WorldWideScience

Sample records for rape fodder radish

  1. Seed quality and optimal spatial arrangement of fodder radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides the use of fodder radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus Metzg. as green manure plant cover crops and animal feed, the seeds have high oil content and low viscosity, ideal characteristics for the production of biodiesel. Studies related to the technology of seed production for this species are insufficient to define the best spatial arrangement of plants in the field that provides higher yields associated with high-quality seeds. Thus, we investigated the space and density between plants that would be ideal for the production of high quality fodder radish seeds. We evaluated the agronomic characteristics and physical, physiological and seed health quality in recently harvested fodder radish in row spacings of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 m and densities of 10, 30, 50 and 70 seeds m-2. The quality and productivity of the fodder radish's seeds were affected by the spatial arrangement of plants in the field. Seeds harvested under the spacing of 0.2 m and density of 30 seeds m-2 had better performance and physical, physiological and health quality. Alternaria sp. incidence increased with greater spacing, while Fusarium sp. incidence decreased.

  2. Carbon turnover and sequestration potential of fodder radish cover crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutegi, James; Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2013-01-01

    We studied fodder radish carbon turnover as affected by soil tillage in Foulum, Denmark. Actively growing fodder radish monoliths from direct-drilled (DD) and conventionally tilled (CT) plots were extracted and labelled regularly with 14C isotope across their entire growth period. At the end......- to 45-cm-depth increments for determination of 14C distribution and retention. Carbon-14 declined significantly with increasing soil depth at each sampling for the two tillage practices (P 14C at 0–10 cm for DD than for CT at 4 and 8 months after biomass...... incorporation. For the 10–25 cm depth, 14C was significantly higher for CT than for DD, 4 and 8 months after incorporation. However, despite these depth-specific differences, cumulative (0–45 cm soil depth) 14C retention was similar for DD and CT treatments for all the sampling periods. On the basis of a CN...

  3. Interactions between fodder radish and tagetes varieties and Meloidogyne hapla populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, resistance to Meloidogyne hapla populations is the focal point. It involves a screening of fodder radish and Tagetes varieties with a number of local M. hapla populations to determine their infection rate.

  4. Nitrogen uptake, nitrate leaching and root development in winter-grown wheat and fodder radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    Early seeding of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been proposed as a means to reduce N leaching as an alternative to growing cover crops like fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of winter wheat, seeded early and normally, and of fodder...

  5. Ringtest to evaluate four methods of resistance testing in fodder radish against Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Berg, van den W.; Korthals, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    To measure levels of resistance in fodder radish cultivars a reliable, objective and cost effective testing method is required. In 2006 German and Dutch plant breeder’s organizations (Bundesverband Deutscher Pflanzenzüchter; BDP and Plantum), a number of research institutes (PRI, PPO (WUR) and JKI)

  6. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  7. Relative susceptibilities of five fodder radish varieties (Raphanus sativus var. Oleiformis) to Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, M.G.; Schomaker, C.H.; Been, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    The fodder radish varieties Anaconda, Contra, Defender, Doublet and Terranova, known to have some partial resistance, were compared to the standard variety, Radical, to estimate their relative susceptibility (RS) for both population dynamic parameters of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and to evaluate Pi

  8. Release of carbon and nitrogen from fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) shoots and roots incubated in soils with different management history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Teng; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2018-01-01

    and roots from fodder radish (Raphanus sativus oleiformis L.), a widely used cover crop, on the release of their C and N after addition to soil. Shoots and roots were incubated for 180 d at 20°C using four soils with different management histories (organic versus mineral fertiliser, with and without use...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL DATA, THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES FOR THE PURIFICATION STEPS OF ETHYL BIODIESEL FROM FODDER RADISH OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Basso

    Full Text Available Abstract The goals of this work were to present original liquid-liquid equilibrium data of the system containing glycerol + ethanol + ethyl biodiesel from fodder radish oil, including the individual distribution of each ethyl ester; to adjust binary parameters of the NRTL; to compare NRTL and UNIFAC-Dortmund in the LLE representation of the system containing glycerol; to simulate different mixer/settler flowsheets for biodiesel purification, evaluating the ratio water/biodiesel used. In thermodynamic modeling, the deviations between experimental data and calculated values were 0.97% and 3.6%, respectively, using NRTL and UNIFAC-Dortmund. After transesterification, with 3 moles of excess ethanol, removal of this component until a content equal to 0.08 before an ideal settling step allows a glycerol content lower than 0.02% in the ester-rich phase. Removal of ethanol, glycerol and water from biodiesel can be performed with countercurrent mixer/settler, using 0.27% of water in relation to the ester amount in the feed stream.

  10. Fodder radish cake (Raphanus sativus L. as an alternative biomass for the production of cellulases and xylanases in solid-state cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zukovski

    Full Text Available Abstract Fodder radish (FR is an oilseed crop with a high potential for biodiesel production due to its high productivity and the quality of its seed oil. FR oil extraction results in a residue that is rich in protein and fiber. In this study, FR cake (FRC was evaluated as carbon and nitrogen source for the production of cellulases and xylanases using Penicillium echinulatum S1M29 during solid-state cultivation. It was determined that it is possible to partially replace wheat bran (WB by FRC, resulting in 24.22 ± 0.25U/g Filter Paper Activity (144 hours, 210.5 ± 5.8U/g endoglucanase activity (144 hours, 22.62 ± 0.01U/g (-glucosidase activity (96 hours and 784.7 ± 70.19U/g xylanase activity (120 hours. These values are equal or higher than the enzymatic activity obtained using WB. These results may contribute to the reduction of the cost of enzymes used in the production of cellulosic ethanol or other biotechnological applications.

  11. Decomposição e liberação de nutrientes de resíduos culturais de crambe e nabo forrageiro Decomposition and nutrient release of crambe and fodder radish residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Heinz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a decomposição e liberação de nutrientes dos resíduos culturais do nabo forrageiro e do crambe na implantação do sistema de plantio direto. O experimento foi realizado em um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, com 762g kg-1 de argila. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram aplicados no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo as espécies de cobertura do solo (nabo forrageiro e crambe alocadas nas parcelas e as épocas de coleta das bolsas de decomposição (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 dias após o manejo nas subparcelas. As culturas foram manejadas 60 dias após a emergência, em florescimento pleno. O nabo forrageiro produziu 5.586kg ha-1 de massa seca (MS e o crambe atingiu 2.688kg ha-1 de MS. A liberação de nutrientes acompanhou a cinética de decomposição da palhada, apresentando uma fase inicial rápida seguida de outra mais lenta. O K, o P e o Mg são os nutrientes liberados mais rapidamente para a cultura subsequente. A maior taxa de liberação de macronutrientes pelas culturas ocorreu ao redor de 15 dias após o manejo da fitomassa.This study aimed to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release from crop residues of fodder radish and crambe in the implementation of no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in a Distroferric Red Latossol with 762g kg-1 of clay. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. The treatments were applied in split plots, considering the species of cover crops (radish and crambe as the main plots and harvest dates of decomposition bags (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 days after management as subplots. The cover crops were treated 60 days after management, in full bloom. Radish presented a dry mass production of 5586kg ha-1 and crambe of 2688kg ha-1. The kinetics of residue decomposition had a behavior similar to the dynamics of nutrient release, with an initial rapid phase followed

  12. Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Rape (sexual assault) - overview URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  13. Fodder Market in Bihar: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K.M.; Singh, R.K.P.; Jha, A.K.; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farmers in Bihar are mostly smallholders having one or two local-bred milch animals, which are raised on crop residues and natural pastures with under-employed family labour. Feeding grains, oil cakes and green nutritious fodder are limited to crossbred cattle. Feed and fodder deficiencies are major limiting factors in raising livestock productivity. Fodder markets are important for communities, which have limited ability to produce their own fodder, but need quality fodder at reasonabl...

  14. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravating...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  15. Berseem (egyptian clover): a nutritive multicut fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Hussain, A.; Gurmani, Z.A.; Khan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is an important winter (Rabi) leguminous crop, grown for green fodder. It was first introduced into Sindh in 1904 and then cultivated in peshawar in 1924. The berseem is a multicut fodder, which could play a pivotal role in establishing a more productive dairy industry in the country. The improved varieties of berseem produce three-fold green fodder, i.e. 100-120 tonnes per hectare, and could feed double the number of animals per unit area, as against the traditional fodder-crop. (author)

  16. Contamination of fodder and radioactivity in turkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Olszewska, K.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactivity was determined in mixed fodder (IB, IC, IE) and in turkeys which were given that feeding stuff. In animals (25 males and 25 females) fed with the above mixed fodder for 16-24 weeks radioactivity was assessed in internal organs and in their tissues. It was found that radioactivity ranged from 322.2 Bq/kg to 190.6 Bq/kg. In males the highest contamination was found in the spleen (average 0.108 Bq/g), in skeletal muscles (0.082 Bq/g), and in the liver (0.080 Bq/g), and the lowest in the skin (0.046 Bq per 1 g). The findings indicate that radioactivity of carcasses and internal organs in turkeys fed with contamined fodder was much lower than that in fodder. 6 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  17. The effect of the fodder species over the interchangeable bases of sulfated acid soil in municipality of Paipa (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Angélica Bernal Figueroa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the limitations on acid sulphated soils (SSA is related to the inhibition in the absorption of interchangeable bases generated mainly by excesses of aluminum oxide of change; this affects its productivity and limits the availability of nutrients for plants. This research evaluated in greenhouse, the effect of fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L., forage turnip (Brassica rapa L. and fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. on the interchangeable bases of an SSA, contrasted with a not sulfated ground, in order to identify species for management and rehabilitation of these soils in Paipa (Boyacá. An experimental design was implemented with 6 treatments and 3 repetitions in which the basis measurement was made in the ground before and after the species plating and the measured leaf area and plants height when their vegetative period ended. Several significative statistic differences were found (P<0.01 in the basis concentration, as well as in the variables in the leaf area and height of the plant. The results indicated that the growth of the turnip (B. rapa and horseradish (R. sativus fodder, along with the complementary use of calcareous amendments as a corrective, led to an increase in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, and Na in the SSA, and presented a better growth and resistance to them. Similarly, the planting of fodder beet (B. vulgaris generated positive effects in the soil; however, the height and leaf area of this species were affected in the SSA, which limits their productivity.

  18. Genetic variations and evolutionary relationships among radishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among red radishes, 37 accessions with different flesh colors were analyzed in terms of the red pigment content, karyotypes, and simple sequence repeat markers. Red pigment content of red radish was 3.4 to 28.8% with an average of 15.62%. The karyotype ...

  19. Molecular characterisation of radish cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Michelly Cruz

    Full Text Available The radish has been gaining importance in the Brazilian market due to its use as a green manure and cover crop, and also due to its potential for the production of biodiesel, however there are only two registered cultivars, which are morphologically very similar. Determination of genetic purity is a prerequisite in marketing seeds as it ensures uniformity of the crop and is important in breeding programs. The aim of this work therefore was to evaluate the similarity and genotype patterns which permit differentiation of the commercial radish cultivars IPR 116 and CATI AL-1000. In order to do this, isoenzyme electrophoretic patterns were analysed in dry seeds, soaked seeds, seedling leaves and young leaves; the isoenzymes used being: superoxide dismutase, catalase, esterase, glutamate-oxalocetate, malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Thirty-seven RAPD primers and 10 ISSR primers in leaves of the CATI AL-1000 and IPR-116 cultivars were analysed. Among the isoenzymes under study, the most polymorphic were glutamate oxalocetate, malate dehydrogenase, esterase and superoxide dismutase, with the superoxide dismutase system giving the best characterisation for all stages of development. The catalase isoenzyme system did not make it possible to differentiate between cultivars at any stage of development, and isocitrate lyase was not revealed by the protocol used. In analysis of the markers, 27 RAPD primers and eight ISSR primers showed polymorphism. The results indicate that it is possible to determine reliable descriptors based on isoenzymes at different stages of development of the radish and with the use of RAPD and ISSR primers.

  20. Laser treatment of radish seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalov, P.; Nidal, T.

    1987-01-01

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  1. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  2. Forensic implications of rape

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Milan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. T...

  3. Thal and technologies for fodder production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.; Ahmad, M.; Haqqanni, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The climate of the study area is arid and semi-arid subtropical, characterized by high summer- temperature (1200 F) with hot dry winds, frequent dust-storms and torrential and erratic rains. Winter is mild, with cold nights having temperature 320 F. The fodder tree species in arid and semi-arid regions are a valuable resource of feeding livestock in these regions during the lean periods of both winter and summer seasons. Fodder trees are properly looked after, not only for their usefulness for fuel and furniture, etc., but good environment would improve the quality of life, along with manifold higher fodder- production for animals. Fodder trees should be lopped only when they are about two to three meters in height and branches more than 7.5 cm thick should not be lopped. Lopping of the whole tree, as usually practiced, is injurious to trees and affects their vigor. Lopping cycle should be such that we get new leaves at the desired time of the year. It is recommended that; (i) proven grass-species, like Cenchrus ciliaris, Lasiurus sindicus, Pennisetum orientale and Panicum antidotale, be introduced in Thai, (ii) the improved varieties of some fodder-crops like oats, berseem, lucerne, sorghum sudan grass hybrid and mott grass being multicut (would cover the scarcity periods) can be introduced in the irrigated areas and (iii) the trees and shrub-species, such as Acacia tortilis, Zizyphus nummularia, Acacia anura, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica, Tacomella undulate, Zizyphus mauritiana, Calligonum polygonoides, Tamarax aphylla and Albizia lebbeck, can be propagated and promoted in Thai desert. (author)

  4. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Genetic variations and evolutionary relationships among radishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vera 1

    To determine the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among red radishes, 37 accessions ... determined that plant height, fresh leaf weight, and root ... Flower-shaped. Red .... according to Levan's karyotype classification standards.

  6. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  7. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  8. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  9. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  10. Availability and traditional practice with respect to fodder trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reports a study that provided important information from farmers of the floodplain area of Bangladesh for setting research and development priorities with respect to indigenous and exotic fodder trees. Indigenous knowledge of fodder trees from the floodplain area may be an important tool in planning nutrition for ...

  11. Adoption behaviour of dairy farmers in relation to green fodder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also showed that all the communication variables had significant correlation with adoption of green fodder cultivation in MCS and NMCS, excepting personal cosmopolite and personal localite in MCS. Among socio-economic variables, age had significant negative correlation with adoption of green fodder cultivation in ...

  12. Drought resistant fodder crops | GC | African Journal of Range and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deficiency of fodder in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Republic of South Africa can he supplemented with drought resistant fodder crops, which are adapted to make better use of limited moisture, in these areas. The literature in this connection is reviewed and a complete discussion follows of the planting, ...

  13. Short Communication Assessing the ability of fodder beet ( Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was carried out to determine the sodium (Na) absorption ability of halophytic fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L. ʽBrigadierʼ) irrigated with water enriched to Na levels found in winery wastewater. Treatments comprised (1) soil without plants irrigated with untreated water or (2) Na-enriched water, and (3) fodder ...

  14. Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Abstract. Adoption studies on fodders legume technologies have shown that spread of the technology is ... A tobit model was used to analyse the data to get the magnitude of the effects of factors affecting .... level of education of the farmer, position of the farmer in the .... Assessing the early stages of adoption of fodder tree.

  15. Production of quality/certified seed of fodder-crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, A.R.; Hussain, A.

    2006-01-01

    Although, Pakistan has well developed Seed-production and certification Programme for major crops, but seed programme for fodder-crops is still not well organized. Availability of local certified seed, remained 250-350 mt for Berseem, Sorghum, maize, barley and oat. About 5000 to 9000 mt of seed has being imported during 2003-04 to 2005-06. Fodder Research Institute and jullundhur Seed Corporation have demonstrated a model of public/private partnership for initiation of certified seed of a few fodder crops. To produce quality seeds of fodder crops, various steps, procedures and prescribed standards have been given, which will help in production of quality seed of fodder crops in Pakistan. (author)

  16. Source-sink relationships in radish plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of source-sink relationships in di- and tetraploidal radish plants grown in. hydroponic cultures was investigated in two stages of their development: with intensively growing swollen hypocotyl and in the period of actively accumulating nutrients in the storage organ. It was found, that the proportion, between the mass of organs, their RGR and NAR was very similar in di- and tetraploidal populations, probably owing to a similar rate of photosynthesis and pattern of assimilates distribution. The high variability of swollen hypocotyls size is slightly correlated with the size of the whole aerial part and is not correlated with the rate of photosynthesis in leaves. Partial defoliation of radish plants did not affect the rate of photosynthesis of the remaining leaves. Only in the cotyledones the oldest donors of 14C-assimilates, a slight compensation of photosynthesis was reported. It may suggest, that the rate of photosynthesis in radish plants is not under the control of sink activity. The size of the storage organ have determined in some extent its attractive force and influenced the amount of 14C-assimilates exported from their donors. Translocation of photosynthates from the young, still growing leaves was conditioned mainly by their retention power. Therefore, in young radish plants cotyledons were the main donor of 14C-assimilates.

  17. The Culture of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    or a prostitute and it wasn’t really rape because her job implies that she really doesn ’ t care about her body. As a society, we continue to make...FAULKNER, DYSFUNCTIONA.t FAMILY, AND THE OLD SOUTH; RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND VICTIM-BLAMING; AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCLICAL Circle one: Abstract- Tech...h &Fine Arts/333-7723 lRRESPONSIBILITY d1 2. WILLIAM FAULKNER, DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILY t) AND TIIE OLD SOUTH .. L 3. RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND

  18. Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm than good. Talking about rape in a safe environment with the help and support of a trained professional is the best way to ensure long-term healing. Working through the pain sooner rather than later can ...

  19. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  20. Adsorption Studies of Radish Leaf Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish leaves (Raphanus sativus powder fractions was subjected to moisture adsorption isotherms at different isothermal temperature conditions from 15-45°C with an equal interval of 10°C. The sorption data obtained in gravimetric static method under 0.11–0.90 water activity conditions were subjected for sorption isotherms and found to be typical sigmoid trend. Experimental data were assessed for the applicability in the prediction through sorption models fitting and found that Polynomial and GAB equations performed well over all fitted models in describing equilibrium moisture content – equilibrium relative humidity (EMC–ERH relationships for shelf stable dehydrated radish leaf powder, over the entire range of temperatures condition under study. The net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy and free energy were determined at different temperatures and their dependence was seen with respect to equilibrium moisture content.

  1. Rape Beyond Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Margo

    2017-02-01

    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  2. Vegetative propagation of twelve fodder tree species indigenous to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetative propagation of twelve fodder tree species indigenous to the Sahel, West Africa. Catherine Ky-Dembele, Jules Bayala, Antoine Kalinganire, Fatoumata Tata Traoré, Bréhima Koné, Alain Olivier ...

  3. Improving Water Use in Fodder Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Mendoza-Grimón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit in semi-arid regions limits the future of the livestock sector. Also, its high price represents a percentage of the total cost of forage production. Non-conventional water resources applied by subsurface drip irrigation (SDI, in which the safe use lies in the management and not on the level of water treatment, would enhance the ruminant production sustainability. To obtain the optimal benefit, the transformation of water per kilogram of dry matter produced must have a high grade of effectiveness. Under this premise, a maralfalfa crop (Penissetum sp, hybridum has been established with an SDI system and reclaimed water. Forage yield is analyzed with respect to a 40% irrigation reduction. This study shows that, with the use of these good irrigation management practices, it is possible to harvest an annual production of 90 to 72 t·ha−1 in the warmer regions of the Canary Islands. This implies water consumption between 13,200 and 8100 m3·ha−1. A water consumption of 21,000 m3·ha−1 per year for the same production, at a ratio of 230 L·t−1, can be estimated for the rest of the Canary Islands coastal regions. The use of the water management described in this paper can be profitable in the Canary Islands for fodder production.

  4. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF VIR COLLECTIONS OF THE RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. (SMALL RADISH AND RADISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on the diversity of root plants in the species of Raphanus sativus L., which are available in the collection of VIR, enables to comprehensively evaluate the collection of small radish and radish, making descriptions of new forms and cultivar-types, and revealing the biological features of the formation of photosynthetic apparatus, yielding abilities, resistance to biotic and abiotic stressors. This article is the first part of a series of articles devoted to the study of the gene pool of root plants of the species R. sativus L. from the VIR collection. The experimental part of the article includes the results of a study of previously unexplored accessions from the radish collection, the following articles will be devoted to the radish gene pool. As a result of the research conducted in 2016-2017. 110 samples of radish of different eco-geographical origin and representing variety of cultivar type were studied. The studied radish samples were combined into several groups according to the duration of the growing season (early ripening, mid-ripening and late ripening. A longer vegetation period in radish in winter-time-growing was observed in case of insufficient illumination, but some accesions of the red oval-rounded cultivar type (k-2133, k-2343, k-1742, k-2404 have not shown any change in vegetation period. There was a strong change in the shape of the root crop when growing in winter under insufficient illumination. Samples that are capable to form a consumed organ in such conditions without changing the shape of the root crop and vegetation period were k-2404, Netherlands, k-2133, Tanzania, k-2185, Poland, k-2343, Iceland, k-1666, Russia. Among the accessions of the red-oval-round cultivar type, varieties from the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Poland emerged, formed a short-rooted, compact rosette with an elevated leaf arrangement in all growing conditions. The formation of high productivity in the open field types was revealed

  5. If Your Child is Raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know Child Abuse Self-Defense Emergency Contraception Abuse Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Date Rape Abusive Relationships How Can I Help a Friend Who Was Raped? Drugs: What to Know Rape View more About Us ...

  6. Unacknowledged Rape in the Community: Rape Characteristics and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Layh, Marlee; Rudolph, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    Unacknowledged rape, labeling a rape as a nonvictimizing event, remains largely unstudied among non-college women. This study therefore sought to examine differences in assault characteristics, adjustment, and disclosure by rape acknowledgment status among a sample of lower income rape victims (n = 104) recruited from a reproductive health clinic (mean age = 28.8 years). Although unacknowledged rape was infrequent (17.1% of victims), unacknowledged victims reported that the perpetrator used less force and were less likely to have assertively resisted, as compared to acknowledged victims. There were no significant differences in disclosure, depression, and somatic complaints between unacknowledged and acknowledged rape victims. Implications of the findings for understanding rape acknowledgment and postrape adjustment among community women are discussed.

  7. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on oil yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of radish seeds. Methods: Radish seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE).

  8. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  9. Enhanced fodder yield of maize genotypes under saline irrigation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor quality irrigation water adversely affects the growth and yield of crops. This study was designed to evaluate the growth, fodder yield and ionic concentration of three promising maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under the influence of varying quality irrigation water, with different salinity levels. The genotypes, such as ...

  10. Molecular diversity analysis in selected fodder and dual purpose oat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variability among 15 oat genotypes comprising fodder and dual purpose oat varieties from different geographical regions was analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker method in Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Pant University of Agriculture and Technology ...

  11. Intestinal digestibility of enriched-protein fodders measured by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminal, intestinal and total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) fodders were measured in this study, using nylon bag and mobile bag techniques. Three cattle were fitted with permanent ...

  12. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  14. Transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants, rape blossoms and rape honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Klepsch, A.; Assmann-Wertmueller, U.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the test of atomic weapons and the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, the vegetation in Germany has been exposed to cesium contamination in the soil. It was to be expected that activity would migrate from soil to plants and to food products. In this work, the transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants (Brassica napus var. oleifera), rape blossoms and further to rape honey was investigated. By measuring the gamma activity of cesium using germanium detectors with measuring capacity up to 30 h per sample (limit of detection about 0.14 Bq/kg to 0.19 Bq/kg), we determined a mean transfer factor f cs = 0,116 ± 0,080 for the system soil-rape plant, f cs = 0.065 + 0.075 for the system soil-rape blossom and F!S = 0.098 + 0.044 for the system soil-rape honey (plants and honey wet mass, soil dry mass) (Table IV). Additionally, for the transfer of cesium from rape plants to rape honey, a factor of f cs = 2.04 ± 7.23 (both wet mass) was determined. Due to some environmental circumstances, which can hardly ever be taken into account, the results obtained sometimes differ considerably. Nevertheless, the mean transfer factors are within the range of values found in literature (Table V) [de

  15. [Rape by 2 assaillants and gang rape in Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Y; Boyer, R; Lamontagne, C; Giroux, J

    1984-11-01

    A survey was conducted in 230 cases of rape and rape attempts heard in the Judicial District of Montreal between January 1975 and May 1978. Data were compiled from the 30 assaults including two or more assaillants. Results show that in cases of rape committed by two men the aggressors are older than gang rapists, meet the victim mainly in her flat or in a bar, and rape her in her own home, in a car or a hotel. In these cases, voyeurism seems to be an important factor since, most of the time, rape is committed by only one of the two aggressors. On the other hand, gang rapists are younger, meet the victim in public places, on the street or when she is hitch-hiking and attack her in one of the aggressors' house, in public places or on the street. Exhibitionism seems more present in this group of rapists. For both groups the victims are mainly single, younger than the aggressors and have diverse occupations. Finally, regarding the legal outcome half of the subjects were liberated or acquitted in both groups. Rape committed by two men had never been studied or compared with gang rape up until now. Results of this survey show dynamic and demographic differences between these two groups of sexual delinquents.

  16. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  17. Flora and Fauna in Roundup Tolerant Fodder Beet Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, N.; Pedersen, Marianne Bruus

    English and Danish summary. Foreword: For demonstration purposes Monsanto, DLF-Trifolium, and Danisco Seed, in collaboration with The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre, established field plots with glyphosate tolerant fodder beets on a number of farms all over Denmark in 1999 and 2000. The Nati......English and Danish summary. Foreword: For demonstration purposes Monsanto, DLF-Trifolium, and Danisco Seed, in collaboration with The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre, established field plots with glyphosate tolerant fodder beets on a number of farms all over Denmark in 1999 and 2000...... tilfælde øges ved at reducere doseringen, uden at det går ud over roeudbyttet. Sprøjtning med insekticid forringer imidlertid vilkårene for faunaen og kan derved ophæve de fordele, der kan være ved dyrkning af RR-roer. Udenlandske undersøgelser tyder dog på, at der er mindre behov...

  18. Sorghum used to fodder production in dry farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ferruzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In Italy water deficient increase forward to cultivate resistant crops for forage production. In the present research it has been studied the opportunity of using 2 varieties of sorghum: the “Sweet Creek”, used as green forage and for silage and the “True”, with thinner stalks, used as hay. The fodder production and the dhurrin content during the vegetative phase of the 2 varieties were recorded. Production and chemical characteristics of green and preserved fodders (hay and silage were determined; moreover the nutritive value and the in vitro digestibility of DM were measured. Results confirm the good adaptation of the sorghum to the water limited conditions as those ones in which the test has been carried out; green and preserved fodders yield were high, however during the hay harvest problems due to the different drying dynamics of leaves and stalks were found. The dhurrin content of these two varieties, even in the young phase, allows the use for grazing of the regrown, which have good bunching.

  19. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  20. Innovative Equipment and Production Method for Mixed Fodder in the Conditions of Agricultural Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiev, U. K.; Demchuk, E. V.; Myalo, V. V.; Soyunov, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    It is recommended to feed the cattle and poultry with grain fodder in the form of feed mixture balanced according to the content. Feeding of grain fodder in the form of stock feed is inefficient and economically unreasonable. The article is devoted to actual problem - the preparation of mixed fodder in the conditions of agricultural enterprises. Review and critical analyses of mixed fodder assemblies and aggregates are given. Structural and technical schemes of small-size mixed fodder aggregate with intensified attachments of vibrating and percussive action for preparation of bulk feed mixture in the conditions of agricultural enterprises were developed. The mixed fodder aggregate for its preparation in the places of direct consumption from own grain fodder production and purchased protein and vitamin supplements is also suggested. Mixed fodder aggregate allows to get prepared mixed fodder of high uniformity at low cost of energy and price of production that is becoming profitable for livestock breeding. Model line-up of suggested mixed fodder aggregate with different productivity both for small and big agricultural enterprises is considered.

