testing the preferential allocation of different parts (trunk route ends, segments and branching points) in a patchy environment. Maps of grass density in four categories and Messor barbarus trunk routes were compiled for a Mediterranean pasture in Central Spain over four consecutive years. The proportions of the density categories in each year were used to calculate random expected frequencies of the trunk route points and the predominance of higher or lower grass densities. Trunk route ends discriminate and selectively reach patches with a greater abundance of resources in all study years. Branching points are also allocated preferentially in areas with higher vegetation density, but only in years with a predominance of the higher categories of grass density. In these years, the colonies of Messor barbarus have a "phalanx" strategy at a colonial level, and branching is more profuse. Finally, trunk route segments do not indicate any preference for crossing determined vegetation densities, but rather connect successive branching points or trunk route ends by the shortest route. These results concur with a model of structural strategy change ("guerilla" - "phalanx") (Hutchings 1988) at the level of trunk routes. They are probably constituted by "transitory" sections with few branches, that expand other more profusely branched sections which are more dedicated to foraging.

  9. Effect of planting density and cutting frequency on forage and grain yields of kochia (Kochia scoparia under saline water irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mseou ziyaeii

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available AField experiment was conducted at Research Farms of Center of Excellence for Special Crops, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, in 2006 to evaluate the effect of planting density on forage and grain yield of kochia (Kochia scoparia. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with split-plot arrangement of treatments,with three replications, where different planting densities (10, 20, 30 and 40 plant m-2 were assigned to main plots and number of cutting (including a single cutting, two cutting and no cutting i.e. allowing the crop to grow until maturity allocated to sub-plots. At each harvest date (cutting the biological yield, leaf and stem dry weight, plant height, number of branches and the individual plant biomass were measured. Grain yield and thousand seed weight were also determined at the end of growing season. Result showed the highest biological yield and leaf and stem dry weights for kochia obtaind at 30 plant m-2. The total biomass, leaf and stem dry weights, plant height, number of branches were greater for the first cutting as compared to the second cutting. Planting density and cutting number interacted to affect the leaf dry weight. At physiological maturity stage there were no significant differences among planting densities for plant height and number of branches. The best planting density, in terms of biomass production and leaf and stem dry weight, was found as 30 plant m-2, while for grain production a planting density of 20 plant m-2 could be recommended. Key words: Kochia, planting density, sward, biological yield, grain production.

  10. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asghari poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cv. ‘Kompolti’ Crop grown at initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 at the Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 at the Shirvan. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before and 45 days after sowing at a rates of 50 and 200 kg/ha at the Mashhad, and 50, 150 and 250 kg/ha at the Shirvan. Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At the Mashhad, interception of 90% of light was attained at 380 to 665 degree days (base 2°C from emergence for the crop grown at different densities. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower. Interception of 90% of light was attained at 586 degree days from emergence for the crop grown at 30 plants/m2 and at 712 degree days for the crop grown at 150 plants/m2, probably as a result of cold weather. Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. Maximum light interception did not depend on plant density and nitrogen fertilizer and was about 95%. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Dates of 75% flowering for the initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 in Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 in Shirvan were, respectively 26 August, 1, 6, 6, 11 and 12 September. Independent of plant density, canopy light interception started to decline at about 150 degree days after flowering, reaching 58 to 75% at about 700 degree days post-flowering. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained in Mashhad at 250 plant/m-2 and in Shirvan at 150 plant m-2 when 200 kg N ha-1 in Mashhad and 250 kg N/ha in Shirvan was used. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and

  11. Biomass production and potential water stress increase with planting density in four highly productive clonal Eucalyptus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Hakamada; Robert M. Hubbard; Silvio Ferraz; Jose Luiz Stape; Cristiane Lemos

    2017-01-01

    The choice of planting density and tree genotype are basic decisions when establishing a forest stand. Understanding the interaction between planting density and genotype, and their relationship with biomass production and potential water stress, is crucial as forest managers are faced with a changing climate. However, few studies have investigated this relationship,...

  12. Density and rectangularity of planting influence 20-year growth and development of red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Constance A. Harrington

    2002-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) seedlings were planted in northwestern Oregon, U.S.A., at five initial spacings: 0.6 × 1.2 m, 1.2 × 1.2 m, 1.2 × 1.8 m, 1.8 × 1.8 m, and 2.5 × 2.5 m. Up to about age 10, tree and stand characteristics were correlated primarily with initial planting density in the expected manner; through age 20, however, tree growth...

  13. Institutional Perpetuation of Rape Culture: A Case Study of the University of Colorado Football Rape and Recruiting Scandal

    OpenAIRE

    Folchert, Kristi Engle

    2008-01-01

    Heterosexual rape among university students is neither new nor uncommon. Research in rape prevention is largely limited to two areas: (1) what women can do to protect themselves from rape, which continues to place the burden of prevention on women; and (2) understanding why men rape. The studies in these fields have added to the body of knowledge surrounding rape on university campuses. The current study takes this information into consideration while using a different lens to examine the...

  14. Effects of Plant Density on the Number of Glandular Trichomes and on Yield and Quality of Essential Oils from Oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; Virga, Giuseppe; Inguanta, Rosalinda; Licata, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Plants yields are influenced by agronomic techniques. Plant density is a complex issue and extremely important when maximizing both crop quality, and biomass and essential oil yields. Plants belonging to the Origanum vulgare subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart were grown adopting four types of plant density and were characterized in biometric and chemical terms. The samples were analyzed using the ANOVA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method regarding biometric aspects, EO yield and peltate hair density. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 45 compounds from the EO. Plant density affected production both in terms of biomass and EO. However, it was not found to have affected peltate glandular trichome density or EO quality.

  15. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-03-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualize a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents' gender; (3) to examine the 'cultural lag' theory of male rape, where it was hypothesized that if the public perception of male rape lags behind female rape, then a typical male rape will be conceptualized as the classic stranger rape stereotype. Findings showed that contrary to predictions, a typical female rape was conceptualized according to the stranger rape stereotype. It was also found that instead of lagging behind female rape along the stranger-acquaintance rape dimension, male rape was viewed predominantly in terms of 'other' factors (factors not found on the stranger-acquaintance dimension, e.g. victim/rapist sexual orientation, rapist calls victim names), which were erroneous, sexualizing and homophobic.

  16. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... victims according to a full ASD diagnosis. Regardless of whether cases were classified according to full PTSD status or according to meeting the criteria for the three PTSD core symptom clusters, the classification was correct only in approximately two thirds of the cases. A regression analysis based...

  17. Understanding rape perpetration in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a child. <15. Raped in the last. 12 months. Raped a man. SA Crime Quarterly no 34 • December 2010. 25 woman or girl when she didn't consent to sex or after you .... Secondary schooling. 26.7. 22.7, 30.7. 182 / 682. Matric complete. 28.9. 24.2, 33.5. 130/ 450. Incomplete tertiary education. 38.8. 30.4, 47.2. 57 / 147. Degree.

  18. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species....... The implications of our results for the possible choice nf integration sites of transgenes in oilseed rape are discussed....

  19. Effects of plant density on recombinant hemagglutinin yields in an Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression system using Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matsuda, Ryo; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to rapidly produce a wide range of recombinant proteins. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, it is beneficial to obtain high levels of two yield-related quantities of upstream production: recombinant protein content per fresh mass of harvested biomass (g gFM -1 ) and recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time (g m -2 /month). Here, we report that the density of Nicotiana benthamiana plants during upstream production had significant impacts on the yield-related quantities of recombinant hemagglutinin (HA). The two quantities were smaller at a high plant density of 400 plants m -2 than at a low plant density of 100 plants m -2 . The smaller quantities at the high plant density were attributed to: (i) a lower HA content in young leaves, which usually have high HA accumulation potentials; (ii) a lower biomass allocation to the young leaves; and (iii) a high area-time requirement for plants. Thus, plant density is a key factor for improving upstream production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1762-1770. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  1. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  2. Taking About Rape-and Why it Matters: Adjudicating rape in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... begins by establishing why judgements are an important source for understanding what rape means in society at large; it then discusses the relationship between power, language, and the law. This is followed by specific analyses of cases that show how patriarchy still defines how judges express themselves about rape.

  3. Effects of planting density and drought on the productivity of tea clones ( Camellia sinensis L.): Yield responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigalu, Julius M.

    Tea is an important cash crop in Tanzania, contributing over US$ 45 million of annual exports and grown by over 30 000 smallholder households, and a further 10 000 people are employed by large estate producers. Over 70% of the national tea production comes from the Southern Highlands of Tanzania where expansion of tea estates under limited suitable land for tea is expected for the next two decades. Thus a client-demand driven field experiment was established in January 1993 to study and advice tea growers on the effects of plant density on the productivity and water use of young tea. The experiment comprised of two types of vegetative propagated tea plants (known as “clones”) of contrasting growth behaviour (AHP S15/10: spreading type and BBK35: erect), six plant densities (labelled D1: 8300 plants ha -1 to D6: 83 300 plants ha -1) and seven irrigation or drought levels (labelled I0: un irrigated, to I6: well irrigated condition) as the treatments. Clone AHP S15/10, with larger crop cover than clone BBK35, consistently out-yielded clone BBK35 at all densities and under both well watered and drought stressed conditions. The corresponding yields from clone BBK35 were 2620 and 5960 kg ha -1. Reciprocal of yield per plant- and asymptotic yield-density relationships were used to explain these responses to density. Yields from clone AHP S15/10 during the period of drought treatments decreased as the maximum soil water deficit increased at all densities, but there were no yield responses to drought from clone BBK35 at the low densities. The study recommends planting densities of 20 000 and 40 000 plants ha -1 for clones AHP S15/10, respectively for well irrigated conditions and a density of 20 000 plants ha -1 for both clones under un-irrigated environments.

  4. Effect of sowing date and plant density on grain and flower yield of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal herb whose dried flower heads are used to heal wounds. In order to study the effects of sowing dates and plant density on grain and flower yield of pot marigold, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in 2005. Three sowing dates (30 March, 14 April and 30 April and three plant densities (plant distances on row were 10, 20 and 30 centimeters were compared in a split- plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Seed and flower yields were significantly different at planting dates and plant densities. Sowing date had significant effects on flower and seed harvest index. The latest sowing dates had the highest flower and seed harvest index. Plant density had not significant effect on flower harvest index, but the effect on seed harvest index, was significant. In total our result showed that the first sowing date with 25 plants/m2 had the highest grain and flower yield. Keywords: Marigold, sowing date, plant density, medicinal plant.

  5. Effects of Planting Date and Plant Density on Physiological Indices, Quantity and Quality Traits of Two Varieties of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is originated from North West Africa and Mediterranean area, is a medicinal plant used for several purposes. It is an annual herb or short-lived perennial from the Asteraceae family with yellow or orange flowers. The Marigold has been used as a traditional medicine and food dye, but is currently used as an anti-inflammatory and wound healer. It is grown for drug, obtained from the flowers. The flowers blossom during summer three or more times per year. The essential oil of yellow or orange petals of Calendula officinalis L. is one of the important yield components which is used for food and medicine. Moreover, the seed has an oil content of 5-20 %. Seed oil could be used as a binder in paints, coating and cosmetics. Growth, development and production of medicinal plants, as well as other plants are affected by genetic and agronomic factors. Planting date and plant density are two most important factors that can affect yield and yield components. Planting date affects the quantity and quality of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. The optimum sowing date and plant density can improve the light and temperature absorption and other factors during the growing season. The positive effects of optimal planting date and plant density has been described by a number of researchers. The Plant population is dependent on the plant characters, growth period, time and method of cultivation. Also, the suitable sowing date has advantages for maximum production. Early sowing in the spring causes weakly establishment of plant and late planting date shortens growth period and simultaneous flowering period due to high temperature in summer. In this study, the effects of plant density and planting date on physiological indices, quantity and quality of two varieties of spare and compact marigold has been evaluated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the effects of planting date and plant density on

  6. Effects of plant density on the photosynthetic and chloroplast characteristics of maize under high-yielding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baizhao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jiwang; Dong, Shuting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2017-04-01

    Plant density has been recognized as a major factor determining the grain yield. The photosynthetic performance changes as the density increases. The main objective of this research was to evaluate responses of photosynthetic performance and chloroplast ultrastructure to planting densities in two summer maize ( Zea mays L.) hybrids Denghai661 (DH661) and Nongda108 (ND108). DH661 was planted at densities of 30,000, 45,000, 60,000, 75,000, 90,000, 105,000, 120,000, or 135,000 plants ha-1. ND108 was planted at densities of 30,000, 45,000, 60,000, 75,000, or 90,000 plants ha-1. Research variables included leaf area, grain yield, chlorophyll content, leaf gas exchange parameters, number of chloroplasts, and chloroplast ultrastructure. As plant density increased, chlorophyll a and b content significantly decreased; carotenoids initially decreased and then increased; the net photosynthetic rate during each growth period significantly decreased; the membrane structure of mesophyll cells was gradually damaged; the number of chloroplasts significantly decreased; the external form of chloroplasts shifted from long and oval to elliptical or circular; the number of grana significantly decreased, while the number of grana lamellae increased; grana gradually became hypogenetic and eventually dissolved; plot yield increased; and yield per plant significantly decreased. The yield per plant of DH661 at 135,000 plants ha-1 and that of ND108 at 90,000 plants ha-1 decreased by 65.8 and 42.5%, respectively, compared with those at 30,000 plants ha-1.

  7. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  8. Maize production as affected by sowing date, plant density and row spacing in the Bolivian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional cropping system widespread in the Department of Pando (Bolivian Amazon is the slash and burn methodology. The main crops sowed soon after the slash are maize, rice, cassava and common beans. Two separate field experiments (carried out in 2008-2009 were carried out to determine the agronomic responses of maize to sowing date, plant population and row width. For the first experiment a split-plot design was used. Maize cultivar (Bayo Blando and Perla Pandino was considered as main plots and the date of sowing as subplots. For the second experiment a split-split-plot design was used. Row spacing (0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 m was considered as main plot, maize cultivar (Cubano Amrarillo and Perla Pandino as subplots, and plant density (5.0, 7.5 and 10 plant m-2 as sub-subplots. A significant reduction of grain yield was observed as the date of sowing (DS delayied. Yield reduction of the second DS compared to the first, was 85 and 45% for Perla Pandino and Bayo Blando. The importance of plant density as a function of the correct row spacing is clearly shown. With the row spacing in use in the considered area (0.9 m and with the narrowest (0.5 m, the best yields were obtained with 10 plants m-2 (5.5 t ha-1. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present study: 1. A delay in the sowing date for maize by 15-20 days (compared to sowing ??immediately after the cutting of the virgin forest or the secondary forest strongly reduces grain production. The cultivar Perla Pandino was the most susceptible with a reduction of 85%. Late sowing of maize (mais de socorro, is suitable only if intercropped with other crops in order to protect the soil from erosion. Traditionally, rice and cassava are intercropped with maize, even if common beans or a legume cover crop would be more advisable. 2. The density of maize may be increased up until 10 m-2 in order to achieve the most productive results by using row spacings of 0.5 e 0.9 m, respectively

  9. Effects of different irrigation intervals and plant density on morphological characteristics, grain and oil yields of sesame (Sesamum indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of different irrigation intervals and plant density on morphological characteristics, grain and oil yields of sesame, an experiment was conducted at experimental station, college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Four different irrigation intervals (one, two, three and four weeks with four plant densities (20, 30, 40 and 50 plants/m2 were compared in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Irrigation intervals and plant densities allocated in main plots and subplots, respectively. Different characteristics such as plant height, distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of branches per plant, number of grains per capsule, number of capsules per plant, grain yield, 1000-seed weight, harvest index and oil yield were recorded. The results showed that there were no significant difference between different irrigation intervals in terms of distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of grains per capsule, 1000-seed weight and harvest index. Different irrigation intervals had significant effects on plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, grain yield and oil yield. There were significant differences between different plant densities in terms of distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of branches per plant, number of graines per capsule, number of capsules per plant, grain yield, harvest index and oil yield. The highest grain yield (798/7 kg/ha and oil yield (412/8 kg/ha were obtained at one week and four weeks irrigation intervals, respectively. Between all treatments, 50 plants/m2 and one week irrigation interval produced the highest grain yield (914/7 kg/ha and oil yield (478/6 kg/ha. Because of shortage of water in Mashhad condition, the results recommended that, 50 plants/m2 and two weeks irrigation interval produced rather acceptable grain yield, with less water consumption.

  10. Demographic models reveal the shape of density dependence for a specialist insect herbivore on variable host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X

    2007-07-01

    1. It is widely accepted that density-dependent processes play an important role in most natural populations. However, persistent challenges in our understanding of density-dependent population dynamics include evaluating the shape of the relationship between density and demographic rates (linear, concave, convex), and identifying extrinsic factors that can mediate this relationship. 2. I studied the population dynamics of the cactus bug Narnia pallidicornis on host plants (Opuntia imbricata) that varied naturally in relative reproductive effort (RRE, the proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction), an important plant quality trait. I manipulated per-plant cactus bug densities, quantified subsequent dynamics, and fit stage-structured models to the experimental data to ask if and how density influences demographic parameters. 3. In the field experiment, I found that populations with variable starting densities quickly converged upon similar growth trajectories. In the model-fitting analyses, the data strongly supported a model that defined the juvenile cactus bug retention parameter (joint probability of surviving and not dispersing) as a nonlinear decreasing function of density. The estimated shape of this relationship shifted from concave to convex with increasing host-plant RRE. 4. The results demonstrate that host-plant traits are critical sources of variation in the strength and shape of density dependence in insects, and highlight the utility of integrated experimental-theoretical approaches for identifying processes underlying patterns of change in natural populations.

  11. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. under different Plant Density and Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Rezvan Beidokhti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on crop response to deficit irrigation is important to reduce agriculture water use in areas where water is limited resource. Using drought resistant landraces with irrigation scheduling based on phenological stages in semi-arid and arid regions may provide an opportunity to optimize irrigation efficiency and water savings in these regions. In order to evaluate of yield and yield components of black cumin under different plant density and limited irrigation condition an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Islamic Azad University of Damghan during growing season of 2007-2008. The experimental treatments were arranged in split plots based on a complete randomized block design with three replications. The limited irrigation (based on phenological stages treatments were included: cutting irrigation at blooming (folded flowers, cutting irrigation at flowering stage, cutting irrigation at seed formation and normal weekly irrigation (control were allocated to the main plots and different plant density: 100, 150, 200 and 250 plant per square meter (m2 were allocated to sub plots. The results showed that the effect of limited irrigation, plant density and their interaction on plant height, number of follicle, follicle weight, number of seed, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index Black Cumin. The highest yield and yield components was obtained in normal irrigation (control and 200 plant density and the lowest yield were obtained when irrigation cut at the blooming stage and 250 plant density. There was a significant correlation between seed yield and number (r=0.90, 1000 seed weight (r=0.95 and biological yield (r=0.97. Optimum plant density of black cumin was decreased under limited irrigation treatments. Under normal (control and limited irrigation, optimum plant density was 200 and 150 plant per (m2 respectively.

  12. Sugard sorghum yield (Sorghum saccharatum (L. Pers. subject to varietal characteristics and varying plant density in crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Курило

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The example of various varieties and hybrids of sugar sorghum illustrates the summary of study on assessing varying density of plants in crops on phonological cha­racteristics of sugar sorghum plants, carbohydrate composition of sorghum juice and yield of its plants. The completed study established that one hectare of sugar sorghum, subject to varietal characteristics and varying density of plants in crop, may provide the green weight of 40.83 до 106.87 t/ha at stem juice yield of 22,27 to 56,24 t/ha, which would contain 2.31 to 6.09 t/ha of total sugars suitable for bioethanol production in at the rate of 198.25 to 501.19 dal/ha. However, despite of higher estimate of total sugars yield and bioethanol at 300 thousand plants per ha density in crop, industrial plots would preferably have plant density in crops ranging within 200...250 thousand pieces per ha. Since higher density increases dry matter content of plants, consequentially, cellulose and lignin in stems, this may create preconditions for harvest losses due to stem lod­ ging Besides, 200 thousand plants per hectare enables to reach the highest level of photosynthesis net productivity which combines high intensity of the photosynthesis with photosynthetic activity of leaf surface.

  13. Ecological stoichiometry and density responses of plant-arthropod communities on cormorant nesting islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula S Kolb

    Full Text Available Seabirds deposit large amounts of nutrient rich guano on their nesting islands. The increased nutrient availability strongly affects plants and consumers. Consumer response differs among taxonomic groups, but mechanisms causing these differences are poorly understood. Ecological stoichiometry might provide tools to understand these mechanisms. ES suggests that nutrient rich taxa are more likely to be nutrient limited than nutrient poorer taxa and are more favored under nutrient enrichment. Here, we quantified differences in the elemental composition of soil, plants, and consumers between islands with and without nesting cormorant colonies and tested predictions made based on ES by relating the elemental composition and the eventual mismatch between consumer and resource stoichiometry to observed density differences among the island categories. We found that nesting cormorants radically changed the soil nutrient content and thereby indirectly plant nutrient content and resource quality to herbivores. In contrast, consumers showed only small differences in their elemental composition among the island categories. While we cannot evaluate the cause of the apparent homeostasis of invertebrates without additional data, we can conclude that from the perspective of the next trophic level, there is no difference in diet quality (in terms of N and P content between island categories. Thus, bottom-up effects seemed mainly be mediated via changes in resource quantity not quality. Despite a large potential trophic mismatch we were unable to observe any relation between the invertebrate stoichiometry and their density response to nesting cormorant colonies. We conclude that in our system stoichiometry is not a useful predictor of arthropod responses to variation in resource nutrient content. Furthermore, we found no strong evidence that resource quality was a prime determinant of invertebrate densities. Other factors like resource quantity, habitat structure

  14. Impact of Bee Species and Plant Density on Alfalfa Pollination and Potential for Gene Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Brunet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In outcrossing crops like alfalfa, various bee species can contribute to pollination and gene flow in seed production fields. With the increasing use of transgenic crops, it becomes important to determine the role of these distinct pollinators on alfalfa pollination and gene flow. The current study examines the relative contribution of honeybees, three bumble bee species, and three solitary bee species to pollination and gene flow in alfalfa. Two wild solitary bee species and one wild bumble bee species were best at tripping flowers, while the two managed pollinators commonly used in alfalfa seed production, honeybees and leaf cutting bees, had the lowest tripping rate. Honeybees had the greatest potential for gene flow and risk of transgene escape relative to the other pollinators. For honeybees, gene flow and risk of transgene escape were not affected by plant density although for the three bumble bee species gene flow and risk of transgene escape were the greatest in high-density fields.

  15. Effect of water stress on the agressiveness of oilsseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and two mustards (Sinapis alba L. and S. arvensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maataoui, A; Talouizte, A; Benbella, M; Bouhache, M

    2003-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a winter sown crop, may compete for water especially with Brassicaceae weeds. Investigating plant competition under water stress conditions is necessary for achieving a good yield in a Mediterranean climate characterized by a scarse water availability. This experiment was carried out to study the competiveness of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with two brassicaceae weeds (Sinapis alba L. and S. arvensis L.). Species were grown at a density of two plants per bucket either in monoculture or as a binary mixture under water stress conditions in a greenhouse. Results of monoculture showed that B. napus had the highest shoot dry matter. Shoot dry matter of B. napus was more reduced by intraspecific competition than by interspecific competition due to S. arvensis. Shoot dry matter of S. alba in monoculture was higher than in mixture with S. arvensis, but more reduced in mixture with B. napus. In case of S. arvensis, shoot dry matter was more reduced by interspecific competition than by intraspecific competition. Agressivity based on grain yield showed, that B. napus was the most agressive species followed by S. alba. This agressivity did not change by the imposed water stress.

  16. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Dry Flower Yield and Essential Oil Content of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Sharafi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile is a valuable medicinal plant and is used as spice and herbal medicine. Application of agronomical methods has important role in increasing quantitative and qualitative traits of this medicinal plant. Fertilizer management is an important factor in successful cultivation of medicinal plants, which could have positive effects on their quantitative and qualitative indices. This experiment was conducted in order to determine the effects of plant density and nitrogen (N fertilizer on dry flower yield and essential oil content of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla using factorial randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three N rates from urea source (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha and three plant densities (28.6, 40 and 66.7 plants per m2 were considered. The results showed that the highest single plant yield was produced in the lowest plant density (28.6 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N. The highest dry flower yield of 474.1 kg/ha and essential oil content of 0.2% was produced in 25 cm row width and fixed plant spacing of 10 cm (40 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N.

  17. A REVIEW OF LITERATURE: RAPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A REVIEW OF LITERATURE: RAPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA. STRATEGIES IN NIGERIA. *Omolola Tosan AKINWOLE. **Osakue Stevenson OMOERA. Abstract. Using historical-analytic methodology, this article reviews literature on rape and the ... The third assumption is the linguistic representation postulation. This.

  18. Effect of different irrigation intervals and plant density on yield and yield components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghadir noorooz poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals and plant density on yield and yield components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa, an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2002. A split-plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days were allocated to main plots and different plant densities (150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 plant/m2 allocated to sub plots. Plant height, number of branch per plant, number of grain per plant, number of seed per follicule, number of follicule per plant, grain weight per plant, biomass, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and harvest index were recorded. Results showed that irrigation intervals had significant effects on all of the characteristics with the exception of 1000 seed weight and harvest index (HI. Plant density did not have significant effects on 1000 seed weight, number of seed per follicule and plant height. There were significant differences between biological yield, HI, number of follicules per plant and grain yield of different plant densities. The one week irrigation interval produced more grain yield compared with the three weeks irrigation intervals (752 vs. 355 kg/ha. The greatest grain yield was obtained with one week irrigation interval and 250 plant/m2. It seems that due to the lack of water in the area, 150 – 250 plant/m2 with two weeks irrigation interval is the best combination for Black Cumin grain production in Mashhad.

  19. Phenology of German Chamomile and its Changes under Different Irrigation Regimes and Plant Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza PIRZAD

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to definite growth stages of Matricaria chamomilla L., 40 plants were planted with 200 � 200 cm distance from each other. To determine the phenology under different water stress condition and plant densities, an experiment was conducted in factorial based on randomized complete block design with two factors including irrigation at 4 levels (25, 50, 75, and 100 mm evaporation from pan class A, and plant density at 5 levels (cultivation in 30 cm rows with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm intra-row spaces with three replications. Definition of growth stages including the maximum number of nodes, sub stems and tillers were 21, 20 and 14 that were occurred at 970, 1088 and 1088 oC growth degree-days, respectively. The numbers of nodes were 28.6, 30.0, 30.2 and 27.8, of sub stem were 19.2, 18.4, 19.8 and 18.4; and of tillers were 14.8, 14.0, 15.0 and 14.4 that were obtained from irrigation at 25, 50, 75, and 100 mm evaporation from pan, respectively. In the other hand, the number of nodes as follow 28.25, 29.00, 29.75, 29.75 and 29.00; sub stem as 17.50, 20.00, 20.75, 19.00 and 17.50; and tillers were 15.00, 13.50, 14.75, 14.00 and 15.50 that were obtained from 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm intra-row spacing, respectively. Differences by irrigation on GDDs values were observed at the second harvest. However the earliest observation of flower and seed receiving at the first harvest occurred on 5 cm intra-row spacing. These changes were identical by GDDs for second harvest of flower, but with mild slope of reduction. There were no differences in number of leaves and tillers among irrigation levels and plant densities.

