Sample records for rape history differentially

  1. Marital rape: history, research, and practice. (United States)

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A


    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  2. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.


    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  3. A History of Rape in American Society Prior to 1900. (United States)

    Crossman, Leslie

    By tracing the concept of rape as it has been defined by man in the earliest laws, it is evident that the criminal act was viewed with horror, and the deadly punishments that were seen fit to apply had little to do with an actual act of sexual violence that a woman might sustain. The past records indicate a gradual decrease in the prosecution rate…

  4. Binge Drinking and Rape: A Prospective Examination of College Women with a History of Previous Sexual Victimization (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.


    The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…

  5. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective. (United States)

    Jiloha, R C


    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India 'rape laws' began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of 'rape and inclusion of 'marital rape' in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed.

  6. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective (United States)

    Jiloha, R. C.


    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  7. [Differentiation of haploid and diploid rape plants at the cytological and morphological levels]. (United States)

    Soroka, A I


    Some cytological and morphological characteristics of haploid and dihaploid plants of winter rape obtained via anther culture were studied. It was shown that in haploid plants the number of chloroplasts in stomata guard cells and the size of the stomata guard cells themselves were much smaller, and the number of stomata per unit area was greater than in doubled haploids and diploids. Haploids were also characterized by a smaller size of petals and anthers, and in general, a smaller flower compared to dihaploids and diploids.

  8. Date Rape (For Teens) (United States)

    ... Breath? Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Date Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Date Rape Print A ... Yourself Getting Help Reporting a Rape What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might ...

  9. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravati...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  10. Psoriasis: epidemiology, natural history, and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basko-Plluska JL


    Full Text Available Juliana L Basko-Plluska, Vesna Petronic-RosicDepartment of Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease which affects primarily the skin and joints. It occurs worldwide, but its prevalence varies considerably between different regions of the world. Genetic susceptibility as well as environmental factors play an important role in determining the development and prognosis of psoriasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic loci as potential psoriasis susceptibility regions, including PSORS1 through PSORS7. Histocompatibility antigen (HLA studies have also identified several HLA antigens, with HLA-Cw6 being the most frequently associated antigen. Epidemiological studies identified several modifiable risk factors that may predispose individuals to developing psoriasis or exacerbate pre-existing disease. These include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, diet, infections, medications and stressful life events. The exact mechanism by which they trigger psoriasis remains to be elucidated; however, existing data suggest that they are linked through Th1-mediated immunological pathways. The natural history of psoriasis varies depending on the clinical subtype as well as special circumstances, including pregnancy and HIV infection. In general, psoriasis is a chronic disease with intermittent remissions and exacerbations. The differential diagnosis is vast and includes many other immune-mediated, inflammatory disorders.Keywords: psoriasis, epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis

  11. Breeding histories and selection criteria for oilseed rape in Europe and China identified by genome wide pedigree dissection. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Long, Yan; Wang, Nian; Zou, Jun; Ding, Guangda; Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J; Yuan, Pan; Zhang, Qianwen; Luo, Ziliang; Liu, Peifa; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Ying; Cai, Hongmei; King, Graham J; Xu, Fangsen; Meng, Jinling; Shi, Lei


    Selection breeding has played a key role in the improvement of seed yield and quality in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). We genotyped Tapidor (European), Ningyou7 (Chinese) and their progenitors with the Brassica 60 K Illumina Infinium SNP array and mapped a total of 29,347 SNP markers onto the reference genome of Darmor-bzh. Identity by descent (IBD) refers to a haplotype segment of a chromosome inherited from a shared common ancestor. IBDs identified on the C subgenome were larger than those on the A subgenome within both the Tapidor and Ningyou7 pedigrees. IBD number and length were greater in the Ningyou7 pedigree than in the Tapidor pedigree. Seventy nine QTLs for flowering time, seed quality and root morphology traits were identified in the IBDs of Tapidor and Ningyou7. Many more candidate genes had been selected within the Ningyou7 pedigree than within the Tapidor pedigree. These results highlight differences in the transfer of favorable gene clusters controlling key traits during selection breeding in Europe and China.

  12. Rape and Seduction Scripts. (United States)

    Ryan, Kathryn M.


    College students (N=18) wrote scripts about "typical" rape and "typical" seduction. Scripts were coded on 20 dimensions. Results showed that rape and seduction scripts were very different. Most subjects described blitz rape in which woman outdoors was attacked by male stranger. Seductions described were usually indoors and…

  13. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask


    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  14. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali


    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  15. Rape: an Asian perspective. (United States)

    Nadesan, K


    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  16. Explaining wartime rape. (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan


    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  17. What Is Rape and Date Rape? (United States)

    ... fault. What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any kind of sexual activity that you do not agree to, including: inappropriate touching vaginal, anal, or oral sex sex that you say ‘no’ to rape ...

  18. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore


    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Culture of Rape (United States)



  20. Older women: victims of rape. (United States)

    Tyra, P A


    Older female rape victims usually live alone, are raped by strangers, experience physical force and injury, and also are robbed. Rape trauma syndrome, a nursing diagnosis, consists of an acute phase of disorganization, and a long-term phase of reorganization of the victim's lifestyle. Rape victims experience emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the trauma of rape. Nursing actions can include providing specific interventions to victims during the acute phase, identifying victims during routine exams, referring victims for ongoing counseling, conducting community education programs on primary prevention and available services, and participating in longitudinal rape studies.

  1. Differentiation of Diabetes by Pathophysiology, Natural History, and Prognosis. (United States)

    Skyler, Jay S; Bakris, George L; Bonifacio, Ezio; Darsow, Tamara; Eckel, Robert H; Groop, Leif; Groop, Per-Henrik; Handelsman, Yehuda; Insel, Richard A; Mathieu, Chantal; McElvaine, Allison T; Palmer, Jerry P; Pugliese, Alberto; Schatz, Desmond A; Sosenko, Jay M; Wilding, John P H; Ratner, Robert E


    The American Diabetes Association, JDRF, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists convened a research symposium, "The Differentiation of Diabetes by Pathophysiology, Natural History and Prognosis" on 10-12 October 2015. International experts in genetics, immunology, metabolism, endocrinology, and systems biology discussed genetic and environmental determinants of type 1 and type 2 diabetes risk and progression, as well as complications. The participants debated how to determine appropriate therapeutic approaches based on disease pathophysiology and stage and defined remaining research gaps hindering a personalized medical approach for diabetes to drive the field to address these gaps. The authors recommend a structure for data stratification to define the phenotypes and genotypes of subtypes of diabetes that will facilitate individualized treatment. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Rape Beyond Crime. (United States)

    Kaplan, Margo


    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  3. Rape trauma syndrome: time to open the floodgates? (United States)

    Keogh, Andrew


    The conviction rate in rape cases remains remarkably low, leading many to believe a new approach is needed to prosecuting such crimes. Many important steps have been taken in relation to the collection and retention of evidence and the setting up of specialist rape prosecutors, but important evidential weaknesses remain present in the system alongside Victorian attitudes to sexual conduct. The British Home Office is currently consulting on a number of measures, including the admissibility of evidence showing the presence of rape trauma syndrome. This paper examines the history of this controversial evidential debate.

  4. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games? (United States)

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  5. Rape (For Teens) (United States)

    ... traces of a sexual assault. But being examined right away is the best way to ensure you get proper medical treatment. Immediate medical attention also helps when people decide to report the crime, providing evidence needed to prosecute the rapist if a criminal case is pursued. If you've been raped ...

  6. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity. (United States)

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A


    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  7. The costs of rape. (United States)

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M


    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization.

  8. Profile of rape victims attending the Karl Bremer Hospital Rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, there is a lack of available data on the per-episode risk of HIV infection with specific sexual encounters,1 and in combination with poor ... the incident of sexual assault. • To obtain data regarding the use of newly provided ARV therapy as ..... Baleta A. Journalist's rape adds to rising rape statistics. Lancet 1999 ...

  9. Religiousness and Rape Myth Acceptance: Risk and Protective Effects. (United States)

    Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J


    This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.

  10. Effects of a history of differential reinforcement on preference for choice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karsina, Allen; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M


    The effects of a history of differential reinforcement for selecting a free-choice versus a restricted-choice stimulus arrangement on the subsequent responding of 7 undergraduates in a computer-based...

  11. Online Estimation and Adaptive Control for a Class of History Dependent Functional Differential Equations


    Dadashi, Shirin; Bobade, Parag; Kurdila, Andrew


    This paper presents sufficient conditions for the convergence of online estimation methods and the stability of adaptive control strategies for a class of history dependent, functional differential equations. The study is motivated by the increasing interest in estimation and control techniques for robotic systems whose governing equations include history dependent nonlinearities. The functional differential equations in this paper are constructed using integral operators that depend on distr...

  12. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A


    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.


    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  14. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.


    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  15. A Synthesized (Biosocial) Theory of Rape. (United States)

    Ellis, Lee


    Integrates features of contemporary theories of rape (feminist theory, social learning theory, evolutionary theory) with information on neurohormonal variables to formulate synthesized theory of rape. Synthesized theory of rape, consisting of four propositions, proposes that people are not all equally prone toward rape and that men are much more…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Longdou


    Full Text Available The hypocotyl and cotyledon of Brassica napus L. H165 and Brassica juncea DB3 were transformed with chitinase gene and herbicide-resistance gene by co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefacients LBA4404, and rape plants were obtained which could grow on the medium containing herbicide. The PCR result showed that exotic genes were integrated in the genome of the rape. Further study was performed to determine the impact of temperature on the transgenic rate and the differentiation of explants.

  17. The historical context in conversation: Lexical differentiation and memory for the discourse history. (United States)

    Yoon, Si On; Benjamin, Aaron S; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah


    When designing a definite referring expression, speakers take into account both the local context and certain aspects of the historical context, including whether similar referents have been mentioned in the past. When a similar item has been mentioned previously, speakers tend to elaborate their referring expression in order to differentiate the two items, a phenomenon called lexical differentiation. The present research examines the locus of the lexical differentiation effect and its relationship with memory for the discourse. In three experiments, we demonstrate that speakers differentiate to distinguish current from past referents; there was no evidence that speakers differentiate in order to avoid giving two items the same label. Post-task memory tests also revealed a high level of memory for the discourse history, a finding that is inconsistent with the view that failures of memory underlie low differentiation rates. Instead, memory for the discourse history, while necessary, is not sufficient for speakers to design language with respect to the historical context. Speakers must additionally view the discourse history as relevant to design language with respect to this broader context. Finally, measures of memory for past referents point to asymmetries between speakers and listeners in their memory for the discourse, with speakers typically remembering the discourse history better. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rape trauma syndrome as scientific expert testimony. (United States)

    Block, A P


    Behavioral science studies conducted on rape victims reveal a posttraumatic stress disorder which follows the attack known as rape trauma syndrome. Evidence of rape trauma syndrome can be very useful in explaining the behavior of rape victims. Rape trauma syndrome can help corroborate the victim's assertion of lack of consent and also help the jury understand the typical reactions of rape victims. Courts have held that expert testimony of rape trauma syndrome is admissible as evidence of (i) lack of consent, (ii) the amount of damages in civil suits, (iii) a defense to culpable behavior, and (iv) an explanation for behavior of the victim that is inconsistent with the claim of rape. Rape trauma syndrome meets the requirements for admissibility when it is used for the proper purpose and with adequate safeguards to prevent any unfair prejudice. Based on case precedent on the admissibility of rape trauma syndrome as scientific expert testimony, rape trauma syndrome should be admissible if (i) the evidence presented only shows the typical reactions to rape and does not make any legal conclusions as to whether the victim was raped, (ii) the expert is qualified, (iii) a proper foundation is laid, (iv) liberal cross-examination of the expert is allowed, and (v) the defense can introduce its own expert testimony on rape trauma syndrome.

  19. An Application of Art Therapy to the Trauma of Rape. (United States)

    Hargrave-Nykaza, Karen


    Explores rape in terms of specific trauma usually experienced after rape: posttraumatic stress disorder, rape trauma syndrome, and permanent life changes. Explores ways in which art therapy can help rape victim engage in healing. Reviews study of one rape victim and current literature as example of life-altering effects of rape and importance of…

  20. Rape reporting: "Classic Rape" and the behavior of law. (United States)

    Clay-Warner, Jody; McMahon-Howard, Jennifer


    Two theories of rape reporting, the Classic Rape perspective and Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law, are tested in this article. We offer the first comprehensive multivariate test of Classic Rape predictions among a nationally representative sample of victims, as well as the first test of Black's predictions for rape reporting. Through the construction of multinomial regression models, we are able to examine reporting patterns for both victims and third parties. Weapon use and physical injury consistently predicted reporting. The likelihood of victim reporting significantly increased when assaults occurred either in public or through a "home blitz," whereas place of assault did not affect the likelihood of third-party reporting. On the other hand, victim-offender relationship significantly affected the likelihood of third-party reporting but was not significant in the victim-reporting models. There were mixed findings regarding Black's stratification and morphology predictions, and we found no significant effects for culture, organization, or social control. Overall, these findings lend greater support to the Classic Rape perspective than to Black's model.

  1. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko


    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  2. The impact of rape acknowledgment on survivor outcomes: The moderating effects of rape myth acceptance. (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Newins, Amie R; White, Susan W


    Little is known about how rape acknowledgment relates to posttrauma functioning; recent research suggests the effect may depend on additional factors. In the current study, the moderating effect of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the relationships between rape acknowledgment and mental health outcomes was examined. A sample of 181 female rape survivors recruited from a university completed an online survey assessing RMA, rape acknowledgment, depression symptoms, and alcohol use. Generally, the results supported that RMA moderated the influence of rape acknowledgment on depression symptoms and average quantity per drinking episode, but not frequency of alcohol use. The findings demonstrated that when individuals endorsed high levels of RMA, acknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than unacknowledged rape survivors. Among individuals low on RMA, unacknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than acknowledged rape survivors. It is recommended that clinicians recognize the role of survivor beliefs, such as RMA, in the relationship between labeling sexual assault experiences and mental health consequences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness. (United States)


    Washington, DC. Medea , A. and Thompson, K. Against Rape. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroud, 1974. Rape: A Preventative Inquiry (film) 345-10 DN...programmed text study guide. UNITED STATES COAST GUARD The Coast Guard Training Center, Cape May, New Jersey, does not include rape awareness/prevention...82. September 1982. Arlington, Virginia. Connell, N. and Wilson, C. Rape: The First Resource Book for Women. New York: New American Library, 1974

  4. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray


    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  5. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feminist theory is used to explain rape, the societal reaction to it and the health outcomes for the victims. The paper concludes that many health problems suffered by women in Nigeria are as a result of rape. Public health practitioners should devise mechanisms of eliciting rape information from victims so as to effectively ...

  6. Why, when and how men rape: Understanding rape perpetration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research confirms that rape is highly prevalent in South Africa, with only a small proportion of incidents reported to the police. Many of the roots of the problem lie in our accentuated gender hierarchy. This highlights the importance of interventions and policies that start in childhood and seek to change the way in which ...

  7. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción


    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  8. Patterns of rape and approaches to care. (United States)

    Pepiton-Rockwell, F


    The family physician is likely to be involved in the care of the rape victim. This paper focuses on the social and legal definitions of rape as well as the incidence of rape. The Rape Trauma Syndrome is explained and normative responses of victims are discussed. Eight common myths about rape are identified which the victim and the physician may share. In discussing the myths, guidelines for counseling the rape victim are delineated: encourage the victim to talk about her feelings; as the physician, remain nonjudgmental; provide information or resources to the victim; view the aftermath of rape as a response to a life-threatening event; and enlist the support of the victim's significant others. Finally, the importance of understanding the available community resources is stressed.

  9. Breaking the silence surrounding rape. (United States)

    Ramsay, S


    This article documents the turning points in the rape issue, which led to the acknowledgement of its prevalence in the world, especially in South Africa. November 25 marked the first day of the "Take a Stand" movement in South Africa, which coincided with the International Day Against Violence Against Women. This movement involves peaceful protests and poster campaigns, followed by months of sustained news coverage of rape. This was launched by a coalition of organizations, including women's groups, churches, businesses, and trades unions, that are speaking out against all forms of sexual violence. In the international community, rape is starting to be taken seriously. In 1996, sexual assault was cited as a crime against humanity by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. In addition, a forum in London, UK, on November 25, discussed rape issues and recommendations on how to prevent such violence were given. The need for a change in legal systems, which currently discourage women from taking legal actions, was also recognized. In view of this, the medical community is challenged to provide sensitive and appropriate help to women who have been assaulted.

  10. Romeo, Juliet, and Statutory Rape. (United States)

    Bierie, David M; Budd, Kristen M


    Statutory rape is an important yet understudied topic. There is broad public support for the prosecution of older adults who engage in sexual relationships with minors regardless of perceptions of consent by either party. However, some scholars worry that expansive definitions within these laws have led to the widespread involvement of the justice system in the lives of similarly aged teenagers engaging in relatively normal sexual behavior, so called "Romeo and Juliet" liaisons. This, in turn, has called into question the legitimacy of national policies, such as sex offender registration, because of the presumption that registries are likely filled with these kinds of cases which may not represent the intent of legislatures and the public. Despite the importance of these debates, there is little research assessing the prevalence of Romeo and Juliet cases in official crime statistics or that analyze differences in characteristics of statutory rape as a function of victim-offender age differences. Drawing on more than 20 years of police data from over 6,000 police departments in the United States, this study found statutory rape cases were rare and Romeo and Juliet cases were even rarer. Multivariate models showed several distinctions between statutory rape cases as a function of the age differences between victim and offender. Of note, the odds that additional forms of sexual aggression occurred in the incident grew as the age difference expanded. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    in Denmark. It was hypothesized that there would be a lower representation of rape victims, measured by the number of calls, to a regional rape crisis center in the rural communities further away from the regional rape crisis center of Aarhus compared to the urban communities closer to the rape crisis center....... A one-way ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significant association between the number of victim calls and the distance to the rape crisis center. The closer the residence of the victim was to the rape crisis center the more victim calls were registered. The study also examined what types of help...

  12. Rape embryogenesis I. The proembryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska


    Full Text Available The development of the proembryo of rape Brassica napus L. from the zygote to the young embryo proper is described. A number of regularities were found in the direction, succession, and distribution of segmental and differentiating divisions of the proembryo. The direction of the divisions seems to foe determined by the direction of growth and the shape of the cells. The termyoung embryo proper is proposed to denote the globular embryo which already possesses separate plerome and periblem mother-cells and mother-cells of the iec layer and of clumella. The body of the embryo proper is derived from the apical cell ca which arose from the first division of the zygote and from the hypophysis - the only suspensor cell which closes the spheroid of the embryo. The development of the Brassica napus L. proembryo follows the sub-archetype Capsella bursa-pastoris in the IV megarchetype of Soueges.

  13. Pelvic floor muscle problems mediate sexual problems in young adult rape victims. (United States)

    Postma, Riemke; Bicanic, Iva; van der Vaart, Huub; Laan, Ellen


    Prior studies have addressed sexual abuse and sexual function in adult women. No studies have focused on the effect of adolescence rape on sexual functioning. To investigate the effect of rape on sexual problems and on pelvic floor problems, as well as the mediating role of pelvic floor problems on sexual problems, in a homogenous group of victims of adolescence rape without a history of childhood sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse. Sexual functioning and pelvic floor functioning were assessed using self-report questionnaires. In this cross-sectional study, a group of 89 young women aged 18-25 years who were victimized by rape in adolescence was compared with a group of 114 nonvictimized controls. The rape victims were treated for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 3 years prior to participation in the study. Three years posttreatment, rape victims were 2.4 times more likely to have a sexual dysfunction (lubrication problems and pain) and 2.7 times more likely to have pelvic floor dysfunction (symptoms of provoked vulvodynia, general stress, lower urinary tract, and irritable bowel syndrome) than nonvictimized controls. The relationship between rape and sexual problems was partially mediated by the presence of pelvic floor problems. Rape victims and controls did not differ with regard to sexual activities. Rape victims suffer significantly more from sexual dysfunction and pelvic floor dysfunction when compared with nontraumatized controls, despite the provision of treatment for PTSD. Possibly, physical manifestations of PTSD have been left unaddressed in treatment. Future treatment protocols should consider incorporating (physical or psychological) treatment strategies for sexual dysfunction and/or pelvic floor dysfunction into trauma exposure treatments. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime. (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D


    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  15. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte


    With the aim of contributing to the development of models forecasting the melliferous characteristics and the potential honey yield of oilseed rape, we analyzed data on the temporal pattern of number of oilseed rape flowers, nectar secretion, sugar concentration, and weight of bee hives in relation...... with significantly reduced quality of the nectar in terms of both volume and sugar concentration, and our results suggest that the oilseed rape in this year did not contribute notably to bee colony development. In years in which the oilseed rape flowered around the normal time (beginning of May), the amount...... of secreted sugar decreased over the flowering period, being governed by inherent oilseed rape characteristics modified by climatic factors preceding the onset of flowering, as well as climatic conditions during flowering. The exploitation of oilseed rape nectar by bee colonies was found to be influenced...

  16. War rape, natality and genocide. (United States)

    Schott, Robin May


    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  17. Rape and the Serial Rapist (United States)


    suffered from various personality disorders . "Twenty-two (16 percent) were diagnosed as borderline personalities , and thirteen (10 percent) showed...75 percent) were predominantly diagnosed as suffering from a personality disorder . Richard T. Rada in his study found that the category of the...Rape: The Psychology of the Offender (New York: Plenum Press), 109. 45 Fritz A. Kenn et al., " Forensics Psychiatry: Profiles of Two Types of Sex

  18. Rape: psychopathology, theory and treatment. (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A; Collie, Rachael M; Ward, Tony; Thakker, Jo


    Whether treatment programs are effective at rehabilitating rapists is yet to be determined empirically. From a scientist-practitioner perspective, treatment should be based on an empirical understanding of rape and rapists, and evidence-based knowledge of treatment outcome with rapists. In this paper we comprehensively review the characteristics of rapists, etiological features implicated in the commission of rape, and relevant treatment outcome research. We pay particular attention to contemporary knowledge about the core vulnerabilities and features required to understand and treat rapists effectively, and, where possible, highlight similarities and differences between rapists, child molesters and non-sexual violent offenders. We use an epistemological framework to (a) critique the various etiological accounts of rape available and (b) help guide professionals' use of such knowledge in both treatment design and evaluation. Gaps in the understanding of rapists' characteristics and etiological features are highlighted, as are discrepancies between current knowledge and treatment approaches. We conclude by highlighting areas for future research and practice innovation.

  19. Island selection on mammalian life-histories: genetic differentiation in offspring size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunanen Raimo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Darwin's pioneering work, evolutionary changes in isolated island populations of vertebrates have continued to provide the strongest evidence for the theory of natural selection. Besides macro-evolutionary changes, micro-evolutionary changes and the relative importance of natural selection vs. genetic drift are under intense investigation. Our study focuses on the genetic differentiation in morphological and life-history traits in insular populations of a small mammal the bank vole Myodes glareolus. Results Our results do not support the earlier findings for larger adult size or lower reproductive effort in insular populations of small mammals. However, the individuals living on islands produced larger offspring than individuals living on the mainland. Genetic differentiation in offspring size was further confirmed by the analyses of quantitative genetics in lab. In insular populations, genetic differentiation in offspring size simultaneously decreases the additive genetic variation (VA for that trait. Furthermore, our analyses of differentiation in neutral marker loci (Fst indicate that VA is less than expected on the basis of genetic drift alone, and thus, a lower VA in insular populations could be caused by natural selection. Conclusion We believe that different selection pressures (e.g. higher intraspecific competition in an insular environment might favour larger offspring size in small mammals. Island selection for larger offspring could be the preliminary mechanism in a process which could eventually lead to a smaller litter size and lower reproductive effort frequently found in insular vertebrates.

  20. Fear of rape from behind prison walls. (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather


    Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.

  1. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape. (United States)

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  2. Rape victim assessment: Findings by psychiatrists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    valid at the lower end of the IQ range. The assessment of rape victims is a sensitive matter and poses a number of challenges to the clinician. Rape victims are often traumatised by their experience, and this can make them reluctant to talk about the incident. In a study done by Elklit et al.,[2] it was found that ~70% of sexual ...

  3. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I.A.E.


    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  4. Differential Recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Epitopes as a Function of Tuberculosis Disease History. (United States)

    Scriba, Thomas J; Carpenter, Chelsea; Pro, Sebastian Carrasco; Sidney, John; Musvosvi, Munyaradzi; Rozot, Virginie; Seumois, Grégory; Rosales, Sandy L; Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Goletti, Delia; Makgotlho, Edward; Hanekom, Willem; Hatherill, Mark; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro; Arlehamn, Cecilia S Lindestam


    Individuals with a history of tuberculosis (TB) disease are at elevated risk of disease recurrence. The underlying cause is not known, but one explanation is that previous disease results in less-effective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We hypothesized that the repertoire of Mtb-derived epitopes recognized by T cells from individuals with latent Mtb infection differs as a function of previous diagnosis of active TB disease. T-cell responses to peptide pools in samples collected from an adult screening and an adolescent validation cohort were measured by IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay or intracellular cytokine staining. We identified a set of "type 2" T-cell epitopes that were recognized at 10-fold-lower levels in Mtb-infected individuals with a history of TB disease less than 6 years ago than in those without previous TB. By contrast, "type 1" epitopes were recognized equally well in individuals with or without previous TB. The differential epitope recognition was not due to differences in HLA class II binding, memory phenotypes, or gene expression in the responding T cells. Instead, "TB disease history-sensitive" type 2 epitopes were significantly (P < 0.0001) more homologous to sequences from bacteria found in the human microbiome than type 1 epitopes. Preferential loss of T-cell reactivity to Mtb epitopes that are homologous to bacteria in the microbiome in persons with previous TB disease may reflect long-term effects of antibiotic TB treatment on the microbiome.

  5. A family history of Type 1 alcoholism differentiates alcohol consumption in high cortisol responders to stress. (United States)

    Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna


    The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg


    In every known society human sexual intercourse is enacted as a rule-bound practice that involves certain rights and obligations. In Denmark the official policy is that the rules to govern lawful sexual intercourse should be based on the idea of mutual and voluntary consent between two adults......; and as a matter of fact such rules are accepted and followed by far the most. Yet, the approach taken by Danish Criminal Law to rape does not pay heed to these rules, but is rather based on a most narrow conception of male responsibility and obligation that stands in clear opposition with practice and policy...

  7. Present and future instances of virtual rape in light of three categories of legal philosophical theories on rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska


    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in

  8. Male rape--the silent victims. (United States)

    Ellis, Colin Derek


    This literature review examines the issue of male rape and the possible counselling strategies that may assist in recovery. There are several misconceptions surrounding male rape which can result in the under-reporting and secondary or sanctuary victimisation of the survivor. Men who have been raped may believe that it attacks the very essence of what it is to be masculine and male. Many may not seek help unless they perceive a need for immediate attention, such as physical trauma requiring medical assistance. The literature also reveals that when men do seek help they may be treated poorly. Secondary victimisation or sanctuary trauma results when there is a lack of empathy and understanding of the effect that rape can have on the survivor, such as rape-trauma syndrome. Training in this area is needed for the police, emergency department staff, nurses, general practitioners, and community health services. Management of survivors starts with examining our own beliefs about male rape. Many of the reported counselling strategies are based on therapists' observations, trauma theories, and research related to child abuse or sexual assault of females which may not be transferable to men who have been raped. Education and counselling of survivors' support networks must be considered as part of a holistic approach to management. Secondary prevention strategies aimed at the broader community are required to assist survivors to come forward without fear of further victimisation because of stereotyping.

  9. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville


    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  10. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim (United States)

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie


    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  11. A general allometric and life-history model for cellular differentiation in the transition to multicellularity. (United States)

    Solari, Cristian A; Kessler, John O; Goldstein, Raymond E


    The transition from unicellular, to colonial, to larger multicellular organisms has benefits, costs, and requirements. Here we present a model inspired by the volvocine green algae that explains the dynamics involved in the unicellular-multicellular transition using life-history theory and allometry. We model the two fitness components (fecundity and viability) and compare the fitness of hypothetical colonies of different sizes with varying degrees of cellular differentiation to understand the general principles that underlie the evolution of multicellularity. We argue that germ-soma separation may have evolved to counteract the increasing costs and requirements of larger multicellular colonies. The model shows that the cost of investing in soma decreases with size. For lineages such as the Volvocales, as reproduction costs increase with size for undifferentiated colonies, soma specialization benefits the colony indirectly by decreasing such costs and directly by helping reproductive cells acquire resources for their metabolic needs. Germ specialization is favored once soma evolves and takes care of vegetative functions. To illustrate the model, we use some allometric relationships measured in Volvocales. Our analysis shows that the cost of reproducing an increasingly larger group has likely played an important role in the transition to multicellularity and cellular differentiation.

  12. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  13. Institutional Perpetuation of Rape Culture: A Case Study of the University of Colorado Football Rape and Recruiting Scandal


    Folchert, Kristi Engle


    Heterosexual rape among university students is neither new nor uncommon. Research in rape prevention is largely limited to two areas: (1) what women can do to protect themselves from rape, which continues to place the burden of prevention on women; and (2) understanding why men rape. The studies in these fields have added to the body of knowledge surrounding rape on university campuses. The current study takes this information into consideration while using a different lens to examine the...

  14. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)


    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  15. State contexts and the criminalization of marital rape across the United States. (United States)

    Jackson, Aubrey L


    Spousal exemptions from rape prosecution persist in many US states' criminal codes thereby compromising women's rights to bodily self-control and personhood. Power resources theory-which emphasizes that given limited resources, groups act strategically to achieve goals-and gender stratification perspectives guided an event history analysis of the likelihood of marital rape criminalization in US states between 1978 and 2007. Findings suggest criminalization is influenced by the expected marginal benefit of law reform, women's relative socioeconomic resources, and racial heterogeneity. This research highlights the importance of considering how existing laws, group resources, and intersecting social cleavages influence the expansion of women's rights. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring differential prescribing between anti-epileptic drugs in epilepsy patients with a history of mood disorders. (United States)

    Ishihara, Lianna; Webb, David J; Irizarry, Michael; Weil, John


    To explore differential prescribing of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) to patients with epilepsy by history of mood disorder. Epilepsy was defined as at least one diagnosis code and one AED prescription, and all patients must have been on the database 182 days before and after their first AED prescription. The Integrated HealthCare Information Services (IHCIS) insurance claims database included 44 557 patients with epilepsy between January 1997 and March 2007. The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) included 16 904 patients with epilepsy up to March 2007. Patients were categorized by their first use of specified AEDs. Mood disorders were defined as diagnosis codes for depression and bipolar disorder, or anti-depressant use. The unadjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for a history of mood disorder diagnosis ever or within the three months prior to AED use were calculated with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine (CBZ) as the referent. In the US IHCIS, a history of mood disorders was significantly more common in new users of most AEDs compared to CBZ new users, indicating differential prescribing. Clonazepam and gabapentin were the most commonly prescribed AEDs in patients with epilepsy and a history of mood disorders.In the UK GPRD, there was less evidence of differential prescribing of AEDs, although gabapentin was prescribed most often to epilepsy patients with a history of mood disorders. Any observational studies of AEDs and suicidality would have to consider potential channeling bias by history of mood disorders, which is a major risk factor for suicide.

  17. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception. (United States)

    Anderson, Irina


    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualize a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents' gender; (3) to examine the 'cultural lag' theory of male rape, where it was hypothesized that if the public perception of male rape lags behind female rape, then a typical male rape will be conceptualized as the classic stranger rape stereotype. Findings showed that contrary to predictions, a typical female rape was conceptualized according to the stranger rape stereotype. It was also found that instead of lagging behind female rape along the stranger-acquaintance rape dimension, male rape was viewed predominantly in terms of 'other' factors (factors not found on the stranger-acquaintance dimension, e.g. victim/rapist sexual orientation, rapist calls victim names), which were erroneous, sexualizing and homophobic.

  18. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M


    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... victims according to a full ASD diagnosis. Regardless of whether cases were classified according to full PTSD status or according to meeting the criteria for the three PTSD core symptom clusters, the classification was correct only in approximately two thirds of the cases. A regression analysis based...

  19. Understanding rape perpetration in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a child. <15. Raped in the last. 12 months. Raped a man. SA Crime Quarterly no 34 • December 2010. 25 woman or girl when she didn't consent to sex or after you .... Secondary schooling. 26.7. 22.7, 30.7. 182 / 682. Matric complete. 28.9. 24.2, 33.5. 130/ 450. Incomplete tertiary education. 38.8. 30.4, 47.2. 57 / 147. Degree.

  20. Life history trait differentiation and local adaptation in invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China. (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Meng; She, Deng-Ying; Zhang, Da-Yong; Liao, Wan-Jin


    Local adaptation has been suggested to play an important role in range expansion, particularly among invasive species. However, the extent to which local adaptation affects the success of an invasive species and the factors that contribute to local adaptation are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate a case of population divergence that may have contributed to the local adaptation of invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China. Common garden experiments in seven populations indicated clinal variations along latitudinal gradients, with plants from higher latitudes exhibiting earlier flowering and smaller sizes at flowering. In reciprocal transplant experiments, plants of a northern Beijing origin produced more seeds at their home site than plants of a southern Wuhan origin, and the Wuhan-origin plants had grown taller at flowering than the Beijing-origin plants in Wuhan, which is believed to facilitate pollen dispersal. These results suggest that plants of Beijing origin may be locally adapted through female fitness and plants from Wuhan possibly locally adapted through male fitness. Selection and path analysis suggested that the phenological and growth traits of both populations have been influenced by natural selection and that flowering time has played an important role through its direct and indirect effects on the relative fitness of each individual. This study evidences the life history trait differentiation and local adaptation during range expansion of invasive A. artemisiifolia in China.