  1. Effect of tillage fertilizer treatments on maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, P.; Cheema, N.M.; Malik, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of deep and shallow tillage and fertilizer treatments i.e., recommended dose of fertilizer (RF), farm yard manure (FYM) and recommended dose of fertilizer plus farmyard manure (RF+FYM) on maize fodder yield was studied under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. It was observed that the emergence count m-2, maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha/sup -1/) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg ha/sup -1/ produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha/sup -1/) and was significantly lower than the fodder yield (17278.7 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained in control treatment. The nutrient availability in RF+FYM treatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant. (author)

  2. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. WOMEN ANTI-RAPE BELT

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath B Gadhe; Ganesh Chinchansure; Amar Kumar; Mritunjay Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Rape is fourth most common and frequently happening crime against women in India. Among metro cities, has more number of rape cases and compare to developed countries like Latin America developing countries like India has less number of such incidences, where very good security facilities are provided by government and ratio of education is higher. So it proves that illiteracy or security is not major reason behind such assaults but the unawareness about self-protection and inefficient self-p...

  4. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  5. Quality and Quantity of Sorghum Hydroponic Fodder from Different Varieties and Harvest Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisdiana, R.

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was designed to compare different varieties and harvest time of sorghum hydroponic fodder based on nutrient content and biomass production. Experimental design for fodder productivity was completely randomized design with 2 x 3 factorial, i.e., sorghum varieties (KD 4 and Super-1) and time of harvesting the sorghum hydroponic fodder (8,12 and 16 d). Total biomass and DM production, were affected significantly (p<0.05) on harvest time. Total biomass and nutrient content were increased in longer harvest time. The nutrient content were increased with decreasing total value of DM. Super-1 varieties produce larger biomass and nutrient content higher than KD4 (p<0.05). Based on sorghum hidroponic fodder quality and quantity, sorghum hidroponic fodder with Super-1 varieties harvested at 12 d had a good quality of fodder and it can be alternative of technology providing quality forage and land saving with a short time planting period and continous production.

  6. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON MARITAL RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Endriyo Susila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law.    Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she

  7. Rape myth acceptance impacts the reporting of rape to the police: a study of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.

  8. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  9. The impact of rape acknowledgment on survivor outcomes: The moderating effects of rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Newins, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2017-11-13

    Little is known about how rape acknowledgment relates to posttrauma functioning; recent research suggests the effect may depend on additional factors. In the current study, the moderating effect of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the relationships between rape acknowledgment and mental health outcomes was examined. A sample of 181 female rape survivors recruited from a university completed an online survey assessing RMA, rape acknowledgment, depression symptoms, and alcohol use. Generally, the results supported that RMA moderated the influence of rape acknowledgment on depression symptoms and average quantity per drinking episode, but not frequency of alcohol use. The findings demonstrated that when individuals endorsed high levels of RMA, acknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than unacknowledged rape survivors. Among individuals low on RMA, unacknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than acknowledged rape survivors. It is recommended that clinicians recognize the role of survivor beliefs, such as RMA, in the relationship between labeling sexual assault experiences and mental health consequences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Bioavailability in rats of bound residues from radishes treated with either radiolabeled dieldrin or carbofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Kacew, S.; Dupont, S.; Stratton, G.D. Jr.; Wheeler, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    The bioavailability of bound residues from radishes treated with [ 14 C]dieldrin and [ 14 C]carbofuran was investigated by feeding the rats 14 C material obtained after exhaustive solvent extraction. For comparison, nonextracted radishes were also fed to rats. The 14 C residues were predominantly excreted in feces. Urinary excretion of 14 C from rats fed nonextracted material was relatively greater than from those fed extracted radishes. The excreted material from rats fed dieldrin-treated radishes contained mainly parent compounds as residue. However, carbofuran and two of its metabolites, 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, were present in feces and urine samples of rats fed carbofuran-treated radishes. These data demonstrated that bound residues in radishes treated with dieldrin and carbofuran have a low degree of bioavailability in rats. The results also show that bound residues in dieldrin-treated radishes would be more bioavailable than in the carbofuran-treated samples

  11. Fluorine and fluorine tolerance in fodder of domestic animals. Part 2. Pathophysiology of fluorine and fodder tests on domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsch, K; Grieser, N

    1964-01-01

    Important tests with fluorine on domestic animals were critically evaluated with the aim of coming to some conclusion about fluorine tolerance in fodder for domestic animals, keeping various different factors in mind. Slightly lower concentrations were reached than those of the NRC in the USA, reckoning on a non-optimal mineral content, especially in calcium and phosphorus, since the USA obviously used a basis for feeding which was otherwise sufficient. According to these tests, fluoride is tolerated within certain limits by domestic animals without recognisable disadvantages. There are, however, important differences between different types of animals in regard to dosage.

  12. Cross reactivities of rabbit anti-chicken horse radish peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cross reactivities of rabbit anti chicken horse radish peroxidase (conjugate) was tested with sera of Chicken, Ducks, Geese, Guinea fowl, Hawks, Pigeons and Turkeys in indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Sera from mammalian species (Bat, Equine and swine) were used as negative ...

  13. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes To Teach Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    To provide practice in making design decisions, collecting and analyzing data, and writing and documenting results, a professor of statistics has his graduate students in statistics and research methodology classes design and perform an experiment on the effects of fertilizers on the growth of radishes. This project has been required of students…

  14. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  15. Investigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is mainly based on the production of biodiesel and bioethanol from waste banana peels and radish leaves. The oily content from both the samples were converted to biodiesel by acid catalyzed and base catalyzed transesterification using methanol and ethanol. The biodiesel so obtained was subjected to ...

  16. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, SCE oil had the best oxidative stability, and highest contents of vitamin ... that consumption of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has positive ... rate of liquid CO2 was 35 L/h. The oil in the .... amounts of toxic solvents to extract plant oils.

  17. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  18. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  19. Rape as a fuel crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling Nielsen, C.; Sandager, A.M.; Nielsen, V.; Oestergaard, C.; Poulsen, E.P.; Vaarlid, T.

    1993-01-01

    The European Community has decided to limit the production of excess amounts of corn so that 15% of an agricultural area should lie fallow. Rape can be cultivated on setaside areas and converted to the biofuel rape seed oil methyl ester (ROME). The aim was to discover whether ROME as a fuel pollutes less than diesel oil. The combustion of ROME and light diesel was investigated and compared and the economics of there respective life cycles were considered with emphasis on their pollutive properties. It was concluded that in urban areas the use of ROME produces emissions that are more dangerous to health than those emitted by diesel oil. In addition the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides which are necessary for the cultivation of rape constitute a further load on the environmental pollutive load. (AHJ) (44 refs.)

  20. Rape myth acceptance and rape acknowledgment: The mediating role of sexual refusal assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newins, Amie R; Wilson, Laura C; White, Susan W

    2018-05-01

    Unacknowledged rape, defined as when an individual experiences an event that meets a legal or empirical definition of rape but the individual does not label it as such, is prevalent. Research examining predictors of rape acknowledgment is needed. Sexual assertiveness may be an important variable to consider, as an individual's typical behavior during sexual situations may influence rape acknowledgment. To assess the indirect effect of rape myth acceptance on rape acknowledgment through sexual refusal assertiveness, an online survey of 181 female rape survivors was conducted. The indirect effects of two types of rape myths (He didn't mean to and Rape is a deviant event) were significant and positive. Specifically, acceptance of these two rape myths was negatively related to sexual refusal assertiveness, which was negatively associated with likelihood of rape acknowledgment. The results of this study indicate that sexual refusal assertiveness is associated with lower likelihood of rape acknowledgment among rape survivors. As a result, it appears that, under certain circumstances, women high in rape myth acceptance may be more likely to acknowledge rape when it results in decreased sexual refusal assertiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Women's attitudes toward forcible rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolor, A

    1978-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudes of women with diverse backgrounds toward possible responses to an attempted sexual assault and also ascertained their beliefs about how society should handle a convicted rapist. Additionally, the role which the personality dimensions of assertiveness and internal-external expectamcy play in shaping attitudes toward rape was investigated. Seventy-seven women and 25 men were administered the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, the Rotter I-E Scale, and a Rape Inventory. Women relied on a narrow range of options to deal with a rapist's attack, depending mostly on less active modes. They advocated humane approaches be taken with convicted rapists. Personality played only a minor role.

  2. The potential of indigenous and naturalized fodder trees and shrubs for intensive use in central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roothaert, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    There are opportunities for increasing milk production in central Kenya through the use of tree fodder, leading to higher farm income. Most research for intensive use of fodder trees has been carried out on exotic species, neglecting indigenous ones. The objectives of this study were to

  3. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  4. Possibilities of employing saliferous raw brown coal for technical fodder drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerdel, P; Haeusler, W

    1978-09-01

    The successful utilization of saliferous brown coal is demonstrated with a sodium oxide content greater than 0.5% in dry substance, but with high calorific value (2300 to 3000 kcal/kg) for fodder drying (sugar beets and green fodder). Details of the fodder dryer and its performance, and combustion and drying parameters of 11 dryers using saliferous coal are presented. Hot air enters the dryer with temperatures between 300 and 800 C depending on the operation, and dries the fodder to 88-92% dry substance. Chemical analysis showed no significant increase in sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, or sodium content in the dry fodder, which is recognized as safe to feed to ruminants. The substitution of ordinary brown coal by saliferous coal led to a savings of 4.000 Marks/kt coal in drying. (8 refs.) (In German)

  5. Deep convolutional neural network for classifying Fusarium wilt of radish from unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jin Gwan; Moon, Hyeonjoon; Kwak, Jin Tae; Hassan, Syed Ibrahim; Dang, Minh; Lee, O. New; Park, Han Yong

    2017-10-01

    Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained much attention. In particular, there is a growing interest in utilizing UAVs for agricultural applications such as crop monitoring and management. We propose a computerized system that is capable of detecting Fusarium wilt of radish with high accuracy. The system adopts computer vision and machine learning techniques, including deep learning, to process the images captured by UAVs at low altitudes and to identify the infected radish. The whole radish field is first segmented into three distinctive regions (radish, bare ground, and mulching film) via a softmax classifier and K-means clustering. Then, the identified radish regions are further classified into healthy radish and Fusarium wilt of radish using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN). In identifying radish, bare ground, and mulching film from a radish field, we achieved an accuracy of ≥97.4%. In detecting Fusarium wilt of radish, the CNN obtained an accuracy of 93.3%. It also outperformed the standard machine learning algorithm, obtaining 82.9% accuracy. Therefore, UAVs equipped with computational techniques are promising tools for improving the quality and efficiency of agriculture today.

  6. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualise a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents’ gender; (3) to examine the ‘cultural lag’ theory of male rape where it was hypothesised that if the public perception of male rape l...

  7. The Psychological Impact of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the psychological impact of rape on adult female victims, and explores typical patterns of recovery, types of symptoms, and variables affecting recovery. Explores moderating and preassault variables, within-assault variables such as acquaintance status and level of violence, and postassault variables such as social…

  8. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    practice such defences are often acknowledged if the belief is reasonable by some general standard, even when this standard does not pertain to the rules currently governing the practice of intercourse in Denmark. As a result it has often been argued that the notion of negligent rape should be introduced...

  9. Interpreting Rape: Differences Among Professionals and Non-Professional Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Lawrence G.

    Physicians and rape crisis counselors may play important roles in assisting a rape victim; their beliefs and perceptions about rape may influence their treatment of the victim. Physicians (N=10) and volunteer rape counselors (N=44) completed questionnaires focused on demographic characteristics, their experiences with rape victims, and personal…

  10. Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dorofeev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°С.

  11. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  12. Survey of Viruses Present in Radish Fields in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Chung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2014 nationwide survey in radish fields investigated the distribution of common viruses and possible emerging viruses. Radish leaves with virus-like symptoms were collected and 108 samples assayed by RT-PCR using specific primers for Radish mosaic virus (RaMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV; 47 samples were TuMV positive, and RaMV and CMV were detected in 3 and 2 samples, respectively. No samples showed double infection of TuMV/RaMV, or RaMV/CMV, but two double infections of TuMV/CMV were detected. TuMV isolates were sorted by symptom severity, and three isolates (R007-mild; R041 and R065-severe selected for BLAST and phylogenetic analysis, which indicated that the coat protein (CP of these isolates (R007, R041, and R065 have approx. 98-99% homology to a previously reported TuMV isolate. RaMV CP showed approx. 99% homology to a previously reported isolate, and the CMV CP is identical to a previously reported Korean isolate (GenBank : GU327368. Three isolates of TuMV showing different pathogenicity (degree of symptom severity will be valuable to study determinants of pathogenicity.

  13. Understanding the Fodder Markets for Sustainable Development of Livestock Sector in Bihar-A Rapid Appraisal Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K.M.; Singh, R.K.P.; Jha, A.K.; Kumar, Anjani

    2012-01-01

    Livestock is an integral part of rural economy in Bihar and fodder is a critical input for livestock development. Data shows that there exist a huge gap between demand and supply of fodder (both dry as well as green). Most part of the south Bihar comprising of agro climatic zones, IIIA and IIIB are fodder surplus because of cultivation of paddy and wheat under assured irrigation facilities. Agro climatic Zone I and Zone II are fodder deficit and mostly depend on fodder surplus regions for the...

  14. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  15. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Glanville; Yolanda Dreyer

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social) impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be awar...

  16. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    Little is known from research about barriers to seeking and receiving help following domestic violence, rape, attempted rape, and sexual assault in Denmark. This study examined possible regional differences in reporting rape and sexual assault in urban and rural communities in a large region...

  17. Rape: psychopathology, theory and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A; Collie, Rachael M; Ward, Tony; Thakker, Jo

    2008-07-01

    Whether treatment programs are effective at rehabilitating rapists is yet to be determined empirically. From a scientist-practitioner perspective, treatment should be based on an empirical understanding of rape and rapists, and evidence-based knowledge of treatment outcome with rapists. In this paper we comprehensively review the characteristics of rapists, etiological features implicated in the commission of rape, and relevant treatment outcome research. We pay particular attention to contemporary knowledge about the core vulnerabilities and features required to understand and treat rapists effectively, and, where possible, highlight similarities and differences between rapists, child molesters and non-sexual violent offenders. We use an epistemological framework to (a) critique the various etiological accounts of rape available and (b) help guide professionals' use of such knowledge in both treatment design and evaluation. Gaps in the understanding of rapists' characteristics and etiological features are highlighted, as are discrepancies between current knowledge and treatment approaches. We conclude by highlighting areas for future research and practice innovation.

  18. Processing agricultural and industrial waste materials to fodder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, J; Baintner, F; Schmidt, J

    1977-11-28

    Unstable agricultural and industrial waste materials containing proteins and less than or equal to 80% H/sub 2/O, e.g. feathers, entrails, blood, malt, malt husks, whey, skim milk, cheese wastes, starch, malt residues, marc, broken and bloody eggs, lucerne liquor, etc. were homogenized with fodder containing carbohydrates or inert materials, as well as additives, e.g., AcOH, ascorbic acid, cysteine, NaNO/sub 2/, etc. to give a products containing less than or equal to 60% H/sub 2/O, pH 4.6 to 4.8, storable for shorter periods and useful for further processing. Thus, a homogenized mixture of 60 parts lard cake and 40 parts corn grits was homogenized with a 2:1 mixture of EtCO/sub 2/H and HCO/sub 2/H 1.5, NaNO/sub 2/ 0.05, and vitamin C 0.2% by weight to give a product with 32% protein content, useful for further processing.

  19. Autopolyploids in fodder grass breeding: induction and field performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabkevičienė, G.; Kemešytė, V.; Statkevičiūtė, G.; Lemežienė, N.; Brazauskas, G.

    2017-07-01

    Doubling of chromosome set directly affects plant performance through increase of organ size, higher feeding value and increased resistance to adverse environmental factors. Therefore efficient methods of polyploid induction are needed in order to develop new varieties of naturally diploid fodder grass species. The efficiency of antimitotic agents as colchicine, amiprophos-methyl, trifluralin and oryzalin was compared in a series of tetraploid induction experiments in Lolium multiflorum, L. perenne and Festuca pratensis, while newly developed tetraploid plants were compared to standard tetraploid varieties in the field trials. Colchicine treatment proved to be the most efficient method for in vitro cultured embryos in comparison with the other agents. Induced tetraploids of F. pratensis produced higher dry matter and seed yield and could be used for the development of new varieties. Induced tetraploid plants of Lolium spp. were equal to the standard varieties in field trials, therefore they could be used as parental genotypes in crosses. Induced tetraploids of F. pratensis produced higher dry matter and seed yield and could be used for development of new variety.

  20. Optimization of fodder rations for intensive development of cattle-breeding in an radioactive contaminated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarov, G.V.

    1999-01-01

    It has been calculated some variants of the optimal structure of milk cow herd's fodder rations in a radioactive contaminated zone in dependence of the contamination density. Rations were balanced in primary nutritive including digestible protein. It has been determined their costs and specific radioactivity of cesium-137. These fodder rations can be recommended to the farms of the Gomel Region suffered from the Chernobyl nuclear power station explosion

  1. Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, A.; Glante, F.; Schlueter, C.; Golz, C.; Noeh, I.; Reinhard, G.; Hoepfner, U.; Satorius, R.; Benndorf, R.; Bluemel, H.; Schaerer, B.; Rodt, S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to answer the following central question: Is the environmental pollution burden resulting from the cultivation of rape and the use of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester to be rated less severe than that of the manufacture and use of diesel fuel, and should, therefore, farmland be used in Germany to grow rape for rape seed oil or rape methyl ester production as a substitute for diesel fuel? Firstly, the extent is investigated to which rape seed oil or rape methyl ester can contribute to cuts in emissions of climate-relevant trace gases as compared to diesel fuel from crude oil. Secondly, the environmental impact and hazards associated with the cultivation, transport and manufacture of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester (again as compared to diesel fuel) are investigated. The data analysed relate to the entire life cycle. (orig./UWA) [de

  2. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077. Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167. The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.

  3. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.

  4. New uses of clover-grass mixtures in the structure of fodder crops on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Sláma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of clover-grasses in the structure of fodder crops grown on arable soil, especially those with intergeneric hybrids as the main component part, could avert the negative current trend, i.e. further decreasing the area of perennial fodder plants or fodder crops as a whole on arable soil. They have an irreplaceable role in crop sequences and in preserving the cultural character of the countryside, above all due to the fact that they improve soil fertility and microbial life in the soil and that they have an excellent pre-produce value, and, at the same time, they are applied in various farming systems (both conventional and ecological and in various climatic conditions, and agricultural businesses are well equipped for growing, harvesting and storing them. In the Czech Republic, the area of fodder crops grown on arable soil was decreased from 1,019.9 thousand hectares to mere 396.7 thousand hectares between 1980 and 2009, which is 15.6 % of the total area of arable soil whereas perennial fodder plants only take up 8.5 %. Fodder from clover crops and clover-grass growths on arable soil are one of the main resources of voluminous fodder for dairy cows. Most of this fodder is preserved through a fermentation process (silages, hay storage; a smaller part is fed as fresh fodder, or serves for production of hay. Silages made with perennial fodder plants are the most important source of both proteins and other nutrients for ruminants, especially for high-yielding milch cows. The basis of fodder production systems are the conservative elements of the landscape area (geomorphology in combination with the progressive elements (weather conditions, plants and human labour and relict ones, the representative of which is the soil. The fodder production systems in Europe are divided into five main fodder production zones. From this point of view, the areas where short-term clover-grass mixtures are grown on arable soil could be classed with Zone 4, i

  5. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2018-04-01

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory.

  6. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. in northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Djebali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and life cycle of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. and a survey of the pathogens of this plant are reported for the northern regions of Tunisia. Wild radish is a common weed of cereal crops and legumes. It germinates in early autumn (October, develops a rosette stage in November to December after which stem growth, fl owering and pod production occur through to May, with pod maturity completed in June. Fungus isolation from the foliar tissues exhibiting disease symptoms showed that wild radish was infected with the fungi Albugo candida, Alternaria spp. including A. brassicicola, and A. raphani, Erysiphe cruciferarum, Stemphylium herbarum, Peronospora parasitica and Phoma lingam. Ascochyta spp., Cercospora armoraciae, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Colletotrichum higginsianum are here reported from wild radish for the first time. Inoculation tests of pathogens on wild radish plants showed that the most injurious fungi were Alternaria raphani and Phoma lingam. The remaining pathogens were weakly to moderately aggressive on this weed. To access the pathogenic effect of fungi spontaneously infecting natural populations of wild radish, the weed was grown in a field experiment with and without the broad-spectrum systemic fungicide Carbendazim. Results showed a statistically significant two-fold decrease in the number and weight of seed pods in the non-treated plants, indicating that the reproductive potential of wild radish was naturally reduced by fungal infection. Foliar pathogenic fungi have a potential in the integrated weed management of wild radish, this role merits further investigations.

  7. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF MACHINERY FOR PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF RADISH SEEDS FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pre-sowing treatment of radish seeds aimed at increasing of seed production, yield and its productivity in protected area are presented. The density fractionation of radish seeds by gravity separator is recommended for improvement of planting material quality and increasing of utilization efficiency of frame area.

  8. Resistance Evaluation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. Inbred Lines against Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of twenties radish (Raphanus sativus L. inbred lines were mechanically inoculated with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV strain HY to evaluate TuMV resistance of the radish inbred lines. The inoculated radish plants were incubated at 22°C±3°C and resistance assessment was examined using symptom development for 4 weeks. Based on the reactions of differential radish inbred lines, 16 radish lines were produced mild mosaic, mottling, mosaic and severe mosaic symptoms by TuMV infection. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of TuMV coat protein gene, suggesting that TuMV is responsible for the disease symptoms. Four resistant radish lines did not induce systemic mosaic symptoms on upper leaves and chlorosis in stem tissues for 4 weeks, showing they were symptomless by 8 weeks. Further examination of TuMV infection in the 4 radish lines showed no TuMV infection in all systemic leaves. These results suggest that the 4 radish lines are highly resistant to TuMV.

  9. Seed treatments with essential oils protect radish seedlings against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Klein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of seedlings of economic crops is often reduced if there is not a steady supply of water. Essential oils (EO from plants are increasingly used instead of synthetic chemicals to protect plant and animal products against biotic and abiotic stresses. We investigated priming radish seeds by soaking or by matriconditioning with synthetic or natural compounds as a means of inducing resistance to drought stress, thus maintaining crop yield. Priming radish seeds for two hours in solutions of essential oils (EO thymol and carvacrol derived from Origanum syriacum, with “oregano natural product” (ONP; a solution of the residue remaining after EO extraction, or with the gibberellin synthesis inhibitor trinexapac ethyl (TE, was much more effective in inducing drought resistance than was matriconditioning with the same compounds in sawdust for two days. The latter treatment induced considerable fungal and bacterial infection in treated seeds if the substrate-matrix was not heat-treated beforehand. The increase in specific leaf area in plants from treated seeds was mostly consistent with an increase in leaf water content. Seed treatments with EO, ONP, and especially TE led to a three-fold increase in radish seedling survival compared with water-treated controls, when 21 day-old seedlings were irrigated after 6 days of drought. Under drought conditions, seedlings from treated seeds had a 2–3-fold increase in relative water content increased 2–3-fold, while membrane permeability decreased 20–50-fold as a result of the treatments. However, the physical benefits of the treatments often did not correlate with treatment-induced increases in physiological parameters such as pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin, pigment ratios (chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid/chlorophyll, or antioxidant activity. Seed treatments with biostimulants can be as effective as treatments with synthetic compounds in inducing drought resistance in seedlings.

  10. Movement of foliar uptake radionuclides in radish. [Raphanus sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, K.; Kamada, H.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the translocation of /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and two representative fission products of /sup 85/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in radish (Raphanus sativus) and to provide a translocation rate for a given nuclide. The effect of air humidity on the foliar uptake-translocation was also investigated. Retention of the radionuclides was usually higher in plants grown under conditions of 100% humidity at night as opposed to conditions of a constant humidity of 70%. Results indicate that Co and Cs translocate much more than Mn and Sr in the plant.

  11. Fear of rape from behind prison walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.

  12. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  13. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  14. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    in the beginning of a year (January–March) leading to the setting of more flowers. On the other hand, the decrease in the number of open oilseed rape flowers during the flowering period seems to be governed exclusively by inherent characteristics of oilseed rape. A late flowering in 2013 was associated...

  15. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Radish as Influenced by the Variety and Vegetative Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of the variety and vegetative stage on the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of radish. Samples of seeds, sprouts (day-3, day-5 and day-7 and roots of three varieties (red, white and black of radish (Raphanussativus were collected and tested for the above-mentioned parameters. Determination of total phenolic content was performed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. The total phenolic content ranged between 4.75 and 19.44 mg GAE/g DW and the antioxidant capacity between 12 and 75%. The highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in radish sprouts and the lowest in radish roots, and among samples in the black radish variety. 

  16. Fungi isolated from phyllosphere of fodder galega (Galega orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambrozik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment was fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in 2001-2003 as field crop on three plots: 1. without fertilization, 2. 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1, 3. 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1. During the dry and warm vegetation season of 2002 almost two times fewer isolates were obtained from the leaves than in 2003 that was the most abundant in fungi. Yeasts-like fungi (30% of the total number of isolates and saprotrophic fungi with dominated species: Acremonium strictum (8.5%, genus Epicoccum (7.8%, Humicola (9.5% and Penicillium (18.9% were the fungi most frequently populating the leaves of galega. The share of pathogens in the total number of isolates obtained from the phyllosphere was 10.6%. They were represented by fungi of Ascochyta spp., Botrytis cinerea, genus Fusarium, Phoma medicaginis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Reduction by 1.9 to 4.6% in the number of fungi isolated from the phyllosphere of galega without fertilization as compared to galega cultivated in combinations with fertilization was recorded. Generally, the smallest number of pathogens was recovered from galega fertilized with 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1. B. cinerea most frequently populated galega in combination without fertilization, genus Fusarium fungi in combination without fertilization and with fertilization with 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1, while Ascochyta spp. were isolated from galega with fertilization only.

  17. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... on ASD severity and sexual problems following the rape accounted for only 28% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, the ASD diagnosis is not an optimal method for identifying those most at risk for PTSD. It remains to be seen whether a better way can be found....

  18. Detecting the True Nature of Allegations of Rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zutter, André; Horselenberg, Robert; van Koppen, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted to test whether it is possible to build a model to distinguish true and false allegations of rape based on the theory of fabricated rape. The theory is based on the principle that a false complainant of rape has not been raped and has to fabricate a story while the story of a

  19. Use of mulches and their effects on the radish crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerffson L. Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the influence of green fertilization and the compost on the production of radish, cv. ‘Cometa’. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 treatments and 4 replicates: T1 - Leucaena, T2 - ‘Madeira-nova’, T3 - Compost (maize straw and composted cattle manure, T4 – ‘Sempre verde’ grass + compost and T5 – ‘Sempre verde’ grass and T6 - control without fertilization, totaling 24 experimental plots. The total area of the experimental plot was 1.44 m2, with useful area of 0.80 m2 and 21.0 t ha-1 of fertilizer (dry basis were incorporated in each treatment. The radish crop was directly sown in the beds, in 2- to 3-cm-deep holes, leaving one plant at spacing of 20 cm between rows and 5 cm between plants. Twenty-nine days after planting, plants were evaluated for total yield, commercial yield, percentages of commercial roots (% and waste roots (%, fresh and dry matter of shoots and roots, total and individual leaf area and the SPAD index. The incorporation of Leucaena at the amount of 21.0 t ha-1 (dry basis promoted the highest increments for the analyzed characteristics.