  20. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2016-08-24

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Amaranthus cruentus L. is suitable for cultivation in Central Italy: field evaluation and response to plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of amaranth cultivation in Central Italy and to determine the optimum plant density. Field trials were carried out in 2011 and 2012 under non-irrigated conditions in Tuscany (43° 18’ N, 11° 47’ E. Twelve accessions of two amaranth species (Amaranthus cruentus L. and A. hypochondriacus L. were utilised. Genotypes were evaluated over a two-year period using a RCB design with three replicates. The effects of plant density were investigated in 2012. A with a split-plot design was used, where the A. cruentus accessions (AMES 5148, PI 511719 and PI 643045 constituted the main plots. Plant densities (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 plants m–2 constituted the subplots. Plants were transplanted at the 3-4 true leaf stage. Morphological traits were determined using 5 plants selected from the two central rows of the sampling area. Plots were hand-harvested and cleaned with a mechanical grid with appropriate sieve diameters. A. cruentus was shown to be more suitable to the Central Italy agro-ecological conditions than A. hypochondriacus. The accessions derived from Mexico (PI 477913, PI 576481, PI 643045, PI 643053, and PI 6495079, Guatemala (PI 511719 and Puerto Rico (AMES 5148, had both higher grain yields and a greater stability over the two-year period, with a mean grain production ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 t ha–1. The severe climatic stress in 2012 (high temperatures and aridity, resulted in a 43-60% reduction in seed production compared to that of the previous year. Under these conditions, PI 511719, AMES 26015, AMES 5386, AMES 5148, PI 477913 yielded on average 1.9 t ha–1. Yields of A. hypochondriacus were negligible in both years, probably attributable to greater photoperiod sensitivity, resulting in reduced flowering and delayed maturity. By increasing density up to 60 and 30 plants m–2 for PI 511719 and AMES 5148, respectively, grain production was increased by 55%. As the plant population

  2. Rape survivor care crisis – mines the worst?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dire need for better healthcare worker training in rape forensics and safe survivor care has never been better illustrated than by the horrifying rape statistics Médecins. Sans Frontières (MSF) presented last month from the platinum-mining boom town of. Rustenburg. Promising to increase its rape survivor care and ...

  3. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  4. Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Julie M.; And Others

    This publication is a collection of 20 supporting documents for a conference program, "Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture." Contents include: (1) "Presenter Contact Information"; (2) "Characteristics of Rape-Prone versus Rape-Free Cultures"; (3) "Dater's Bill of Rights"; (4)…

  5. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... May 23, 2012 Part VI The President Memorandum of May 17, 2012--Implementing the Prison Rape... 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act... assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA...

  6. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rape and incest. 50.306 Section 50.306 Public... § 50.306 Rape and incest. Federal financial participation is available in expenditures for medical procedures performed upon a victim of rape or incest if the program or project has received signed...

  7. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  8. Theoretical Consideration of Forcible Rape: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Arthur F.

    1988-01-01

    Examined differences in hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of committing forcible rape, which are held by male subjects, as compared with the hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of being forcibly raped, held by the female subjects. Developed a critical analysis of social and cross-cultural variables affecting rape. (Author/ABL)

  9. An Empirical Investigation of Campus Demographics and Reported Rapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Martinez, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Rape on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health issue with approximately 11% of women experiencing rape while in college. As such, it is important to examine factors unique to college campuses that influence the occurrences of rape. Methods: Using data from 1,423 four-year universities (public and private with at…

  10. 161 ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF RAPE AS A SOCIAL CANKERWORM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the child after collecting same willingly give in for it with the adult, it is said to be rape as well. ... in their teens, while others are matured adults (Obasi, 2007). ... Christian teen girls are no less likely to become victims of the rape". Rape cases are not limited to Nigeria alone. Other countries of the globe have their own side of ...

  11. Counting the countless – rape victimisation during the Rwandan Genocide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Morssinkhof, A.; Smeulers, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Rape is regularly committed during a period of collective violence such as war. The article discusses the Rwandan genocide during which rape was used with the deliberate intent to destroy in whole or in part the Tutsi community. Rape is not often studied in such particular contexts, so little is

  12. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  13. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Flower Fraction in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF and Flower Fraction (FF in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. The results showed that the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARIgreen worked most accurately for estimating VF in flower-free samples with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 3.56%, while the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2 was the best in flower-containing samples with an RMSE of 5.65%. Based on reflectance in green and NIR bands, a technique was developed to identify whether a sample contained flowers and then to choose automatically the appropriate algorithm for its VF estimation. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate FF in oilseed rape. No significant correlation was observed between VI and FF when soil was visible in the sensor’s field of view. Reflectance at 550 nm worked well for FF estimation with coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.6. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with RMSE below 6%.

  14. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  15. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  16. The Psychology of the Politics of Rape: Political Ideology, Moral Foundations, and Attitudes Toward Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Hilz, Emily N

    2017-05-01

    Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.

  17. WHEAT LEAF RUST SEVERITY AS AFFECTED BY PLANT DENSITY AND SPECIES PROPORTION IN SIMPLE COMMUNITIES OF WHEAT AND WILD OATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    While it is generally accepted that dense stands of plants exacerbate epidemics caused by foliar pathogens, there is little experimental evidence to support this view. We grew model plant communities consisting of wheat and wild oats at different densities and proportions and exp...

  18. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6.

  19. Rape trauma syndrome in the military courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S A

    1995-01-01

    The military courts have developed a rich case law tradition in the area of rape trauma syndrome testimony. These cases are particularly important in the context of a military that is both increasingly female and increasingly sensitive to mixed gender relationships. This article reviews the military court's approach to rape trauma testimony over the past 15 years. The author notes that military courts have been accepting of this testimony within certain well defined limits. The author analyzes the approach to testimony at one military medical center and offers a testimony model for the forensic psychiatrist who testifies in a military setting.

  20. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  1. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  2. Response of snap bean growth and seed yield to seed size, plant density and foliar application with algae extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia I. Abu Seif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted during the two growing summer seasons of 2013 and 2014, at the experimental farm of vegetables at Kaha, Qalyubia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center (ARC, Egypt, in order to investigate the effect of seed size, plant density and foliar application with some algae extracts on growth and seed yield of snap bean cv. valentino. A split–split plot design was used with three replications, where three sizes i.e., large, small and control (without grading were randomly distributed in the main plots, two plant density rates (22 and 33 plants per m2 arranged in subplots and foliar spray with seaweed extract (algost, fresh water algae (spirulina, mixture of them and control (sprayed with distilled water allocated in sub–subplots. Results showed a clear positively enhancement of plant vegetative growth parameters, chlorophyll, N, P, and K contents of leaves and seed yield quantity and quality positively by sowing large seeds compared with other seed sizes. Meanwhile, higher plant density (33 plants per m2 gave the highest values of plant length and seed yield per feddan, while the lower plant density (22 plants per m2 gave the highest values in other studied parameters except weight of 100 seeds where there were no significant differences between the two plant densities. All foliar applications with algae extracts significantly increased all the studied parameters compared to the control treatment. The superior application was the mixture of seaweeds and fresh water algae extracts together followed by seaweed extract alone in the two seasons, respectively.

  3. Effects of experimental warming on fungal disease progress in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebold, Magdalena; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Global warming will influence the growth and development of both crops and pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate potential effects of future warming on oilseed rape growth and the epidemiology of the three economically important pathogens Verticillium longisporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph: Phoma lingam). We utilized climate chambers and a soil warming facility, where treatments represented regional warming scenarios for Lower Saxony, Germany, by 2050 and 2100, and compared results of both approaches on a thermal time scale by calculating degree-days (dd) from day of sowing, December 1st and March 1st until sampling, the latter correlating best with disease progress. Regression analysis showed that plant growth and growth stages in spring responded almost linearly to increasing thermal time until 1000-1500 dd. Colonization of plant tissue by V. longisporum showed an exponential increase when exceeding 1300-1500 dd and reaching plant growth stage BBCH 74/75 (pod development). V. longisporum colonization of plants may be advanced, potentially leading to higher inoculum densities after harvest and increased economic importance of this pathogen under future warming. Sclerotia germination of S. sclerotiorum reached its maximum at 600-900 dd. Advance of these critical degree-days may lead to earlier apothecia production, potentially advancing the infection window, whereas the future importance of S. sclerotiorum may remain constant. Severity of phoma crown canker increased linearly with increasing thermal time, but showed also large variation in response to the warming scenarios, suggesting that factors such as canopy microclimate in fall or leaf shedding over winter may play a bigger role for L. maculans infection and disease severity than higher soil temperatures. Thermal time was a suitable tool to combine and integrate data on biological responses to soil and air temperature increases from climate chamber and field

  4. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of different irrigation intervals and plant densities on yield and yield components of two fennel (Foenicolum vulgare landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koochaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals and plant densities on yield and yield components of two fennel landraces, an experiment was conducted at the agricultural research station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2003 and 2004. For this purpose a double split plot experiment based on a Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications was used. Treatments included three irrigation intervals (10, 20 and 30 days, two fennel landraces (Khorasan and Kerman and four plant densities (40, 50, 67 and 100 plant per m2. Row spaces were kept constant (25 cm and plant density were adjusted in row spaces. Results indicated that irrigation affected vegetative and reproductive organs, significantly. With increasing irrigation intervals, plant height, dry matter of stem, total dry matter of plant, lateral branches per m2, umbels per m2, umbels per plant, fertile umbels per main stem, umbels per lateral branch, umbelets per umbel, 1000-seed weight and grain yield were decreased, but main branches per m2 and grain number per umbelet did not show a constant trend. Khorasan landrace had more plant height and 1000-seed weight than Kerman landrace, but main branches per m2, lateral branches per m2, umbels per m2, umbels per main branch, umbelets per umbel, grain number per umbelet and grain yield in Kerman landrace were higher than Khorasan landrace. Two landraces showed no differences in dry matter of stem weight, total dry matter of plant, umbels per plant and umbels per lateral branch. With increasing plant density, umbels per plant, umbels per main branch, umbelets per umbel and grain number per umbelet decreased, significantly. Density had no significant effect on 1000-seed weight. With increasing density, dry matter of stem, total dry matter of plant, main branches per m2, lateral branches per m2, umbels per m2 and grain yield increased, but umbels per lateral branch showed no constant trand. Our results showed that the

  6. The Effect of Nitrogen and Plant Density on Some Growth Characteristics, Yield and Essential Oil in Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Izadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effect of different amounts of nitrogen and plant density on growth, yield, the percentage of essential oil in leaf and essential oil yield of peppermint (Mentha piperita L., an experiment was conducted in 2008 at the Experimental Field of the Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University. The experiment was split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications over two cuts. The main plots included the amounts of 100, 150 and 200 kg nitrogen/ha in which half of fertilizer were used for the first cut and another half for the second. The sub-plots were consisted of plant densities as 8, 12 and 16 plants/m2. Morphophysiological characteristics including plant height, node and leaf number per plant, leaf area index, fresh and dry yield, essential oil percentage in leaf and essential oil yield over two cuts, and also the growth of dry matter, leaf area index and crop growth rate in the first cut were measured. The results showed that, nitrogen treatment significantly affected the properties measured, so that, their highest rates were obtained with the application of 100 and 200 kg nitrogen/ha from the first and the second cut, respectively. In addition, total dry matter, leaf area index and crop growth rate increased with increasing the amounts of nitrogen. Plant density also affected the plant height; node number, leaf number and leaf area index, essential oil percentage in leaf and essential oil yield in the first cut significantly, and in the second cut, plant density effect on leaf number and leaf area index was significant as well. Keywords: Peppermint, Nitrogen, Plant density, Yield, Growth indices, Essential oil

  7. Incapacitated rape and alcohol use: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Neighbors, Clayton; Martell, Joel; Fossos, Nicole; Larimer, Mary E

    2006-10-01

    This study examined timing of alcohol-related sexual assaults (incapacitated rape) in relation to both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. The sample was drawn from a randomly selected pool of college students across three campuses (n=1238) followed over a three year time period. 91% of students never experienced an incapacitated rape, 2% reported an incapacitated rape prior to the first assessment point (n=30), and 6% reported one over the course of the study (n=76). Results indicated that incapacitated rape was associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences in the years prior to the assault. Incapacitated rape was also associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences during the year in which the rape took place and subsequent years, with highest rates measured for the year of the rape. These results suggest alcohol use can function as both risk factor and consequence of sexual victimization.

  8. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  9. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter.

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Responsibility Judgment for Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; And Others

    One explanation for the positive relationship between alcohol consumption and violent crime considers alcohol consumption to be a socially accepted excuse for otherwise inappropriate behaviors. A policy capturing methodology was used to examine judgments of responsibility for rape. Male (N=30) and female (N=66) undergraduates received 40 profiles…

  11. Taking a chance: Sex, alcohol & acquaintance rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    2011-01-01

    to grasp more of the complexities of the situation. By analyzing a single case of acquaintance rape and then reflect this case in the light of interviews on young people's drinking habits it is argued that the complexities within the analytical frame of chance is crucial in understanding reported...

  12. Plant diversity increases with the strength of negative density dependence at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManna, Joseph A.; Mangan, Scott A.; Alonso, Alfonso; Bourg, Norman; Brockelman, Warren Y.; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Chang, Li-Wan; Chiang, Jyh-Min; Chuyong, George B.; Clay, Keith; Condit, Richard; Cordell, Susan; Davies, Stuart J.; Furniss, Tucker J.; Giardina, Christian P.; Gunatilleke, I.A.U. Nimal; Gunatilleke, C.V. Savitri; He, Fangliang; Howe, Robert W.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Hsieh, Chang-Fu; Inman-Narahari, Faith M.; Janik, David; Johnson, Daniel J.; Kenfack, David; Korte, Lisa; Kral, Kamil; Larson, Andrew J.; Lutz, James A.; McMahon, Sean M.; McShea, William J.; Memiaghe, Herve R.; Nathalang, Anuttara; Novotny, Vojtech; Ong, Perry S.; Orwig, David A.; Ostertag, Rebecca; Parker, Geoffrey G.; Phillips, Richard P.; Sack, Lawren; Sun, I-Fang; Tello, J. Sebastian; Thomas, Duncan W.; Turner, Benjamin L.; Vela Diaz, Dilys M.; Vrska, Tomas; Weiblen, George D.; Wolf, Amy; Yap, Sandra; Myers, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    Theory predicts that higher biodiversity in the tropics is maintained by specialized interactions among plants and their natural enemies that result in conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD). By using more than 3000 species and nearly 2.4 million trees across 24 forest plots worldwide, we show that global patterns in tree species diversity reflect not only stronger CNDD at tropical versus temperate latitudes but also a latitudinal shift in the relationship between CNDD and species abundance. CNDD was stronger for rare species at tropical versus temperate latitudes, potentially causing the persistence of greater numbers of rare species in the tropics. Our study reveals fundamental differences in the nature of local-scale biotic interactions that contribute to the maintenance of species diversity across temperate and tropical communities.

  13. GROWTH AND HERBAGE YIELD OF Celosia argentea AS INFLUENCED BY PLANT DENSITY AND NPK FERTILIZATION IN DEGRADED ULTISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole Edomwonyi Law-Ogbomo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of five plant densities (8,0000, 160,000, 250,000, 444,444 and 1,000,000 plants ha-1 and three levels of fertilizer (0, 200 and 400 kg NPK ha-1 on growth and yield of Celosia argentea was evaluated on degraded ultisol at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons. The trial was a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement fitted into a randomized complete block design in three replicates. Results revealed that plant density and fertilizer application affected significantly (P < 0.05 affected the plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area index and total dry weight leading to higher herbage yield. The plants grown under high plant density and fertilizer application level had higher degree of foliation and total dry weight than plants grown under lower plant density and fertilizer application levels. The greatest yield (13.67 tonnes hectare was produced from a population of 444,444 plants with 400kg fertilizer rate. The production cost increased from $ 79.570 – $ 790.18, revenue from $ 1,008.00 – $ 2,460.60, gross margin from $ 948.08 – $ 2151.00, net income from $ 928.43 – $ 2,072.92 and benefit-cost ratio from 1.34 – 14.55 for the various treatment combinations. The best herbage yield was a population of 80,000 plants with 400 kg fertilizer rate based on the fact that it had the greatest benefit-cost ratio (14.55.

  14. Effect of Drought Stress and Plant Density on Quantity and Quality Charactristics of Isabgol (Plantago ovata and French Psyllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate yield, yield components and quality traits of P. ovata and P. psyllium under water stress and plant density, two experiments were conducted at the Agriculture Research Field, University of Tehran, Karaj, in April 2005 and 2006. Two Factorial experiments based on randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The treatments were three levels of water stress including water witholding at flowering (Severe stress, water withholding at flowering with complementary irrigation at grain filling (Medium stress and control, three levels of plant density (low, medium and high density, and two plantago species. Combined analysis results showed that seed yield, biological yield, mucilage percentage and mucilage yield significantly different in two years experiments. In both years, water stress significantly decreased seed thousand weight, biological and mucilage yield per hectare. Water stress also significantly increased mucilage percentage and swelling seed in both species. The highest seed yield (765 kg.ha-1 and biological yield (4079 kg.ha-1 observed in medium and high plant density, respectively. Totally, results of this experiment showed that seed yield and mucilage yield per hectare were higher in P. ovata in compared to P. psyllium. The highest mucilage yield observed in medium drought stress and plant density of 100 and 70 plants per square meter in P. ovata and P. psyllium, respectively.

  15. Rape Myths and the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Fang, Gang; Huang, Hui; Cui, Naixue; Rhodes, Karin V; Gelles, Richard

    2016-06-05

    The study examines the similarities and differences between China and the United States with regard to rape myths. We assessed the individual level of rape myth acceptance among Chinese university students by adapting and translating a widely used measure of rape myth endorsement in the United States, the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) scale. We assessed whether the IRMA scale would be an appropriate assessment of attitudes toward rape among young adults in China. The sample consisted of 975 Chinese university students enrolled in seven Chinese universities. We used explorative factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the Chinese translation of the IRMA scale. Results suggest that the IRMA scale requires some modification to be employed with young adults in China. Our analyses indicate that 20 items should be deleted, and a five-factor model is generated. We discuss relevant similarities and differences in the factor structure and item loadings between the Chinese Rape Myth Acceptance (CRMA) and the IRMA scales. A revised version of the IRMA, the CRMA, can be used as a resource in rape prevention services and rape victim support services. Future research in China that employs CRMA will allow researchers to examine whether individual's response to rape myth acceptance can predict rape potential and judgments of victim blaming and community members' acceptance of marital rape. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  17. Effects of reindeer density on vascular plant diversity on North Scandinavian mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Olofsson

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of reindeer grazing on species richness and diversity of vascular plants on dolomite influenced low alpine sites in the species rich northern part of the Scandes using 8 sites with different reindeer densities. Two sites were situated inside Malla Strict Nature Reserve, where reindeer grazing have been totally prohibited since 1981, and strongly restricted since 1950s. The six other sites were located in other species rich hotspot sites standardized to be as similar to the dolomite-influenced sites in Malla Strict Reserve as possible but varying in reindeer densities commonly found in the Fennoscandian mountain chain. Each site with a habitat complex especially rich in rare vascular plants (the Dryas heath – low herb meadow complex was systematically sampled in four plots of 2 m x 10 m. The plots were divided to 20 squares of 1 m x 1 m, and complete species lists of vascular plants were compiled for each of the squares. The first DCA (detrended correspondence analysis axis was strongly related to an index of reindeer grazing, indicating that grazing has a strong impact on the composition of the vegetation. None of the characteristics indices of biodiversity (species richness, evenness or Shannon-Wiener H’ was correlated with reindeer density. The local abundances of categories consisting of relatively rare plants (Ca favored plants and red listed plants of Finland showed significant, positive correlation with the intensity of reindeer grazing. We conclude that even though the density of reindeer has no influence on the total species richness or diversity of vascular plants, reindeer may still be important for regional biodiversity as it seems to favour rare and threatened plants. Moreover, our results imply that standard diversity indices may have limited value in the context of conservation biology, as these indices are equally influenced by rarities and by trivial species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Vi

  18. Density-dependent reproductive and vegetative allocation in the aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Freitas Coelho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Pistia stratiotes is an aquatic macrophyte that grows in temporary-ponds in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. It reproduces both sexually and asexually and is usually observed forming dense mats on the water surface, a condition favored by the plant’s vegetative reproduction coupled with an ability for rapid growth. In this study we examined the effect of densely crowded conditions on the production of reproductive and vegetative structures. In addition, we verified whether there is a trade-off between clonal growth and investment in sexual reproductive structures, and whether there is an allocation pattern with plant size. Individual plant biomass and the number of the rosettes producing sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures both increased with density. Increase in plant size resulted in increased proportional allocation to sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures. Allocation of biomass to reproduction did not occur at the expense of clonal growth. Thus, the density response appears as a increase of rosettes producing sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures. Therefore, long leaves and stolons may be adaptive under densely crowded conditions where competition for light is intense. An important aspect in the study of trade-offs is the size-dependency of the allocation patterns .Usually, larger plants produce more biomass. Therefore, larger plants can allocate more biomass to both vegetative and sexual reproduction than smaller plants and thus show a positive correlation between both traits rather than the expected negative one. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 369-376. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Pistias strariotes es una macrófita acuática que crece en charcas estacionales en el Pantanal sureño de Brasil. Se reproduce tanto sexual como asexualmente y se obsrva generalmente que forma densas parches sobre la superficie del agua, una condicion que favorecida por la reproduccion vegetativa de la

  19. Energy- and exergy analysis of rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production under Swedish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovelius, K.; Hansson, P. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1999-10-01

    In this study the rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production chain was analysed with respect to its energy- and exergy efficiencies. The differences between results from an ordinary energy analysis and an exergy analysis of the production were also quantified and discussed. The sensitivity of the results to changes in some of the most important input parameters were then analysed in order to find production strategies that increase the exergy efficiency. The study was applied to rape seed cultivation situated in southern Sweden. The rape seed oil was hot pressed in a large-scale plant, and the RME was esterified in the same factory as that in which the rape seed oil was pressed. Both direct and indirect energy and exergy flows used for RME production were included. The analysis showed that a large part of the energy and exergy used to produce RME was related to nitrogen fertilizers and diesel fuels. Another important conclusion was that the exergy efficiency of the production in general is higher than the energy efficiency. A third conclusion was that it is possible, by using alternative production strategies, to improve the exergy efficiency without decreasing the energy efficiency.

  20. Male fitness of oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤), weedy ¤B-rapa¤ and their F1 hybrids when pollinating ¤B-rapa¤ seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, M.; Hauser, T.P.; Damgaard, C.

    2002-01-01

    ) and their F(1) hybrids at different frequencies and densities. Paternity was determined by the presence of a transgene, morphology, and AFLP markers. In addition, observations of flower and pollen production, and published data on pollen fertilisation success, zygote survival, and seed germination, allowed us......The likelihood that two species hybridise and backcross may depend strongly on environmental conditions, and possibly on competitive interactions between parents and hybrids. We studied the paternity of seeds produced by weedy Brassica rapa growing in mixtures with oilseed rape (B. napus...... to estimate an expected paternity. The frequency and density of B. napus, B. rapa, and F(1) plants had a strong influence on flower, pollen, and seed production, and on the paternity of B. rapa seeds. Hybridisation and backcrossing mostly occurred at low densities and at high frequencies of B. napus and F(1...

  1. Irrigation dose and plant density affect the volatile composition and sensory quality of dill (Anethum graveolens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Martínez-Tomé, Juan; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Burló, Francisco; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-01-01

    Two independent field experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of (i) three irrigation treatments (ID0 = 1585 m(3) ha(-1) , considered as a control; ID1 = 1015 m(3) ha(-1) ; and ID2 = 2180 m(3) ha(-1) ) and (ii) three plant density treatments (PD0 = 5.56 plants m(-2) , considered as a control; PD1 = 4.44 plants m(-2) ; and PD2 = 7.41 plants m(-2) ) on the production, volatile composition of essential oil, and sensory quality of dill. The highest plant yield was obtained with intermediate conditions of both irrigation dose (ID0) and plant density (PD0). The main compounds of the essential oil were α-phellandrene, dill ether and β-phellandrene. The highest irrigation dose (ID2) produced the highest concentrations of most of the main compounds: α-phellandrene (49.5 mg per 100 g), β-phellandrene (6.89 mg per 100 g) and limonene (2.49 mg per 100 g). A similar pattern was found for the highest plant density (PD2): α-phellandrene (71.0 mg per 100 g), dill ether (16.7 mg per 100 g) and β-phellandrene (9.70 mg per 100 g). The use of descriptive sensory analysis helped in reaching a final decision, and the dill plants with the highest sensory quality were those of the ID2 and PD0 treatments. The final recommendation is to use the irrigation dose ID2 and the plant density PD2 if the objective is to produce dill samples with the highest aromatic and sensory quality; however, if the only objective is to produce high amounts of dill, the best options are ID0 and PD0. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effects of the planting density on virgin olive oil quality of "Chemlali" olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Zaghdoud, Chokri; Jebahi, Khaled; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2010-12-08

    Here, we report the characterization of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha(-1)). Olive oil samples obtained from fruits of trees grown at 100 trees ha(-1) had a higher content of oleic acid (65.5%), a higher content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and a higher content in total phenols (1059.08 mg/kg). Interestingly, olives grown at the two highest planting densities yielded more stable oils than olives grown at the two lowest ones. Thus planting density is found to be a key factor for the quality of olive oils in arid regions.

  3. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  4. Detection of Powdery Mildew in Two Winter Wheat Plant Densities and Prediction of Grain Yield Using Canopy Hyperspectral Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xueren; Luo, Yong; Zhou, Yilin; Fan, Jieru; Xu, Xiangming; West, Jonathan S.; Duan, Xiayu; Cheng, Dengfa

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of plant density and powdery mildew infection of winter wheat and to predict grain yield, hyperspectral canopy reflectance of winter wheat was measured for two plant densities at Feekes growth stage (GS) 10.5.3, 10.5.4, and 11.1 in the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 seasons. Reflectance in near infrared (NIR) regions was significantly correlated with disease index at GS 10.5.3, 10.5.4, and 11.1 at two plant densities in both seasons. For the two plant densities, the area of the red edge peak (Σdr680–760 nm), difference vegetation index (DVI), and triangular vegetation index (TVI) were significantly correlated negatively with disease index at three GSs in two seasons. Compared with other parameters Σdr680–760 nm was the most sensitive parameter for detecting powdery mildew. Linear regression models relating mildew severity to Σdr680–760 nm were constructed at three GSs in two seasons for the two plant densities, demonstrating no significant difference in the slope estimates between the two plant densities at three GSs. Σdr680–760 nm was correlated with grain yield at three GSs in two seasons. The accuracies of partial least square regression (PLSR) models were consistently higher than those of models based on Σdr680760 nm for disease index and grain yield. PLSR can, therefore, provide more accurate estimation of disease index of wheat powdery mildew and grain yield using canopy reflectance. PMID:25815468

  5. Indications of Selenium Protection against Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S.; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Ying; Li, Miao; Yuan, Linxi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se) in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants from cadmium (Cd+2) and lead (Pb+2) toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1) alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se-enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2•¯), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant. PMID:28018407

  6. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  7. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André

    1989-01-01

    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  8. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape reduces weed competition, insect damage, and improves nitrogen use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadoux Stéphane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mixing plant species in agroecosystems is highlighted as an agroecological solution to reduce pesticides and fertilizers while maintaining profitability. In the French context, intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is potentially interesting and began to be implemented by farmers. In this study we aimed at measuring the services and disservices of this intercrop with three different legume mixtures, in terms of growth and yield for rapeseed, ground cover of weeds in autumn and damage caused by rape winter stem weevil. The experiment was carried out at four sites from 2011 to 2014. We showed higher total aerial dry weights and total aerial nitrogen contents in the intercrops compared to sole winter oilseed rape in November. The companion plants contributed to the control of weeds and the mitigation of rape winter stem weevil damage, notably through the increase in the total aerial weight. In spring, after destruction of the companion plants, the intercrops had partially compensated a reduction in the N fertilization rate (–30 kg per hectare in terms of aerial nitrogen content in rapeseed, with no consequences on the yield which was maintained or even increased. There were probably other interactions such as an improvement in rapeseed root exploration. The consequences were an increase in the nitrogen use efficiency in intercrops. The intercrop with faba bean and lentil showed the best results in terms of autumn growth, weed control, reduction in rape winter stem weevil damage, and rapeseed N content in spring and yield. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is thus a promising way to reconcile yield and reduction in pesticides and fertilizer use and perhaps to benefit more widely to the cropping system.