  1. Sensitization to turnip rape and oilseed rape in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study. (United States)

    Poikonen, Sanna; Puumalainen, Tuija J; Kautiainen, Hannu; Palosuo, Timo; Reunala, Timo; Turjanmaa, Kristiina


    Turnip rape and oilseed rape 2S albumins are new allergens in children with atopic dermatitis suspected for food allergy. We recently found that 11% (206/1887) of these children had a positive skin prick test to seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and/or turnip rape (Brassica rapa). In the present case-control study we examined how the children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to turnip rape and oilseed rape had been breast-fed and whether they had some common sensitization pattern to certain foods or pollens. A total of 64 children with atopic dermatitis and a positive skin prick test to turnip rape and/or oilseed rape (>or=5 mm) were examined. Sixty-four age- and sex-matched children with atopic dermatitis but negative skin prick tests to turnip rape and oilseed rape served as case controls. The turnip rape and/or oilseed rape sensitized children with atopic dermatitis had significantly more often positive skin prick tests reactions and IgE antibodies to various foods (cow's milk, egg, wheat, mustard; p children. They had been exclusively breast-fed for a longer period (median 4 months; p Children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to oilseed rape and turnip rape had high frequency of associated sensitizations to all foods and pollens tested showing that oilseed plant sensitization affects especially atopic children who have been sensitized to multiple allergens.

  2. Taking About Rape-and Why it Matters: Adjudicating rape in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... begins by establishing why judgements are an important source for understanding what rape means in society at large; it then discusses the relationship between power, language, and the law. This is followed by specific analyses of cases that show how patriarchy still defines how judges express themselves about rape.

  3. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production...

  4. Forensic sexology: paraphilic serial rape (biastophilia) and lust murder (erotophonophilia). (United States)

    Money, J


    Forensic sexology is not synonymous with either forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology. It is a specialty in its own right, and is needed in the courtroom. Paraphilic sex offenders on trial are misrepresented as being, by their own choice, psychopathic or sociopathic deviates. They are unable to explain their paraphilic criminality to either themselves or society. In a case of serial rape and serial lust murder here presented, the contributory causes are examined and differentiated as hereditary predisposition, hormonal functioning; pathological relationships, sexual abuse; and syndrome overlap with bipolar disorder, schizoid disorder, antisocial personality disorder, epilepsy, and multiple personality. The precipitating causes were differentiated as childhood head injuries, and adult head injury at age 20. Left impact trauma and sexological trauma were sequelae of the adult injury. The full range of diagnostic resources was not available for a prisoner on death row. Capital punishment has not prevented the reemergence in each new generation of serial rape and serial lust murder as an epidemiological, public health problem. Punishment is an ineffectual substitute for epidemiological research into cause, effect, and prevention.

  5. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis. (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L


    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A REVIEW OF LITERATURE: RAPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA. STRATEGIES IN NIGERIA. *Omolola Tosan AKINWOLE. **Osakue Stevenson OMOERA. Abstract. Using historical-analytic methodology, this article reviews literature on rape and the ... The third assumption is the linguistic representation postulation. This.

  7. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture. (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C


    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Rape survivor care crisis – mines the worst?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dire need for better healthcare worker training in rape forensics and safe survivor care has never been better illustrated than by the horrifying rape statistics Médecins. Sans Frontières (MSF) presented last month from the platinum-mining boom town of. Rustenburg. Promising to increase its rape survivor care and ...

  9. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths. (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others


    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  10. Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture. (United States)

    Abrams, Julie M.; And Others

    This publication is a collection of 20 supporting documents for a conference program, "Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture." Contents include: (1) "Presenter Contact Information"; (2) "Characteristics of Rape-Prone versus Rape-Free Cultures"; (3) "Dater's Bill of Rights"; (4)…

  11. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act (United States)


    ... May 23, 2012 Part VI The President Memorandum of May 17, 2012--Implementing the Prison Rape... 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act... assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA...

  12. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rape and incest. 50.306 Section 50.306 Public... § 50.306 Rape and incest. Federal financial participation is available in expenditures for medical procedures performed upon a victim of rape or incest if the program or project has received signed...

  13. Theoretical Consideration of Forcible Rape: A Critical Analysis. (United States)

    Clagett, Arthur F.


    Examined differences in hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of committing forcible rape, which are held by male subjects, as compared with the hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of being forcibly raped, held by the female subjects. Developed a critical analysis of social and cross-cultural variables affecting rape. (Author/ABL)

  14. An Empirical Investigation of Campus Demographics and Reported Rapes (United States)

    Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Martinez, Taylor


    Objective: Rape on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health issue with approximately 11% of women experiencing rape while in college. As such, it is important to examine factors unique to college campuses that influence the occurrences of rape. Methods: Using data from 1,423 four-year universities (public and private with at…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the child after collecting same willingly give in for it with the adult, it is said to be rape as well. ... in their teens, while others are matured adults (Obasi, 2007). ... Christian teen girls are no less likely to become victims of the rape". Rape cases are not limited to Nigeria alone. Other countries of the globe have their own side of ...

  16. Counting the countless – rape victimisation during the Rwandan Genocide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Morssinkhof, A.; Smeulers, A.L.


    Rape is regularly committed during a period of collective violence such as war. The article discusses the Rwandan genocide during which rape was used with the deliberate intent to destroy in whole or in part the Tutsi community. Rape is not often studied in such particular contexts, so little is

  17. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim. (United States)

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  18. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury. (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary


    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  19. The Psychology of the Politics of Rape: Political Ideology, Moral Foundations, and Attitudes Toward Rape. (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Hilz, Emily N


    Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.

  20. Rape trauma syndrome in the military courts. (United States)

    Young, S A


    The military courts have developed a rich case law tradition in the area of rape trauma syndrome testimony. These cases are particularly important in the context of a military that is both increasingly female and increasingly sensitive to mixed gender relationships. This article reviews the military court's approach to rape trauma testimony over the past 15 years. The author notes that military courts have been accepting of this testimony within certain well defined limits. The author analyzes the approach to testimony at one military medical center and offers a testimony model for the forensic psychiatrist who testifies in a military setting.

  1. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna


    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  2. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul


    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  3. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa). (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki


    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Incapacitated rape and alcohol use: a prospective analysis. (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Neighbors, Clayton; Martell, Joel; Fossos, Nicole; Larimer, Mary E


    This study examined timing of alcohol-related sexual assaults (incapacitated rape) in relation to both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. The sample was drawn from a randomly selected pool of college students across three campuses (n=1238) followed over a three year time period. 91% of students never experienced an incapacitated rape, 2% reported an incapacitated rape prior to the first assessment point (n=30), and 6% reported one over the course of the study (n=76). Results indicated that incapacitated rape was associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences in the years prior to the assault. Incapacitated rape was also associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences during the year in which the rape took place and subsequent years, with highest rates measured for the year of the rape. These results suggest alcohol use can function as both risk factor and consequence of sexual victimization.

  5. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)


    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  6. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)


    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter.

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Responsibility Judgment for Rape. (United States)

    Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; And Others

    One explanation for the positive relationship between alcohol consumption and violent crime considers alcohol consumption to be a socially accepted excuse for otherwise inappropriate behaviors. A policy capturing methodology was used to examine judgments of responsibility for rape. Male (N=30) and female (N=66) undergraduates received 40 profiles…

  8. Taking a chance: Sex, alcohol & acquaintance rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Heinskou, Marie Bruvik


    to grasp more of the complexities of the situation. By analyzing a single case of acquaintance rape and then reflect this case in the light of interviews on young people's drinking habits it is argued that the complexities within the analytical frame of chance is crucial in understanding reported...

  9. The Influence of Gender Ideology, Victim Resistance, and Spiking a Drink on Acquaintance Rape Attributions. (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Smith, Danielle


    The current study examined observer's attributions about the victim and perpetrator of an alleged acquaintance rape. Participants included 504 college students from a public university in the northeastern United States who read a brief crime report and completed a series of questionnaires for course credit. While men tended to attribute more blame to the victim than women, gender ideology emerged as a stronger predictor of rape attributions, and some types of sexist beliefs were associated with greater victim blaming and others with less victim blaming. Endorsement of hostile sexism, rape myths, and heterosexual intimacy was generally associated with the attribution of greater victim culpability, as well as less perpetrator culpability, perpetrator criminality, and victim credibility. However, complementary gender differentiation was associated with greater perpetrator culpability and criminality, while protective paternalism was associated with greater victim credibility. Observers attributed lower victim culpability and greater perpetrator criminality when the victim's drink was spiked, and attributed greater perpetrator culpability when the victim verbally resisted the perpetrator's advances. Given the implications that observer attitudes can have on professional and personal support for survivors, as well as juror decision making, the ongoing examination of the complex interplay between the person and situational factors affecting attributions of rape is essential. Sexual assault prevention programs may also benefit from a psychoeducational component that targets reducing traditional gender ideology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Rape Myths and the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale in China. (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Fang, Gang; Huang, Hui; Cui, Naixue; Rhodes, Karin V; Gelles, Richard


    The study examines the similarities and differences between China and the United States with regard to rape myths. We assessed the individual level of rape myth acceptance among Chinese university students by adapting and translating a widely used measure of rape myth endorsement in the United States, the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) scale. We assessed whether the IRMA scale would be an appropriate assessment of attitudes toward rape among young adults in China. The sample consisted of 975 Chinese university students enrolled in seven Chinese universities. We used explorative factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the Chinese translation of the IRMA scale. Results suggest that the IRMA scale requires some modification to be employed with young adults in China. Our analyses indicate that 20 items should be deleted, and a five-factor model is generated. We discuss relevant similarities and differences in the factor structure and item loadings between the Chinese Rape Myth Acceptance (CRMA) and the IRMA scales. A revised version of the IRMA, the CRMA, can be used as a resource in rape prevention services and rape victim support services. Future research in China that employs CRMA will allow researchers to examine whether individual's response to rape myth acceptance can predict rape potential and judgments of victim blaming and community members' acceptance of marital rape. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women). (United States)

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon


    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  12. A brief history about analytic tools in medical imaging: splines, wavelets, singularities and partial differential equations. (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques


    We present in this paper a series of operators coming from various domains of mathematical analysis (approximation theory, differential geometry, optimization and partial differential equations (PDE's)) and able to give adequate responses to low level image processing tasks like contrasting, segmenting and contouring objects of interest in bio-medical images. These operators are essentially based on powerful analytic tools, like splines, wavelets, singularities and PDE's, which will be described in a brief historical view.

  13. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students. (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah


    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  14. Differential reproductive responses to stress reveal the role of life-history strategies within a species. (United States)

    Schultner, J; Kitaysky, A S; Gabrielsen, G W; Hatch, S A; Bech, C


    Life-history strategies describe that 'slow'- in contrast to 'fast'-living species allocate resources cautiously towards reproduction to enhance survival. Recent evidence suggests that variation in strategies exists not only among species but also among populations of the same species. Here, we examined the effect of experimentally induced stress on resource allocation of breeding seabirds in two populations with contrasting life-history strategies: slow-living Pacific and fast-living Atlantic black-legged kittiwakes. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive responses in kittiwakes under stress reflect their life-history strategies. We predicted that in response to stress, Pacific kittiwakes reduce investment in reproduction compared with Atlantic kittiwakes. We exposed chick-rearing kittiwakes to a short-term (3-day) period of increased exogenous corticosterone (CORT), a hormone that is released during food shortages. We examined changes in baseline CORT levels, parental care and effects on offspring. We found that kittiwakes from the two populations invested differently in offspring when facing stress. In response to elevated CORT, Pacific kittiwakes reduced nest attendance and deserted offspring more readily than Atlantic kittiwakes. We observed lower chick growth, a higher stress response in offspring and lower reproductive success in response to CORT implantation in Pacific kittiwakes, whereas the opposite occurred in the Atlantic. Our findings support the hypothesis that life-history strategies predict short-term responses of individuals to stress within a species. We conclude that behaviour and physiology under stress are consistent with trade-off priorities as predicted by life-history theory. We encourage future studies to consider the pivotal role of life-history strategies when interpreting inter-population differences of animal responses to stressful environmental events.

  15. Motivating women and men to take protective action against rape: examining direct and indirect persuasive fear appeals. (United States)

    Morrison, Kelly


    This article examines the effectiveness of persuasive fear appeals in motivating women to enroll in self-defense classes to take protective action against rape. Witte's extended parallel process model is used as a framework to examine the relations between perceived invulnerability, perceived fear, and fear control processes. Because women may perceive invulnerability to rape, persuasive fear appeals targeted toward them may be ineffective in achieving attitude, intention, and behavioral change toward protecting themselves. One possible solution is to persuade men to talk with women about whom they care. Results indicated that women did not perceive invulnerability to rape, and although there was no differential impact between high- and low-threat messages, women did report positive intention and behaviors in response to direct fear appeals. Moreover, men reported positive intention and behaviors in response to indirect fear appeals.

  16. Differential host utilisation by different life history stages of the fish ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura). (United States)

    Walker, Peter D; Harris, Jack E; van der Velde, Gerard; Bonga, Sjoerd E Wendelaar


    In this study we examine differences in the occurrence of life history stages of the destructive fish ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758) on eight fish species (stickleback, rudd, roach, gudgeon, bream, tench, crucian carp and common carp) sampled from a mixed-species recreational fishing lake on nine occasions during late spring and summer. Total numbers ofA. foliaceus, as well as the number of larval, juvenile and adult parasite stages, from each fish were recorded along with the fish species. Lice generally exhibited an aggregated distribution approximating a negative binomial distribution. Significant differences in the prevalence, intensity and intensity frequency distribution were observed between life history stages and between host species. In general, all life history stages of A. foliaceus exhibited an over-dispersed distribution. However, larval lice did show some degree of aggregation particularly within the stickleback samples. Infection data for parasite larval stages suggested that sticklebacks are more likely to be infected than other host species. For adult lice, however, carp appeared to be the main host. We propose that A. foliaceus infection characteristics are predominantly determined by the level of host exposure to the parasite and its life history stages (larval, juvenile and adult) rather than by an innate difference in host susceptibility related to individual host factors such as immune responses. We conclude that host exposure is determined by the parasite-host behavioural interplay related to species-specific ecology and behavioural traits such as microhabitat preference and normal swimming speed.

  17. Assessment of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs in college men: development, reliability, and validity of the rape attitudes and beliefs scale. (United States)

    Burgess, Gerald H


    Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory factor analysis using only male participants revealed five factors: a) justifications for sexual aggression based on women's behavior, b) belief that women should hold more responsibility for sexual assault, peer c) pressure/need for sexual status and misreading women's sexual intent, d) acceptance of the use of alcohol and coercive tactics to acquire sexual compliance, and e) dislike for the feminine and acceptance of traditional gender roles. Initial reliability and validity studies were favorable for the RABS, including evidence that these factors were positively related to measures of sexual aggression. Each factor demonstrated differential power to predict sexual aggression, with justifications being the most powerful. Implications for counseling and education are discussed.

  18. Exploring different explanatory psychological models of perpetrators of rape



    M.A. Without prejudice to race or culture, rape is the hurt of both males and females of all ages. Rape can be one of the most devastating emotional events in a person’s life, the effects of which are entrenched for life (Rozee & Koss, 2001). Motives underscoring the need to commit rape have received much attention in the literature. Evolutionary theorists such as Thornhill and Palmer (2000) report that sexual needs and reproduction are the primary motivational factors. Feminist theorists ...

  19. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus (United States)

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.


    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  20. Rape: Past and present legal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapović Lasta S.


    Full Text Available Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC. In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapists. Laws following the Second Serbian Uprising, also provide severe punishment for sexual violence, especially towards women but also male minors. Legal and court practice, following the Second World War, indicate that the protection of women from sexual violence is completely inadequate and this at a time when women had achieved equal rights with men in many spheres of life. World events at the end of the 20th century: collapse of the Soviet Union: as well as the happenings in this region,: war, ethnic and religious conflicts resulted in massive rape of women, opening of brothels, trading women and family violence. Non state organizations, mainly women in expert associations, invest great effort to rectify this very unsatisfactory situation. They exert pressure for change in the law and in court practice, by which women would have more effective defense against sexual violence, as well as organized assistance for women victims of traffic, and warning of the possible danger.

  1. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.


    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  2. Ending Rape in War: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Fiske


    Full Text Available The rape of women has for centuries been an endemic feature of war, yet perpetrators largely go unpunished. Women were sanctioned as the spoils of war in biblical times and more recently it has been claimed that it is more dangerous to be a woman than a soldier in modern conflict. Nevertheless, until the establishment of the ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia – there was very little concern regarding the need to address the rape of women in conflict. This paper briefly maps historical attitudes towards rape in war, outlines some analyses and explanations of why rape in war occurs and finally turns more substantively to recent efforts by the international community to prosecute rape as a war crime and a crime against humanity. We argue, that while commendable in some ways, contemporary approaches to rape in war risk reinforcing aspects of women’s status which contribute to the targeting of women for rape and continue to displace women from the centre to the margins in debates and practices surrounding rape in both war and peace time.  We conclude by arguing that criminal prosecutions alone are insufficient and that, if we are to end the rape of women and girls in war (and peace we need a radical restructuring of gender relations across every sphere of social and political life.

  3. Reactions to rape: a military forensic psychiatrist's perspective. (United States)

    Ritchie, E C


    Accusations of rape or sexual harassment are currently very high-profile in the military. This article discusses rape allegations in the military legal system from a psychiatric perspective. The original definition of "rape trauma syndrome" and subsequent psychiatric thinking about the diagnosis are briefly outlined. Common reactions seen in military victims in this era are described. A prototypical military case is presented. An adequate evaluation of an alleged victim is outlined. Credentials and preparation of an expert witness are also briefly discussed, with cautions about the use of expert testimony in cases of alleged sexual assault and rape trauma syndrome.

  4. Complex History and Differentiation Patterns of the t-Haplotype, a Mouse Meiotic Driver. (United States)

    Kelemen, Reka K; Vicoso, Beatriz


    The t-haplotype, a mouse meiotic driver found on chromosome 17, has been a model for autosomal segregation distortion for close to a century, but several questions remain regarding its biology and evolutionary history. A recently published set of population genomics resources for wild mice includes several individuals heterozygous for the t-haplotype, which we use to characterize this selfish element at the genomic and transcriptomic level. Our results show that large sections of the t-haplotype have been replaced by standard homologous sequences, possibly due to occasional events of recombination, and that this complicates the inference of its history. As expected for a long genomic segment of very low recombination, the t-haplotype carries an excess of fixed nonsynonymous mutations compared to the standard chromosome. This excess is stronger for regions that have not undergone recent recombination, suggesting that occasional gene flow between the t and the standard chromosome may provide a mechanism to regenerate coding sequences that have accumulated deleterious mutations. Finally, we find that t-complex genes with altered expression largely overlap with deleted or amplified regions, and that carrying a t-haplotype alters the testis expression of genes outside of the t-complex, providing new leads into the pathways involved in the biology of this segregation distorter. Copyright © 2017, Genetics.

  5. Perceptions of stranger and acquaintance rape: the role of benevolent and hostile sexism in victim blame and rape proclivity. (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Viki, G Tendayi; Masser, Barbara; Bohner, Gerd


    In Studies 1 and 2, after reading an acquaintance-rape but not a stranger-rape scenario, higher benevolent sexist but not hostile sexist participants blamed the victim significantly more. In Study 2, higher hostile sexist but not benevolent sexist male participants showed significantly greater proclivity to commit acquaintance (but not stranger) rape. Studies 3 and 4 supported the hypothesis that the effects of benevolent sexism and hostile sexism are mediated by different perceptions of the victim, as behaving inappropriately and as really wanting sex with the rapist. These findings show that benevolent sexism and hostile sexism underpin different assumptions about women that generate sexist reactions toward rape victims.

  6. History of the infantile hepatic hemangioma: From imaging to generating a differential diagnosis. (United States)

    Gnarra, Maria; Behr, Gerald; Kitajewski, Alison; Wu, June K; Anupindi, Sudha A; Shawber, Carrie J; Zavras, Nick; Schizas, Dimitrios; Salakos, Chris; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P


    We aim to provide an up-to-date summary of infantile hepatic hemangioma (IHH) and its misnomers and to dialectically present the differential diagnosis of these rare entities of the liver. Eligible peer-reviewed articles on hepatic infantile hemangiomas, published between 2000 and 2015, were reviewed for this study. IHH is the most common hepatic vascular tumor in children. Once a liver mass is identified in an infant, the differential diagnosis ranges from vascular malformations to benign and malignant tumors including mesenchymal hamartoma, hepatoblastoma, metastatic neuroblastoma, so careful physical examination, imaging studies, and, if indicated, tumor markers and biopsy, are of pivotal importance to ascertain the correct diagnosis. Despite the benign nature of IHHs, some of these lesions may demand medical and/or surgical intervention, especially for multiple and diffuse IHH. Complications can include hepatomegaly, hypothyroidism and cardiac failure. Therefore, a close follow-up is required until complete involution of the lesions. We propose an algorithm to guide the physicians towards the proper management of hepatic lesions.

  7. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas


    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  8. Population structure and genetic differentiation associated with breeding history and selection in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). (United States)

    Sim, S-C; Robbins, M D; Van Deynze, A; Michel, A P; Francis, D M


    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has undergone intensive selection during and following domestication. We investigated population structure and genetic differentiation within a collection of 70 tomato lines representing contemporary (processing and fresh-market) varieties, vintage varieties and landraces. The model-based Bayesian clustering software, STRUCTURE, was used to detect subpopulations. Six independent analyses were conducted using all marker data (173 markers) and five subsets of markers based on marker type (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, simple sequence repeats and insertion/deletions) and location (exon and intron sequences) within genes. All of these analyses consistently separated four groups predefined by market niche and age into distinct subpopulations. Furthermore, we detected at least two subpopulations within the processing varieties. These subpopulations correspond to historical patterns of breeding conducted for specific production environments. We found no subpopulation within fresh-market varieties, vintage varieties and landraces when using all marker data. High levels of admixture were shown in several varieties representing a transition in the demarcation between processing and fresh-market breeding. The genetic clustering detected by using the STRUCTURE software was confirmed by two statistics, pairwise F(st) (θ) and Nei's standard genetic distance. We also identified a total of 19 loci under positive selection between processing, fresh-market and vintage germplasm by using an F(st)-outlier method based on the deviation from the expected distribution of F(st) and heterozygosity. The markers and genome locations we identified are consistent with known patterns of selection and linkage to traits that differentiate the market classes. These results demonstrate how human selection through breeding has shaped genetic variation within cultivated tomato.

  9. Female University Student and Staff Perceptions of Rape (United States)

    Herman, Michele H.; Sedlacek, William E.


    This study explores the fears of potential rape victims and the amount of information about rape and self-defense that such women possess. Many dimensions were found to explain the variability of responses among female members of the campus community. Suggestions for programs were offered. (Author/PC)

  10. "Corrective rape" of lesbians in the era of transformative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been numerous incidents of “corrective” rape of lesbians in recent years. This article examines the adequacy of the existing South African legal framework to deal with incidents of “corrective” rape against the background of transformative constitutionalism. The various definitions of transformative ...

  11. Date rape among undergraduates in southwestern Nigeria federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlational survey design was adopted to examine the extent to which attitude towards date rape is associated with the respondents' emotional empathy, beliefs in rape myths and gender. Simple random sampling technique was adopted at three stages to draw one thousand two hundred and sixteen undergraduates ...

  12. Knowledge and Perceptions of Date Rape among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    (Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17[3]: 137-148). Keywords: Female undergraduate students, Date rape perception, Date rape-related knowledge. Introduction. Violence against women is a pervasive human rights abuse worldwide1,2. It is any act that results in, or may result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering ...

  13. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah


    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  14. The Experience of Male Rape in Non-Institutionalised Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    medical and psychological requirements of rape and sexual assault victims .... and can entail a higher degree of psychological manipulation rather ..... and happiness. Conclusion and Future Research. Among the primary observations evident in the descriptions obtained in this study is that the rape has tremendous power in ...

  15. A review of literature: rape and communication media strategies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using historical-analytic methodology, this article reviews literature on rape and the communication strategies that can be used to address rape issues in Nigeria. In doing this, it critically engages communication theories as they apply to some communication media strategies that have been/can be deployed to redress the ...

  16. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.


    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  17. Understanding the innermost nature of genocidal rape: A community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article shows that existing explanations of wartime rapes that are the biosocial, cultural and war strategy approaches do not capture sufficiently the innermost nature of genocidal rape. It proposes a new theoretical framework, the community-based approach, and confronts its premises with the real-life experiences of ...

  18. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 14, 2012 ... were investigated to elucidate the contributions of root morphology and organic acids exudation to P uptake by rape from ... experiments, the activation capacity of insoluble Fe-P and Al-P of organic acids secreted by different rape genotypes roots ..... root morphology, root exudates, root architecture and.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    connection is one which takes place otherwise than between husband and wife. A lot of issues arise ... It can therefore be said that rape is any sexual contact that is accompanied by penetration of whatever orifice of .... through its lens to look also at the Nigerian society which encourages offences of rape. It is a statement of ...

  20. [Rape: a social problem and a public health issue]. (United States)

    Piet, Emmanuelle


    The French legal definition of rape was somewhat vague until the 1970s. In December 1980, the increased awareness created by the feminist movement led to a precise legal definition and to the possibility for self-help groups to participate in legal actions. In 1985, a telephone helpline was created after several rapes were following several rapes committed in public. Since 1986, more than 39 000 women have called this hotline. Other recent studies confirm the frequency of rape. Major advances have been made in recent years, in terms of justice for minors who are victims of rape (lengthening of the statutory limitation on sexual crimes) and healthcare provision (opening of refuges, medical-legal consultations, victim management centers, greater awareness among healthcare professionals, etc.). Women need to be better informed of the frequency of rape, its legal implications, rapists' strategies, mental disorders, and the physical (especially gynecological) repercussions of rape. Women must also be aware that the rapist is the only guilty party. Finally, a multidisciplinary strategy is needed, notably involving self-help associations and hospital units that deal with rape victims.

  1. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: The Problem, the Victims, and Prevention. (United States)

    Neff, Laurie


    Asserts that, although providing educational programs and materials on acquaintance rape and prevention strategies is important, attention must also be given to victims. Discusses recognition of stress response pattern of victims suffering from Rape Trauma Syndrome and provision of appropriate referral and support services. Includes selected list…

  2. The emergency management of a rape case in a nutshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of a rape case in the emergency department is shrouded in an unacceptable level of lack of confidence. Since South Africa has a high incidence of rape, the contribution of health practitioners in addressing the crime successfully is essential. The medical management of such cases carries a high level of ...

  3. Rape, sexual politics and the construction of manhood among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pascah Mungwini

    198). Burgess and Holmstrom (1974), in their analysis of the rape trauma syndrome, characterized rape as an act of violence which uses sex as a weapon. As will be highlighted below, the construction of Shona masculinity presents the male in contraposition to the female, thus attributing the active role to the male and the.

  4. Perception of Rape Amongst Secondary School Students In Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Background: Rape in children is a significant public health problem and represents the least reported but most devastating major form of child abuse all over the world. It occurs when one person does not fully and freely consent to sexual intercourse. This study seeks to evaluate the perception of rape among secondary ...

  5. Attitudes toward rape among Nigerian young adults: the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hypotheses were tested with the independent group t-test. Attitudes of young adults toward rape was found to be different based on gender and parental family structure; male young adults had more positive attitudes toward rape than their female counterparts (t = 2.02, df = 318, p < .05); youth from polygamous family ...

  6. Psycho-legal challenges facing the mentally retarded rape victim

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 3, 2011 ... against women and children is rife in South Africa, the country has been branded the 'rape capital of the world'. ... the criminal justice system, have regarded people with mental retardation as unreliable witnesses. ..... Another important role player in this legal battle is the police. If a rape survivor with mental ...

  7. The Influence of Rape Myth Acceptance and Situational Factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through mixed-method victimisation surveys that covered four universities in Lagos and Ogun states, involving 206 respondents and 12 in-depth interviewees, the study found that emotions and societal perception of rape are strong factors in determining personal conception and description of rape-like experiences.

  8. Genetic differentiation in life-history traits of introduced and native common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) populations. (United States)

    Hodgins, K A; Rieseberg, L


    Introduced species represent opportunities to observe evolution over contemporary time scales, and as exotics encounter new environments, adaptive responses can occur, potentially contributing to invasion. Here, we compare 22 native North American populations and 12 introduced European populations of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in five common gardens (control, herbivory, light stress, nutrient stress and drought). We found evidence for improved growth and reproduction of the introduced populations in most environments, particularly in the light stress. However, under drought conditions, the introduced plants experienced more rapid wilting and mortality than their native counterparts, evidence consistent with a life-history trade-off between rapid growth and drought tolerance. Moreover, we found parallel latitudinal clines in flowering time and correlations between fitness components and the local climate of the source populations in both ranges. Together these data provide evidence for adaptation to local environmental conditions in the native and introduced range of common ragweed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Genetic differentiation and history of populations of the Italian treefrog Hyla intermedia: lack of concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear markers. (United States)

    Canestrelli, Daniele; Verardi, Andrea; Nascetti, Giuseppe


    The genetic differentiation among 33 populations of the Italian treefrog, Hyla intermedia (Anura: Hylidae), was investigated using both biparentally (23 allozyme loci) and maternally (partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene) inherited markers. Two main population groups were evidenced by both markers, located north and south of the northern Apennines. However, the pattern of differentiation between these two groups was much less pronounced at allozymes than at mtDNA, leading to gene flow estimates that were 25 times lower at mitochondrial than at nuclear level. Also, the mtDNA divergence between the two groups was particularly marked for two cospecific lineages of anuran amphibians (the P-distance being on average 9.04%), while their average genetic distance at allozymes was comparatively low (D (NEI) = 0.07). This contrasting pattern of nuclear versus mitochondrial genetic variation is discussed in the context of: (1) marker specific selection, (2) secondary contact and sex-biased gene flow and (3) ancestral polymorphism and colonization from north to south. Finally we emphasize how, for population genetic studies, the use of multiple markers having distinct evolutionary properties can help unravel the existence of more complex evolutionary histories.

  10. Oilseed rape: learning about ancient and recent polyploid evolution from a recent crop species. (United States)

    Mason, A S; Snowdon, R J


    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of our youngest crop species, arising several times under cultivation in the last few thousand years and completely unknown in the wild. Oilseed rape originated from hybridisation events between progenitor diploid species B. rapa and B. oleracea, both important vegetable species. The diploid progenitors are also ancient polyploids, with remnants of two previous polyploidisation events evident in the triplicated genome structure. This history of polyploid evolution and human agricultural selection makes B. napus an excellent model with which to investigate processes of genomic evolution and selection in polyploid crops. The ease of de novo interspecific hybridisation, responsiveness to tissue culture, and the close relationship of oilseed rape to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with the recent availability of reference genome sequences and suites of molecular cytogenetic and high-throughput genotyping tools, allow detailed dissection of genetic, genomic and phenotypic interactions in this crop. In this review we discuss the past and present uses of B. napus as a model for polyploid speciation and evolution in crop species, along with current and developing analysis tools and resources. We further outline unanswered questions that may now be tractable to investigation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Late Adolescents' Perspectives on Marital Rape: The Impact of Gender and Fraternity/Sorority Membership. (United States)

    Auster, Carol J.; Leone, Janel M.


    Examined attitudes toward marital rape-in particular, the impact of gender and fraternity/sorority membership on respondents' views regarding marital rape versus rape by a stranger, as well as feelings about actions that a victim of marital rape may take. While fraternity and nonfraternity men showed significant differences in responses, sorority…

  12. Date Rape: Its Relationship to Trauma Symptoms and Sexual Self-Esteem. (United States)

    Shapiro, Brenda L.; Schwarz, J. Conrad


    Extends previous research on date rape by assessing trauma symptoms and sexual self-esteem among college women who had, or who had not, been raped. Results indicate that rape victims had significantly more trauma symptoms and lower sexual self-esteem compared to other women, thus suggesting date rape's significant consequences. (RJM)

  13. "Passive victim - strong survivor"? Perceived meaning of labels applied to women who were raped. (United States)

    Papendick, Michael; Bohner, Gerd


    Three experiments (total N = 464) were conducted in parallel with English- and German-speaking participants to examine the perceived meanings and effects of the labels "victim" versus "survivor" (and their German equivalents) when applied to a woman who was raped. In Study 1 (N = 179), participants read a rape vignette and then rated the meaning of the label it contained (either "victim" or "survivor") on a 15-item semantic differential. Independent of language and participant gender, "survivor" was perceived more positively overall (e.g., as strong, brave, active) than was "victim" (weak, passive, but also innocent). In Study 2 (N = 95), labels were varied within items assessing judgments of an acquaintance-rape case (e.g., "Does the victim [survivor] … carry a certain responsibility for what happened?"), focusing on short-term outcomes. Significant interaction effects of label and participants' gender emerged on case-related judgments. Participants in both language samples judged "survivor" to be a less appropriate term than "victim". In Study 3 (N = 190), participants read a text in which a woman who had been raped labeled herself as either "victim" or "survivor", focusing on the coping with sexual violence. As in Study 2, German-language participants showed no significant effects of the label on their case judgments but rejected the term "survivor" as inappropriate; English-language participants, by contrast, perceived the woman describing herself as "survivor" to be more psychologically stable and regarded the use of both labels as appropriate. Results are discussed in terms of their applied relevance for communicating about sexual violence.