  20. Present and future instances of virtual rape in light of three categories of legal philosophical theories on rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in

  1. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  2. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  3. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  4. Genetic options for improving fodder yield and quality in forage sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving yield and quality of fodder from forage sorghum is important, especially in the semi-arid tropics, where sorghum is a major source of fodder. The aim of this work was to understand the genetic basis of fodder yield and quality traits, and character associations, and to estimate combining ability of the parents. The experiment was carried out during 2 successive rainy seasons using 10 parents crossed in a half-diallel design. Significant differences among the genotypes for fodder yield, quality and cell wall constituents were observed. Important quality traits, crude protein and digestibility (IVOMD, were not correlated with fodder yield, indicating the potential to improve yield and quality simultaneously in forage sorghum. General combining ability and specific combining ability variances showed that, for almost all characters, both additive and non-additive gene effects were important, with a predominance of non-additive effects. Parental lines SEVS4, HC308 and UPMC503 were good general combiners for yield and quality. The brown midrib lines, EC582508 and EC582510, were good general combiners for low lignin and high IVOMD. Strategies for improving forage sorghum to suit animal and biofuel industries are discussed.Keywords: Digestibility, crude protein, ADL, diallel analysis, gene effects.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(349-58

  5. Role of bioinoculants and organic fertilizers in fodder production and quality of leguminous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Sharma, Satyawati; Vasudevan, Padma

    2011-01-01

    The comparative effect of dual inoculation of native N fixer (Rhizobium) and AM fungi consortia with different organic fertilizers (vermicompost and farm yard manure) on fodder production and quality of two leguminous tree species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de. Wit. and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) in silvopastoral system and their impact on the fodder production of un-inoculated Panicum maximum Jacq. under cut and carry system. After three years of plantation maximum tree survival was in L. leucocephala in all the treatments in comparison to S. sesban while fodder production was more in S. sesban for initial two years and in third year it accelerated in L. leucocephala. Dual inoculation with vermicompost significantly improved fodder production, fodder quality and rhizosphere microflora in L. leucocephala but in S. sesban dual inoculation was at par with single inoculation of N fixer, AM fungi and control (without inoculation). The grass production was higher with L. leucocephala for two years while in third year it was more with S. sesban. The association of Rhizobium with AM fungi in L. leucocephala was better than in S. sesban.

  6. High temperature effect on microflora of radish root-inhabited zone and nutrient solutions for radish growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodina, E. V.; Tirranen, L. S.

    The effect of high temperatures (35 and 45 °C) on microflora of the root zone of radish plants grown in phytotron was evaluated by the response of microorganisms from 9 indicator groups. Phytotron air temperature elevated to 35 °C for 20 hours caused no significant changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of the root microflora in experimental plants. By the end of the experiment, the species diversity of microflora had changed. The amount of phytopathogenic microorganisms decreased which can be interpreted as more stable co-existence of microflora with plants. The numbers of microbes from other indicator groups was in dynamic equilibrium. The plants' condition did not deteriorate either. Exposure to the temperature of 45 °C for 7 hours have been found to change the numbers and species diversity in the radish root zone microflora. The microorganisms were observed to increase their total numbers at the expense of certain indicator groups. Bacteria increased spore forms at the stage of spores. Colon bacillus bacteria of increased their numbers by the end of experiment by an order. By the end of experiment the roots of experiment plants had microscopic fungi from Mucor, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Cladosporium genera. The observed changes in the microbial complex seem to be associated with the changes of root emissions and general deterioration of the plants' condition. It is suggested that the response of the microorganisms can be indicative of the condition of plants under investigation.

  7. Electrophoretic studies on rape seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Starr, A.; Bibi, N.

    1992-07-01

    Electrophoresis is a technique which separates biological molecules on the basis of charge and mass properties. The technique is used for separation, purification, characterization and identification of molecules/ compounds. Two major objectives for applications of electrophoresis have been studied in this report i.e. characterization of rape seed proteins and enzymes and identification of rape seed cultivars by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Gamma irradiation is being successfully used to create genetic variability and germination which brought about definite changes in the rape seed proteins reflected in different bands. These differences could be used to study variability in crop plants. (A.B.)

  8. The radish gene reveals a memory component with variable temporal properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly LaFerriere

    Full Text Available Memory phases, dependent on different neural and molecular mechanisms, strongly influence memory performance. Our understanding, however, of how memory phases interact is far from complete. In Drosophila, aversive olfactory learning is thought to progress from short-term through long-term memory phases. Another memory phase termed anesthesia resistant memory, dependent on the radish gene, influences memory hours after aversive olfactory learning. How does the radish-dependent phase influence memory performance in different tasks? It is found that the radish memory component does not scale with the stability of several memory traces, indicating a specific recruitment of this component to influence different memories, even within minutes of learning.

  9. Effects of wood biochar addition on growth of cherry radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radculus pers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Huadan; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Guocheng

    2018-03-01

    Extensive cultivation and unreasonable management of the farmland result in severe soil degradation such as compaction, acidification, and salinization. Our results showed that the biochar amendment increased the cherry radish germination rate, while barely influenced the fresh biomass of shoot and root. Moreover, both 1.5% and 3% biochar addition showed no significant difference in the fruit shape index of cherry radish compared to the control treatment. These results suggested that the biochar application alone could not improve the cherry radish growth in this tested soil. Thus, application of biochar combined with fertilizer or composted with organic wastes should be taken into account for this soil.

  10. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  11. Feeding Response of Tree Fodder Bhimal (Grewia optiva on Growth Performance of Castrated Male Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Nidhi Pandey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhimal (Grewia optiva is a fodder tree mostly found in mid hills of mid and far western region of Nepal. Bhimal could constitutes one of the main livestock green fodders, especially for goats when fresh green fodder become limited during the winter dry season. However, the feeding value of Bhimal leaves on growth performance of castrated goats probably has not been evaluated so far. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Bhimal leaves feeding on growth performance of castrated male goats for 90 days. Altogether 16 growing castrated male goats of same breed, age and body weight were selected and equally divided into four treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 with four replications by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Four types of experimental diets were prepared having various levels (0 to 100% of Bhimal leaves as fodder. Experimental animals of Treatment 1 were fed with seasonal fodder + 100 g concentrate mixture, Treatment 2 with 100% Bhimal fodder + 100 g concentrate mixture, Treatment 3with 75% Bhimal fodder + 25% seasonal fodder + 100 g concentrate mixture, while Treatment 4 with 50% Bhimal fodder + 50% season fodder + 100 g concentrate mixture. All diets were fed ad-lib and experimental animals had free access to drinking water. The diets offered and refusal was measured daily and weight change was observed fortnightly. The result showed that fodder intake (g/d/animal and total dry matter intake (TDMI g/kg live weight of goats differed significantly (P<0.01, but concentrate intake was not differed significantly (P<0.01 among treatments. The highest dry matter intake per animal /day was in Treatment 2 (52.75 g/kg live weight followed by Treatment 4, Treatment 3 and Treatment 1 (51.7, 48.56 and 32.69 g/kg live weight, respectively.The average daily gain in body weight was observed highest in Treatment 2 (66.66 g/d followed by Treatment 3 (31.66 g/d and Treatment 4 (30.83 g. The growth rate was significantly (P<0

  12. Impact of Irrigation Method on Water Use Efficiency and Productivity of Fodder Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Jha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved irrigation use efficiency is an important tool for intensifying and diversifying agriculture in Nepal, resulting in higher economic yield from irrigated farmlands with a minimum input of water. Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation method (furrow vs. drip on the productivity of nutritious fodder species during off-monsoon dry periods in different elevation zones of central Nepal. A split-block factorial design was used. The factors considered were treatment location, fodder crop, and irrigation method. Commonly used local agronomical practices were followed in all respects except irrigation method. Results revealed that location effect was significant (p < 0.01 with highest fodder productivity seen for the middle elevation site, Syangja. Species effects were also significant, with teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana having higher yield than cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Irrigation method impacted green biomass yield (higher with furrow irrigation but both methods yielded similar dry biomass, while water use was 73% less under drip irrigation. Our findings indicated that the controlled application of water through drip irrigation is able to produce acceptable yields of nutritionally dense fodder species during dry seasons, leading to more effective utilization and resource conservation of available land, fertilizer and water. Higher productivity of these nutritional fodders resulted in higher milk productivity for livestock smallholders. The ability to grow fodder crops year-round in lowland and hill regions of Nepal with limited water storages using low-cost, water-efficient drip irrigation may greatly increase livestock productivity and, hence, the economic security of smallholder farmers.

  13. Determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour by fast neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashin, E.G.; Lisovskij, I.P.; Smakhtin, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    A neutron-activation method is suggested for determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour. Used as the source of fast neutrons was an NG-150M neutron generator with a maximum yield of 10 8 nxcm -2 xs -1 . Samples were irradiated in polyethylene ampoules using a pneumatic shuttle. Fluorine was determined with reference to the fluorine-18 isotope. The accuracy of determining fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour is 1 to 4% (rel.) at a rate of not less than 10 samples per hour. The method is suitable for in-process testing of products

  14. Determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour by fast neutron activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashin, E G; Lisovskii, I P; Smakhtin, L A

    1980-01-01

    A neutron-activation method is suggested for determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour. Used as the source of fast neutrons was an NG-150M neutron generator with a maximum yield of 10/sup 8/ nxcm/sup -2/xs/sup -1/. Samples were irradiated in polyethylene ampoules using a pneumatic shuttle. Fluorine was determined with reference to the fluorine-18 isotope. The accuracy of determining fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour is 1 to 4% (rel.) at a rate of not less than 10 samples per hour. The method is suitable for in-process testing of products.

  15. Estimation and change tendency of rape straw resource in Leshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu

    2018-04-01

    Rape straw in Leshan area are rape stalks, including stems, leaves and pods after removing rapeseed. Leshan area is one of the main rape planting areas in Sichuan Province and rape planting area is large. Each year will produce a lot of rape straw. Based on the analysis of the trend of rapeseed planting area and rapeseed yield from 2008 to 2014, the change trend of rape straw resources in Leshan from 2008 to 2014 was analyzed and the decision-making reference was provided for resource utilization of rape straw. The results showed that the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was very large, which was more than 100,000 tons per year, which was increasing year by year. By 2014, the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was close to 200,000 tons.

  16. Demography and findings of reported rape cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, M M; Rahman, M H; Kamal, M; Ahmed, A U; Saha, S K

    2010-01-01

    Six hundred and ninety nine cases of alleged rape were studied by the authors during the period from 2007-2008 at the Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Of these cases, 122 had positive findings of recent sexual intercourse; 250 cases had the positive findings of habituated sexual intercourse, and 327 cases had no findings of sexual intercourse but they complained of forcible sexual intercourse and found no sign of sexual intercourse. Most of the alleged victims of rape were nulliparous 87.12% and parous was only 12.87%. 430 (61.51%) cases of reported victims who were students of schools and colleges were not considered as rape cases considering their victim's history of love affairs, leaving home secretly with their lovers, living with them for many days. Gang rape was not so common (4.29% of raped cases) in our study. Age groups, their occupations, living areas, time of arrival for medico-legal examination have been studied. Most of the cases were students (61.51%). A few numbers of victims were subjected to gang rape. Examination and reporting the cases have been discussed.

  17. Effect of rosemary extract and TBHQ on the stability of radish seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongling, Z.; Yancheng, G.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of rosemary extract (RE) and tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) on the storage stability of radish seed oil were studied according to the change of the acid value, peroxide value, tocopherol and sulforaphene in radish seed oil. The results showed that under conditions of accelerated oxidation by (60+-1) degree C, the storage stability of the radish seed oil with antioxidants could be significantly improved, among which TBHQ was better than RE. Besides, RE and TBHQ had a synergistic effect on antioxidation. The compound of 0.01% RE and 0.01% TBHQ had a better antioxidation effect than 0.07% RE and 0.02% TBHQ respectively, which recommended it can be a suitable antioxidant of radish seed oil. (author)

  18. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbaya, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  19. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  20. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production...

  1. [Yeast irrigation enhances the nutritional content in hydroponic green maize fodder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedolla-Torres, Martha H; Palacios Espinosa, Alejandro; Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Ascencio Valle, Felipe de Jesús; López Aguilar, David R; Espinoza Villavicencio, José Luis; de Luna de la Peña, Rafael; Guillen Trujillo, Ariel; Avila Serrano, Narciso Y; Ortega Pérez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation with yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii var. Fabry, Yarowia lipolytica YIBCS002, Yarowia lipolytica var. BCS and Candida pseudointermedia) on the final nutritional content of hydroponic green maize fodder (Zea Zea mays L.), applied at different fodder growth stages (1. seed-seedling stage, 2. seedling-plant 20cm, 3. during all the culture). Irrespective of the fodder growth stages at which they were applied, all yeasts tested enhanced the content of raw protein, lipids, ash, moisture and energy. The percentage of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, sulphates, Ca and Mg) showed different responses depending on the kind of yeast applied; D. hansenii exhibited the highest increment in all electrolytes, except for phosphorous. We conclude that the addition of yeasts belonging to the genera Debaryomyces, Candida and Yarowia to the irrigation solution of hydroponic systems enhances the nutrient content of green fodder. This kind of irrigation can be applied to generate high commercial value cultures in limited spaces. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Daniellia oliveri As A Fodder Tree For Small Ruminant And The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniellia oliveri was examined as a potential fodder for small ruminant, using nine castrated and ruminally fistulated West African Dwarf sheep (29 kg BW) to determine rumen ammonia and nutrient digestibility. Dried leaves of Daniella oliveri were offered at two levels (25% and 50% of DMI) as supplement to a basal hay ...

  3. Farmers' perceptions about exotic multipurpose fodder trees and constraints to their adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekoya, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations in Ethiopia have for many years promoted exotic multipurpose fodder trees (EMPFT) for livestock feed and soil improvement. Despite the apparent benefits, the number of farmers planting these trees was low. The objectives were to elucidate farmers¿ perceptions about their use

  4. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  5. Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Quli, S M S; Rai, R; Ali, Angrej; Gangoo, S A

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated extraction and consumption pattern of fuel wood, fodder and timber and forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities in Bundu block of Ranchi district in Jharkhand (India). The study is based on personal interviews of the selected respondents through structured interview schedule, personal observations and participatory rural appraisal tools i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions carried out in the sample villages, using multi-stage random sampling technique. The study revealed that the total extraction of fuel wood from different sources in villages was 2978.40 tons annum(-1), at the rate of 0.68 tons per capita annum(-1), which was mostly consumed in cooking followed by cottage industries, heating, community functions and others. The average fodder requirement per household was around 47.77 kg day(-1) with a total requirement of 14227.34 tons annum(-1). The average timber requirement per household was computed to be 0.346 m3 annum(-1) accounting for a total timber demand of 282.49 m3 annum(-1), which is mostly utilized in housing, followed by agricultural implements, rural furniture, carts and carriages, fencing, cattle shed/ store house and others. Forest biomass is the major source of fuel wood, fodder and timber for the primitive societies of the area contributing 1533.28 tons annum(-1) (51.48%) of the total fuel wood requirement, 6971.55 tons annum(-1) (49.00%) of the total fodder requirement and 136.36 m3 annum(-1) (48.27%) of the total timber requirement. The forest biomass is exposed to enormous pressure for securing the needs by the aboriginal people, posing great threat to biodiversity and environment of the region. Therefore, forest biomass conservation through intervention of alternative avenues is imperative to keep pace with the current development and future challenges in the area.

  6. Reducing of thermal power energy-intensive pro-cesses costs in the mixed fodders technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Lytkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodological approach to the creation of energy-efficient processes with direct involvement in the produc-tion process of heat pump technology for the preparation of of energy resources in obtaining of mixed fodders of the given particle size distribution was formed. Completed experimental and analytical studies paved the way for the development of energy efficient technolo-gies of mixed fodders with a vapor compression connection (VCHP and steam ejector (SEHP heat pumps on the closed thermody-namic schemes. It was shown that the strategy of the operational management of process parameters in the allowable technological properties of the resulting mixed fodder production does not allow a compromise between the conflicting technical and economic param-eters and let the main technical contradiction between productivity and power consumption. The control problem becomes much more complicated when there is no practical possibility of a detailed description of thermal processes occurring in the closed thermodynamic recycles based on the phenomenological laws of thermodynamics considering a balance of material and energy flows in the technologi-cal system. There is a need for adaptive control systems based on the extreme characteristics of the controlled object. The adaptation effect is achieved by obtaining information about the processes occurring in the conditions of technological line of mixed fodders pro-duction equalized particle size distribution, which allows to generate a control signal for the extreme value of the objective function. The scheme of automatic optimization ensuring continuous monitoring of the minimum value of the specific heat energy costs is proposed. It provides optimal consumption of the starting loose mixed fodder and rational strain on the line equipment.

  7. Field Evidence of Cadmium Phytoavailability Decreased Effectively by Rape Straw and/or Red Mud with Zinc Sulphate in a Cd-Contaminated Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg−1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils. PMID:25303439

  8. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  9. La Violacion Sexual--The Reality of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Chris; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Hispanic rape victim often finds herself in a situation where discussing a rape may jeopardize not only her self esteem but her residency status, job and familial relations. Small wonder she prefers to remain silent. (Author/NQ)

  10. Elucidating the triplicated ancestral genome structure of radish based on chromosome-level comparison with the Brassica genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Kim, Namshin; Ahn, Byung Ohg; Oh, Mijin; Chung, Won-Hyong; Chung, Hee; Jeong, Seongmun; Lim, Ki-Byung; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Goon-Bo; Baek, Seunghoon; Choi, Sang-Bong; Hyung, Dae-Jin; Lee, Seung-Won; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Jin, Mina; Seol, Young-Joo; Chae, Won Byoung; Choi, Keun Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Yu, Hee-Ju; Mun, Jeong-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a chromosome-scale draft genome sequence of radish that is assembled into nine chromosomal pseudomolecules. A comprehensive comparative genome analysis with the Brassica genomes provides genomic evidences on the evolution of the mesohexaploid radish genome. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an agronomically important root vegetable crop and its origin and phylogenetic position in the tribe Brassiceae is controversial. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the radish genome based on the chromosome sequences of R. sativus cv. WK10039. The radish genome was sequenced and assembled into 426.2 Mb spanning >98 % of the gene space, of which 344.0 Mb were integrated into nine chromosome pseudomolecules. Approximately 36 % of the genome was repetitive sequences and 46,514 protein-coding genes were predicted and annotated. Comparative mapping of the tPCK-like ancestral genome revealed that the radish genome has intermediate characteristics between the Brassica A/C and B genomes in the triplicated segments, suggesting an internal origin from the genus Brassica. The evolutionary characteristics shared between radish and other Brassica species provided genomic evidences that the current form of nine chromosomes in radish was rearranged from the chromosomes of hexaploid progenitor. Overall, this study provides a chromosome-scale draft genome sequence of radish as well as novel insight into evolution of the mesohexaploid genomes in the tribe Brassiceae.

  11. Date rape among undergraduates in southwestern Nigeria federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing number of date rapes occurring on University campuses and the need to decrease rape supportive attitudes point to the need for continued research on this field. Correlational survey design was adopted to examine the extent to which attitude towards date rape is associated with the respondents' emotional ...

  12. Management and Profile of Rape Victims attending the Karl Bremer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: The study was conducted at the rape centre at the Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. To describe the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in rape victims, all consecutive patients who presented to the rape centre over the one-year period from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007 were included ...

  13. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  14. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...--Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Proclamation 8823--Armed Forces Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Prison Rape Elimination Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Sexual... Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) was enacted with bipartisan support and established a ``zero...

  15. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  16. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  17. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rape and incest. 50.306 Section 50.306 Public... § 50.306 Rape and incest. Federal financial participation is available in expenditures for medical procedures performed upon a victim of rape or incest if the program or project has received signed...

  18. Debriefing effectiveness following exposure to pornographic rape depictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamuth, Neil; Check, James

    1984-02-01

    Data are presented concerning the ethics of exposing undergraduate students to pornographic rape portrayals followed by a debriefing designed to dispel a number of rape myths. One hundred fifty males and females were randomly assigned to read pornographic stories. Some of these depicted a rape, whereas others depicted mutually consenting intercourse. Afterwards, those exposed to the rape version were given a debriefing which included statements concerning the true horror of rape and the existence of rape myths. About 10 days later, a "Public Survey" ostensibly conducted by a local committee of citizens was given to subjects in their classes. A postexperimental questionnaire confirmed that participants were not aware that this survey was related to the earlier phase of the research. As part of the survey, subjects were presented with actual newspaper articles about which their opinions were solicited. One of these articles, the dependent measure of the study, concerned rape. Subjects indicated their reactions to this article and their opinions about the general causes of rape. The results indicated that those exposed to the rape depictions followed by a "rape debriefing" were less accepting of certain rape myths than subjects exposed to mutually consenting intercourse depictions. Implications of the data for future research in this area are discussed both in terms of work focusing on the potential antisocial impact of violent pornography and of research specifically designed to identify the conditions most likely to change acceptance of rape myths.

  19. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  20. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  1. The Psychology of the Politics of Rape: Political Ideology, Moral Foundations, and Attitudes Toward Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Hilz, Emily N

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.

  2. "Nobody Told Me It Was Rape": A Parent's Guide for Talking with Teenagers about Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Caren; Fay, Jennifer

    This book was written to help parents talk to their adolescent children about acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation. It may also be useful to family life educators presenting units on rape and sexual exploitation. Acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation are explained in the first section. The second section discusses talking with teenagers…

  3. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  4. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  5. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  6. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention…

  7. Development of Convenient Screening Method for Resistant Radish to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jung Jo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To establish simple and reliable screening method for resistant radish to Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron. using soil-drenching inoculation, the development of clubroot on radish seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae GN-1 isolate according to several conditions such as inoculum concentration, plant growth stage and incubation period after inoculation was studied. To select resistant radish against clubroot, 10-day-old seedlings were inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the roots with the spore suspension of the pathogen to give 1×10(9 spores/pot. The inoculated seedlings were incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 3 days then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for 6 weeks. Under the optimum conditions, 46 commercial cultivars of radish were tested for resistance to YC-1 (infecting 15 clubroot-resistant cultivars of Chinese cabbage and GN-1 (wild type isolates of P. brassicae. Among them, thirty-five cultivars showed resistance to both isolates and one cultivar represented susceptible response to the pathogens. On the other hand, the other cultivars showed different responses against the tested P. brassicae pathogens. The results suggest that this method is an efficient system for screening radish with resistance to clubroot.

  8. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Problems of criterions of sanitary evaluation of fodder phosphates of an increased content of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarski, T.P.; Krynski, A.

    1984-01-01

    In samples of 15 fodder phosphates a proper activity of natural radionuclides K-40, Ra-226 and Th-228 was determined. It was found that the content of K-40 in the examined phosphates was from 0 to 113.6 mBq/g (0-3.07 pCi/g), Ra-226 from 5.6 to 2523.4 mBq/g (0.15-68.2 pCi/g) and Th-228 from 11.1 to 100 mBq/g (0.3-2.7 pCi/g). On the basis of the obtained data the quantity of uranium in fodder phosphates and the quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk of cows fed on these phosphates was estimated. It was found that the quantity of uranium in phosphates was harmless for animals. It was admitted that the criterion of phosphates evaluation on the basis of quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk is not sufficient for drawing conclusion about their sanitary value. For a complex evaluation of fodder phosphates a limit value of radioactive activity of Ra-226 37 mBq/g (1 pCi/g) is proposed. Considering the possibility of air pollution in fodder factories a disuse of phosphates in production in which the activity of Ra-226 increases to 0.37 mBq/g (10 pCi/g) and of Th-228 to 75 mBq/g (2pCi/g) was proposed. The proposed criterion of evaluation concerns all phosphates used in Poland. (author)

  10. Farmers' perceptions about exotic multipurpose fodder trees and constraints to their adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Mekoya, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Zijpp, van der, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations in Ethiopia have for many years promoted exotic multipurpose fodder trees (EMPFT) for livestock feed and soil improvement. Despite the apparent benefits, the number of farmers planting these trees was low. The objectives were to elucidate farmers¿ perceptions about their use value, management practices and constraints to adoption in three districts representing annual (one wheat-based and one teff-based) and perennial (coffee-based) crop-livestock systems in the Ethiopian h...

  11. Green Fodder Production and Water Use Efficiency of Some Forage Crops under Hydroponic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi N. Al-Karaki; M. Al-Hashimi

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate five forage crops (alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)) for green fodder production and water use efficiency under hydroponic conditions. The experiment has been conducted under temperature-controlled conditions (24 ± 1°C) and natural window illumination at growth room of Soilless Culture Laboratory, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. The r...

  12. Interferences in radioimmunoassay of aflatoxins in food and fodder samples of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, P.; Fukal, L.; Brezina, P.; Kas, J.

    1988-01-01

    Cross-reactions and resulting nonspecific binding of substances with structures resembling aflatoxins (derivatives of coumarin, and cinnamonic and benzoic acids, etc.) were investigated. The concentrations of these substances causing erroneously high or false positive values in radioimmunoassay were determined. One μg aflatoxin B 1 /kg sample may be simulated by the occurrence of 5 g coumarin, 10 g caffeic acid, 16 g chlorogenic acid, or 15 g vanillin/kg fodder or food sample

  13. Adoption of Calliandra calothyrsus for fodder and it's Inoculation Potential on Farms in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiptot, E; Wanjiku, J; Obonyo, E; Odee, D.W

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya, productivity of dairy animals is mostly limited by inadequate nutrition especially proteins. To improve feed quality, the use of fodder trees is a preferred option. One of the most widely used fodder tree is calliandra calothyrsus (calliandra) whose productivity can be improved through rhizobia inoculation. A study was initiated to assess farmers' management practices and utilization of calliandra as well as to elicit their knowledge on it's inoculation. Survey sites were identified were identified in areas where calliandra had been previously introduced in central and western regions of Kenya. Results indicated that, for the first establishment of calliandra trees (NGOs) 68.3% of the farmers acquired seedlings from research institutions as well as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working within the research area. During subsequent establishments, reported only in central region a reverse trend was observed with 73% of farmers acquiring seedlings from private and individual nurseries. A majority of farmers (56%) planted calliandra on contours and 78% used it for fodder, while 22% had no knowledge of food potential. About 41% of farmers from central region had planted inoculated seedlings and only 1.6% from the western region had inoculants. Though the inoculant had been provided free, 47% of the farmers were willing to purchase it if made available. In central region calliandra was highly utilized for dairy animals consequently motivating farmers to expand planting. Contour planting was preferred niche due to the perceived low competition with associate crops for space and growth parameters. The study concluded that though calliandra was accepted as a fodder tree, a knowledge gap existed on farms on the role of rhizobia inoculation in productivity. There is therefore an urgent need to sensitize on the benefits of inoculation

  14. Prospects of potential fodder-crops in hilly regions, especially northern areas of pakistan, their production and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The comparison of green-fodder and dry-matter yields in various winter cereal fodder crops showed that oat is a high fodder-yielding and more nutritive crop than barley, cereal rye wheat and triticale. Average of the three locations in northern areas of Pakistan (i.e. Gilgit, Chilas and Skardu) indicated that green-fodder yield obtained from oats was 54% higher than barley and 50% than cereal rye. It was also determined that oats and barley have greater re-growth potential than triticale. In oats, it was assessed that whole dose of N=75 kg/ha applied at the time of sowing and the split doses of N at the time of sowing and at vegetative stage of the crop increased green-fodder yield by 250% and 287% respectively than control. Improved varieties of oats viz. PD2L V65 and S-81 produced the highest total green-fodder yields of 87.34 and 86.10 t/ha under two cut system. Also re-growth potential of these varieties was the highest than the other cultivars. In winter legume fodder crops, berseem produced two times more green and dry matter yields as compared to shaftal at Gilgit and Chilas. Berseem harvested 6 cm above ground level and 45 days interval showed good results. Protein percentage decreased as cutting intervals increased in berseem crop. The improved lucerne variety Sundor was superior to local variety both in green-fodder and dry-matter yields. The yield of lucerne decreased with the increase in altitude which might be due to low temperattlre, variation in soil fertility and short growing seasons. Green forage and pasture crop species are dried enough to permit their safe storage, without spoilage or serious loss of nutrients. About 70-90% of water present in standing crop at mowing is reduced to 18-20% by sun and wind without adversely affecting nutritive value. (author)

  15. Manganese content of Orosi valley fodder and its effect on hair concentration and reproduction in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, H.; Lang, C.