  9. Effects of Planting Date, Time and Methods of Weed Control on Weed Density and Biomass in Cumin Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two field experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of planting date, method and date of weed control on weed density and biomass in the experimental research field, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2006 and 2007. Treatments included planting date (30 December, 20 January and 30 February, weeding date (first true leaf, start of branching and beginning of flowering stages and weed control methods (hand weeding, fire treatment and control. The results showed that there were significant differences in the number of weeds between different sowing dates, weeding dates and control methods. The highest mean density and biomass of weeds were obtained on the planting date, 30 February, and when weed was controlled at the first leaf appearance stage with fire treatment. The most appropriate time for weed control was at the beginning of cumin flowering. Fire treatment reduced weed growth in the first half of growing season. However, hand weeding significantly reduced weed density and biomass in the second half of cumin growing season. The first planting date caused the lowest mean weed biomass and the highest cumin yield compared to later planting dates. Hand weeding treatment contained lower mean weed density and biomass compared to fire treatment, however, cumin yield was lower in hand weeding plots than fire treatment. Keywords: Cultural control, Cuminum cyminum, Fire, Hand weeding, Control time

  10. Composting of rice straw with oilseed rape cake and poultry manure and its effects on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) growth and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Magdi T; Horiuchi, Takatsugu; Oba, Shinya

    2004-06-01

    Composting of rice straw with poultry manure and oilseed rape cake and its effects on growth and yield of faba bean and soil properties was studied in pot experiments at Gifu University, Japan in 2001/2002. The composts reached maturity in 90 days, were rich in organic matter and mineral nutrients, had a high level of stability, and no phytotoxicity. The addition of compost (20-200 g pot(-1)) improved selected soil chemical (increased total N, total C and CEC), physical (decreased particle density) and biological (increased soil respiration rate) properties. Application of composts at a rate of 20 g pot(-1) significantly increased growth, yield, yield components and total crude protein of faba bean plants. The benefit of this compost without chemical fertilizer demonstrated the validity and possibility of sustainable agronomic performance of faba bean using locally available recycled organic materials. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of plant diversity on the concentration of secondary plant metabolites and the density of arthropods on focal plants in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostenko, Olga; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Courbois, Matthijs; Bezemer, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of the surrounding plant community can directly affect the abundance of insects on a focal plant as well as the size and quality of that focal plant. However, to what extent the effects of plant diversity on the arthropod community on a focal plant are mediated by host plant quality

  12. Radio-sensitivity analysis and selection of useful mutants of rape (Brassica napus L.) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Eun Jeong; Kim, Wook Jin; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) plants are one of the major oilseed crops. The main components of rapeseed are oil (35 to 47%) and protein (15 to 32%). For the biodiesel production, the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and/or oleic acid contents is required. In order to determine the optimum dose of gamma-ray irradiation, the rape seeds of cvs. Hanra (Hr), Youngsan (Ys), Tammi (Tm), and Tamra (Tr) were irradiated with a 100 {approx} 4,000 Gy dose range of gamma-rays. Considering the growth factors, the optimum doses were determined to be within the range of 600 {approx} 1,000 Gy for the selection of useful mutant lines. Six-hundred and eighty eight (688) M{sub 2} mutant lines were obtained from 600 {approx} 1,000 Gy gamma-ray-irradiated M{sub 1} plants through selfing. The growth characteristics, leaf shape, early flowering, and flower color were all investigated. The selected mutant numbers of early flowering, leaf shape, and flower color were 34, 52, and 3 from the four cultivars, respectively. These mutant lines will be used for the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and oleic acid contents.

  13. Tree Species Richness and Stand Productivity in Low-Density Cluster Plantings with Oaks (Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka Liebl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kuehne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Low density plantings complemented by natural regeneration is an increasingly common reforestation technique to ensure growth of a sufficient number of trees from desired species while maintaining natural processes such as succession. One such form of low density planting that aims at lowering establishment costs—oak clusters—has been developed as an alternative to row planting since the 1980s in central Europe. However, whether cluster planting provides higher species richness and productivity than high density row planting has not previously been analyzed. Here, we compare tree species richness and productivity (measured as stand basal area between oak cluster plantings and conventional row planting in young (10–26 years old forest stands at seven study sites in Germany. Tree species richness was significantly higher in cluster plantings than in row plantings, whereas total basal areas were comparable. Naturally regenerated trees contributed on average to 43% of total stand basal area in cluster plantings, which was significantly higher than in row plantings. Total stand basal area in cluster planting was significantly related to the density of naturally regenerated trees. In turn, tree species diversity, density and basal area of naturally regenerated trees were increased with the size of unplanted area between clusters. Our results demonstrate that the admixture of naturally regenerated, early and mid-successional tree species compensates for a possible loss in productivity from planting fewer oaks. Low density cluster plantings can offer significant environmental benefits, at least for the first few decades of stand development, without compromising productivity.

  14. An Evaluation of the Plant Density Estimator the Point-Centred Quarter Method (PCQM Using Monte Carlo Simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nabiul Islam Khan

    Full Text Available In the Point-Centred Quarter Method (PCQM, the mean distance of the first nearest plants in each quadrant of a number of random sample points is converted to plant density. It is a quick method for plant density estimation. In recent publications the estimator equations of simple PCQM (PCQM1 and higher order ones (PCQM2 and PCQM3, which uses the distance of the second and third nearest plants, respectively show discrepancy. This study attempts to review PCQM estimators in order to find the most accurate equation form. We tested the accuracy of different PCQM equations using Monte Carlo Simulations in simulated (having 'random', 'aggregated' and 'regular' spatial patterns plant populations and empirical ones.PCQM requires at least 50 sample points to ensure a desired level of accuracy. PCQM with a corrected estimator is more accurate than with a previously published estimator. The published PCQM versions (PCQM1, PCQM2 and PCQM3 show significant differences in accuracy of density estimation, i.e. the higher order PCQM provides higher accuracy. However, the corrected PCQM versions show no significant differences among them as tested in various spatial patterns except in plant assemblages with a strong repulsion (plant competition. If N is number of sample points and R is distance, the corrected estimator of PCQM1 is 4(4N - 1/(π ∑ R2 but not 12N/(π ∑ R2, of PCQM2 is 4(8N - 1/(π ∑ R2 but not 28N/(π ∑ R2 and of PCQM3 is 4(12N - 1/(π ∑ R2 but not 44N/(π ∑ R2 as published.If the spatial pattern of a plant association is random, PCQM1 with a corrected equation estimator and over 50 sample points would be sufficient to provide accurate density estimation. PCQM using just the nearest tree in each quadrant is therefore sufficient, which facilitates sampling of trees, particularly in areas with just a few hundred trees per hectare. PCQM3 provides the best density estimations for all types of plant assemblages including the repulsion process

  15. An Evaluation of the Plant Density Estimator the Point-Centred Quarter Method (PCQM) Using Monte Carlo Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Nabiul Islam; Hijbeek, Renske; Berger, Uta; Koedam, Nico; Grueters, Uwe; Islam, S M Zahirul; Hasan, Md Asadul; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2016-01-01

    In the Point-Centred Quarter Method (PCQM), the mean distance of the first nearest plants in each quadrant of a number of random sample points is converted to plant density. It is a quick method for plant density estimation. In recent publications the estimator equations of simple PCQM (PCQM1) and higher order ones (PCQM2 and PCQM3, which uses the distance of the second and third nearest plants, respectively) show discrepancy. This study attempts to review PCQM estimators in order to find the most accurate equation form. We tested the accuracy of different PCQM equations using Monte Carlo Simulations in simulated (having 'random', 'aggregated' and 'regular' spatial patterns) plant populations and empirical ones. PCQM requires at least 50 sample points to ensure a desired level of accuracy. PCQM with a corrected estimator is more accurate than with a previously published estimator. The published PCQM versions (PCQM1, PCQM2 and PCQM3) show significant differences in accuracy of density estimation, i.e. the higher order PCQM provides higher accuracy. However, the corrected PCQM versions show no significant differences among them as tested in various spatial patterns except in plant assemblages with a strong repulsion (plant competition). If N is number of sample points and R is distance, the corrected estimator of PCQM1 is 4(4N - 1)/(π ∑ R2) but not 12N/(π ∑ R2), of PCQM2 is 4(8N - 1)/(π ∑ R2) but not 28N/(π ∑ R2) and of PCQM3 is 4(12N - 1)/(π ∑ R2) but not 44N/(π ∑ R2) as published. If the spatial pattern of a plant association is random, PCQM1 with a corrected equation estimator and over 50 sample points would be sufficient to provide accurate density estimation. PCQM using just the nearest tree in each quadrant is therefore sufficient, which facilitates sampling of trees, particularly in areas with just a few hundred trees per hectare. PCQM3 provides the best density estimations for all types of plant assemblages including the repulsion process

  16. Nitrogen uptake in riparian plant communities across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimchen TE

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. on the Pacific Coast of North America indicate an important and previously unrecognized role of salmonid nutrients to terrestrial biota. However, the extent of this uptake by primary producers and consumers and the influences on community structure remain poorly described. We examine here the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple taxa of riparian vegetation (Blechnum spicant, Menziesii ferruginea, Oplopanax horridus, Rubus spectabilis, Vaccinium alaskaense, V. parvifolium, Tsuga heterophylla and measure foliar δ15N, total %N and plant community structure at two geographically separated watersheds in coastal British Columbia. To reduce potentially confounding effects of precipitation, substrate and other abiotic variables, we made comparisons across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon density that resulted from a waterfall barrier to salmon migration. Results δ15N and %N in foliage, and %cover of soil nitrogen indicators differed across the waterfall barrier to salmon at each watershed. δ15N values were enriched by 1.4‰ to 9.0‰ below the falls depending on species and watershed, providing a relative contribution of marine-derived nitrogen (MDN to vegetation of 10% to 60%. %N in foliar tissues was slightly higher below the falls, with the majority of variance occurring between vegetation species. Community structure also differed with higher incidence of nitrogen-rich soil indicator species below the waterfalls. Conclusions Measures of δ15N, %N and vegetation cover indicate a consistent difference in the riparian community across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon density. The additional N source that salmon provide to nitrogen-limited habitats appears to have significant impacts on the N budget of riparian vegetation, which may increase primary productivity, and result in community shifts between sites with and without salmon access. This, in turn, may

  17. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data*

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010–2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China. PMID:25644468

  18. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010-2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China.

  19. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids.

  20. Biomass conversion and expansion factors in Douglas-fir stands of different planting density: variation according to individual growth and prediction equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marziliano, P.A.; Menguzzato, G.; Scuderi, A.; Scalise, C.; Coletta, V.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: We built biomass expansion factors (BCEFs) from Douglas-fir felled trees planted with different planting densities to evaluate the differences according tree size and planting density. Area of study: The Douglas-fir plantation under study is located on the northern coastal chain of Calabria (Tyrrhenian side) south Italy. Materials and methods: We derived tree level BCEFs, relative to crown (BCEFc), to stem (BCEFst = basic density, BD) and total above-ground (BCEFt) from destructive measurements carried out in a Douglas-fir plantation where four study plots were selected according to different planting densities (from 833 to 2500 trees per hectare). The measured BCEFs were regressed against diameter at breast height and total height, planting density, site productivity (SP) and their interactions to test the variation of BCEFs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey comparison test were used to test differences in BCEFt, BCEFc and in BD between plots with different planting density. Main results: BCEFs decreased with increasing total height and DBH, but large dispersion measures were obtained for any of the compartments in the analysis. An increasing trend with planting density was found for all the analyzed BCEFs, but together with planting density, BCEFs also resulted dependent upon site productivity. BCEFt average values ranged between 1.40 Mg m-3 in planting density with 833 trees/ha (PD833) to 2.09 Mg m-3 in planting density with 2500 trees/ha (PD2500), which are in the range of IPCC prescribed values for Douglas-fir trees. Research highlights: Our results showed that the application of BCEF to estimate forest biomass in stands with different planting densities should explicitly account for the effect of planting density and site productivity.

  1. Exploring different explanatory psychological models of perpetrators of rape

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. Without prejudice to race or culture, rape is the hurt of both males and females of all ages. Rape can be one of the most devastating emotional events in a person’s life, the effects of which are entrenched for life (Rozee & Koss, 2001). Motives underscoring the need to commit rape have received much attention in the literature. Evolutionary theorists such as Thornhill and Palmer (2000) report that sexual needs and reproduction are the primary motivational factors. Feminist theorists ...

  2. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  3. Rape: Past and present legal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapović Lasta S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC. In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapists. Laws following the Second Serbian Uprising, also provide severe punishment for sexual violence, especially towards women but also male minors. Legal and court practice, following the Second World War, indicate that the protection of women from sexual violence is completely inadequate and this at a time when women had achieved equal rights with men in many spheres of life. World events at the end of the 20th century: collapse of the Soviet Union: as well as the happenings in this region,: war, ethnic and religious conflicts resulted in massive rape of women, opening of brothels, trading women and family violence. Non state organizations, mainly women in expert associations, invest great effort to rectify this very unsatisfactory situation. They exert pressure for change in the law and in court practice, by which women would have more effective defense against sexual violence, as well as organized assistance for women victims of traffic, and warning of the possible danger.

  4. Planting density and silvicultural intensity impacts on loblolly pine stand development in the western gulf coastal plain through age 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael B. Kane; Dehai Zhao; John W. Rheney; Michael G. Messina; Mohd S. Rahman; Nicholas Chappell

    2012-01-01

    Commercial plantation growers need to know how planting density and cultural regime intensity affect loblolly pine plantation productivity, development and value to make sound management decisions. This knowledge is especially important given the diversity of traditional products, such as pulpwood, chip-n-saw, and sawtimber, and potential products, such as bioenergy...

  5. A simulation study on the interactive effects of radiation and plant density on growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we used a photosynthesis-driven crop growth model to determine acceptable plant densities for cut chrysanthemum throughout the year at different intensities of supplementary light. Dry matter partitioning between leaves, stems, and flowers was simulated as a function of crop

  6. Some remarks on the methods of assessing the population density of higher plants in cases of aggregated spatial structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Justyna Kwiatkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the methods used for. assessing the density of higher plants. The analysis was carried out on natural population (Vaccinium myrtillus L. characterized by aggregated spatial structure. Attention has been paid to the surface methods with high (0.25 m2 and low

  7. Ending Rape in War: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Fiske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rape of women has for centuries been an endemic feature of war, yet perpetrators largely go unpunished. Women were sanctioned as the spoils of war in biblical times and more recently it has been claimed that it is more dangerous to be a woman than a soldier in modern conflict. Nevertheless, until the establishment of the ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia – there was very little concern regarding the need to address the rape of women in conflict. This paper briefly maps historical attitudes towards rape in war, outlines some analyses and explanations of why rape in war occurs and finally turns more substantively to recent efforts by the international community to prosecute rape as a war crime and a crime against humanity. We argue, that while commendable in some ways, contemporary approaches to rape in war risk reinforcing aspects of women’s status which contribute to the targeting of women for rape and continue to displace women from the centre to the margins in debates and practices surrounding rape in both war and peace time.  We conclude by arguing that criminal prosecutions alone are insufficient and that, if we are to end the rape of women and girls in war (and peace we need a radical restructuring of gender relations across every sphere of social and political life.

  8. Reactions to rape: a military forensic psychiatrist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, E C

    1998-08-01

    Accusations of rape or sexual harassment are currently very high-profile in the military. This article discusses rape allegations in the military legal system from a psychiatric perspective. The original definition of "rape trauma syndrome" and subsequent psychiatric thinking about the diagnosis are briefly outlined. Common reactions seen in military victims in this era are described. A prototypical military case is presented. An adequate evaluation of an alleged victim is outlined. Credentials and preparation of an expert witness are also briefly discussed, with cautions about the use of expert testimony in cases of alleged sexual assault and rape trauma syndrome.

  9. Effect of Various Doses Application of Metribuzin Herbicide and Plant Density on Yield and Physiological Indices of Wheat (Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naghshbandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the influence of metribuzin herbicide on physiological indices and yield of wheat, an experiment was conducted at experimental field of Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute, Karaj, Iran during 2007. Treatments were in factorial arrangement laid out in four randomized complete blocks. The factors investigated were three plant densities: 400, 500 and 600 plant.m-2 and metribuzin doses: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 kg.ha-1. The result showed that the highest physiological indices and grain yield were obsevered in densities of 500 plant.m-2 and in applications of 0.6 and 0.8 kg. ha-1. Higher rates could be provided an acceptable level of weed control. Plant density could provide good control on weed and could be decrease using herbicide too by decreasing of available light for weed. This strategy can reduce the peresure of selection in resistant weeds population.

  10. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Heike L; Brandes, Haiko; Ulber, Bernd; Becker, Heiko C; Vidal, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  11. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike L Schaefer

    Full Text Available The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  12. Effects of Mechanical Stress and Plant Density on Mechanical Characteristics, Growth, and Lifetime Reproduction of Tobacco Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anten, N.P.R.; Casado-Garcia, R.; Nagashima, H.

    2005-01-01

    Plastic increases in stem elongation in dense vegetation are generally believed to be induced by canopy shading, but because plants protect each other from wind, shielding (reduced mechanical stress) could also play a role. To address this issue, tobacco Nicotiana tabacum plants were subjected to

  13. Perceptions of stranger and acquaintance rape: the role of benevolent and hostile sexism in victim blame and rape proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Viki, G Tendayi; Masser, Barbara; Bohner, Gerd

    2003-01-01

    In Studies 1 and 2, after reading an acquaintance-rape but not a stranger-rape scenario, higher benevolent sexist but not hostile sexist participants blamed the victim significantly more. In Study 2, higher hostile sexist but not benevolent sexist male participants showed significantly greater proclivity to commit acquaintance (but not stranger) rape. Studies 3 and 4 supported the hypothesis that the effects of benevolent sexism and hostile sexism are mediated by different perceptions of the victim, as behaving inappropriately and as really wanting sex with the rapist. These findings show that benevolent sexism and hostile sexism underpin different assumptions about women that generate sexist reactions toward rape victims.

  14. Maize response to elevated plant density combined with lowered N-fertilizer rate is genotype-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Medhat M. Al-Naggar 

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing plant density and improving N fertilizer rate along with the use of high density-tolerant genotypes would lead to maximizing maize (Zea mays L. grain productivity per unit land area. The objective of this investigation was to match the functions of optimum plant density and adequate nitrogen fertilizer application to produce the highest possible yields per unit area with the greatest maize genotype efficiency. Six maize inbred lines differing in tolerance to low N and high density (D [three tolerant (T; L-17, L-18, L-53, and three sensitive (S; L-29, L-54, L-55] were chosen for diallel crosses. Parents and crosses were evaluated in the 2012 and 2013 seasons under three plant densities: low (47,600, medium (71,400, and high (95,200 plants ha− 1 and three N fertilization rates: low (no N addition, medium (285 kg N ha− 1 and high (570 kg N ha− 1. The T × T crosses were superior to the S × S and T × S crosses under the low N–high D environment in most studied traits across seasons. The relationships between the nine environments and grain yield per hectare (GYPH showed near-linear regression functions for inbreds L54, L29, and L55 and hybrids L18 × L53 and L18 × L55 with the highest GYPH at a density of 47,600 plants ha− 1 and N rate of 570 kg N ha− 1 and a curvilinear relationship for inbreds L17, L18, and L53 and the rest of the hybrids with the highest GYPH at a density of 95,200 plants ha− 1 combined with an N rate of 570 kg N ha− 1. Cross L17 × L54 gave the highest grain yield in this study under both high N–high-D (19.9 t ha− 1 and medium N–high-D environments (17.6 t ha− 1.

  15. The effect of high density and depth of planting on agronomic characteristic of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. and corms behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of high density and depth of planting on agronomic characteristic of Saffron, a field experiment was conducted as a complete randomized block design with three replications in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during two growing seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Treatments were six levels of high densities (8, 11, 13, 16, 19 and 21 ton corms per hectare and three planting depths (5, 10 and 15 cm. Results indicated that the flowering rate increased in the second year and maximum and minimum of flower number, dry weight of flower and stigma were observed in 10 cm and 5 cm planting depth, respectively. With increasing corm density, flower number, dry weight of flower and stigma were increased significantly and maximum flower number, dry weight of flower and stigma were obtained in 19 and 21 tone corm per hectare. Result of this study showed that the maximum flower and stigma yield was obtained with 10cm planting depth and 19 t.ha-1. The highest and lowest number of corms observed in 21 and 8 t.ha-1 corms planting with 213.17 and 80.22 corms in m2, respectively; however, the maximum dry weight of corm was obtained in 11 tone corms per hectare. The maximum and the minimum of corm number was found in 5 cm and 15 cm planting depth but the highest and lowest dry weights of corm was obtained in 15 cm and 5cm planting depth, respectively.

  16. Effect of Kochia (Kochia indica Plant Density on Yield and Some Physiological Characteristics of Sorghum under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH. Ranjbar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in two years, 2012 and 2013, to determine the effects of salinity and different kochia plant densities on yield and some physiological characteristics of sorghum (cv. Sepideh at Salinity Research Center, National Salinity Research Center, Yazd, Iran. Treatments consisted of water salinity levels: 2 (control, 6, 10, and 14 dS m-1 of NaCl as main plots and different kochia (K. indica densities: 0 (weed free sorghum, D0, 80 (D1, 60 (D2, and 40 (D3 cm between kochia plants on the sorghum row as sub plots. Results showed that at each salinity level, increase in kochia plant density was accompanied by reduction in sorghum dry matter, leaf area index and crop growth rate. Decreases in dry matter and leaf area index of sorghum due to kochia were more pronounced when grown at salinities of up to 6 dS m-1. Chlorophyll content index at 6, 10 and 14 dS m-1 were 23, 32 and 40% lower than the non-saline control. Increase in irrigation water salinity was accompanied by increase in canopy temperature. Canopy temperature of plants subjected to 14 dS m-1 of salt was higher than the non–stressed control by 13.6%. The weed free sorghum treatment had the highest canopy temperature. Therefore, it is necessary to control both salinity and Kochia indica to avoid meaningful decreases in sorghum yield.

  17. Periphyton density is similar on native and non-native plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, Elisabeth M.; van Donk, E.; Bakker, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-native plants increasingly dominate the vegetation in aquatic ecosystems and thrive in eutrophic conditions. In eutrophic conditions, submerged plants risk being overgrown by epiphytic algae; however, if non-native plants are less susceptible to periphyton than natives, this would contribute to

  18. Something in the air? The impact of volatiles on mollusc attack of oilseed rape seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Anne-Emmanuelle; Poppy, Guy M.; Newland, Philip L.; van Dam, Nicole M.; Hanley, Mick E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Mounting concerns about balancing food security with the environmental impacts of agro-chemical use underpin the need to better understand the mechanisms by which crop plants, particularly during the vulnerable seedling stage, attract or repel herbivores. Methods The feeding preferences of the mollusc Helix aspersa were determined for several oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cultivars and a rank order of acceptability was established. This was compared with glucosinolate concentrations and volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles to determine whether seedling acceptability to molluscs was linked to either form of defence. Key Results While VOC profiles for each oilseed rape cultivar could be separated by canonical discriminant analysis and associated with mollusc feeding preferences, glucosinolate profiles were unrelated to snail feeding behaviour. A mixture of monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-myrcene and δ-3-carene) was identified as a putative attractant, while a blend of the green leaf volatiles 3-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol acetate and the monoterpene α-terpinene was identified as a putative repellent mix. Added to the VOC profile of oilseed rape seedlings, the ‘repellent’ mix reduced mollusc selection, while the ‘attractant’ mix had no effect. Conclusions Despite the widespread assumption that seedling selection by generalist herbivores is governed by chemical defence and taste, we show that olfactory cues may be more important. Oilseed rape may be atypical of wild plants, but our ability to identify repellent volatile organic compounds that can influence snail olfactory selection points to new methods for crop protection using modified VOC profiles during the vulnerable seedling stage. PMID:27009912

  19. Effects of microcystins on the growth and the activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase of rape (Brassica napus L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Song, Lirong; Dai, Jian; Gan, Nanqin; Liu, Zhili

    2004-03-15

    Microcystins are naturally occurring hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides produced by some toxic freshwater cyanobacterial species. In this study, crude extract of toxic cyanobacterial blooms from Dianchi Lake in southwestern China was used to determine the effects of microcystins on rape (Brassica napus L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.). Experiments were carried out on a range of doses of the extract (equivalent to 0, 0.024, 0.12, 0.6 and 3 microg MC-LR/ml). Investigations showed that exposure to microcystins inhibited the growth and development of both rice and rape seedlings, however, microcystins had more powerful inhibition effect on rape than rice in germination percentage of seeds and seedling height. Microcystins significantly inhibited the elongation of primary roots of rape and rice seedlings. Determination of the activities of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase demonstrated that microcystin stress was manifested as an oxidative stress. Using ELISA, microcystins were examined from the extract of exposed rape and rice seedlings, indicating that consumption of edible plants exposed to microcystins via irrigation route may have health risks. Significantly different levels of recovered microcystins between exposed rice and rape seedlings suggested that there might be different tolerant mechanisms toward microcystins.

  20. Female University Student and Staff Perceptions of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Michele H.; Sedlacek, William E.

    1974-01-01

    This study explores the fears of potential rape victims and the amount of information about rape and self-defense that such women possess. Many dimensions were found to explain the variability of responses among female members of the campus community. Suggestions for programs were offered. (Author/PC)

  1. "Corrective rape" of lesbians in the era of transformative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been numerous incidents of “corrective” rape of lesbians in recent years. This article examines the adequacy of the existing South African legal framework to deal with incidents of “corrective” rape against the background of transformative constitutionalism. The various definitions of transformative ...

  2. Date rape among undergraduates in southwestern Nigeria federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlational survey design was adopted to examine the extent to which attitude towards date rape is associated with the respondents' emotional empathy, beliefs in rape myths and gender. Simple random sampling technique was adopted at three stages to draw one thousand two hundred and sixteen undergraduates ...

  3. Knowledge and Perceptions of Date Rape among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    (Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17[3]: 137-148). Keywords: Female undergraduate students, Date rape perception, Date rape-related knowledge. Introduction. Violence against women is a pervasive human rights abuse worldwide1,2. It is any act that results in, or may result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering ...

  4. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  5. The Experience of Male Rape in Non-Institutionalised Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    medical and psychological requirements of rape and sexual assault victims .... and can entail a higher degree of psychological manipulation rather ..... and happiness. Conclusion and Future Research. Among the primary observations evident in the descriptions obtained in this study is that the rape has tremendous power in ...

  6. A review of literature: rape and communication media strategies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using historical-analytic methodology, this article reviews literature on rape and the communication strategies that can be used to address rape issues in Nigeria. In doing this, it critically engages communication theories as they apply to some communication media strategies that have been/can be deployed to redress the ...

  7. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  8. Understanding the innermost nature of genocidal rape: A community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article shows that existing explanations of wartime rapes that are the biosocial, cultural and war strategy approaches do not capture sufficiently the innermost nature of genocidal rape. It proposes a new theoretical framework, the community-based approach, and confronts its premises with the real-life experiences of ...

  9. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... were investigated to elucidate the contributions of root morphology and organic acids exudation to P uptake by rape from ... experiments, the activation capacity of insoluble Fe-P and Al-P of organic acids secreted by different rape genotypes roots ..... root morphology, root exudates, root architecture and.