  14. "Passive victim – strong survivor"? Perceived meaning of labels applied to women who were raped (United States)

    Papendick, Michael


    Three experiments (total N = 464) were conducted in parallel with English- and German-speaking participants to examine the perceived meanings and effects of the labels "victim" versus "survivor" (and their German equivalents) when applied to a woman who was raped. In Study 1 (N = 179), participants read a rape vignette and then rated the meaning of the label it contained (either "victim" or "survivor") on a 15-item semantic differential. Independent of language and participant gender, "survivor" was perceived more positively overall (e.g., as strong, brave, active) than was "victim" (weak, passive, but also innocent). In Study 2 (N = 95), labels were varied within items assessing judgments of an acquaintance-rape case (e.g., "Does the victim [survivor] … carry a certain responsibility for what happened?"), focusing on short-term outcomes. Significant interaction effects of label and participants’ gender emerged on case-related judgments. Participants in both language samples judged "survivor" to be a less appropriate term than "victim". In Study 3 (N = 190), participants read a text in which a woman who had been raped labeled herself as either "victim" or "survivor", focusing on the coping with sexual violence. As in Study 2, German-language participants showed no significant effects of the label on their case judgments but rejected the term "survivor" as inappropriate; English-language participants, by contrast, perceived the woman describing herself as "survivor" to be more psychologically stable and regarded the use of both labels as appropriate. Results are discussed in terms of their applied relevance for communicating about sexual violence. PMID:28493976

  15. Rape-accepting attitudes of university undergraduate students. (United States)

    Talbot, Kimberly K; Neill, Karen S; Rankin, Linda L


    The College Date Rape Attitudes Survey and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale were used in a cross-sectional study to assess rape-accepting attitudes of a convenience sample of 1602 university undergraduate students using a survey distributed online. The findings evidenced that males and individuals with more traditional gender role beliefs had attitudes more accepting of rape than the females and individuals who had more egalitarian gender role beliefs. Respondents who personally knew a rape survivor had attitudes less accepting of rape than those respondents who did not know a survivor. These findings support a continuing need to address rape myths in sexual violence prevention programming. The sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE-A) has an important role in prevention services to educate and build awareness of rape myths both on campus and through community-based efforts to reach this high risk population. Further, the SANE can build important linkages between the college campus and the healthcare setting to support the provision of effective intervention services and improved outcomes in victims of sexual violence. © 2010 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  16. Genocide Rape Trauma Management: An Integrated Framework for Supporting Survivors. (United States)

    Mukamana, Donatilla; Brysiewicz, Petra; Collins, Anthony; Rosa, William


    During the 1994 Rwandan genocide, rape was widely used as a strategic weapon against Tutsi women. More than 20 years later, many of these women are still suffering devastating psychological, social, and physical effects of these experiences and remain in need of effective interventions that address their complex trauma. This article develops the theory of genocide rape trauma management as a conceptual framework for promoting the holistic health and recovery of female genocide rape survivors. A qualitative study using grounded theory explored the lived experiences of genocide rape survivors and led to the development of this model. The need for a contextually appropriate model is highlighted, with historical and current data regarding the Rwandan context and the experiences of genocide rape survivors. The research details the complex dynamics of emotional, physical, existential, and psychosocial sequelae related to genocide rape trauma, and how these interact with both local community and broader political attitudes toward survivors, as well as the serious interrelated economic challenges and limitations in current public health and welfare services. The research demonstrates the necessary elements of a holistic approach encompassing a synergistic combination of skilled psychological care, self-help strategies, collaborative support groups, community education, social reintegration, advocacy, accessible medical care, and economic empowerment. These interacting elements form the basis of the theory of genocide rape trauma management, offering an encompassing integrated framework that can be adapted to, and evaluated in, other similar contexts.

  17. Differentiation and thermal history of the post-collapse magma reservoir at Yellowstone caldera as revealed by combining the temperature-age-compositional history of zircons (United States)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Reid, M. R.; Kyriazis, S. F.


    Coupling the age and compositional history recorded between and within single accessory minerals, such as zircon or allanite, may provide a high-resolution perspective on the thermochemical evolution of voluminous magma reservoirs in the prelude to eruption. At Yellowstone caldera, USA, more than 900km3 of high- silica rhyolite erupted sequentially in the aftermath of caldera collapse from an evolving magma reservoir. At least 21 lavas and tuffs comprise the voluminous Central Plateau Member (CPM) of the Plateau Rhyolite which erupted between 160 ka and 70 ka. 238U-230Th disequilibrium and U-Pb dating reveal that CPM zircons crystallized approximately 0 to 60 thousand years prior to their respective K-Ar eruption ages, and contain little inheritance from the caldera-forming magma. To obtain a temperature-time-compositional history for CPM zircons and evaluate the applicability of the zircon thermometry to high-silica rhyolites, we performed ion microprobe analyses of trace element concentrations in >65 of the dated zircons from four lavas representing early, middle, and late tapping of the CPM reservoir. Most CPM zircons contain typical REE patterns with chondrite-normalized Lu/La of up to 30,000, and with Eu/Eu* as low as 0.03. A subset of the results (~45%) yield elevated light REE, Ti, and Fe concentrations where sampled zircon domains included small inclusions of Fe-Ti oxides, chevkinite, and/or monazite. Application of Ti-in-zircon thermometry to dated zircons that are unaffected by inclusions yield temperatures that have a range of approximately 70 degrees. Calculated temperatures would largely fall within the range of 800°-840°C for CPM magmas obtained by Zr-glass, zircon saturation, and QUILF thermometry if an essentially fixed melt aTiO2 of 0.3 due to ilmenite saturation is assumed. Where analyzed, the rims of single zircons yield temperatures that are 10°-20° lower than their cores. Our combination of zircon thermometry, age, and composition reveals

  18. ["Biastophilia"--rape as a form of paraphilia?]. (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas


    Rape is primarily regarded as a crime against sexual integrity. If rape is the only way for an individual to get sexual satisfaction, it meets the criteria of paraphilia, i.e. a disorder of sexual preference. The correct technical term is "biastophilia". The author investigates the evolutionary origins of this deviant form of copulation behavior, whose crucial characteristic is breaking the will of the sexual object. He shows that in a primeval environment this type of mating behavior may have been a promising strategy to pass on one's genes to the next generation. Thus, the behavioral pattern of raping had the chance to become widely spread in spite of its social undesirability.

  19. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance. (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly


    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Rape in South Africa: an invisible part of apartheid's legacy. (United States)

    Armstrong, S


    Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases and other forms of gender violence have increased. Under an apartheid system, where only the rape of white women was prosecuted, and gender and race issues could diffuse the black struggle, there were difficulties in mobilizing support to end violence against black women. There was social acceptance that rape of black women was part of life. Police statistics on the incidence of rape were notoriously unreliable, because only a small percentage of cases are reported to police, and many women would be ashamed to admit to marital abuse, including rape. In women's groups, it was reported that 1 out of every 4 women had been raped, and raped at early ages, such as 14 years of age. In impoverished communities, there is widespread poverty, injustice, prejudice, alcohol abuse, and other conditions impacting on women. The rapists may be school classmates, or street fighters, or political activists. The sexual initiation of women worldwide and in South Africa frequently is accompanied by coercion. Abduction and forced sex is considered legitimate for young men, who believe that mental health is deleteriously affected by lack of sex. Girls may even be abducted from the classroom, as a way of preventing women's power and control over assets and resources and diminishing the potential threat to gender power relations. School girls who become pregnant are often forced to leave school. Victims of rape may be excluded from family life and forced to seek prostitution as a means of support. Rape is reportedly experienced among older women with bottles, tins, or other devices which inflict injury. Only rape with penal penetration is an

  1. Changing attitudes and perceptions of Hispanic men ages 18 to 25 about rape and rape prevention. (United States)

    Lawson, Sarah Lynn; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gutman, Lauren Samantha; Siman, Matilde Nathalia


    This exploratory study was designed to test the effectiveness of Foubert's intervention, The Men's Program, on a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Hispanic men who are not enrolled at a University or College. We explored participants' perceptions of, reactions to, and experience of the program. The information collected will be used to adapt the program to this specific population in order to increase cultural relevancy and specificity and create lasting attitudinal change. Three groups of six-eight Hispanic males (n = 22) were exposed to the intervention program. The Bystander Attitude Scale and the Rape Attitude and Beliefs Scale were administered as pre- and post-test measures. A short focus group was conducted to ask the men about their experience of the intervention. Analysis showed a significant increase in participants' willingness to intervene (p = 0.005) along with a decrease in rape myth acceptance in four of the five subscales (Justice p = 0.03; Status p = 0.004; Tactics p = 0.04; and Gender p = 0.002) after exposure to the intervention. Analysis of focus group material yielded several interesting themes about knowledge of rape, family and culture, perceptions of women, and the program material. This study showed promising change in attitudes about rape beliefs and bystander behaviors in Hispanic males exposed to an educational intervention. Through the information obtained, a cultural adaption from the analysis of the focus group data will be implemented during Phase 2 of the study. The adapted intervention will be tested before, after, and 1- and 3-months post-intervention to test whether the change in attitudes and behaviors are sustainable over time.

  2. Towards a Differentiated and Domain-Specific View of Educational Technology: An Exploratory Study of History Teachers' Technology Use (United States)

    Voet, Michiel; De Wever, Bram


    Adopting a differentiated and domain-specific view of educational technology, the present study focuses on the case of school history. It argues that, in this particular context, one of technology's main assets is its ability to support inquiry-based learning activities, during which students interpret the past through historical reasoning. As…

  3. Media Re-victimization of Rape Victims in a Shame Culture? Exploring the Framing and Representation of Rape Cases in Nigerian Dailies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinenye Nwabueze; Fidelis Oduah


      [...]India as a country has in recent time, continued to have its doses of not just rape cases but "gang raping" of powerless, defenseless and innocent women and girls by rapists and "the situation...

  4. Rape embryogenesis. V. Accumulation of lipid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska


    Full Text Available In embryo of winter rape var. Górczański lipid bodies have been observed in the light microscope starting from two-celled proembryo. Their number and size increase in the course of embryogenesis, especially since greening of endosperm and embryo. Lipid bodies, either single or in clusters, are present in all embryo cells, the clusters occur in various parts of the cytoplasm. During embryo maturation lipid bodies move and locate in a number of layers by the cell wall. At the same time their appearance change. Typical storage lipids originate. Lipid bodies are unevenly distributed within the embryo: their number and size decrease along the embryo axis from its part below cotyledons towards root apex. Moreover, they are histologically diversified: the biggest are located in epidermis and cortex, whereas the smallest -in central cylinder. In columella there are fewest lipid bodies.

  5. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska


    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  6. [Anxiety and depression levels in rape offenders]. (United States)

    Herrera-Hernández, E; Marván, L; Saavedra, M; Contreras, C M


    Whether the active subject of rape possesses a particular personality trait is a much debated matter. It is an accepted fact that a small amount of rapists fall into the sadistic diagnostic category. Other psychopatologic traits likely to identify a rapist are, however, unknown. The present study was carried over at a jail near the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) Mexico. Hamilton, IDARE, and Zung scales, in their modified Spanish version were applied to a sample of imprisoned adult rapists. Compared to their control group (men serving sentences for other felonies), rapists scored higher in anxiety, and depression scales. In the light of these results, it is suggested that some rapists are likely to be anxious-depressive subjects that, after having "acquired" a sociopathic repertoire, offend other people in conditions of indefensiveness, contrary to depressive subjects who aggress themselves.

  7. Evolution of Rape Myths and Sexual Assaults in Newspaper Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen Tsai


    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the coverage of three newspapers of rape in the daily Press in Taiwan. The idea that rape is a sexual rather than an aggressive act encourages people not to take it seriously as a crime-an attitude frequently revealed in comments by defense attorneys and newspaper. The authors’ investigated that the female victim who did not know most of her attackers will be portrayed as helpless and not responsible for her victimization. The newspapers sustained and reinforced the myths that a woman who is having consensual sex cannot be raped, and if so, she is held culpable and perceived as “asking for it.” A content analysis of newspapers’ headlines and coverage between 2002 and 2013 showed that more than 50% endorsed a rape myth.

  8. Party Rape, Nonconsensual Sex, and Affirmative Consent Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly Oliver


    ... of communication, the communication of pleasure. [...]given the increasingly slippery slope between sex and sexual assault, and uncertainty about what counts as rape, many women are subject to sexual aggression, even sexual assault, and are not...





    2014 ARDHIANSYAHAKSAN (B111 10105), dengan judul ???Analisis Kriminologis Terhadap Tindak Kejahatan Pemerkosaan Lelaki (Male Rape)???. Di bawah bimbingan bapak Prof. Dr. AndiSofyan, S.H., M.H., sebagai Pembimbing I dan bapak KaisaruddinKamaruddin, S.H., sebagai Pembimbing II. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor penyebab terjadinya tindak kejahatan pemerkosaan lelaki (male rape) dan upaya yang dapat ...

  10. Rape-seed oil - a substitute for mineral oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badent, R.; Kist, K.; Schwab, A.J. [University of Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute of Electric Systems and High-Voltage Technology


    This paper presents the results obtained from the study on the basic characteristics of rape-seed oil considered to be a substitute of mineral oil in power transformers. The results show that rape- seed oil is usable as an insulating liquid. Furthermore, results are presented concerning the breakdown behaviour in uniform (plane-plane geometry) and non-uniform (rod-plane geometry) fields under impulse conditions with gaps up to 40 mm and voltages up to 650 kV. A sufficient high 50 Hz breakdown voltage is the most important precondition for a medium to be used as an insulator. The dielectric strength of rape-seed oil exceeds more than 50 kV/2,5 mm and consequently fulfils the requirements of the standards. The measurement of the permittivity and tan {delta} at 90{sup o}C yields to 3,18 and 0,015, respectively and is comparable to the values of standard mineral oil. However, there are still some problems to be overcome. Beside the insulating task the liquid dielectric has also a cooling function in power apparatus. Since the dynamic viscosity of rape-seed oil (about 70 mm{sup 2}/s at 40{sup o}C) is higher than that of mineral oil, rape-seed oil has a lower ability for heat conduction. A further problem is the solidification of rape-seed oil below -5{sup o}C. (author)

  11. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research. (United States)

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M


    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  12. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. II. Evaluation of potential antagonistic fungi isolated from rape seeds against the main pathogens of rape crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan


    Full Text Available In vitro relationships between identified seed- and soil-borne fungi from rape samples have been investigated in order to evaluate their antagonistic ability as potential biocontrol agents. The bioproduct obtained from the Trichoderma viride Pers. (strain Td50 has been tested in vivo against the main phytopathogens of rape: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. in greenhouse at the Laboratory of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Biology Faculty, University of Bucharest – Romania and in the field at the Agricultural Experimental Research-Development Station Caracal (AERDS, Olt district. The T. viride (strain Td50 bioproduct formulated as a powder for the seed treatment has been effective in the protection of rape plantlets against the above mentioned phytopathogens.

  13. Rape and child sexual abuse: what beliefs persist about motives, perpetrators, and survivors? (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronán


    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and local rape myths is necessary if they are to be successfully challenged through public campaigns and other means. This study sought to assess the prevalence of myths concerning rape and sexual abuse in a national population survey.

  14. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban. (United States)


    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  15. Self-efficacy, male rape myth acceptance, and devaluation of emotions in sexual trauma sequelae: Findings from a sample of male veterans. (United States)

    Voller, Emily; Polusny, Melissa A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Street, Amy; Grill, Joseph; Murdoch, Maureen


    Sexual trauma is an understudied but regrettably significant problem among male Veterans. As in women, sexual trauma often results in serious mental health consequences for men. Therefore, to guide potential future interventions in this important group, we investigated associations among self-efficacy, male rape myth acceptance, devaluation of emotions, and psychiatric symptom severity after male sexual victimization. We collected data from 1,872 Gulf War era Veterans who applied for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) disability benefits using standard mailed survey methods. The survey asked about history of childhood sexual abuse, sexual assault during the time of Gulf War I, and past-year sexual assault as well as Veterans' perceived self-efficacy, male rape myth acceptance, devaluation of emotions, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy partially mediated the association between participants' sexual trauma history and psychiatric symptoms. Greater male rape myth acceptance and greater devaluation of emotions were directly associated with lower self-efficacy, but these beliefs did not moderate associations between sexual trauma and self-efficacy. In this population, sexual trauma, male rape myth acceptance, and devaluation of emotions were associated with lowered self-efficacy, which in turn was associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms. Implications for specific, trauma-focused treatment are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. "Lucrece this night I must enjoy thee" : a narcissistic reading of The Rape of Lucrece

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koketso, Daniel


    The circumstances under which acts of rape are committed, and the relationship between power and sexual aggression, may seem to be distinctly modern concerns, yet Shakespeare explores them in The Rape of Lucrece (1594...

  17. “You Have to Confess”: Rape and the Politics of Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Roeder


    Full Text Available This article examines the discourse of rape in contemporary culture, paying special attention to the courtroom setting, where rape victims are often required to tell cohesive, linear narratives that underscore their blamelessness if they hope to be believed. Because of deeply entrenched cultural myths about rape, the type of story often required for the successful prosecution of perpetrators may require rape victims to construct narratives that do not accurately reflect their lived experience. Writers such as Susan Brison, Patricia Weaver Francisco, and Alice Sebold engage with the complex politics of rape and its telling in their memoirs. While constructing stories that will suffice in the courtroom setting remains an important task for many rape victims, such stories may ultimately have to be relinquished and rewritten in order to revise prevailing cultural perceptions of rape, its perpetrators, and its victims. The memoirs of rape survivors thus come to function as a different—and necessary—type of public testimony.

  18. Mutilating granuloma inguinale after rape A case report | O'Farrell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A woman with extensive mutilating lesions of genital granuloma inguinale following rape is described. As far as is known granuloma inguinale has not previously been reported in a rape victim.

  19. Rape Aggression Defense: Unique Self-Efficacy Benefits for Survivors of Sexual Trauma. (United States)

    Pinciotti, Caitlin M; Orcutt, Holly K


    Self-defense training is consistently linked to psychological benefits for survivors of sexual trauma, yet little is known about how training may uniquely benefit survivors compared with their nonsurvivor peers enrolled in the same course. Path analysis was used to examine how history of sexual trauma impacts pre- and post-training scores on three domains of self-efficacy using a national sample of Rape Aggression Defense (RAD) participants. All participants reported significant increases in self-efficacy domains, and sexual trauma history significantly predicted pre-training interpersonal self-efficacy and post-training self-defense self-efficacy, suggesting that self-defense training confers benefits for survivors above and beyond benefits for other participants.

  20. Suspect aggression and victim resistance in multiple perpetrator rapes. (United States)

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire


    Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships.

  1. “You Have to Confess”: Rape and the Politics of Storytelling


    Tara Roeder


    This article examines the discourse of rape in contemporary culture, paying special attention to the courtroom setting, where rape victims are often required to tell cohesive, linear narratives that underscore their blamelessness if they hope to be believed. Because of deeply entrenched cultural myths about rape, the type of story often required for the successful prosecution of perpetrators may require rape victims to construct narratives that do not accurately reflect their lived experience...

  2. Lack of Control as a Predictive Factor for Stress-related Symptoms in Rape Victims


    Sombke, Chad


    Researchers have agreed that most rape victims vii experience stress-related symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder. There have also been numerous studies that have tried to predict the severity of those stress-related symptoms, but the literature is inconclusive. Lack of perceived control is consistently mentioned in the rape research literature as being present in rape victims, but no study has empirically examined the relationship between perceived control and a rape victim's s...

  3. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie


    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  4. Profile of rape victims referred by the court to the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The psychological evaluation of rape victims to determine their competency to testify in court and whether they are capable of consenting to sexual intercourse is challenging, especially when the rape victim is mentally retarded. Objective. To describe the profile of mentally retarded rape victims referred to the ...

  5. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.


    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  6. Rape Perception and the Function of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender-Role Traditionality (United States)

    Yamawaki, Niwako


    This study explores the roles of benevolent sexism (BS), hostile sexism (HS), and gender-role traditionality (GRT) in minimizing rape, blaming the victim, and excusing the rapist. As predicted, hostile sexists minimize the seriousness of the rape in both stranger and date-rape scenarios. In the victim-blame scale, both BS and GRT significantly…

  7. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students (United States)

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles


    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  8. 75 FR 27000 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (United States)


    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on June 3-4, 2010. The hearing... Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, Public Law 108-79, 117 Stat. 972 (codified as amended at 42 U.S.C...

  9. Pilot study to assess the viability of a rape trauma syndrome questionnaire. (United States)

    Long, F Y; Pang, E; Kee, C


    Studies have revealed that rape victims undergo a number of psychological symptoms following the attack, which constitute a specific syndrome termed the rape trauma syndrome (RTS). Evidence of the RTS has been admitted as scientific testimony in the prosecution of sexual offences and has been integral in their successful conviction. The present study aims to assess the viability of a questionnaire designed to identify the RTS in victims of alleged rape. A 77-item rape trauma syndrome questionnaire (RTSQ) was developed and administered to 30 women who reported rape and 57 nurses who formed the control group. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Windows Version 6.0). Statistical analysis suggested that the questionnaire was internally consistent and effective in uncovering significant differences between rape victims and controls in their experience of rape trauma symptoms. Rape victims scored significantly higher than controls on the RTS scale. Those who faked rape were also found to endorse a greater number of the rape trauma symptoms than actual rape victims, as well as a greater number of fictitious and unlikely symptoms. This pilot study confirmed the viability of the RTSQ and paves the way for a more rigorous examination of its reliability and validity. In the future, the questionnaire may be of use in ascertaining the veracity of victims' claims of rape in the conviction of sexual offences where circumstances are equivocal.

  10. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan


    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  11. Value of past clinical history in differentiating bronchial asthma from COPD in male smokers presenting with SOB and fixed airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahlad Rai Gupta


    Full Text Available Objective: Differentiating asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is difficult. Steroid trial may be of help but has several pitfalls. The present study aims to assess the value of past clinical profile of asthma and its differential diagnosis from COPD in male smokers and thereby to formulate clinical parameters to diagnose bronchial asthma in such patients. Patients and Methods: Male smokers who reported at the Respiratory Medicine Department of the National Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS Hospital, Jaipur, (India, with shortness of breath (SOB and showing less than 12% postbronchodilator bronchial reversibility (BR on spirometry were recruited. These patients were given oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg for two weeks. Post steroid (PS spirometry was performed to ascertain BR. The past clinical history was recorded and analyzed to determine if it is of any use in differentiating asthma from COPD. Result: Out of 104 patients, four were lost to follow up, 52 were diagnosed as bronchial asthma, and the remaining 48 as COPD. It was revealed that past history of (H/O seasonal variation, wheezing, eye allergy, nasal allergy, dust allergy, skin allergy, and family H/O asthma/allergy were positive in 50, 40, 34, 30, 18, 14, and 12 asthma patients as compared to 10, 8, 2, 4, 6, 0, and 0 in 48 COPD patients (P < 0.001. The odds ratio (OR for diagnosing asthma was highest for the presence of any other two symptoms/variables, besides SOB, in the past (OR = 275, P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Past clinical history is of immense value in differentiating asthma from COPD in male smokers presenting with SOB and fixed airway obstruction.

  12. Fear of rape among college women: a social psychological analysis. (United States)

    Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R


    This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences.

  13. Individual-and Setting-Level Correlates of Secondary Traumatic Stress in Rape Crisis Center Staff. (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Sorell, Nicole R; Allen, Nicole E


    Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an issue of significant concern among providers who work with survivors of sexual assault. Although STS has been studied in relation to individual-level characteristics of a variety of types of trauma responders, less research has focused specifically on rape crisis centers as environments that might convey risk or protection from STS, and no research to knowledge has modeled setting-level variation in correlates of STS. The current study uses a sample of 164 staff members representing 40 rape crisis centers across a single Midwestern state to investigate the staff member-and agency-level correlates of STS. Results suggest that correlates exist at both levels of analysis. Younger age and greater severity of sexual assault history were statistically significant individual-level predictors of increased STS. Greater frequency of supervision was more strongly related to secondary stress for non-advocates than for advocates. At the setting level, lower levels of supervision and higher client loads agency-wide accounted for unique variance in staff members' STS. These findings suggest that characteristics of both providers and their settings are important to consider when understanding their STS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  15. Sexual rape in children and adolescents: a medical emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Piña Corina Araceli


    Full Text Available Sexual rape is defined as vaginal, anal or oral sex with violent and forceful penetration of the penis or of any other object. Patients who have been raped are a medical emergency which requires immediate attention, if possible, within 24 to 72 hours, since there is the risk of sustaining external and internal injuries and of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Detection and Centers for Disease Control (CDC have reported that the maximum effective- ness of HIV prophylaxis is obtained when given within the first 24 to 72 hours post exposure.

  16. Attitude May Be Everything, But Is Everything an Attitude? Cognitive Distortions May Not Be Evaluations of Rape. (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; White, Kristen; Pettersen, Cathrine; Bumby, Kurt


    Cognitive distortions are often referred to as attitudes toward rape in theory, research, and clinical practice pertaining to sexual aggression. In the social-psychological literature, however, attitudes are typically defined as evaluations; thus, in this context, attitudes toward rape are considered evaluations of rape (e.g., rape is negative vs. positive). The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a widely used measure of cognitive distortions (RAPE Scale; Bumby, 1996) assesses evaluation of rape, and, if not, whether evaluation of rape and the cognitions assessed by the RAPE Scale are independently associated with sexually aggressive behavior. Participants (660 male undergraduate students) completed the RAPE Scale as well as measures of evaluation of rape and sexually aggressive behavior. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the RAPE Scale items formed a correlated but distinct factor from the Evaluation of Rape Scale items. Regression analyses indicated that the Evaluation of Rape Scale and the RAPE Scale had small to moderate independent associations with self-report measures of sexually aggressive behavior. Our results suggest that evaluation of rape may be distinct from cognitive distortions regarding rape, and both evaluation and cognitive distortions may be relevant for understanding sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. It's Her Fault: Student Acceptance of Rape Myths On Two College Campuses. (United States)

    Hayes, Rebecca M; Abbott, Rebecca L; Cook, Savannah


    The present study examined factors that are associated with an individual's adherence to rape myths at two colleges located in the same town. Particularly, we examined sex, race, and participants' drinking behavior in relation to rape myth acceptance. We found that males and heavy drinkers are more likely than females and non/low drinkers to adhere to rape myths. An interaction between males and drinking was also found indicating a moderated effect of gender on rape myth acceptance. In addition, the college with sexual assault programming did not experience a lowered acceptance of rape myths compared with the college with no programming. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Evaluating stranger and acquaintance rape: the role of benevolent sexism in perpetrator blame and recommended sentence length. (United States)

    Viki, G Tendayi; Abrams, Dominic; Masser, Barbara


    In most jurisdictions, the law does not recognize the distinction between stranger and acquaintance rape. However, these two types of rape seem to elicit different responses from both lay observers and legal practitioners. Two studies investigating the role of benevolent sexism (BS) in accounting for participants' responses to acquaintance vs. stranger rape perpetrators are reported. Participants were presented with vignettes describing either an acquaintance rape or a stranger rape. As predicted, relative to low-BS individuals, participants who scored high in BS attributed less blame (Study 1) and recommended shorter sentences (Study 2) for the acquaintance rape perpetrator. Benevolent sexism was unrelated to reactions to the perpetrator in the stranger rape condition.

  19. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna


    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  20. Memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, differentially influences Go/No-Go performance and fMRI activity in individuals with and without a family history of alcoholism. (United States)

    Jamadar, S; DeVito, E E; Jiantonio, R E; Meda, S A; Stevens, M C; Potenza, M N; Krystal, J H; Pearlson, G D


    Individuals with a family history of alcoholism (family history positive [FHP]) show higher alcoholism rates and are more impulsive than those without such a family history (family history negative [FHN]), possibly due to altered N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function. We investigated whether memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, differentially influences impulsivity measures and Go/No-Go behavior and fMRI activity in matched FHP and FHN individuals. On separate days, participants received a single dose of 40 mg memantine or identical-appearing placebo. No group performance differences were observed on placebo for Go correct hit or No-Go false alarm reaction time on the Go/No-Go task. During fMRI, right cingulate activation differed for FHP vs. FHN subjects during No-Go correct rejects. Memantine had attenuated effects in FHP vs. FHN subjects: For No-Go false alarms, memantine was associated with limited reduction in subcortical, cingulate, and temporal regions in FHP subjects and reduced activity in fronto-striatal-parietal networks in FHN subjects. For No-Go correct rejects, memantine (relative to placebo) reduced activity in left cingulate and caudate in FHP but not FHN subjects. Lower sensitivity to the effects of memantine in FHP subjects is consistent with greater NMDA receptor function in this group.

  1. Differential diagnosis and recovery of acute bilateral foot drop in a patient with a history of low back pain: A case report. (United States)

    Lomaglio, Melanie; Canale, Bob


    Acute bilateral foot drop is rare and may be due to peripheral or central lesions. The purpose of this case report was to describe the differential diagnosis and recovery of a patient with low back pain (LBP) that awoke with bilateral foot drop. A 39-year-old man with a history of LBP awoke with a steppage gait pattern. Spinal imaging and tapping were negative for sinister pathologies. A subsequent history taken by the physical therapist uncovered that the patient had previously taken a narcotic and slept in a kneeling position to relieve his LBP. Strength and sensory testing revealed isolated impairments in the fibular nerve distribution, and bilateral fibular palsy was suspected and later confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Surgical fibular nerve decompression was performed, and the patient underwent physical therapy. Five months later the patient demonstrated antigravity strength and a partial return of sensation. By 17 months, his Lower Extremity Functional Scale had improved from 17/80 to 78/80, revealing a near complete recovery. The patient's history of LBP was a "red herring" that delayed the diagnosis and caused undue stress to the patient. This case stresses the importance of a thorough history and clinical examination.

  2. Visualising Shattered Lives: Potentiality in Representations of Rape Victimisation in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Lei Cheng


    Full Text Available This article examines how cinematic representations of rape can challenge the silence which surrounds the issue of rape and sexual violence in Japan. A textual analysis of two contemporary fictional Japanese films, DV: Domestic Violence [2005] and The Ravine of Goodbye [2013], was performed to illustrate how filmmakers can use narrative and cinematographic techniques to influence the viewer to reflect upon their attitudes to rape and rape victims. By examining how these two films depict rape and rape recovery, this article argues that there is discursive potential inherent within cinema to shape our imaginations and ideals about the world. But while the filmmaker can construct rape representations that encourage reflection, how the viewer decides to engage with the film has bearing on whether this potential for reflection is realised.

  3. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment. (United States)

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L


    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  4. National Comparisons of Rape Myth Acceptance Predictors Between Nonathletes and Athletes From Multi-Institutional Settings. (United States)

    Navarro, John C; Tewksbury, Richard


    Athletes are cited as common perpetrators of sexual victimization and are at greater risk of becoming offenders compared with nonathletes. Demographic, lifestyle, and social characteristics of 624 nonathletes and 101 athletes from 21 U.S. Division I postsecondary educational institutions were assessed, with the updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale gauging endorsement of rape myths. Results indicate that athletes and nonathletes were similar in the degree of rape myth acceptance, with athletes reporting stronger agreement with rape myths than nonathletes did. Predictors of rape myth acceptance among nonathletes are multidimensional. In contrast, nondemographic characteristics like Greek membership, the number of alcoholic beverages consumed, and knowing a sexual assault victim predict rape myth acceptance for athletes, with gender not predicting rape myth acceptance nor different between genders of athletes. Policy implications and future research are discussed.

  5. Pornography, Sexual Callousness, and the Trivialization of Rape. (United States)

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings


    Explored the consequences of continued exposure to pornography on beliefs about sexuality in general and on dispositions toward women in particular. Found that massive exposure to pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape victims and toward women in general. (PD)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Albertyn C "Gendered Transformation in South African Jurisprudence: Poor. Women and the Constitutional Court" 2011 Stell LR 591-613. Anguita 2012 Int'l J Hum Rts. Anguita LA "Tackling Corrective Rape in South Africa: The Engagement between the LGBT CSO's and the NHRI's (CGE and SAHRC) and its Role" 2012.

  7. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4H2O) and Al-P (AlPO4), were investigated to elucidate the contributions of root morphology and organic acids exudation to P uptake by rape from iron phosphate and aluminum phosphate. By solution culture and sand culture experiments, the ...

  8. The relationshp between rape experience and post-traumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the relationship between rape experience and of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among victims. One hundred and thirty-two female participants made up of seventy-two from Nasarawa State University and sixty from the general public in Keffi town of Nasarawa State participated in the ...

  9. Event characteristics and socio-demographic features of rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: On account of increasing awareness of the need for Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and availability of requisite drugs, victims of rape are now presenting at health facilities including ours to access PEP for HIV. This study set to document the socio-demographic features of these victims and the event ...

  10. Psychological Techniques In Helping Rape Victims | Ayinde | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling psychology is concerned with assisting people who have personal, social, educational and vocational problems to better understand themselves and solve their problems. Rape is seen as a problem that militates against the psychological well being of victims, because of the devastating aftermath of the incident ...

  11. Constructing victims and perpetrators of rape in the advice column

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This article reports on the ways in which the rape of women by men is constructed in the advice column Dear Dolly, published in the South African periodical Drum Magazine. The data collected for the study spans from 1984 to 2004, encompassing both 10 years before and 10 years after the onset of democracy in ...

  12. Forcible Rape: A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Chappell, Duncan; Fogarty, Faith

    This selective, annotated bibliography provides guidance to the source and content of a small proportion of the existing publicity about rape, Non-English-language publications, as well as those receiving only limited distribution, are excluded. All materials are recent, most having been published during the 1970's. Outdated materials, such as…

  13. Alcohol-Involved Rapes: Are They More Violent? (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.


    Alcohol's psychological, cognitive, and motor effects contribute to rape. Based on theory and past research, we hypothesized that there would be a curvilinear relationship between the quantity of alcohol consumed by perpetrators and how aggressively they behaved. Moderate levels of intoxication encourage aggressiveness; however, extreme levels…

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis among women raped in Antananarivo, 2005-2011. (United States)

    Andrianarivelo Andry, M; Raherinaivo Anjatiana, A; Razafindrakoto Ainamalala, C; Rasoanandrasana, S; Ravaoarisaina Zakasoa, M; Rasamindrakotroka, A


    Rape is a forensic emergency due to the possibility of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Moreover, an upsurge is currently underway. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis in women undergoing tests at the Microbiology Unit of the Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona Antananarivo Hospital after being raped. This retrospective descriptive study covers the 7-year period from 2005 to 2011 and reports the results of direct examination of the vaginal discharge after vulvar smears from rape patients. We studied the age of patients and the results of these direct smear examinations that tested for T. vaginalis. In our study, the number of women with T. vaginalis increased markedly with age. The mean age of the patients was 13.7 years (range: 2 to 41 years). Among the 232 rape victims tested, only 26 were positive for it (11.20%); trichomoniasis was thus rare among these women. T. vaginalis is a common cause of vaginitis in women and one of the most common infections transmitted by sexual assault. In children, the presence of T. vaginalis in vaginal sample is a strong indicator of sexual abuse. Other sexually transmitted infections can be transmitted during sexual abuse.