    1976-01-01

    An integrated study has been made of the relationship - which has been established separately by the various authors whose names are listed - existing between the content of manganese in fodder, its concentration in the hair of dairy cattle and its effects on the reproductive behaviour of these animals. The study was carried out in Orosi valley (Costa Rica) and included: determination of the manganese content of eight types of fodder from 48 sampling points distributed over five sectors; determination of the concentration of this mineral in the hair of 14 and 16 cows, respectively, from two dairy farms (A and B); and, lastly, an analytical evaluation of the reproduction indices obtained, to check on the findings of other authors. For comparison purposes use was made of the fodder and hair indices obtained at another large dairy farm (C) located in an area that is considered normal as far as manganese content of fodder is concerned and in which the fertility index was high. These studies show that each type of fodder studied has its own manganese uptake properties; that the manganese content of the hair (91, 73 and 18 ppm respectively) in farms A, B and C is related directly to the content of this element in forage (210, 130 and 74 ppm respectively); lastly, they show that a manganese content of more than 100 ppm in fodder can be one of the factors affecting the reproductive capacity of dairy cattle herds: 2.30 and 2.18 couplings per live birth and parturition indices of 57.8 and 64.2% in farms A and B with a high manganese content in the fodder, as against 1.49 couplings per birth and parturition indices of 90% in farm C with a normal manganese content in fodder. (author)

  16. RADISH CULTIVARS BRED AT VNIISSOK AND THEIR USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the base of comparative assessment and average data estimation from 2010 to 2015, the characteristics of 11 cultivars bred at VNIISSOK were described regarding yield capacity and its components, variation, interdependencies at two sowing terms winter,spring time, direction of selection and cultivar uses at cultivar maintaining breeding program. Cultivar 'Koroleva Margo' is rather used in breeding program for yield capacity and taste qualities. Cultivar 'Sonata' is a source of such features as early maturity, valuable biochemical content and low nitrate accumulation. Cultivar 'Sofit' is known to bear early maturity and simultaneous seed maturation. 'Ariya' is a source of cylindrical root shape and early maturation. Cultivar 'Teplichnyi Gribovskyi' is used in breeding program for early maturation and simultaneous seed maturation. Cultivar 'Feya' bearsresistance to bolting and valuable biochemical substances. Cultivar 'Variant' has such features as root density, ability to grow under low lighting, short-term storability.  Purple-red with white tips is a newmade cultivar 'Mavr' suitable for breeding program for valuable biochemical content, unusual root color, also bearing male sterile forms (MS for heterosis hybrid breeding. Out of all cultivars regarded, 'Mokhovskiy' is only a genetic source to breed radish forms with edible leaves. The positive weak dependence was revealed between cultivar biochemical characteristics, root weight, dry matter  content, and nitrate content; whereas the positive middle dependence is revealed with sugar contents and negative dependence with ascorbic acid content. According to  iochemical characteristics, the best cultivar population as 'Ariya', 'Sonata' (ascorbic acid; Mavr, Sonata, Variant (dry matter, sugars have been chosen. Cultivars 'Koroleva Margo', Pheya, Sonata, Sophit, Mokhovskiy are the initial breeding accessions for selection of new cultivar population, MS and MF lines needed for heterosis.

  17. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M.A.; Hussain, N.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  18. High protein mutants of winter fodder barley induced by radiation and chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankulov, M.; Genchev, K.; Nikolov, Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Several induced mutants of winter fodder barley with higher rpotein content are described. These mutants were produced by treating seeds of cvs. Vogelsaenger Gold, Ager and 468 with gamma-rays, sodium azide and ethyl methanesulfonate (alone and in combinations) and with ethylene and formamide. The gamma-ray induced mutants of winter fodder barley have 1-4% higher protein content. The mutant line 109 has, besides high protein content (17,37%), 5.96 lysine per 100 g protein, but its endosperm is wrinkeled. Mutants produced by chemical mutagens have 6-7% higher protein content than the initial cultivars. All induced mutants have 85-95 cm high stems, i.e. they are by 10-20 cm shorter than the initial cultivars. Some of these mutants are now resistant to the diseases Helminthosporium gramineum and Ustilago nuda. The recommended mutants could be successfully used in breeding programs for producing of higher protein content and quality in winter fodder barley.

  19. High protein mutants of winter fodder barley induced by radiation and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankulov, M.; Genchev, K.; Nikolov, Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Several induced mutants of winter fodder barley with higher rpotein content are described. These mutants were produced by treating seeds of cvs. Vogelsaenger Gold, Ager and 468 with gamma-rays, sodium azide and ethyl methanesulfonate (alone and in combinations) and with ethylene and formamide. The gamma-ray induced mutants of winter fodder barley have 1-4% higher protein content. The mutant line 109 has, besides high protein content (17,37%), 5.96 lysine per 100 g protein, but its endosperm is wrinkeled. Mutants produced by chemical mutagens have 6-7% higher protein content than the initial cultivars. All induced mutants have 85-95 cm high stems, i.e. they are by 10-20 cm shorter than the initial cultivars. Some of these mutants are now resistant to the diseases Helminthosporium gramineum and Ustilago nuda. The recommended mutants could be successfully used in breeding programs for producing of higher protein content and quality in winter fodder barley

  20. Simulation of water management for fodder beet to reduce yield losses under late season drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Noreldin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to calibrate CropSyst model for fodder beet grown under full and late season drought and to use the simulation results to analyze the relationship between irrigation amount and yield, as well as in water management to reduce yield losses under full and late season drought. For this reason, two field experiments were implemented at El-Serw Agricultural Research Station in Demiatte governorate, during 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons. Two irrigation treatments were studied: full irrigation and late season drought. The model was calibrated using the data obtained from the two seasons. Results indicated that the reduction in fodder beet yield under late season drought was 11 and 12% in 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons, respectively. Calibration of CropSyst revealed that the percentage of difference between measured and predicted values were low in both growing seasons. The results also indicated that changing irrigation schedule after examining water stress index under full and late season drought led to increase in fodder beet yield, as well as water and land productivity. Thus, CropSyst model can give insight into when to apply irrigation water to minimize yield losses under late season drought.

  1. Locational variation in green fodder yield, dry matter yield, and forage quality of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.; Mohammad, D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to find out the variations in for- age yield and quality of sorghum as affected by different environments. The three agroecological zones viz., Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Sariab, Quetta, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad were selected on the basis of different physiography, geology, temperature, and climate and water availability. Crude protein contents, varied from 6.98 to 8.02 percent, crude fibre contents from 30.84 to 31.68 percent, green fodder yield from 38.91 to 50.64 t/ha and dry matter yield from 8.92 to 10.17 t/ha at the three diverse locations. Maximum crude protein and crude fibre contents were obtained at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. Maximum green fodder and dry matter yields were also observed at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. It was also noted that the same genotypes showed differential response when planted under the diverse environments for green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein and crude fibre contents. Therefore, it was concluded that these differences in forage yield and quality traits under diverse environments were due to differences in soil types, soil fertility, temperature, rain- fall and other climatic conditions. (author)

  2. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiol, L; Assolari, S; Sacco, P; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  3. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels

  4. Adsorption study of cadmium (II) and lead (II) on radish peels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Shafique, U.; Salman, M.; Zaman, W.; Memoona, M.

    2009-01-01

    The removal efficiency of heavy metals like Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Raphanus sativus (Radish peels) has been studied. The effects of time, pH, concentration of adsorbent and agitation speed on adsorption have been evaluated. It is found that radish peels powder has high removal efficiency for both the metals. Batch adsorption study has shown that Cd(II) and Pb(II) has been removed up to 88% and 86% respectively. Adsorption equilibriums for both metals have been described by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum amount of heavy metals (Q ) adsorbed at max equilibrium were 7.5 and 1.23 mg/g for Cd(II) and Pb(II) respectively as evaluated by Langmuir isotherm. It is concluded that waste materials like radish peels can be used for removal of heavy metals from aqueous streams. (author)

  5. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  6. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  7. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  8. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter.

  9. In vitro evaluation of different varieties of maize fodder for their methane generation potential and digestibility with goat rumen liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, Shalini; Kumar, Ravindra; Kumar, Vinod; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the methane generation potential and digestibility of different (normal and three high-quality protein maize [HQPM]) varieties of maize fodder with goat rumen liquor in vitro . Methane production potential and digestibility of different varieties of maize fodder were tested in in vitro gas production test. Seven varieties of maize, four normal (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5, and Shaktiman/900 M Gold), and three high-quality protein (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, and HQPM 9/Vivek) were grown in different plots under the same environmental and agro-climatic conditions. Fodders were harvested at 45-50 days of sowing, and the representative samples of fodder from different varieties of maize were collected for analysis. Dried and grinded form of these maize fodder varieties was tested for gas, methane, and digestibility using goat rumen microflora in in vitro gas syringes. Gas production (ml/g dry matter [DM]) was highest for HM5 variety (97.66, whereas lowest for HQPM 9 variety (64.22). Gas production (ml/g degraded DM [DDM]) and methane (%) were statistically similar in different varieties of maize fodder. The methane production expressed as ml/g DM and ml/g DDM was significantly (pproduction.

  10. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  11. RADISH SEED PRODUCTION (TRANSPLANTATION CULTURE; STANDARD OF ORGANISATION FOR MODEL TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Pavlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard of organization for model technological process of seed production waselaborated at VNIISSOK. Requirements established are for implementation of technological operation at radish seed production as transplantation culture as followed: seed plant growing in polyhouses to produce elite seeds, seedlings planting out, plant nursing, harvesting and postharvest processing. The standard is aimed to provide the qualified work in radish seed production through transplantation culture. Radish seed plants for elite seed production are grown on warmed soil beds in winter greenhouses with use of plastic roofing or in plastic houses supplied with heating system. Seeds with germination not less than 85 % according to GOST 32592-2013 are taken for seed production aims. Hand sowing under marker ensures the identical all-around nutrition for plants that is particularly important when growing and selecting the seed plants (1 hectare - 55-60 thousand seed plant roots. Approbation of seed plants is carried out just before harvesting. The terms of seed plant planting are the earliest. Scheme of planting is 70 x 15 - 20 (cm, 60 x 30 (cm or 90 x 15 (cm. To protect the seed production plantation of radish against weeds, diseases and pests, the pesticides are allowed to apply in accordance with State Catalogue of Pesticides and Agrochemicals, permitted to use in the territory of Russian Federation. Postharvest desiccation of seed plants enables to yield radish by means of direct combining. Radish seeds after processing on sowing qualities have to meet all sowing requirements according to the acting standard. The standard of organization is agreed and affirmed in 2016 CTO45727225-52-16.

  12. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Han

    Full Text Available Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion, migration patterns (linear expansion, and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic

  13. Investigations of radiation stimulation of tomatoes, onions and radishes in climatic chamber and field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimon, J.; Pal, I.

    1974-01-01

    The results of three years' experiments with presowing irradiation of tomato, radish, and onion seeds are reported. The main criteria used, were the following: plant height, change in flowering time, number of natured fruits per plant, total carbohydrate content in ripe fruits and of vitamin C level in natured fruits for tomatoes; tuber weight, weight of leaves, total weight, dry matter formation, and contents of carbohydrates and vitamin C for radish; and appearance of flower ''arrows'', yield, and dry matter content for onions. (E.T.)

  14. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  15. EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATOR MICEFIT ON YIELD OF GARDEN RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Seredin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micefit is a product developed based on mycorrhizal fungi extracted from roots of swamp ledum. For ecological purposes the Micefit is used for final stage of cleaning of contaminated and polluted land at seed sowing and seedling plating. The effect of growth regulator Micefit on seeds of garden radish depending on different concentrations and exposures. The dependence of garden radish yield on time of treatment and concentration is shown.

  16. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Male Peer Support to Hostile Sexist Attitudes Influences Rape Proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Mercedes; Megías, Jesús L; Moya, Miguel

    2018-07-01

    Sexual assault affects a large proportion of women in the world. Although most rapes are committed by one man, the act itself may be influenced by many (e.g., the peer group). Hostile sexism (HS) has repeatedly been associated with men's rape proclivity, but the influence exerted by the HS of the peer group on rape proclivity has not been investigated. In this study, we explored the impact of perceived male peer support to HS on participants' rape proclivity. A sample of Spanish undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain ( N = 134) completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Immediately afterwards, they received feedback on the supposed sexist responses of a peer group (high vs. low in HS); we kept the benevolent sexism (BS) of the peer group at medium levels. Next, we assessed participants' rape proclivity using acquaintance rape scenarios. Results showed an interaction between participants' own levels of HS and information about the HS of the peer group. Men high in HS reported higher rape proclivity in the high-HS peer-group condition than in the low-HS peer-group condition. By contrast, information on the peer group did not affect self-reported rape proclivity of men low in HS. Results also corroborated the relationship between participants' levels of HS and rape proclivity, and expanded the literature by revealing an unexpected influence of participants' BS on rape proclivity.

  19. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  20. In vitro evaluation of different varieties of maize fodder for their methane generation potential and digestibility with goat rumen liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Vaswani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the methane generation potential and digestibility of different (normal and three high-quality protein maize [HQPM] varieties of maize fodder with goat rumen liquor in vitro. Materials and Methods: Methane production potential and digestibility of different varieties of maize fodder were tested in in vitro gas production test. Seven varieties of maize, four normal (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5, and Shaktiman/900 M Gold, and three high-quality protein (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, and HQPM 9/Vivek were grown in different plots under the same environmental and agro-climatic conditions. Fodders were harvested at 45-50 days of sowing, and the representative samples of fodder from different varieties of maize were collected for analysis. Dried and grinded form of these maize fodder varieties was tested for gas, methane, and digestibility using goat rumen microflora in in vitro gas syringes. Results: Gas production (ml/g dry matter [DM] was highest for HM5 variety (97.66, whereas lowest for HQPM 9 variety (64.22. Gas production (ml/g degraded DM [DDM] and methane (% were statistically similar in different varieties of maize fodder. The methane production expressed as ml/g DM and ml/g DDM was significantly (p<0.05 highest for HM 5 (14.22 and 26.62 and lowest for DHM 117 variety (7.47 and 14.13. The in vitro DM digestibility (% and in vitro organic matter digestibility (% varied from 47.48 (HQPM 5 to 52.05 (HQPM 9 and 50.03 (HQPM 7 to 54.22 (HM 5, respectively. Conclusion: The present study concluded that DHM 117 maize variety fodder has lowest methane generation potential and incorporating it in the dietary regime of ruminants may contribute to lower methane production.

  1. Dealing with rape in a new political landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Baroness Vivien

    2012-01-01

    Rape is controversial and constructing rape policy is complicated. Most victims, men and women, are raped by someone they know. The court case usually hangs on whether or not the complainant consented to the act. The defence feels free to portray the complainant in a negative light making the trial an ordeal. Some complainants decide it is one ordeal too many and withdraw from the process. Sustained criticism of the handling of rape cases over many years led to substantial improvements, with specially trained police officers, prosecutors and judges, and more defendants being convicted. Yet providing justice to rape victims requires more than an effective criminal justice response. It also requires recognition that victims are entitled to the support of the state. They should be treated with respect regardless of whether the case goes to trial or not. The rate of convictions for rape is not the only, or even the most important measure of a good policy.

  2. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  3. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  4. The incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, J M

    1997-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women. Sixty women in a residential treatment facility were interviewed about sexual trauma they had experienced in their lives. In this sample 73% had been raped, and 45% had been raped more than once. The stories of rape were classified in five categories: rape while in the context of using, when too high to resist, while prostituting, by a significant other, and by a family member. Some 35% of the rapist described were friends of the women with whom they were using drugs. Only 20% of the rapes were reported to the police. Clinical implications for treatment of addicted women who are also survivors of violence is discussed.

  5. RADISH CV. MOKHOVSKIY IS A SOURCE OF MS- AND MF-LINES AT BREEDING FOR HETEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on hybrid and inbreed population of radish cv. Mokhovskiy using CMS-ogura nine lines with 100% of male sterility and fertile maintainers were selected. Using the multiplex PCR, the presence of cytoplasm of Ogura type in ms-lines and its absence in mf-lines were confirmed.

  6. A METHOD OF RAPID CULTIVATION OF RADISH SEED PLANTS IN PLASTIC POTS OF SMALL-VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cheap and rapid breeding methods to breed  the lines used for  hybrid  F1  production  is a very actual task. The study was carried out with a use of radish varieties originated at VNIISSOK and breeding lines obtained by crossing components of different origin with male  sterility  in  winter  glass  greenhouse.  The  mother plants were grown  on the trays Plantec 64, while seedplants were grown in plastic pots of 1 liter capacity. The some morphobiological features such as the small habitus of see-plant; smaller number of secondary branching and absence of following branches; and consequently, the low yield of seeds were revealed in seed-plants of radish being grown in plastic pots. The period of ontogenesis in radish at first winter-spring rotation with this cultivation approach was reduced to 92 days. At the second summer-autumn rotation with additional lighting the duration of period of ontogenesis was essentially shorter than in the first rotation.  The utilization of  small-volume capacities in winter glass greenhouse to grow the radish seed-plants has permitted to produce two generations a year.

  7. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladun, Kristen R.; Parker, David R.; Tran, Khoa D.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator–plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8–9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. - Highlights: ► Radish were exposed to selenate and pollination treatments to examine pollination ecology. ► Honey bees foraged on radish for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. ► Se treatment increased seed abortion and decreased plant biomass. ► Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced in Se-treated plants. ► Pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts. - Radish accumulated the pollutant selenium in floral tissues, but this did not deter the pollinator (Apis mellifera) from foraging.

  8. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)

  9. Space mutation in Sulao mustard, Futian-flowering chinese cabbage and Pachi-radish breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanrong; Cao Jian; Li Guihua; Zhao Xiujuan

    2004-01-01

    Vegetable seeds of Sulao mustard, Futian flowering Chinese cabbage and Pachi-Radish were mutated by boarding on Shenzhou No.4 Spaceship. The results showed that there were no significant differences between SP 1 and control, however, some variability of plants were found in SP 2

  10. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, def...

  11. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  12. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  13. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  14. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  15. Rape: Is it a lifestyle or behavioral problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Zeel N.; Kosambiya, Jayendrakumar K.; Chawada, Bansari L.; Verma, Mamtarani; Kadia, Abhinav

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In India, girl is raped every 20 min. The majority of reports reveals youth is vulnerable group for rape victimization. A set of prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapist exist in the community. Aims/Objectives: To study the attitude and myths toward rape among college going students of Surat City. Materials and Methods: College students of various streams were participated in the study based on attitude toward rape scale (21 items) and updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (22 items). A total of 332 participants from three different colleges of the city took part in the survey. Data analysis was done with the SPSS version 19. Results: Among the responders, 61.75% were female. Mean age of participants was 20.22 ± 1.27 years. Almost two-third (73%) of female participants and 42% of the male participants disagreed with the myth that “When a woman says ‘no’ she really means ‘yes’.” Around 30% of the participants were uncertain about the myth that “A woman cannot be raped by someone she previously knew or had sex with.” While almost 35% of participants believed that “Most rapes are carried out by strangers.” Strong sexual desire of guys, drunkenness, and girl's clothes were reported to be factors that provoke rape by 50%, 40%, and 33% of respondents, respectively, around 95% of female and 92% of male participants think that 7-year imprisonment for rape is not enough. Conclusions: Rape myths are found to be highly prevalent among youth and higher among males. PMID:28529364

  16. Radish juice and corn oil as adjuvants that decrease the destructive alterations in hypoglycemia rats subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafy, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the decrease in different biochemical and histopathological alterations that may occur following the oral administration of aqueous extract of radish at the dose level (50 mg/100 g body weight) and the addition of 10% corn oil to the diet of hypoglycemia rats and /or exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The experiment included normal male albino rats and hypoglycemia ones.The hypoglycemia rats divided into tow groups; the first group was treated with radish juice or radish juice with diet containing corn oil and the other group was hypoglycemia rats exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation then treated also with radish juice or radish juice with diet containing 10% corn oil. Biochemical analysis included levels of blood sugar, total lipids, cholesterol, total protein and albumin, in addition to the activity of AST and ALT were evaluated. The level of TBARs and the histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also investigated. Treatment of irradiated hypoglycemia rats with radish juice either alone or combined with a diet containing 10% corn oil reverse the serum fasting glucose level nearly to the control level. Amelioration in lipid profile was recorded after the treatment of the hypoglycemia rats or those hypoglycemia irradiated then treated with radish juice and fed on a diet containing 10% corn oil. Also, significant amelioration was occurred in liver transaminases, total proteins, albumin and creatinine levels as compared to those of hypoglycemia group. TBARs levels showed remarkable decrease in liver and kidney tissues in comparison with control and hypoglycemia rats and/or gamma irradiated levels when it is treated with radish juice and diet containing corn oil. Also, the histopathological changes of the same tissues revealed the same trend. From the different observations , it is possible to conclude that treatment of rats with radish juice in addition to feeding on diet containing 10% corn oil could reduce the

  17. Energy rape seed - Non-food alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate possibilities to use agrobiomass for several energy end use sectors. The reference is common European approach where ethanol and rape seed oil is produced for transportation sector. The production costs are approximately 3 - 4 times higher compared to non taxed refinery price of gasoline and diesel fuel. This is also the case for energy crops compared to peat and coal. For Finnish conditions several other options are studied including technical and economical assessments. Solid fuels in form of energy crops like reed canary grass, salix-SRF and straw are evaluated as a feed to multifuel fluid bed boilers and as a futuristic scenario also for flashpyrolysis oil production. Rape seed oil is tested by Neste Oy as a biocomponent in heating oil and as a biocomponent in diesel fuel in engines by VTT. According to present results about 10 - 20 % rape seed oil can be mixed unprocessed to heating oils. Agrofibre production is studied in a laboratory phase with two advanced cooking methods to produce a high value product as a fraction of a biorefinery. The aim of the project is to identify possible research and development paths for future activities. With present prices no agrobiomass is today economically competitive with other fuels. (author)

  18. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.

  19. Extraction of non-timber forest products, including fodder and fuelwood, in Mudumalai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, B.

    1993-01-01

    Mudumalai is biologically rich with a wealth of plant and animal life. Increasing human numbers and current patterns of non-timber forest product, fodder and fuelwood extraction threaten the integrity of the ecosystem. Change in management of the protected areas that include the Mudumalai region is needed. In particular, policies relating to grazing and basic energy requirements need to be reexamined. At the same time, mechanisms must be developed to increase rural incomes using means other than exploitation of natural resources. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  20. USE OF WASTE WATER OF LIVESTOCK IN ORDER TO OBTAIN BIOMASS FODDER CHEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELNICIUC CRISTINA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the combination of two directions for use of algae: algae biomass obtaining fodder minor and wastewater purification. Subject research have served cianofite species of algae: Nostoc gelatinosum, N. flagelliforme and Anabaena propinqua. As nutrient medium were used wastewater from livestock complexes (poultry and pigs with a rich content of organic substances. Investigations carried out indicate that the largest quantity of biomass of Nostoc flageliforme is achieved in the cultivation with wastewater by 1% from pig complexes -13.2 g / l, Nostoc gelatinosum-1% -68 g / l. and Anabaena propinqua-5%-8.8g/l.

  1. Study on the Sr-90 content in the spontaneous vegetations with fodder value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiciu, A.

    1994-01-01

    The author presents the results of a study concerning the Sr-90 activity in the spontaneous vegetation with fodder value (grass on the natural hay), during the spring - summer season of 1988, 1989 and 1990. It was possible to obtain information from 17 sampling points located in different zones of the country, at different altitudes concerning: Sr-90 accumulation in the grass (Bq/m 2 ), Sr-90 concentration of the grass in fresh state and in preserved state (Bq/kg), as well as the variation limits of the Sr-90 concentration factor in the preserved grass by drying. (author). 4 tabs., 3 refs

  2. Evaluation of Dual-purpose Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Varieties for Grain and Fodder Production at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year field study of eight new and one check dual-purpose cowpea varieties was carried out to evaluate their grain and fodder production potential. Germination and seedling establishment were both high and greater than 80%.Mean dry fodder and seed yields varied from 1,262 to 3,598 kg/ha and 528 to 1,149 kg/ha respectively, with varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 72 and TVU 12349 retaining larger amounts (> 50% of fresh green leaves at pod harvest during the dry season. Crude protein (CP content of fodder averaged between 15.2 and 21.6%. There were more pods/plant for varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 7/180-4-5 and TVU 12349. 100-seed weight was highest with IT89KD-288 and Kananado (check. Fodder yield, pods/plant and leaf content were moderately correlated with seed yield. Results showed that varieties TVU 12349, IT89KD-288, IAR 2/180/4-12 and IAR 4/48/15-1 appeared suitable for both fodder and grain production. The use of appropriate cowpea varieties to enhance farmer income in an integrated production system is suggested.

  3. Analysis of the Correlation between the Fodder Receipts and the Economical Performances of the Pig Breeding Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Anica-Popa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respecting the European Union normative regarding the average weight of carcasses processed in the slaughter-houses, as well as the quality of the delivered meat, impose the search for the optimum variants for pig breeding. The present study aims at the identification of the correlations between the fodder receipts and the performances of the pig breeding farms through the pursuit of the effects of different fodder variants on the daily weight increase, on the moment when the optimum sacrifice weight is reached, and on the probability to reach a certain level of increase in weight. There are presented several considerations regarding the performance expressed with the help of the profit, the commercial profitability ratio, the profitability ratio of the consumed resources. Based on the results of the research, several conclusions are presented, regarding the influences of the fodder receipts on the production cost and of the performances of the pig breeding farms, as well as future research directions.

  4. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76-98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44-1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11-99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08-80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22-77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36-39.37% and 27.35-46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb-phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable

  5. Transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal, is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO32 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72% was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56% or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%. A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30% was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40% and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%, while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low

  6. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  7. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  8. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  9. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  10. Effect of chronic radiation on rape genotype formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Hannich, K.; Cerny, J.; Vyvadilova, M.

    1975-01-01

    The F 1 generation of hybrid plants of the Canadian erucic acid-free rape cross-bred with some European winter rape varieties with a high content of erucic acid were chronically irradiated in a gamma-field with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R er vegetation. In segregating F 2 generations, the irradiation significantly increased the proportion of winter genotypes; a matroclinous influence on the developmental characteristics of plants occurred in irradiated segregating F 2 hybrid populations. As against spring rape, winter rape varieties used as the maternal form during hybridization caused a statistically significant increase in the frequency of winter genotypes. The segregation of half-winter forms in irradiated segregating hybrid populations of the F 2 generation proved the incomplete dominance of the spring habit of oil rape. Chronic irradiation significantly increased erucic-free (0 - 10% of erucic acid) and low-erucic (10 - 20% of erucic acid) genotype frequencies in segregating F 2 generations. Chronic irradiation of the hybrid plants of erucic-free spring rapes and erucic winter rapes with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R per vegetation, together with the temperature screening of winter forms and with the determination of the fatty acid content, may be considered as an effective method of creating non-erucic and low-erucic winter forms of oil rape. (author)

  11. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  12. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  13. "Spreading the Love" and Using Performances to Prevent Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    While rape is ordinarily considered an invariable reality, Sharon Marcus argues that it is instead a cultural script, which casts women as victims and men as perpetrators. In imagining rape as a script, it may seem pertinent to suggest that the arts and performance have a role in its prevention. Performances can provide a forum to publicly reflect…

  14. A REVIEW OF LITERATURE: RAPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social change in the community; a positive change, from social vices such as rape, stealing ... Language cannot be separated from social life, and is logically connected to it. ..... This form of rape is incest, and is committed by the child's parents or close relatives, such as .... Emotional numbness or irritability. Flashbacks.