  10. Page | 131 RISING CASES OF RAPE OFFENCES IN NIGERIA: NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    connection is one which takes place otherwise than between husband and wife. A lot of issues arise ... It can therefore be said that rape is any sexual contact that is accompanied by penetration of whatever orifice of .... through its lens to look also at the Nigerian society which encourages offences of rape. It is a statement of ...

  11. [Rape: a social problem and a public health issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, Emmanuelle

    2010-11-01

    The French legal definition of rape was somewhat vague until the 1970s. In December 1980, the increased awareness created by the feminist movement led to a precise legal definition and to the possibility for self-help groups to participate in legal actions. In 1985, a telephone helpline was created after several rapes were following several rapes committed in public. Since 1986, more than 39 000 women have called this hotline. Other recent studies confirm the frequency of rape. Major advances have been made in recent years, in terms of justice for minors who are victims of rape (lengthening of the statutory limitation on sexual crimes) and healthcare provision (opening of refuges, medical-legal consultations, victim management centers, greater awareness among healthcare professionals, etc.). Women need to be better informed of the frequency of rape, its legal implications, rapists' strategies, mental disorders, and the physical (especially gynecological) repercussions of rape. Women must also be aware that the rapist is the only guilty party. Finally, a multidisciplinary strategy is needed, notably involving self-help associations and hospital units that deal with rape victims.

  12. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: The Problem, the Victims, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Laurie

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that, although providing educational programs and materials on acquaintance rape and prevention strategies is important, attention must also be given to victims. Discusses recognition of stress response pattern of victims suffering from Rape Trauma Syndrome and provision of appropriate referral and support services. Includes selected list…

  13. The emergency management of a rape case in a nutshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of a rape case in the emergency department is shrouded in an unacceptable level of lack of confidence. Since South Africa has a high incidence of rape, the contribution of health practitioners in addressing the crime successfully is essential. The medical management of such cases carries a high level of ...

  14. Rape, sexual politics and the construction of manhood among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pascah Mungwini

    198). Burgess and Holmstrom (1974), in their analysis of the rape trauma syndrome, characterized rape as an act of violence which uses sex as a weapon. As will be highlighted below, the construction of Shona masculinity presents the male in contraposition to the female, thus attributing the active role to the male and the.

  15. Perception of Rape Amongst Secondary School Students In Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Background: Rape in children is a significant public health problem and represents the least reported but most devastating major form of child abuse all over the world. It occurs when one person does not fully and freely consent to sexual intercourse. This study seeks to evaluate the perception of rape among secondary ...

  16. Attitudes toward rape among Nigerian young adults: the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hypotheses were tested with the independent group t-test. Attitudes of young adults toward rape was found to be different based on gender and parental family structure; male young adults had more positive attitudes toward rape than their female counterparts (t = 2.02, df = 318, p < .05); youth from polygamous family ...

  17. Psycho-legal challenges facing the mentally retarded rape victim

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-03

    Sep 3, 2011 ... against women and children is rife in South Africa, the country has been branded the 'rape capital of the world'. ... the criminal justice system, have regarded people with mental retardation as unreliable witnesses. ..... Another important role player in this legal battle is the police. If a rape survivor with mental ...

  18. The Influence of Rape Myth Acceptance and Situational Factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through mixed-method victimisation surveys that covered four universities in Lagos and Ogun states, involving 206 respondents and 12 in-depth interviewees, the study found that emotions and societal perception of rape are strong factors in determining personal conception and description of rape-like experiences.

  19. Effect of planting density on root lodging resistance and its relationship to nodal root growth characteristics in maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shengqun; Song, Fengbin; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    Increase of planting density has been widely used to increase grain yield in maize. However, it may lead to higher risk of root lodging hence causing significant yield loss of the crop. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of planting density on maize nodal root growth...

  20. Population densities of indigenous Acidobacteria change in the presence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam, Sadaf; Das, Subha Narayan; Basu, Anirban; Podile, Appa Rao

    2017-05-01

    Rhizosphere microbial community has diverse metabolic capabilities and plays a crucial role in maintaining plant health. Oligotrophic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), along with difficult-to-culture microbial fractions, might be involved synergistically in microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. Among the difficult-to-culture microbial fractions, Acidobacteria constitutes the most dominant phylum thriving in rhizospheric soils. We selected effective PGPR for tomato and black gram and studied their effect on population densities of acidobacterial members. Three facultatively oligotrophic PGPR were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Sphingobacterium sp. (P3), Variovorax sp. (P4), and Roseomonas sp. (A2); the latter being a new report of PGPR. In presence of selected PGPR strains, the changes in population densities of Acidobacteria were monitored in metagenomic DNA extracted from bulk and rhizospheric soils of tomato and black gram using real time qPCR. A gradual increase in equivalent cell numbers of Acidobacteria members was observed over time along with a simultaneous increase in plant growth promotion by test PGPR. We report characterization of three effective PGPR strains and their effects on indigenous, underexplored difficult-to-culture phylum-Acidobacteria. We suggest that putative interactions between these two bacterial groups thriving in rhizospheric soils could be beneficial for plant growth. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effects of Sowing Date and Plant Density on Yield and Yield Components of Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L. in Birjand Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Niroomand Tomaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. is a crop which could substitute soybean in poultry ration in arid and semi-arid regions. To investigate the effects of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of grass pea, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with four replications was conducted at Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand in 2008. Treatments included three sowing dates (March 5, March 21 and April 4 and four plant densities (30, 40, 50 and 60 plants per m2. Number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured. Results showed that by delaying the planting date, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed yield and biological yield were decreased significantly. Maximum seed yield (2524 kg/ha was achieved at the early sowing date (5th of March. These traits were increased with increasing plant density up to 50 plants per m2. But, increasing the plant density to 60 plants per m2 caused a decrease of these characteristics. Different planting dates and densities did not show any significant changes in number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and harvest index. Based on these results and the fact that Birjand is overwhelmed by an arid climate, planting grass pea at the first possible date at the end of winter with a moderate planting density (50 plants per m2 can lead to a reasonable seed yield.

  2. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  3. Phenology of cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala L in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodeschrysocephala (L. is an important pest of winter oilseed rape in Serbia. Beetles colonize oilseed rape in early October and are active in the field until first frost and wintertime. In autumn, adults can be seen laying eggs in the soil around plants. Larvae of P. chrysocephala developed intensively on leaf petioles in November, reaching their highest numbers at the end of the month. No infested plants were found in a conventional field, while 14.5% of all dissected leaf petioles were infested on an integrated field. On unprotected plants in an organic field, 76.0% of the plants were infested with larvae at the growth-stage BBCH 18-19, with 31.1% infested leaves on average. As a results, the number of plants was reduced by 51%, i.e. from 43.0/m2 recorded in the autumn to 22.0/m2 in the following spring. A new generation of P. chrysocephala beetles emerged from the soil in the first half of June and rapidly escaped the fields from almost dry plants. Our results showed that a part of the population stayed in aestivation and emerged in the following crop during the next season. On the following 5 March, 0.5 beetles/m2 were found in emergence cages in the organic field, while 0.81 beetles/m2 were found in the former trap crop.

  4. Dissipation and residues of clethodim and its oxidation metabolites in a rape-field ecosystem using QuEChERS and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Liang, Lin; Liu, Fengmao

    2014-01-15

    A rapid, sensitive and selective method using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) procedure for simultaneous determination of clethodim and its oxidation metabolites (clethodim sulfoxide and clethodim sulphone) in soil, rape plant and rape seed was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The limits of detection (LODs) of the proposed method ranged from 0.002mg/kg to 0.01mg/kg, and average recoveries were 78.7-104.2%. The trial results showed that clethodim dissipated so rapidly that few clethodim residues were detectable. Clethodim sulfoxide dissipated quickly in rape plant and soil with half-lives of 4.3 and 4.0days, respectively. Clethodim sulphone showed a tendency of rapid increase initially followed by a decrease in rape plant but could not be detected in soil. The terminal residues of clethodim in rape seedsat harvest time were below the maximum residue limit (MRL, 0.5mg/kg). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effect of chitosan on photosynthesis and antioxidative defense system in edible rape (Brassica rapa L.) in the presence of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Haiying; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-04-01

    Chitosan (CTS) induces plant tolerance against several abiotic stresses, including salinity and drought exposure. However, the role of CTS in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. In the present study, a hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the roles of CTS with different molecular weight (Mw) (10kDa,5kDa and 1kDa) in alleviating Cd toxicity in edible rape (Brassica rapa L .). The results showed that Cd stress significantly decreased plant growth, leaf chlorophyll contents and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rape leaves. Foliar application of CTS promoted the plant growth and leaf chlorophyll contents, and decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in edible rape leaves under Cd stress. The alleviation effect of CTS on toxicity was depended on its Mw and CTS with Mw of 1kDa showed the best activity. Spraying 1kDa CTS onto the leaves of edible rape under Cd-toxicity could decrease shoot Cd(2+) concentration and improve photosynthetic characteristics of edible rape. Moreover, 1kDa CTS also significantly enhanced non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid) and enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase) under Cd stress. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that application of exogenous CTS could be an effective approach to alleviate the harmful effects of Cd stress and could be explored in an agricultural production system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of application of chemical and organic fertilizers on yield and yield components of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. in different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rezvani Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the effect of plant density and different fertilizers on sesame (Sesamum indicum L. production, an experiment was conducted as a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The experimental treatments were fertilizers in four levels (cow manure (30 t.ha-1, municipal compost (30 t.ha-1, chemical fertilizer (250 kg ammonium phosphate + 100 kg urea and control (no-fertilizer and plant density in four levels (20, 30, 40 and 50 plant.m-2. The results showed that all treatments increased the plant height, number of capsule per plant, plant biomass, seed yield, seed weight and number of seed per plant compared to control, significantly. The highest amount of the traits was obtained in manure treatment. The seed yield was increased by increasing plant density, but decreased the plant height, number of capsule per plant, plant biomass, seed yield and weight and number of seed per plant, significantly. 1000-seed weight, harvest index and weight of seed per capsule had no affected by treatments. Our result indicated that the density of 40 plant.m-2 among using manure was the most appropriate of cropping pattern in our experiment.

  7. The demography of climate-driven and density-regulated population dynamics in a perennial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan; Bengstsson, Karin; Ehrlén, Johan

    2016-01-01

    important aspect of such forecasts. We examined the simultaneous impact of climate and intraspecific density on vital rates of the dwarf shrub Fumana procumbens over 20 yr, using generalized additive mixed models. We then analyzed effects on population dynamics using integral projection models...... to be driven solely by the environment can overestimate extinction risks if there is density dependence. We conclude that density regulation can dampen effects of climate change on Fumana population size, and discuss the need to quantify density dependence in predictions of population responses...

  8. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore

    2013-09-01

    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of planting density and genotype on loblolly pine stands growing in the mountains of southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney E. Will; Thomas C. Hennessey; Thomas B. Lynch; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson; Gregory Campbell

    2013-01-01

    We determined the effects of planting density (4- by 4-, 6- by 6-, 8- by 8-, and 10- by 10-foot spacing) on stand-level height, diameter at breast height, stem volume, basal area, and periodic annual increment for two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed sources. Seed sources for the 25-year-old stands were a North Carolina seed source (NCC 8-01) and...

  10. Late Adolescents' Perspectives on Marital Rape: The Impact of Gender and Fraternity/Sorority Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, Carol J.; Leone, Janel M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward marital rape-in particular, the impact of gender and fraternity/sorority membership on respondents' views regarding marital rape versus rape by a stranger, as well as feelings about actions that a victim of marital rape may take. While fraternity and nonfraternity men showed significant differences in responses, sorority…

  11. Date Rape: Its Relationship to Trauma Symptoms and Sexual Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Brenda L.; Schwarz, J. Conrad

    1997-01-01

    Extends previous research on date rape by assessing trauma symptoms and sexual self-esteem among college women who had, or who had not, been raped. Results indicate that rape victims had significantly more trauma symptoms and lower sexual self-esteem compared to other women, thus suggesting date rape's significant consequences. (RJM)

  12. Effect of nitrogen fertiliser rates and plant density on grain yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low soil fertility has constrained maize production in Sidama district in the Southern region of Ethiopia. The effects of four levels of nitrogen fertiliser (0, 46, 92, 138 kg N ha-1) and four plant populations (44000, 53000, 67000 and 89000 plants ha-1) on grain yield of maize were evaluated over four years (1995-98) at Awassa ...

  13. Oilseed rape: learning about ancient and recent polyploid evolution from a recent crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A S; Snowdon, R J

    2016-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of our youngest crop species, arising several times under cultivation in the last few thousand years and completely unknown in the wild. Oilseed rape originated from hybridisation events between progenitor diploid species B. rapa and B. oleracea, both important vegetable species. The diploid progenitors are also ancient polyploids, with remnants of two previous polyploidisation events evident in the triplicated genome structure. This history of polyploid evolution and human agricultural selection makes B. napus an excellent model with which to investigate processes of genomic evolution and selection in polyploid crops. The ease of de novo interspecific hybridisation, responsiveness to tissue culture, and the close relationship of oilseed rape to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with the recent availability of reference genome sequences and suites of molecular cytogenetic and high-throughput genotyping tools, allow detailed dissection of genetic, genomic and phenotypic interactions in this crop. In this review we discuss the past and present uses of B. napus as a model for polyploid speciation and evolution in crop species, along with current and developing analysis tools and resources. We further outline unanswered questions that may now be tractable to investigation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    In species where chloroplast inheritance is exclusively or predominantly maternal, pollen-mediated flow of transgenes is reduced if transgenes are inserted in chloroplast DNA instead of nuclear DNA. However, transmission of chloroplast-encoded transgeneswill still occur if transgenic individuals......) significantly. As to the proportion between the species, B. rapa was a stronger competitor than B. napus. Theproportion seemed to be a more powerful factor than the density. In conclusion, hybridisation on B. napus seems to be most likely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant...... affected the thousand-kernel weight significantly. It was concluded that further introgression of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape to B. rapa is mostlikely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed....

  15. Herbivory by leaf-cutter ants changes the glandular trichomes density and the volatile components in an aromatic plant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz Ricardo Dos Santos; Mayo Marques, Marcia Ortiz; Maria Rodrigues, Tatiane

    2017-11-01

    Herbivory can induce several structural and functional alterations in the plant secretory system. Glandular trichomes are the main sites of production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with several chemical properties in Lamiaceae species. Ocimum species usually have three morphotypes of glandular trichomes (morphotype I is peltate and has a wide four-celled head; morphotype II is capitate and has a unicellular head; and morphotype III is capitate with a bicellular head) which produce a great amount of terpenes, although other chemical categories of substances are also produced. Despite the abundance of trichomes producing important anti-herbivory components in their leaves, the association between Ocimum species and leaf-cutter ants has been commonly registered in Brazil. We investigated the effect of leaf-cutter ant attack on the density of the glandular trichomes and on the chemistry of the VOCs released from leaves of O. gratissimum . Plants were subjected to Acromyrmex rugosus attack until 90 % of leaves were removed. After 40 days from the leaf-cutter attack, both treatments were sampled. The glandular trichome density was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The VOCs were extracted utilizing headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique and analysed by gas chromatography. Generally, the density of glandular trichomes increased in the adaxial leaf surface of the attacked plants. However, we bring novelties on this topic since we analysed the density of each morphotype separately. The morphotype I decreased in the abaxial leaf surface, and increased in the adaxial leaf surface; the morphotype II increased in both leaf surfaces; and the morphotype III decreased in the abaxial leaf surface and remained constant in the adaxial leaf surface of attacked plants. In leaves of attacked plants, the ( Z )-β-ocimene increased by 50 %, the α-selinene by 13 % and the germacrene D by 126 %, whereas the eugenol decreased by 70 %. Our data point to a

  16. Effects of planting pattern and density on growth indices, yield and yield component of corn (Zea mays in competition with redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retrofelexus(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza barkhi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in 2002-2003 using split-split plot arrangement based on Rondomised Compelete Block Design with three replications at Feiz Abad Agricultural Research Station of Qazvin, in order to study of planting patterns and corn densitis effect in competition with redroot pigweed. Main plots inclouded two planting pattern of corn (P1: single row and P2: double row, sub plots inclouded two corn densities (D1:7 and D2:10 plant/m2 and sub sub plots inclouded 4 weed densities (C1:0, C2:2, C3:6, C4:12 plant/m2. Sampling conducted in 2-weekly intervals and growth indices evaluated. Results indicated that with increasing of weed density CGR, TDW, LAI, number of seeds in row, grain and ear yield decreased but plant height increased. Also LAI, CGR, TDW, number of weed seed and seed,s weight of weed increased. By increasing in corn density LAI, CGR, TDW, ear and grain yield increased, but length and diameter of ear and number of seeds in row decreased. Also LAI and CGR of weed increased, but TDW was decreased. In double row planting pattern just CGR, LAI, TDW of corn were higher significantly than single row planting pattern. But single row planting of weed caused higher LAI, NAR, RGR, CGR and TDW of weed in comparison with double row planting pattern. In 2-way interaction, double row planting pattern and zero densities and 2 weeds/m2 had highest grain yield respectively. There were no significant differences for 3-way interactions but double row planting pattern 10 plant density of corn/m2 zero weed/ m2 had highest grain yield.

  17. Rape-accepting attitudes of university undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Kimberly K; Neill, Karen S; Rankin, Linda L

    2010-01-01

    The College Date Rape Attitudes Survey and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale were used in a cross-sectional study to assess rape-accepting attitudes of a convenience sample of 1602 university undergraduate students using a survey distributed online. The findings evidenced that males and individuals with more traditional gender role beliefs had attitudes more accepting of rape than the females and individuals who had more egalitarian gender role beliefs. Respondents who personally knew a rape survivor had attitudes less accepting of rape than those respondents who did not know a survivor. These findings support a continuing need to address rape myths in sexual violence prevention programming. The sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE-A) has an important role in prevention services to educate and build awareness of rape myths both on campus and through community-based efforts to reach this high risk population. Further, the SANE can build important linkages between the college campus and the healthcare setting to support the provision of effective intervention services and improved outcomes in victims of sexual violence. © 2010 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  18. Genocide Rape Trauma Management: An Integrated Framework for Supporting Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamana, Donatilla; Brysiewicz, Petra; Collins, Anthony; Rosa, William

    2017-06-13

    During the 1994 Rwandan genocide, rape was widely used as a strategic weapon against Tutsi women. More than 20 years later, many of these women are still suffering devastating psychological, social, and physical effects of these experiences and remain in need of effective interventions that address their complex trauma. This article develops the theory of genocide rape trauma management as a conceptual framework for promoting the holistic health and recovery of female genocide rape survivors. A qualitative study using grounded theory explored the lived experiences of genocide rape survivors and led to the development of this model. The need for a contextually appropriate model is highlighted, with historical and current data regarding the Rwandan context and the experiences of genocide rape survivors. The research details the complex dynamics of emotional, physical, existential, and psychosocial sequelae related to genocide rape trauma, and how these interact with both local community and broader political attitudes toward survivors, as well as the serious interrelated economic challenges and limitations in current public health and welfare services. The research demonstrates the necessary elements of a holistic approach encompassing a synergistic combination of skilled psychological care, self-help strategies, collaborative support groups, community education, social reintegration, advocacy, accessible medical care, and economic empowerment. These interacting elements form the basis of the theory of genocide rape trauma management, offering an encompassing integrated framework that can be adapted to, and evaluated in, other similar contexts.

  19. Consequences of Density Dependence for Management of a Stage-Structured Invasive Plant (Alliaria Petiolata)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eleanor A. Pardini; Brittany J. Teller; Tiffany M. Knight

    2008-01-01

    .... We evaluated the effectiveness of different management types (unmanaged, clipped, pulled) and timing (early or late) on survival and fitness of targeted adult plants and non-targeted, co-occurring juveniles...

  20. Effect of maize intercrop plant densities on yield and β-carotene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ipomoea batatas L.) and quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) in combating vitamin A and protein malnutrition, small land holdings by rural poor farmers still limit the crops' overall production in Africa. As such, intercropping and optimum plant ...

  1. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  2. Permanent colonization of creek sediments, creek water and limnic water plants by four Listeria species in low population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Halter, Evi; Schober, Steffen; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-09-01

    During a 1-year longitudinal study, water, sediment and water plants from two creeks and one pond were sampled monthly and analyzed for the presence of Listeria species. A total of 90 % of 30 sediment samples, 84 % of 31 water plant samples and 67 % of 36 water samples were tested positive. Generally, most probable number counts ranged between 1 and 40 g-1, only occasionally >110 cfu g-1 were detected. Species differentiation based on FT-IR spectroscopy and multiplex PCR of a total of 1220 isolates revealed L. innocua (46 %), L. seeligeri (27 %), L. monocytogenes (25 %) and L. ivanovii (2 %). Titers and species compositions were similar during all seasons. While the species distributions in sediments and associated Ranunculus fluitans plants appeared to be similar in both creeks, RAPD typing did not provide conclusive evidence that the populations of these environments were connected. It is concluded that (i) the fresh-water sediments and water plants are year-round populated by Listeria, (ii) no clear preference for growth in habitats as different as sediments and water plants was found and (iii) the RAPD-based intraspecific biodiversity is high compared to the low population density.

  3. ["Biastophilia"--rape as a form of paraphilia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rape is primarily regarded as a crime against sexual integrity. If rape is the only way for an individual to get sexual satisfaction, it meets the criteria of paraphilia, i.e. a disorder of sexual preference. The correct technical term is "biastophilia". The author investigates the evolutionary origins of this deviant form of copulation behavior, whose crucial characteristic is breaking the will of the sexual object. He shows that in a primeval environment this type of mating behavior may have been a promising strategy to pass on one's genes to the next generation. Thus, the behavioral pattern of raping had the chance to become widely spread in spite of its social undesirability.

  4. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Rape in South Africa: an invisible part of apartheid's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, S

    1994-06-01

    Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases and other forms of gender violence have increased. Under an apartheid system, where only the rape of white women was prosecuted, and gender and race issues could diffuse the black struggle, there were difficulties in mobilizing support to end violence against black women. There was social acceptance that rape of black women was part of life. Police statistics on the incidence of rape were notoriously unreliable, because only a small percentage of cases are reported to police, and many women would be ashamed to admit to marital abuse, including rape. In women's groups, it was reported that 1 out of every 4 women had been raped, and raped at early ages, such as 14 years of age. In impoverished communities, there is widespread poverty, injustice, prejudice, alcohol abuse, and other conditions impacting on women. The rapists may be school classmates, or street fighters, or political activists. The sexual initiation of women worldwide and in South Africa frequently is accompanied by coercion. Abduction and forced sex is considered legitimate for young men, who believe that mental health is deleteriously affected by lack of sex. Girls may even be abducted from the classroom, as a way of preventing women's power and control over assets and resources and diminishing the potential threat to gender power relations. School girls who become pregnant are often forced to leave school. Victims of rape may be excluded from family life and forced to seek prostitution as a means of support. Rape is reportedly experienced among older women with bottles, tins, or other devices which inflict injury. Only rape with penal penetration is an

  6. Rape trauma syndrome: time to open the floodgates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    The conviction rate in rape cases remains remarkably low, leading many to believe a new approach is needed to prosecuting such crimes. Many important steps have been taken in relation to the collection and retention of evidence and the setting up of specialist rape prosecutors, but important evidential weaknesses remain present in the system alongside Victorian attitudes to sexual conduct. The British Home Office is currently consulting on a number of measures, including the admissibility of evidence showing the presence of rape trauma syndrome. This paper examines the history of this controversial evidential debate.

  7. Changing attitudes and perceptions of Hispanic men ages 18 to 25 about rape and rape prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Sarah Lynn; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gutman, Lauren Samantha; Siman, Matilde Nathalia

    2012-12-01

    This exploratory study was designed to test the effectiveness of Foubert's intervention, The Men's Program, on a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Hispanic men who are not enrolled at a University or College. We explored participants' perceptions of, reactions to, and experience of the program. The information collected will be used to adapt the program to this specific population in order to increase cultural relevancy and specificity and create lasting attitudinal change. Three groups of six-eight Hispanic males (n = 22) were exposed to the intervention program. The Bystander Attitude Scale and the Rape Attitude and Beliefs Scale were administered as pre- and post-test measures. A short focus group was conducted to ask the men about their experience of the intervention. Analysis showed a significant increase in participants' willingness to intervene (p = 0.005) along with a decrease in rape myth acceptance in four of the five subscales (Justice p = 0.03; Status p = 0.004; Tactics p = 0.04; and Gender p = 0.002) after exposure to the intervention. Analysis of focus group material yielded several interesting themes about knowledge of rape, family and culture, perceptions of women, and the program material. This study showed promising change in attitudes about rape beliefs and bystander behaviors in Hispanic males exposed to an educational intervention. Through the information obtained, a cultural adaption from the analysis of the focus group data will be implemented during Phase 2 of the study. The adapted intervention will be tested before, after, and 1- and 3-months post-intervention to test whether the change in attitudes and behaviors are sustainable over time.

  8. Effect of Varieties and Plant Population Densities on Dry Matter Production, Radiation Interception and Radiation Energy Conversion in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    agus suprapto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The solar radiation is one of the major criteria to obtaining advantages on peanuts (Arachishypogaea L.. Although various combinations of crops have been reported, but variety association and plant population densities (PPD during the periodically stage of growth on peanuts have yet to be analyzed. Dry matter production (DM, radiation energy interception, and radiation energy conversions were monitored over the growth period of two varieties of peanut. An experiment was conducted in Jambegede Research Farm, Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute, Malang, East Java, Indonesia, from July until October 2011. The experiment was arranged in a Split Plot Design with three replications. Peanut varieties, as the main plot consisted of two treatments: Kelinci andKancil variety. In addition, five PPD variations as sub plot consisted of 8.1, 11.1, 16.0, 25.0 and 44.4 plant m-2 were arranged in a square spacing. The results showed that DM production from high PPD increased gradually to lower PPD in all varieties. Interception efficiency (IE increased in all varieties from early sowing. A plant population density of 25.0 m-2 and 44.4 plants m-2 intercepted more radiation over 11.1 or 16.0 plants m-2. Conversion efficiency of radiation energy (CE to total dry matter production on Kelinci variety (1.52% indicated a slight higher percentage than on Kancil variety (1.41%. Moreover, the CE and IE values indicated a decrease as the PPD increased on maximum DM.

  9. FEASIBILITY OF HYGROMYCIN AS A SELECTION AGENT IN AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF OILSEED RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Kuťka Hlozáková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the feasibility of the antibiotic hygromycin as a selection agent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was evaluated. For this, two economically important commercial varieties Haydn and Hunter and tobacco as a model plant were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The 5-6 days-old oilseed rape hypocotyls and 4-6 weeks-old tobacco leaf segments were transformed with the binary vector pCambia1304. The T-DNA contained the reporter gfp:gus and the selectable marker htp genes. Regeneration of transformed cells was conducted under selection of 10 mg.l-1 (oilseed rape and 30 mg.l-1 (tobacco hygromycin. Putative transgenic plantlets were analysed by the mean of the histochemical GUS and PCR analyses. Transformation efficiency ranged from 1.0% (cv. Haydn to 40.4% (tobacco. No transgenic shoots were detected for the cv. Hunter. It points out the oilseed rape cultivar specificity plays significant role in choice of suitable selection agent.