  15. Rape and Adultery in Ancient Greek and Yoruba Societies | Olasope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Athens and other ancient cultures, a woman, whatever her status and whatever her age or social class, was, in law, a perpetual minor. Throughout her life, she was in the legal control of a guardian who represented her in law. Rape, as unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman, warranted a capital charge in the ...

  16. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates, Streptomyces sp. isolate 422 ...

  17. Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape (United States)

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.


    The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…

  18. Knowledge and Perceptions of Date Rape among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    in, or may result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or ... normalization of sexual coercion in intimate relationships8. Sometimes even .... Vaginal expansion. 6. 1.2. Psychological health effects of date rape. PTSD. 151. 29.5. Depression. 125. 25.6. Low self esteem. 57. 11.6. Fear of having sex. 42. 8.6. Shame. 22. 4.5.

  19. Rape, sexual politics and the construction of manhood among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper interrogates the language that mediates sex and sexuality among the Shona of Zimbabwe. It draws from the method of ordinary language philosophy to argue that culture, and specifically language, can constitute an effective incubator for the emotions that result in rape. Further, the paper shows how the ...

  20. Centering: reducing rape trauma syndrome anxiety during a gynecologic examination. (United States)

    Dole, P J


    1. Individuals often delay seeking routine gynecologic care or have difficulty completing gynecologic examinations due to the effects of trauma. 2. Advance practice nurses (APN) are challenged to participate with clients to reduce their anxiety, thereby decreasing the health risks associated with avoiding routine gynecologic care. 3. "Centering" is a holistic, noninvasive modality to reduce anxiety associated with rape trauma syndrome.

  1. Maps of Woe Narratives of Rape in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti


    Full Text Available By considering a selection of texts, both fictional and non-fictional, this study ad- dresses different representations of rape in early modern English culture. Its aim is to highlight the interconnections between aspects of culture and the creative exchange, the confrontation and mutual assimilation between ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultural forms.

  2. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal experimental condition for the crude protein enrichment was: 10% (v/w) C. utilis inoculum was added to the rape straw medium after ...

  3. The Experience of Male Rape in Non-Institutionalised Settings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the effects of the assault on the self, disclosure, the learning and life changes brought about by the assault, the victims' feelings towards their assailants and the effect of the assault on the victims' relationships. This study hopes to facilitate further descriptive research on the phenomenon of male rape in order that greater ...

  4. Sexual Coercion on Dates: It's Not Just Rape. (United States)

    Waldner-Haugrud, Lisa


    Contends that sexual coercion while dating falls under the umbrella of school-related violence. Discusses acquaintance and date rape, a sexual coercion continuum, and coercion victims. Concludes with a discussion of six techniques to reduce risk of sexual coercion. (CFR)

  5. Perception of Spousal Rape among Lagos State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recognition of sex in the context of marriage as crime is strange. Men are often accused of exclusively perpetrating this culturally alien offence which exclusively causes enormous trauma to women within the family. This study examines the perception of undergraduates about marital rape among married couples in ...

  6. Clinical Perspective Psycho-legal issues surrounding the rape of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rape of individuals with mental retardation poses challenges for the judicial system as well as for the survivors themselves. As a result, the courts tend to refer these individuals for forensic mental health examination to assist them in proceeding with criminal trials. This sequence of events may appear unusual, ...

  7. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca


    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  8. The lived experience of genocide rape survivors in Rwanda. (United States)

    Mukamana, Donatilla; Brysiewicz, Petra


    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of women who were raped during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. A phenomenological approach was used and this study was carried out in Rwanda in three different locations. The 7 participants took part in three semi-structured, individual interviews which were audiotaped. Participants reported many themes unique to Rwandan women survivors of genocide. These themes included violation by perceived inferiors, loss of dignity and respect, loss of identity, social isolation, loss of hope for the future (i.e., HIV/AIDS), the ongoing torture of rape babies, and developing a sense of community. Rwandan women survivors of the 1994 genocide have lived through unimaginable suffering. Limited information is available regarding the experiences of these rape survivors and this information could create awareness and some understanding of what these women endured. This study can help nurses to understand the sequelae of war and rape and thus have needed information which can be used to offer assistance to women in these circumstances.

  9. Prevalence of and factors associated with non-partner rape perpetration: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Fulu, Emma; Roselli, Tim; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia


    Rape perpetration is under-researched. In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of, and factors associated with, male perpetration of rape of non-partner women and of men, and the reasons for rape, from nine sites in Asia and the Pacific across six countries: Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Sri Lanka. In this cross-sectional study, undertaken in January 2011-December 2012, for each site we chose a multistage representative sample of households and interviewed one man aged 18-49 years from each. Men self-completed questions about rape perpetration. We present multinomial regression models of factors associated with single and multiple perpetrator rape and multivariable logistic regression models of factors associated with perpetration of male rape with population-attributable fractions. We interviewed 10,178 men in our study (815-1812 per site). The prevalence of non-partner single perpetrator rape varied between 2·5% (28/1131; rural Bangladesh) and 26·6% (225/846; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea), multiple perpetrator rape between 1·4% (18/1246; urban Bangladesh) and 14·1% (119/846; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea), and male rape between 1·5% (13/880; Jayapura, Indonesia) and 7·7% (65/850; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). 57·5% (587/1022) of men who raped a non-partner committed their first rape as teenagers. Frequent reasons for rape were sexual entitlement (666/909; 73·3%, 95% CI 70·3-76·0), seeking of entertainment (541/921; 58·7%, 55·0-62·4), and as a punishment (343/905; 37·9%, 34·5-41·4). Alcohol was a factor in 249 of 921 cases (27·0%, 95% CI 24·2-30·1). Associated factors included poverty, personal history of victimisation (especially in childhood), low empathy, alcohol misuse, masculinities emphasising heterosexual performance, dominance over women, and participation in gangs and related activities. Only 443 of 1933 men (22·9%, 95% CI 20·7-25·3) who had committed rape had ever been sent to prison

  10. A Laboratory to Demonstrate the Effect of Thermal History on Semicrystalline Polymers Using Rapid Scanning Rate Differential Scanning Calorimetry (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Prashanth; Kessler, Michael R.


    A detailed understanding of the effect of thermal history on the thermal properties of semicrystalline polymers is essential for materials scientists and engineers. In this article, we describe a materials science laboratory to demonstrate the effect of parameters such as heating rate and isothermal annealing conditions on the thermal behavior of…

  11. A Life History Approach to Delineating How Harsh Environments and Hawk Temperament Traits Differentially Shape Children's Problem-Solving Skills (United States)

    Suor, Jennifer H.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante


    Harsh environments are known to predict deficits in children's cognitive abilities. Life history theory approaches challenge this interpretation, proposing stressed children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways. The goal of this study was to examine associations between early environmental harshness and…

  12. Differential Benefits of Attending Supplemental Instruction for Introductory, Large-Section, University U.S. History Courses (United States)

    Summers, Emily J.; Acee, Taylor W.; Ryser, Gail R.


    We investigated students' academic achievement in three high-enrollment, introductory-level history sections at a large, public, Hispanic-serving university. Using a conditional indirect-effects model, we analyzed supplemental instruction (SI) attendance and class absences as predictors of course success, after accounting for sex, ethnicity/race,…

  13. Three nuclear and two membrane estrogen receptors in basal teleosts, Anguilla sp.: Identification, evolutionary history and differential expression regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafont, Anne Gaëlle; Rousseau, Karine; Tomkiewicz, Jonna


    expressed in the eel, but with differential patterns of tissue expression and regulation. ESR1 only is consistently up-regulated in vivo in female eel BPG-liver axis during induced sexual maturation, and also up-regulated in vitro by estradiol in eel hepatocyte primary cultures. This first comparative study...

  14. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International. (United States)

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family.

  15. Applying crime scene analysis to the prediction of sexual recidivism in stranger rapes. (United States)

    Lehmann, Robert J B; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska; Biedermann, Jürgen; Dahle, Klaus-Peter


    The current study sought to improve the predictive accuracy of sexual recidivism using the Static-99 risk assessment tool by the addition of detailed crime scene analysis (CSA). CSA was carried out using a Behavioral Thematic Analysis (BTA) approach, the gold-standard in CSA. BTA was conducted on a sample of 167 stranger rape cases using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). The BTA procedure revealed three behavioral themes of hostility, criminality, and sexual exploitation, consistent with previous research in sexual offending CSA. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the criminality theme was significantly predictive of sexual recidivism and also significantly correlated with previous sexual offense history. Further, the criminality theme led to a significant increase in the incremental validity of the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment instrument for the prediction of sexual recidivism.

  16. The rape of Medusa in the temple of Athena: aspects of triangulation in the girl. (United States)

    Seelig, Beth J


    The relationship between the Greek goddess Athena and her father Zeus, together with the competitive hostility she displays towards other females, is presented as illustrating some previously neglected aspects of triangular developmental conflicts in the little girl. Literature on "the Oedipus complex in the female" is reviewed and discussed. The mythological early histories of both Athena and the female monster Medusa are examined for the light they can shed on female developmental vicissitudes and resultant conflicts in both women and men. Unconscious split representations of women as assertive, phallic and dangerous, or alternatively passive, castrated and receptive result in defensive repudiation of the idea that a woman can be both actively assertive and also feminine and sexual. Athena's enraged action of transforming the beautiful young maiden Medusa into a monster as punishment for the "crime" of having been raped in her temple is discussed as illustrating an outcome of the lack of resolution of the little girl's early triangular conflicts.

  17. Bacillus megaterium A6 suppresses Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field and promotes oilseed rape growth (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China and other regions of the world. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the plant-growth promoting bacterium Bacillus megaterium A6 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rap...

  18. Thermal history and differential exhumation across the Eastern Musgrave Province, South Australia: Insights from low-temperature thermochronology (United States)

    Glorie, Stijn; Agostino, Kate; Dutch, Rian; Pawley, Mark; Hall, James; Danišík, Martin; Evans, Noreen J.; Collins, Alan S.


    Multi-method geo- and thermochronological data obtained for Palaeo- and Mesoproterozoic granitoids traversing the main structural architecture of the eastern Musgrave Province within South Australia reveal multiphase cooling histories. Apatite U-Pb dating on six samples yield consistent ages of 1075-1025 Ma, suggesting a thermal reset coinciding with mantle-derived magmatism of the greater Warakurna Large Igneous Province ( 1080-1040 Ma). Apatite fission track (AFT) analysis indicate that four discrete thermal events affected the study area, inducing cooling through the AFT partial annealing zone ( 60-120 °C), supported by apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He data. Late Neoproterozoic cooling from deep crustal levels to temperatures history for the eastern Musgraves and help to elucidate the poorly appreciated tectonic evolution of inland Australia. This study further demonstrates how high-density sample transects across structural architecture can assess the relative crustal level and associated preservation of the thermal history record within fault-reactivated terranes.

  19. Skull and limb morphology differentially track population history and environmental factors in the transition to agriculture in Europe. (United States)

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Stock, Jay T; Pinhasi, Ron


    The Neolithic transition in Europe was a complex mosaic spatio-temporal process, involving both demic diffusion from the Near East and the cultural adoption of farming practices by indigenous hunter-gatherers. Previous analyses of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Early Neolithic farmers suggest that cranial shape variation preserves the population history signature of the Neolithic transition. However, the extent to which these same demographic processes are discernible in the postcranium is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, crania and postcranial elements from the same 11 prehistoric populations are analysed together in an internally consistent theoretical and methodological framework. Results show that while cranial shape reflects the population history differences between Mesolithic and Neolithic lineages, relative limb dimensions exhibit significant congruence with environmental variables such as latitude and temperature, even after controlling for geography and time. Also, overall limb size is found to be consistently larger in hunter-gatherers than farmers, suggesting a reduction in size related to factors other than thermoregulatory adaptation. Therefore, our results suggest that relative limb dimensions are not tracking the same demographic population history as the cranium, and point to the strong influence of climatic, dietary and behavioural factors in determining limb morphology, irrespective of underlying neutral demographic processes.

  20. Misogyny, acculturation, and ethnic identity: relation to rape-supportive attitudes in Asian American college men. (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H


    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality.

  1. Interplay of robustness and plasticity of life-history traits drives ecotypic differentiation in thermally distinct habitats. (United States)

    Liefting, M; van Grunsven, R H A; Morrissey, M B; Timmermans, M J T N; Ellers, J


    Phenotypic plasticity describes the ability of an individual to alter its phenotype in response to the environment and is potentially adaptive when dealing with environmental variation. However, robustness in the face of a changing environment may often be beneficial for traits that are tightly linked to fitness. We hypothesized that robustness of some traits may depend on specific patterns of plasticity within and among other traits. We used a reaction norm approach to study robustness and phenotypic plasticity of three life-history traits of the collembolan Orchesella cincta in environments with different thermal regimes. We measured adult mass, age at maturity and growth rate of males and females from heath and forest habitats at two temperatures (12 and 22 °C). We found evidence for ecotype-specific robustness of female adult mass to temperature, with a higher level of robustness in the heath ecotype. This robustness is facilitated by plastic adjustments of growth rate and age at maturity. Furthermore, female fecundity is strongly influenced by female adult mass, explaining the importance of realizing a high mass across temperatures for females. These findings indicate that different predicted outcomes of life-history theory can be combined within one species' ontogeny and that models describing life-history strategies should not assume that traits like growth rate are maximized under all conditions. On a methodological note, we report a systematic inflation of variation when standard deviations and correlation coefficients are calculated from family means as opposed to individual data within a family structure. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Oilseed Rape in the Wheat-Oilseed Rape Strip Intercropping Influenced by Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amirmardfar


    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum and oilseed rape (Brassica napus strip intercropping on yield components, seed and biological yields of oilseed rape, field experiments were carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran during 2010-2012 cropping seasons. The first factor consisted of four types of wheat and oilseed rape cropping system, sole crop of oilseed rape (A1,: strip intercropping with 8:3 (A2, 12:4 (A3 and 16:5 (A4 of wheat and oilseed rape rows, respectively and the other factor consisted of two fertilizer levels, B1: 100% chemical fertilizers (urea and triple superphosphate and B2: 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers (Nitrazhin and Barvar2. The results showed that strip intercropping of wheat- oilseed rape resulted in significant increase in yield components, seed yield per occupied unit area and biological yield per occupied unit area of oilseed rape as compared with mono-cropping. The number of silique per plant in intercropping systems was significantly higher than that of mono-cropping. The highest seed yield was obtained in the 16:5 rows of wheat-oilseed rape with 343.76 g.m-2 and the lowest mean was observed in mono-cropping of oilseed rape with 260.21 g.m-2. Biological yield per occupied unit area and seed yield per intercropped unit area in B1 were significantly greater than that of B2, but this treatment had no significant effect on the other traits. Because, B1 and B2 had no significant difference in seed yield per occupied unit area and due to the importance of reduction in chemical fertilizers consumption and food and environmental health care, strip intercropping of wheat-oilseed rape under 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers can be recommended as a suitable cultural method.

  3. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia. (United States)

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B


    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade.

  4. Rape Crimes Reviewed: The Role of Observer Variables in Female Victim Blaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Ferrão


    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of empirical research on the role of observer variables in rape victim blaming (female attacked by a male perpetrator. The focus is on literature from the last 15 years. The variables observer gender, ambivalent sexism, rape myth acceptance, and rape empathy are discussed in relation to victim blaming. Most research on rape is conducted using diverse methods and approaches that result in a great disparity regarding the role of these variables in predicting blame assignments. Despite the inconsistencies, most studies show that men hold the victim more responsible for her own victimization than women. Findings further indicate that higher scores on sexist ideologies and rape myth acceptance predict higher victim blame, and that higher rape empathy scores predict lower victim blame. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  5. Differential Effects of Alcohol on Memory Performance in Adolescent Men and Women with a Binge Drinking History. (United States)

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Talk, Andrew; Montañés, Adriana; Duque, Aránzazu; Monleón, Santiago


    Binge drinking (BD) is characterized by intermittent consumption of large quantities of alcohol in short periods. This pattern of drinking is prevalent among adolescents, and has been associated with undermined learning and memory ability. This study investigates the relationships between a history of BD and the effects of acute exposure to alcohol on learning and memory performance in adolescent men and women. A high, acute dose of alcohol or control refreshment was administered to a sample of 172 adolescent undergraduate students, some of which had a history of BD and others of which had refrained from alcohol consumption. Subsequently, immediate visual memory (IVM) and working memory (WM) was measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale in females and males with different BAC (Experiment 1) and similar BAC (Experiment 2). In both experiments, IVM was reduced after acute alcohol consumption and there was no significant main effect of Drinking Pattern. Furthermore, an effect of cognitive alcohol tolerance on IVM was observed in women but not in men. WM was not affected by alcohol, but a gender difference was evident in that performance was superior in men than in women. In adolescents, IVM is more sensitive than WM to impairment by alcohol, and women are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol than men, since the cognitive tolerance effect of alcohol on IVM develops in BD women but not in BD men. These findings emphasize the need to investigate the neurotoxic effects of alcohol in adolescent women. In adolescents, immediate visual memory (IVM) is more sensitive than working memory to impairment by alcohol, and women are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol than men, because the cognitive tolerance effect of alcohol on IVM develops in binge drinking (BD) women but not in BD men.

  6. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  7. Seed dressings to control slug damage in oilseed rape. (United States)

    Simms, Louise C; Mullins, Christopher E; Wilson, Michael J


    Slugs are major pests of oilseed rape that are poorly controlled by conventional bait pellets. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the potential of seed-dressings to control slug damage in this crop. Four compounds: metaldehyde, methiocarb, cinnamamide and 3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) were tested at a range of doses for phytotoxicity and ability to reduce damage by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Metaldehyde and methiocarb were not phytotoxic at any doses, whereas all doses of cinnamamide and DMCA were. All compounds reduced slug damage, but metaldehyde and methiocarb consistently performed better than cinnamamide and DMCA. Metaldehyde and methiocarb seed-dressings were compared with baited pellets containing the same active ingredients at recommended field doses. The seed-dressings protected plants from damage by D reticulatum and Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud) as well as, or better than, baited pellets. We therefore recommend that metaldehyde and methiocarb should be field-tested as seed dressings to control slugs in oilseed rape.

  8. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action. (United States)

    Koss, Mary P


    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  9. Worth their while?: Pursuing a rape complaint through the criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the criminal justice system were to advertise itself to victims of sexual violence, would its tag line be L'Oreal's 'Because you're worth it'? Or would the Foundry ... Certainly, a lack of faith in, or fear of, legal processes, is one of the reasons why eight out of nine women who are raped do not report the matter to the police.1 ...

  10. Integrated pests monitoring of oilseed rape in means of biodiesel manufacture


    Alasić, Vesna


    Because of its high oil content (35 - 44 %) oilseed rape is an important industrial culture. Recently, biodiesel manufacture is especially active. In fact, in the countries of the EU, manufacture of biodiesel has reached its optimum, but sadly, in Republic of Croatia that small amount of biodiesel that is manufactured is obtained from recycled oil. This paper writes about the statistic data in manufacture of oilseed rape, pests of oilseed rape and about presentation of the project: “Integrate...

  11. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape. (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nelson, Erik J; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G; Wright, John P; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C; Petkovsek, Melissa; Lewis, Roger; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard


    An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. Ecological study. St. Louis, Missouri. Blood lead levels. Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03-1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99-1.03). Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure.

  12. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  13. Don't tell: Military culture and male rape. (United States)

    O'Brien, Carol; Keith, Jessica; Shoemaker, Lisa


    The issue of sexual assault that occurs during military service has been a focus of attention over the past several years. Although approximately 50% of survivors of military sexual assault are men, virtually all of the literature focuses on the assault of female service members. Research has demonstrated that cultural variables are robust correlates of the sexual assault of women. This paper proposes that cultural variables are equally important when examining the rape of men, especially when this assault occurs in military contexts. We discuss male rape myths and related constructs as they are expressed within military culture. The results of data analysis from a treatment sample of veterans with military sexual trauma (MST)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinical case examples are presented to further explore the concepts. We conclude that male rape myths and related beliefs that arise from cultural norms and are further amplified and modified by military culture impact male MST survivors and delay or obstruct their recovery. Suggestions for clinical application and future research are offered to encourage further efforts in this important area of practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Rape in the metropolis: the geography of crime in Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Vikram Dwivedi


    Full Text Available This paper is a study of rape in the national capital of India, and the focus is on the amendments of rape law aftermath 12 December 2012 crime. It questions at the safety and security issues of women in the metropolis of India, and it also discusses critically how laws amendments have been made aftermath this barbaric crime. Though this paper doesn’t set an inquiry yet it provides common criticism against the new amendments and it remains observational in nature, and sets a study. The temporal aspect revolves around the gang rape case of December 2012, but it also peeks in the past for the reference purpose only. The insensitive reactions from the political party leaders and religious leaders also find a space in the paper to show the general reaction of the society. The urban middle-class carefree attitude is reflected by an example of a popular reality show. But finally this paper advocates for lengthy prison sentences that have some behavior-altering deterrent value.

  15. Endogaeic ground beetles fauna in oilseed rape field in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka DRMIĆ


    Full Text Available The abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in oilseed rape field can be an important indicator of different agricultural measures in arable land fauna. Surveys about ground beetle fauna in Croatia are generally very scarce and only few research on oilseed rape were conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the endogaeic ground beetle fauna in oilseed rape field and to determine species abundance and frequency. The study was carried out in Podravina region of Croatia, from the end of May till the mid-September in 2015. Ground beetles were collected using endogaeic traps incorporated in the soil. Altogether, 487 individuals classified into 8 species were collected. Species with the highest abundance and frequency was Brachinus (Brachinus psophia Audinet-Serville, 1821, which was classified as eudominant and constant species. The highest ground beetle abundance was observed in summer period. All of the species found were spring breeders, except for species Trechus (Trechus quadristriatus (Schrank, 1781 which breeds in autumn.

  16. Solubilization and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase from microspore-derived cultures of oilseed rape. (United States)

    Little, D; Weselake, R; Pomeroy, K; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Bagu, J


    Particulate fractions prepared from microspore-derived (MD) embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Reston) and an embryogenic MD cell suspension culture of oilseed rape (B. napus L. cv. Jet Neuf) were used as a source of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC for enzyme characterization and development of a solubilization procedure. DGAT activity in the 1500-100,000 g fraction from MD embryos was stimulated 4-5-fold by 3 to 4 mg of BSA/ml of reaction mixture. DGAT activity from MD embryos was stimulated 2-3-fold by fluoride salts and 1.4-fold by NaCl, whereas iodide salts caused substantial inhibition of enzyme activity. The effect of the various 1:1 electrolytes on enzyme activity appeared to be related more to their differential effects on solution structure rather than ionic strength. DGAT was solubilized from membranes of MD embryos and the cell suspension culture by about 80 and 50% respectively, using 2 M NaCl in 1% (w/v) octanoyl-N-methyl-glucamide (MEGA-8) (pH 8.0 buffer) at a detergent to protein ratio of 2:1. The specific activity of solubilized DGAT was about 2-fold greater than that of the particulate enzyme. The mechanism of solubilization appeared to be related to the lowering of the critical micellar concentration of MEGA-8 in the presence of NaCl. DGAT, solubilized from MD embryos, eluted with an M(r) of about 2 x 10(6) during gel-filtration chromatography on a Superose 6 column equilibrated in buffer containing 0.1% (w/v) MEGA-8. The solubilized enzyme exhibited optimal activity at pH 7. At concentrations above 2 microM acyl-CoA, the specificity of solubilized DGAT for oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA was considerably greater than for stearoyl-CoA.

  17. Differential population structuring and demographic history of two closely related fish species, Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) in Northwestern Pacific. (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Xian; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Yokogawa, Koji; Zhang, Ya-Ping


    The Quaternary cold periods in the Northwestern Pacific are thought to have heavily influenced the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation in marine fishes. To estimate the demographic history and genetic structure of Lateolabrax maculatus and L. japonicus in the Northwestern Pacific, 256 individuals were sampled from 19 localities throughout the distribution range of the two species. Mitochondrial DNA variation was analyzed using DNA sequence data from the cytochrome b gene and control region. Nucleotide diversity was much higher in L. japonicus (0.030) than in L. maculatus (0.012). The demographic history of the two species was examined using neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses and results indicated Pleistocene population expansion in both species. Estimates of population expansion time suggested earlier population expansion in L. japonicus than in L. maculatus. Molecular variance analyses showed differential genetic structuring for these two closely related species. The results indicated that L. japonicus is panmictic throughout its range. In contrast, populations of L. maculatus showed statistically significant levels of genetic structuring. Pattern of isolation by distance was observed in L. maculatus, suggesting that L. maculatus is in genetic equilibrium. In contrast, L. japonicus did not exhibit isolation by distance.

  18. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk


    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  19. Wartime Women Rape: A Means of Moral Attack and Emasculation in Lynn Nottage’s Ruined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaff Ganim Salih


    Full Text Available Women rape at warfare was considered a consequence of war in the social, literary and political world for a long period of time. Some criminals of rape escaped justice and others were persecuted on the basis that they were involved in mass rape because it was a natural consequence of war. But, women are targeted with rape in time of war because they are the symbolic representation of a culture, ethnicity, and the unifying fabric of their people and nation. The objective of this paper is to show that war rape is not a result of war; instead it is a means of human destruction through moral attack and emasculation. It aims to show that women rape in warfare is neither a misogynist act nor a sexual violence but it is a pre-planned weapon used strategically and systematically to fulfill certain political and military agenda. The study focuses on the sexual abuse of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo in time of war in Lynn Nottage’s Pulitzer Prize play, Ruined (2007. The study applies Jonathan Gottschall’s Strategic Rape theory, which highlights war rape as a pre-planned military strategy. The enemy emasculates men and attacks them morally by raping their women. Consequently, men’s failure to protect their women causes them to give up resistance, leave their lands and families because of shame and humiliation. The study concludes that women rape in time of war is a tactic followed by conquerors intentionally to facilitate and guarantee the achievement of certain pre-planned goals as was the case of mass rape in the DRC.

  20. In hot and cold water: differential life-history traits are key to success in contrasting thermal deep-sea environments. (United States)

    Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T; Tyler, Paul A; Thatje, Sven


    Few species of reptant decapod crustaceans thrive in the cold-stenothermal waters of the Southern Ocean. However, abundant populations of a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa tyleri, occur at hydrothermal vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge. As a result of local thermal conditions at the vents, these crabs are not restricted by the physiological limits that otherwise exclude reptant decapods south of the polar front. We reveal the adult life history of this species by piecing together variation in microdistribution, body size frequency, sex ratio, and ovarian and embryonic development, which indicates a pattern in the distribution of female Kiwaidae in relation to their reproductive development. High-density 'Kiwa' assemblages observed in close proximity to sources of vent fluids are constrained by the thermal limit of elevated temperatures and the availability of resources for chemosynthetic nutrition. Although adult Kiwaidae depend on epibiotic chemosynthetic bacteria for nutrition, females move offsite after extrusion of their eggs to protect brooding embryos from the chemically harsh, thermally fluctuating vent environment. Consequently, brooding females in the periphery of the vent field are in turn restricted by low-temperature physiological boundaries of the deep-water Southern Ocean environment. Females have a high reproductive investment in few, large, yolky eggs, facilitating full lecithotrophy, with the release of larvae prolonged, and asynchronous. After embryos are released, larvae are reliant on locating isolated active areas of hydrothermal flow in order to settle and survive as chemosynthetic adults. Where the cold water restricts the ability of all adult stages to migrate over long distances, these low temperatures may facilitate the larvae in the location of vent sites by extending the larval development period through hypometabolism. These differential life-history adaptations to contrasting thermal environments lead to a disjunct life history

  1. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  2. Biological control of Sclerotinia disease by Aspergillus sp. on oilseed rape in the field (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on oilseed rape and other crops worldwide. Aspergillus sp. Asp-4, previously shown to inhibit germination of sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum in vitro and in the field, was evaluated in field trials for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rape. S...

  3. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca


    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  4. The victimology of rape in Nigeria: Examining victims' post-assault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The secondary victimisation suffered by rape victims in socially conservative Nigeria is not only in the hands of their families, friends, and significant others, but also through the agents and process of criminal justice system of the country. Previous research into rape in Nigeria has often neglected the aftermath of forcible ...

  5. Images of rape in African fiction. Between the assumed fatality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A horrendous aspect of patriarchy and dominator ideology, rape has in recent times captured the attention of civil society and the imagination of creative writers. The frequency of rape in peacetime, traditional, colonial, liberation war, and civil war contexts, since the dawn of time, seems to suggest that this gendered violence ...

  6. Attitudes Toward Victims of Rape: Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Social Class (United States)

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy


    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…

  7. Rape Culture and Campus Environment: An Introduction for Student Affairs Professionals. (United States)

    Watson, Lemeul W.; Derby, Dustin


    Provides a brief introduction for student affairs professional to the American rape culture. Offers suggestions and examples to assist student affairs professionals in their quest to develop adequate programs and services on their campus with regard to rape and sexual assault incidents. (Contains 31 references.) (GCP)

  8. Ethical problems of rape as a social cankerworm in our present day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rape is a worrisome epidemic that is becoming problematic in contemporary Nigeria due to many factors that are already inherent in the Nigerian society such as myths, culture of silence associated with rape, modernizing influences and peer group pressure among several others. This article is essentially library ...

  9. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape: An Examination of Perpetrator Motivation, Relationship Length, and Gender Role Beliefs (United States)

    Angelone, David J.; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren


    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding…

  10. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (United States)


    ... Office of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on April 26-27, 2011. The... U.S. prisons, and the common characteristics of prisons with the highest and lowest incidence of...

  11. 76 FR 56481 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (United States)


    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on September 15-16, 2011. The... August 26, 2010, the BJS issued the report Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates...

  12. Where Do I Start?: A Parents' Guide for Talking to Teens about Acquaintance Rape. (United States)

    Bateman, Py; Stringer, Gayle M.

    This is a booklet designed for parents interested in helping their teenage children avoid the possibility of sexual assault. The first section of the booklet provides background on acquaintance rape, discussing attitudes about acquaintance rape, what boys and girls learn about sexual activity, gender different perceptions, and teenagers and peer…

  13. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits (United States)

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.


    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  14. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape Based on Individual Beliefs and Female Alcohol Consumption. (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L.; Davis, Clive M.


    Investigates whether female alcohol consumption predicts perceptions of date rape based on two personality measures administered to 290 undergraduates. Results indicate that a stronger belief in token resistance to sex was related to weaker perceptions of rape. As hypothesized, participants scoring higher on sex-role stereotyping perceived fewer…

  15. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad


    Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological

  16. Avoidant Coping and Treatment Outcome in Rape-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.


    Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…

  17. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 19, 2009 ... The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings. (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0.

  18. Rape and the State: Sexual Violence and its Political Narrative and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It proposes a political lens, positing the rape crisis continuum as the result of an interplay within South Africa's past and current political spaces during and after apartheid that produces and reproduces a specific political narrative of rape through a continuous gendered 'othering' of women. The emergence of this political ...

  19. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.


    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  20. 76 FR 6247 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape (United States)


    ... national standards for the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape, as mandated by... adopt national standards for the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape. PREA... and factual study of the penological, physical, mental, medical, social, and economic impacts of...

  1. 75 FR 11077 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape (United States)


    ..., and punishment of prison rape, as mandated by PREA. DATES: Written comments must be postmarked on or... standards for the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape. PREA established the Commission to carry out a comprehensive legal and factual study of the penological, physical, mental, medical...

  2. Effects of Victim Sex and Sexual Orientation on Perceptions of Rape. (United States)

    White, Bradley H.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson


    Investigated the relationship of sex, gender role attitudes, and sexual orientation to perceptions of rape. College students responded to scenarios depicting the rape of heterosexual and homosexual males and females. Men assigned more blame to victims (particularly male victims) than did women. Traditional gender role attitudes positively related…

  3. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Theory Model of Community Change: Connecting Individual and Social Change (United States)

    Cox, Pamela J.; Lang, Karen S.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca


    Social work practice has long focused on the connections between an individual and the social environment that affect the individual's social functioning. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program's theory model, Creating Safer Communities: The Rape Prevention and Education Model of Community Change, provides family social workers with a…

  4. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria: The Stark Realities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, women have always been subjugated and oppressed by men in most cultures in Nigeria. This situation is due to the inequality in gender relations between men and women. Rape has always been with mankind throughout the world. However, in recent times, the incidence of rape has increased in Nigeria.

  5. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field (United States)

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  6. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape (United States)

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot


    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  7. A study of rape cases in Benin City, Nigeria. | Uchendu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a six months prospective study of rape cases seen in the study centre. Rape cases are relatively common with an average of 17 cases seen monthly. Children from poor parents are the most vulnerable group affected with peak occurring between 11-15 years. Late reporting of these cases in health facilities often ...