  15. 107 SPOUSAL RAPE IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD Abstract Sexual

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    5 Some have wondered why a married woman will cry foul and ... for the retention of spousal rape exemption among others is the fact that establishing rape within marriage is usually an uphill task, it is believed that such allegations can .... between unmarried persons is unlawful; it is noted that this act do not carry with it any ...

  16. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

    2011-06-01

    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  18. Effect of calcium and salicylic acid on quality retention in relation to antioxidative enzymes in radish stored under refrigerated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Jomika; Bhatia, Surekha; Alam, M S; Dhillon, Tarsem Singh

    2018-03-01

    Effect of post harvest treatments with calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and salicylic acid (SA) on physiological and biochemical parameters in relation to activities of antioxidative enzymes were investigated in radish. Radish of variety Punjab Safed Mooli 2 was harvested, washed and treated with CaCl 2 (1, 1.5 and 2%) or SA (1, 1.5 and 2 mM). Treated as well as untreated radish were placed in open trays and stored under refrigerated (5 ± 1 °C, 90% RH) conditions for 42 days. Treatment of radish with CaCl 2 and SA slowed down changes in physiological weight, colour, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, titrable acidity, total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Treated samples exhibited higher enhancement in activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydro-ascorbate reductase (MDHAR) than untreated samples. However SA was found to be more effective in slowing down the metabolic activities of radish as compared to CaCl 2 treatment. Among all the treatments, 1.5 mM SA maintained the quality parameters to greater extent probably by reducing the oxidative stress to larger extent due to highest activities of antioxidative enzymes and can be used to enhance the shelf life of radish during refrigerated storage.

  19. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  20. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  1. Effects of rape on men: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jayne; Archer, John; Davies, Michelle

    2005-02-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rape on men have focused mainly on clinical populations. This study extended current research by investigating the effects of rape on a non-clinical sample of men recruited from the general population by media advertising. A total of 40 male rape victims were asked to provide details of their assaults, levels of psychological disturbance, long-term effects, and reporting issues. Results revealed that most assaults had been carried out using physical or violent force, in a variety of different circumstances. All of the victims reported some form of psychological disturbance as a result of being raped. Long-term effects included anxiety, depression, increased feelings of anger and vulnerability, loss of self-image, emotional distancing, self-blame, and self-harming behaviors. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research in the area and perceptions of rape.

  2. Evaluation of an intervention to change attitudes toward date rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, C A; Elliott, M N; Martin, D W; Kapadia, A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of date rape among college students is a major concern. Although much research has been done on risk factors for date rape, few researchers have specifically described interventions for the various stages of developing a date-rape prevention program. Previous programs have often relied on educational videos that feature a "typical" date-rape scenario, a format that some researchers suggest may have a negative effect on the way people engage in aggressive sexual behavior. A less violent theatrical production based on social learning theory and risk-factor reduction that resulted in a significant improvement in attitudes related to date rape among both male and female students at an elite Texas university is described.

  3. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  4. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore

    2013-09-01

    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. "You Owe Me": Effects of Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported…

  6. Effects of Anaerobically Digested Slurry on Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans in Tomato and Radish Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Y.Y; Toyota, K; Sato, E; Takada, A

    2011-01-01

    Since effective disposable way of anaerobically digested biogas slurry is expected, ADS was applied to soil to evaluate its effects on nematode damage. Damage index of tomato by root-knot nematode was significantly (P 4 + -N kg -1 ) than that in those with chemical fertilizer and control (no ADS). ADS was applied into radish cultivated fields infested with the root-lesion nematode: a single (100 kg NH 4 + -N ha -1 ) in 2007 and 2008 and multiple applications (25, 50, 25 kg NH 4 + -N ha -1 soil) in 2009. Damage to radish was 30% and 50% lower in ADS-treated fields than that in the control in 2007 and 2009, respectively, although not in 2008. These results suggest that application of ADS to fields might be feasible for mitigating nematode damage, but the rate and timing should be considered further for the best application way.

  7. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Sulphur Compounds in White Radish During the First Three Days of Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Glucosinolates (GLs and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO are natural sulphur containing phytochemicals. They are two of the most important bioactive compounds found in brassica vegetables, which are highly regarded for their health-promoting activity. In this study we have analysed the content of GLs and SMCSO in white radish, by an HPLC-MS method, in order to illustrate their biosynthesis and accumulation during the first 72 hours of sprouting. Total GLs content ranged between  54.17 and 126.86 µmol/g DW. There were eight GLs identified, in radish sprouts and around 94 % of them were aliphatic. Obvious differences, during the 72 hours of sprouting, were noticed in glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin. S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide content ranged between 0.21 and 35.95 µmol/g DW. Our results revealed a negative strong correlation between GLs and SMCSO.

  8. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale and red radish (Raphanus sativus compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day, and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day for seven days, and control group (n=14 was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER (p

  9. Profiling micro rnas and their targets in radish (raphanus sativus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barozai, M.Y.; Din, M.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny, non-protein coding and negative regulatory RNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length. The comparative genomic methodology due to their conserved nature is a reasonable approach for the novel miRNAs discovery. In this research, total 25 novel miRNAs from 18 families (ras-miR-156, 160, 162, 163, 164, 167, 168, 319, 399, 408, 413, 414, 841, 1310, 2936, 5030 and 5661) are identified in an important vegetable radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The 25 miRNA precursor sequences showed secondary structures with the mature miRNAs in the stem region. Total 42 putative targets are also identified for the novel 25 radish miRNAs. These findings suggest that more thorough understanding of the function of such miRNAs will help to unravel the mysteries role in plant biology. (author)

  10. Gastrointestinal stimulatory and uterotonic activities of dietary radish leaves extract are mediated through multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2005-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, commonly known as radish, is a food plant known worldwide for its culinary and medicinal properties especially as a laxative and abortifacient. This study reports the gastrointestinal and uterine tone modulatory activities of the crude extract (Rl.Cr) of radish leaves. Rl.Cr, showing the presence of saponins and alkaloids, exhibited a spasmogenic effect (0.03-10 mg/mL) in isolated rabbit jejunum, rat stomach fundus and uterus which was partially blocked by atropine. In contrast, Rl.Cr was found to be devoid of any stimulatory effect in rat ileum, instead showed an inhibitory effect (0.1 mg/mL) on the ACh dose-response curves. A mild relaxant effect was also observed in rabbit jejunum at the lower doses (0.1-0.3 mg/mL) but not against K(+)-induced contractions, ruling out a calcium channel blocking effect. In guinea-pig ileum, Rl.Cr exhibited a stimulant effect resistant to atropine while sensitive to pyrilamine pretreatment. The aqueous fraction, showing a strong presence of saponins, was found to be more efficacious than the non-polar fractions in its spasmogenic effect. This study shows the presence of species-dependent gastrointestinal effects of radish mediated partially through cholinergic receptors in rabbit and rat tissues, but through histaminergic activation in the guinea-pig, providing a scientific basis for its use in gut and uterine affections while also giving a wider picture of the activity profile of radish by using different species of animals. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sp. Strain TCF032-E4, Isolated from Fermented Radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuejian; Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sp. strain TCF032-E4 (= CCTCC AB2015090 = DSM 100358), isolated from a Chinese fermented radish. The total length of the 57 contigs is about 2.9 Mb, with a G+C content of 43.5 mol% and 2,797 predicted coding sequences (CDSs). Copyright © 2015 Mao et al.

  12. Inhibition of Cytokinin-Glucose Conjugation in Derooted Radish, Tobacco and Bean Seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blagoeva, Elitsa; Dobrev, Petre; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1/2 (2003), s. 13-20 ISSN 1310-4586 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/1130; GA ČR GP522/02/D058; GA MŠk LN00A081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : dihydrozeatin * cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors * radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. Microbiological Safety of Minimally Processed White Radish in Modified Atmosphere Packaging Combined with Irradiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.K.; Jo, C.U.; Kim, H.J.; Lee, J.W.; Hwang, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    White radish was minimally processed, packed with air, CO@@@(100g), and CO@@@/N@@@(25/75%), and irradiated at 0, 1, and 2 kGy, and its microbiological quality and pH were investigated during storage for 2 weeks at 4℃. Irradiation significantly reduced total aerobic, coli-form, and lactic acid bacteria counts. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) enhanced microorganism control during storage. Acidity decreased by MAP but was restored during storage

  14. Male Power and Female Victimization: Towards a Theory of Interracial Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFree, Gary D.

    1982-01-01

    Tests two models of Black offender/White victim (BW) rape, using data from 443 rape cases. Results did not support the normative model which correlates BW rape with increased social interaction between Black men and White women and only partially supported the conflict model that correlates BW rape with increased Black politicization. (Author/AM)

  15. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse: What Beliefs Persist about Motives, Perpetrators, and Survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and…

  16. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected.

  17. THE STAGES OF HETEROTIC HYBRIDS F1 DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN RADISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kosenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme  of  development  of  two-line  of  hybrids  F1  in European radish based on self-incompatibility includes five stages, as follows: 1 – selection of self-incompatible lines, common and specified combining ability estimation; 2 – inbreeding and selection to make the lines homozygous for morphological traits, common and specified combining ability estimation; maintenance and reproduction of self-incompatible lines; 4 – production of hybrid seeds. The research work on assessment of hybrid F1 that were obtained from cross of eight self-incompatible lines of European winter radish by the Griffing’s method was carried out in 2016. The assessment of length, diameter and yield of radish root was performed. According to the root shape the heterotic hybrids F1 were divided into three groups: rounded-flat,  48.2%; round, 50.0%; and flatten-round,  1.8%. The level of root marketability of hybrids F1 reached 100%. As a result of the work the promising hybrid combination distinguished by high uniformity, marketability and high yield were selected out.

  18. Radiation-use efficiency in summer rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.J.; Stewart, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation-use efficiency (RUE) is a parameter that represents a crop canopy's ability to convert intercepted solar energy to dry matter. The RUE is used in simulation models and can vary with crop type and environment. The objective was to examine the effects of varying row width and seeding rate on the amount of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) and the RUE in summer rape (Brassica napus L.). 'Westar' summer rape was seeded at rates of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 kg ha-1 in rows spaced 15 or 30 cm apart. Plant sampling was done at key growth stages, and the leaf and pod areas and total plant dry weights were determined. After flowering, plants intercepted more PAR when grown in 15-cm-wide rows than 30-cm-wide rows. For both row widths, as seeding rate increased from 1.5 to 12.0 kg ha-1, IPAR increased. The RUE was greater for plants grown in 15-cm-wide rows than for those grown in 30-cm rows; however, RUE decreased with increasing seeding rate. The mean RUE value was 2.83 g MJ-1 PAR. When the pod area was added to the leaf area, the IPAR increased and the RUE decreased

  19. The list of official methods of laboratory diagnostics of foods and fodder crops dated as of January 9, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture of the Slovak Republic published approved method of laboratory diagnostics of foods and fodder crops. Chapter 13.1 contains determination of specific activity of radionuclides in homogenizable materials by methods of semiconductor gamma-spectrometry in the range 60 keV - 200 keV for standard geometry

  20. Performance of maize cultivars for fodder production under rainfed conditions of pothohar tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurmani, Z.A.; Zahid, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    For finding the forage yield potential of eight maize cultivars, the cultivars were sown in the month of July during both consecutive years 2001 and 2002 and harvested in the month of September in both the years. The cultivars differed significantly from one another with regard to plant height, number of leaves per tiller, number of plants per row, leaf area per plant, green fodder and dry matter yield. The cultivar, Akbar produced taller plants, with the largest leaf area among and more number of leave per tiller, and consequently yielded highest amount of green as well as dry matter among all the varieties under the rainfed climatic conditions of Pothohar tract of Pakistan. (author)

  1. Receipt of Post-Rape Medical Care in a National Sample of Female Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Barr, Simone C.; Danielson, Carla K.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking are poorly understood. Purpose The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ≥14 years. Methods A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care–seeking among 445 female rape victims. Results A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Conclusions Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems. PMID:22813683

  2. Differential proteomic analysis reveals sequential heat stress-responsive regulatory network in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) taproot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-05-01

    Differential abundance protein species (DAPS) involved in reducing damage and enhancing thermotolerance in radish were firstly identified. Proteomic analysis and omics association analysis revealed a HS-responsive regulatory network in radish. Heat stress (HS) is a major destructive factor influencing radish production and supply in summer, for radish is a cool season vegetable crop being susceptible to high temperature. In this study, the proteome changes of radish taproots under 40 °C treatment at 0 h (Control), 12 h (Heat12) and 24 h (Heat24) were analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach. In total, 2258 DAPS representing 1542 differentially accumulated uniprotein species which respond to HS were identified. A total of 604, 910 and 744 DAPS was detected in comparison of Control vs. Heat12, Control vs. Heat24, and Heat12 vs. Heat24, respectively. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that annexin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, ATP synthase, heat shock protein (HSP) and other stress-related proteins were predominately enriched in signal transduction, stress and defense pathways, photosynthesis and energy metabolic pathways, working cooperatively to reduce stress-induced damage in radish. Based on iTRAQ combined with the transcriptomics analysis, a schematic model of a sequential HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. The initial sensing of HS occurred at the plasma membrane, and then key components of stress signal transduction triggered heat-responsive genes in the plant protective metabolism to re-establish homeostasis and enhance thermotolerance. These results provide new insights into characteristics of HS-responsive DAPS and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying heat tolerance in radish and other root crops.

  3. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Rape in South Africa: an invisible part of apartheid's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, S

    1994-06-01

    Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases and other forms of gender violence have increased. Under an apartheid system, where only the rape of white women was prosecuted, and gender and race issues could diffuse the black struggle, there were difficulties in mobilizing support to end violence against black women. There was social acceptance that rape of black women was part of life. Police statistics on the incidence of rape were notoriously unreliable, because only a small percentage of cases are reported to police, and many women would be ashamed to admit to marital abuse, including rape. In women's groups, it was reported that 1 out of every 4 women had been raped, and raped at early ages, such as 14 years of age. In impoverished communities, there is widespread poverty, injustice, prejudice, alcohol abuse, and other conditions impacting on women. The rapists may be school classmates, or street fighters, or political activists. The sexual initiation of women worldwide and in South Africa frequently is accompanied by coercion. Abduction and forced sex is considered legitimate for young men, who believe that mental health is deleteriously affected by lack of sex. Girls may even be abducted from the classroom, as a way of preventing women's power and control over assets and resources and diminishing the potential threat to gender power relations. School girls who become pregnant are often forced to leave school. Victims of rape may be excluded from family life and forced to seek prostitution as a means of support. Rape is reportedly experienced among older women with bottles, tins, or other devices which inflict injury. Only rape with penal penetration is an

  5. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  6. Biology and interactions of two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and betasatellites associated with radish leaf curl disease in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh AK

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging whitefly transmitted begomoviruses are major pathogens of vegetable and fibre crops throughout the world, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mutation, pseudorecombination and recombination are driving forces for the emergence and evolution of new crop-infecting begomoviruses. Leaf curl disease of field grown radish plants was noticed in Varanasi and Pataudi region of northern India. We have identified and characterized two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and associated beta satellite DNA causing leaf curl disease of radish (Raphanus sativus in India. Results We demonstrate that RaLCD is caused by a complex of two Old World begomoviruses and their associated betasatellites. Radish leaf curl virus-Varanasi is identified as a new recombinant species, Radish leaf curl virus (RaLCV sharing maximum nucleotide identity of 87.7% with Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus-[Bangladesh:2] (Accession number AF188481 while the virus causing radish leaf curl disease-Pataudi is an isolate of Croton yellow vein mosaic virus-[India] (CYVMV-IN (Accession number AJ507777 sharing 95.8% nucleotide identity. Further, RDP analysis revealed that the RaLCV has a hybrid genome, a putative recombinant between Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl virus. Cloned DNA of either RaLCV or CYVMV induced mild leaf curl symptoms in radish plants. However, when these clones (RaLCV or CYVMV were individually co-inoculated with their associated cloned DNA betasatellite, symptom severity and viral DNA levels were increased in radish plants and induced typical RaLCD symptoms. To further extend these studies, we carried out an investigation of the interaction of these radish-infecting begomoviruses and their associated satellite, with two tomato infecting begomoviruses (Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus and Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus. Both of the tomato-infecting begomoviruses showed a contrasting and differential interaction with

  7. Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes Confers Varied Phenotypic and Spatial-Temporal Anthocyanin Accumulation in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everlyne M'mbone Muleke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are natural pigments that have important functions in plant growth and development. Radish taproots are rich in anthocyanins which confer different taproot colors and are potentially beneficial to human health. The crop differentially accumulates anthocyanin during various stages of growth, yet molecular mechanisms underlying this differential anthocyanin accumulation remains unknown. In the present study, transcriptome analysis was used to concisely identify putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish. Spatial-temporal transcript expressions were then profiled in four color variant radish cultivars. From the total transcript sequences obtained through illumina sequencing, 102 assembled unigenes, and 20 candidate genes were identified to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Fifteen genomic sequences were isolated and sequenced from radish taproot. The length of these sequences was between 900 and 1,579 bp, and the unigene coverage to all of the corresponding cloned sequences was more than 93%. Gene structure analysis revealed that RsF3′H is intronless and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes (ABGs bear asymmetrical exons, except RsSAM. Anthocyanin accumulation showed a gradual increase in the leaf of the red radish and the taproot of colored cultivars during development, with a rapid increase at 30 days after sowing (DAS, and the highest content at maturity. Spatial-temporal transcriptional analysis of 14 genes revealed detectable expressions of 12 ABGs in various tissues at different growth levels. The investigation of anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression in four color variant radish cultivars, at different stages of development, indicated that total anthocyanin correlated with transcript levels of ABGs, particularly RsUFGT, RsF3H, RsANS, RsCHS3 and RsF3′H1. Our results suggest that these candidate genes play key roles in phenotypic and spatial-temporal anthocyanin accumulation in radish through

  8. Rape embryogenesis I. The proembryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the proembryo of rape Brassica napus L. from the zygote to the young embryo proper is described. A number of regularities were found in the direction, succession, and distribution of segmental and differentiating divisions of the proembryo. The direction of the divisions seems to foe determined by the direction of growth and the shape of the cells. The termyoung embryo proper is proposed to denote the globular embryo which already possesses separate plerome and periblem mother-cells and mother-cells of the iec layer and of clumella. The body of the embryo proper is derived from the apical cell ca which arose from the first division of the zygote and from the hypophysis - the only suspensor cell which closes the spheroid of the embryo. The development of the Brassica napus L. proembryo follows the sub-archetype Capsella bursa-pastoris in the IV megarchetype of Soueges.

  9. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  10. Comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of differentially expressed genes involved in microsporogenesis of radish CMS line and its maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-09-01

    Microsporogenesis is an indispensable period for investigating microspore development and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) occurrence. Radish CMS line plays a critical role in elite F1 hybrid seed production and heterosis utilization. However, the molecular mechanisms of microspore development and CMS occurrence have not been thoroughly uncovered in radish. In this study, a comparative analysis of radish floral buds from a CMS line (NAU-WA) and its maintainer (NAU-WB) was conducted using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Digital gene expression (DGE) profiling revealed that 3504 genes were significantly differentially expressed between NAU-WA and NAU-WB library, among which 1910 were upregulated and 1594 were downregulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly enriched in extracellular region, catalytic activity, and response to stimulus. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs were predominantly associated with flavonoid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression profiles of 13 randomly selected DEGs were in high agreement with results from Illumina sequencing. Several candidate genes encoding ATP synthase, auxin response factor (ARF), transcription factors (TFs), chalcone synthase (CHS), and male sterility (MS) were responsible for microsporogenesis. Furthermore, a schematic diagram for functional interaction of DEGs from NAU-WA vs. NAU-WB library in radish plants was proposed. These results could provide new information on the dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying microspore development and CMS occurrence in radish.

  11. THE USE THE GENETICALLY DIFFICULTLY INHERITED TRAIT OF PURPLE ROOT COLOR IN BREEDING PROGRAM FOR THE COMPLICATED TRAIT IN RADISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ugarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding the nature of trait inheritance in any crops is that determines the quality of results in breeding program. According to reference on previous publication, it is known that phenotypic manifestation of purple root color in radish was caused by regulatory interrelationship mechanisms of genetic control that is difficult to be used directly in breeding program. From literature sources and on the basis of their own research work the authors have proven the practice to maintain the trait in generations, and implementations of development of purple radish breeding accessions have been presented. At first stage of breeding program the selection of initial breeding accessions was carried out, where 14 varieties (red x white were regarded on the basis of top-crosses to obtain F1 and F2 progenies to be analyzed. Thus, four best combinations from crossing were chosen with 100% of hybridity. Through analysis of hybrids for individual progenies the hybrid population F1 of radish ‘Konfeti’ with different root colors was developed. As result of the individual inbreeding selection on seed plants with pigmented stems and the colored flower rim, the stable breeding accession with purple root was obtained. Thus, in breeding practice in radish it was succeeded to obtain the stably inheriting purple root color in radish accessions, variety ‘Siniiy Iniey’. 

  12. Studies on different concentration of lead (Pb and sewage water on Pb uptake and growth of Radish (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudratullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the accumulation of lead (Pb by radish (Raphanus sativus cultivars a study was carried out at Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan, during 2012. Two radish varieties i.e., exotic and local, were used. The treatments included sewage water and different concentrations of Pb @ 25, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1. The results showed that the total biomass of both the radish varieties were nonsignificantly influenced by the applied Pb concentrations and sewage water, except for root diameter which were significantly greater in the local cultivar (3.261 cm.Pb treatments significantly reduced the growth and yield of both the cultivars. While the Pb uptake by the root and leaf of radish plants was increased by the increasing the applied Pb levels, with the highest value for root (19.008 mg kg-1 and leaf (16.134 mg kg-1 in the treatment receiving the highest applied Pb concentrations. The total biomass, fresh weight of root and root diameter was found significantly higher except for Pb @ 400 mg L-1, in the plants receiving sewage water as compared to the control and different levels of Pb. The interaction amongst the varieties and treatments were found significantly different for various parameters. Thus, it can be concluded, that the use of sewage water and Pb contaminated wastewater results in higher metal concentration in the radish root and may lead to different types of health problems to consumers.

  13. Schema Effects of Rape Myth Acceptance on Judgments of Guilt and Blame in Rape Cases: The Role of Perceived Entitlement to Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments (N = 330) examined conditions that facilitate biasing effects of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on judgments of blame in rape cases. In both experiments, participants read a short vignette depicting a rape case. In Experiment 1, the amount of case-irrelevant information about defendant and plaintiff was varied. As predicted, high-RMA…

  14. Bioenergy for farms - turnip rape oil, biodiesel and biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Kuisma, Miia

    2006-01-01

    One research and one development project concerning production and processing technique of organic turnip rape is going on in Finland in 2006-2008. The development project concerns also biogas production from biomass.

  15. An empirical investigation of campus demographics and reported rapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Martinez, Taylor

    2017-10-01

    Rape on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health issue with approximately 11% of women experiencing rape while in college. As such, it is important to examine factors unique to college campuses that influence the occurrences of rape. Using data from 1,423 four-year universities (public and private with at least 1,000 students) from the Office of Education and the Clery Act (2014), we examined institutional risk factors, such as tuition, liquor violations, Greek-life, athletic programs, institution type (public vs. private), and geographical location. Public institutions with higher tuition, more liquor violations, and greater numbers of fraternity men and athletes were more likely to report rape on their campuses. Findings suggest that there are university-level characteristics which may increase certain campuses propensity toward violence against women.

  16. A model for predicting depression in victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, C; Regehr, G; Bradford, J

    1998-01-01

    This article proposes a model for understanding the factors contributing to long-standing depression in women who have been raped. A path analysis of data obtained from 71 women who had been raped revealed that women with generalized beliefs that they could not control events in their lives were more likely to attribute responsibility for their rape to permanent intrapsychic factors and were more likely to be depressed. Women who perceived that they had higher levels of internal control tended to have higher levels of education, were more likely to be employed, and were less likely to be depressed more than one year after having been raped. Childhood sexual abuse was not associated with internal control or attributions of causality or depression in this analysis. Implications for the determination of prognosis and treatment recommendations in civil litigation assessments are discussed.

  17. 161 ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF RAPE AS A SOCIAL CANKERWORM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence that involves intercourse without consent or against someone being willing ... Rape is a global problem with women and children being mostly vulnerable .... allows their wards to spend too much time watching television where sex is ...

  18. Evolution of Rape Myths and Sexual Assaults in Newspaper Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen Tsai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the coverage of three newspapers of rape in the daily Press in Taiwan. The idea that rape is a sexual rather than an aggressive act encourages people not to take it seriously as a crime-an attitude frequently revealed in comments by defense attorneys and newspaper. The authors’ investigated that the female victim who did not know most of her attackers will be portrayed as helpless and not responsible for her victimization. The newspapers sustained and reinforced the myths that a woman who is having consensual sex cannot be raped, and if so, she is held culpable and perceived as “asking for it.” A content analysis of newspapers’ headlines and coverage between 2002 and 2013 showed that more than 50% endorsed a rape myth.

  19. Page | 131 RISING CASES OF RAPE OFFENCES IN NIGERIA: NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Rape, Rising Cases, New Measures, Penetration, Criminal Justice System, Tripod. 1. Introduction ... International Law and Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. .... 10 Sexual Offences Act 2003 of the UK.

  20. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... that exudation of organic acids by rape roots are probably involved in P ... Plant materials and seedling growth ..... Diversity in root architecture and ... froms, element distribution, and release of organic substances. Plant.

  1. An Empirical Exploration Into the Measurement of Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole L; Johnson, Dawn M

    2017-09-01

    Feminist scholars have long argued the presence of a "rape culture" within the United States; however, limited efforts have been made to quantify this construct. A model of rape culture was first proposed in 1980 and expanded in the 1990s in an effort to quantify rape myth acceptance. This model posits that five underlying components make up a rape culture: traditional gender roles, sexism, adversarial sexual beliefs, hostility toward women, and acceptance of violence. Although these components are proposed as cultural phenomenon and thus distinct from individually held beliefs, they have been exclusively explored on an individual level. Thus, to promote exploration of this phenomenon beyond individually held beliefs, the authors adapted a series of well-established measures to assess the perceived peer support of the constructs proposed to underlie rape culture and assess initial reliability and validity in a sample of 314 college students. Following determination of reliability and validity of these adapted measures, a hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis was run to examine the proposed model of rape culture. Results of this study highlight the uniqueness between individual and cultural factors as several items did not translate from an individual (i.e., personal endorsement) to a cultural level (i.e., perceived peer support) and were subsequently removed from the proposed final measurements. Furthermore, initial support for the aforementioned model of rape culture was identified. These findings are crucial given that limited conclusions may be drawn about the existence and in turn eradication of rape culture without an agreed upon definition and source of measurement.