  10. Water, Nitrogen and Plant Density Affect the Response of Leaf Appearance of Direct Seeded Rice to Thermal Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite MARTÍNEZ-EIXARCH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in the Ebro Delta area (Spain, from 2007 to 2009 with two rice varieties: Gleva and Tebre. The experimental treatments included a series of seed rates, two different water management systems and two different nitrogen fertilization times. The number of leaves on the main stems and their emergence time were periodically tagged. The results indicated that the final leaf number on the main stems in the two rice varieties was quite stable over a three-year period despite of the differences in their respective growth cycles. Interaction between nitrogen fertilization and water management influenced the final leaf number on the main stems. Plant density also had a significant influence on the rate of leaf appearance by extending the phyllochron and postponing the onset of intraspecific competition after the emergence of the 7th leaf on the main stems. Final leaf number on the main stems was negatively related to plant density. A relationship between leaf appearance and thermal time was established with a strong nonlinear function. In direct-seeded rice, the length of the phyllochron increases exponentially in line with the advance of plant development. A general model, derived from 2-year experimental data, was developed and satisfactorily validated; it had a root mean square error of 0.3 leaf. An exponential model can be used to predict leaf emergence in direct-seeded rice.

  11. Planting density and yield of cassava roots Densidade de plantio e rendimento de raízes de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Santos Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mata Fresca, an area located on the border of the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará, in Brazil, small farmers have a source of income from the production of cassava roots, using planting densities of around 5,000 plants ha-1. This procedure might be helping to limit higher yields of the roots, since some studies have shown that it is possible to obtain higher yields of cassava using higher densities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the root yield and other characteristics of the cassava, as a response to planting density. The Vermelhinha cultivar was submitted to planting densities of from 5,000 to 21,000 plants ha-1, at intervals of 2,000 plants ha-1, in an experiment under irrigation. A completely randomized block design with four replications was used. The ideal planting densities in order to maximise leaf green matter, stems and branches, total roots, total marketable roots, number of marketable roots, marketable-root dry matter and stem dry matter, were 17,800; 17,077; 14,416; 13,594; 16,436; 12,361; and 18,149 plants ha-1 respectively. When adopting the planting density used by the farmers, a yield for marketable roots of 15,837 kg ha-1 was obtained. By using the optimal density as found in this work (13,594 plants ha-1, the yield was more than double that of the farmers. Increasing planting density reduced both the length of the marketable roots and the harvest index (the ratio of marketable-root dry matter to total plant dry matter.Na Mata Fresca, área situada na divisa dos Estados do Rio Grande do Norte e Ceará, pequenos agricultores têm como fonte de renda a obtida com a produção de raízes de mandioca, usando densidades de plantio em torno de 5.000 plantas ha-1. Esse procedimento pode estar limitando a obtenção de maiores rendimentos de raízes, pois alguns trabalhos demonstraram que é possível a obtenção de rendimentos maiores da mandioca, com maiores densidades. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o

  12. Media Re-victimization of Rape Victims in a Shame Culture? Exploring the Framing and Representation of Rape Cases in Nigerian Dailies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinenye Nwabueze; Fidelis Oduah

    2015-01-01

      [...]India as a country has in recent time, continued to have its doses of not just rape cases but "gang raping" of powerless, defenseless and innocent women and girls by rapists and "the situation...

  13. Rape embryogenesis. V. Accumulation of lipid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In embryo of winter rape var. Górczański lipid bodies have been observed in the light microscope starting from two-celled proembryo. Their number and size increase in the course of embryogenesis, especially since greening of endosperm and embryo. Lipid bodies, either single or in clusters, are present in all embryo cells, the clusters occur in various parts of the cytoplasm. During embryo maturation lipid bodies move and locate in a number of layers by the cell wall. At the same time their appearance change. Typical storage lipids originate. Lipid bodies are unevenly distributed within the embryo: their number and size decrease along the embryo axis from its part below cotyledons towards root apex. Moreover, they are histologically diversified: the biggest are located in epidermis and cortex, whereas the smallest -in central cylinder. In columella there are fewest lipid bodies.

  14. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  15. [Anxiety and depression levels in rape offenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Hernández, E; Marván, L; Saavedra, M; Contreras, C M

    1993-03-01

    Whether the active subject of rape possesses a particular personality trait is a much debated matter. It is an accepted fact that a small amount of rapists fall into the sadistic diagnostic category. Other psychopatologic traits likely to identify a rapist are, however, unknown. The present study was carried over at a jail near the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) Mexico. Hamilton, IDARE, and Zung scales, in their modified Spanish version were applied to a sample of imprisoned adult rapists. Compared to their control group (men serving sentences for other felonies), rapists scored higher in anxiety, and depression scales. In the light of these results, it is suggested that some rapists are likely to be anxious-depressive subjects that, after having "acquired" a sociopathic repertoire, offend other people in conditions of indefensiveness, contrary to depressive subjects who aggress themselves.

  16. Rape embryogenesis I. The proembryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the proembryo of rape Brassica napus L. from the zygote to the young embryo proper is described. A number of regularities were found in the direction, succession, and distribution of segmental and differentiating divisions of the proembryo. The direction of the divisions seems to foe determined by the direction of growth and the shape of the cells. The termyoung embryo proper is proposed to denote the globular embryo which already possesses separate plerome and periblem mother-cells and mother-cells of the iec layer and of clumella. The body of the embryo proper is derived from the apical cell ca which arose from the first division of the zygote and from the hypophysis - the only suspensor cell which closes the spheroid of the embryo. The development of the Brassica napus L. proembryo follows the sub-archetype Capsella bursa-pastoris in the IV megarchetype of Soueges.

  17. The effect of plant density with different row spacing on quality of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed to assess the influence of density with different row spacing on sunflower crop in two different locations in southern Italy. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with four replicates. It involved the comparison of sunflower grown in the field on 25 m2-2), obtained by keeping a ...

  18. Evolution of Rape Myths and Sexual Assaults in Newspaper Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen Tsai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the coverage of three newspapers of rape in the daily Press in Taiwan. The idea that rape is a sexual rather than an aggressive act encourages people not to take it seriously as a crime-an attitude frequently revealed in comments by defense attorneys and newspaper. The authors’ investigated that the female victim who did not know most of her attackers will be portrayed as helpless and not responsible for her victimization. The newspapers sustained and reinforced the myths that a woman who is having consensual sex cannot be raped, and if so, she is held culpable and perceived as “asking for it.” A content analysis of newspapers’ headlines and coverage between 2002 and 2013 showed that more than 50% endorsed a rape myth.

  19. Party Rape, Nonconsensual Sex, and Affirmative Consent Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly Oliver

    2015-01-01

    ... of communication, the communication of pleasure. [...]given the increasingly slippery slope between sex and sexual assault, and uncertainty about what counts as rape, many women are subject to sexual aggression, even sexual assault, and are not...

  20. Trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions initiated by an exotic invasive plant autogenic ecosystem engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson

    2010-01-01

    Indirect interactions are important for structuring ecological systems. However, research on indirect effects has been heavily biased toward top-down trophic interactions, and less is known about other indirect-interaction pathways. As autogenic ecosystem engineers, plants can serve as initiators of nontrophic indirect interactions that, like top-down pathways, can...

  1. Growth and yield response to plant density of water leaf ( Talinum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different planting spaces (15cm x 15cm, 20cm x 20cm, 25cm x 25cm and 30cm x 30cm) on the growth and yield of Talinum triangulare (Water leaf) were investigated in two cropping seasons from 2012 to 2013 (rainy and dry seasons) at University of Port Harcourt Teaching and Research farm, Port Harcourt, ...

  2. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yano Akira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD. The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%, which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength, the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1 was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a

  3. ANALISIS KRIMINOLOGIS TERHADAP TINDAK KEJAHATAN PEMERKOSAAN LELAKI (MALE RAPE)

    OpenAIRE

    AKSAN, ARDHIANSYAH

    2014-01-01

    2014 ARDHIANSYAHAKSAN (B111 10105), dengan judul ???Analisis Kriminologis Terhadap Tindak Kejahatan Pemerkosaan Lelaki (Male Rape)???. Di bawah bimbingan bapak Prof. Dr. AndiSofyan, S.H., M.H., sebagai Pembimbing I dan bapak KaisaruddinKamaruddin, S.H., sebagai Pembimbing II. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor penyebab terjadinya tindak kejahatan pemerkosaan lelaki (male rape) dan upaya yang dapat ...

  4. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen and Bio fertilizer on Qualitative Characteristics of Sugar beet in Mashhad and Torbat-e-jam Regions of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    B Jafarnia; A Zarea Faze Abadi; R Ghorbani; P Rezvani Moghadam; A. R Ghaemi

    2015-01-01

    Plant density and Fertilizers application especially with biological fertilizers that reduces environmental and underground water pollutions, are very important in sugar beet production in the world and Iran. In order to evaluate the effect of plant density and nitrogen and bio fertilizers on qualitative traits of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), two field experiments were carried out in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center in Khorasan-E- Razavi province in Mashhad, and agricultura...

  5. Effect of Weed Interference on Yield and Agronomical Characteristics of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum gracum in Different Plant Density under Birjand Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baradaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran is among the countries with a climate appropriate for growing a wide range of herbs, and can be a great source of producing and exporting plants. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum gracum is one of the oldest plant and it is an annual herbaceous plant of the Fabaceae family (Fabaceae which are dry, brown or reddish-yellow to gray to over 5.3 mm. Seeds of this plant are used as a spice and its leaves are used as a vegetable. Among the most important factors in farming, it is important to use appropriate planting density. Therefore, if all the necessary conditions, including the right, but density is inappropriate, it will not get the optimum yield per unit area. The effective management of weeds increase the performance of weed management practices, reduce weed population and the costs associated with it over time. Weeds compete with crops for a variety of sources such as light, water and minerals. Given that the best time weeding the weeds and the most appropriate density of fenugreek is not much information available, this study aimed to determine the appropriate density of weed infested and fenugreek was used. Materials and Methods In order to determine the effects of weed interference and appropriate density of fenugreek, a field trial was conducted in research farm of Birjand Islamic Azad University during the spring of year 2011. The experiment was a factorial based on randomized complete block design. The treatments were fenugreek density at 10, 20 and 40 plants m-2 and weed interference in five levels included weed-free to maturity, 20, 40 and 60 days after emergence, and no weeding. Fenugreek seeds (spherical, brown of pure seed before planting desert of preparation and sterilization by benomyl and then do planting trees and irrigation was done immediately. Irrigation was applied every seven days. During the study, pests and diseases were completely controlled. Weed control was done manually in three stages. Traits such as

  6. Religiousness and Rape Myth Acceptance: Risk and Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.

  7. Rape-seed oil - a substitute for mineral oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badent, R.; Kist, K.; Schwab, A.J. [University of Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute of Electric Systems and High-Voltage Technology

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the study on the basic characteristics of rape-seed oil considered to be a substitute of mineral oil in power transformers. The results show that rape- seed oil is usable as an insulating liquid. Furthermore, results are presented concerning the breakdown behaviour in uniform (plane-plane geometry) and non-uniform (rod-plane geometry) fields under impulse conditions with gaps up to 40 mm and voltages up to 650 kV. A sufficient high 50 Hz breakdown voltage is the most important precondition for a medium to be used as an insulator. The dielectric strength of rape-seed oil exceeds more than 50 kV/2,5 mm and consequently fulfils the requirements of the standards. The measurement of the permittivity and tan {delta} at 90{sup o}C yields to 3,18 and 0,015, respectively and is comparable to the values of standard mineral oil. However, there are still some problems to be overcome. Beside the insulating task the liquid dielectric has also a cooling function in power apparatus. Since the dynamic viscosity of rape-seed oil (about 70 mm{sup 2}/s at 40{sup o}C) is higher than that of mineral oil, rape-seed oil has a lower ability for heat conduction. A further problem is the solidification of rape-seed oil below -5{sup o}C. (author)

  8. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  9. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  10. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. © 2013 CSIRO. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Rape and child sexual abuse: what beliefs persist about motives, perpetrators, and survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronán

    2011-11-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and local rape myths is necessary if they are to be successfully challenged through public campaigns and other means. This study sought to assess the prevalence of myths concerning rape and sexual abuse in a national population survey.

  12. Effects of Plant Density, Seeding and Harvest Time on the Growth of Two Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L. Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Barbanti

    Full Text Available Kenaf is an annual C3 multipurpose crop for the fibre and energy industry, whose growth has been widely investigated in the tropics, but not at relatively-high latitudes. This work aimed at evaluating the effects of two genotypes (Tainung 2 and Everglades 41, two plant densities (20 and 40 plants m-2, two seeding times (S1 and S2 and two harvest times (H1 and H2 on growth and its relations with climatic factors over three years (2003-2005 in Northern Italy (c. 45° N. Fitting curves for whole-plant dry biomass (DB and dry stems (DS on heat sums always gave a reliable description of the growth pattern along the season, explaining over 90% of the total variation. In general, the best-fitting models were the sigmoid and the exponential one for DB and DS, respectively. Among the four studied factors, only seeding time originated consistent growth differences among years, whereas the two varieties showed an equivalent behaviour, as well as the two densities. Furthermore, the thinner density allowed savings in the cost of seed at no prejudice for yield potential. S1 in general showed higher asymptotic yields than S2 in 2003 and 2004, while S2 consistently grew faster than S1 in all the three years. RUE showed a generally low value (e.g., 1.35 g MJ-1 for DB in S1, indicating a moisture constraint on crop growth, especially in the first year. As for the correlations, three traits, plant height, base stem diameter and fresh biomass, resulted significantly associated to DB and DS, with correlation coefficients (r ranging from 0.65 to 0.90; a higher degree of association with DB and DS was achieved by the multiple linear regressions of the same three traits (adj. R2 of about 0.85. A high dependence of DB and especially of DS on associated heat and rain (adj. R2 0.76 and 0.86, respectively was also observed in the variable environmental conditions among the three years, which attributes a non-negligible power of prediction to the two environmental

  13. Mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to detect Sclerotinia stem rot on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chu; Feng, Xuping; Wang, Jian; Liu, Fei; He, Yong; Zhou, Weijun

    2017-01-01

    Detection of plant diseases in a fast and simple way is crucial for timely disease control. Conventionally, plant diseases are accurately identified by DNA, RNA or serology based methods which are time consuming, complex and expensive. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a promising technique that simplifies the detection procedure for the disease. Mid-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the spectral differences between healthy and infected oilseed rape leaves. Two different sample sets from two experiments were used to explore and validate the feasibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy in detecting Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) on oilseed rape leaves. The average mid-infrared spectra showed differences between healthy and infected leaves, and the differences varied among different sample sets. Optimal wavenumbers for the 2 sample sets selected by the second derivative spectra were similar, indicating the efficacy of selecting optimal wavenumbers. Chemometric methods were further used to quantitatively detect the oilseed rape leaves infected by SSR, including the partial least squares-discriminant analysis, support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The discriminant models using the full spectra and the optimal wavenumbers of the 2 sample sets were effective for classification accuracies over 80%. The discriminant results for the 2 sample sets varied due to variations in the samples. The use of two sample sets proved and validated the feasibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods for detecting SSR on oilseed rape leaves. The similarities among the selected optimal wavenumbers in different sample sets made it feasible to simplify the models and build practical models. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a reliable and promising technique for SSR control. This study helps in developing practical application of using mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to detect plant disease.

  14. Endogenous overexpression of Populus MYB186 increases trichome density, improves insect pest resistance, and impacts plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Wilkins, Olivia; Campbell, Malcolm M; Ralph, Steven G; Regan, Sharon

    2010-11-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells that generally play a role in reducing transpiration and act as a deterrent to herbivory. In a screen of activation-tagged Populus tremula × Populus alba 717-1B4 trees, we identified a mutant line, fuzzy, with increased foliar trichome density. This mutant also had a 35% increase in growth rate and a 200% increase in the rate of photosynthesis as compared with wild-type poplar. The fuzzy mutant had significant resistance to feeding by larvae of the white-spotted tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma), a generalist insect pest of poplar trees. The fuzzy trichome phenotype is attributable to activation tagging and increased expression of the gene encoding PtaMYB186, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana MYB106, a known regulator of trichome initiation. The fuzzy phenotype can be recapitulated by overexpressing PtaMYB186 in poplar. PtaMYB186 overexpression results in reconfiguration of the poplar transcriptome, with changes in the transcript abundance of suites of genes that are related to trichome differentiation. It is notable that a plant with misexpression of a gene responsible for trichome development also had altered traits related to growth rate and pest resistance, suggesting that non-intuitive facets of plant development might be useful targets for plant improvement. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Effects of planting density and the composition of wheat cultivar mixtures on stripe rust: an analysis taking into account limits to the replication of controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Mundt, C C

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of plant density on disease is not well understood in populations of a single host plant genotype and has been studied even less in mixtures of host genotypes. We performed an experiment to evaluate the effect of wheat planting density on infection by Puccinia striiformis in experimental plots with a single wheat genotype and in plots with two genotypes making up a range of frequencies. Stripe rust severity in single-genotype plots increased with planting density in 1997 but decreased with planting density in 1998. Disease in host mixtures was compared to the weighted mean of disease levels in the corresponding single-genotype plots. The design of the field experiment included limited replication of these reference treatments (that is, there was not a unique pair of single-genotype plots for each mixture plot); therefore, we devised an analysis based on collapsing the data into independent mean observations. Disease reduction due to host diversity was less when one genotype predominated than when both host genotypes were present at nearly equal frequencies. The greatest mean host-diversity effect for reduced disease was at the intermediate planting density of 250 seeds per m(2).

  16. Nitrous oxide emission factors for urine and dung from sheep fed either fresh forage rape (Brassica napus L.) or fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Sun, X Z; Pacheco, D; Ledgard, S F; Lindsey, S B; Hoogendoorn, C J; Wise, B; Watkins, N L

    2015-03-01

    In New Zealand, agriculture is predominantly based on pastoral grazing systems and animal excreta deposited on soil during grazing have been identified as a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Forage brassicas (Brassica spp.) have been increasingly used to improve lamb performance. Compared with conventional forage perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), a common forage in New Zealand, forage brassicas have faster growth rates, higher dry matter production and higher nutritive value. The aim of this study was to determine the partitioning of dietary nitrogen (N) between urine and dung in the excreta from sheep fed forage brassica rape (B. napus subsp. oleifera L.) or ryegrass, and then to measure N2O emissions when the excreta from the two different feed sources were applied to a pasture soil. A sheep metabolism study was conducted to determine urine and dung-N outputs from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, and N partitioning between urine and dung. Urine and dung were collected and then used in a field plot experiment for measuring N2O emissions. The experimental site contained a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture on a poorly drained silt-loam soil. The treatments included urine from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, dung from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, and a control without dung or urine applied. N2O emission measurements were carried out using a static chamber technique. For each excreta type, the total N2O emissions and emission factor (EF3; N2O-N emitted during the 3- or 8-month measurement period as a per cent of animal urine or dung-N applied, respectively) were calculated. Our results indicate that, in terms of per unit of N intake, a similar amount of N was excreted in urine from sheep fed either forage rape or ryegrass, but less dung N was excreted from sheep fed forage rape than ryegrass. The EF3 for urine from sheep fed forage rape was lower compared with urine from sheep fed ryegrass. This may have been because of plant

  17. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    characteristics of the herbicide and its current and future use; accounts for herbicide-tolerant varieties belonging to other species, liable to be farmed in French agriculture in the short term; targets, if applicable, the selection of crop/herbicide combinations according to the constraints associated with French agriculture; coordinates the evaluations conducted on herbicide-tolerant crops and those conducted on herbicides; implements a biovigilance system and its associated resources whenever herbicide-tolerant crop farming is envisaged. Our report highlights the need for the management of any herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops. Such a management plan must account for the diverse cropping situations, including crop rotations and farming practices. Management should be based on the prior evaluation of situations encountered, the development of measures commensurate with the risks, and a validation of their efficacy through biovigilance. The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the indirect environmental and agronomic impacts associated with current management practices employed for herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape crops can only be determined, in addition to the knowledge acquired, by continuing ongoing experimental studies initiated. Mathematical and computer models – by formalizing complex scenarios that incorporate the functioning of different oilseed rape populations (farmed, spontaneous, volunteer plants under specific farming practices – enables the simulation of potential impacts and the identification of suitable management measures. Nevertheless, at the present time, the introduction of more extensive farming than that currently practised, or managed progressive introduction, would make it possible to progress in the study of impacts and develop and validate management procedures enabling the limitation of adverse impacts. In the specific case of imports, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that herbicidetolerant GM oilseed rape

  18. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  19. Produtividade e qualidade da flor-de-seda em diferentes densidades e sistemas de plantio Productivity and quality of rooster tree in different planting densities and planting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônica Meira de Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de dois sistemas de plantio (sem camalhão e com camalhão e de três espaçamentos (1,0 × 1,5 m; 1,5 × 2,0 m; e 2,0 × 2,0 m sobre a qualidade e a produtividade de flor-de-seda aos 60 dias de rebrotação. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental com blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 × 3 (dois sistemas de manejo do solo e três densidades de plantio com cinco repetições, em parcelas subdivididas no espaço e no tempo. Plantas escolhidas aleatoriamente foram cortadas, separadas por tratamento e analisadas quanto aos teores de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, cinzas, extrato etéreo (EE, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose, hemicelulose, lignina, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e carboidratos totais (CT e quanto à produtividade (kg MS/ha. Os sistemas de manejo do solo e as densidades de plantio não influenciaram a composição em MO, cinzas, FDN, EE, lignina, celulose, CNF e CT. As densidades de plantio influenciaram o teor de hemicelulose e FDA. O sistema de manejo do solo com camalhão teve efeito linear decrescente sobre o teor de PB. A maior produtividade de MS (699,72 kg/ha da flor-de-seda foi verificada no sistema de plantio mais adensado (1,0 m × 1,5 m e correspondeu a 6.666 plantas/ha.The effect of two soil handling systems was evaluated (without furrow and with furrow, three spacing (1.0 m × 1.5 m; 1.5 m × 2.0 m and 2.0 m × 2.0 m on the quality and the productivity of rooster tree 60 days after cut. It was used a split-plot (space and time factorial arrangement in a randomized block design. Factors were two soil handling systems and three planting densities (2 × 3 with five replications per treatment. Plants chosen randomly were cut, separated in accordance with treatments and analyed the contents of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, mineral matter (MM, ether extract (EE, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid

  20. Combustion characterization of rape seed meal and suggestions for optimal use in combustion appliances; Foerbraenningskarakterisering av rapsmjoel och foerslag till optimalt nyttjande i olika foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Pettersson, Esbjoern; Pommer, Linda; Lindstroem, Erica; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Rikard

    2007-12-15

    When rape oil is chemically extracted, rape seed meal, a solid residue remains. Currently, it is used as animal feed. Several plants for the production of rape methyl ester (RME, biodiesel) are in operation or under construction. Combustion properties have been studied for rape seed meal produced as a by product to rape-methyl esther (RME, biodiesel). Composition of the material has been measured, using proximate and ultimate analysis. The lower heating value was 18.2 +- 0.3 MJ/kg d.w. and the ash content was 7-8 percent d.w. The material is rich in nitrogen and sulphur. Concentrations of K, P, Ca and Mg are high in the fuel. Rape seed meal was mixed with bark and pelletised. Bark pellets were also used as a reference fuel. Pellets with 10 and 30 percent rape seed meal were produced. Material with 80 percent rape seed meal and 20 percent planer shavings was also pelletised. Wood had to be added to provide enough friction in the pelletising process, with adapted equipment rape seed meal could probably be easily pelletised). The material was studied using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and compared with data from tests with wood powder. The pyrolysis of the rape seed meal has a characteristic temperature of 320 deg C. Devolatilisation starts at 150 deg C (at a lower temperature than for wood powder), and proceeds within a rather wide temperature range. The probable cause is the difference in organic content, in particular protein content. The result does not suggest that the material will be difficult to ignite. Experiments in a bench-scale fluidised bed (5 kW) showed that pellets containing only bark, and the mixture rape seed meal/wood had a bed agglomeration temperature well over the normal operational bed temperature. For the fuel mixtures rape seed meal and bark, the agglomeration temperature was slightly over the operational temperature. Particle emissions from fluidised bed combustion and grate combustion were, the latter simulated using a commercial

  1. Effects of the distribution density of a biomass combined heat and power plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in village-town systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Kang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss. The objective of this study was to ascertain the optimal value for the heat transmission threshold using a multi-scheme comparison based on an analysis of these factors. To this end, a model of a biomass CHP plant network was built using geographic information system tools to simulate and generate three planning schemes with different heat transmission thresholds (6, 8, and 10 km) according to the heat demand distribution. The heat utilisation efficiencies of these planning schemes were then compared by calculating the gross power, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss of the biomass CHP plant for each scenario. This multi-scheme comparison yielded the following results: when the heat transmission threshold was low, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was high and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively small. In contrast, when the heat transmission threshold was high, the distribution density of the network was low and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively large. When the heat transmission threshold was 8 km, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was optimised for efficient heat utilisation. To promote the development of renewable energy sources, a planning scheme for a biomass CHP plant network that maximises heat utilisation efficiency can be obtained using the optimal heat transmission threshold and the nonlinearity

  2. "Lucrece this night I must enjoy thee" : a narcissistic reading of The Rape of Lucrece

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koketso, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The circumstances under which acts of rape are committed, and the relationship between power and sexual aggression, may seem to be distinctly modern concerns, yet Shakespeare explores them in The Rape of Lucrece (1594...

  3. “You Have to Confess”: Rape and the Politics of Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Roeder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the discourse of rape in contemporary culture, paying special attention to the courtroom setting, where rape victims are often required to tell cohesive, linear narratives that underscore their blamelessness if they hope to be believed. Because of deeply entrenched cultural myths about rape, the type of story often required for the successful prosecution of perpetrators may require rape victims to construct narratives that do not accurately reflect their lived experience. Writers such as Susan Brison, Patricia Weaver Francisco, and Alice Sebold engage with the complex politics of rape and its telling in their memoirs. While constructing stories that will suffice in the courtroom setting remains an important task for many rape victims, such stories may ultimately have to be relinquished and rewritten in order to revise prevailing cultural perceptions of rape, its perpetrators, and its victims. The memoirs of rape survivors thus come to function as a different—and necessary—type of public testimony.

  4. Mutilating granuloma inguinale after rape A case report | O'Farrell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A woman with extensive mutilating lesions of genital granuloma inguinale following rape is described. As far as is known granuloma inguinale has not previously been reported in a rape victim.

  5. Suspect aggression and victim resistance in multiple perpetrator rapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2013-11-01

    Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships.

  6. “You Have to Confess”: Rape and the Politics of Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Tara Roeder

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the discourse of rape in contemporary culture, paying special attention to the courtroom setting, where rape victims are often required to tell cohesive, linear narratives that underscore their blamelessness if they hope to be believed. Because of deeply entrenched cultural myths about rape, the type of story often required for the successful prosecution of perpetrators may require rape victims to construct narratives that do not accurately reflect their lived experience...

  7. Lack of Control as a Predictive Factor for Stress-related Symptoms in Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Sombke, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Researchers have agreed that most rape victims vii experience stress-related symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder. There have also been numerous studies that have tried to predict the severity of those stress-related symptoms, but the literature is inconclusive. Lack of perceived control is consistently mentioned in the rape research literature as being present in rape victims, but no study has empirically examined the relationship between perceived control and a rape victim's s...

  8. Effects of clover density on N2O emissions and plant-soil N transfers in a fertilised upland pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Katja; Bloor, Juliette M. G.; Ambus, Per

    2011-01-01

    that clover density had indirect effects on the sensitivity of N2O emissions to abiotic and biotic factors possibly via changes in soil pH. Overall, our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in clover abundance may have relatively little impact on field-scale N2O emissions in fertilized grasslands.......Legumes have the potential to alter nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in grass-legume mixtures via changes in soil N availability, but the influence of legume abundance on N2O fluxes in grazed multi-species grasslands has faced little attention to date. In this paper, a combination of 15N......-labelled fertilizer application and automatic chamber measurements was used to investigate N2O fluxes and soil-plant N transfers for high- and low-density clover patches in an intensively-managed, upland pasture (Auvergne, France) over the course of one growing season. During the six-month study period, N2O fluxes...