  8. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel


    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  9. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung


    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  10. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J.; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G.; Wright, John P.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Petkovsek, Melissa; Lewis, Roger; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard


    Context An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. Objective The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. Design Ecological study. Setting St. Louis, Missouri. Exposure measure Blood lead levels. Main outcome measure Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. Results With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03–1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02–1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02–1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99–1.03). Conclusions Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure. PMID:29176826

  11. A preliminary study of eighth grade students' attitudes toward rape myths and women's roles. (United States)

    Boxley, J; Lawrance, L; Gruchow, H


    This preliminary study examined the relationship between sex-role stereotypes of women and beliefs in rape myths among adolescents. A 35-item survey was completed by 211 female and males in eighth grade health classes. Findings indicate both females and males accept some rape myths and sex-role stereotyping of women. The data also indicated an association between belief in rape myths and sex-role stereotyping of women. Few racial and age differences emerged. The most profound differences involved gender. Most adolescents rejected rape myths, but 10% of girls and 30% of boys tended to accept rape myths. Most females (98.2%) and males (83.3%) rejected sex-role stereotypes of women. According to feminist perspective, sex-role stereotyping of women's role in society is associated with tolerance of sexual violence toward women.

  12. A Danish model for treating victims of rape and sexual assault: The multidisciplinary public approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Elklit, Ask; Nielsen, Louise Hjort


    Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards of and the......Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards...... of and the framework behind these centers must be assessed and developed further to accommodate the growing need for rape trauma services in Europe and worldwide. This paper describes the experiences of a public Danish center for rape victims and proposes a management model for current and future rape victim centers....

  13. The Exploitive Mating Strategy of the Dark Triad Traits: Tests of Rape-Enabling Attitudes. (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Girgis, Mary; Milne-Home, Josephine


    The Dark Triad traits have been repeatedly labeled as facilitating an exploitive mating strategy. However, various researchers have repeatedly conflated short-term mating or casual sex with an exploitive mating strategy. In this study using Mechanical Turk participants (N = 252; 142 men, 110 women), we provided a better test of just how sexually exploitive those high on the Dark Triad traits might be by examining how the traits related to rape-enabling attitudes. We examined how each trait may facilitate rape, whether these associations were robust to partialing the variance associated with the Big Five traits and similar in men and women, and showed that one reason why men may be more likely to rape than women is they are characterized by the Dark Triad traits more than women are. In so doing, we test the confluence model of rape that asserts that personality traits similar to the Dark Triad traits act as one pathway to rape.

  14. Reflections on the society’s reaction towards rape victims in Delhi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetu Vibha


    Full Text Available In general, most people display stronger beliefs in ‘aggravated rape‘ or ‘real rape‘; including victims of such rape cases who often identify themselves as ‘rape victims’ than the victims of ‘simple rape’, where none of the aggravating circumstances are present. Despite myths to the contrary these ‘simple rape’ cases in fact make up the majority of cases. This article considers the implications of ‘real rape‘ and demonstrates how notions about what a ‘typical rape‘ should be, in the form of rape myths, directly impact on societal attitudes towards rape victims and how the media continue to reinforce and perpetuate the notion of real rape through their selective reporting of ‘serial rape’, ‘stranger rape’ or especially ‘violent rapes’.

  15. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape. (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing


    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  16. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Xiafang [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail:; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)


    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape.

  17. Direct and Indirect Effects of Resource P-Limitation Differentially Impact Population Growth, Life History and Body Elemental Composition of a Zooplankton Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Zhou


    Full Text Available One of the central tenets of ecological stoichiometry is that consumer growth rate is strongly determined by food phosphorus (P content. In planktonic organisms population growth rates of zooplankton have repeatedly been shown to be reduced when fed with P-limited algal food sources. However, P-limitation may also affect other quality-related aspects of algae, such as biochemical composition or palatability. We studied the population growth, detailed life history and body elemental composition of the herbivorous rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, in response to three different food quality treatments: algae cultured in high phosphorus conditions (average algal molar C:P ≈ 112, ‘HP’, algae cultured in low P conditions (molar C:P ≈ 631, ‘LP’ and low-P cultured algae spiked with P just before feeding (molar C:P ≈ 113, ‘LP+P’. LP+P algae thus combined high P content with a history of growth under P-limited conditions. Total P content and the C:P ratio of rotifers in the LP+P treatment equaled those of rotifers in the HP treatment. Rotifer population growth rates were higher in HP than in LP and intermediate in the LP+P treatment. Similarly, many life history traits observed for animals in the LP+P treatment, such as somatic growth rate, age at maturity, and egg production rate were also intermediate to those observed in the LP and HP treatments. However, there were important deviations from this pattern: size at first reproduction and egg mortality in the LP+P treatment equaled the HP treatment, whereas size and development time of the first eggs equaled those of the LP treatment. Our results indicate that elemental limitation cannot fully explain reduced performance of consumers fed with P-limited algae and strongly suggest that indirect, non-stoichiometric effects of P-limitation, e.g., via changes in biochemical composition or morphology of the algae also play a major role. Furthermore, our study highlights that such indirect

  18. The Relationship Between Television Sports Exposure and Rape Myth Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Sexism and Sexual Objectification of Women. (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; McNallie, Jenna


    Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance. These results suggest that sports programming contributes to the perpetuation of rape myths in society. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Bad Laws or Bad Attitudes? Assessing the Impact of Societal Attitudes upon the Conviction Rate for Rape in Ireland


    Leahy, Susan


    The low conviction rate for rape is often highlighted as a cause for concern. The typical response is to call for reform of Irish rape law. Although reform is necessary, this article argues that the low conviction rate for rape is caused not simply by ‘bad’ or inadequate laws but also by ‘bad’ or prejudicial attitudes about rape which persist in Irish society. These attitudes are at odds with the reality of rape and therefore create unrealistic expectations as to what, for example, constitu...

  20. Rape in World War II film: comparing narrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzadevych, Tetyana


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.

  1. Rape myth acceptance among Korean college students: the roles of gender, attitudes toward women, and sexual double standard. (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung


    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current societies, within each society, the specific components of rape myths reflect the cultural values and norms of that particular society. A sample of 327 college students in South Korea completed the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised, the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, and the Sexual Double Standard Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test hypothesized models. Results revealed that in three of the four models, rape survivor myths, rape perpetrator myths, and myths about the impact of rape, attitudes toward women were a more important predictor of rape myths than gender or sexual double standard. In the rape spontaneity myths model, on the other hand, sexual double standard was a more important predictor than gender or attitudes toward women. This study provides valuable information that can be useful in developing culturally specific rape prevention and victim intervention programs.

  2. The cultural context of nondisclosure of alcohol-involved acquaintance rape among Asian American college women: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Andrasik, Michele P; George, William H


    With high college enrollment and increasing alcohol use, Asian American (AA) college women may be at particular risk for experiencing alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Although AA women have expressed the weakest intentions to report rape when compared to other ethnic groups, cultural factors influencing these intentions remain unexamined. Guided by grounded theory, 17 self-identified AA college women were interviewed about how the average AA college woman would respond to an alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Despite awareness of benefits of disclosing rape, participants emphasized that nondisclosure would be the normative response. Three themes emerged from participants: institutional, sociocultural, and psychological contexts of nondisclosure. At an institutional level, nondisclosure referenced mental health and police services, which included Asian stereotypes and mistrust of police. Within a sociocultural context, rape nondisclosure focused on negative consequences on relationships with parents and, to a lesser extent, on friendships. Emotional avoidance and not labeling an acquaintance rape as rape were psychological strategies for rape nondisclosure. Participant's conceptualizations of mental and physical health concerns, specifically post-rape concerns, were framed within sociocultural/macrostructural contexts and may not match that of the more individualistic U.S. mainstream conceptualizations of health. Culturally sensitive rape education may be more effective in increasing rape prevention and support.

  3. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents. (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah


    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  4. Examining the Psychological Effect of Rape Acknowledgment: The Interaction of Acknowledgment Status and Ambivalent Sexism. (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E; Leheney, Emma K; Ballman, Alesha D; Scarpa, Angela


    Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants. The participants completed measures of sexual assault experiences, ambivalent sexism, and depression and PTSD symptoms. The results supported a significant interaction between acknowledgement status and benevolent sexism in relation to both depression and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, the present study failed to find support for an interaction between acknowledgment status and hostile sexism. The clinical implications suggest that rather than seeing acknowledging rape as essential to the recovery process, clinicians should assess for and take into account other factors that may contribute to psychological functioning. Additionally, the findings support that more complex models of trauma recovery should be investigated with the goal of working toward a more comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal process of rape acknowledgment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Rape and the prevalence of hybrids in broadly sympatric species: a case study using albatrosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievert Rohwer


    Full Text Available Conspecific rape often increases male reproductive success. However, the haste and aggression of forced copulations suggests that males may sometimes rape heterospecific females, thus making rape a likely, but undocumented, source of hybrids between broadly sympatric species. We present evidence that heterospecific rape may be the source of hybrids between Black-footed and Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes, and P. immutabilis, respectively. Extensive field studies have shown that paired (but not unpaired males of both of these albatross species use rape as a supplemental reproductive strategy. Between species differences in size, timing of laying, and aggressiveness suggest that Black-footed Albatrosses should be more successful than Laysan Albatrosses in heteropspecific rape attempts, and male Black-footed Albatrosses have been observed attempting to force copulations on female Laysan Albatrosses. Nuclear markers showed that the six hybrids we studied were F1s and mitochondrial markers showed that male Black-footed Albatrosses sired all six hybrids. Long-term gene exchange between these species has been from Black-footed Albatrosses into Laysan Albatrosses, suggesting that the siring asymmetry found in our hybrids has long persisted. If hybrids are sired in heterospecific rapes, they presumably would be raised and sexually imprinted on Laysan Albatrosses, and two unmated hybrids in a previous study courted only Laysan Albatrosses.

  6. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ma


    Full Text Available Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic nonsmooth metal surface was examined. Methods. The short-time Fourier transform method was used to discriminate the stable phase of friction signals and the stick-lag distance was defined to analyze the stable reciprocating friction in a phase diagram. Results. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and metal surface is a typical stick-slip friction, and the bionic nonsmooth metal surfaces with concave or convex units reduced friction force with increasing reciprocating frequency. The results also showed that the stick-lag distance of convex surface increased with reciprocating frequency, which indicated that convex surface reduces friction force more efficiently. Conclusions. We suggest that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens, especially with convex units, restrain the adhesion of rape materials more efficiently compared to the smooth surface cleaning screens.

  7. Myths and legends: The reality of rape offences reported to a UK police force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve F. Waterhouse


    Full Text Available Rape myths affect many aspects of the investigative and criminal justice systems. One such myth, the ‘real rape’ myth, states that most rapes involve a stranger using a weapon attacking a woman violently at night in an isolated, outdoor area, and that women sustain serious injuries from these attacks. The present study examined how often actual offences reported to a central UK police force over a two year period matched the ‘real rape’ myth. Out of 400 cases of rape reported, not a single incident was found with all the characteristics of the ‘real rape’ myth. The few stranger rapes that occurred had a strong link to night-time economy activities, such as the victim and offender both having visited pubs, bars, and clubs. By contrast, the majority of reported rape offences (280 cases, 70.7% were committed by people known to the victim (e.g., domestic and acquaintance rapes, occurred inside a residence, with most victims sustaining no physical injuries from the attack. The benefits of these naturalistic findings from the field for educating people about the inaccuracy of rape myths are discussed.

  8. How Motherhood Triumphs Over Trauma Among Mothers With Children From Genocidal Rape in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeth Kantengwa


    Full Text Available Rape is a common occurrence during genocide and the presence of children born as a result of rape poses a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper treats mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi as a separate category of survivors and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood in their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen women from Kigali city, Karongi District in the Western Province and Huye District in the Southern Province. Qualitative analysis of individual interviews and focus groups provided a means to explore in-depth the perceptions of mothers and the value of motherhood. It was found that mothers of children of rape experienced challenges raising their children, especially in the early stages of parenting. Social stigma related to rape and children born of rape created challenges, as did the lack of psychosocial resources for the women, particularly when faced with disclosing paternity to the children. However, despite these and other difficulties, motherhood played a positive role for many women, often providing a reason to live again after the genocide. These findings show that positive experiences of motherhood can be key to the recovery of survivors of genocidal rape in Rwanda and points to future directions for research and health promotion among populations affected by conflict-related sexual violence.

  9. The impact of detectives' manner of questioning on rape victims' disclosure. (United States)

    Patterson, Debra


    Research has documented that few reported rapes are prosecuted by the legal system. The purpose of this study is to explain how the interactions between victims and detectives can strengthen or weaken the investigation itself. Twenty rape victims were interviewed to examine how law enforcement detectives' manner of questioning affects rape victims' level of disclosure. Using qualitative methodology, the results show that the detectives' manner of questioning can play a role in victims' disclosure. Detectives using a gentle manner of questioning with victims can help produce stronger victim statements and thus build stronger cases for prosecution.

  10. Rape disclosure: the interplay of gender, culture and kinship in contemporary Vietnam. (United States)

    Huong, Nguyen Thu


    This paper examines the social management of rape within kin groups in contemporary Vietnam, with a particular focus on the decision whether or not to seek legal redress. Post-rape management entails negotiations among families on matters such as apology and compensation before a decision is made about whether to report the incident to the authorities. By drawing on an ethnographic study of a limited number of respondents, this paper highlights how rape disclosure is often bound up with notions of family honour, with assumptions about kinship, gender relations, social belonging and shared responsibility in a collective society such as Vietnam.

  11. The (unreceptive experiences of female rape victims who seek healthcare services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Amorim Barros


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To know the structure and functioning of healthcare services from the perspective of women who have suffered rape. METHOD A qualitative study conducted with 11 women who experienced rape, monitored in a maternity in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were systematically based on content analysis. RESULTS It allowed for understanding the path taken by women in search of support from health services, as well as the limitations and capabilities of these services. CONCLUSION The assistance received in healthcare services leans towards a revictimization process of women who already carry trauma from the rape. It is necessary to reflect about care practices aimed at sexually victimized women.

  12. Myths and legends: The reality of rape offences reported to a UK police force


    Genevieve F. Waterhouse; Reynolds, Ali; Egan, Vincent


    Rape myths affect many aspects of the investigative and criminal justice systems. One such myth, the ‘real rape’ myth, states that most rapes involve a stranger using a weapon attacking a woman violently at night in an isolated, outdoor area, and that women sustain serious injuries from these attacks. The present study examined how often actual offences reported to a central UK police force over a two year period matched the ‘real rape’ myth. Out of 400 cases of rape reported, not...

  13. Rape and Mental Health Outcomes Among Women: Examining the Moderating Effects of "Healthy" Fear Levels. (United States)

    Spohn, Ryan; Wright, Emily M; Peterson, Johanna C


    This study examined the mediating and moderating impact of fear of victimization on the relationships between forcible and vicarious rape on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among college women. Forcible and vicarious rape positively affected PTSD and depression symptomology, but fear did not mediate these relationships. Fear moderated the impact of forcible rape on PTSD, but was not a moderator for depression. Findings suggest that there may be "healthy" levels of fear in the aftermath of victimization where having too little fear may leave women unnecessarily vulnerable to victimization, while having too much fear may lead to social isolation and withdrawal. © The Author(s) 2016.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sierra


    Full Text Available The tolerant attitudes towards sexual violence on women are important risk factor which should be considered whileexplaining this type of aggressive behaviour. One of the instruments to evaluate these attitudes is Rape SupportiveAttitude Scale (RSAS by Lottes. The scale has showed good indexes of reliability and validity in both American andSpanish university students. The purpose of the study is to explore the psychometric characteristics in El Salvador asit has been applied together with the Double Standard Scale by Caron, Davis, Haltelman and Stickle (1993 and Crowneand Marlowe (1960 Social Desirability Scale in two samples which consisted of 505 and 1499 students, respectively.The results indicate that the one-dimensional structure of the scale stays stable in the two samples reaching thecoefficients of internal consistence higher than .80, although it includes two items which requires to be reviewed infuture studies. Concerning the validity, the RSAS differentiates men and women in these types of attitudes and showssignificant positive correlation with double sexual standard.

  15. Social reactions to rape: experiences and perceptions of women rape survivors and their potential support providers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (United States)

    Muganyizi, Projestine S; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria; Lindmark, Gunilla; Massawe, Siriel; Nystrom, Lennarth; Axemo, Pia


    Social reactions to rape are socioculturally determined and have a strong influence on the coping and recovery of the survivor. The existing knowledge on social reactions emanates from Western countries with limited research attention on non-Western populations, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to establish the types and perceptions of social reactions that are expressed to rape survivors and people's intentions to express them to survivors of varied social backgrounds in Tanzania. Using triangulation of research methods, experiences of social reactions among rape survivors (n = 50) and nurses (n = 44) from a community in Tanzania were explored, and the intentions to express typical social reactions to rape survivors of different social backgrounds were established from a representative community sample (n = 1,505). Twelve typical social reactions were identified with the positive reactions more commonly mentioned than the negative reactions. Nondisclosure of rape events and distracting the survivor from the event were perceived as both positive and negative. A commercial sex worker was most vulnerable to negative reactions. The cultural influences of social reactions and implications for practical applicability of the results are discussed.

  16. Overexpression of BnWRKY33 in oilseed rape enhances resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Fang, Hedi; Chen, Yu; Chen, Keping; Li, Guanying; Gu, Shoulai; Tan, Xiaoli


    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes a devastating disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) resulting in a tremendous yield loss worldwide. Studies on various host-pathogen interactions have shown that plant WRKY transcription factors are essential for defence. For the B. napus-S. sclerotiorum interaction, little direct evidence has been found with regard to the biological roles of specific WRKY genes in host resistance. In this study, we isolated a B. napus WRKY gene, BnWRKY33, and found that the gene is highly responsive to S. sclerotiorum infection. Transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing BnWRKY33 showed markedly enhanced resistance to S. sclerotiorum, constitutive activation of the expression of BnPR1 and BnPDF1.2, and inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation in response to pathogen infection. Further, we isolated a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase substrate gene, BnMKS1, and found that not only can BnWRKY33 interact with BnMKS1, which can also interact with BnMPK4, using the yeast two-hybrid assay, consistent with their collective nuclear localization, but also BnWRKY33, BnMKS1 and BnMPK4 are substantially and synergistically expressed in response to S. sclerotiorum infection. In contrast, the three genes showed differential expression in response to phytohormone treatments. Together, these results suggest that BnWRKY33 plays an important role in B. napus defence to S. sclerotiorum, which is most probably associated with the activation of the salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defence response and inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation, and we propose a potential mechanism in which BnMPK4-BnMKS1-BnWRKY33 exist in a nuclear localized complex to regulate resistance to S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  17. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1 (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André


    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  18. Are pesticide residues in honey related to oilseed rape treatments? (United States)

    Karise, Reet; Raimets, Risto; Bartkevics, Vadims; Pugajeva, Iveta; Pihlik, Priit; Keres, Indrek; Williams, Ingrid H; Viinalass, Haldja; Mänd, Marika


    Pesticide treatments before and during the flowering of honey bee forage crops may lead to residues in honey. In northern regions oilseed rape belongs to the main forage crops that is mostly cultivated by means of intensive agriculture, including several pesticide treatments. However, in addition to the focal forage crops, pesticides from non-forage crops can spread to wild flowers around fields, and thus the residues in honey would reflect the whole range of pesticides used in the agricultural landscape. The aim of our study was to clarify which currently used pesticides are present in honey gathered from heterogeneous agricultural landscapes after the end of flowering of oilseed crops. Honey samples (N = 33) were collected from beehives of Estonia during 2013 and 2014, and analysed for residues of 47 currently used agricultural pesticides using the multiresidue method with HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS and a single residue method for glyphosate, aminopyralid and clopyralid. Residues of eight different active ingredients with representatives from all three basic pesticide classes were determined. Although no correlation was detected between the cumulative amount of pesticide residues and percent of oilseed crops in the foraging territory, most of the residues are those allowed for oilseed rape treatments. Among all pesticides, herbicide residues prevailed in 2013 but not in 2014. Despite the relatively small agricultural impact of Estonia, the detected levels of pesticide residues sometimes exceeded maximum residue level; however, these concentrations do not pose a health risk to consumers, also acute toxicity to honey bees would be very unlikely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Victim Resistance on Rape Completion: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer S; Balemba, Samantha


    When confronted with a sexual attacker, women are often extremely concerned with avoiding rape completion. While narrative reviews typically suggest that the victim resistance is linked to rape avoidance, much of the existing literature relies on overlapping samples from the National Crime Victimization Survey. The current meta-analysis examines whether victim resistance is related to a greater likelihood of avoiding rape completion. Results from a systematic literature search across 25 databases supplemented by a search of the gray literature resulted in 4,581 hits of which seven studies met eligibility criteria for the review. Findings suggest that women who resist their attacker are significantly more likely than nonresisters to avoid rape completion. This finding held across analyses for physical resistance, verbal resistance, or resistance of any kind. Limitations of the analysis and policy implications are discussed, with particular focus on other research findings that resistance may be linked to greater victim injury. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Differences between Japanese and American college students in giving advice about help seeking to rape victims. (United States)

    Yamawaki, Niwako


    In this study, the author investigated differences in Japanese and American college students' tendencies to advise a hypothetical rape victim (their sister) to seek help from police, family members, or mental health professionals. Japanese students tended to encourage the victim to seek help from her family members, whereas American students tended to encourage her to seek help from police and mental health counselors. Cross-cultural discrepancies were marked by the following factors: (a) feelings of shame moderated advice to seek help from police; (b) minimization of rape mediated the likelihood to advise the involvement of police and mental health counselors; (c) attitudes toward mental health counselors mediated advice to seek help from them; and (d) the type of rape (stranger vs. date rape) moderated advice to report the crime to police.

  1. Judgments toward male and transgendered victims in a depicted stranger rape. (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Hudson, Jenefer


    There has been an increasing amount of research interest into perceptions of male rape in recent years. However, no research has assessed how people react when a transgendered person is raped. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transgendered status and sexuality on victim blame and perceived severity in a depicted rape scenario. The sexuality of the victim was manipulated to include a heterosexual, homosexual, cross-dresser, female-to-male transsexual, and male-to-female transsexual. It was predicted that the heterosexual victims would be judged the most positively and that heterosexual male participants would make the most anti-victim judgments. One hundred thirty-three lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual members of the general population read a scenario depicting a rape and then completed a questionnaire measuring victim blame and perceived severity of the assault. Results conformed to the predictions. Results are discussed in relation to traditional gender roles and homophobia.

  2. Facing sexual violence in a rape emergency room: identification, projective identification, and the myth of nemesis. (United States)

    Orlandini, Alvise


    This article focuses on the relationship between identification and sexual abuse. Three subsequent levels are considered, namely, the relationship between (1) the abuser and the victim, (2) the gynecologist or social worker of the Rape Emergency Room (RER) and the victim, and (3) the gynecologist or social worker and the entire RER staff. In the relationship with a rape victim, the gynecologist and the social worker may perceive unexpected negative feelings such as fear, horror, impotence, despair, or even anger which can interfere in the identification with the victim. Rape can be considered also as a concrete form of devaluation through concrete penetration of the victim. As an example, a myth of sexual abuse will be presented: the rape of Nemesis by Zeus.

  3. Prospective Study of Rape Perpetration by Young South African Men: Incidence & Risk Factors (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin


    Background There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. Methods We followed 1,147 men aged 15–26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. Results The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation). PMID:22675449

  4. Prospective study of rape perpetration by young South African men: incidence & risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial.We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models.The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49, had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01, had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03 and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97. A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97.The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation.

  5. Forecasting the Adoption of GM Oilseed Rape: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment


    Breustedt, Gunnar; Muller-Scheessel, Jorg; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe


    This paper explores farmers’ willingness to adopt genetically modified oilseed rape prior to its commercial release and estimates the ‘demand’ for the new technology. The analysis is based upon choice experiments with 202 German arable farmers. A multinomial probit estimation revealed that GM attributes such as gross margin, expected liability from cross pollination, or flexibility in returning to conventional oilseed rape significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. Neighbouring farmers’...

  6. Acute stress among adolescents and female rape victims measured by ASC-Kids: a pilot study. (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris; Nordenstam, Carin; Green, Sara; Wetterhall, Annika; Lundin, Tom; Svedin, Carl Göran


    Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often with durable consequences. How the aftermath of rape is for young adolescents' girls considering acute stress is an overlooked field and remains to be studied. In this study, we wanted to investigate acute stress among adolescent victims of rape and the psychometric properties of the Acute Stress Checklist for Children (ASC-Kids). A clinical sample (n = 79) of raped girls, 13-17 years old who had turned to a special rape victim unit for treatment, answered the ASC-Kids. ASC-Kids was also given to a group of minor stressed, non-raped adolescents in the same age range (n = 154) together with the University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD RI), and the Sense of Coherence Scale 13 (SOC-13). The scores from the groups were compared and showed significant differences in mean values on all the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder. In the clinical group, 36.7% obtained full ASD criteria. ASC-Kids could discriminate well between groups. Cronbach's alpha was found to be excellent, and the correlation between the UCLA PTSD RI and ASC-Kids found to be good; both ASC-Kids and UCLA PTSD RI had a good and moderate negative correlation with SOC-13. Adolescent female rape victims were shown to have a very high level of acute stress, and the ASC-Kids was found to have sound psychometrics and can be a valuable screening instrument to support clinicians in their assessments of an indication of adolescents after potentially stressful events such as rape.

  7. Rape Myth Acceptance at the US Air Force Academy: A Preliminary Look (United States)


    cultures (Edwards, Turchik, Dardis, Reynolds, & Gidycz, 2011). Because hypermasculinity and the numerical dominance of men are also risk factors for rape...subscales, indicates that they have the highest acceptance for the “She lied” subscale (such as “girls who are caught cheating on their boyfriends sometimes...and its measurement using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. Journal of Research in Personality , 33(1), 27-68. Rau, T. J., Merrill, L

  8. Misogyny, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Relation to Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Asian American College Men


    Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.


    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic ...

  9. Mapping of QTL for seed dormancy in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population. (United States)

    Schatzki, Jörg; Schoo, Burkhard; Ecke, Wolfgang; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian


    Following winter oilseed rape cultivation, considerable numbers of volunteer oilseed rape plants may occur in subsequent years in following crops. The appearance of volunteer oilseed rape plants is based on the capability of the seeds to become secondary dormant and to survive in this stage for many years in the soil. Genetic reduction of secondary seed dormancy in oilseed rape could provide a means to reduce the frequency of volunteer plants and especially the dispersal of transgenic oilseed rape. The objective of the present study was to analyse the inheritance of primary and secondary seed dormancy in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population derived from the cross Express 617 × R53 and to study correlations to other seed traits. Field experiments were performed in Germany for 2 years at two locations with two replicates. Seeds harvested from open pollinated plants were used for all analyses, including a laboratory test for seed dormancy. A previously developed molecular marker map of the doubled haploid population was used to map QTL of the relevant traits. For primary, secondary and total seed dormancy, the results showed significant effects of the genotypes and their interactions, with years and locations. Two, four and five QTL were detected for primary, secondary and total seed dormancy which explained 19, 35 and 42 % of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Results show that secondary seed dormancy is a heritable trait and that selection for low secondary seed dormancy is possible.

  10. Winter rape. The handbook for professionals; Winterraps. Das Handbuch fuer Profis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, O. [Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeinen Pflanzenbau/Oekologischen Landbau; Friedt, W. (eds.) [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Pflanzenzuechtung, IFZ


    Winter rape is a successive culture from the unloved step-child to an efficient and productive oil fruit with manifold possibilities of application. The handbook under consideration describes all relevant fundamentals of a successful cultivation of rape from preparation of the seed-bed up to sowing and harvest. Furthermore, problems of agricultural hygiene and plant protection are described. The storage and competent marketing are special challenges of each plant manager. The reader gains an insight into the entire application and use of winter rape in the range of food and non-food materials: to rape oil as an example for human range and in different possibilities of technical utilizations such as biofuel and machine oil. Furthermore, the use of winter rape as animal food is described. This book contains a lot of information about economical factors, performance of winter rape for the crop rotation and hints according to an optimization of the cultivation process. This book is an actual and valuable source for farmers, consultants as well as students and pupils.

  11. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva A. E. Bicanic


    Full Text Available Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods: Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years, who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results: In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR 2.05, confidence intervals (CI 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46, and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60 contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion: The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services.

  12. Caught between teens and the law: family planning programs and statutory rape reporting. (United States)

    Donovan, P


    In the US, policy-makers and legislators have considered using statutory rape prosecutions of males to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy or the incidence of minors being exploited sexually by much older males. However, health care professionals fear that mandatory reporting of such cases will discourage young women from seeking health care. Statutory rape laws vary from state to state, but every state has an age below which a minor may not legally consent to sexual intercourse. Reporting laws are more complicated because they are tied to child abuse statutes instead of statutory rape laws. In about half of the states, the definition of child abuse includes some cases of statutory rape. Thus, agencies created to deal with intrafamilial abuse have no mechanism for responding to reports of extrafamilial statutory rape, so some case reports are simply filed while others result in the man being charged with a crime. Such a response simply breaches the confidentiality of the victim and has other unintended negative consequences. Many service providers edit the questions they ask their clients so that they can avoid mandatory reporting. Others tell their clients not to divulge the age of their sexual partner, but such a warning can make young women afraid to confide in service providers. To shed light on this dilemma, the American Bar Association is doing research to identify the "best practice" adopted by communities seeking a more vigorous response to statutory rape laws, and lawmakers should wait for this report before taking action.

  13. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests. (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J


    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Transfer Assessment of Carbendazim Residues from Rape Flowers to Apicultural Products

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    Ying-Hong Li


    Full Text Available Carbendazim is usually used to control the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of rapes during the flowering period. This paper presents a study on transfer assessment of carbendazim residues from rape flowers to apicultural products. In the field trials, the rapes were sprayed with carbendazim on standard dosage. Bees produced apicultural products (bee pollen, honey, and royal jelly from sprayed rapes. Apicultural products were collected on a regular basis. Carbendazim residues were extracted from bee pollen, honey, and royal jelly, respectively. HPLC/ESI-MS/MS method was developed and partially validated to identify and quantify carbendazim residues. The limits of quantification in pollen, honey, and royal jelly were 0.01 mg/kg. Mathematical curve fitting was carried out on the basis of transfer assessment of carbendazim residues from rape flowers to apicultural products. The respective carbendazim residues were 1.10±0.03 mg/kg in pollen on 18th day, 0.032±0.001 mg/kg in honey on 24th day, and 0.077±0.002 mg/kg in royal jelly on 22nd day. Transfer assessment and mathematical curve fitting of carbendazim residues from rape flowers to apicultural products show carbendazim diminished over spraying time. The gap of carbendazim residues between pollen and honey is decreased with time. The carbendazim residues in pollen are 10 times higher than that of honey and jelly.

  15. Media Construction of Gender: Framing Analysis of Rape Cases in the Mass Media

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    Ali Imron


    Full Text Available Construction of the printed media which tends to dramatize and blow up the reporting of rape cases has in fact discredited the rape victim, resulting in gender bias. This is due to the fact that media present the news content concerning on the victim and the perpetrator in imbalanced reporting, in that the victims are scrutinized from diverse facets. This paper analyze the coverage of printed media in rape cases by means of framing analysis. The result shows that printed media coverage generally goes beyond the rape case itself as the victim’s identity and images of the incident are also revealed. The using of visual image (victim’s image is probably aimed to present an overview on the fact or the truth from the media viewpoint. This presentation, however, obscures the differences between factual and fictional reality and this might lead to different interpretation on the readers’ side. Furthermore, inappropriate reporting might become the society’s reference concerning on the modus operandi, in that the society learn or imitate the aspects they once did not know of. Visual image will create a second rape by the media toward the victim, in addition to the stereotyping developed in public, which often brings out psychological impact to the victim and the family. This is called the third rape.

  16. Prevalence of rape-related pregnancy as an indication for abortion at two urban family planning clinics. (United States)

    Perry, Rachel; Zimmerman, Lindsay; Al-Saden, Iman; Fatima, Aisha; Cowett, Allison; Patel, Ashlesha


    We sought to estimate the prevalence of rape-related pregnancy as an indication for abortion at two public Chicago facilities and to describe demographic and clinical correlates of women who terminated rape-related pregnancies. We performed a cross-sectional study of women obtaining abortion at the Center for Reproductive Health (CRH) at University of Illinois Health Sciences Center and Reproductive Health Services (RHS) at John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital between August 2009 and August 2013. Gestational age limits at CRH and RHS were 23+6 and 13+6weeks, respectively. We estimated the prevalence of rape-related pregnancy based on billing code (CRH) or data from an administrative database (RHS), and examined relationships between rape-related pregnancy and demographic and clinical variables. Included were 19,465 visits for abortion. The majority of patients were Black (85.6%). Prevalence of abortion for rape-related pregnancy was 1.9%, and was higher at CRH (6.9%) than RHS (1.5%). Later gestational age was associated with abortion for rape-related pregnancy (median 12days, p<.001). Younger age and Black race were associated with abortion for rape-related pregnancy at CRH only (p<.001 for both). Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were no more prevalent among women terminating rape-related pregnancy than among those terminating for other indications. Rape-related pregnancy as an indication for abortion had a low, but clinically significant prevalence at two urban Chicago family planning centers. Later gestational age was associated with abortion for rape-related pregnancy. Rape-related pregnancy may occur with higher prevalence among some subgroups of women seeking abortion than others. Efforts to address rape-related pregnancy in the abortion care setting are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert; Dunkle, Kristin


    To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. 1737 South African men aged 18-49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. In all 27.6% (466/1686) of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251) of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important. © 2011 Jewkes et al.

  18. Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study.

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    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. DESIGN: Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. METHODS: 1737 South African men aged 18-49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. RESULTS: In all 27.6% (466/1686 of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251 of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. CONCLUSIONS: Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important.

  19. Media coverage of violence against women in India: a systematic study of a high profile rape case


    Phillips, Mark; Mostofian, Fargol; Jetly, Rajeev; Puthukudy, Nazar; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit


    Background On December 16, 2012 a 23?year old female was gang-raped on a bus in Delhi. We systematically reviewed professional online media sources used to inform the timing, breadth of coverage, opinions and consistency in the depiction of events surrounding the gang-rape. Methods We searched two news databases (LexisNexis Academic and Factivia) and individual newspapers for English-language published media reports covering the gang-rape. Two reviewers screened the media reports and extracte...