  2. PTSD of rape after IS ("Islamic State") captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilhan, Jan Ilhan

    2018-03-10

    Research into the psychological consequences of rape on women in war and warlike situations is limited. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence and the nature of PTSD symptoms among Yazidi women reporting rape during IS captivity, (b) to describe comorbidity of other psychological disorders, and (c) to examine the risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.The study included 296 Yazidi women survivors of rape and has been conducted in Germany since January 2016 as part of a special-quota project in the German region of Baden-Wuerttemberg, designed to support the women and children who have escaped after being held hostage by IS.The survivors were recruited into a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Interviews in Germany were done through trained personnel to evaluate the mental health status of raped women.All the investigated women had been raped many times during IS captivity. About 82% of the women were also physically tortured. Of the sample, 67% suffered from somatoform disorder, 53% suffered from depression, 39% from anxiety, and 28% from dissociation. The prevalence of PTSD in those with rape events of more than 20 times was 57% (95% CI = 35.1-65.9%), less than 20 times was 41% (95%, CI = 28.7-4.8% and less than 10 times 39% [95% CI = 28.2-41.8%], respectively.The IS captivity and wartime rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women survivors. The high prevalence of PTSD emphasizes the need for culturally sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic services to address the intermediate and long-term consequences of wartime rape.

  3. Factors related to the reporting of childhood rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R F; Resnick, H S; Saunders, B E; Kilpatrick, D G; Best, C

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there would be differences in reported versus unreported cases of childhood rape on incident characteristics including life threat, physical injury, identity of the perpetrator, frequency of assault(s), and rates of posttraumatic stress disorder or major depression. In a telephone interview, a national probability sample of 4,008 (weighted) adult women was screened for a history of completed rape in childhood. Respondents were also assessed for DSM-III-R diagnoses of major depressive episode and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three hundred forty-one (8.5%) of these women were victims of at least one rape prior to the age of 18, for a total of 437 completed rapes. Of these 437 rape incidents, 52 (11.9%) were reported to the police or other authorities. Significant differences were obtained between reported versus nonreported cases on incident characteristics, including life threat, physical injury, identity of the perpetrator. Reported cases were more likely to involve life threat and/or physical injury, and were more likely to have been committed by a stranger than nonreported cases. No significant differences between reported and nonreported cases were found concerning whether the rape involved a single incident versus series of events, or rates of PTSD or major depression. Findings suggest that different characteristics are associated with reported versus unreported cases of childhood rape. Since few cases of childhood rape are actually reported to the authorities, it appears that we may be missing valuable information. Implications for research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  4. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  5. Religiousness and Rape Myth Acceptance: Risk and Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.

  6. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Etesami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality and quantity of the product to follow. Manure is a valuable source of biological, ecological and environmental benefits is positive and its main use is for agricultural use. Radish is an important root vegetable that belongs to the cruciferous (Brassicaceae. Value radish on high levels of dietary is related to soluble fiber and antioxidants. Radish is a native plant to Asia, China and Europe. The oral part of the botanical garden radish is important and that kind of traditional varieties have long hypocotyls include root and hypocotyls made.The purpose of this test is to evaluate the different mixture amount of animal fertilizers on the growth and yield of radish plants and compare them to each other. Materials and Methods: In order to study of different manure effect on radish growth and yield, an experiment carried out in 2012-2013 in the greenhouse of Gonbad- Kavos University with geographical characteristics 37.16 degrees north, 55.12 ° east and with a height of 45 meters above sea level in a completely randomized design with four replications. Soil and fertilizers used to this experiment were made of the soil and livestock of Gonbad- Kavos University. Soil texture was Clay loam and pH was 7.7 obtained from soil analysis. To obtain the required levels of fertilizer treatments (25, 50, 75, 100, a measure was considered as the basis of each treatment on the basis of the ratio were calculated. The treatments included control (soil, 25 percent cow manure+ 75

  7. Biotechnological production of inducible defense-related proteins in edible radish (raphanus sativus) found in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Praval; Karmacharya, Anil; Sharma, Shishir; Nepal, Ashwini K; Shrestha, Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infection in plant leads to use of many hazardous antifungal chemicals. Alternative to these chemicals, defense related antifungal proteins can be used in case of fungal diseases. An experiment was done in two varieties of edible radish (Raphanus sativus var. Pyuthane Raato and Raphanus sativus var. all season) with aims to produce defense protein within the plant, to identify and perform molecular characterization of those antifungal proteins. The next aim was to compare the antifungal property of those proteins with commercially available synthetic pesticides. Both varieties of radish were infected with fungi (Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum). Protein samples were isolated from leaves following the standard protocol as described for β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and were run along with the standard protein marker of 10-250kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify and molecularly characterize them. An additional band in the range of 37-50kDa was observed in the fungal infected samples, which was not seen on uninfected samples. The antifungal assay was carried out for every sample in 96 wells microtitre plate. The extracted protein samples from fungal inoculated plants showed the significant inhibition of fungal growth compared to other samples. On the basis of molecular weight and their antifungal properties, the protein samples from the fungal infected plant were found to be PR2 (Glucanase) and PR3 (Chitinase). Defense related proteins were successfully produced in two varieties of radish found in Nepal. The use of such biologically produced proteins may reduce the use of biologically harmful synthetic pesticides.

  8. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ha Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g, phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g. Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA, Pearson’s correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87% at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%, followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might

  9. Radiation hormesis of radish using an X-ray photography device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Atsushi [Asahikawa Kousei Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Radiation hormesis was studied at an X-ray photography room. Seed of radish (Kaiwaredaikon) was irradiated by X-ray, from 10 to 3000 mGy. Since the growth of plant was the highest around 500 mGy, 100 seeds were irradiated at a dose of 500 mGy. Fifty seeds were selected and the growth rate was measured after 1 and 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, the growth of the seeds irradiated (129{+-}5 mm) was found to be higher than those without irradiation (115{+-}5 mm). (author)

  10. Study of fodder, urine and bovine milk in marginal region of the Rio das Vellhas, Curvelo - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Oliveira, Arno H. de; Veado, Julio Cesar C.; Melo, Marilia M.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C

    2000-01-01

    The parametric technique k 0 of neutronic activation was used for determination of elements in samples of bovine urine and milk and fodder plant, of the region of farming production of Curvelo - Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples had been collected in farms next to the margins to the Rio das Velhas that periodically suffer flooding in the rainy station. Clinical veterinarians studies disclose that many animals created in this region present illnesses with nervous symptomatology, suggestive of a picture of poisoning, however without definite diagnosis. These pathologies frequently are observed after the flooding. In this work had been determined the elements, Cr, Co, Zn among others. The results gotten in the different samples of urine and milk of the studied animals, as well as in the fodder plants, suggest that it has influence of loaded metals for waters of the high course of the basin river of Velhas

  11. Determination of sulfur and chlorine in fodder by X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis and comparison with other analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Rajčevič, Marija; Jačimović, Radojko; Budič, Bojan; Ponikvar, Maja

    2003-07-01

    Sulfur and chlorine are essential elements in the metabolic processes of ruminants, and correct planning strategy of ruminant nutrition should provide a sufficient content of S and Cl in the animal's body. S and Cl can be found in various types of animal fodder in the form of organic compounds and minerals. In this work, the Cl and S content in forage was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and its performance was then compared in parallel analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and potentiometric methods. The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of the XRF technique in analysis of animal fodder.

  12. Determination of sulfur and chlorine in fodder by X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis and comparison with other analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Rajcevic, Marija; Jacimovic, Radojko; Budic, Bojan; Ponikvar, Maja

    2003-07-18

    Sulfur and chlorine are essential elements in the metabolic processes of ruminants, and correct planning strategy of ruminant nutrition should provide a sufficient content of S and Cl in the animal's body. S and Cl can be found in various types of animal fodder in the form of organic compounds and minerals. In this work, the Cl and S content in forage was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and its performance was then compared in parallel analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and potentiometric methods. The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of the XRF technique in analysis of animal fodder.

  13. Metacognitive aspects of rape myths: subjective strength of rape myth acceptance moderates its effects on information processing and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  14. Multipurpose fodder trees in Ethiopia : farmers'perception, constraints to adoption and effect of long-term supplementation on sheep performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekoya, A.

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations in Ethiopia have promoted exotic multipurpose fodder tree species particularly Sesbania sesban for livestock feed and soil improvement. Despite the apparent benefits, the number of farmers planting these trees was low. Moreover, some farmers feeding Sesbania sesban reported

  15. Nutritional evaluation of fodder, its preference and crop raiding by wild Asian elephant (Elephas maximus in Sonitpur District of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Jyoti Das

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of fodder in natural habitat, cultivated crops and their preference by wild Asian elephant (Elephas maximus in forest and non-forest areas in four seasons using field observation in Sonitpur District of Assam; since, there were frequent incidences of crop raiding by wild elephant leading to loss of property and human-elephant conflict. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in four seasons. The study included forest areas of Sonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary, part of Nameri National Park and high human-elephant conflicted areas of non-forest near to the sanctuary and parks. The consumed fodders were identified, collected and evaluated. The proximate composition was determined using AOAC (1990. Results: Total 39 different fodder species of 18 families including herbs, climber, grasses, paddy seeds, paddy saplings, plants and its leaves, bark, fruits, and roots were recorded to be utilized by elephants. The first three family of fodder that elephant relished more were Poaceae (46.15%, Musaceae (7.69% and Zingiberaceae (5.13% respectively. The crude protein content of fodder in all seasons, total ash content only in winter and post monsoon seasons and neutral detergent fiber content of fodder between forest and non-forest were significant (p<0.05. Elephants preferred to forage more on nutritionally rich fodder than poor natural fodder. Incidence of crop raiding was more in post monsoon season could be due to availability of nutritionally rich fodder than the poor natural fodder and generally happened in the night. Conclusions: The study revealed that during post monsoon season, there were abundant nutritionally rich sources of cultivated crops than the fodder of natural habitat that might provoke the wild elephants to raid crops. Poaceae shared a major portion of their diet. The findings will definitely help nutritionist, ecologist and policy makers to understand

  16. Fodder shrubs and fatty acids: strategies to reduce enteric methane production in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonardo Cardona-Iglesias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the use of fodder shrubs and polyunsaturated fatty acids as a nutritional strategy to mitigate enteric methane production in cattle. Special emphasis was made on the use of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray (Mexican sun ower, as a species with antimethanogenic potential. Bibliographic information for this review was obtained between July and September 2015 by using key words. Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG, the increase of its atmospheric concentration is caused mainly by emissions from agriculture and industry, but it is also estimated that a proportion of methane is emitted by ruminants as a product of enteric and anaerobic fermentation of diet. This causes an environmental and productive problem in livestock production systems worldwide. Although there is controversy about the real contribution of methane by ruminants and its impact on environmental issues, the amount of emissions should try to be reduced.This document emphasizes the search for nutritional strategies such as supplementation with forage shrubs and sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have shown potential to maintain animal production ef ciency and decrease enteric methane synthesis.

  17. THE ROLE OF IRRIGATED FODDER PRODUCTION TO SUPPLEMENT THE DIET OF FATTENING SHEEP BY SMALLHOLDERS IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkamu Bezabih Derseh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feed shortage and poor quality of available feeds are major constraints for livestock production in the highlands of Ethiopia. A trial was conducted to assess if producing irrigated oat-vetch fodder during the dry period could adequately supplement the diet of fattening sheep and generate additional income for smallholders. A total of 14 farmers and 70 sheep (5 per farmer were involved in the trial. The farmers supplemented their fattening sheep with 200 g of irrigated oat-vetch fodder per day for about 70 days. The mean daily body weight gain of the fattened sheep ranged from 52 to 110 grams. The partial budget analysis revealed that while farmers with good feeding management could earn an additional income in the range of ETB 55 – 161 per sheep, farmers with the lower rate of weight gain could lose up to ETB 58 per sheep unless purchase and sale prices remained constant. Sheep prices do, however, fluctuate, peaking during major holiday periods occurring during the dry season. Therefore, timing of the fattening period is essential to profitability, and supplemental irrigated fodder production offers smallholders opportunities to produce good quality feed and target favourable markets for fattened animals.

  18. Metafillactic efficiency of florfenicol, applied to the fodder of the pigs from the fattening infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pepovich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The field research has been conducted with 390 pigs, which have are the same weight and age and are affected by a subclinical form of enzootic pneumonia. The pigs have been divided into two groups. First group has been receiving concentrated forage, combined with the antibiotic medicine Florfenicol in dose 2.0 kg Feniveex-2% premix/1000 kg fodder, for 7 days. Second group has been receiving the same fodder, but with the supplement Tylosin in dose 1.0 kg Tylovet-10% premix/1000 kg, for 21 days (positive control. The pigs from both groups have been observed for a period of 30 days, aftere the beginning of the treatment with medical fodder. The field research has demonstrated, that the Florfenicol used in the beginning of the fattening has proved effective in the control of the enzootic pneumonia, in comparison with the group that has been receiving Tylosin. It is established improvement of the clinical status of the animals, decrease in death, lowering the damage of the lungs and an increase in the average daily growth.

  19. Geographical Clusters of Rape in the United States: 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raid; Nabors, Nicole S.; Nelson, Arlene M.; Saqlain, Murshid; Kulldorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background While rape is a very serious crime and public health problem, no spatial mapping has been attempted for rape on the national scale. This paper addresses the three research questions: (1) Are reported rape cases randomly distributed across the USA, after being adjusted for population density and age, or are there geographical clusters of reported rape cases? (2) Are the geographical clusters of reported rapes still present after adjusting for differences in poverty levels? (3) Are there geographical clusters where the proportion of reported rape cases that lead to an arrest is exceptionally low or exceptionally high? Methods We studied the geographical variation of reported rape events (2003-2012) and rape arrests (2000-2012) in the 48 contiguous states of the USA. The disease Surveillance software SaTScan™ with its spatial scan statistic is used to evaluate the spatial variation in rapes. The spatial scan statistic has been widely used as a geographical surveillance tool for diseases, and we used it to identify geographical areas with clusters of reported rape and clusters of arrest rates for rape. Results The spatial scan statistic was used to identify geographical areas with exceptionally high rates of reported rape. The analyses were adjusted for age, and in secondary analyses, for both age and poverty level. We also identified geographical areas with either a low or a high proportion of reported rapes leading to an arrest. Conclusions We have identified geographical areas with exceptionally high (low) rates of reported rape. The geographical problem areas identified are prime candidates for more intensive preventive counseling and criminal prosecution efforts by public health, social service, and law enforcement agencies Geographical clusters of high rates of reported rape are prime areas in need of expanded implementation of preventive measures, such as changing attitudes in our society toward rape crimes, in addition to having the criminal

  20. Who Helps the Helpers? Social Support for Rape Crisis Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Greeson, Megan R

    2017-08-01

    Secondary exposure to trauma may have negative effects on rape victim advocates' well-being. Self-care can help to mitigate these negative effects on advocates' well-being, and prior research suggests that social support is an especially important aspect of advocates' self-care. However, there is a lack of research on how rape crisis advocates access and receive social support in relationship to their advocacy work. Therefore, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 rape crisis advocates who volunteered for a rape crisis center in Chicago to understand how they accessed social support from informal and formal support providers, and when they did receive support, what was helpful versus unhelpful. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results revealed that many advocates were able to seek out and receive positive instrumental and emotional social support that nurtured them and their work. However, advocates also experienced a variety of barriers to obtaining positive support from informal support providers, including fear of burdening providers and a reluctance or lack of preparedness of their support providers to speak about the issue. Advocates emphasized the need for rape crisis centers to provide resources for their informal social support systems in order to encourage helpful responses. In addition, advocates praised the rape crisis center for its built-in formal support structures, but also encouraged the organization to seek broader representation of persons from minority backgrounds among their advocates and mentors. Implications and future directions for research and rape crisis centers are also discussed. The present study highlights the importance of social support systems for advocates and potential barriers that may be addressed to reduce service provider burnout and vicarious trauma.

  1. Date rape among Cypriot female college students: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L; Pavlou, Susana Elisa

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and reporting of date rape among female college students (aged 18-24) in Cyprus and assessed the students' attitudes and awareness regarding date rape. In addition, the study examined how date rape is perceived among representatives of related private and governmental organizations in Cyprus. This is part of a larger multi-country study. This paper will focus only on the results pertaining to Cyprus. The study was coordinated by the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods. In total, 476 female college students responded to an anonymous questionnaire, two focus group discussions were carried out, and five key-informant interviews with relevant institutional representatives were conducted. The results of the study indicated that unwanted sexual experiences and sexual violence, including date rape, do exist among young Cypriot women. Specifically, 1.3% of the research participants reported experiencing an attempted rape by their date, and 1.9 % of the study participants reported being raped on a date. Often this was caused by their boyfriend, friend or sexual partner (54.2%). The results of the qualitative study showed that young female Cypriots agreed that many women give in to psychological pressure because they feel guilty about letting the other person down or because they 'didn't satisfy him' or fear they might lose him. Despite the explorative nature of the study, it is significant as research on date rape in Cyprus is almost non-existent. The authors anticipate that the results of the study will be useful to other researchers and policy-makers involved in this area of research.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan coatings and films against Listeria monocytogenes on black radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana D; Klaus, Anita S; Nikšić, Miomir P

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of chitosan coatings prepared with acetic or lactic acid, as well as of composite chitosan-gelatin films prepared with essential oils, was evaluated in fresh shredded black radish samples inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 during seven days of storage at 4°C. The chitosan coating prepared with acetic acid showed the most effective antibacterial activity. All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of L. monocytogenes on black radish, although a higher inhibition of pathogens was achieved at higher concentrations of chitosan. The antimicrobial effect of chitosan films was even more pronounced with the addition of essential oils. Chitosan-gelatin films with thyme essential oils showed the most effective antimicrobial activity. A reduction of 2.4log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and 2.1log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved in the presence of 1% chitosan film containing 0.2% of thyme essential oil after 24h of storage. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Plant productivity and characterization of zeoponic substrates after three successive crops of radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Doug; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed advanced life support (ALS) systems for long duration space missions that incorporate plants to regenerate the atmosphere (CO2 to O2), recycle water (via evapotranspiration), and produce food. NASA has also developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate consisting of clinoptilolite and synthetic apatite to support plant growth for ALS systems (Ming et al., 1995). The substrate is called zeoponics and has been designed to slowly release all plant essential elements into "soil" solution. The substrate consists of K- and NH4-exchanged clinoptilolite and a synthetic hydroxyapatite that has Mg, S, and the plant-essential micronutrients incorporated into its structure in addition to Ca and P. Plant performance in zeoponic substrates has been improved by the addition of dolomite pH buffers, nitrifying bacteria, and other calcium-bearing minerals (Henderson et al., 2000; Gruener et al., 2003). Wheat was used as the test crop for all of these studies. The objectives of this study were to expand upon the previous studies to determine the growth and nutrient uptake of radish in zeoponic substrates and to determine the nutrient availability of the zeoponic substrate after three successive radish crops.

  4. Effects of cobalt-60 low doses radiation on beam, rice and radish seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) were studied. Bean and rice seeds were irradiated with 3.5 and 7.7 Gy (32 Gy/h). There was an apparent acceleration on rice seed germination with 3.5 Gy when they were stored for 6 days after irradiation, but the same dose caused a delay when the store time was 1 day. Bean seeds germination was not modified by 3.5 and 7.7 Gy, but the fresh and dry weight of young plants showed an increase, mainly due the major quantity of water in the embryonic axis. Bean seeds were irradiated with 0.5 and 2.0 Gy (30 Gy/h). Seeds germination showed a slight delay irradiating with 0.5 Gy, while height, fresh and dry weight and primary leaves area of the young plants as well as number of nodes, leaves, flowers, beans and seeds were not modified after irradiation with 0.5 and 2.0 Gy. Radish seeds irradiated with 10 and 30 Gy at dose rates of 4.5, 22.5 and 45.0 Gy/h showed a germination delay and fresh and dry weight values for young plants leaves lower than control. Roots of totally developed plants showed no modifications in weight, volume, mean diameter, lenght and in the amount of soluble reducing sugar. (author)

  5. Molasses melanoidin promotes copper uptake for radish sprouts: the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Ken-Ichi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Tomura, Hiroki; Yamatsu, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi; Kubota, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Phytoextraction has been proposed as an alternative remediation technology for heavy metal contamination, and it is well known that chelators may alter the toxicity of heavy metals and the bioavailability in plants. Our previous work demonstrated that an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively separate melanoidin-like product (MLP) from sugarcane molasses. The aim of this study was to examine the chelating property of MLP and to evaluate the facilitatory influence on the phytoextraction efficiency of Japanese radish. The result showed that MLP binds to all the metal ions examined and the binding capacity of MLP toward Cu(2+) seems to be the highest among them. The metal detoxification by MLP followed the order of Pb(2+) > Zn(2+) > Ni(2+) > Cu(2+) > Fe(2+) > Cd(2+) > Co(2+). Furthermore, in the phytoextraction experiment using copper sulfate, the application of MLP accelerated the detoxification of copper and the bioavailability in radish sprouts. Thus, these results suggest that MLP possesses the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction in the copper-contaminated media.

  6. Effects of Anaerobically Digested Slurry on Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans in Tomato and Radish Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yu Min

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since effective disposable way of anaerobically digested biogas slurry is expected, ADS was applied to soil to evaluate its effects on nematode damage. Damage index of tomato by root-knot nematode was significantly (<.05 lower and the growth better in pots applied with ADS (100 and 200 mg NH+4-N kg−1 than that in those with chemical fertilizer and control (no ADS. ADS was applied into radish cultivated fields infested with the root-lesion nematode: a single (100 kg NH+4-N ha−1 in 2007 and 2008 and multiple applications (25, 50, 25 kg NH+4-N ha−1 soil in 2009. Damage to radish was 30% and 50% lower in ADS-treated fields than that in the control in 2007 and 2009, respectively, although not in 2008. These results suggest that application of ADS to fields might be feasible for mitigating nematode damage, but the rate and timing should be considered further for the best application way.

  7. Role of endogenous growth regulators in vernalization of seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Michniewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In embryos and cotyledons of seeds of the radish cv. `Tetra Iłówiecka' (which needs 20 days of vernalization and cv. 'Saxa' (which flowers without vernalization germinating at a vernalizing temperature of 5°C, the levels of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins and the aibscisic acid-like inhibitor were determined, The analyses were performed after 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days of chilling. The levels of growth regulators were also determined in embryos and cotyledons of seeds germinated at 260C when in the same growth stage as the material taken from chilled seeds. Cold treatment significantly affected the level of all endogenous growth regulators in embryos and cotyledons of both varieties. However, changes in the levels of these substances were not directly connected with the vernalization process. It was found that the vernalization of seeds of 'the radish cv. `Tetra Iłówiecka' increased the level of GAs in leaves, this did not, however, coincide with flower initiation. It is concluded that the role of GAs in flowering of the studied plants is connected rather with photoinduction than with vernalization.

  8. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.cz

    2009-02-15

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K{sub OW}. A negative correlation between BCF and log K{sub OW} was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K{sub OA}. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots.

  9. Effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Kumar Dash

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study investigated the effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes related to hepatic and muscle function in buffaloes ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder in an arsenic affected area. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 samples of tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood were collected through a survey from arsenic contaminated areas and 20 samples from the uncontaminated, i.e., control areas of Ludhiana district, Punjab for determination of arsenic concentration. A total of 30 buffaloes (selected from above 45 animals were divided into three groups of 10 each on the basis of blood arsenic level, viz., control group: Clinically healthy buffaloes from the uncontaminated area with the blood arsenic level within the normal limit (0-0.05 ppm; Arsenic exposed group: Buffaloes exposed to arsenic through intake of contaminated water and fodder in the arsenic affected area with the blood arsenic level above the normal limit of 0-0.05 ppm; treatment group: Arsenic exposed buffaloes treated with T. arjuna bark powder orally at 42 mg/kg b.w. OD for 30 days. Single blood samples were collected from control and arsenic exposed groups. Blood samples from the treatment group were collected on 0, 15th, and 30th day of treatment along with one sample on the 45th day, i.e., after withdrawal of treatment. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and creatine kinase (CK were assayed in plasma. Results: Significantly (p<0.05 higher arsenic concentration was observed in tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood samples collected from the arsenic contaminated area. A significant positive correlation was noticed between arsenic concentrations of tube well water, fodder and untreated buffalo blood samples, collected from the arsenic affected area. ALP, GGT, LDH, and CK activities were significantly (p<0.05 increased in the arsenic exposed buffaloes compared to

  10. The unique associations between rape acknowledgment and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-11-01

    It is well documented in the sexual assault literature that more than half of rape survivors do not label their experience as rape. This is called unacknowledged rape. Although this phenomenon is common and undoubtedly has huge implications for psychotherapy, the impact of acknowledgment status on psychological adjustment is unclear. The present study aimed to delineate the unique impact of rape acknowledgment on psychopathology by examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level. To examine this, 178 female college students who reported rape completed an online survey, including an assessment of PTSD symptoms in the past month. The results suggested that, after accounting for several covariates, acknowledged rape survivors reported significantly greater levels of intrusion and avoidance symptoms compared to unacknowledged rape survivors. The findings suggest that examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level may provide more insight into the process of recovery following rape and therefore may better inform treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics DECEMBER 2014 Special Report NCJ 2484 71 Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995–2013 Sofi ... 18 to 24 had the highest rate of rape and sexual assault victimizations compared to females in ...

  12. Heat-resistant mechanism of transgenic rape by 45Ca isotope tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Falun; Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Liao Jiali; Yang Jijun; Tang Jun; Liu Zhibin; Yang Yi

    2012-01-01

    The Ca 2+ uptake differences of the rape with heat-resistant gene and the general rape were investigated by 45 Ca isotope tracer. The results showed that the rape with heat-resistant gene can strengthen the regulation of calcium absorption. The calcium regulation ability of the heat-resistant genes may be able to play in the rape aspect of the mechanism of resistance. (authors)

  13. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dočekalová, H.; Škarpa, P.; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 134, March (2015), s. 153-157 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : radish * cadmium * copper * DGT technique * bioaccesibility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.035, year: 2015

  14. Productive performance of cowpea-radish intercropping under different amounts of rooster tree biomass incorporated into the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. S. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intercropping systems of cowpea with radish are beginning to be deployed in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte state. The great challenge is to know whether or not there is productive efficiency in these systems when fertilized with organic matter produced by spontaneous species from the ‘Caatinga’ biome. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of cowpea-radish intercropping systems under different amounts of rooster tree biomass incorporated into the soil. The study was conducted at the experimental farm Rafael Fernandes, rural zone of Mossoró, RN, in the period from June to September 2013, in an experimental design of randomized blocks with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of the following amounts of rooster tree biomass incorporated into the soil (10, 25, 40 and 55 t ha-1 on a dry weight basis. The best productive performance of the cowpea-radish intercrop was obtained when the rooster tree biomass amount of 50.01 t ha-1 was incorporated to the soil. The use of rooster tree biomass as green manure is agronomically viable in intercropped systems of cowpea-radish.

  15. Managing scab diseases of potato and radish caused by Streptomyces spp. using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 and other biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptomyces spp. cause scab disease in plants like potato and radish. To seek effective control methods of this disease, biologically based materials were examined on their efficacies for disease control. In greenhouse or growth chamber tests, potting soil was infested with Streptomyces scabies (10...

  16. Heavy metals contamination of soil and fodder: a possible risk to livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, K.; Shaheen, M.; Khan, Z.I.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are significant ecological pollutant, principally in areas with sky-scraping anthropogenic stress. Their existence in the environment, soil and water, still in traces can cause severe tribulations to all organisms; heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain particularly can be extremely hazardous to animal and human health. Heavy metals generally come into the body by breathing and eating, ingestion being the most important route of contact to these elements in animals. The current study was conducted to examine lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in the soil and fodders. Representative samples of soil were collected during two different seasons from two different sites, known as feeding sites for ruminants and analysed for heavy metals after wet digestion, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that location and season had a significant effect (P>0.001) on soil and heavy metal concentrations. Soil and forage Pb, Cd, and Cr concentrations were higher in summer than in winter. From the results of the current study, it was determined that all the metals in soil were lower than deadly levels, posing no probable threat to both plant and animal life. There is an incessant need for monitoring the bioavailability of these heavy metals to grazing livestock, principally in summer season when these metals were found in relatively elevated concentrations, so that their possible toxic consequence to the grazing livestock can not be permitted. Agronomic practices, such as, manure and water managements as well as crop alternation system, can affect bioavailability and crop accretion of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing nutritional toxicity of heavy metals in the foodstuff. This study would be important for livestock owners and scientists working in extension services in Pakistan and other countries with same ecological condition. (author)

  17. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  18. 78 FR 77495 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of Hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on anonymous surveys by the BJS of inmates and youth...