  9. Densidade de plantio de palmiteiro em regime de sombreamento permanente Planting density of Euterpe edulis mart. under shading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento do palmiteiro (Euterpe edulis Mart. plantado sob mata nativa raleada, em diferentes densidades de plantio, nas condições do Vale do Ribeira, SP. Avaliou-se o crescimento vegetativo das plantas pelos seguintes parâmetros: circunferência da planta a diferentes alturas, número de folhas funcionais, comprimento da quarta folha e altura da planta. Avaliou-se também a produção, através do peso, diâmetro e comprimento do palmito obtido. A maior produção de palmito por área foi alcançada nos espaçamentos 1,5 x 1,0 e 1,0 x 1,0m.A spacing experiment with the species Euterpe edulis Mart. was carried out in the rain forest of the Vale do Ribeira region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. In order to evaluate growth, several parameters were used: plant height, number of green leaves, length of the fourth leaf and girth at 130cm high. Maximum heart of palm yield was obtained in the 1.5 x 1.0 and 1.0 x 1.0m planting density.

  10. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  11. Profile of rape victims referred by the court to the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The psychological evaluation of rape victims to determine their competency to testify in court and whether they are capable of consenting to sexual intercourse is challenging, especially when the rape victim is mentally retarded. Objective. To describe the profile of mentally retarded rape victims referred to the ...

  12. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  13. Rape Perception and the Function of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender-Role Traditionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Niwako

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the roles of benevolent sexism (BS), hostile sexism (HS), and gender-role traditionality (GRT) in minimizing rape, blaming the victim, and excusing the rapist. As predicted, hostile sexists minimize the seriousness of the rape in both stranger and date-rape scenarios. In the victim-blame scale, both BS and GRT significantly…

  14. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  15. 75 FR 27000 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on June 3-4, 2010. The hearing... Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, Public Law 108-79, 117 Stat. 972 (codified as amended at 42 U.S.C...

  16. Pilot study to assess the viability of a rape trauma syndrome questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, F Y; Pang, E; Kee, C

    2002-11-01

    Studies have revealed that rape victims undergo a number of psychological symptoms following the attack, which constitute a specific syndrome termed the rape trauma syndrome (RTS). Evidence of the RTS has been admitted as scientific testimony in the prosecution of sexual offences and has been integral in their successful conviction. The present study aims to assess the viability of a questionnaire designed to identify the RTS in victims of alleged rape. A 77-item rape trauma syndrome questionnaire (RTSQ) was developed and administered to 30 women who reported rape and 57 nurses who formed the control group. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Windows Version 6.0). Statistical analysis suggested that the questionnaire was internally consistent and effective in uncovering significant differences between rape victims and controls in their experience of rape trauma symptoms. Rape victims scored significantly higher than controls on the RTS scale. Those who faked rape were also found to endorse a greater number of the rape trauma symptoms than actual rape victims, as well as a greater number of fictitious and unlikely symptoms. This pilot study confirmed the viability of the RTSQ and paves the way for a more rigorous examination of its reliability and validity. In the future, the questionnaire may be of use in ascertaining the veracity of victims' claims of rape in the conviction of sexual offences where circumstances are equivocal.

  17. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  18. Fear of rape among college women: a social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R

    2013-01-01

    This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences.

  19. Effect of Plant Density, Rate and Split Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Quality Characteristics and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Safflower under Weed Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fuladvand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of plant density, rate and method of nitrogen fertilizer split application on quality characteristics and nitrogen use efficiency of safflower (Sofeh variety under weed competition a field experiment was carried out in field research Yasouj University in 2013. This experiment was a factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. First factor was a two levels plant density (20 and 40 plants m-2 and second factor was nitrogen rate application on nine levels. That included; non nitrogen application and 75 and 150 kgN ha-1 nitrogen application that both used with four split method. Split methods were included; S1 (%50 in pre planting stage - %50 in stem elongation stage, S2 (%25 in pre planting stage - %75 in stem elongation stage, S3 (%25 in pre planting stage - %50 in stem elongation stage -%25 in flowering stage and S4 (%25 in pre planting stage - %25 in stem elongation stage - %25 in flowering stage. Also in this experiment, weed did not control. Results showed that whit increasing crop density, oil yield and protein grain yield increased by 20 percent and nitrogen utilization efficiency increased by 10 percent. The highest oil yield (50.25 g m-2 was obtained from 75 kg ha-1 nitrogen with three-stage split application (S4. Finally, results showed that increasing nitrogen fertilizer application decreased nitrogen utilization efficiency but three-stage split method application increased this trait.

  20. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  1. Sexual rape in children and adolescents: a medical emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Piña Corina Araceli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual rape is defined as vaginal, anal or oral sex with violent and forceful penetration of the penis or of any other object. Patients who have been raped are a medical emergency which requires immediate attention, if possible, within 24 to 72 hours, since there is the risk of sustaining external and internal injuries and of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Detection and Centers for Disease Control (CDC have reported that the maximum effective- ness of HIV prophylaxis is obtained when given within the first 24 to 72 hours post exposure.

  2. Computing competition for light in the GREENLAB model of plant growth: a contribution to the study of the effects of density on resource acquisition and architectural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournède, Paul-Henry; Mathieu, Amélie; Houllier, François; Barthélémy, Daniel; de Reffye, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    The dynamical system of plant growth GREENLAB was originally developed for individual plants, without explicitly taking into account interplant competition for light. Inspired by the competition models developed in the context of forest science for mono-specific stands, we propose to adapt the method of crown projection onto the x-y plane to GREENLAB, in order to study the effects of density on resource acquisition and on architectural development. The empirical production equation of GREENLAB is extrapolated to stands by computing the exposed photosynthetic foliage area of each plant. The computation is based on the combination of Poisson models of leaf distribution for all the neighbouring plants whose crown projection surfaces overlap. To study the effects of density on architectural development, we link the proposed competition model to the model of interaction between functional growth and structural development introduced by Mathieu (2006, PhD Thesis, Ecole Centrale de Paris, France). The model is applied to mono-specific field crops and forest stands. For high-density crops at full cover, the model is shown to be equivalent to the classical equation of field crop production (Howell and Musick, 1985, in Les besoins en eau des cultures; Paris: INRA Editions). However, our method is more accurate at the early stages of growth (before cover) or in the case of intermediate densities. It may potentially account for local effects, such as uneven spacing, variation in the time of plant emergence or variation in seed biomass. The application of the model to trees illustrates the expression of plant plasticity in response to competition for light. Density strongly impacts on tree architectural development through interactions with the source-sink balances during growth. The effects of density on tree height and radial growth that are commonly observed in real stands appear as emerging properties of the model.

  3. Yield estimation comparison of oil palm based on plant density coefficient variation index using spot-6 imagery in part of Riau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, H. A.; S, S. H. Murti B.; Widyatmanti, W.

    2016-06-01

    Oil palm plantations consist of diverse plant density level that influence the appearance of soil surface or commonly in remote sensing terms called as soil background. Choosing the right density coefficient of vegetation transformation can decrease the noise of soil background for estimating oil palm yield. This research aims 1) to examine the accuracy of SPOT-6 to identify the oil palm l plant growth level and to estimate their yield 2) to know the variation of oil palm yield based on SAVI index vegetation using different density coefficient; and 3) to determine the best density coefficient to estimate the yield of oil palm. This research was held in part of Air Molek, Indragiri Hulu Regency, Riau, one of the largest oil palm plantations in Indonesia. This research method utilises SAVI transformation with density coefficient L-0, L-0.5, and L-1, and regression statistics analysis. The land-cover primary data is derived from SPOT-6 imagery archived in 13rd June 2013. The field survey was conducted in the same month of image's acquisition time and 120 sample areas were taken during that time. Two steps of regression analyses were applied to see the correlation between, first, vegetation index value and oil palm plant; and second, oil palm plant, vegetation index values, and oil palm yield from field observation. These steps produced a model to estimate the oil palm yield based on the index values of yield and vegetation, and the productivity estimation. The result shows that SPOT-6 imagery has 96% accuracy level which is considered high for identifying the oil palm variation. The R value for L-0 density coefficient is 0.8, for L-5 is 0.81 whereas for L-1 is 0.82. The best plant's density coefficient for estimating oil palm yield/yield is L-0 with yield estimation accuracy of 83.33%.

  4. Effects of Planting Density on Transpiration, Stem Flow and Interception for Two Clones Differing in Drought Tolerance in a High Productivity Eucalyptus Plantation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, R. M.; Hakemada, R.; Ferraz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Eucalypt plantations cover about 20 M hectares worldwide and expansion is expected to mainly occur in marginal growing areas where dry conditions may lead to water conflicts. One of the principal reasons for the expansion of Eucalyptus plantations is rapid wood growth but these forests also transpire large amounts of water. Genotype selection and planting density, are key factors regulating carbon and water tradeoffs at a stand scale, but few studies have examined these simultaneously especially in highly productive clonal plantations. Our goal in this study was to examine the effects of planting density on carbon and water interactions using a drought tolerant and drought sensitive eucalyptus clone. This work is part of a larger study (TECHS project - Tolerance of Eucalyptus Clones to Hydric and Thermal Stresses) and is located in a flat Oxisol in southeast of Brazil. A drought tolerant (E. grandis x E. camaldulensis (Grancam) and drought sensitive clone E. grandis x E. urophylla (Urograndis) were planted at four densities ranging from 600 to 3.000 stem ha-1. We measured transpiration using thermal heat dissipation probes, wood growth, canopy interception and stemflow during a full year (21 to 33 months old). Precipitation during the study period was 738 mm. Independently of genetics, growth increased with increasing density. Transpiration also increased with planting density and ranged from 515-595 mm at wider spacing to 735-978 mm at tighter spacing. Interception increased with planting density representing 18-22% of precipitation versus 13-14% in wider spacing while stem flow represented 2-5% in denser spacing and 1-2% at broader spacing. When density was higher than 1.250 and 1.750 stems ha-1 in Urograndis and Grancam clones, respectively, the water balance were negative. On a stand scale, results show both genetics and spacing can be used as silvicultural tools to better manage the tradeoff between wood growth and water consumption.

  5. Rentabilidade da cultura da macieira cultivar Gala em duas densidades de plantio Investment return for Gala apple cultivar using two planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Leomar Kreuz

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho discute, com base em um estudo de caso, a viabilidade econômica de ampliar a densidade de plantio de macieiras cultivar Gala de 1.000 plantas por hectare para 3.378 plantas por hectare. Os resultados mostraram que a taxa interna de retorno não variou (próxima de 1,61% ao mês, independentemente da densidade utilizada, o que sugere o uso da menor densidade de plantio, uma vez que esta requer um menor volume de recursos financeiros. O custo unitário de produção também se mantém praticamente o mesmo ao se variar a densidade de plantio.The present study was carried out to analyse economic performances of Gala apple orchards at different planting densities. Two orchard densities (1,000 and 3,378 plants/ha were evaluated in an orchard near Fraiburgo, SC, Brazil. The use of both planting densities resulted in the same internal rate of return (approximately 1.6% a month. It is suggested to use a lower planting system, once it requires less capital. Unit cost also remained the same for both planting densities used in this study.

  6. The effects of nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density on yield, yield components and oil and protein content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomandan, P; Khoramivafa, M; Haghi, Y; Ebrahimi, A

    2009-02-15

    Effects of nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density on yield and oil and protein content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) are not well understood, because nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density has been tested separately. Two years field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of these factors on yield, yield components, oil and protein content in 2006 and 2007 in Kermanshah, Iran. The experiment was conducted on soybean (var. Williams) as a split-plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Nitrogen starter fertilizer treatments were arranged in three rates (0, 40, 80 kg ha(-1)) as main plots and plant density as sub plots arranged with three levels (15, 30, 45 plant m(-2)). Based on similarity treatments and experimental designs, the results of analysis of combined variance and mean comparisons showed significant (528.4 kg ha(-1) yield increase as density increased from 30 to 45 plant m(-2) and nitrogen starter fertilizer increased from 0 to 40 kg ha(-1) in two years. Analysis of correlation showed a positive significant correlation between yield and number of seed per plant (r = 0.724), number of pods and yield (r = 0.463), thousand seed weight and yield (r = 0.437). A linear regression was found between yield and number of seed per plant, number of pods and thousand seed weight (yield = 37.58 + 0.73x1-0.14x2 + 0.7x3; r2 = 0.56); p < 0.01). Seed protein was unaffected by plant densities, but nitrogen application changed it. Dissimilarly, oil content has a diverse respond to treatments. This experiment showed density of 45 plant m(-2) and application of nitrogen starter fertilizer 40 kg ha(-1) are optimum and increase grain yield under condition of our experiment. We suggest to conduct some experiments for understanding of linear relationship for number of pod for understanding of linear relationship for number of pod for levels of nitrogen starter and quadratic relationship for number of seed for levels of density.

  7. Attitude May Be Everything, But Is Everything an Attitude? Cognitive Distortions May Not Be Evaluations of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; White, Kristen; Pettersen, Cathrine; Bumby, Kurt

    2016-01-18

    Cognitive distortions are often referred to as attitudes toward rape in theory, research, and clinical practice pertaining to sexual aggression. In the social-psychological literature, however, attitudes are typically defined as evaluations; thus, in this context, attitudes toward rape are considered evaluations of rape (e.g., rape is negative vs. positive). The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a widely used measure of cognitive distortions (RAPE Scale; Bumby, 1996) assesses evaluation of rape, and, if not, whether evaluation of rape and the cognitions assessed by the RAPE Scale are independently associated with sexually aggressive behavior. Participants (660 male undergraduate students) completed the RAPE Scale as well as measures of evaluation of rape and sexually aggressive behavior. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the RAPE Scale items formed a correlated but distinct factor from the Evaluation of Rape Scale items. Regression analyses indicated that the Evaluation of Rape Scale and the RAPE Scale had small to moderate independent associations with self-report measures of sexually aggressive behavior. Our results suggest that evaluation of rape may be distinct from cognitive distortions regarding rape, and both evaluation and cognitive distortions may be relevant for understanding sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Effect of corm planting density, organic and chemical fertilizers on formation and phosphorus uptake of saffron (Crocus sativus L. replacement corms during phonological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Feizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. propagates by replacement corms producing from the mother corm after flowering during each season. In order to investigate the effect of corm planting density, organic and chemical fertilizers on formation and phosphorus uptake of saffron replacement corms during phonological stages, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications, at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. The experimental treatments were all combination of different levels of planting density (25, 50, 75 and 100 corms per m2 and fertilizer sources (manure 25 t. ha-1, chemical fertilizer (N 150 kg ha-1 + P 75 kg ha-1 and control. Due to different sampling dates of replacement corms during phonological stages (21 November, 21 December, 20 January, 20 April and 21 May, respectively, the experimental data were analyzed as factorial - split in time based on a randomized complete block design. Based on results, the highest number of replacement corms lower than 4 g (5.8 corms per plant were observed in fifth sampling stage and then decreased. In all levels of planting density (25 to 100 corms per m2, the effects of manure on increasing the number, weight and phosphorus content of replacement corms in range of 4.1 to 8 and 8.1 to 12 g per plant were significantly higher than chemical fertilizer. In fifth sampling stage, by applying the manure, the weight and phosphorus content of replacement corms in range of 8.1 to 12 g per plant were significantly increased (approximately twice, as compared to chemical fertilizer. It seems the decrease in saffron yield as result to decreasing the corm planting density can be slightly offset by increasing the percentage of larger corms formation per plant.

  9. It's Her Fault: Student Acceptance of Rape Myths On Two College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Rebecca M; Abbott, Rebecca L; Cook, Savannah

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined factors that are associated with an individual's adherence to rape myths at two colleges located in the same town. Particularly, we examined sex, race, and participants' drinking behavior in relation to rape myth acceptance. We found that males and heavy drinkers are more likely than females and non/low drinkers to adhere to rape myths. An interaction between males and drinking was also found indicating a moderated effect of gender on rape myth acceptance. In addition, the college with sexual assault programming did not experience a lowered acceptance of rape myths compared with the college with no programming. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The presence of turnip yellows virus in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloševic Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 86 oilseed rape samples from six crops in different localities were collected during 2014 and analyzed for the presence of Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV using commercial double-antibody sandwich (DAS-ELISA kits. TuYV was serologically detected in 60 collected samples (69.77%, and none of the samples tested were positive for CaMV and TuMV. Six selected TuYV isolates were successfully transmitted by Myzus persicae to three test plants, confirming the infectious nature of the disease. In the selected ELISA-positive samples, the presence of TuYV was further confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. A comparison of the obtained sequence with those available in GenBank confirmed the presence of TuYV in oilseed rape samples. An analysis of P0 gene sequence data for a subset of these isolates showed they clustered with the known TuYV and were distinct from Beet western yellows virus (BWYV isolates.

  11. Impact of a pyrethroid insecticide application on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae in a winter rape stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Šlachta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the application of insecticide FURY 10 EW (0.15 L ha−1 in winter rape on non-target indicator ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae was examined in a field experiment. The species composition, the dominance structure, the abundance and the diversity of ground beetles in pitfall traps was compared before and after the application of the insecticide during April 2009. In total, 128 specimens of 19 species of ground beetles was recorded. The community was dominated by Poecilus cupreus (61 % of total specimens and it consisted of eurytopic carnivorous and granivorous species typical for intensively managed crop fields. No effect of the insecticide treatment on the community characteristics was observed. The Shannon diversity (H’ index was 1.5 and 1.6 before and after the insecticide application, respectively. The application of insecticide on well grown rape plants, which may have protected the soil surface from a contact with the insecticide, could be accounted for the leaving the ground beetles community intact.

  12. Effect of Planting Density and Harvest Interval on the Leaf Yield and Quality of Moringa (Moringa oleifera under Diverse Agroecological Conditions of Northern South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Mabapa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder livestock farmers who depend on natural communal grazing lands are particularly vulnerable to climate change as well as to food insecurity and should be encouraged to grow drought-tolerant fodder crops. Moringa oleifera is a highly valued plant, due to its exceptionally high nutritional content. This study was conducted at two experimental sites in the Limpopo province of northern South Africa to evaluate for the first time the effect of plant density and cutting interval on biomass production and chemical composition of moringa grown under two diverse climatic conditions. Four different planting densities (435,000, 300,000, 200,000, and 100,000 plants/ha were arranged in a randomized complete block design and experimental samples were replicated four times. Data for biomass and gravimetric soil moisture content were collected each time the plants reached a height of 50 cm. Harvested leaves were analysed for chemical composition. An increase in the plant density led to elevated biomass production at both study locations, ranging between 527 and 2867 kg/ha. Moringa is capable of meeting all nutrient requirements of livestock depending on harvest time and location.

  13. Transfer by grafting of the effect of thermal induction of generative development in winter rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Dubert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility was studied of transferring the flowering factor in winter rape from vernalized plants to plants in which generative development was not induced by cold treatment. In a series of grafts made under field conditions scions from non vernalized plants were grafted into stems of vernalized ones at the phase of bud and flower formation. Non vernalized scions adopted the ability to generative development from vernalized stock. The transfer of the flowering stimulus was more effective in the case of grafts performed at the top of cut off stems than in the case of scions grafted on the side of a stem. The activity of the flowering factor in vernalized plants was the highest at or just before the bud formation phase. The responsiveness to the flowering factor transferred from vernalized stock was highest in 60- to 80-day-old scions. Analysis of the effect of age of the stock on the duration of the particular generative phases in grafted scions indicates that in vernalized plants of winter rape there may be more than one transferable factor that enables full generative development.

  14. Evaluating stranger and acquaintance rape: the role of benevolent sexism in perpetrator blame and recommended sentence length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viki, G Tendayi; Abrams, Dominic; Masser, Barbara

    2004-06-01

    In most jurisdictions, the law does not recognize the distinction between stranger and acquaintance rape. However, these two types of rape seem to elicit different responses from both lay observers and legal practitioners. Two studies investigating the role of benevolent sexism (BS) in accounting for participants' responses to acquaintance vs. stranger rape perpetrators are reported. Participants were presented with vignettes describing either an acquaintance rape or a stranger rape. As predicted, relative to low-BS individuals, participants who scored high in BS attributed less blame (Study 1) and recommended shorter sentences (Study 2) for the acquaintance rape perpetrator. Benevolent sexism was unrelated to reactions to the perpetrator in the stranger rape condition.

  15. Using modern plant trait relationships between observed and theoretical maximum stomatal conductance and vein density to examine patterns of plant macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Jennifer C; Yiotis, Charilaos; Lawson, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of geological-scale patterns in plant macroevolution is limited by a hesitancy to use measurable traits of fossils to infer palaeoecophysiological function. Here, scaling relationships between morphological traits including maximum theoretical stomatal conductance (gmax ) and leaf vein density (Dv ) and physiological measurements including operational stomatal conductance (gop ), saturated (Asat ) and maximum (Amax ) assimilation rates were investigated for 18 extant taxa in order to improve understanding of angiosperm diversification in the Cretaceous. Our study demonstrated significant relationships between gop , gmax and Dv that together can be used to estimate gas exchange and the photosynthetic capacities of fossils. We showed that acquisition of high gmax in angiosperms conferred a competitive advantage over gymnosperms by increasing the dynamic range (plasticity) of their gas exchange and expanding their ecophysiological niche space. We suggest that species with a high gmax (> 1400 mmol m(-2) s(-1) ) would have been capable of maintaining a high Amax as the atmospheric CO2 declined through the Cretaceous, whereas gymnosperms with a low gmax would experience severe photosynthetic penalty. Expansion of the ecophysiological niche space in angiosperms, afforded by coordinated evolution of high gmax , Dv and increased plasticity in gop , adds further functional insights into the mechanisms driving angiosperm speciation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Optimizing nitrogen application rate and plant density for improving cotton yield and nitrogen use efficiency in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Dong, Helin; Zheng, Cangsong; Sun, Miao; Liu, Aizhong; Wang, Guoping; Liu, Shaodong; Zhang, Siping; Chen, Jing; Li, Yabing; Pang, Chaoyou; Zhao, Xinhua

    2017-01-01

    Plant population density (PPD) and nitrogen (N) application rate (NAR) are two controllable factors in cotton production. We conducted field experiments to investigate the effects of PPD, NAR and their interaction (PPD × NAR) on yield, N uptake and N use efficiency (NUE) of cotton using a split-plot design in the North China Plain during 2013 and 2014. The main plots were PPDs (plants m-2) of 3.00 (low), 5.25 (medium) and 7.50 (high) and the subplots were NARs of 0 (N-free), 112.5 (low), 225.0 (moderate) and 337.5 (high). During both 2013 and 2014, biological yield and N uptake of cotton increased significantly, but harvesting index decreased significantly with NAR and PPD increasing. With NAR increasing, internal nitrogen use efficiency(NUE) decreased significantly under three PPDs and agronomical NUE, physiologilal NUE, nitrogen recovery efficiency(NRE) and partial factor productivity from applied nitrogen (PFPN) also decreased significantly under high PPD between two years. Lint yield increment varied during different PPDs and years, but NAR enhancement showed less function under higher PPD than lower PPD in general. Taken together, moderate NAR under medium PPD combined higher lint yield with higher agronomic NUE, physiological NUE, and NRE, while low NAR with high PPD would achieve a comparable yield with superior NRE and PFPN and high NAR under high PPD and medium PPD produced higher biological yield but lower harvest index, lint yield and NUE compared to moderate NAR with medium PPD. Our overall results indicated that, in this region, increasing PPD and decreasing NAR properly would enhance both lint yield and NUE of cotton.

  17. Visualising Shattered Lives: Potentiality in Representations of Rape Victimisation in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Lei Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how cinematic representations of rape can challenge the silence which surrounds the issue of rape and sexual violence in Japan. A textual analysis of two contemporary fictional Japanese films, DV: Domestic Violence [2005] and The Ravine of Goodbye [2013], was performed to illustrate how filmmakers can use narrative and cinematographic techniques to influence the viewer to reflect upon their attitudes to rape and rape victims. By examining how these two films depict rape and rape recovery, this article argues that there is discursive potential inherent within cinema to shape our imaginations and ideals about the world. But while the filmmaker can construct rape representations that encourage reflection, how the viewer decides to engage with the film has bearing on whether this potential for reflection is realised.

  18. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  19. National Comparisons of Rape Myth Acceptance Predictors Between Nonathletes and Athletes From Multi-Institutional Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, John C; Tewksbury, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Athletes are cited as common perpetrators of sexual victimization and are at greater risk of becoming offenders compared with nonathletes. Demographic, lifestyle, and social characteristics of 624 nonathletes and 101 athletes from 21 U.S. Division I postsecondary educational institutions were assessed, with the updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale gauging endorsement of rape myths. Results indicate that athletes and nonathletes were similar in the degree of rape myth acceptance, with athletes reporting stronger agreement with rape myths than nonathletes did. Predictors of rape myth acceptance among nonathletes are multidimensional. In contrast, nondemographic characteristics like Greek membership, the number of alcoholic beverages consumed, and knowing a sexual assault victim predict rape myth acceptance for athletes, with gender not predicting rape myth acceptance nor different between genders of athletes. Policy implications and future research are discussed.

  20. Correlation between dynamic tomato fruit-set and source-sink ratio: a common relationship for different plant densities and seasons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, MengZhen; Yang, LiLi; Zhang, BaoGui; de Reffye, Philippe

    2011-04-01

    It is widely accepted that fruit-set in plants is related to source-sink ratio. Despite its critical importance to yield, prediction of fruit-set remains an ongoing problem in crop models. Functional-structural plant models are potentially able to simulate organ-level plasticity of plants. To predict fruit-set, the quantitative link between source-sink ratio and fruit-set probability is analysed here via a functional-structural plant model, GreenLab. Two experiments, each with four plant densities, were carried out in a solar greenhouse during two growth seasons (started in spring and autumn). Dynamic fruit-set probability was estimated by frequent observation on inflorescences. Source and sink parameter values were obtained by fitting GreenLab outputs for the biomass of plant parts (lamina, petiole, internode, fruit), at both organ and plant level, to corresponding destructive measurements at six dates from real plants. The dynamic source-sink ratio was calculated as the ratio between biomass production and plant demand (sum of all organ sink strength) per growth cycle, both being outputs of the model. Most sink parameters were stable over multiple planting densities and seasons. From planting, source-sink ratio increased in the vegetative stage and reached a peak after fruit-set commenced, followed by a decrease of leaf appearance rate. Fruit-set probability was correlated with the source-sink ratio after the appearance of flower buds. The relationship between fruit-set probability and the most correlated source-sink ratio could be quantified by a single regression line for both experiments. The current work paves the way to predicting dynamic fruit-set using a functional structure model.