  20. Gender Inequitable Masculinity and Sexual Entitlement in Rape Perpetration South Africa: Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study


    Rachel Jewkes; Yandisa Sikweyiya; Robert Morrell; Kristin Dunkle


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. DESIGN: Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. METHODS: 1737 South African men aged 18-49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression ...

  1. Self-defense or undermining the self? Exploring the possibilities and limitations of a novel anti-rape technology. (United States)

    White, Deborah; Rees, Gethin


    Despite decades of feminist-inspired law reforms, rape remains highly prevalent. While many continue to fight for broad cultural and institutional changes, some argue that more immediate interventions are required. Self-defense techniques represent a key strategy of resistance to rape, and empirical evidence suggests that women's active resistance may hold a number of positive benefits. In this essay, we compare the aims and objectives of a novel anti-rape technology, known as the Rape-aXe, with traditional self-defense techniques, focusing upon the potential for both to resist individual acts of sexual aggression and, more broadly, end gendered sexual violence.

  2. Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence


    Phipps, Alison; Ringrose, Jessica; Renold, Emma; Jackson, Carolyn


    Introduction to Special Issue of Journal of Gender Studies entitled Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: Researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence.

  3. Wild pollinators enhance oilseed rape yield in small-holder farming systems in China. (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Xiao, Haijun; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Jauker, Frank; Luo, Shudong; van der Werf, Wopke


    Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination service providers from Asian smallholder farming systems, where fields are small, and variation among fields is high. We established 18 winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields along a large geographical gradient in Jiangxi province in China. In each field, oilseed rape plants were grown in closed cages that excluded pollinators and open cages that allowed pollinator access. The pollinator community was sampled by pan traps for the entire oilseed rape blooming period. Oilseed rape plants from which insect pollinators were excluded had on average 38% lower seed set, 17% lower fruit set and 12% lower yield per plant, but the seeds were 17% heavier, and the caged plants had 28% more flowers and 18% higher aboveground vegetative biomass than plants with pollinator access. Oilseed rape plants thus compensate for pollination deficit by producing heavier seeds and more flowers. Regression analysis indicated that local abundance and diversity of wild pollinators were positively associated with seed set and yield/straw ratio, while honey bee abundance was not related to yield parameters. Wild pollinator abundance and diversity contribute to oilseed rape yield by enhancing plant resource allocation to seeds rather than to above-ground biomass. This study highlights the importance of the conservation of wild pollinators to support oilseed rape production in small-holder farming systems in China.

  4. Impunity or immunity: wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity. (United States)

    Zawati, Hilmi M


    This paper seeks to analyze the phenomenon of wartime rape and sexual torture of Croatian and Iraqi men and to explore the avenues for its prosecution under international humanitarian and human rights law. Male rape, in time of war, is predominantly an assertion of power and aggression rather than an attempt on the part of the perpetrator to satisfy sexual desire. The effect of such a horrible attack is to damage the victim's psyche, rob him of his pride, and intimidate him. In Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, and Iraq, therefore, male rape and sexual torture has been used as a weapon of war with dire consequences for the victim's mental, physical, and sexual health. Testimonies collected at the Medical Centre for Human Rights in Zagreb and reports received from Iraq make it clear that prisoners in these conflicts have been exposed to sexual humiliation, as well as to systematic and systemic sexual torture. This paper calls upon the international community to combat the culture of impunity in both dictator-ruled and democratic countries by bringing the crime of wartime rape into the international arena, and by removing all barriers to justice facing the victims. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that wartime rape is the ultimate humiliation that can be inflicted on a human being, and it must be regarded as one of the most grievous crimes against humanity. The international community has to consider wartime rape a crime of war and a threat to peace and security. It is in this respect that civilian community associations can fulfill their duties by encouraging victims of male rape to break their silence and address their socio-medical needs, including reparations and rehabilitation.

  5. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania. (United States)

    Abeid, Muzdalifat; Muganyizi, Projestine; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth; Axemo, Pia


    Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania's contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence.

  6. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma. (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H


    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  7. Components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with trichoderma sp. Tri-1 control sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. In two field trials conducted at the same location in consecutive years, a treatment containing formulated Trichoderma harzianum-1 (Tri-1) resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than...

  8. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Treatment of Rape and Incest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available Studies indicate that at least 15% of the female population in western countries has experienced sexual abuse and severe sexual traumas. This paper explains how even serious sexual abuse and trauma can be healed when care and resources encourage the patient to return to the painful life events. When the physician cares and receives the trust of the patient, emotional holding and processing will follow quite naturally. Spontaneous regression seems to be an almost pain-free way of integrating the severe traumas from earlier experiences of rape and incest. This technique is a recommended alternative to classical timeline therapy using therapeutic commands. When traumatized patients distance themselves from their soul (feelings, sexuality, and existential depth, they often lose their energy and enjoyment of life. However, this does not mean that they are lost to life. Although it may seem paradoxical, a severe trauma may be a unique opportunity to regain enjoyment of life. The patient will often be richly rewarded for the extensive work of clearing and sorting out in order to experience a new depth in his or her existence and emotional life, with a new ability to understand life in general and other people in particular. So what may look like a tragedy can be transformed into a unique gift; if the patient gets sufficient support, there is the possibility of healing and learning. Consciousness-based medicine seems to provide severely traumatized patients with the quality of support and care needed for their soul to heal.

  9. Clinical holistic medicine: holistic treatment of rape and incest trauma. (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Neikrug, Shimshon; Merric, Joav


    Studies indicate that at least 15% of the female population in western countries has experienced sexual abuse and severe sexual traumas. This paper explains how even serious sexual abuse and trauma can be healed when care and resources encourage the patient to return to the painful life events. When the physician cares and receives the trust of the patient, emotional holding and processing will follow quite naturally. Spontaneous regression seems to be an almost pain-free way of integrating the severe traumas from earlier experiences of rape and incest. This technique is a recommended alternative to classical timeline therapy using therapeutic commands. When traumatized patients distance themselves from their soul (feelings, sexuality, and existential depth), they often lose their energy and enjoyment of life. However, this does not mean that they are lost to life. Although it may seem paradoxical, a severe trauma may be a unique opportunity to regain enjoyment of life. The patient will often be richly rewarded for the extensive work of clearing and sorting out in order to experience a new depth in his or her existence and emotional life, with a new ability to understand life in general and other people in particular. So what may look like a tragedy can be transformed into a unique gift; if the patient gets sufficient support, there is the possibility of healing and learning. Consciousness-based medicine seems to provide severely traumatized patients with the quality of support and care needed for their soul to heal.

  10. Illinois begins testing inmates for HIV following rape trial. (United States)


    The Illinois State Department of Corrections is considering the costs and legality of segregating HIV-positive prisoners following the trial of former inmate [name removed] alleged that he was repeatedly raped and contracted HIV during his stay at the Menard Correctional Center. [Name removed]'s suit alleged that prison officials and corrections officers deliberately ignored his pleas for help. A federal jury was unable to resolve all of [name removed]'s claims and a new trial date has not been set. The constitutionality of segregating HIV-positive inmates has not been determined; presently, Alabama and Mississippi segregate infected prisoners. The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals has not considered a case involving the constitutionality of segregating prisoners, although in 1995, the court ruled that prisoners were not entitled to constitutional right to privacy in their medical records. Prison officials express concern about the logistics of segregating inmates and a prison advocacy group questions the potential benefits of segregation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is funding a series of studies to determine the prevalence of HIV in the Illinois prison system.

  11. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives. (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri


    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland. (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia


    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  13. Predictors of sexual aggression in adolescents: Gender dominance vs. rape supportive attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Moyano


    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between sexual double standard and rape supportive attitudes in regard to an individual's likelihood to perpetrate sexual aggression. We examined an adolescent sample of 448 boys from Peru, of whom 148 (33.3% reported to have committed sexual aggression. Sexual contact with an unwilling partner was perpetrated by 24.8% of the total sample, sexual coercion by 14.3%, attempted rape by 12.5%, and finally, rape was perpetrated by 10.3%. In all these types of aggression, the most frequent victim was a dating partner. Compared to non-aggressors, male aggressors reported more sexual double standard and supportive attitudes towards rape. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the most relevant variable in the prediction of sexual aggression was the subject having been a victim of sexual abuse during adolescence and having rape supportive attitudes. Our findings suggest that violent attitudes are more important than the endorsement of non-egalitarian beliefs (sexual double standard in the perpetration of sexual violence. These findings provide data from Peru, which contribute to the worldwide data on risk factors for sexual aggression in adolescent males.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Pollen and Blossom Honey from Rape Seed Brassica Napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borutinskaitė Veronika


    Full Text Available In the study, honey from oilseed rape Brassica napus L., and both hand-collected (winter rape Visby and Cult and bee-collected pollen of oilseed rape were analyzed for their proteome content, in order to see if any plant proteins were present to allow the proteo-typing of the oilseed rape honey. Proteins were fractionated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE, stained by Coomassie blue and then analyzed by mass spectrometry. All identified proteins were divided into few groups due to their biological function. In 2DE gels with separated proteins from blossom honey, only bee (Apis mellifera main proteins (Major royal jelly protein 1-5 and Glucosidase were found. So we analyzed all proteins using gel-free based analysis with the SYNAPT G2 high definition mass spectrometry. We identified proteins that were present in both oilseed rape pollen and honey (Bna, Polygalacturonase, Non-specific lipid-transfer protein, GAPDH and others. We believe that these proteins are important for the nutritional value of plant pollen-enriched honey and further research is required on honey and honeybee pollen protein.

  15. Researches of Optimum Leaf Area Index Dynamicmodels for Rape(brassica Napus L.) (United States)

    Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chunlei; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhao, Suolao; Wang, Baoqing; Jin, Zhiqing; Zhu, Dawei; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Xiufang

    The objectives of developing optimum leaf area index dynamic models for rape (OLAIDM) was to develop Rape Cultivation Simulation-Optimization- Decision Making System(Rape-CSODS) , to design its planting , to regulate and control its growth and development, and to fulfill its high yield, good quality, high benefits and standard production eventually. The OLAIDM were developed based on field experiments with 3 cultivars, 6 sowing dates, 2 types of plant pattern and 4 sites from 2002 to 2007 in middle and lower valley of Yangtze river in China and relative data from references of rape researches, employed ideas of R/WCSODS (Rice/Wheat Cultivation Simulation- Optimization-Decision Making System), and in the same time, the OLAIMR and its parameters also were assessed, calibrated and tested. The average absolute deviation(de), correlation coefficients(r) and the standard errors of their absolute deviation(Sde) of between the observed and simulated values for LAI of two cultivars in Wuhan and Nanjing were -0.03~0.1533, 0.9707~0.9997 and0.1332~0.4032, respectively. 1:1 line of them were in Fig. 1 to 4. Multi-factors such as the ramification types, cultivars, and light et al. were taken into account in this study, therefore, the OLAIDM with general adaptability, clear yield aim, mechanism, and dynamic characteristic can simulate optimum LAI dynamic for rape under different sites, cultivars and ramification types, and yielding levels.

  16. Evaluation of the Minolta SPAD-502 meter for nitrogen management of oilseed rape (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe-yan; He, Yong; Huang, Min


    Nitrogen is important for oilseed rape production and even moderate deficiencies will substantially reduce yield and profit, but excessive N can pollute both surface and ground water. Thus, farmers are walking a thin line. In order to find the relationship between the SPAD value and the nitrogen content of oilseed rapes, a Minolta SPAD-502 Meter can be used for on-farm measurement of the N content, and then the Kjeldahl method has been used for measuring the nitrogen content of these oilseed rapes. Every leaf had 10 points SPAD value in average for measuring by SPAD, according to the area of the leaves, the points were increased or decreased. The Kjeldahl method has been used for organic nitrogen determination for over a century. Before using the Kjeldahl method to measuring the nitrogen content, all the leaves has been washed and dried. The results of these two methods has been fitted, as a result, the correlation coefficient is 0.863. Another sample was used to check if the result was perfect, the error of the forecasting value is about 7.4%. A new method for measuring the nitrogen content quickly of oilseed rapes has been found, the nitrogen content of the oilseed rape can be measured nondestructively and quickly.

  17. The Effects of Viewing R-Rated Movie Scenes That Objectify Women on Perceptions of Date Rape. (United States)

    Milburn, Michael A.; Mather, Roxanne; Conrad, Sheree D.


    Tested the effects of viewing R-rated films on perceptions of female responsibility for and enjoyment of date or stranger rape. Participants viewed nonviolent scenes objectifying and degrading women sexually or animated film scenes. They read a fictitious magazine account of a date or stranger rape. The study showed that males who viewed the…

  18. Blaming the Victim and Exonerating the Perpetrator in Cases of Rape and Robbery: Is There a Double Standard? (United States)

    Bieneck, Steffen; Krahe, Barbara


    Research in legal decision making has demonstrated the tendency to blame the victim and exonerate the perpetrator of sexual assault. This study examined the hypothesis of a special leniency bias in rape cases by comparing them to cases of robbery. N = 288 participants received descriptions of rape and robbery of a female victim by a male…

  19. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties. (United States)

    Su, Dechun; Xing, Jianping; Jiao, Weiping; Wong, Woonchung


    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions. The results showed that the maximal influx (V(max)) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties. The value of V(max) for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuan you II-93. The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with CdSO4 for both the varieties. Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil. Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  20. Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape in Relationship to Mental Health among a National Sample of Women (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.


    Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a…

  1. Challenging women’s vulnerability : Feminist representations of rape in Sexto Sentido, a Nicaraguan soap opera for social change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Donzelli (Stefania)


    textabstractThis paper considers explanations of rape related to perceptions of women’s vulnerability and of men’s violence and strength as problematic, because of the limitations they impose on women’s agency. Under the framework of poststructuralist feminist politics of rape and politics of

  2. Sexuality, Substance Use, and Susceptibility to Victimization: Risk for Rape and Sexual Coercion in a Prospective Study of College Women (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Coates, Aubrey A.; Gaffey, Kathryn J.; Johnson, Carrie F.


    An 8-month prospective study examined behavioral, personality, and psychological variables thought to increase vulnerability for college women's experience of rape and verbal sexual coercion. Participants were 276 college women who completed self-report surveys. During 1 academic year, 9.5% of women were raped and 11.7% reported verbal sexual…

  3. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel


    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  4. Looking for Blame: Rape Myth Acceptance and Attention to Victim and Perpetrator. (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Rees, Jonas; Bohner, Gerd


    In two studies, the authors examined the influence of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on participants' attention toward the potential victim versus perpetrator in a rape case. In Study 1 (N = 90), participants selected information that focused on either the male defendant or the female victim. With increasing RMA, participants preferred information that focused on the victim rather than the defendant. In Study 2 (N = 41), participants viewed photographs depicting both victim and defendant while their eye movements were recorded. With increasing RMA, participants spent less time inspecting the defendant relative to the victim. In both studies, higher RMA predicted stronger anti-victim and pro-defendant judgments, replicating previous research. Taken together, these results support the assumption that RMA guides participants' attention, leading to a focus on the alleged rape victim and away from the alleged perpetrator. Implications of the current research and future directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The Role of Psychopathy and Exposure to Violence in Rape Myth Acceptance. (United States)

    Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola, Susanna; Meller-Prunska, Aleksandra


    The main aim of the present study was to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationships between four psychopathy dimensions (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behavior), childhood exposure to violence, and rape myth acceptance while controlling for gender, age, sample type (prisoner vs. non-prisoner), and relationship status. Participants were a sample of non-offending adults (n = 319) recruited from the University of Security in Poznan, and a sample of prisoners (n = 129) incarcerated in Stargard Szczecinski Prison. Results indicated that the model provided a good fit for the data, and that Callous Affect and childhood exposure to violence had a significant positive effect on attitudes toward rape and rape victims. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Sexual Violence in the ‘Manosphere’: Antifeminist Men’s Rights Discourses on Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Gotell


    Full Text Available This paper explores the role that men’s rights activism (MRA is playing in a contemporary backlash to feminist anti-rape activism. We engage in a discourse analysis of popular MRA websites to reveal a set of interrelated claims, including: that sexual violence, like domestic violence, is a gender-neutral problem; that feminists are responsible for erasing men’s experiences of victimization; that false allegations are widespread; and that rape culture is a feminist-produced moral panic. We argue that sexual violence is emerging as a new focus of the men’s rights movement, competing with a longstanding emphasis on fathers’ rights. The subject of MRA activism has shifted and is becoming less familial and more sexual. MRAs appear to be using the issue of rape to mobilize young men and to exploit their anxieties about shifting consent standards and changing gender norms.

  7. Factors associated with rape-supportive attitudes: sociodemographic variables, aggressive personality, and sexist attitudes. (United States)

    Sierra, Juan Carlos; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Gutiérrez-Quintanilla, Ricardo; Bermúdez, María Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto


    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of various sociodemographic variables and estimate the impact of additional psychological factors (aggressive personality traits and the sexual double standard) on rape-supportive attitudes. A sample of 700 men and 800 women from El Salvador aged between 18 and 40 years completed the Social Desirability Scale, the Double Standard Scale, the Aggression Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 and the Rape-Supportive Attitude Scale. Results show gender-based and age-based differences in rape-supportive attitudes, as well as an interaction between gender and age. They also highlight the importance of the sexual double standard and aggressive personality traits in explaining such attitudes.

  8. Clubroot – An Emerging Disease Faced by Czech Oilseed Rape Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řičařová V.


    Full Text Available Clubroot is caused by the pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin and has become a serious problem in oilseed rape production in the Czech Republic. The disease was previously widespread in commercial vegetable production and in hobby gardens. Whereas previously restricted only to the NE, since 2010 oilseed rape clubroot has been spreading across the whole country. A five-year monitoring of clubroot occurrence based on disease symptoms detection on oilseed rape fields was accomplished by the Union of Oilseed Growers and Processors. The presence of P. brassicae and clubroot symptoms was reported in all regions of the Czech Republic, except the Ústecký region, and in 31 out of 76 districts. At present, at least 130 fields are known to be infested by the pathogen, but this number is very likely underestimated. Some soil samples were also tested using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR method to evaluate the soil usability. All 14 suspected samples tested positive.

  9. Is it love or sexual abuse? Young adults' perceptions of statutory rape. (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Farr, Rachel H; Reppucci, N Dickon


    Adults under age 25 comprise the majority of statutory rape perpetrators, yet we know little about their perceptions of statutory relationships. We assessed 210 (50% male) young adults' perceptions of statutory rape involving a 15-year-old female adolescent and a male who was either 2, 4, or 6 years older. Across all age gaps, 73.7% of participants felt the relationship should not be a crime. Participants who read about a 4- or 6-year (versus 2-year) age gap perceived the relationship as significantly more of a crime and the older partner as more responsible and in need of legal intervention. Effects were partially mediated by perceptions of the relationship as exploitive. Results suggest a need to educate young adults about statutory rape.

  10. Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism: the Kobe Bryant case. (United States)

    Franiuk, Renae; Seefelt, Jennifer L; Cepress, Sandy L; Vandello, Joseph A


    Two studies examine the prevalence and effects of rape myths in the print media covering a real-life case of alleged sexual assault. Study 1 was an archival study of 156 sources from around the country. Articles about the Kobe Bryant case were coded for instances of rape myths, among other variables. Of the articles, 65 mentioned at least one rape myth (with "she's lying" being the single most common myth perpetuated). Study 2 assessed participants' (N = 62) prior knowledge of the Bryant case and exposed them to a myth-endorsing or myth-challenging article about the case. Those exposed to the myth-endorsing article were more likely to believe that Bryant was not guilty and the alleged victim was lying. The implications for victim reporting and reducing sexual assault in general are discussed.

  11. Police Officers' Rape Myth Acceptance: Examining the Role of Officer Characteristics, Estimates of False Reporting, and Social Desirability Bias. (United States)

    Venema, Rachel M


    This study examines police officers' perceptions of sexual assault and those who report sexual assault to the police, using a revised version of the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale along with a measure of social desirability bias. The study includes survey responses from 174 officers from 1 mid-sized police department in the Great Lakes region. Results show low to moderate levels of rape myth acceptance scores on the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, with highest scores related to victim lying. Officers report very high estimates of false reporting, indicating some rape myth acceptance. Officer level of education, rank, and estimates of false reporting influence rape myth acceptance; however, social desirability bias is an important explanatory factor. Implications for measurement and training are discussed.

  12. Rape myth attitudes in rural Kenya: toward the development of a culturally relevant attitude scale and "blame index". (United States)

    Tavrow, Paula; Withers, Mellissa; Obbuyi, Albert; Omollo, Vidalyne; Wu, Elizabeth


    Rape myth attitudes (RMAs) can excuse men for rape, placing blame on female victims. This study identified and classified RMAs in rural western Kenya through 31 focus group discussions with youths and adults. We found that about half of the participants were likely to blame victims unconditionally. Stereotypes about rape victims and perpetrators were rife. Five of seven standardly used RMA categories emerged spontaneously in focus groups, along with a new category: "she owed him." Based on the data, we developed a "blame index" to assess the likelihood of community victim blaming in Kenya. To reduce victim blaming and bring about more prosecutions for rape, community education, teacher training, and reforms of rape laws are highly recommended.

  13. Date-rape-supporting and victim-blaming attitudes among high school students in a multiethnic society: Israel. (United States)

    Geiger, Brenda; Fischer, Michael; Eshet, Yovav


    This study examined the extent to which a multiethnic sample of 900 Israeli high school students supported date-rape and victim-blaming attitudes and the predictors of such support. Findings indicate wide support for stereotypes justifying sexual coercion by time and the location of the date, the victim's behavior, and the minimization of the seriousness of date rape. A regression analysis indicates that students' gender and age are the strongest predictors of rape-tolerant and victim-blaming attitudes. Socioeconomic status and religious orientation explain a small proportion of the variance in the support of such attitudes. By contrast, no significant relationship is indicated with ethnicity. Alternative sex-education and rape-prevention programs must address date-rape and victim-blaming attitudes and make students of both genders aware of various factors that continue to be misread as an invitation to have sex and put them at high risk of experiencing sexual coercion on a date.

  14. Rape-law and woman's right--critical analysis vis-a-vis role of attending doctor. (United States)

    Mohanty, Nayan Kishore


    According to Supreme Court rape is not only a crime against entire society, it destroyes the entire psychology of woman and pushes her into deep emotional crisis. The need at present is to mould and evolve the rape-law so as to make it more sensitive and responsive to the demands of the time in order to resolve the basic problem. The rape-laws have some lacunae which need a fresh look for necessary changes. The necessary changes can be suggested and made in relation to sexual intercourse, age of the rape victim, genital tract defects in woman, HIV infection, injury inflicted on the victim with corroboration of evidence and circumstances which must be supervised with high precaution. It must be remembered that doctors and scientific experts play most crucial and vital role and ignorance of rape-law and lack of high degree expertise skill can make the accused easily set at liberty.

  15. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Flower Fraction in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Fang


    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF and Flower Fraction (FF in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. The results showed that the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARIgreen worked most accurately for estimating VF in flower-free samples with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 3.56%, while the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2 was the best in flower-containing samples with an RMSE of 5.65%. Based on reflectance in green and NIR bands, a technique was developed to identify whether a sample contained flowers and then to choose automatically the appropriate algorithm for its VF estimation. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate FF in oilseed rape. No significant correlation was observed between VI and FF when soil was visible in the sensor’s field of view. Reflectance at 550 nm worked well for FF estimation with coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.6. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with RMSE below 6%.

  16. Rape Myth Acceptance Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Mostly Heterosexual College Students. (United States)

    Worthen, Meredith G F


    Although there is a wealth of existing research on various correlates and patterns of rape myth acceptance (RMA), including how RMA relates to homophobia (i.e., antigay and antilesbian perspectives) and negativity toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women rape victims, no research to date has specifically focused on RMA among LGB and "mostly heterosexual" men and women. The current study examines how gender, sexual identity, personal experiences with rape (i.e., knowing/being a survivor), feminist identity, patriarchal gender norms, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and the interactions among these relate to LGB college students' ( n = 389; 24% gay/lesbian, 19% bisexual, 57% mostly heterosexual) RMA using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Short Form. Findings show that being a woman, being LGB, identifying as a feminist, and knowing/being a survivor are all negatively related to RMA, whereas patriarchal gender norms are positively related to RMA. Attitudes toward LGBT people had differing effects whereby attitudes toward gay men were unassociated with RMA, attitudes toward lesbian women and trans men were negatively associated with RMA, and attitudes toward bisexual men and women and trans women differed depending on the comparison reference group (exclusive heterosexuals, n = 1,551, mostly heterosexuals, n = 222). Furthermore, the interacting effects of these identities, experiences, and perspectives also revealed significant findings that add complexity to these relationships. Overall, this research seeks to fill the gaps in the literature, expand our knowledge about rape myths, and contribute to new lines of inquiry that focus on LGB people's perspectives to work toward a deeper understanding of rape myths, so that ultimately, these damaging perspectives can be dispelled.

  17. The complexity of victim-questioning attitudes by rape victim advocates: exploring some gray areas. (United States)

    Maier, Shana L


    Despite efforts to educate and create community awareness, rape myths and victim-blaming attitudes persist in society. This research explores whether advocates express victim-questioning attitudes or questions, negative judgment, or frustration regarding victims' behavior or choices. Data from interviews with 58 advocates reveal that the majority (76%) of advocates never expressed any victim-questioning attitudes during the interview. However, responses from 14 advocates (24%) show that victim-questioning has evolved into a much more complex, subtle form than historical victim blaming or acceptance of rape myths.

  18. "Rape Culture" language and the news media: contested versus non-contested cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April COBOS


    Full Text Available The American news media has recently reported on several rape and sexual assault cases in various cultural settings, sparking public conversations about rape culture in different cultural contexts. The article is focused as a Critical Discourse Analysis that compares the language use in news articles from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal over a six months period in order to more clearly understand the way the news media uses language in regards to gender and sexual assault and creates a spectrum of valid versus contested reports of sexual assault in different cultural settings.

  19. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke


    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species....... The implications of our results for the possible choice nf integration sites of transgenes in oilseed rape are discussed....

  20. The impossibility of bearing witness: wartime rape and the promise of justice. (United States)

    Henry, Nicola


    Testimonies of wartime sexual violence contribute to the recognition of rape as a serious human rights violation. Although acknowledgement and justice are imperative to ending silence and impunity, this article critiques some commonly held therapeutic assumptions about disclosure through examining the way so-called "unspeakable" events are communicated through legal discourse. In this article, the author explores the inherent limitations of language for bearing witness to wartime rape, specifically focusing on international war crimes tribunals. The author argues that trials contribute to the impossibility of bearing witness through both the appropriation of trauma and the failure of law to accommodate traumatic experiences.

  1. Barriers to working with sexual assault survivors: a qualitative study of rape crisis center workers. (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E; Townsend, Stephanie M


    To better understand barriers service providers may face when advocating for survivors, a study using grounded theory and qualitative, semistructured interviews was conducted of rape victim advocates (N= 25) working in rape crisis centers in a large metropolitan area. Broader societal attitudes framed and were reflected in institutional responses to victims and in barriers faced by advocates working with survivors. Organizational barriers noted by advocates related to resources, environmental factors, professionalization, and racism. Staff burnout was a major barrier affecting advocates' ability to help survivors. Finally, the most salient direct service barrier was secondary victimization by criminal justice and medical or mental health systems.

  2. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance. (United States)

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A


    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  3. Solubilization and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase from microspore-derived cultures of oilseed rape.


    Little, D.; Weselake, R; Pomeroy, K; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Bagu, J


    Particulate fractions prepared from microspore-derived (MD) embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Reston) and an embryogenic MD cell suspension culture of oilseed rape (B. napus L. cv. Jet Neuf) were used as a source of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC for enzyme characterization and development of a solubilization procedure. DGAT activity in the 1500-100,000 g fraction from MD embryos was stimulated 4-5-fold by 3 to 4 mg of BSA/ml of reaction mixture. DGAT activity...

  4. Law & Order, CSI, and NCIS: The Association Between Exposure to Crime Drama Franchises, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Sexual Consent Negotiation Among College Students. (United States)

    Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Lei, Ming; Ren, Chunbo; Ran, Weina


    Previous research has identified that exposure to the crime drama genre lowers rape myth acceptance and increases sexual assault prevention behaviors such as bystander intervention. However, recent content analyses have revealed marked differences in the portrayal of sexual violence within the top three crime drama franchises. Using a survey of 313 college freshmen, this study explores the influence of exposure to the three most popular crime drama franchises: Law & Order, CSI, and NCIS. Findings indicate that exposure to the Law & Order franchise is associated with decreased rape myth acceptance and increased intentions to adhere to expressions of sexual consent and refuse unwanted sexual activity; whereas exposure to the CSI franchise is associated with decreased intentions to seek consent and decreased intentions to adhere to expressions of sexual consent. Exposure to the NCIS franchise was associated with decreased intentions to refuse unwanted sexual activity. These results indicate that exposure to the specific content of each crime drama franchise may have differential results on sexual consent negotiation behaviors.

  5. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll.). (United States)

    Schaefer, Heike L; Brandes, Haiko; Ulber, Bernd; Becker, Heiko C; Vidal, Stefan


    The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  6. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike L Schaefer

    Full Text Available The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  7. Coordinate changes in gene expression and triacylglycerol composition in the developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa). (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kalpio, Marika; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Lehto, Kirsi; Niemi, Jarmo; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki P


    Crop production for vegetable oil in the northern latitudes utilises oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera) and turnip rape (B. rapa subsp. oleifera), having similar oil compositions. The oil consists mostly of triacylglycerols, which are synthesised during seed development. In this study, we characterised the oil composition and the expression levels of genes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the developing seeds in optimal, low temperature (15 °C) and short day (12-h day length) conditions. Gene expression levels of several genes were altered during seed development. Low temperature and short day treatments increased the level of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3n-3) in turnip rape and short day treatment decreased the total oil content in both species. This study gives a novel view on seed oil biosynthesis under different growth conditions, bringing together gene expression levels of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway and oil composition over a time series in two related oilseed species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ramadan Perspective Epidemiology and Education in Diabetes (RAPEED) Study. (United States)

    Siddiqui, N I; Kamrul-Hasan, M; Hossain, M A; Chanda, P K; Bakar, M A; Rahman, M; Kader, M A


    Ramadan fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam and is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims. A significant number of patients with diabetes observe fasting during Ramadan. The objectives of this Ramadan Perspective Epidemiology and Education in Diabetes (RAPEED) study were to find out the current knowledge, attitude, and practices about Ramadan fasting among people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This retrospective cross-sectional study recruited 648 subjects with diabetes mellitus attending the Endocrinology outpatient department of a tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh within two months of the end of Ramadan in 2016. Socio-demographic data, data related to diabetes treatment, complications and co-morbidities; changes in lifestyle and diabetes treatment during Ramadan and frequency of hypoglycemia were collected from all. The mean age of the study population was 50.32±12.1 years and the majority (98.6%) had type 2 diabetes and 63.9% were overweight or obese. The majority (89.35%) of the patients fasted in Ramadan and among them, more than half of the fasters received physicians' advice for Ramadan fasting (60.6%) and changed diabetes medication (69.90%) during Ramadan. Although the amount of total food consumption was unchanged in more than one half (60.6%) of the fasters, majority of them reduced sugar-sweet intake (75.5%), increased fluid drinking (75.8%) and decreased physical activity (75.8%) during the month. A large portion (37.48%) of them did not check blood glucose and more than half (54.06%) of fasters failed to visit their physicians during Ramadan. Among them 14.85% experienced mild to moderate episodes of hypoglycemia and none had severe hypoglycemia and the most (61.6%) episodes of hypoglycemia occurred in the late evening. Hypoglycemic episodes were more frequent among insulin users, patients who had received fasting advice from physicians and in those who had adjusted diabetes drugs before Ramadan fasting. Safe Ramadan

  9. A system justification view of sexual violence: legitimizing gender inequality and reduced moral outrage are connected to greater rape myth acceptance. (United States)

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L


    Rape is a pervasive social problem that causes serious physical and psychological repercussions. Rape victims' recovery is often complicated by the public's failure to believe the victim and restore justice. This study applied system justification theory to examine whether the justification of gender inequality is related to moral outrage (an emotional precursor to corrective action) and rape myth acceptance; we also examined whether rape myth acceptance is associated with moral outrage at injustice. Results showed that gender-specific system justification correlated with less moral outrage at human suffering as well as greater rape myth acceptance. The relationships between these variables were similar for men and for women, a finding that suggests that rape myths are system justifying for women. When we controlled for gender-specific system justification, rape myth acceptance correlated with less moral outrage. Results are discussed in the context of how legitimizing ideologies reduce moral outrage at injustice and perpetuate a system of sexual violence.

  10. The differential pattern of tissue-specific expression of ruminant pancreatic type ribonucleases may help to understand the evolutionary history of their genes. (United States)

    Sasso, M P; Lombardi, M; Confalone, E; Carsana, A; Palmieri, M; Furia, A


    Molecular evolutionary analyses of mammalian ribonucleases have shown that gene duplication events giving three paralogous genes occurred in ruminant ancestors. The enzymes of the bovine species encoded by these genes, isolated from pancreas, brain and seminal vesicles, present similar enzymological properties but distinct structural features. In other ruminant species, genomic sequences orthologous to the bovine genes of pancreas and brain ribonucleases encode active enzymes. In mammalian species other than ruminant artiodactyls, only one gene encoding ribonuclease of the pancreatic type is generally present. In this work, we describe a differential pattern of transcriptional expression of the pancreas and brain ribonuclease genes in the ox species and report transcription of the human ribonuclease gene in brain as well as in pancreas and in mammary gland. We also report the molecular cloning of the gene encoding the bovine seminal ribonuclease in which the structural organization already described for the two paralogous genes is conserved. The seminal RNAase is exclusively expressed in seminal vesicles of Bos taurus, whereas in other ruminant species, the orthologous sequence is a pseudogene. Previous studies from a number of research groups demonstrated that, unlike other mammalian ribonucleases, the seminal enzyme is a covalent dimer, and its unique quaternary structure correlates with special biological activities. The major determinant of dimer formation, i.e. the presence of two adjacent cysteine residues, is absent in the pseudogenes. We advance the hypothesis that the differentiation of distinct expression patterns could represent an important evolutionary determinant for the genes encoding pancreas and brain ribonucleases in ruminants, whereas the differentiation of a quaternary structure endowed with new biological functions could be the main determinant for the evolutionary success of the seminal gene in the bovine species.