  19. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  20. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... characteristics of prisons with the highest and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on an anonymous...

  1. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  2. 75 FR 27000 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... characteristics of juvenile facilities with the highest and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on an...

  3. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  4. A Socioecological Model of Rape Survivors' Decisions to Aid in Case Prosecution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Mary C.; Christopher, F. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify factors underlying rape survivors' post-assault prosecution decisions by testing a decision model that included the complex relations between the multiple social ecological systems within which rape survivors are embedded. We coded 440 police rape cases for characteristics of the assault and characteristics…

  5. Reading presence and absence in Fax from Sarajevo’s rape narrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in ‘t Veld, L. (Laurike)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn Joe Kubert’s Fax from Sarajevo, the chapter ‘The Rape Camp’ deals with the mass rape of women by Serb troops during the Bosnian War. Kubert’s rape narrative displays a tension between presence and absence that is analysed on different (extra)textual levels. Formally, the two

  6. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs, are

  8. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  9. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  10. Effect of cadmium on plants of oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesko, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of some production parameters of hydroponically grown plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent by cadmium and determine the amount of cadmium accumulated in plant organs. Studying the effect of cadmium on plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent confirmed that application of metal reduced the length and also fresh and dry weight of plant organs, while the inhibitory effect of Cd with increasing concentration of metal in solution increased. Plant roots responded to toxic effect of Cd more responsive. As a result of Cd applications occurred a significant decrease of content of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) in plant leaves. Species of rape Opponent is a significant Cd battery, and for these plants is characterized by a high rate of translocation of this metal into the shoots.

  11. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  12. Mechanistic insights from DGT and soil solution measurements on the uptake of Ni and Cd by radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Cheng, Hao; Ren, Jinghua; Davison, William; Zhang, Hao

    2014-07-01

    This work tests the previously proposed hypothesis that plant uptake of metals is determined dominantly by diffusional controlled or plant limiting uptake mechanisms at, respectively, low and high metal concentrations. Radish (Raphanus sativus) was grown in 13 soils spiked with Ni (10 and 100 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.5 and 4 mg kg(-1)) for 4 weeks to investigate the mechanisms affecting plant uptake. Soil solution concentrations, Css, of Ni and Cd were measured, along with the DGT interfacial concentration, CDGT, and the derived effective concentration in soil solution, CE. Free ion activities, aNi(2+) and aCd(2+), were obtained using WHAM 6. Although there was a poor relationship between Ni in radish roots and either Css or aNi(2+) in unamended soils, the distribution of data could be rationalized in terms of the extent of release of Ni from the soil solid phase, as identified by DGT and soil solution measurements. By contrast Ni in radish was linearly related to CE, demonstrating diffusion limited uptake. For soils amended with high concentrations of Ni, linear relationships were obtained for Ni in radish plotted against, Css, aNi(2+), and CE, consistent with the plant controlling uptake. For Ni the hypothesis concerning dominant diffusional and plant limiting uptake mechanisms was demonstrated. Poor relationships between Cd in radish and Css, aCd(2+), and CE, irrespective of amendment by Cd, showed the importance of factors other than diffusional supply, such as rhizosphere and inhibitory processes, and that fulfilment of this hypothesis is plant and metal specific.

  13. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  14. Fungi colonising the above-ground parts of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (Bromus inermis Leyss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in 1999-2001 in the experimental field in Knopin near Dobre Miasto to determine the intensity of fodder galega diseases cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (the Hillstrand and Auld' s modified scale, 1982. The fungi colonising the phyllosphere of fodder galega were analysed in a laboratory (Chruoeciak , 1974. The following symptoms were observed in fodder galega: ascochyta blight (Ascochyta sp., gray mould (Botrytis cinerea and plant wilting (Fusarium oxysporum.. The climatic conditions had an effect on the development of diseases. The greatest intensity of gray mould (Ii = 24.3% and plant wilting (17.9% of plants with the disease symptoms were observed in 2001. Ascochyta blight occurred with the lowest intensity and the highest infection index in 1999 in the cultivation of fodder galega mixed with smooth brome-grass was only 12.1%. The type of cultivation also modified fodder galega disease intensity. Gray mould and plant wilting developed better in pure sowing than in mixed sowing with smooth brome-grass. Throughout the entire experiment period the average infection index was 22.8% and 15.9% of plants with the wilt symptoms. Ascochyta blight found better conditions for development in plants cultivated in a mix with smooth brome-grass (average infection index - 10.0%. The fodder galega phyllosphere provided 4149 fungal isolates represented by 17 species and yeast-like fungi. Yeast-like fungi dominated (75.6% of the total isolates. The following species were less numerous: Botrytis cinerea, Humicola brevis, Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. From the leaves of fodder galega cultivated in pure sowing, 3.8% more fungi were obtained than from the leaves of plants cultivated with a mix of smooth brome-grass, including more frequently isolated pathogenic fungi representing the genera of Fusarium and the species of Botrytis cinerea.

  15. Lifetime Economic Burden of Rape Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; DeGue, Sarah; Florence, Curtis; Lokey, Colby N

    2017-06-01

    This study estimated the per-victim U.S. lifetime cost of rape. Data from previous studies was combined with current administrative data and 2011 U.S. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey data in a mathematical model. Rape was defined as any lifetime completed or attempted forced penetration or alcohol- or drug-facilitated penetration, measured among adults not currently institutionalized. Costs included attributable impaired health, lost productivity, and criminal justice costs from the societal perspective. Average age at first rape was assumed to be 18 years. Future costs were discounted by 3%. The main outcome measures were the average per-victim (female and male) and total population discounted lifetime cost of rape. Secondary outcome measures were marginal outcome probabilities among victims (e.g., suicide attempt) and perpetrators (e.g., incarceration) and associated costs. Analysis was conducted in 2016. The estimated lifetime cost of rape was $122,461 per victim, or a population economic burden of nearly $3.1 trillion (2014 U.S. dollars) over victims' lifetimes, based on data indicating >25 million U.S. adults have been raped. This estimate included $1.2 trillion (39% of total) in medical costs; $1.6 trillion (52%) in lost work productivity among victims and perpetrators; $234 billion (8%) in criminal justice activities; and $36 billion (1%) in other costs, including victim property loss or damage. Government sources pay an estimated $1 trillion (32%) of the lifetime economic burden. Preventing sexual violence could avoid substantial costs for victims, perpetrators, healthcare payers, employers, and government payers. These findings can inform evaluations of interventions to reduce sexual violence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effect of antioxidants in fresh cut radishes during the cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Saavedra del Aguila

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of antioxidants in the cold storage of fresh cut radishes. The shredded roots were submerged in the respective treatments during 3 min (ascorbic acid or citric acid and stored at 5ºC and 90% RH during 10 days. The radish treated with ascorbic acid showed the higher respiratory rate in the first 4 h after the processing during the storage. The content of total soluble solids (TSS was significantly higher in the treatment with citric acid. There was an increase in the content of ascorbic acid after two day of storage in the treatments with this antioxidant. The values of lightness (L* were decreasing along the storage. Citric acid treatments caused strongly red coloration in the minimally processed roots. None of the treatments avoided the browning of the shredded radishes during the cold storage.O presente experimento objetivou testar o uso de antioxidantes na conservação de rabanetes minimamente processados. Os rabanetes minimamente processados foram submersos nos tratamentos por 3 minutos (ácido ascórbico ou ácido cítrico e armazenados a 5ºC (±1ºC e 90% (±5% UR durante 10 dias. O tratamento com ácido ascórbico gerou a maior taxa respiratória nas 4 primeiras horas após o processamento e durante o armazenamento. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST foi significativamente maior no tratamento com ácido cítrico. Quanto ao teor de ácido ascórbico, para os tratamentos com ácido ascórbico houve um aumento significativo no 2º dia. Os valores de luminosidade (L* apresentaram redução durante o armazenamento. Os tratamentos com ácido cítrico provocaram uma forte coloração vermelha nas raízes minimamente processadas. Nenhum dos tratamentos evitou o escurecimento das raízes de rabanete minimamente processadas.

  17. Use of chronic irradiation in formation of new rape genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Zukalova, H.; Cerny, J.; Folk, A.

    1980-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of hybrid plants of F 1 generation obtained by crossing the Canadian rape without erucic acid with European winter varieties containg this acid, doubled the frequency of winter genotypes and increased significantly the frequency of required recombinations of winter character and absence of erucic acid in F 2 -M 2 . Genotypes with a more favourable ratio between linoleic and linolenic acids were obtained in the irradiated F 2 -M 2 population. The obtained radio-induced mutants are used for the production of new varieties of winter rape without erucic acid at the Slapy Breeding Station. (author)

  18. Sexual rape in children and adolescents: a medical emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Piña Corina Araceli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual rape is defined as vaginal, anal or oral sex with violent and forceful penetration of the penis or of any other object. Patients who have been raped are a medical emergency which requires immediate attention, if possible, within 24 to 72 hours, since there is the risk of sustaining external and internal injuries and of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Detection and Centers for Disease Control (CDC have reported that the maximum effective- ness of HIV prophylaxis is obtained when given within the first 24 to 72 hours post exposure.

  19. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  20. Attitude May Be Everything, But Is Everything an Attitude? Cognitive Distortions May Not Be Evaluations of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; White, Kristen; Pettersen, Cathrine; Bumby, Kurt

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive distortions are often referred to as attitudes toward rape in theory, research, and clinical practice pertaining to sexual aggression. In the social-psychological literature, however, attitudes are typically defined as evaluations; thus, in this context, attitudes toward rape are considered evaluations of rape (e.g., rape is negative vs. positive). The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a widely used measure of cognitive distortions (RAPE Scale; Bumby, 1996) assesses evaluation of rape, and, if not, whether evaluation of rape and the cognitions assessed by the RAPE Scale are independently associated with sexually aggressive behavior. Participants (660 male undergraduate students) completed the RAPE Scale as well as measures of evaluation of rape and sexually aggressive behavior. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the RAPE Scale items formed a correlated but distinct factor from the Evaluation of Rape Scale items. Regression analyses indicated that the Evaluation of Rape Scale and the RAPE Scale had small to moderate independent associations with self-report measures of sexually aggressive behavior. Our results suggest that evaluation of rape may be distinct from cognitive distortions regarding rape, and both evaluation and cognitive distortions may be relevant for understanding sexual violence.

  1. Unacknowledged Rape: The Influences of Child Sexual Abuse and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon.

  2. Rape: the journey from victim to survivor: a critical literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. The prevalence of rape in the world and particularly in South Africa, calls for the understanding of the factors involved in rape. In particular, it is necessary to understand rape in terms of the victim, not just in terms of the prevalence, causes and social consequences of rape. The victim’s experience of rape is complicated and takes place over a journey that progresses from the assault, through her responses and psychological and social reactions to her recovery from the trauma. I...

  3. In vitro Ruminal Gas Production Kinetics of Four Fodder Trees Ensiled With or Without Molasses and Urea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdelfattah Z M Salem; ZHOU Chuan-she; TAN Zhi-liang; Miguel Mellado; Moises Cipriano Salazar; Mona M M Y Elghandopur; Nicholas E Odongo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated if the addition of urea (U), molasses (M) or their 1:1 (v/v) mixture during ensiling increases the nutritional value of forage from four fodder trees (Prunus persica, Leucaena esculenta, Acacia farnesiana, and Prunus domestica). Forage samples of fodder trees were collected in triplicate (three individual samples of each species) and subjected to an in vitro gas production (GP) procedure. Fermentation at 24 h (GP24), short-chain volatile fatty acids (SCFA), and microbial crude protein production (MCP), in vitro organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and dry matter degradability (DMD) were estimated. Forage samples were incubated for 72 h in an incubator at 39oC and the volume of GP was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation using the reading pressure technique. The rumen fermentation profiles were highest for P. persica, which showed the highest (P<0.0001) DMD, ME, OMD, SCFA, GP24 and MCP. On the other hand L. esculenta had the lowest (P<0.0001) DMD, SCFA, MCP;P. domestica had the lowest (P<0.0001) OMD. The addition of M to silage increased (P<0.0001) ME and OMD, as well as GP. However, the addition of U and the mixture of U and M reduced (P<0.0001) DMD, ME, OMD, SCFA, GY24 and MCP. These results show that P. persica has the highest nutritive value and L. esculenta the lowest for ruminants. Additionally, the addition of M to forage from fodder trees increases rumen GP and fermentation, which may improve nutrient utilization in ruminants.

  4. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation induced deactivation, post deactivation of horse radish peroxidase, glucose oxidase and the protective effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Min; Zhong Qun; Chen Yiqing; Ha Hongfei

    1993-01-01

    In order to check the fact if the radiation induced post deactivation are possessed by all the enzymes, the radiation effects of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOD) were investigated. It was found that in dilute aqueous solution the irradiated HRP has the post deactivation also. The effects of absorbed dose, initial HRP concentration in solution, atmosphere, temperature and additives (three kinds of complex agents: EDTA, CDTA and D) on the post deactivation of HRP were investigated. The regularity of post deactivation of HRP is similar with the catalase. Oxygen in enzyme samples is necessary for the post deactivation. 5 x 10 -3 mol/l of the three additives could control the phenomenon efficiently. Of course, the radiation deactivation of HRP was given as well. In the case of GOD the post deactivation was not found, although it's radiation deactivation is serious. It means that the radiation induced post deactivation is not a common phenomenon for all enzymes

  6. Ecotoxicology evaluation of watery extracts of plants on seeds of radish, lettuce and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisleidy Águila Jiménez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of watery extracts of Nicotiana acuminata, Piper aduncum L. and Crotalaria juncea was evaluated on the germination and the elongación of the roots of seeds of Raphanus sativus (radish, Lactuca sativa L (lettuce and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato. The extracts were produced at medium scale in the laboratory of formulation of the Faculty of Química- Pharmacy of the “Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas” . It was demonstrated upon concluding the work that the lettuce was the most sensitive species for this type of study. It was concluded that the extracts could be poured to the means to minor concentrations that 0.01% with a margin of security that they are not going to affect the processes of germination and elongacion of the roots. It was determined that one could use the alone rehearsal using the seeds of lettuce like species of rehearsal.

  7. Changes in Trace Metal Species and Other Components of the Rhizosphere During Growth of Radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamon, R. E.; Lorenz, S. E.; Holm, Peter Engelund

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the properties of soil solution in the rhizosphere of developing radish plants were investigated. Variations in these properties were expected to affect the distribution and speciation of metals in the soil and soil solution. Applications of essential nutrients were linked to plant...... transpiration rates and prevented excess addition of nutrient ions, so that subtle changes in soil solution composition would not be obscured. Soil solution pH, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the concentrations of major and trace elements in solution were found to vary over time. Strict...... existing in the uncomplexed state. Changes in the concentrations of uncomplexed Cd and Zn with time gave the best correlations with changes in plant uptake of these metals over time, supporting the hypothesis that plants mainly absorb the free metal ion from soil solution....

  8. Metabolomic approach: postharvest storage stability of red radish (raphanus sativus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, J.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Post harvest storage of vegetables at different temperature for consumption is commonly practiced that need standardization. Among vegetables, red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a well known and commonly consumed vegetable all over the world. Its bioactive or nutritional constituents include a wide range of metabolites including, glucosinolates, phenolics, amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. However, many of these metabolites are not stable and can easily be degraded or modified during storage. In order to investigate the metabolomic changes during post harvest storage, radish samples (intact roots and aerial parts) were subjected to four different storage temperatures above and below 0 degree C (20 degree C, 4 degree C, -20 degree C, and -80 degree C), for a maximum of 28 days. 1H-NMR and two-dimensional NMR spectra data resulting from the analysis of the different samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate any possible metabolomic changes. A profound chemical alteration was observed in primary and secondary metabolites. Glucosinolates, phenylpropanoids, organic acids, amino acids, and sugars were found to be the discriminating metabolites for the storage effect. Initially, an increase in secondary metabolites (phenolics and glucosinolates) was observed, but levels of these compounds decreased in later stages, probably due to the breakdown of these products. Whereas late storage samples contained high amounts of amino acids (alanine, valine, threonine, (gama-amino-butyric acid / GABA)) and some glucosinolates (glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin). This phenomenon was pronounced at room temperature as compared to other storage temperatures. Interestingly even at lower and freezing temperatures metabolomic changes in these biological samples were observed. The least metabolomic changes were observed at samples stored at -80 degree C. While studying temperature dependent metabolomic changes, high levels of glucose, adenine, alanine

  9. Purification and sequencing of radish seed calmodulin antagonists phosphorylated by calcium-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polya, G M; Chandra, S; Condron, R

    1993-02-01

    A family of radish (Raphanus sativus) calmodulin antagonists (RCAs) was purified from seeds by extraction, centrifugation, batch-wise elution from carboxymethyl-cellulose, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on an SP5PW cation-exchange column. This RCA fraction was further resolved into three calmodulin antagonist polypeptides (RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3) by denaturation in the presence of guanidinium HCl and mercaptoethanol and subsequent reverse-phase HPLC on a C8 column eluted with an acetonitrile gradient in the presence of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The RCA preparation, RCA1, RCA2, RCA3, and other radish seed proteins are phosphorylated by wheat embryo Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). The RCA preparation contains other CDPK substrates in addition to RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3. The RCA preparation, RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3 inhibit chicken gizzard calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase assayed with a myosin-light chain-based synthetic peptide substrate (fifty percent inhibitory concentrations of RCA2 and RCA3 are about 7 and 2 microM, respectively). N-terminal sequencing by sequential Edman degradation of RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3 revealed sequences having a high homology with the small subunit of the storage protein napin from Brassica napus and with related proteins. The deduced amino acid sequences of RCA1, RCA2, RCA3, and RCA3' (a subform of RCA3) have agreement with average molecular masses from electrospray mass spectrometry of 4537, 4543, 4532, and 4560 kD, respectively. The only sites for serine phosphorylation are near or at the C termini and hence adjacent to the sites of proteolytic precursor cleavage.

  10. Uptake and distribution of chlordecone in radish: different contamination routes in edible roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létondor, Clarisse; Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Laurent, François

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) was an organochlorine insecticide mainly used to struggle against banana weevils in the French West Indies. Forbidden since 1993, it has been a long-term contaminant of soils and aquatic environments. Crops growing in contaminated soils lead to human exposure by food consumption. We used radiolabeled [(14)C]-CLD to investigate the contamination ways into radish, a model of edible roots. Radish plants were able to accumulate CLD in both roots (RCF35d 647) and tubers (edible parts, CF35d 6.3). CLD was also translocated to leaves (CF35d 1.7). The contamination of tuber was mainly due to peridermic adsorption or CLD systemic translocation to the pith. TSCF was 3.44×10(-)(3). CLD diffused across periderm to internal tissues. We calculated a mean flux of diffusion J through periderm about 5.71×10(-)(14)gcm(-)(2)s(-)(1). We highlighted different contamination routes of the tuber, (i) adsorption on periderm followed by diffusion of CLD towards underlying tissues, cortex, xylem, and pith (ii) adsorption by roots and translocation by the transpiration stream followed by diffusion from xylem vessels towards inner tissues, pith, and peripheral tissues, cortex and periderm. Concerning chemical risk assessment for other tubers, contamination would depend on various parameters, the thickness of periderm and CLD periderm permeance, the origin of secondary tissues - from cortex and/or pith - , the importance of xylem flow in tuber, and the lipid amount within tuber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of silver nanoparticles on radish sprouts: Root growth reduction and modifications in the nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia eZuverza-Mena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for five days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight was reduced by 1.62%, 1.65%, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250 and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7% and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901±150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000 – 2800 cm-1, proteins (1550 - 1530, and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health.

  12. Use of swine wastewater in oilseed radish crop: agronomic and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Pegoraro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent has been applied to soils to promote nutrient cycling and reduce the uncontrolled disposal of effluents into bodies of water. However, the use of these effluents on various crops has raised environmental and public health concerns. Oilseed radish crop (Raphanus sativus L. is a winter crop planted in no-tillage systems as a green fertilizer that also can be used for biodiesel, and it requires high levels of nutrients for its development. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental and agronomic effects of the application of swine wastewater on oilseed radish. The experiment was conducted in a 0.162 ha area with the following treatments: unirrigated (rainfed, irrigated, and fertilized with swine wastewater (370 m3 ha-1 cycle-1. After each rainfall event, analyses were conducted for the main macro and micronutrients in the runoff and percolated material from drainage lysimeters. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were also analyzed, as were the agronomic and nutritional indices of the dry crop phytomass in full blooming stage. Application of swine wastewater at a level of 370 m3 ha-1 produces a crop with better agronomic quality. Over the long term, however, caution should be taken regarding the surface runoff of NO3-, P, K, Mn and total salts and the percolation of NO3-, Na and Cu. Moreover, the rainfall occurred one day after fertigation contributed to the increase of the levels of P, K, Na, Cu, Zn and Mn in the percolated material.

  13. Beta Vulgaris and Easter Egg Radish Growth in Varying Mediums and Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, P.; Figueroa, A.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to study the harvest yield and taste of Beta Vulgaris and Easter Egg Radish microgreens in different growing mediums and locations at the Stanford Farm. They are grown in three different mediums: compost, potting mix, and a 50/50 mix of both. We hypothesized that the even mixture of compost and potting mix would have a larger harvest yield and greater nutrient content while being grown in the lath house. The experiment begins with two sets of three planting trays, one in the greenhouse and one in the lath house, filled with the former growing mediums. Next, the seeds of the microgreens are sprinkled evenly in their designated halves of the tray, then covered with a thin layer of their growing medium to allow for germination. The trays in the lath house are watered 1-2 times a day while the greenhouse trays must be watered thrice. The progress of the microgreens are observed everyday and the weight, height, root length and width of the plant is measured. Once harvested, 9-11 days after planting, the microgreens are weighed and tested for taste and consistency. Because each microgreen variety is planted in only half of a tray, the weight of the full tray is calculated to estimate the value and yield of a single species on a larger scale. Upon collecting data from both the lath house and greenhouse, we found that the plants perform better in the 50/50 mixture and potting mix, but grow very poorly in the compost because it requires a lot of water and does not hold the moisture it receives. We also had a higher yield of Easter Egg Radish due to its height and water content. In the greenhouse, both species had a richer flavor. The farm plans to start a microgreen business to provide an added source of income and utilize the results of this experiment in an applied business model focused on efficiency and profit.

  14. Maize supplementation of Pelibuey sheep in a silvopastoral system: fodder selection, nutrient intake and resilience against gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L

    2012-01-01

    This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy to control GIN compared with no intervention.

  15. A methodology for determining optimal durations for the use of contaminated crops as fodder following a nuclear accident using a dynamic food-chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Gyuseong

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for determining optimal durations for the use of contaminated crops as fodder was designed based on cost-benefit analysis. Illustrative results of the application of this methodology to pigs are presented for the hypothetical deposition of radionuclides on August 15 when a number of crops are fully developed in Korean agricultural conditions. For investigating the appropriateness of the use of contaminated crops as fodder, the net benefit from this action was compared with the imposition of a ban on human consumption of contaminated crops without alternative use. The time-dependent radionuclide concentrations in crops and pork after the deposition event were predicted from a dynamic food-chain model DYNACON. The net benefit from the actions was quantitatively evaluated in terms of cost equivalent of the doses incurred or averted and the monetary costs needed to implement the action. The optimal duration for the use of contaminated crops as fodder depended on a number of factors such as radionuclide, variety of crops fed as fodder and duration of the action. Such action was more cost effective for 137 Cs deposition than for 90 Sr or 131 I deposition. The use of contaminated crops as fodder can be an effective response to a public reluctance to consume contaminated crops

  16. Secondary metabolites as anti-nutritional factors in locally used halophytic forage/fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsen, S.; Qasim, M.; Abideen, Z.; Rizve, R. F.; Gul, B.; Ansari, R.

    2016-01-01

    Rampant salinity coupled with population explosion necessitates search for suitable alternatives to conventional sources of food both for human and animal consumption. While it may be difficult to change our culinary preferences, training animals to adopt a changed diet of nonconventional salt tolerant plants is easier. Using these wild plants however, requires estimation of undesirable secondary metabolites (SMs) produced during stressful conditions, which may be harmful for health of animals. Some of these anti-nutritional components (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, nitrates, saponins and oxalates) were determined in 22 halophytes locally used as fodder/forage. Most of the species were perennial shrubs and herbs of an area where environmental conditions like high mean annual temperature (∼35 degree C), low rainfall (< 250mm) with soil mostly dry (average 2 percent moisture) and saline (average EC 13 dSm/sup -1/) supported the growth of halophytes and xerophytes. Values of SMs in the studied plants ranged from 0.13-4.05 percent for total phenols, 0.38-6.99 percent for tannins, 0.15-1.50 percent for flavonoids, 0.10-1.15 percent for nitrates, 0.45-8.68 percent for saponins and 0.36-2.34 percent for oxalates. Most of the species (19) contained low to moderate amount of individual as well as total SMs which were within the non-toxic ranges. However, three species distributed in coastal habitats where average soil salinity (27.67 dSm-1) was considerably higher than inland ones (7.09 dSm-1) had SMs contents above the safe limits. It is evident from these Results that most of these plants contained moderate to low levels of anti-nutritional factors, which lies under the safe limits and hence, could be used as a potential feed source to raise animals, particularly in arid/semiarid areas. Additionally, these plants represents a viable choice as they can be grown without encroaching on agricultural lands and fresh water resources and could promote livestock

  17. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Visualising Shattered Lives: Potentiality in Representations of Rape Victimisation in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Lei Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how cinematic representations of rape can challenge the silence which surrounds the issue of rape and sexual violence in Japan. A textual analysis of two contemporary fictional Japanese films, DV: Domestic Violence [2005] and The Ravine of Goodbye [2013], was performed to illustrate how filmmakers can use narrative and cinematographic techniques to influence the viewer to reflect upon their attitudes to rape and rape victims. By examining how these two films depict rape and rape recovery, this article argues that there is discursive potential inherent within cinema to shape our imaginations and ideals about the world. But while the filmmaker can construct rape representations that encourage reflection, how the viewer decides to engage with the film has bearing on whether this potential for reflection is realised.

  19. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  20. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  1. The right to protection from sexual assault: the Indian anti-rape campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoli, G

    1996-11-01

    This article reveals a viewpoint that emphasizes some dilemmas among Indian feminist practice, women's sexuality in legal terms, and case law in India. The Indian Women's Movement (IWM) was successful in 1983 in adding a legal amendment on rape and child abuse. The case that mobilized women to change the law occurred in 1980 when a court acquitted two policemen who were charged with raping and molesting a 16-year-old tribal girl. The Bombay High Court overturned the judgement and convicted both policemen. The case was appealed, and the policemen successfully argued that rape did not occur because the girl did not protest and was sexually experienced anyway. In 1980 the Forum Against Rape was formed to mobilize public support and to lobby the State for reform of the law on rape. The campaign focused on custodial rape and political repression, rape as civil rights issue, and rape as a women's issue. There was a distancing between the victim, who occupied a lower caste and class position, and her defenders in the women's groups. The campaign appealed to both the appropriate judgement of the State and the denial that the State was an effective vehicle for change. The campaign did not directly address incest and marital rape or domestic violence within families. The legislature debated the issue of legal change during 1982. The debate revealed deep divisions about sexuality and women's status. It was argued that chaste women were not rape victims, and unchaste women were of a socially inferior caste and class. It was argued that there should be a ban on child marriage rather than spousal rape laws. Child rape is a legal issue only when the perpetrator is outside the family. Rape was discussed as an act of lust and not violence. In 1992, a woman promoting an end to child marriage was raped and the men were acquitted. It was argued that the law was out-of-date and in need of revision.