  1. Correlation between dynamic tomato fruit-set and source–sink ratio: a common relationship for different plant densities and seasons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, MengZhen; Yang, LiLi; Zhang, BaoGui; de Reffye, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims It is widely accepted that fruit-set in plants is related to source–sink ratio. Despite its critical importance to yield, prediction of fruit-set remains an ongoing problem in crop models. Functional–structural plant models are potentially able to simulate organ-level plasticity of plants. To predict fruit-set, the quantitative link between source–sink ratio and fruit-set probability is analysed here via a functional–structural plant model, GreenLab. Methods Two experiments, each with four plant densities, were carried out in a solar greenhouse during two growth seasons (started in spring and autumn). Dynamic fruit-set probability was estimated by frequent observation on inflorescences. Source and sink parameter values were obtained by fitting GreenLab outputs for the biomass of plant parts (lamina, petiole, internode, fruit), at both organ and plant level, to corresponding destructive measurements at six dates from real plants. The dynamic source–sink ratio was calculated as the ratio between biomass production and plant demand (sum of all organ sink strength) per growth cycle, both being outputs of the model. Key Results and Conclusions Most sink parameters were stable over multiple planting densities and seasons. From planting, source–sink ratio increased in the vegetative stage and reached a peak after fruit-set commenced, followed by a decrease of leaf appearance rate. Fruit-set probability was correlated with the source–sink ratio after the appearance of flower buds. The relationship between fruit-set probability and the most correlated source–sink ratio could be quantified by a single regression line for both experiments. The current work paves the way to predicting dynamic fruit-set using a functional structure model. PMID:21183453

  2. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen and Bio fertilizer on Qualitative Characteristics of Sugar beet in Mashhad and Torbat-e-jam Regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Jafarnia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant density and Fertilizers application especially with biological fertilizers that reduces environmental and underground water pollutions, are very important in sugar beet production in the world and Iran. In order to evaluate the effect of plant density and nitrogen and bio fertilizers on qualitative traits of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., two field experiments were carried out in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center in Khorasan-E- Razavi province in Mashhad, and agricultural research farm in Torbat-jam sugar factory during 2012. Experimental factors were consisted of three crop densities (60000, 90000 and 120000 plants per hectare, three amounts of N fertilizers (0, 100 and 200 kgN ha-1 and bio-fertilizers consist of Azosperillum and Nitrobacter, (with and without bio fertilizer. Experiments were laid out on the factorial design based on a completely randomized block designs with four replications. Results showed that the impurities of potassium and sodium in sugar beet root decreased with increasing plant density from 60000 to 120000 plants per hectare. Consumption of 200 kgN ha-1decreased gross sugar percent in sugar beet root. Bio-fertilizer and density of 90,000 plants per hectare with consuming 50% of N based on recommendations of soil test (100 kg ha-1, impurities of sugar beet root (sodium, potassium and α-amino nitrogen decreased and white sugar yield and gross sugar yield increased. Therefore, using bio-fertilizers in sugar beet cultivation enhanced qualitative yield and caused lower application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer.

  3. Pornography, Sexual Callousness, and the Trivialization of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1982-01-01

    Explored the consequences of continued exposure to pornography on beliefs about sexuality in general and on dispositions toward women in particular. Found that massive exposure to pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape victims and toward women in general. (PD)

  4. "CORRECTIVE RAPE" OF LESBIANS IN THE ERA OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    Albertyn C "Gendered Transformation in South African Jurisprudence: Poor. Women and the Constitutional Court" 2011 Stell LR 591-613. Anguita 2012 Int'l J Hum Rts. Anguita LA "Tackling Corrective Rape in South Africa: The Engagement between the LGBT CSO's and the NHRI's (CGE and SAHRC) and its Role" 2012.

  5. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4H2O) and Al-P (AlPO4), were investigated to elucidate the contributions of root morphology and organic acids exudation to P uptake by rape from iron phosphate and aluminum phosphate. By solution culture and sand culture experiments, the ...

  6. The relationshp between rape experience and post-traumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the relationship between rape experience and of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among victims. One hundred and thirty-two female participants made up of seventy-two from Nasarawa State University and sixty from the general public in Keffi town of Nasarawa State participated in the ...

  7. Event characteristics and socio-demographic features of rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: On account of increasing awareness of the need for Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and availability of requisite drugs, victims of rape are now presenting at health facilities including ours to access PEP for HIV. This study set to document the socio-demographic features of these victims and the event ...

  8. Psychological Techniques In Helping Rape Victims | Ayinde | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling psychology is concerned with assisting people who have personal, social, educational and vocational problems to better understand themselves and solve their problems. Rape is seen as a problem that militates against the psychological well being of victims, because of the devastating aftermath of the incident ...

  9. Constructing victims and perpetrators of rape in the advice column

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This article reports on the ways in which the rape of women by men is constructed in the advice column Dear Dolly, published in the South African periodical Drum Magazine. The data collected for the study spans from 1984 to 2004, encompassing both 10 years before and 10 years after the onset of democracy in ...

  10. Forcible Rape: A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Duncan; Fogarty, Faith

    This selective, annotated bibliography provides guidance to the source and content of a small proportion of the existing publicity about rape, Non-English-language publications, as well as those receiving only limited distribution, are excluded. All materials are recent, most having been published during the 1970's. Outdated materials, such as…

  11. Alcohol-Involved Rapes: Are They More Violent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol's psychological, cognitive, and motor effects contribute to rape. Based on theory and past research, we hypothesized that there would be a curvilinear relationship between the quantity of alcohol consumed by perpetrators and how aggressively they behaved. Moderate levels of intoxication encourage aggressiveness; however, extreme levels…

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis among women raped in Antananarivo, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianarivelo Andry, M; Raherinaivo Anjatiana, A; Razafindrakoto Ainamalala, C; Rasoanandrasana, S; Ravaoarisaina Zakasoa, M; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    2017-02-01

    Rape is a forensic emergency due to the possibility of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Moreover, an upsurge is currently underway. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis in women undergoing tests at the Microbiology Unit of the Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona Antananarivo Hospital after being raped. This retrospective descriptive study covers the 7-year period from 2005 to 2011 and reports the results of direct examination of the vaginal discharge after vulvar smears from rape patients. We studied the age of patients and the results of these direct smear examinations that tested for T. vaginalis. In our study, the number of women with T. vaginalis increased markedly with age. The mean age of the patients was 13.7 years (range: 2 to 41 years). Among the 232 rape victims tested, only 26 were positive for it (11.20%); trichomoniasis was thus rare among these women. T. vaginalis is a common cause of vaginitis in women and one of the most common infections transmitted by sexual assault. In children, the presence of T. vaginalis in vaginal sample is a strong indicator of sexual abuse. Other sexually transmitted infections can be transmitted during sexual abuse.

  13. Rape and Adultery in Ancient Greek and Yoruba Societies | Olasope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Athens and other ancient cultures, a woman, whatever her status and whatever her age or social class, was, in law, a perpetual minor. Throughout her life, she was in the legal control of a guardian who represented her in law. Rape, as unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman, warranted a capital charge in the ...

  14. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates, Streptomyces sp. isolate 422 ...

  15. Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…

  16. Knowledge and Perceptions of Date Rape among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    in, or may result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or ... normalization of sexual coercion in intimate relationships8. Sometimes even .... Vaginal expansion. 6. 1.2. Psychological health effects of date rape. PTSD. 151. 29.5. Depression. 125. 25.6. Low self esteem. 57. 11.6. Fear of having sex. 42. 8.6. Shame. 22. 4.5.

  17. Rape, sexual politics and the construction of manhood among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper interrogates the language that mediates sex and sexuality among the Shona of Zimbabwe. It draws from the method of ordinary language philosophy to argue that culture, and specifically language, can constitute an effective incubator for the emotions that result in rape. Further, the paper shows how the ...

  18. Centering: reducing rape trauma syndrome anxiety during a gynecologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, P J

    1996-10-01

    1. Individuals often delay seeking routine gynecologic care or have difficulty completing gynecologic examinations due to the effects of trauma. 2. Advance practice nurses (APN) are challenged to participate with clients to reduce their anxiety, thereby decreasing the health risks associated with avoiding routine gynecologic care. 3. "Centering" is a holistic, noninvasive modality to reduce anxiety associated with rape trauma syndrome.

  19. Maps of Woe Narratives of Rape in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By considering a selection of texts, both fictional and non-fictional, this study ad- dresses different representations of rape in early modern English culture. Its aim is to highlight the interconnections between aspects of culture and the creative exchange, the confrontation and mutual assimilation between ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultural forms.

  20. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal experimental condition for the crude protein enrichment was: 10% (v/w) C. utilis inoculum was added to the rape straw medium after ...

  1. The Experience of Male Rape in Non-Institutionalised Settings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the effects of the assault on the self, disclosure, the learning and life changes brought about by the assault, the victims' feelings towards their assailants and the effect of the assault on the victims' relationships. This study hopes to facilitate further descriptive research on the phenomenon of male rape in order that greater ...

  2. Sexual Coercion on Dates: It's Not Just Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner-Haugrud, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Contends that sexual coercion while dating falls under the umbrella of school-related violence. Discusses acquaintance and date rape, a sexual coercion continuum, and coercion victims. Concludes with a discussion of six techniques to reduce risk of sexual coercion. (CFR)

  3. Perception of Spousal Rape among Lagos State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recognition of sex in the context of marriage as crime is strange. Men are often accused of exclusively perpetrating this culturally alien offence which exclusively causes enormous trauma to women within the family. This study examines the perception of undergraduates about marital rape among married couples in ...

  4. Clinical Perspective Psycho-legal issues surrounding the rape of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rape of individuals with mental retardation poses challenges for the judicial system as well as for the survivors themselves. As a result, the courts tend to refer these individuals for forensic mental health examination to assist them in proceeding with criminal trials. This sequence of events may appear unusual, ...

  5. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  6. The lived experience of genocide rape survivors in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamana, Donatilla; Brysiewicz, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of women who were raped during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. A phenomenological approach was used and this study was carried out in Rwanda in three different locations. The 7 participants took part in three semi-structured, individual interviews which were audiotaped. Participants reported many themes unique to Rwandan women survivors of genocide. These themes included violation by perceived inferiors, loss of dignity and respect, loss of identity, social isolation, loss of hope for the future (i.e., HIV/AIDS), the ongoing torture of rape babies, and developing a sense of community. Rwandan women survivors of the 1994 genocide have lived through unimaginable suffering. Limited information is available regarding the experiences of these rape survivors and this information could create awareness and some understanding of what these women endured. This study can help nurses to understand the sequelae of war and rape and thus have needed information which can be used to offer assistance to women in these circumstances.

  7. Effect of the density of transplants in reforestation on the morphological quality of the above-ground part of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. six years after planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Houšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of the above-ground part of European beech planted at different densities and spacing patterns for the purpose of artificial forest regeneration was monitored 3, 4 and 6 years after planting. The initial numbers of beech transplants were 5,000 pcs.ha−1, 10,000 pcs.ha−1, 15,000 pcs.ha−1 and 20,000 pcs.ha−1. The spacing pattern of transplants was either square or rectangular nearly in all variants: 1.4 × 1.4 m, 2 × 1 m, 1 × 1 m, 0.8 × 0.8 m, 1 ×0.65 m, 0.7 × 0.7 m and 1 × 0.5 m. Conclusions following out from the research are as follows: 1. neither the chosen density of transplants nor their spacing pattern had an essential influence on the after-planting loss or damage of trees; 2. through the planting of larger-diameter transplants it is possible to achieve canopy closure more rapidly as well as faster growth of the plantation; these beech plants keep the edge in growth and quality even 6 years after planting; 3. the higher is the beech plantation density, the less individuals occur in such a plantation with inappropriate stem form; 4. beech plants of the worst quality were found on plots with the lowest initial density of transplants (5,000 and 10,000 pcs.ha−1, yet the number of promising trees was sufficient even there. Thus, none of the experimental numbers of transplants per hectare or spacing arrangements of the European beech transplants can be claimed as inappropriate; however, further monitoring of the plots is necessary.

  8. Distribution and metabolism of D/L-, L- and D-glufosinate in transgenic, glufosinate-tolerant crops of maize (Zea mays L ssp mays) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L var napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Monika; Engelhardt, Gabriele; Pawlizki, Karlheinz

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether post-emergence application of glufosinate to transgenic crops could lead to an increase in residues or to the formation of new, hitherto unknown metabolites. Transgenic oilseed rape and maize plants were treated separately with L-glufosinate, D-glufosinate or the racemic mixture. Whereas about 90% of the applied D-glufosinate was washed off by rain and only 5-6% was metabolised, 13-35% of the applied L-glufosinate remained in the form of metabolites and unchanged herbicide in both transgenic maize and oilseed rape. The main metabolite was N-acetyl-L-glufosinate with total residues of 91% in oilseed rape and 67% in maize, together with small amounts, of 5% in oilseed rape and 28% in maize, of different methylphosphinyl fatty acids. These metabolites were probably formed from L-glufosinate by deamination and subsequent decarboxylation. The residues were distributed in all fractions of the plants, with the highest contents in treated leaves and the lowest in the grains (0.07-0.3% in maize and 0.4-0.6% in oilseed rape). There was no indication of an accumulation of total residues or of residue levels above the official tolerances for glufosinate.

  9. Mass transfer of hydrophobic organic chemicals between silicone sheets and through plant leaves and low-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Hamid; Bolinius, Damien Johann; Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Plant leaves play an important role in the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in the environment. Yet much remains unknown about the permeability of leaves by HOCs. In this pilot study we measured (i) the kinetics of mass transfer of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six polychlorinated biphenyls between a spiked and an unspiked sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in direct contact with each other for 24 h and (ii) kinetics of mass transfer of two PAHs through leaves and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in a passive dosing experiment by inserting these matrices between the two sheets of PDMS for 48 h. The kinetics of mass transfer of fluoranthene between PDMS sheets in direct contact were a factor of 12 slower than those reported in the literature. The kinetics of mass transfer of fluorene and phenanthrene through leaves were within the range of those previously reported for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid through isolated cuticles. Our results provide a proof-of-concept demonstration that the passive dosing method applied in this study can be used to measure the mass transfer coefficients of organic chemicals through leaves. Key recommendations for future experiments are to load the PDMS at the highest feasible concentrations to avoid working at analyte levels close to the limit of detection, to keep the leaves moist and to minimize potential pathways for contamination of the PDMS sheets by exposure to laboratory air. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of the Fakopp TreeSonic acoustic device to estimate wood quality characteristics in loblolly pine trees planted at different densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2015-01-01

    A Fakopp TreeSonic acoustic device was used to measure time of flight (TOF) impulses through sample trees prior to felling from 27-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations established at different planting densities. After felling, the sample trees were sawn into lumber and the boards subjected to edgewise bending under 2-point loading. Bending properties...

  11. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family.

  12. Effects of different irrigation methods and plant densities on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn cultivar (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Karasahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The yield and quality of corn silage is related to genotype as well as factors such as climate, soil conditions, altitude, planting time, plant density, irrigation, and harvesting time. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation methods (drip, subsoil drip, and subsoil capillary and different plant densities (102 040, 119 040, and 142 850 plant ha-1 on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey in 2011 and 2012 under ecological conditions in Eskipazar-Karabuk, Turkey. Plant densities were significantly different on fresh ear ratio and plant crude protein (CP yield in both years under study. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained with 102 040 and 119 040 plant ha-1 densities and the highest plant CP yield with 142 850 plant ha-1. While the irrigation method x plant density interactions were significant for silage CP ratio in the first year, they were significant on fresh ear ratio in the second year. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 119 040 plant ha-1 and drip x 119 040 plant ha-1 interactions; the highest plant and silage CP ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 142 850 plant ha-1 and subsoil drip x 102 040 plant ha-1 interactions. As a result of the research, high Flieg scores were obtained from each irrigation method and plant density. When plant CP yield is taken into consideration, the 142 850 plant ha-1 density is more important.

  13. Simultaneous determination of 13 phytohormones in oilseed rape tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and the evaluation of the matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sufang; Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2011-03-01

    In the experiment, a high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring was used to simultaneously determine various classes of phytohormones, including indole-3-acetic acid, α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 2-chlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, gibberellic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, abscisic acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, uniconazole, paclobutrazol and 2,4-epibassinolide in rape tissues. The analyses were separated by an HPLC equipped with a reversed-phase column using a binary solvent system composed of methanol and water, both containing 0.1% of formic acid. The matrix effect was also considered and determined. The technology was applied to analyze rape tissues, including roots, stems, leaves, flowers, immature pods and rape seeds. The rape tissues were subjected to ultrasound-assisted extraction and purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction, and then transferred into the liquid chromatography system. The detection limit for each plant hormone was defined by the ratio of signal/background noise (S/N) of 3. The results showed perfect linearity (R(2) values of 0.9987-1.0000) and reproducibility of elution times (relative standard deviations, RSDs,<1%) and peak areas (RSDs,<7%) for all target compounds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. [Effects of simulated acid rain on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun-Xin; Zhou, Qin; Han, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Hai-Dong

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different acidity simulated acid rain on the physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield of oilseed rape (B. napus cv. Qinyou 9). Comparing with the control (pH 6.0), weak acidity (pH = 4.0-5.0) simulated acid rain stimulated the rape growth to some extent, but had less effects on the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic characteristics, and yield. With the further increase of acid rain acidity, the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, antioxidative enzyme activities, and non-enzyme antioxidant contents all decreased gradually, while the leaf malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content and relative conductivity increased significantly. As the results, the pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight, and actual yield decreased. However, different yield components showed different sensitivity to simulated acid rain. With the increasing acidity of simulated acid rain, the pod number per plant and the seed number per pod decreased significantly, while the seed weight was less affected.

  15. "allometry" Deterministic Approaches in Cell Size, Cell Number and Crude Fiber Content Related to the Physical Quality of Kangkong (Ipomoea reptans) Grown Under Different Plant Density Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, A.; Atiman, S. A.; Puteh, A.; Abdullah, N. A. P.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Zulkeefli, A. A.; Othman, S.

    Kangkong, especially the upland type (Ipomoea reptans) is popularly consumed as a vegetable dish in the South East Asian countries for its quality related to Vitamins (A and C) and crude fiber contents. Higher fiber contents would prevent from the occurrence of colon cancer and diverticular disease. With young stem edible portion, its cell number and size contribute to the stem crude fiber content. The mathematical approach of allometry of cell size, number, and fiber content of stem could be used in determining the 'best' plant density pressure in producing the quality young stem to be consumed. Basically, allometry is the ratio of relative increment (growth or change) rates of two parameters, or the change rate associated to the log of measured variables relationship. Kangkog grown equal or lower than 55 plants m-2 produced bigger individual plant and good quality (physical) kangkong leafy vegetable, but with lower total yield per unit area as compared to those grown at higher densities.

  16. Effects of Plant Density and Cow Manure Levels on Growth Criteria of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars under Mashhad Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Legumes after cereals are the second source of human food and in Iran they are the second most important food after the wheat. Legumes protein is four times as much as that of grains and 10 to 20 times as much as that of glandular plants. In addition, beans are planted in Iran in a wide area and knowing optimal farming factors can be an important step in increasing them. One of the most important factors determining the yield of cowpea (Vign asinensis L. is appropriate plant density. Plant density defines the number of plants per square meter, which in turn determines the area available to each individual plant. For most crops, plant density has a major influence on biomass, crop yield and economic profitability. In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., plant density can affect canopy architecture, light conversion efficiency, duration of vegetative growth, dry matter production, seed yield and ultimately, the economic productivity of a crop. Therefore, optimizing plant density, which may be defined by both the number of plants per unit area and the arrangement of plants on the ground, is a pre-requisite for obtaining higher productivity of common bean. However, the other yield components such as number and weight of pods and seeds per plant and 100- seed weight which are established at a later stage in the course of the crop cycle are significantly affected by environmental conditions. Furthermore, the contribution efficiency of these components in the final seed yield is also associated with the number of plants per unit area. Therefore, varying plant density may be a viable alternative to manipulate the productivity of bean under different environmental conditions through their changes in physiological processes. Madani et al. (2008 showed that plant density had significant effect on LAI and shoot dry weight of bean. Moeinit et al. (2009 reported the increase in common bean seed yield with the increase in plant density. Another

  17. Production of red-flowered oilseed rape via the ectopic expression of Orychophragmus violaceus OvPAP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenqin; Chen, Daozong; Pan, Qi; Li, Fengfeng; Zhao, Zhigang; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2018-02-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), which has yellow flowers, is both an important oil crop and a traditional tourism resource in China, whereas the Orychophragmus violaceus, which has purple flowers, likely possesses a candidate gene or genes to alter the flower colour of oilseed rape. A previously established B. napus line has a particular pair of O. violaceus chromosomes (M4) and exhibits slightly red petals. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis of M4, B. napus (H3), and O. violaceus with purple petals (OvP) and with white petals (OvW) revealed that most anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in both M4 and OvP. Read assembly and sequence alignment identified a homolog of AtPAP2 in M4, which produced the O. violaceus transcript (OvPAP2). The overexpression of OvPAP2 via the CaMV35S promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana led to different levels of anthocyanin accumulation in most organs, including the petals. However, the B. napus overexpression plants showed anthocyanin accumulation primarily in the anthers, but not the petals. However, when OvPAP2 was driven by the petal-specific promoter XY355, the transgenic B. napus plants produced red anthers and red petals. The results of metabolomic experiments showed that specific anthocyanins accumulated to high levels in the red petals. This study illustrates the feasibility of producing red-flowered oilseed rape, thereby enhancing its ornamental value, via the ectopic expression of the OvPAP2 gene. Moreover, the practical application of this study for insect pest management in the crop is discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Misogyny, acculturation, and ethnic identity: relation to rape-supportive attitudes in Asian American college men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H

    2012-08-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality.

  19. Formation of spring rape yield depending on fractional composition of seed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. С. Вишнівський

    2016-07-01

    per day, ‘MSM’ sample variety – from 1.83 to 2.10 g/m2 per day. Conclusions. It was established that different fractions of spring rape seeds sown in the Northern Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine affected the indices of germinating energy and laboratory germination, crop density formation, leaf surface area and intensity of photosynthesis process (crop photosynthetic potential, net photosynthesis performance. The highest indices of productivity and yield in the ‘Magnat’ variety was ensured by large-seeded fraction (3,6 g and more, in the ‘MVM’ (‘Gladia­tor’ sample variety – by small-seeded fraction (up to 2,5 g.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates lead-induced photosynthetic and ultrastructural changes in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B; Song, W J; Hu, W Z; Luo, X N; Gill, R A; Wang, J; Zhou, W J

    2014-04-01

    The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in alleviating lead (Pb) induced stress in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was studied under laboratory conditions. Plants were grown hydroponically in greenhouse conditions under three levels (0, 100, and 400 µM) of Pb and three levels (0, 100 and 200 µM) of H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Application of H2S significantly improved the plant growth, root morphology, chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic activity in leaves of B. napus under Pb stress. Moreover, exogenously applied H2S significantly lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots of plants under Pb stress. The microscopic examination indicated that application of exogenous H2S enabled a clean mesophyll cell having a well developed chloroplast with thylakoid membranes and starch grains. A number of modifications could be observed in root tip cell i.e. mature mitochondria, long endoplasmic reticulum and golgibodies under combined application of H2S and Pb. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that application of exogenous H2S has a protective role on plant growth, net photosynthesis rate and ultrastructural changes in B. napus plants under high Pb exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Potential role of winter rape weeds in the extension of broomrape in Poitou-Charentes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Brault, Marianne; Pinochet, Xavier; Sallé, Georges

    2003-07-01

    In the Poitou-Charentes district, among the 82 species of winter rape weeds identified, 22 displayed a strong affinity for this crop (Brassica napus L.). In fields, 50% of these weeds were parasitized by Orobanche ramosa, playing the role of host plants. Greenhouse co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) showed that weeds non-parasitized in fields could be attacked by broomrape, developing a more or less complete cycle. In vitro co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) revealed that root exudates of non-parasitized weeds, in fields or in greenhouse co-cultures, could induce Orobanche ramosa seed germination, but not attachment. These weeds could play the role of false hosts.

  2. Landscape-scale distribution and persistence of genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, Alexis L; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) was approved for commercial cultivation in Canada in 1995 and currently represents over 95% of the OSR grown in western Canada. After a decade of widespread cultivation, GMHT volunteers represent an increasing management problem in cultivated fields and are ubiquitous in adjacent ruderal habitats, where they contribute to the spread of transgenes. However, few studies have considered escaped GMHT OSR populations in North America, and even fewer have been conducted at large spatial scales (i.e. landscape scales). In particular, the contribution of landscape structure and large-scale anthropogenic dispersal processes to the persistence and spread of escaped GMHT OSR remains poorly understood. We conducted a multi-year survey of the landscape-scale distribution of escaped OSR plants adjacent to roads and cultivated fields. Our objective was to examine the long-term dynamics of escaped OSR at large spatial scales and to assess the relative importance of landscape and localised factors to the persistence and spread of these plants outside of cultivation. From 2005 to 2007, we surveyed escaped OSR plants along roadsides and field edges at 12 locations in three agricultural landscapes in southern Manitoba where GMHT OSR is widely grown. Data were analysed to examine temporal changes at large spatial scales and to determine factors affecting the distribution of escaped OSR plants in roadside and field edge habitats within agricultural landscapes. Additionally, we assessed the potential for seed dispersal between escaped populations by comparing the relative spatial distribution of roadside and field edge OSR. Densities of escaped OSR fluctuated over space and time in both roadside and field edge habitats, though the proportion of GMHT plants was high (93-100%). Escaped OSR was positively affected by agricultural landscape (indicative of cropping intensity) and by the presence of an

  3. Further Observations on the Relationship between Aconitic Acid Contents and Aphid Densities on Some Cereal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    A.Rustamani, Maqsood; Kanehisa, Katsuo; Tsumuki, Hisaaki; Shiraga, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Plant-feeding arthropods, in the course of evolution have adapted differentially to their plant host and thereby gained access to the available resource. Plants responded by developing chemicals and morphological defense to arthropods. Some secondary metabolic substances in plants have been assumed to be toxic or deter feeding. Aconitic acid in the barnyard-grass subspecies, Echinochloa oryzycola Vasing has been reported to be an active component against brown rice planthopper Nilapalvata lug...

  4. Effect of drought stress and plant density on yield, component yield and content oil of Safflower in province of Zanjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Azimi Moghadam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of drought stress and plant density on yield, component yield and content oil of Safflower. The paper conducts an experiment spilt block in the form of randomized complete block design in three replications at the research farm of agriculture college of Zanjan university in the year 2009. The main factor includes four levels of drought stress, which are normal, cut of one time irrigating before flowering, cut of one time irrigating after flowering, cut of one time irrigating in grain filling stage and sub plot including three-level plant density (200, 300, 400 thousands plant per each hectare. The results of experiment showed that biologic yield, seed yield, component yield and oil yield in different levels of drought stress and plant density were significantly different. The greatest biologic yield and seed yield were for treat cut of one time irrigating before flowering and treat 200 thousand bushes per each hectare. The highest seed yield and oil yield getting for treat normal and after that for treat cut of one time irrigating in grain filling stage.

  5. Density and composition of microorganisms during long-term (418 day) growth of potato using biologically reclaimed nutrients from inedible plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Cook, K. L.; Johnson, M.; Sumner, R.; Fields, N.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluating alternative methods for long term operation of biomass production systems was recently completed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The 418-day study evaluated repeated batch versus mixed-aged production of potato grown on either standard 1/2-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution or solutions including nutrients recycled from inedible plant material. The long term effects of closure and recycling on microbial dynamics were evaluated by monitoring the microbial communities associated with various habitats within the plant growth system (i.e., plant roots, nutrient solution, biofilms within the hydroponic systems, atmosphere, and atmospheric condensate). Plate count methods were used to enumerate and characterize microorganisms. Microscopic staining methods were used to estunate total cell densities. The primary finding was that the density and composition of microbial communities associated with controlled environmental plant growth systems are stable during long term operation. Continuous production resulted in slightly greater stability. Nutrient recycling, despite the addition of soluble organic material from the waste processing system, did not significantly increase microbial density in any of the habitats.

  6. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the SUC and SWEET gene families of sucrose transporters in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAN Hongju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is the principal transported product of photosynthesis from source leaves to sink organs. SUTs/SUCs (sucrose transporters or sucrose carriers and SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters play significant central roles in phloem loading and unloading. SUTs/SUCs and SWEETs are key players in sucrose translocation and are associated with crop yields. The SUT/SUC and SWEET genes have been characterized in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of these two gene families in oilseed rape has not yet been reported. In our study, 22 and 68 members of the SUT/SUCs and SWEET gene families, respectively, were identified in the oilseed rape (Brassica napus genome through homology searches. An analysis of the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, motifs and the cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoters of BnSUC and BnSWEET genes were analysed. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 18 BnSUC and 16 BnSWEET genes in different tissues of ‘ZS11’ and the expression of 9 BnSUC and 7 BnSWEET genes in ‘ZS11’ under various conditions, including biotic stress (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, abiotic stresses (drought, salt and heat, and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, brassinolide, gibberellin and salicylic acid. In conclusion, our study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the oilseed rape SUC and SWEET gene families. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structure and expression profiles of the SUC and SWEET genes in the different tissues of oilseed rape helps to identify candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes. Our study advances our understanding of the important roles of sucrose transport in oilseed rape.