  11. Interventions to Reduce Distress in Adult Victims of Rape and Sexual Violence: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Alaggia, Ramona; Dennis, Jane; Pitts, Annabel; Saini, Michael


    Objectives: This article presents a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing distress in adult victims of rape and sexual violence. Method: Studies were eligible for the review if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Results:…

  12. Sexual violence in the protracted conflict of DRC programming for rape survivors in South Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz K Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area.

  13. The Effect of Music Videos on College Students' Perceptions of Rape (United States)

    Burgess, Melinda C. R.; Burpo, Sandra


    This paper examined the effect of sexualized portrayals of female artists in music videos on college students' perceptions of date rape. 132 college students were randomly assigned to view a music video that contained either high or low levels of sexuality and sexual objectification and were then asked to rate the guilt of the male in a scenario…

  14. Rape-related cognitive distortions: Preliminary findings on the role of early maladaptive schemas. (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J


    Despite the important focus on the notion of cognitive distortions in the sexual offending area, the relevance of underlying cognitive schemas in sexual offenders has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and cognitive distortions in rapists. A total of 33 men convicted for rape completed the Bumby Rape Scale (BRS), the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short form-3 (YSQ-S3), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Results showed a significant relationship between the impaired limits schematic domain and the Justifying Rape dimension of the BRS. Specifically, after controlling for psychological distress levels and social desirability tendency, the entitlement/grandiosity schema from the impaired limits domain was a significant predictor of cognitive distortions related to Justifying Rape themes. Overall, despite preliminary, there is some evidence that the Young's Schema-Focused model namely the impaired limits dimension may contribute for the conceptualization of cognitive distortions in rapists and further investigation is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rape victims and victimisers in Herbstein's Ama, a Story of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines how Manu Herbstein employs his fictionalised neo-slave narrative entitled Ama, a Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade to address the issue of sexual violence against women and to foreground the trans-Atlantic rape identities of victims and victimisers in relation to race, gender, class and religion.

  16. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of the Revictimization of Rape Victims (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.


    While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…

  17. Sorority Women's and Fraternity Men's Rape Myth Acceptance and Bystander Intervention Attitudes (United States)

    Bannon, R. Sean; Brosi, Matthew W.; Foubert, John D.


    Sorority women and fraternity men are more likely than other students to be survivors and perpetrators of sexual assault, respectively. The present study examined sorority and fraternity members' rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and bystander willingness to help in potential sexual assault situations. Sorority women were more rejecting of…

  18. Circumstances Surrounding Male Sexual Assault and Rape: Findings from the National Violence against Women Survey (United States)

    Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth


    Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the…

  19. Energy- and exergy analysis of rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production under Swedish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovelius, K.; Hansson, P. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering


    In this study the rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production chain was analysed with respect to its energy- and exergy efficiencies. The differences between results from an ordinary energy analysis and an exergy analysis of the production were also quantified and discussed. The sensitivity of the results to changes in some of the most important input parameters were then analysed in order to find production strategies that increase the exergy efficiency. The study was applied to rape seed cultivation situated in southern Sweden. The rape seed oil was hot pressed in a large-scale plant, and the RME was esterified in the same factory as that in which the rape seed oil was pressed. Both direct and indirect energy and exergy flows used for RME production were included. The analysis showed that a large part of the energy and exergy used to produce RME was related to nitrogen fertilizers and diesel fuels. Another important conclusion was that the exergy efficiency of the production in general is higher than the energy efficiency. A third conclusion was that it is possible, by using alternative production strategies, to improve the exergy efficiency without decreasing the energy efficiency.

  20. Liquid fuels production using rape oil. Wytwarzanie paliw plynnych z oleju rzepakowego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotowski, W.; Petrach, A. (Wyzsza Szkola Inzynierska, Opole (Poland)); Luecke, B. (Centrum Katalizy Heterogennej, Berlin (Germany)); Tietze, B. (Wyzsza Szkola Techniczna, Szweinfurt (Germany))


    The process equipment for the continuous reestrification of rape oil to glicerine and then to diesel fuel is described. The testing installation using the fluidized bed cathalitic cracking of raw material is presented. Process parameters and their impact on the quality and quantity of the final product are considered. (author). 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Collateral Damage Related to Rape and Interpersonal Violence in Higher Education (United States)

    Jones, Dan L.


    Collegiate communities are often faced with difficult situations from sexual assault, rape, and other forms of interpersonal violence. These events are not only tragic or traumatic for the individuals involved but also have ripple effects and create collateral damage within the campus community. Many universities are instituting bystander training…

  2. The Views of Women of Press Coverage of Rape Cases in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of prominence given to events, issues or phenomena by the press goes a long way in determining people's knowledge, exposure, views, opinions and/or suggestions about such events, issues and phenomena. Thus, the degree of prominence given to rape cases by the press in Nigeria determines what ...

  3. Questioning the Question: How can a husband rape his wife? : A Discussion in an International Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Nicole Walquist


    Full Text Available This essay discusses the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I assume that upon reading this you already have some reaction or answer. I have one, too. The interesting part is that they can be very different. Some people think along the lines of “Yes, I can't imagine how a husband can rape his wife because that is so cruel.” Other people may think something like “Yes, how is this even possible, that a husband having sex with his wife could be considered rape.” These views are quite different, and it is this difference that interests me.In this essay, I will reflect upon the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I will discuss my personal background, and describe the situation and experience in which this question was brought up. Next, I will discuss various reflections I have had about this difference. I will then reflect on how this idea, or even the definitions of the terms, may be based on a person’s culture, gender, and/or opinions. After that, I will look at how this topic may affect social workers, service users and social work as a profession. Lastly, I will also explain how this has helped me gain a better understanding of this issue.

  4. The Attitudes toward Rape Victims Scale: Construction, Validation, and Cross-Cultural Applicability. (United States)

    Ward, Colleen


    Constructed 25-item Attitudes toward Rape Victims Scale (ARVS) which emphasized victim blame, credibility, deservingness, denigration, and trivialization. Results from administration of ARVS to university students, social workers, psychologists, physicians, lawyers, and police officers in Singapore, and to university students in the United States…

  5. Comparison of the Psychological Recovery of Black and White Victims of Rape. (United States)

    Morelli, Patricia H.

    Knowledge of individual differences of victim responses to and recovery from rape is necessary in order to provide for each victim's individual needs. Black women may be exposed to more violence in their culture and may be treated differently than white women. These differences may lead to different recovery patterns between black and white rape…

  6. Weevils of the genus Ceutorhynchus Germ associated with oilseed rape in northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sivčev


    Full Text Available Our research of the genus Ceutorhynchus associated with oilseed rape was conducted in northern parts of Serbia (Stari Žednik, Subotica. A specific assemblage of eight weevil species was found. The most numerous were stem weevils Ceutorhynchus napi with 81% of all trapped specimens, followed by C. pallidactylus with 18%. The remaining six weevil specimens were C. obstrictus, C.erysimi, C. minutus, C. picitarsis, C. sulcicollis and C. typhae, comprising 1% of all trapped insects. Stem weevils C. napi and C. pallidactylus began to immigrate into the oilseed rape fields in autumn, as early as November 10 (BBCH 17-18. The maximum flight was recorded at the beginning of oilseed rape stem elongation (BBCH 22-25 on March 23. A new generation of C. pallidactylus emerged from oilseed rape fields in June (BBCH 76-88, while individual specimens occurred during the autumn. The majority of C. napi emerged in March next year, sporadically until May 7. As a consequence of C. napi dominance insecticide treatment should be performed earlier than usual, i.e. when C. pallidactilus is the primary target.

  7. Sexual specificity, rape law reform and the feminist quest for justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The few possible advantages of a gender neutral approach to rape are offset by a series of disadvantages regarding gender justice when viewed from a feminist perspective. Formal gender neutrality does not safeguard against the effective influence of pervasive and enduring symbolic constructions pertaining to male and ...

  8. Acquaintance Rape and Alcohol Consumption on College Campuses: How Are They Linked? (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia


    Explores the links between acquaintance rape and alcohol consumption among college students, two serious problems on campus. Seven explanations for the relationship focus on alcohol consumption by the perpetrator and by the victim. The need to conduct further studies and develop prevention programs is addressed. (Author/SM)

  9. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw for the production of bio-oils (United States)

    Xing-Yan Huang; Feng Li; Jiu-Long Xie; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Chung-Yun Hse; Jin-Qiu Qi; Hui. Xiao


    The acid-catalyzed liquefaction of rape straw in methanol using microwave energy was examined. Conversion yield and energy consumption were evaluated to profile the microwave-assisted liquefaction process. Chemical components of the bio-oils from various liquefaction conditions were identified. A higher reaction temperature was found to be beneficial to obtain higher...

  10. Psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in a young rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the psychodynamic psychotherapy of a 20-year-old African woman with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). 'Mphumi' entered therapy a year after her father's friend had repeatedly raped her. The paper documents the process of therapy and uses the case material to examine theoretical issues ...

  11. 78 FR 77495 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (United States)


    ... International; Joyce Lukima, Vice President of Services, Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape; Montana State... Shayo Buchanan, Associate Professor of Law and Gender Studies, USC Gould School of Law; Paulding... Facility, Ohio Department of Youth Services--facility with a high prevalence of sexual victimization...

  12. Professional services for child rape survivors: A child-centred perspective on helpful and harmful experiences. (United States)

    Collings, Steven J


    The aim of this study was to explore child rape survivors' perceptions of helpful and harmful experiences at the hands of professional service providers. Focused interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 20 child rape survivors who had presented for counselling services at a non-governmental organisation located in the coastal region of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. For each case, information was obtained regarding children's perceptions of helpful and harmful experiences at the hands of police, medical and criminal justice system personnel. A thematic analysis of children's responses indicated that the concerns expressed by respondents reflected four basic inter-related needs and rights including the need and right: to be given a voice, to be informed and consulted, to be protected from harm, and for competent and efficient service provision. Study findings provided little support to the view that the medico-legal examination or the adversarial nature of legal proceedings are likely to be experienced as particularly distressing or traumatising for the child. Study findings indicate that the professional services provided to some child rape survivors fail to adequately address the child's basic needs and rights, with there being an associated need for improved codes of practice designed to better serve the interests of child rape survivors.

  13. Voices of Sexual Distortion: Rape, Birth, and Self-Annihilation Metaphors in the "Alien Trilogy." (United States)

    Vaughn, Thomas


    Discusses myth, metaphor, and subjectivity in the popular science fiction film series sometimes referred to as the "Alien Trilogy." Traces how images of rape, birth, and self-annihilation deconstruct liberalized myths of gender and family, destabalizing the conventional frame through which the rhetorical subject is constructed. (SR)

  14. Clinical factors associated with rape victims' ability to testify in court ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiple long-term negative outcomes such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders and chronic physical ... memory.3. If the court is in doubt as to whether a victim is competent to testify, then the victim is referred to a mental health care. Clinical factors associated with rape victims' ability to testify in court: a records-based study ...

  15. 77 FR 37105 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape (United States)


    .... But sexual abuse is never a laughing matter, nor is it punishment for a crime. Rather, it is a crime... factual study of the penalogical [sic], physical, mental, medical, social, and economic impacts of prison... the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape.'' 42 U.S.C. 15606(d)(1), (e)(1...

  16. The Market, the Media and the Family in a School Excursion Rape Case (United States)

    Gannon, Susanne


    This paper examines a local and specific instance of the effects of neoliberal markets on individual and institutional subjects of schooling. It reviews a court case between a prestigious private girls' school and an ex-student who sued the school for failing to provide adequate supervision on a school trip to Europe during which she was raped. It…

  17. Early osmotic adjustment responses in drought-resistant and drought-sensitive oilseed rape. (United States)

    Hatzig, Sarah; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne; Hohmann, Marie; Legoahec, Laurie; Bouchereau, Alain; Nesi, Nathalie; Snowdon, Rod J


    The impact of osmotic stress on growth, physiology, and metabolism of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated by detailed analysis of biomass traits, hormone metabolites and osmolytes in two genetically unrelated drought-tolerant genotypes and two unrelated drought-sensitive genotypes. Seedlings were grown in vitro under controlled conditions and osmotic stress was simulated by applying a gradual treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), followed by hypo-osmotic treatment of variants used for metabolite determination. The results provide a basis for the identification of reliable selection criteria for drought resistance in oilseed rape. The in vitro cultivation system established during this study enabled effective discrimination of early osmotic stress responses between drought-resistant and -susceptible oilseed rape genotypes that also show large differences in relative seed yield under drought conditions in the field. Clear physiological and metabolic differences were observed between the drought-resistant and drought-sensitive genotypes, suggesting that osmotic adjustment is a key component of drought response in oilseed rape. Unexpectedly, however, the drought-resistant genotypes did not show typical hormonal adjustment and osmolyte accumulation, suggesting that they possess alternative physiological mechanisms enabling avoidance of stress symptoms. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Potential bioetanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik


    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3)...

  19. Medico-legal findings, legal case progression, and outcomes in South African rape cases: retrospective review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771, 14% (209 of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31 of adults and 7% (44 of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22 of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87-18.13, p = 0.003. In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14-34.3, p = 0

  20. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data* (United States)

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing


    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010–2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China. PMID:25644468

  1. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data. (United States)

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing


    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010-2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China.

  2. A rapid appraisal of the status of mental health support in post-rape care services in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams


    Full Text Available Background: Despite the well-known impact of rape on mental health and the widespread problem of rape in South Africa, mental health services for rape victims are scant and not a priority for acute-phase services. Survivors encounter multiple mental health struggles in this period including adherence to the post-exposure prophylaxis drugs to prevent HIV and finding support from important others. We have little information on what mental health is provided, by whom and how it is integrated into the post-rape package of care. Aim: The aim of the study was to do a rapid appraisal of mental health services for rape survivors to gain a better understanding of the current acute and long-term (secondary mental health services. Method: We conducted a qualitative study using a rapid assessment with a purposive sample of 14 rape survivors and 43 service providers recruited from post-rape sexual assault services in urban and rural Western Cape Province. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and observations of survivor sessions with counsellors, nurses and doctors. The data were coded thematically for analysis. Results: Survivors of rape experienced a range of emotional difficulties and presented varying levels of distress and various levels of coping. Receiving support and care from others assisted them, but the poor integration of mental health within post-rape services meant few received formal mental health support or effective referrals. Multiple factors contributed to the poor integration: mental health was not given the same level of priority as other rape services (i.e. clinical care, including forensic management, the inadequate capacity of service providers to provide mental healthcare, including mental health illiteracy, the lack of continuity of care, the poor linkages to ongoing mental healthcare, and the mental health challenges caused by vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue. Conclusion: Providing effective

  3. A culture-bound syndrome 'amafufunyana' and a culture-specific event 'ukuthwasa': differentiated by a family history of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Niehaus, D J H; Oosthuizen, P; Lochner, C; Emsley, R A; Jordaan, E; Mbanga, N I; Keyter, N; Laurent, C; Deleuze, J-F; Stein, D J


    'Amafufunyana' and 'ukuthwasa' are two culture-specific descriptive terms used by Xhosa traditional healers to explain aberrant behavioral and psychological phenomena. Some overlap between these conditions and schizophrenia (DSM-IV) is apparent. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which amafufunyana and ukuthwasa were used as cultural explanatory models by traditional healers for DSM-IV-defined schizophrenia and whether there were significant phenomenological differences in schizophrenia symptoms in patients with the diagnosis of amafufunyana rather than ukuthwasa. Xhosa patients with schizophrenia underwent a structured clinical diagnostic interview (Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies). The use of traditional diagnostic and treatment methods was assessed by structured open-ended interviewer-rated questions. The sample was then stratified for the presence/absence of a past/current diagnosis of amafufunyana and/or ukuthwasa. The clinical parameters were compared across groups by means of the chi2 or Student t tests. 247 adult subjects participated in the study. 106 (53%) patients reported a previous diagnosis of amafufunyana, and 9 (4.5%) reported a diagnosis of ukuthwasa. A family history of schizophrenia (p = 0.004) or any psychiatric disorder (p = 0.008) was more common in the ukuthwasa group. Subjects with a primary diagnosis other than amafufunyana or ukuthwasa were more likely to be married (p = 0.004), to have a history of stressor(s) prior to illness onset (p = 0.026), to be from a rural environment (p = 0.007) or to have a history of cannabis abuse/dependency (p = 0.015). The culture-bound syndrome amafufunyana and the culture-specific phenomenon of ukuthwasa are both used to explain symptoms in patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV). Identification of cases as amafufunyana and ukuthwasa may correlate with a distinction between familial and sporadic cases of schizophrenia. Whether the positive connotations associated with ukuthwasa, as

  4. Differential impact of serotonin transporter activity on temperament and behavior in persons with a family history of alcoholism in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project. (United States)

    Lovallo, William R; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yechiam, Eldad; Glahn, David C; Acheson, Ashley; Sorocco, Kristen H; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Kim, Bojeong; Cohoon, Andrew J; Vincent, Andrea S; Goldman, David


    Central serotonergic (5-HT) function is implicated in pathways to alcohol dependence, including dysphoria manifested by symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, little is known about genetic variation in central 5-HT function and its potential impact on temperament and behavior in persons with a family history of alcoholism (FH+). We tested 314 healthy young adults (23.5 years of age, 57% female; 193 FH- and 121 FH+) enrolled in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns project, a study of alcoholism risk in relation to temperament and behavioral dyscontrol. Dysphoria was assessed using the Eysenck neuroticism and Beck depression scales, and Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Risk taking was assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Balloon Analogue Response Task (BART). All subjects were genotyped for a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4). FH+ subjects with the gain-of-function 5-HTTLPR genotype scored higher in neuroticism, harm avoidance, and symptoms of depression (p-values ≤ 0.03). No effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype was seen in FH-. FH+ carriers of the gain-of-function 5-HTTLPR genotype played to minimize their frequency of losses in the IGT, whereas FH- carriers played a balanced strategy (p Alcoholism.

  5. Differentials in variables associated with past history of artificial abortion and current contraception by age: Results of a randomized national survey in Japan. (United States)

    Kojo, Takao; Ae, Ryusuke; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamura, Kunio


    This study analyzes differentials in the variables associated with the experience of artificial abortion (abortion) and use of contraception by age among women in Japan. The 2010 National Lifestyle and Attitudes Towards Sexual Behavior Survey was distributed to 2693 men and women aged 16-49 selected from the Japanese population using a two-stage random sampling procedure. From the 1540 respondents, we selected 700 women who reported having had sexual intercourse at least once. We used logistic regression to analyze how social and demographic factors were associated with the experience of abortion and contraceptive use. The abortion rate according to the survey was 19.3%. Of the 700 women in the sample, 6.9% had experienced two or more abortions. Logistic regression revealed that, although significant variables depended on age, a high level of education and discussions about contraceptive use with partners were negatively associated with the experience of abortion. Self-injury, approval of abortion and first sexual intercourse between the age of 10 and 19 were positively associated with the experience of abortion. Marriage, smoking and first sexual intercourse between the age of 10 and 19 were negatively associated with contraceptive use. Higher education and discussion of contraception with partners were positively associated with contraceptive use. To prevent unwanted pregnancy and abortion, social support and sexual education should be age-appropriate. It is vital to educate young people of the importance of discussing contraceptive use with their partners. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. The Impact of Victim Alcohol Consumption and Perpetrator Use of Force on Perceptions in an Acquaintance Rape Vignette. (United States)

    Brown, Amy L; Horton, Jada; Guillory, Ariel


    Research suggests that victims of incapacitated rape (when someone has sex with a person who is unable to consent to or resist sexual activity, usually because of intoxication) face higher levels of victim blame than do victims of forcible rape (Krahé, Temkin, & Bieneck, 2007). However, it is not clear whether blame is the result of victim alcohol consumption or the lack of force and resistance present during incapacitated rape; both of these factors have been shown to increase victim blame. The current vignette study crossed victim alcohol consumption and perpetrator use of force. We found main effects of both independent variables on judgments of victim responsibility, but no interaction, suggesting that the effects of alcohol and force are additive rather than interactive. These results indicate that victims of incapacitated rape may indeed face challenges upon disclosing their assaults.

  7. “A most detestable crime”. Representations of Rape in the Popular Press of Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti


    Full Text Available In early modern England the legal definition of rape underwent an important revision and gradually, from crime against property, rape became a crime against the person. While reflecting the classical, medieval and biblical assumptions, the period brought about new concerns. The purpose of this article is to explore representations of rape in a variety of popular texts of the English early modern period, by focussing attention on broadside ballads, cheap pamphlets as well as accounts of trials that took place at the Old Bailey. These texts constitute valuable sources of information about people’s attitudes and beliefs and help us construct the views of rape circulating in early modern English culture.

  8. [Effects of Green Manure Intercropping and Straw Mulching on Winter Rape Rhizosphere Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration]. (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Wang, Long-chang; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sai; Du, Juan; Zhao, Lin-lu


    Under the background of global warming, the farmland soil respiration has become the main way of agricultural carbon emissions. And green manure has great potential to curb greenhouse gas emissions and achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. However, in purple soil region of Southwest, China, soil respiration under green manure remains unclear, especially in the winter and intercropping. Through the green manure ( Chinese milk vetch) intercropping with rape, therefore, we compared the effects of rape rhizosphere under straw mulching. The soil organic carbon and soil respiration were examined. The results showed, compared with straw mulching, root separation was the major influencing factors of soil organic carbon on rape rhizosphere. Soil organic carbon was significantly decreased by root interaction. In addition, straw mulching promoted while green manure intercropping inhibited the soil respiration. Soil respiration presented the general characteristics of fall-rise-fall due to the strong influence of rape growth period. Therefore, it showed a cubic curve relationship with soil temperature.

  9. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia


    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012...

  10. Meteorological and landscape influences on pollen beetle immigration into oilseed rape crops. (United States)

    Skellern, Matthew P; Welham, Sue J; Watts, Nigel P; Cook, Samantha M


    Heavy reliance on pesticide inputs to maintain crop yields has been an important aspect of agricultural intensification. Insecticide use has had detrimental impacts on pollinators and natural pest control agents, contributing to a decline in associated ecosystem services, and has also led to resistance development in pest populations. Throughout Europe, in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops, prophylactic use of insecticides against pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus F. also known as Brassicogethes aeneus) has led to such issues, and there is an urgent need to develop more sustainable pest management practices for the crop. Although advice is available to oilseed rape growers regarding control thresholds, it may not be adhered to due to the expense of pollen beetle monitoring relative to the inexpensive cost of pyrethroid insecticides. Thus, the key to reducing prophylactic insecticide applications may lie with improved, less labour intensive methods of pollen beetle monitoring. For these to be realized, a better understanding is needed of the effects of agri-landscape features and meteorological conditions on pollen beetle immigration into the crop. In this study, based on data from four years of pollen beetle monitoring on a total of 41 field sites, we model the effects of meteorological (wind speed and direction, rainfall and accumulated temperature) and landscape (areas of woodland, residential gardens, the current and previous seasons' oilseed rape crops, and lengths of hedgerows and treelines) variables on directional sticky trap catches, at both the single trap and field scales. Meteorological variables, particularly accumulated temperature and wind speed were more important than landscape variables in predicting the abundance of pollen beetles immigrating into OSR fields. Sticky traps that were facing downwind caught more beetles than those that were facing across-wind or upwind; this is the first study to show at a landscape-scale, direct evidence for

  11. Living with the Sins of Their Fathers: An Analysis of Self-Representation of Adolescents Born of War Rape (United States)

    Erjavec, Karmen; Volcic; Zala


    Children born of war rape continue to be a taboo theme in many post-war societies, also in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). This study is based on in-depth interviews with eleven adolescents born of war rape in BH. The main goal is to present how these adolescents represent themselves and their life-situations. On the basis of the research we identify…

  12. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  13. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Schulze

    Full Text Available Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto. The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  14. Shortening of the development cycle in winter rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera L. by grafting nonvernalized scions on generative stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Dubert


    Full Text Available The conditions were investigated under which the development cycle in winter rape could be markedly reduced by grafting. Scions from non vernalized seedlings were grafted onto stock plants beginning their generative phase. Winter rape plants vernalized under natural field conditions and spring rape plants in the initial generative phase were used as stock. Best results were obtained by grafting scions from plants at the stage of 4 leaves, i.e. after 3 weeks of growth, onto winter rape stock. With such scions the effectiveness of graftings was high and seed crops were obtained 170 days earlier than under natural field conditions of growth and 80 days earlier than under artificial conditions. Scions grafted onto winter rape stock produced more siliques than those on spring rape. Grafting of scions after cutting off their apical meristems allowed formation of side shoots and consequently resulted in higher yields of siliques; the formation of siliques, however, was delayed by about 10 days as compared to grafts with apical meristems.

  15. Indications of Selenium Protection against Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S.; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Ying; Li, Miao; Yuan, Linxi


    The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se) in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants from cadmium (Cd+2) and lead (Pb+2) toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1) alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se-enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2•¯), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant. PMID:28018407

  16. Effects of Field Conditions on Emergence of Oilseed Rape Seed lots Grown in Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yanegh


    Full Text Available Nineteen irrigated farms of canola from six cities of Khorasan selected to assess the seedling emergence one month after sowing in 2009. Soil texture of each farm determined using the Hydrometer method. The results showed that weather conditions of sowing areas had no significant effect on emergence of oilseed rape. With increasing the temperature (within the range of 19.5 to 21.5 ˚C emergence percentage was not increased significantly. Rainfall also caused no significant effect on seedling emergence. The percentage of emergence in machine-sowing and hand-sowing were 38.4% and 28%, respectively. Soils with loam silt, silt clay loam and loam texture had emergence of 27.2%, 31.2% and 47% respectively. It seems soil texture plays a great roll on the emergence of oilseed rape with epigeal seedlings.

  17. X Views and Counting: Interest in Rape-Oriented Pornography as Gendered Microaggression. (United States)

    Makin, David A; Morczek, Amber L


    Academics and activists called to attention decades prior the importance of identifying, analyzing, and tracking the transmission of attitudes, behaviors, and norms correlated with violence against women. A specific call to attention reflected the media as a mode of transmission. This research builds on prior studies of media, with an emphasis on Internet search queries. Using Google search data, for the period 2004 to 2012, this research provides regional analysis of associated interest in rape-oriented pornography and pornographic hubs. Results indicate minor regional variations in interest, including the use of "BDSM" or "bondage/discipline, dominance/submission, and sadomasochism" as a foundational query for use in trend analysis. Interest in rape-oriented pornography by way of pornographic hubs is discussed in the context of microaggression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  19. Relationship of genital injuries and age in adolescent and young adult rape survivors. (United States)

    Baker, Rachel B; Sommers, Marilyn S


    To examine the associations between age and genital injuries in adolescent and young adult women examined following rape. A retrospective review of 234 medical records from an emergency department sexual assault program. Women aged 14 to 29 years. Fifty percent of the sample was African American, 48% was White, and 2% was either Asian or an "other" race. Genital injury was described by injury prevalence, frequency, and anatomical locations of injuries. Overall genital injury prevalence was 62.8%. Younger age was not significantly associated with the presence or absence of genital injury. However, younger age was significantly associated with an increased number of genital injuries overall and to the thighs, labia minora, periurethral area, fossa navicularis, and vagina. These findings support the need for further research to determine if the current care provided to rape survivors is age appropriate.

  20. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine


    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  1. Rape phosphatide concentrate in the technologies of surfactants production by the Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koretska


    Full Text Available Introduction. Due to the fact that the production of microbial surfactants is limited by the low yield of end products and high cost of processes, the actual task is to optimize and reduce the cost of the technology of biosurfactants synthesis. One of the solutions of this problem is to use the industrial wastes, including rape phosphatide concentrate (PC. Materials and methods. Hexadecane and rape phosphatide concentrate (2% were used as a carbon source in a nutrient medium for the cultivation of bacteria. Lipids were extracted from a cell mass and supernatant by the mixture of chloroform-methanol 2:1. The qualitative analysis of metabolites was performed by a thin layer chromatography. Results and discussion. The peculiarities of synthesis of biosurfactants by strains G. rubripertincta UCM Aс-122 and R. erythropolis Au-1 during the growth on the nutrient media with rape phosphatide concentrate as a carbon source was studied. Quantity of biomass was 9.4 – 10.1 g/l, exopoly mers –8.9-9.5 g/l and the content of cellbound trehalose lipids was 1.37 – 2.26 g/l; whereas the content of exogenous trehalose lipids –metabolites of R. erythropolis Au-1 was 2.95 g/l. It was found that the addition of trehalose lipids (0.01 g/l to the nutrient medium caused the increase of biomass on 14.6 –17.0 % and cell-bound lipids on 13.9 –15.5 %. Conclusions. Rape phosphatide concentrate is economically viable carbon source in the technologies of surfactant production by Actinobacteria. Its use promotes an increasing of exogenous surfactants strain R. erythropolisAu-1 in 3-fold compared with cultivation on nutrient medium with hexadecane. Trehalose lipids show a stimulating effect on growth and synthesis of biosurfactants by strains of G. rubripertincta UCM Ac-122 and R. erythropolisAu-1.

  2. The subject/Culture report in the trauma of rape: the case of the Algerian girls


    Houda Bouzidi


    The originality of this work lies in the fact that it studied the subject within his culture, differently from many Western studies, studying especially the migrant subjects. It is there a study of indigenous psychology. However, the theoretical framework remains ethnopsychiatry. Indeed, to describe the subject/Culture report in the case of trauma, we used the method of the study of clinical cases of ten girls Algerian victims of rape. The search results well revealed, among all of the victim...

  3. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields


    Bailey, S.; Requier, F.; Nusillard, B.; Roberts, Stuart; Potts, Simon; Bouget, C.


    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus(oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops.\\ud In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yel...

  4. The Dark Side of Internet Searches: A Macro Level Assessment of Rape Culture


    Makin, David A; Morczek, Amber L.


    Abstract Assessing the promulgation of rape culture in society or merely establishing at an empirical level the degree to which a nation reflects such attitudes or behaviors has remained of interest to scholars across numerous disciplines. One common limitation (or criticism) within prior empirical research is claims of lack of generalizability or influences of social desirability. This research employs the use of Google Trends data from 2004-2012, via nine keyword searches specific to rap...

  5. Images of rape in African fiction. Between the assumed fatality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d'arrêter sa prévalence et de dissiper son aura de fatalité. Mots-clés: viol; violence; patriarcat; justice; société civile; guerre; fatalité; sensibilisation. A horrendous aspect of patriarchy and dominator ideology, rape has in recent times captured the attention of civil society and the imagination of creative writers. The frequency of ...

  6. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

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    Kováčik Peter


    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  7. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette H.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne-Belinda [Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)


    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 C, 15 min, 2 g l{sup -1} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape straw or faba bean straw was significantly affected by pretreatment. Ethanol was produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid material after wet oxidation with yields of 66%, 70% and 52% of theoretical for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively. Methane was produced with yields of 0.36, 0.42 and 0.44 l g{sup -1} volatile solids for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively, without pretreatment of the materials. However, biogas productivity was low and it took over 50 days to reach the final yield. It could be concluded that all three materials are possible raw materials for either biogas or ethanol production; however, improvement of biogas productivity or ethanol yield is necessary before an economical process can be achieved. (author)

  8. Something in the air? The impact of volatiles on mollusc attack of oilseed rape seedlings (United States)

    Félix, Anne-Emmanuelle; Poppy, Guy M.; Newland, Philip L.; van Dam, Nicole M.; Hanley, Mick E.


    Background and Aims Mounting concerns about balancing food security with the environmental impacts of agro-chemical use underpin the need to better understand the mechanisms by which crop plants, particularly during the vulnerable seedling stage, attract or repel herbivores. Methods The feeding preferences of the mollusc Helix aspersa were determined for several oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cultivars and a rank order of acceptability was established. This was compared with glucosinolate concentrations and volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles to determine whether seedling acceptability to molluscs was linked to either form of defence. Key Results While VOC profiles for each oilseed rape cultivar could be separated by canonical discriminant analysis and associated with mollusc feeding preferences, glucosinolate profiles were unrelated to snail feeding behaviour. A mixture of monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-myrcene and δ-3-carene) was identified as a putative attractant, while a blend of the green leaf volatiles 3-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol acetate and the monoterpene α-terpinene was identified as a putative repellent mix. Added to the VOC profile of oilseed rape seedlings, the ‘repellent’ mix reduced mollusc selection, while the ‘attractant’ mix had no effect. Conclusions Despite the widespread assumption that seedling selection by generalist herbivores is governed by chemical defence and taste, we show that olfactory cues may be more important. Oilseed rape may be atypical of wild plants, but our ability to identify repellent volatile organic compounds that can influence snail olfactory selection points to new methods for crop protection using modified VOC profiles during the vulnerable seedling stage. PMID:27009912

  9. The Effects of Sexualized Violence in Video Games on Rape Myth Acceptance


    Fernandez de Henestrosa, Martha; Melzer, André


    Previous research has tested the effects of video games on players’ Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) with regard to either sexual or violent contents. The current study aimed at investigating the combined effects of sexual and violent material in video games on players’ RMA. Participants (N = 82) played either a sexualized female game character or a non-sexualized female game character in a violent video game. Participants’ pre-gaming RMA, gender role attitudes and gaming habits were found to predi...

  10. Soxhlet-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion to extract flavonoids from rape (Brassica campestris) bee pollen. (United States)

    Ma, Shuangqin; Tu, Xijuan; Dong, Jiangtao; Long, Peng; Yang, Wenchao; Miao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Wenbin; Wu, Zhenhong


    Soxhlet-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (SA-MSPD) method was developed to extract flavonoids from rape (Brassica campestris) bee pollen. Extraction parameters including the extraction solvent, the extraction time, and the solid support conditions were investigated and optimized. The best extraction yields were obtained using ethanol as the extraction solvent, silica gel as the solid support with 1:2 samples to solid support ratio, and the extraction time of one hour. Comparing with the conventional solvent extraction and Soxhlet method, our results show that SA-MSPD method is a more effective technique with clean-up ability. In the test of six different samples of rape bee pollen, the extracted content of flavonoids was close to 10mg/g. The present work provided a simple and effective method for extracting flavonoids from rape bee pollen, and it could be applied in the studies of other kinds of bee pollen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus supplier to cereals and oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of meat and bone meal (MBM on cultivation of winter triticale, winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and maize. The average annual yields and protein yield achieved in crop rotation were studied. The field trials were carried out in north-eastern Poland in 2006–2010. The factor was dose of MBM: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 year-1 or 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 t ha-1 every other year. The four-year experiment has proven that MBM is a valuable nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer in cultivation of cereals and oilseed rape. By amendment of the tested meal into the soil it produced crop yield and protein yield similar to that achieved by mineral fertilization. However, the crude fat yield of rape was significantly higher under the influence of all the MBM doses. The yield-stimulating effect of MBM did not depend on the frequency of its application; therefore it is more convenient to apply it once every two years. Increasing MBM from 1.5 to 2.5 t ha-1 did not significantly increase any of the four crop yields, therefore for soils that had satisfactory nutrients content, 1 or 1.5 t ha-1 MBM is enough and increasing MBM will only increase economic burden for farmers and environmental risks.

  12. Rape Myth Acceptance in Sexually Assaulted Adolescents' School Contexts: Associations with Depressed Mood and Alcohol Use. (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Sessarego, Stephanie N; Pittenger, Samantha L; Edwards, Katie M; Banyard, Victoria L


    High school students exposed to sexual assault (SA) are at risk for negative outcomes like depressed mood and high-risk drinking. Although evidence suggests that both social contexts and internalized stigma can affect recovery from SA, no research to date has directly examined the presence of stigma in social contexts such as high schools as a correlate of adjustment after SA. In this study, the self-reported rape myth acceptance (RMA) of 3080 students from 97 grade cohorts in 25 high schools was used to calculate grade-mean and school-mean RMA, which was entered into multilevel models predicting depressed mood and alcohol use among N = 263 SA survivors within those schools. Two forms of RMA were assessed (i.e., rape denial and traditional gender expectations). Results indicate that higher grade-mean rape denial was associated with higher risk for depressed mood among high school boys and girls exposed to SA, and higher grade-mean traditional gender expectations were associated with higher risk for alcohol use among girls exposed to SA. Survivors' own RMA and school-level RMA were not significantly associated with their depressed mood or alcohol use. Although causality cannot be concluded, these findings suggest that interventions that reduce stigma in social contexts should be explored further as a strategy to improve well-being among high-school-aged survivors of SA. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  13. Participating in a Culture of Consent May Be Associated With Lower Rape-Supportive Beliefs. (United States)

    Klement, Kathryn R; Sagarin, Brad J; Lee, Ellen M


    With the recent national focus on rates of sexual violence, many interventions have been proposed, including those that focus on affirmative consent (e.g., "Yes Means Yes" campaign). The goal of the present study was to test whether individuals within a subculture with long-standing norms of affirmative consent-the bondage and discipline/dominance and submission/sadism and masochism (BDSM) community-report lower rape-supportive attitudes compared to individuals not from within this subculture. BDSM practitioner participants, adult participants from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), and college student participants completed measures of hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, rape myth acceptance, victim blaming, expectation of sexual aggression, and acceptance of sexual aggression. BDSM practitioners reported significantly lower levels of benevolent sexism, rape myth acceptance, and victim blaming than did college undergraduates and adult MTurk workers. BDSM practitioners did not differ significantly from college undergraduates or adult MTurk workers on measures of hostile sexism, expectations of sexual aggression, or acceptance of sexual aggression. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  14. Hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation of rape straw. Cofermentation of pentoses and hexoses by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lopez-Linares


    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulose sugars is essential for increasing fuel ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass. We report for the first time with rape straw, bioethanol production from hemicellulose sugars. Rape straw was pretreated at mild conditions with sulfuric acid to solubilize the hemicellulose fraction. This pretreatment allows obtaining a prehydrolysate, consisting basically in a solution of monomeric hemicellulosic sugars, with low inhibitor concentrations. The remaining water insoluble solid constitutes a cellulose-enriched, free of extractives material. The influence of temperature (120ºC and 130ºC, acid concentration (2-4% w/v and pretreatment time (30-180 min on hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation was evaluated. The highest hemicellulosic sugars recovery, 72.3%, was achieved at 130ºC with 2% sulfuric acid and 60 min. At these conditions, a concentrated sugars solution, 52.4 g/L, was obtained after three acid consecutive contacts, with 67% xylose and acetic acid concentration above 4.5 g/L. After a detoxification step by activated charcoal or ion-exchange resin, prehydrolysate was fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli. An alcoholic solution of 25 g/L and 86% of theoretical ethanol yield was attained after 144 h when the prehydrolysate was detoxified by ion-exchange resin. The results obtained in the present work show sulfuric acid pretreatment under mild conditions and E. coli as an interesting process to exploit hemicellulosic sugars in rape straw.

  15. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress (United States)

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong


    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress. PMID:26264651

  16. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* # (United States)

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi


    Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased α-, γ-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of γ-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and α-/γ-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David


    Full Text Available Kachru and Smith (2008 emphasize that effectual communication in the context in which different varieties of world English are used, entails awareness of the varieties in use and their cultural, social, and ideational functions. Court reports by Malaysian Judges are part of legal documents, which may be considered as a genre. Investigating the linguistic details of these reports may be helpful in understanding the argumentative and persuasive strategies used in these judgments. The issue of rape and justice is an important concern in society. The aim of this study is to investigate Malaysian judgment reports in the English language on rape cases from a linguistic perspective. Specifically, the aim of the study is to identify court of appeal judgment reports of rape cases as a Genre and to identify the moves used in this genre. The moves within the genre were identified by studying two controversial reports which showed that the judgments might suffer from relying on pathos argumentation in one critical move.

  18. (AutoBiography of Hurt: Representation and Representability of Rape in Feminist Performance Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fazekaš


    Full Text Available Rape is a crime so close and personal, a trauma so individual, yet an experience so grotesquely impersonal, collective and inherent in our culture that it has a distinct place in the artistic practice of many feminist authors fighting for a voice where the cry had been muffled, refusing to be reframed into another masculinist fantasy of violence. Resistance through performance art as a mode of expression, its power and limitations, is what this article attempts to approach and start to untangle. When it comes to the artistic mode that prides itself most on its closeness to life and body – when there is pain, the pain is real – this paper aims to answer the following questions: how does one approach a violent invasion of a person’s body and self in a culture that perpetuates the mass psychology of rape (Brownmiller, and what can it mean to those who stand by and watch? Keywords: rape, feminism, performance art, autobiography, representation, representability, pain

  19. Hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation of rape straw. Cofermentation of pentoses and hexoses by Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Linares, J.C.; Cara-Corpas, C.; Ruiz-Ramos, E.; Moya-Vilar, M.; Castro-Galiano, E.; Romero-Pulido, I.


    Bioconversion of hemicellulose sugars is essential for increasing fuel ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass. We report for the first time with rape straw, bioethanol production from hemicellulose sugars. Rape straw was pretreated at mild conditions with sulfuric acid to solubilize the hemicellulose fraction. This pretreatment allows obtaining a prehydrolysate, consisting basically in a solution of monomeric hemicellulosic sugars, with low inhibitor concentrations. The remaining water insoluble solid constitutes a cellulose-enriched, free of extractives material. The influence of temperature (120ºC and 130ºC), acid concentration (2-4% w/v) and pretreatment time (30-180 min) on hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation was evaluated. The highest hemicellulosic sugars recovery, 72.3%, was achieved at 130ºC with 2% sulfuric acid and 60 min. At these conditions, a concentrated sugars solution, 52.4 g/L, was obtained after three acid consecutive contacts, with 67% xylose and acetic acid concentration above 4.5 g/L. After a detoxification step by activated charcoal or ion-exchange resin, prehydrolysate was fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli. An alcoholic solution of 25 g/L and 86% of theoretical ethanol yield was attained after 144 h when the prehydrolysate was detoxified by ion-exchange resin. The results obtained in the present work show sulfuric acid pretreatment under mild conditions and E. coli as an interesting process to exploit hemicellulosic sugars in rape straw. (Author)

  20. Influence of top dressing on yield and seed quality components of oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka


    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is an agronomically important species grown for seed that contains 40-48% oil and 18-25% proteins. Oilseed rape has high demands for nitrogen. The research was performed on four varieties of oilseed rape (Banaćanka, Valeska, Slavica and Express developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, during vegetative seasons 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. During vegetation, top dressing was applied with different amounts of KAN: control (0 kg N ha-1, 50 kg N ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1, 150 kg N ha-1 and the N quantity determination were performed applying the balancing method (also known as N-min method. Yield, 1000-seed weight, seed germination, oil and protein content were determined after harvest. Yield and seed germination depended on seed production year. 1000-seed weight depended on seed production year and genotype. Oil and protein content in seed depended on production year, genotype and amount of the N-fertilizer applied by top dressing.

  1. Perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students in Southwest Nigeria: validation of a 5-item gender scale. (United States)

    Opekitan, Afe Taiwo; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Osalusi, Bamidele; Adeleye, Olufunke; Ale, Ayotunde


    Our study focused on the perception of victims of rape and the relationship with the perception of social roles for gender among college students in southwest Nigeria using a 5-item gender social scale and a perception of victims of rape questionnaire. The study was done among 312 college students in Southwest Nigeria and explored the perception of victims of rape and gender social roles. The aim was to determine the relationship between perception of rape victims and view of gender social roles. We used a perception of rape victims questionnaire and a validated 5-item gender social roles scale to assess the views of participants. The findings revealed that females had better perception of victims of rape than males. Females also had more positive views of females' social roles involving gender. However, there was poor perception on work-related social roles and the traditional concept of headship in the varied situations described on the 5-item gender social scale. Old stereotypes of typically blaming victims of rape were not common beliefs among college students. There were no significant correlations between perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students. Seemingly, the perception of victims of rape does not have a significant relationship with the concept of gender social roles.

  2. Sexual Assault Supportive Attitudes: Rape Myth Acceptance and Token Resistance in Greek and Non-Greek College Students From Two University Samples in the United States. (United States)

    Canan, Sasha N; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Crawford, Brandon L


    Colleges are rape-prone cultures with high rates of sexual victimization. Fraternities' and sororities' relationships with sexual assault are consistent themes in literature focusing on sexual violence among college students. Previous research suggests that fraternity men are more likely to endorse rape-supportive attitudes compared with non-Greek men or sorority women. The present study examines rape-supportive attitudes as well as rape and sexual assault victimization in college students with a focus on gender and Greek-life (i.e., involvement in fraternities or sororities) status variables. College students (N = 1,002) completed a survey including the Token Resistance to Sex Scale (TRSS), Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Short Form (IRMA-S), and items related to past experiences of nonconsensual sex. Two regression models tested predictors of token resistance and rape myth acceptance. Chi-square analyses tested between-group differences of experiencing rape and sexual assault. Gender (p myth acceptance than any other group. Chi-square analyses indicate women more frequently report experiences of rape (χ 2 = 25.57, df = 1, p myth acceptance and token resistance by Greeks, who influence college party culture, could be contributing to a culture conducive to rape. Findings demonstrate a continued need for interventions focused on shifting sociocultural dynamics (e.g., traditional roles and sexual scripting) on college campuses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Potential effects of oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1 and of purified insecticidal proteins on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

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    Roger Konrad

    Full Text Available Despite their importance as pollinators in crops and wild plants, solitary bees have not previously been included in non-target testing of insect-resistant transgenic crop plants. Larvae of many solitary bees feed almost exclusively on pollen and thus could be highly exposed to transgene products expressed in the pollen. The potential effects of pollen from oilseed rape expressing the cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1 were investigated on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis (= O. rufa. Furthermore, recombinant OC-1 (rOC-1, the Bt toxin Cry1Ab and the snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA were evaluated for effects on the life history parameters of this important pollinator. Pollen provisions from transgenic OC-1 oilseed rape did not affect overall development. Similarly, high doses of rOC-1 and Cry1Ab as well as a low dose of GNA failed to cause any significant effects. However, a high dose of GNA (0.1% in the larval diet resulted in significantly increased development time and reduced efficiency in conversion of pollen food into larval body weight. Our results suggest that OC-1 and Cry1Ab expressing transgenic crops would pose a negligible risk for O. bicornis larvae, whereas GNA expressing plants could cause detrimental effects, but only if bees were exposed to high levels of the protein. The described bioassay with bee brood is not only suitable for early tier non-target tests of transgenic plants, but also has broader applicability to other crop protection products.

  4. The relationship between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV amongst South African men: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV among South African men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study involving a randomly-selected sample of men. METHODS: We tested hypotheses that perpetration of physical intimate partner violence and rape were associated with prevalent HIV infections in a cross-sectional household study of 1229 South African men aged 18-49. Violence perpetration was elicited in response to a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant and blood samples were tested for HIV. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to identify factors associated with HIV. RESULTS: 18.3% of men had HIV. 29.6% (358/1211 of men disclosed rape perpetration, 5.2% (63/1208 rape in the past year and 30.7% (362/1180 of had been physically violent towards an intimate partner more than once. Overall rape perpetration was not associated with HIV. The model of factors associated with having HIV showed men under 25 years who had been physically violent towards partners were more likely to have HIV than men under 25 who had not (aOR 2.08 95% CI 1.07-4.06, p = 0.03. We failed to detect any association in older men. CONCLUSIONS: Perpetration of physical IPV is associated with HIV sero-prevalence in young men, after adjusting for other risk factors. This contributes to our understanding of why women who experience violence have a higher HIV prevalence. Rape perpetration was not associated, but the HIV prevalence among men who had raped was very high. HIV prevention in young men must seek to change ideals of masculinity in which male partner violence is rooted.

  5. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc


    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  6. Evolutionary history of the ancient cutinase family in five filamentous Ascomycetes reveals differential gene duplications and losses and in Magnaporthe grisea shows evidence of sub- and neo-functionalization. (United States)

    Skamnioti, Pari; Furlong, Rebecca F; Gurr, Sarah J


    * The cuticle is the first barrier for fungi that parasitize plants systematically or opportunistically. Here, the evolutionary history is reported of the multimembered cutinase families of the plant pathogenic Ascomycetes Magnaporthe grisea, Fusarium graminearum and Botrytis cinerea and the saprotrophic Ascomycetes Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. * Molecular taxonomy of all fungal cutinases demonstrates a clear division into two ancient subfamilies. No evidence was found for lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes. The cutinases in the five Ascomycetes show significant copy number variation, they form six clades and their extreme sequence diversity is highlighted by the lack of consensus intron. The average ratio of gene duplication to loss is 2 : 3, with the exception of M. grisea and N. crassa, which exhibit extreme family expansion and contraction, respectively. * Detailed transcript profiling in vivo, categorizes the M. grisea cutinases into four regulatory patterns. Symmetric or asymmetric expression profiles of phylogenetically related cutinase genes suggest subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization, respectively. * The cutinase family-size per fungal species is discussed in relation to genome characteristics and lifestyle. The ancestry of the cutinase gene family, together with the expression divergence of its individual members provides a first insight into the drivers for niche differentiation in fungi.

  7. The Crime of Rape and Sexual Violence against Women in Nigeria: A Comparison with Other Common Law Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Alili


    Full Text Available This discourse is a comprehensive look at the offence of “rape” as a legal concept, taking into consideration, the premodial, mythical and legal beliefs and meanings associated therewith. It analysed recent statutory changes and developments in this area of the law, particularly under the English common law in contradistinction from the almost static provisions of some African penal statutes relating to the offence of rape. The propelling aim was to appreciate the difficulties associated with efforts to convict persons accused of committing the offence of rape and the legality of calling in aid corroboration in amelioration of these difficulties. It was observed that, the statutory ingredients of the offence do not accommodate such a practice. It became significant that the myths and traditional beliefs surrounding the claim of an alleged victim of rape imported the burden of a rebuttal on the accused. It was observed that sympathy on the part of the courts for alleged rape victims sway their decisions in favour of such victims. This emotional consideration by the courts may have informed he demand for corroborative evidence to seal all escape routes for the accused even when not statutorily provided for. Absence of corroborative evidence may on the reverse, favour the accused though the prosecutrix may concoct one to secure conviction. It was concluded that rape cases should be determined on the basis of the dry provisions of the relevant penal statutes devoid of extraneous considerations, such as corroboration.

  8. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape. (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing


    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6.

  9. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). (United States)

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa


    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids.

  10. Legal and Jurisprudential Bases of Marital Rape Criminalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سید علیرضا میرکمالی


    Full Text Available Women are, due to their physical, psychological and social nature, most exposed to crime and are thus fragile against criminals. Moreover, they may be forced by their husbands and in the context of marriage to unusual sexual intercourses in environments such as home. Couples are free in having sexual intercourse, but his freedom should not be detrimental to one another. For this reason, the differential criminal protection of women through special criminalization of some behaviors is one of the ways to support women and reduce the likelihood of the commitment of crimes against them. Under the Iranian penal law, this practice has not been criminalized, while it seems that principles of Islamic jurisprudence and criminal law can help to criminalize it. This behavior along with moral values and social norms lead to persecution and harassment of the wife as well; and since Islam forbids committing the unlawful act and its perpetrator could be punished, therefore it is necessary that this immoral and aberrant behavior considered to be criminal.

  11. Understanding History


    Gorman, Jonathan


    Has any question about the historical past ever been finally answered? Of course there is much disagreement among professional historians about what happened in the past and how to explain it. But this incisive study goes one step further and brings into question the very ability of historians to gather and communicate genuine knowledge about the past. Understanding History applies this general question from the philosophy of history to economic history of American slaveholders. Do we unders...

  12. Financial History


    Cassis, Y.; Cottrell, P. L


    The considerable renewal of interest in all aspects of financial history over recent years provided one motivation for this new venture. Yet, the foundations for our specialism, which draws from both History and the Social Sciences, especially economics, have been laid by many. Some would point to continuity in our interest from the publication in the 1930s of jubilee banking history volumes, such as those written for British institutions by Gregory, and by Crick and Wadsworth. Further schola...

  13. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    In species where chloroplast inheritance is exclusively or predominantly maternal, pollen-mediated flow of transgenes is reduced if transgenes are inserted in chloroplast DNA instead of nuclear DNA. However, transmission of chloroplast-encoded transgeneswill still occur if transgenic individuals......) significantly. As to the proportion between the species, B. rapa was a stronger competitor than B. napus. Theproportion seemed to be a more powerful factor than the density. In conclusion, hybridisation on B. napus seems to be most likely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant...... affected the thousand-kernel weight significantly. It was concluded that further introgression of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape to B. rapa is mostlikely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed....

  14. Use of formulated Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 in combination with reduced rates of chemical pesticide for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorium on oilseed rape (United States)

    Sustainable strategies for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape are needed. Here we tested combinations of Trichoderma sp. Tri-1, formulated with oilseed rape seedcake and straw, with reduced application rates of the chemical pesticide Carbendazim for control of this pathogen on oils...

  15. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault. (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke


    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Effects of plant densities on yield, yield components and some morphological characters of two cultivators of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Barzinjy, M.; Stölen, O.; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog


    Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)......Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)...

  17. Rape as a Weapon of War: Should Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examiners (SAMFEs) be Added to Female Engagement Teams (FETs) in Africa (United States)


    rape as a weapon of war. The ICC includes rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution , forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form...Nigeria, and South Sudan; providing urban planning and infrastructure expertise in Haiti and Mexico ; replacing evacuated staff in Yemen...slavery, enforced prostitution , forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity as a crime against

  18. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, Haishi; Ding, Yuanjun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Li, Zichuan; Sun, Jingling; Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Joseph, Stephen; Meng, Yuanduo; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing


    ... with saponification and derivatization before analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diacids C16 and C18 in bound lipids were detected both in rice and rape root samples, while diacids C20 and C22 were detected only in rape root samples...

  19. Status of feral oilseed rape in Europe: its minor role as a GM impurity and its potential as a reservoir of transgene persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squire, Geoffrey R.; Breckling, Broder; Dietz Pfeilstetter, Antje


    Feral oilseed rape has become widespread in Europe on waysides and waste ground. Its potential as a source of GM impurity in oilseed rape harvests is quantified, for the first time, by a consistent analysis applied over a wide range of study areas in Europe. The maximum contribution of feral...

  20. Conceptual History, Cultural History, Social History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zhivov (†


    Full Text Available V. M. Zhivov’s introduction to Studies in Historical Semantics of the Russian Language in the Early Modern Period (2009, translated here for the first time, offers a critical survey of the historiography on Begriffsgeschichte, the German school of conceptual history associated with the work of Reinhart Koselleck, as well as of its application to the study of Russian culture.  By situating Begriffsgeschichte in the context of late-nineteenth and early twentieth-century European philosophy, particularly hermeneutics and phenomenology, the author points out the important, and as yet unacknowledged, role that Russian linguists have played in the development of a native school of conceptual history.  In the process of outlining this alternative history of the discipline, Zhivov provides some specific examples of the way in which the study of “historical semantics” can be used to analyze the development of Russian modernity.

  1. The Internet as Spectator Disclosure: Consent, Community, and Responsibility in Patricia Lockwood’s Viral Poem “Rape Joke”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lanphier


    Full Text Available In “Rape as Spectator Sport and Creepshot Entertainment: Social Media and the Valorization of Lack of Consent,” the American philosopher Kelly Oliver provides a compelling and chilling analysis of the use and impact of social media by perpetrators of or bystanders to sexual assault. Patricia Lockwood’s 2013 long-form narrative poem, “Rape Joke,” which was published online and went viral on social media, offers a complement to Oliver’s analysis by presenting an Internet account of sexual assault from the survivor’s perspective. “Rape Joke,” through its content and form, raises questions to which we must philosophically and socially respond. These include both the importance of first-person narratives for social and philosophical engagements with trauma as well as the use of humor to constitute moral community and shape moral accountability.

  2. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape - Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users' health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0-1 t/ha less. Alternatives for future

  3. Characterization of Rape Field Microwave Emission and Implications to Surface Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Loew


    Full Text Available In the course of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission calibration and validation activities, a ground based L-band radiometer ELBARA II was situated at the test site Puch in Southern Germany in the Upper Danube Catchment. The experiment is described and the different data sets acquired are presented. The L-band microwave emission of the biosphere (L-MEB model that is also used in the SMOS L2 soil moisture algorithm is used to simulate the microwave emission of a winter oilseed rape field in Puch that was also observed by the radiometer. As there is a lack of a rape parameterization for L-MEB the SMOS default parameters for crops are used in a first step which does not lead to satisfying modeling results. Therefore, a new parameterization for L-MEB is developed that allows us to model the microwave emission of a winter oilseed rape field at the test site with better results. The soil moisture retrieval performance of the new parameterization is assessed in different retrieval configurations and the results are discussed. To allow satisfying results, the periods before and after winter have to be modeled with different parameter sets as the vegetation behavior is very different during these two development stages. With the new parameterization it is possible to retrieve soil moisture from multiangular brightness temperature data with a root mean squared error around 0.045–0.051 m³/m³ in a two parameter retrieval with soil moisture and roughness parameter Hr as free parameters.

  4. Sheep numbers required for dry matter digestibility evaluations when fed fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhao Sun


    Full Text Available Research trials with fresh forages often require accurate and precise measurement of digestibility and variation in digestion between individuals, and the duration of measurement periods needs to be established to ensure reliable data are obtained. The variation is likely to be greater when freshly harvested feeds are given, such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. and forage rape (Brassica napus L., because the nutrient composition changes over time and in response to weather conditions. Daily feed intake and faeces output data from a digestibility trial with these forages were used to calculate the effects of differing lengths of the measurement period and differing numbers of sheep, on the precision of digestibility, with a view towards development of a protocol. Sixteen lambs aged 8 months and weighing 33 kg at the commencement of the trial were fed either perennial ryegrass or forage rape (8/treatment group over 2 periods with 35 d between measurements. They had been acclimatised to the diets, having grazed them for 42 d prior to 11 days of indoor measurements. The sheep numbers required for a digestibility trial with different combinations of acclimatisation and measurement period lengths were subsequently calculated for 3 levels of imposed precision upon the estimate of mean dry matter (DM digestibility. It is recommended that if the standard error of the mean for digestibility is equal to or higher than 5 g/kg DM, and if sheep are already used to a fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape diet, then a minimum of 6 animals are needed and 4 acclimatisation days being fed individually in metabolic crates followed by 7 days of measurement.

  5. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli (United States)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig


    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p broccoli were not influenced by O 3; glutathione (GSH) was slightly increased in response to a higher O 3 uptake ( p < 0.05). The consequences of these changes with regard to food and feed quality and human health are discussed.

  6. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators. (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy


    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  7. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  8. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  9. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape reduces weed competition, insect damage, and improves nitrogen use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadoux Stéphane


    Full Text Available Mixing plant species in agroecosystems is highlighted as an agroecological solution to reduce pesticides and fertilizers while maintaining profitability. In the French context, intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is potentially interesting and began to be implemented by farmers. In this study we aimed at measuring the services and disservices of this intercrop with three different legume mixtures, in terms of growth and yield for rapeseed, ground cover of weeds in autumn and damage caused by rape winter stem weevil. The experiment was carried out at four sites from 2011 to 2014. We showed higher total aerial dry weights and total aerial nitrogen contents in the intercrops compared to sole winter oilseed rape in November. The companion plants contributed to the control of weeds and the mitigation of rape winter stem weevil damage, notably through the increase in the total aerial weight. In spring, after destruction of the companion plants, the intercrops had partially compensated a reduction in the N fertilization rate (–30 kg per hectare in terms of aerial nitrogen content in rapeseed, with no consequences on the yield which was maintained or even increased. There were probably other interactions such as an improvement in rapeseed root exploration. The consequences were an increase in the nitrogen use efficiency in intercrops. The intercrop with faba bean and lentil showed the best results in terms of autumn growth, weed control, reduction in rape winter stem weevil damage, and rapeseed N content in spring and yield. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is thus a promising way to reconcile yield and reduction in pesticides and fertilizer use and perhaps to benefit more widely to the cropping system.

  10. The subject/Culture report in the trauma of rape: the case of the Algerian girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Bouzidi


    Full Text Available The originality of this work lies in the fact that it studied the subject within his culture, differently from many Western studies, studying especially the migrant subjects. It is there a study of indigenous psychology. However, the theoretical framework remains ethnopsychiatry. Indeed, to describe the subject/Culture report in the case of trauma, we used the method of the study of clinical cases of ten girls Algerian victims of rape. The search results well revealed, among all of the victims, a link of attachment to the culture, and that the degree of attachment varies according to the singular space that the trauma causes within each of them.

  11. Plant regeneration from hypocotyl protoplasts of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Orczyk


    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyls of six breeding lines and two cultivars of winter oilseed rape (B. napus L.. Under presented culture conditions almost all of the protoplasts regenerated cell walls. Division frequency depended on the genotype and was from 50% to 64%. Shoot regeneration (also depended on the genotype was induced with the frequency of 3.6% (for cv Bolko on the medium containing IAA (0.1 mg•dm-3, zeatin (0.5 mg•dm-3 and BAP (0.5 mg•dm-3 . All shoots were rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with sucrose 30 g•dm-3.

  12. Raping and making love are different concepts: so are killing and voluntary euthanasia. (United States)

    Davies, J


    The distinction between 'kill' and 'help to die' is argued by analogy with the distinction between 'rape' and 'make love to'. The difference is the consent of the receiver of the act, therefore 'kill' is the wrong word for an act of active voluntary euthanasia. The argument that doctors must not be allowed by law to perform active voluntary euthanasia because this would recognise an infringement of the sanctity of life ('the red light principle') is countered by comparing such doctors with the drivers of emergency vehicles, who are allowed to drive through red lights. PMID:3184136

  13. Prolonged Exposure versus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Astin, Millie C; Marsteller, Fred


    This controlled study evaluated the relative efficacy of Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) compared to a no-treatment wait-list control (WAIT) in the treatment of PTSD in adult female rape victims (n = 74). Improvement in PTSD as assessed by blind independent assessors, depression, dissociation, and state anxiety was significantly greater in both the PE and EMDR group than the WAIT group (n = 20 completers per group). PE and EMDR did not differ significantly for change from baseline to either posttreatment or 6-month follow-up measurement for any quantitative scale.

  14. An innovative nursing approach to caring for an obstetric patient with rape trauma syndrome. (United States)

    Parker, Cheryl


    Rape trauma syndrome (RTS) is a posttraumatic stress disorder that can be triggered by routine procedures experienced during childbirth. An explanation of the signs and symptoms of RTS is provided, including how to avoid retraumatization during intrapartum care. A case report is presented from a provider perspective to illustrate the seriousness of this disorder and the importance of delivering respectful care. A new approach to obstetric routines is warranted to avoid further traumatizing the woman with RTS. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  15. The role of gender identity threat in perceptions of date rape and sexual coercion. (United States)

    Munsch, Christin L; Willer, Robb


    We experimentally investigated the effects of gender identity threat on men's and women's perceptions of date rape and sexual coercion. Results showed that men whose masculinity was threatened responded by blaming the victim and exonerating the perpetrator more, while threatened women respond by blaming male perpetrators more and placing less blame on female victims. Men's response to threats was more pronounced than women's, an asymmetry we attribute to the cultural devaluation of femininity. Our findings highlight the significance of masculinity concerns in perceptions of sexual violence and, more generally, the importance of perceiver context in views of violence against women.

  16. Seed Vigor and Field Performance of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars




    The effect of seed vigor on field performance of two oilseed rape cultivars (Licord and Okapi) was investigated in 2008 at the Research Farm of the University Tabriz, Iran. The experiment was arranged as factorial based on RCB design with three replications. A sub-sample of seeds of each cultivar was kept as control. The other two sub-samples of each cultivar with about 15% moisture content were artificially deteriorated at 40C for 9 and 12 days (Licord) and 7 and 10 days (Okapi). Cons...

  17. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on honey bees (Apis mellifera). (United States)

    Rolke, Daniel; Fuchs, Stefan; Grünewald, Bernd; Gao, Zhenglei; Blenau, Wolfgang


    Possible effects of clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape on honey bee colonies were investigated in a large-scale monitoring project in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape usually comprises 25-33 % of the arable land. For both reference and test sites, six study locations were selected and eight honey bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields and three locations were situated 400 m away from the nearest oilseed rape field. Thus, 96 hives were exposed to fully flowering oilseed rape crops. Colony sizes and weights, the amount of honey harvested, and infection with parasites and diseases were monitored between April and September 2014. The percentage of oilseed rape pollen was determined in pollen and honey samples. After oilseed rape flowering, the hives were transferred to an extensive isolated area for post-exposure monitoring. Total numbers of adult bees and brood cells showed seasonal fluctuations, and there were no significant differences between the sites. The honey, which was extracted at the end of the exposure phase, contained 62.0-83.5 % oilseed rape pollen. Varroa destructor infestation was low during most of the course of the study but increased at the end of the study due to flumethrin resistance in the mite populations. In summary, honey bee colonies foraging in clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape did not show any detrimental symptoms as compared to colonies foraging in clothianidin-free oilseed rape. Development of colony strength, brood success as well as honey yield and pathogen infection were not significantly affected by clothianidin seed-treatment during this study.

  18. Lambs fed fresh winter forage rape (Brassica napus L.) emit less methane than those fed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and possible mechanisms behind the difference. (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Molano, German; Harrison, Scott J; Luo, Dongwen; Janssen, Peter H; Pacheco, David


    The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L.) on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake), and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks). The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems.

  19. Lambs fed fresh winter forage rape (Brassica napus L. emit less methane than those fed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., and possible mechanisms behind the difference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhao Sun

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L. on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake, and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.. The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks. The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems.

  20. Widespread rape does not directly appear to increase the overall HIV prevalence in conflict-affected countries: so now what?

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    Mills Edward


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by combatants has been documented in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and Uganda. To examine the assertion that widespread rape may not directly increase HIV prevalence at the population level, we built a model to determine the potential impact of varying scenarios of widespread rape on HIV prevalence in the above seven African countries. Discussion Our findings show that even in the most extreme situations, where 15% of the female population was raped, where HIV prevalence among assailants was 8 times the country population prevalence, and where the HIV transmission rate was highest at 4 times the average high rate, widespread rape increased the absolute HIV prevalence of these countries by only 0.023%. These projections support the finding that widespread rape in conflict-affected countries in SSA has not incurred a major direct population-level change in HIV prevalence. However, this must not be interpreted to say that widespread rape does not pose serious problems to women's acquisition of HIV on an individual basis or in specific settings. Furthermore, direct and indirect consequences of sexual violence, such as physical and psychosocial trauma, unwanted pregnancies, and stigma and discrimination cannot be understated. Summary The conclusions of this article do not significantly change current practices in the field from an operational perspective. Proper care and treatment must be provided to every survivor of rape regardless of the epidemiological effects of HIV transmission at the population level. Sexual violence must be treated as a protection issue and not solely a reproductive health and psychosocial issue. It is worth publishing data and conclusions that could be