  7. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    Full Text Available The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w (EC1 produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0. EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1 to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate. Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1 improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2 increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  8. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Zhou, Xuefeng; Xie, Xiaobing; Zhao, Chunrong; Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Zou, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w) (EC1) produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0). EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1) to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate). Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1) improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2) increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  9. Influence of no-tillage versus tillage system on common vole (Microtus arvalis) population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroldová, Marta; Michalko, Radek; Suchomel, Josef; Zejda, Jan

    2017-11-28

    While the 'no-tillage' management system generally improves soil properties and helps to control arthropod pests, it may also intensify crop infestation by the common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas). In this study, we evaluated the impact of soil management (no-tillage, tillage), crop and previous crop (winter wheat, winter rape), and season (spring, autumn) on common vole density using data from the Common Vole Monitoring Programme undertaken by the Plant Protection Service of the Czech Republic between 2000 and 2009. Models predicted low mean values of vole infestation across management types, crops, and seasons. The untilled fields hosted significantly more voles than the tilled fields in spring but not in autumn. More common voles were found in winter rape than in winter wheat during both seasons. Recent studies suggest that no-tillage management is more profitable than tillage management due to its positive impact on soil properties and pest control. During periods of high vole infestation, however, tillage may constitute an alternative strategy for reducing yield losses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Qi; Jian, Hong-Ju; Yang, Bo; Lu, Kun; Zhang, Ao-Xiang; Liu, Pu; Li, Jia-Na

    2017-07-15

    Growth regulating-factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that help regulate plant growth and development. Genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of GRF gene families have been performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Brassica rapa, but a comprehensive analysis of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has not yet been reported. In the current study, we identified 35 members of the BnGRF family in B. napus. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships (Bayesian Inference and Neighbor Joining method), gene structures, and motifs of the BnGRF family members, as well as the cis-acting regulatory elements in their promoters. We also analyzed the expression patterns of 15 randomly selected BnGRF genes in various tissues and in plant varieties with different harvest indices and gibberellic acid (GA) responses. The expression levels of BnGRFs under GA treatment suggested the presence of possible negative feedback regulation. The evolutionary patterns and expression profiles of BnGRFs uncovered in this study increase our understanding of the important roles played by these genes in oilseed rape. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Senescence-specific alteration of hydrogen peroxide levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and oilseed rape spring variety Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, Stefan; Riester, Lena; Stahl, Mark; Franzaring, Jürgen; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2012-08-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production in senescence in more detail, we manipulated intracellular H(2)O(2) levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogen-peroxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR, which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes. H(2)O(2) levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines, but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm. To transfer this knowledge to crop plants, we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart for H(2)O(2) and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development. H(2)O(2) levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time, but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence. With increasing H(2)O(2) levels, CAT and APX activities declined, so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H(2)O(2) levels. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H(2)O(2) levels, indicating that H(2)O(2) may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae. © 2012 Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade.

  13. Rape Crimes Reviewed: The Role of Observer Variables in Female Victim Blaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Ferrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of empirical research on the role of observer variables in rape victim blaming (female attacked by a male perpetrator. The focus is on literature from the last 15 years. The variables observer gender, ambivalent sexism, rape myth acceptance, and rape empathy are discussed in relation to victim blaming. Most research on rape is conducted using diverse methods and approaches that result in a great disparity regarding the role of these variables in predicting blame assignments. Despite the inconsistencies, most studies show that men hold the victim more responsible for her own victimization than women. Findings further indicate that higher scores on sexist ideologies and rape myth acceptance predict higher victim blame, and that higher rape empathy scores predict lower victim blame. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  14. Response of Soil CO2 Emission and Summer Maize Yield to Plant Density and Straw Mulching in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanru Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for food security and the current global warming situation make high and strict demands on the North China Plain for both food production and the inhibition of agricultural carbon emissions. To explore the most effective way to decrease soil CO2 emissions and maintain high grain yield, studies were conducted during the 2012 and 2013 summer maize growing seasons to assess the effects of wheat straw mulching on the soil CO2 emissions and grain yield of summer maize by adding 0 and 0.6 kg m−2 to fields with plant densities of 100 000, 75 000, and 55 000 plants ha−1. The study indicated that straw mulching had some positive effects on summer maize grain yield by improving the 1000-kernel weight. Meanwhile, straw mulching effectively controlled the soil respiration rate and cumulative CO2 emission flux, particularly in fields planted at a density of 75 000 plants ha−1, which achieved maximum grain yield and minimum carbon emission per unit yield. In addition, soil microbial biomass and microbial activity were significantly higher in mulching treatments than in nonmulching treatments. Consequently, summer maize with straw mulching at 75 000 plants ha−1 is an environmentally friendly option in the North China Plain.

  15. Intergeneric hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus containing traits of agronomic importance for oilseed rape breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Hansen, N.; Laursen, J.; Dixelius, C.; Andersen, B.

    2002-11-01

    Protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus for transfer of valuable traits to oilseed rape resulted in 257 somatic hybrid plants. Hybridity was confirmed by morphological, cytological and molecular means. Symmetric fusions gave rise to 131 plants. Fifty eight of these plants had an intermediate morphology and contained nuclear DNA corresponding to the sum of the parental species. All 131 plants were sterile with no pollen grains observed upon flowering. Another 126 plants were derived from asymmetric fusions in which protoplasts of the donor parent O. violaceus were irradiated by 100 or 200-Gy X-rays prior to fusion. Morphologically these plants showed a larger variation compared to the plants regenerated from symmetric fusion experiments. In contrast to plants obtained from symmetric fusions, fertile hybrids were recovered among regenerants from the asymmetric fusions. Twenty four of these plants released viable pollen grains and 14 of the determined 17 plants set seeds after either selfing or backcrossing to B. napus. Fourteen male-sterile plants were identified with female fertility. This observed male sterility most-likely originated from alloplasmic recombination and would be of great potential for the development of a new cytoplasmic male sterility system. The fatty acid composition of the fertile hybrids and their progenies showed a biased distribution towards the B. napus parent, which has a high erucic acid-content type. However, increased levels of palmitic and linoleic acids compared to B. napus were found in subsequent generations, as well as a reduced level of erucic acid.

  16. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  17. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  18. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-16

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period.

  19. A History of Rape in American Society Prior to 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Leslie

    By tracing the concept of rape as it has been defined by man in the earliest laws, it is evident that the criminal act was viewed with horror, and the deadly punishments that were seen fit to apply had little to do with an actual act of sexual violence that a woman might sustain. The past records indicate a gradual decrease in the prosecution rate…

  20. Worth their while?: Pursuing a rape complaint through the criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the criminal justice system were to advertise itself to victims of sexual violence, would its tag line be L'Oreal's 'Because you're worth it'? Or would the Foundry ... Certainly, a lack of faith in, or fear of, legal processes, is one of the reasons why eight out of nine women who are raped do not report the matter to the police.1 ...

  1. Integrated pests monitoring of oilseed rape in means of biodiesel manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Alasić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Because of its high oil content (35 - 44 %) oilseed rape is an important industrial culture. Recently, biodiesel manufacture is especially active. In fact, in the countries of the EU, manufacture of biodiesel has reached its optimum, but sadly, in Republic of Croatia that small amount of biodiesel that is manufactured is obtained from recycled oil. This paper writes about the statistic data in manufacture of oilseed rape, pests of oilseed rape and about presentation of the project: “Integrate...

  2. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nelson, Erik J; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G; Wright, John P; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C; Petkovsek, Melissa; Lewis, Roger; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2017-01-01

    An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. Ecological study. St. Louis, Missouri. Blood lead levels. Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03-1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99-1.03). Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure.

  3. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Don't tell: Military culture and male rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Carol; Keith, Jessica; Shoemaker, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The issue of sexual assault that occurs during military service has been a focus of attention over the past several years. Although approximately 50% of survivors of military sexual assault are men, virtually all of the literature focuses on the assault of female service members. Research has demonstrated that cultural variables are robust correlates of the sexual assault of women. This paper proposes that cultural variables are equally important when examining the rape of men, especially when this assault occurs in military contexts. We discuss male rape myths and related constructs as they are expressed within military culture. The results of data analysis from a treatment sample of veterans with military sexual trauma (MST)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinical case examples are presented to further explore the concepts. We conclude that male rape myths and related beliefs that arise from cultural norms and are further amplified and modified by military culture impact male MST survivors and delay or obstruct their recovery. Suggestions for clinical application and future research are offered to encourage further efforts in this important area of practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Rape in the metropolis: the geography of crime in Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Vikram Dwivedi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of rape in the national capital of India, and the focus is on the amendments of rape law aftermath 12 December 2012 crime. It questions at the safety and security issues of women in the metropolis of India, and it also discusses critically how laws amendments have been made aftermath this barbaric crime. Though this paper doesn’t set an inquiry yet it provides common criticism against the new amendments and it remains observational in nature, and sets a study. The temporal aspect revolves around the gang rape case of December 2012, but it also peeks in the past for the reference purpose only. The insensitive reactions from the political party leaders and religious leaders also find a space in the paper to show the general reaction of the society. The urban middle-class carefree attitude is reflected by an example of a popular reality show. But finally this paper advocates for lengthy prison sentences that have some behavior-altering deterrent value.

  6. Endogaeic ground beetles fauna in oilseed rape field in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka DRMIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in oilseed rape field can be an important indicator of different agricultural measures in arable land fauna. Surveys about ground beetle fauna in Croatia are generally very scarce and only few research on oilseed rape were conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the endogaeic ground beetle fauna in oilseed rape field and to determine species abundance and frequency. The study was carried out in Podravina region of Croatia, from the end of May till the mid-September in 2015. Ground beetles were collected using endogaeic traps incorporated in the soil. Altogether, 487 individuals classified into 8 species were collected. Species with the highest abundance and frequency was Brachinus (Brachinus psophia Audinet-Serville, 1821, which was classified as eudominant and constant species. The highest ground beetle abundance was observed in summer period. All of the species found were spring breeders, except for species Trechus (Trechus quadristriatus (Schrank, 1781 which breeds in autumn.

  7. High-density native-range species affects the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata more strongly than species from its invasive range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Liao, Zhiyong

    2017-11-22

    Invasive plant species often form dense mono-dominant stands in areas they have invaded, while having only sparse distribution in their native ranges, and the reasons behind this phenomenon are a key point of research in invasive species biology. Differences in species composition between native and invasive ranges may contribute to the difference in distribution status. In this study, we found that the high-density condition had a more negative effect on C. odorata than the low-density condition when co-grown with neighbor plants from its native range in Mexico, while this pattern was not in evidence when it was grown with neighbors from its invasive range in China. Different competitive ability and coevolutionary history with C. odorata between native-range neighbors and invasive-range neighbors may lead to the inconsistent patterns.

  8. Effects of Plant Density and Water Stress on Competitive Ability and Yield of Medicago Sativa L. and Bromus tomentellus Boiss.in Mono and Mixed Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant density and water stress on yield of Medicago sativa and Bromus tomentellus was studied. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Isfahan University of Technology in 2013. The experiment included 18 treatments, three crop compositions (M.sativa, B. tomentellus or mixture of the two, two plant density levels, three watering regimes and four replicates, arranged in a completely randomized block design. Results showed that total yield of M. sativa mono-cropping was higher than mixed cropping and it was higher than B. tomentellus mono-cropping. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER values were less than 1 for all mixed cropping treatments, indicated the interspecific competition in mixed cropping. The biomass production per plant decreased with increasing density, competition for resource utilization and water stress. Compare of above-ground and below-ground dry matter showed that M. sativa appeared to be more constrained by intraspecific than by interspecific competition, Conversely, B. tomentellus was more suppressed by interspecific competition exerted by M. sativa than by intraspecific competition. Relative competition intensity (RCI values were positive for B. tomentellus and negative for M.sativa, implying that competitive ability of M.sativa was higher than B. tomentellus in mixed cropping .

  9. Introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its weedy relative B. rapa L. in a natural population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Jørgensen, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    .napus-specific markers. We compared thenumber of markers in the plants from the weedy population with thenumbers in controlled backcross generations (BC1 andBC2). The marker distribution in the weedy populationresembled the distribution in the second backcross generation mostclosely. Together with the cultivation......We investigated introgression in a mixed weedy population ofoilseed rape (Brassica napus) and itsrelative B. rapa usingspecies-specific AFLP-markers. The population wassituated in a field relayed from conventional to organic cultivation11 years ago. One-hundred-and-twoB. napus orB. rapa......-like plantswere collected in a 3 m2 plot. Of these, onewas a first generation hybrid (F1) and nearlyhalf (44 plants) were introgressed, having bothB. napus andB. rapa specific markers.The remaining plants apparently corresponded to pure species, with 50having only B. rapa-and seven having only B...

  10. Radial growth and wood density of white pine in relation to fossil-fired power plant operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. T. Lawhon; F. W. Woods

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to develop a gamma densitometry technique for measuring the relative wood density and radial growth of trees from 12 mm increment cores; and (2) to determine whether changes in the relative wood density and radial growth of "resistant" eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) occurred after...

  11. A comparative investigation of the metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate in cell cultures of transgenic glufosinate-resistant and non-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Monika; Engelhardt, Gabriele; Pawlizki, Karlheinz

    2002-10-01

    To obtain information on differences between the metabolic pathways of the herbicide glufosinate (trade names: BASTA, LIBERTY) in non-transgenic, glufosinate-sensitive plants and in transgenic, glufosinate-resistant plants, the metabolism of 14C-labeled glufosinate and its enantiomers L- and D-glufosinate was studied using cell cultures of oilseed rape and corn. Transformation of glufosinate in both sensitive and transgenic rape cells remained at a low rate of about 3-10% in contrast to corn cells, where 20% was transformed in sensitive and 43% in transgenic cells after 14 days of incubation, the rest remaining as unchanged glufosinate. In sensitive rape and corn cells the main metabolite was 4-methylphosphinico-2-oxo-butanoic acid (PPO) with 7.3 and 16.4%, respectively, together with low amounts of 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (MPP), 4-methylphosphinico-2-hydroxybutanoic acid (MHB), 4-methylphosphinicobutanoic acid (MPB) and 2-methylphosphinicoacetic acid (MPA). An additional metabolite formed in transgenic cell cultures was 2-acetamido-4-methylbutanoic acid (N-acetyl-L-glufosinate, NGA), which was formed at rates of 3.2% in rape and 16.1% in corn. A further minor metabolite, not yet identified, was detected in both cell types. The liberation of 0.2% 14CO2 indicates further metabolic steps prior to a limited mineralization in plant cell cultures. L-glufosinate was transformed into the same metabolites as the glufosinate racemate. D-glufosinate was not metabolized.

  12. The Effect of Integrated Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Growth Indices and Mucilage Yield of Isabgol (plantagoovata Forssk across Different Plant Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Isabgol (plantagoovata Forssk is an important annual medicinal plant which is under cultivation in Iran. Isabgol has been used in medicine since ancient times, however, it has only been cultivated as a medicinal plant in recent decades. It is a diuretic, alleviates kidney and bladder complaints, gonorrhea, arthritis and hemorrhoids. In general, plants known as medicinal are rich in secondary metabolites and have potential as drugs. The biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites is controlled genetically and affected strongly by environmental factors especially chemical fertilizers. The environmental and economic impacts of chemical fertilizer application such as water pollution, low quality of agricultural production and decreasing soil productivity have encouraged farmers to use alternative nutrient sources. Sustainable farming on the basis of natural fertilizer application with the aim of omitting or decreasing chemical elements is a desirable approach to prevent these problems. Biofertilizers are some non-symbiotic and symbiotic microbes in the soil that stimulate plant growth and contribute the improvement of ecosystem. Many genera of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria such as Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas are used as biofertilizers for economically important crops. Several studies have shown that beneficial microbes, such as Azotobacter and Azospirillum, not only affect nitrogen fixation but also exhibit other favorable properties such as production of growth hormones. Nitrogen and phosphate chemical fertilizers could be replaced by biofertilizers containing Azotobacter, Azospirilium, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. In this study, we evaluated the effects of integrated application of chemical fertilizers and bio-fertilizers under different plant densities on growth indices, grain and mucilage yield of Isabgol. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with

  13. Hydrologic, abiotic and biotic interactions: plant density, windspeed, leaf size and groundwater all affect oak water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin J. Law; Deborah M. Finch

    2011-01-01

    Plant water use in drylands can be complex due to variation in hydrologic, abiotic and biotic factors, particularly near ephemeral or intermittent streams. Plant use of groundwater may be important but is usually uncertain. Disturbances like fire contribute to complex spatiotemporal heterogeneity. Improved understanding of how such hydrologic, abiotic, and biotic...

  14. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Sekulic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM. The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI seed treatment (NNI ST use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.. Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  15. Effects of different nitrogen levels and plant density on flower, essential oils and extract production and nitrogen use efficiency of Marigold (Calendula officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali akbar ameri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of nitrogen for medicinal plants production, might increase flower dry matter, essential oil and extract yield and reduce cost of yield production. A two year (2005 and 2006 field study was conducted in Torogh region(36,10° N,59.33° E and 1300 m altitude of Mashhad, Iran, to observe the effects of different nitrogen and densities on flower dry matter, essential oil and extract production and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE in a multi-harvested Marigold (Calendula officinalis. The levels of Nitrogen fertilizer (N were 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 and levels of density were 20, 40, 60 and 80 plant m-2. The combined analysis results revealed significant effects of N and density levels on flower dry matter, essential oil and extract production and NUE of Marigold. The highest dry flower production obtained by 150 kg ha-1 N and 80 plant m-2 plant population (102.86 g m-2. The higher flower dry matter production caused more essential oil and extract production in high nitrogen and density levels. Agronomic N-use efficiency (kg flower dry matter yield per kg N applied, physiological efficiency (kg flower dry matter yield per kg N absorbed and fertilizer N-recovery efficiency (kg N absorbed per kg N applied, expressed as % for marigold across treatments ranged from 6.8 to14.9, 12.3 to 33.6 and 55.5 to 77.6, respectively and all were greater for N application at 50 compared with150 kg N ha-1, and under high density than low density. The amount of essential oil and extract per 100g flower dry matter decreased during the flower harvesting period. The higher amount of essential oil and extract obtained at early flowering season. The essential oil and extract ranged from 0.22 to 0.12 (ml. per 100g flower dry matter and 2.74 to 2.13 (g per 100g flower dry matter respectively.

  16. Effect of Poly(γ-glutamic acid) on the Physiological Responses and Calcium Signaling of Rape Seedlings (Brassica napus L.) under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Xu, Zongqi; Ding, Yan; Tang, Bao; Zhang, Yunxia; Li, Huashan; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-12-09

    Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) is a potential plant growth regulator that may be an effective cryoprotectant that prevents crops from damage during cold weather. In this study, the effects of γ-PGA on the physiological responses of rape seedlings subject to cold stress were investigated using hydroponic experiments. We determined that the malondialdehyde content was decreased by 33.4% and the proline content was increased by 62.5% by γ-PGA after 144 h under cold stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were also evidently enhanced after treatment with γ-PGA. These responses counteracted increases in the fresh weight and chlorophyll content of rape seedlings, which increased by 24.5 and 50.9%, respectively, after 144 h, which meant that growth inhibition caused by cold was mitigated by γ-PGA. Our results also showed that γ-PGA also regulated Ca(2+) concentrations in the cytoplasm and calcium-dependent protein kinases, which are associated with cold resistance. In conclusion, we suggest that the Ca(2+)/CPKs signal pathway is involved in the γ-PGA-mediated enhancement of cold resistance in rape seedlings.

  17. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  18. Wartime Women Rape: A Means of Moral Attack and Emasculation in Lynn Nottage’s Ruined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaff Ganim Salih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women rape at warfare was considered a consequence of war in the social, literary and political world for a long period of time. Some criminals of rape escaped justice and others were persecuted on the basis that they were involved in mass rape because it was a natural consequence of war. But, women are targeted with rape in time of war because they are the symbolic representation of a culture, ethnicity, and the unifying fabric of their people and nation. The objective of this paper is to show that war rape is not a result of war; instead it is a means of human destruction through moral attack and emasculation. It aims to show that women rape in warfare is neither a misogynist act nor a sexual violence but it is a pre-planned weapon used strategically and systematically to fulfill certain political and military agenda. The study focuses on the sexual abuse of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo in time of war in Lynn Nottage’s Pulitzer Prize play, Ruined (2007. The study applies Jonathan Gottschall’s Strategic Rape theory, which highlights war rape as a pre-planned military strategy. The enemy emasculates men and attacks them morally by raping their women. Consequently, men’s failure to protect their women causes them to give up resistance, leave their lands and families because of shame and humiliation. The study concludes that women rape in time of war is a tactic followed by conquerors intentionally to facilitate and guarantee the achievement of certain pre-planned goals as was the case of mass rape in the DRC.

  19. Qualidade de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzevelev. cv. Snowdon em diferentes populações e épocas de plantio Quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzevelev. cv. Snowdon affected by plant density and plant date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a qualidade das hastes florais, a cultivar de crisântemo Snowdon foi conduzida em estufa plástica em oito populações de plantas e duas épocas de plantio. O experimento bifatorial (2 x 8, com parcela subdividida, foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria, RS e teve época como parcela principal, sendo a primeira época outono/inverno no período de 05/03/98 à 29/06/98 e a segunda época inverno/primavera no período de 22/07/98 à 11/11/98 e as populações de 40, 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88 e 104pl/m², na subparcela para as duas épocas de plantio. As plantas foram conduzidas em haste unifloral. Determinaram-se a altura da planta, o diâmetro da inflorescência e da haste e a massa da matéria fresca. Para obtenção de maiores rendimentos de hastes de classe A (comprimento da haste > ou = 90 cm, diâmetro da inflorescência > ou = 13,5cm, diâmetro da haste > ou = 0,73cm e massa da matéria fresca > ou = 113g a população indicada está entre 40 e 56plantas/m². Não há diferenças de rendimento qualitativo de classe A entre as épocas de plantio. Para obtenção de maiores rendimentos qualitativos, as populações de plantas não devem ser superiores a 72 plantas/m².To evaluate the quality of the flowers of chrysanthemums, were cultivated the cv. Snowdon in greenhouse in eight plant densities and two planting dates. The experimental design was factorial, (2 planting dates x 8 plants densities. The two planting dates were: 05 March 1998 (Fall/Winter growing season and 22 July 1998 (Winter/Spring growing season. Plant densities were: 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88 and 104plants/m². Plant height, diameter of the flower and stem, fresh weight were determinated. For obtaining of larger revenues of class stems A, the suitable plant density is between 40 and 56plants/m². There are not differences of qualitative revenue of class A (stem lenght > or = 90cm, flower diameter > or = 13,5cm, stem diameter > or = 0,73cm

  20. Fine mapping of a major locus controlling plant height using a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism map in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yankun; He, Jianbo; Yang, Li; Wang, Yu; Chen, Wenjing; Wan, Shubei; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan

    2016-08-01

    A saturated map was constructed using SNP markers to fine-map a Brassica napus dominant locus for dwarf mutant onto a 152-kb interval of chromosome A09 containing 14 genes. Major dwarf loci in crops may play important roles in crop improvement and developmental genetics. The present study investigated and fine-mapped a Brassica napus dwarf-dominant locus BnDWF1. Plants carrying the BnDWF1 locus in populations derived from 'zhongshuang11' and Bndwf1 have deep-green leaves and dwarf architecture that differ sharply from tall plants with normal green leaves. BnDWF1, as a major locus controlling plant height, showed a very high heritability (0.91-0.95). To map this locus, a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism map was constructed, and the BnDWF1 locus was mapped at an interval between single-nucleotide polymorphism markers, M19704 and M19695, on linkage group A09 of B. napus, with five co-segregating single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. Furthermore, fine mapping narrowed the interval harboring BnDWF1 to 152 kb in length in B. napus. This interval contains 14 annotated or predicted genes, seven of which are candidates responsible for the dwarf trait. This study provides an effective foundation for the study of plant height regulation and plant type breeding in B. napus.

  1. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  2. Biological control of Sclerotinia disease by Aspergillus sp. on oilseed rape in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on oilseed rape and other crops worldwide. Aspergillus sp. Asp-4, previously shown to inhibit germination of sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum in vitro and in the field, was evaluated in field trials for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rape. S...

  3. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  4. The victimology of rape in Nigeria: Examining victims' post-assault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The secondary victimisation suffered by rape victims in socially conservative Nigeria is not only in the hands of their families, friends, and significant others, but also through the agents and process of criminal justice system of the country. Previous research into rape in Nigeria has often neglected the aftermath of forcible ...

  5. Images of rape in African fiction. Between the assumed fatality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A horrendous aspect of patriarchy and dominator ideology, rape has in recent times captured the attention of civil society and the imagination of creative writers. The frequency of rape in peacetime, traditional, colonial, liberation war, and civil war contexts, since the dawn of time, seems to suggest that this gendered violence ...

  6. Attitudes Toward Victims of Rape: Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…

  7. Rape Culture and Campus Environment: An Introduction for Student Affairs Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lemeul W.; Derby, Dustin

    2000-01-01

    Provides a brief introduction for student affairs professional to the American rape culture. Offers suggestions and examples to assist student affairs professionals in their quest to develop adequate programs and services on their campus with regard to rape and sexual assault incidents. (Contains 31 references.) (GCP)

  8. Ethical problems of rape as a social cankerworm in our present day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rape is a worrisome epidemic that is becoming problematic in contemporary Nigeria due to many factors that are already inherent in the Nigerian society such as myths, culture of silence associated with rape, modernizing influences and peer group pressure among several others. This article is essentially library ...

  9. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape: An Examination of Perpetrator Motivation, Relationship Length, and Gender Role Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J.; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding…

  10. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Office of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on April 26-27, 2011. The... U.S. prisons, and the common characteristics of prisons with the highest and lowest incidence of...

  11. 76 FR 56481 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on September 15-16, 2011. The... August 26, 2010, the BJS issued the report Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates...

  12. Where Do I Start?: A Parents' Guide for Talking to Teens about Acquaintance Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Py; Stringer, Gayle M.

    This is a booklet designed for parents interested in helping their teenage children avoid the possibility of sexual assault. The first section of the booklet provides background on acquaintance rape, discussing attitudes about acquaintance rape, what boys and girls learn about sexual activity, gender different perceptions, and teenagers and peer…

  13. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  14. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape Based on Individual Beliefs and Female Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L.; Davis, Clive M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether female alcohol consumption predicts perceptions of date rape based on two personality measures administered to 290 undergraduates. Results indicate that a stronger belief in token resistance to sex was related to weaker perceptions of rape. As hypothesized, participants scoring higher on sex-role stereotyping perceived fewer…

  15. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological

  16. Avoidant Coping and Treatment Outcome in Rape-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…

  17. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings. (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0.

  18. Rape and the State: Sexual Violence and its Political Narrative and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It proposes a political lens, positing the rape crisis continuum as the result of an interplay within South Africa's past and current political spaces during and after apartheid that produces and reproduces a specific political narrative of rape through a continuous gendered 'othering' of women. The emergence of this political ...

  19. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  20. 76 FR 6247 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... national standards for the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape, as mandated by... adopt national standards for the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape. PREA... and factual study of the penological, physical, mental, medical, social, and economic impacts of...