  2. An Experimental Study on the Diesel Engine Performance with Rape Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeong Og

    2002-02-01

    A four cycle diesel engine performance test was performed with four kinds of oils such as rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil, activated clay rape seed oil and light oil. The experiment was conducted at full load condition with constant injection time of the engine and the test oil temperature was maintained at 70±2 .deg. C. 1. The torque and the horsepower with rape seed fuel is increased about 10% compare with light seed oil at full load condition of the engine. High viscosity of the rape makes oil films in the combustor which leads to higher compression ratio and explosion. The results of the high viscosity make higher torque of the engine. The brake specific fuel consumption of the rape seed fuel increased 8%∼10% than that of the light oil. This effect could be the difference of heating value between the two kinds of oil. 2. The emission of the smoke gas was decreased 29%, 38% and 52% compare with light oil in rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil and activated clay rape respectively due to the low volatility and high viscosity of the soot. The NOx emission with rape seed oil is twice larger than that of the light oil at full load condition. The reason is that the fuel temperature increment effects on the combustor temperature and it makes thermal NOx of the engine. 3. The test engine could be started over 40 .deg. C of the rape seed oil. Engine inspection results shows that the soot adherence amount of the cylinder head piston head is higher in following order; activated clay rape seed oil > effective micro-organism rape seed oil > rape seed oil > light oil

  3. Psychological Techniques In Helping Rape Victims | Ayinde | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling psychology is concerned with assisting people who have personal, social, educational and vocational problems to better understand themselves and solve their problems. Rape is seen as a problem that militates against the psychological well being of victims, because of the devastating aftermath of the incident ...

  4. Does DNA methylation pattern mark generative development in winter rape?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Janiak, A.; Szarejko, I.; Grabczynska, J.; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 61, 5-6 (2006), s. 387-396 ISSN 0939-5075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600040612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : DNA methylation * rape * vernalization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2006

  5. Evaluative effects of negative emotionality constructs on rape and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In everyday life, human beings are confronted with numerous psychological problems. These psychological problems are numerous and vital that at times they claim human life. One of such psychological problems is the one being face by victims of rape and sexual harassment in which many individual may be hesitant to ...

  6. Rape and Adultery in Ancient Greek and Yoruba Societies | Olasope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Athens and other ancient cultures, a woman, whatever her status and whatever her age or social class, was, in law, a perpetual minor. Throughout her life, she was in the legal control of a guardian who represented her in law. Rape, as unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman, warranted a capital charge in the ...

  7. The relationshp between rape experience and post-traumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the relationship between rape experience and of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among victims. One hundred and thirty-two female participants made up of seventy-two from Nasarawa State University and sixty from the general public in Keffi town of Nasarawa State participated in the ...

  8. [Medicolegal considerations about rape as a reason to decriminalize abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wilhelm, Leonardo; Moreno, Leonardo; Carnevali, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    The Chilean senate is discussing a proposal to decriminalize abortion in 3 causals. One of these is when the pregnancy occurs as a result of a rape. To be legally able to perform the abortion in this circumstance, a health care team must confirm the occurrence of the facts constituting the offence. Regardless of the patient’s will, the accusation will be reported to the justice. In our view, in its current status the proposed rule does not consider certain medicolegal and procedural topics. Those flaws may determine in certain scenarios critical problems, such as: a) a wrongful conviction as a consequence of a false allegation of rape; (b) some pregnant due to a rape will not have access to the abortion procedure; (c) some accusations of rape will not be accredited nor criminally sanctioned. Employing a fictional case, we illustrate how those scenarios can actually be seen in practice. We also emphasize the difficulties and limitations that the health care team will encounter if the project is approved under the current conditions. Finally, we encourage the professional societies implicated in the theme to contribute in the legislatorial debate. Therefore, we give a set of proposals aimed to improve the bill before it may be enacted as a law.

  9. Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…

  10. Application of rape pod sealants to reduce adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauša, Laimis; Steponavičius, Dainius; Jotautienė, Eglė; Kemzūraitė, Aurelija; Zaleckas, Ernestas

    2018-04-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) is a major global oilseed crop characterized by its high potential as an alimentary oil and in biodiesel production. The two most popular pod sealants (PS) used to reduce rape pod shattering are products in the pinolene range (di-1-p-menthene) and latex polymer products. Reports on the effective preservation of seed yield by these products are fairly contradictory. With this in mind, an experimental PS (PS4) that contained the active agents acrylic and trisiloxane was developed. Comparative experimental trials of the developed PS4 and three other PS (PS1, PS2 and PS3) containing active agents that are generally used for sealant production were conducted. The studies showed that the static and dynamic surface tension of PS4 was the lowest at the same concentration (2.0 g kg -1 ), consequently demonstrating the lowest spray drift. The chemical substances from PS had not penetrated the rape seeds in any of the PSs. The results indicate that treatment with PS4 exerts a beneficial effect in reducing rape seed yield loss (68-104 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 194-305 kg ha -1 in 2015) compared to other investigated PS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  12. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates,.

  13. Responding to the rape of Indonesian Chinese women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    In May 1998, 168 women and girls were gang-raped during the Jakarta riots. In response, the Humanity Volunteer Team, a nongovernmental organization, set up a Violence Against Women Division. This group is composed of 400 people from diverse backgrounds and ethnic groups who undergo training and then volunteer their services to provide psychological and physical support to the affected victims and their families and to investigate the crimes. The volunteers have adopted a holistic approach and work with the cooperation of private hospitals. They accomplish their work in a climate of fear because it is considered subversive simply to bring this issue to light. Rape survivors and their families, as well as medical staff and volunteers, have been intimidated to the point that many rape survivors have traveled abroad to seek treatment. Long-term prevention strategies should include 1) a state apology to rape survivors and their communities, 2) an independent investigation to expose the perpetrators, and 3) the protection of the civil rights of the minority Chinese in Indonesia.

  14. Victims of Rape: Repeated Assessment of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkeson, Beverly M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated depressive symptoms in rape victims (N=115) for one year following their assaults. Depressive symptoms were higher in victims than in controls. By four months postrape, depressive symptoms in the victim group had diminished, and the victims were no longer significantly different from the nonvictim control group. (Author)

  15. Maps of Woe Narratives of Rape in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By considering a selection of texts, both fictional and non-fictional, this study ad- dresses different representations of rape in early modern English culture. Its aim is to highlight the interconnections between aspects of culture and the creative exchange, the confrontation and mutual assimilation between ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultural forms.

  16. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of rape straw by the mixed-strain fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal ...

  17. Medico-legal documentation of rape or sexual assault: are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L Fouché

    Results: A response rate of 59.3% was achieved. ... on how to manage alleged rape or sexual assault cases, only 11.4% of the participants had hands-on exposure to an ..... atrocious crimes, constituting a huge human rights violation and.

  18. Knowledge and Perceptions of Date Rape among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    A semi-structured questionnaire which included a 6-point knowledge scale and a 21-points ... psychological harm or suffering to women; it .... Lack of self confidence. 6 .... One factor that promotes date rape is the belief that a man should go.

  19. Understanding the innermost nature of genocidal rape: A community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of societal norms, values, rules and taboos making sense of normality in sexual intercourse, the refusal of any link with the victim recalling togetherness, and the dismissal of humanity characterized by a total lack of guilt. Key words: genocidal rape, normality, togetherness, humanity, community-based approach, Rwanda ...

  20. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... rape straw substrate and the secretion of ligninolytic enzyme system including laccase (Lac), manganese ... results are mostly fields burning or natural degradation. The former ... Microbial conversion, especially fungal bio- conversion ... out at 27°C in plastic bags containing 200 g of lignocellulosic substrate ...

  1. Event characteristics and socio-demographic features of rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: On account of increasing awareness of the need for Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and availability of requisite drugs, victims of rape are now presenting at health facilities including ours to access PEP for HIV. This study set to document the socio-demographic features of these victims and the event ...

  2. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates, Streptomyces sp. isolate 422 ...

  3. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premaratne, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  4. Effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of alfalfa seeds on fodder and seed yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, Z.; Topchieva, A.; Michev, G.; Simeonova, L.; Stoyanov, S.

    1983-01-01

    The study was carried out at the experimental base of the Fodder Institute of Feeds, Pleven, with alfalfa cv. Pleven 6 in three field trials. The effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of air dry seeds at rates of 1000, 1300 and 1600 R on the yield produced was studied in the first trial (1980-1982). The effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of the seeds on seed production was studied in the second trial. Gamma-ray doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 R and three sowing rates (3, 5 and 10 kg/ha) were tested. The after effect of gamma-irradiation on the progeny was studied in the first trial (1981-1982). It was found that the treatment tested had a stimulating effect on seed production yields. Highest stimulating effect for the period of investigation, on the average, was observed with the 1500 R dose and the 3 kg/ha sowing rate. The same treatment produced highest net income. The gamma-ray doses tested had no radiation after-effect on the plant progeny. Sowing rates had a considerable effect on seed yield. In this respect the 3 kg/ha rate surpasses the 5 and 10 kg/ha rates by 6.00 and 19.64%, on the average. The 1000, 1300 and 1600 R gamma-ray doses had no stimulating effect on fodder yield

  5. THE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN AMINO-ACIDS SUPPLEMENTATION OF THE LAYING HEN`S FODDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA SIMIZ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment has been carried out on 69 Tetra SL hens, 27-36 weeks old, distributed into 3 groups consisted of 23 hens. They were fed with fodder recipes with different protein levels (17, 16 and respectively 15%. These recipes have been supplemented with DL-methionine and L-lysine up to the level of 0.80% lysine and 0.38% methionine. Fish flour has participated in a proportion of 3% in group 1, 1.5% in group 2 and it was absent from the fodder structure used in group 3. The reduction of crude protein with 1-2p% compared to the available commercial products, but with an amino acid supplementation, has led to the improvement of the economic criteria regarding egg production, generating savings of 7.7% in the group with 16% CP and of 12.8% in the group with 15% CP. The egg mass has not been affected significantly (p>0.05, the best yield being achieved from the hens fed with a 16%CP recipe.

  6. Determination of a various ions such as alkali metals in leaves, stems, roots and seeds of the radish and their distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu; Matsui, Masakazu.

    1995-01-01

    Determination, uptake and distribution of various ions such as alkali metals in three different parts (leaf, stem and root) and seeds of radish (Kaiware daikon) were examined using flame emission spectrometry and ICP-AES. In order to examine the influence of concentration alkali metal ion concentration in the radish culture solution on the uptake and distribution of these metals, the radish was grown at pH 5.6 in solutions containing alkali metal chloride at concentrations ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -1 mol dm -3 . When the radish were grown in culture solution with alkali metal ions of low concentrations (10 -5 and 10 -4 mol dm -3 ), Na, K, Rb and trace Li were detected in leaves, stems and roots while Cs was scarcely detected. However, the contents of Na, K, Li in these organs were the same as those in radish cultivated in pure water. An increase of Rb uptake was observed with an increased Rb concentration. In the case of high concentrations (10 -3 and 10 -2 mol dm -3 ) of alkali metals in culture solution, the all alkali ions uptake of all alkali ions suddenly accelerated. Moreover, at concentrations higher than 0.1 mol dm -3 , the radish germinated poorly and did not completely mature. (author)

  7. Seasonal variations in the availability of fodder resources and practices of dairy cattle feeding among the smallholder farmers in Western Usambara Highlands, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleko, David; Ng, Wai-Tim; Msalya, George; Mwilawa, Angello; Pasape, Liliane; Mtei, Kelvin

    2018-05-08

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal effects on quantity and quality of fodder resources and associated utilization practices among smallholder dairy farmers in Western Usambara Highlands (WUHs) in Tanzania. The WUHs are among the major milk producing areas under smallholder dairy farming systems (SDFS) in Tanzania. Dry season fodder scarcity is a widespread problem affecting the East African SDFS and has been shown to contribute to over 40% reduction in milk yield. There is limited information with regard to seasonal fodder fluctuation and its effects on productivity of dairy cows in different landscape levels of Tanzania. Field and household surveys were conducted in 150 dairy cattle farming households from five villages in three wards located in WUHs. Survey data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21. In addition, remote sensing techniques were employed on gap-filled and smoothed Landsat data to generate land cover maps and bimonthly normalized difference vegetation index-time series for the 2009-2016. SDFS landscape was highly heterogeneous typified by crops, bushes, and forests. On average, the household landholding was 1.3 ha, while herd size was three cattle. About 87% of household land was devoted to crop growing with limited pasture along the farm margins and contour strips. Fodder scarcity was the major challenge during the dry season (July to October) as indicated by 87% of the respondents. On-farm fodder resources contributed most of the cattle diet (73%) while rangeland, forest, and purchased feed provided small amount. Natural pasture and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were the most important feeds in wet season while maize stover was most significant during the dry season. Maize stover was profusely stored for dry season feeding and neither silage nor hay making was practiced. The nutritional values of the fibrous feeds declined during the dry season, whereby the metabolizable energy and crude protein contents were 6.0 MJ/kg and

  8. Protective role of radish oil (raphson sativus) against gamma radiation on lipids and carbohydrate in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, M.F.; Soliman, N.K.I.

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on some biochemical parameters in rats. The rats were exposed to sublethal whole body gamma irradiation dose (1Gy x 4). The protective role of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) was evaluated by oral administration to rats before gamma radiation exposure and the lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen were investigated. Exposed rats to gamma radiation showed significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. Oral administration of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) before gamma irradiation exerted marked ameliorations in the disorders induced by gamma radiation in most of the tested parameters such as lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen

  9. Misogyny, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Relation to Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Asian American College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim’s refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256

  10. Risk factors for PTSD and depression in female survivors of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgoqi-Mbalo, Nolwandle; Zhang, Muyu; Ntuli, Sam

    2017-05-01

    To investigate association of the sociodemographic factors, characteristics of rape and social support to the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at 6 months after the rape. A cross-sectional survey with female survivors of rape was carried out in 3 provinces of South Africa 6 months after the rape. One hundred female survivors s of sexual assault were interviewed. More than half (53%) were from Limpopo, 25% from Western Cape, and 22% from KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). 87% reported high levels of PTSD and 51% moderate to severe depression post rape. The major risk factors for PTSD and depression were the unmarried survivors of rape and those living in KZN. The female survivors of rape in KZN province were 7 times more likely to experience symptoms of depression compared to other provinces, while married/cohabiting female rape survivors were 6 times less likely to report symptoms of depression compared to the unmarried female rape survivors. These findings add support to existing literature on PTSD and depression as common mental health consequence of rape and also provide evidence that survivors' socio- demographics-marital status, employment status-are significant contributors to the development of symptoms of depression and PTSD after rape. The results have research and clinical practice relevance for ensuring that PTSD and trauma treatment focuses on an in-depth understanding of the various aspects of the sociodemographic factors and rape characteristics that contribute to survivors' mental state and how these compound stress and depression symptoms over time post rape victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The mechanism of deterioration of the glucosinolate-myrosynase system in radish roots during cold storage after harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Gu; Lim, Sooyeon; Kim, Jongkee; Lee, Eun Jin

    2017-10-15

    The hydrolysis of glucosinolates (GSLs) by myrosinase yields varieties of degradation products including isothiocyanates (ITCs). This process is controlled by the glucosinolate-myrosinase (G-M) system. The major ITCs in radish roots are raphasatin and sulforaphene (SFE), and the levels of these compounds decrease during storage after harvest. We investigated the G-M system to understand the mechanism behind the decrease in the ITCs in radish roots. Six varieties of radish roots were stored for 8weeks at 0-1.5°C. The concentrations of GSLs (glucoraphasatin and glucoraphenin) were maintained at harvest levels without significant changes during the storage period. However, SFE concentration and myrosinase activity remarkably decreased for 8weeks. Pearson correlation analysis between ITCs, GSLs, and myrosinase activity showed that a decrease of SFE during storage had a positive correlation with a decrease in myrosinase activity, which resulted from a decrease of ascorbic acid but also a decrease of myrosinase activity-related gene expressions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Radish (Raphanus sativus L) - a model for studying plant responses to air pollutants and other environmental stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostkarick, R.; Manning, W.J. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sudwest, Filderstadt (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Oekologie)

    1993-01-01

    The use of [ital Raphanus sativus L.] as a model crop for studies on plant response to environmental stresses is reviewed with emphasis on the effects of different atmospheric pollutants (O[sub 3], SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2], acidic precipitation) and their combinations. Responses to temperature, light supply, water stress, and atmospheric CO[sub 2] are also studied and discussed. In addition, the references reviewed are evaluated in terms of their experimental protocols on growth conditions and recommendations for optimal ranges of environmental and cultural variables, i.e. light, temperature, nutrient supply are given. Its distinct pattern of biomass partitioning, the small dimensions along with short and easy culture make radish an excellent experimental plant. The fleshy below-ground storage organ, formed by the hypocotyl and upper radicle, acts as the major sink during vegetative development. Abundant assimilate supply due to elevated levels of CO[sub 2] along with high irradiation frequently promote hypocotyl growth more than shoot growth, whereas under conditions of stress shoot growth is maintained at the expense of the hypocotyl. This makes the hypocotyl:shoot ratio of radish a very sensitive and suitable indicator for various environmental stresses. Potential weaknesses and short-comings of radish in its role as a model crop, particularly the high variability of injury and growth responses, are discussed along with possible solutions. Future research needs are derived from the summarized results presented and from some disparities among findings within the literature reviewed.

  13. Modelling of the canopy photosynthesis in intercropping with lettuce, rocket, radish, coriander and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíza Gomes de Paiva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, many combinations of plants in intercropping have been demonstrating agronomic viability due to the increase of production per unity of area and greater use of natural resources. However, the knowledge and the proper choice of crops that will be part of the system are necessary to reach achievement, so that there is mutual interaction between them. The study had the purpose of evaluate the productivity of lettuce (Elba intercropped with coriander (Verdão, rocket (Cultivada, beet (Early Wonder or radish (Crimson Gigante. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the CCTA/UFCG, Pombal/PB, from September 2013 to July 2014. Nine treatments were assessed (4 intercropping and 5 monocultures, installed in randomized blocks with four replications. The amalgamation of lettuce with crops of coriander, rocket, radish or beet did not affected negatively its profitability. The intercropping of lettuce and beet presented the greater productive efficiency and efficient use of land, demonstrated by the increased production of both crops in this association. Modelagem do dossel fotossintético em sistemas consorciados com alface, rúcula, rabanete, coentro e beterrabaResumo: Nos últimos anos muitas combinações de plantas em cultivo consorciado têm demonstrado viabilidade agronômica devido ao aumento de produção por unidade de área e maior aproveitamento de recursos naturais, no entanto, para que esse sistema alcance sucesso é necessário a escolha adequada das culturas que irão fazer parte do mesmo, de maneira que haja interação mútua entre elas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade da cultura da alface (‘Elba’ em consórcio com coentro (‘Verdão’, rúcula (‘Cultivada’, rabanete (‘Crimson Gigante’, or beterraba (‘Early Wonder’ foi realizado o experimento na área experimental do CCTA/UFCG, em Pombal, PB, no período de setembro de 2013 a julho de 2014. Foram avaliados 9 tratamentos (4

  14. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Oilseed Rape in the Wheat-Oilseed Rape Strip Intercropping Influenced by Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amirmardfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum and oilseed rape (Brassica napus strip intercropping on yield components, seed and biological yields of oilseed rape, field experiments were carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran during 2010-2012 cropping seasons. The first factor consisted of four types of wheat and oilseed rape cropping system, sole crop of oilseed rape (A1,: strip intercropping with 8:3 (A2, 12:4 (A3 and 16:5 (A4 of wheat and oilseed rape rows, respectively and the other factor consisted of two fertilizer levels, B1: 100% chemical fertilizers (urea and triple superphosphate and B2: 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers (Nitrazhin and Barvar2. The results showed that strip intercropping of wheat- oilseed rape resulted in significant increase in yield components, seed yield per occupied unit area and biological yield per occupied unit area of oilseed rape as compared with mono-cropping. The number of silique per plant in intercropping systems was significantly higher than that of mono-cropping. The highest seed yield was obtained in the 16:5 rows of wheat-oilseed rape with 343.76 g.m-2 and the lowest mean was observed in mono-cropping of oilseed rape with 260.21 g.m-2. Biological yield per occupied unit area and seed yield per intercropped unit area in B1 were significantly greater than that of B2, but this treatment had no significant effect on the other traits. Because, B1 and B2 had no significant difference in seed yield per occupied unit area and due to the importance of reduction in chemical fertilizers consumption and food and environmental health care, strip intercropping of wheat-oilseed rape under 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers can be recommended as a suitable cultural method.

  15. An empirical study of rape in the context of multiple murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, multiple homicide offending has received increased research attention from criminologists; however, there is mixed evidence about the role of rape toward the perpetration of multiple murder. Drawing on criminal career data from a nonprobability sample of 618 confined male homicide offenders selected from eight U.S. states, the current study examines the role of rape as a predictor of multiple homicide offending. Bivariate analyses indicated a significant association between rape and murder charges. Multivariate path regression models indicated that rape had a significant and robust association with multiple murder. This relationship withstood the confounding effects of kidnapping, prior prison confinement, and prior murder, rape, and kidnapping. These results provide evidence that rape potentially serves as a gateway to multiple murder for some serious offenders. Suggestions for future research are proffered.

  16. Battles on women's bodies: war, rape and traumatisation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, J E; Olsson, P; Ahlberg, B M

    2011-01-01

    Rape has been used as a weapon in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in unprecedented ways. Research into the phenomenon of war-rape is limited, particularly in this context. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of local leaders in eastern DRC concerning rape and raped women in the war context. Local leaders were chosen for their ability to both reflect and influence their constituencies. Interviews were conducted with 10 local leaders and transcripts subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study suggests that mass raping and the methods of perpetration created a chaos effectively destroying communities and the entire society and that humanitarian aid was often inappropriate. Furthermore, an exclusive focus on raped women missed the extent of traumatisation entire communities suffered. More significantly, the lack of political will, corruption, greed and inappropriate aid creates a tangled web serving to intensify the war. This complexity has implications for humanitarian interventions including public health.

  17. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade.

  18. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account.

  19. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  20. Reading Playboy for the articles: the graying of rape myths in black and white text, 1953 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrey, Heather Hensman

    2013-08-01

    This longitudinal investigation analyzes the manner in which rape myths are conveyed through textual material published in Playboy. Results indicate that Playboy (a) portrays rape as a gender-neutral issue, ignoring patriarchal roots of sexual violence against women, and (b) promulgates ambiguous discourse, which is equally likely to endorse and refute rape myths. Interestingly, readers' contributions are most often the source of refutations of rape myths. Overall, findings suggest that little progress has been made over time in deconstructing rape myths promulgated to men, as this particular men's publication has consistently painted a gray picture in which refutations have remained unsuccessful in disempowering rape myths.

  1. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online treatment programs represent a potentially important alternative strategy for reaching such individuals. The current paper describes a pilot evaluation of...

  2. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Anna Tiihonen; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods: Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at S...

  3. Residues in blackcurrants, fodder peas, spinach and potatoes treated with sublethal doses of 2,4,5-T to simulate wind drift damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Odgaard, Peder

    1981-01-01

    concentrations declined in the same period due to growth dilution. In spinach leaves from old plants, treated with 0.1 kg ha-1, 0.05 mg of 2,4,5-T kg-1 was found 14 days after treatment. Fodder peas showed no residues (

  4. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid formation in SSF. -- Highlights: ► Wet Oxidation pretreatment on rape straw for sugar and ethanol production. ► Variables were reaction time, temperature, and oxygen gas pressure. ► Also, other configurations for increase of water and energy efficiency. ► Short Wet oxidation pretreatment (2–3 min) produced highest ethanol yield. ► After these pretreatment conditions recovery of lignin in solids was 86%.

  5. Remote Diagnosis of Nitrogen Status in Winter Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Winter oilseed rape is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Compared with cereal crops, it requires high amount of nitrogen (N) supplies, but it is also characterized by low N use efficiency. The N nutrition index (NNI), defined as the ratio of the actual plant N concentration (PNC) to the critical PNC at a given biomass level, has been widely used to diagnose plant N status and to aid optimizing N fertilization. But traditional techniques to determine NNI in the lab are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing provides a promising approach for large-scale and rapid monitoring and diagnosis of crop N status. In this study, we conducted the experiment in the winter oilseed rape field with eight fertilization treatments in the growing season of 2014 and 2015. PNC, dry mass, and canopy spectra were measured during the different growth stages of winter oilseed rape. The N dilution curve was developed with measurements, and NNI was computed and analyzed for different treatments and different growth stage. For the same treatment, NNI decreased as more leaves were developing. Two methods were applied to remotely estimating NNI for winter oilseed rape: (1) NNI was estimated directly with vegetation indices (VIs) derived from canopy spectra; (2) the actual PNC and the critical PNC at the given biomass level were estimated separately with different types of VIs, and NNI was then computed with the two parts of the estimations. We found that VIs based solely on bands in the visible region provided the most accurate estimates of PNC. Estimating NNI directly with VIs had better performance than estimating the actual PNC and the critical PNC separately.

  6. A History of Rape in American Society Prior to 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Leslie

    By tracing the concept of rape as it has been defined by man in the earliest laws, it is evident that the criminal act was viewed with horror, and the deadly punishments that were seen fit to apply had little to do with an actual act of sexual violence that a woman might sustain. The past records indicate a gradual decrease in the prosecution rate…

  7. Measurement of thermal properties of white radish (R. raphanistrum using easily constructed probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfrekemfon Samuel Obot

    Full Text Available Thermal properties are necessary for the design and control of processes and storage facilities of food materials. This study proposes the measurement of thermal properties using easily constructed probes with specific heat capacity calculated, as opposed to the use of Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC or other. These probes were constructed and used to measure thermal properties of white radish in the temperature range of 80-20°C and moisture content of 91-6.1% wb. Results showed thermal properties were within the range of 0.71-0.111 Wm-1 C-1 for thermal conductivity, 1.869×10-7-0.72×10-8 m2s-1 for thermal diffusivity and 4.316-1.977 kJ kg-1C-1for specific heat capacity. These results agree with reports for similar products studied using DSC and commercially available line heat source probes. Empirical models were developed for each property through linear multiple regressions. The data generated would be useful in modeling and control of its processing and equipment design.

  8. Measurement of thermal properties of white radish (R. raphanistrum) using easily constructed probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obot, Mfrekemfon Samuel; Li, Changcheng; Fang, Ting; Chen, Jinquan

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties are necessary for the design and control of processes and storage facilities of food materials. This study proposes the measurement of thermal properties using easily constructed probes with specific heat capacity calculated, as opposed to the use of Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) or other. These probes were constructed and used to measure thermal properties of white radish in the temperature range of 80-20°C and moisture content of 91-6.1% wb. Results showed thermal properties were within the range of 0.71-0.111 Wm-1 C-1 for thermal conductivity, 1.869×10-7-0.72×10-8 m2s-1 for thermal diffusivity and 4.316-1.977 kJ kg-1C-1for specific heat capacity. These results agree with reports for similar products studied using DSC and commercially available line heat source probes. Empirical models were developed for each property through linear multiple regressions. The data generated would be useful in modeling and control of its processing and equipment design.

  9. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardali, Eleni; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papadelli, Marina; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem development and the dynamics of the lactic acid bacteria population during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine at 20 and 30 °C. In both temperatures, lactic acid bacteria prevailed the fermentation; as a result, the pH value was reduced to ca. 3.6 and total titrable acidity increased to ca. 0.4% lactic acid. Enterococci population increased and formed a secondary microbiota while pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds populations were below enumeration limit already before the middle of fermentation. Pediococcus pentosaceus dominated during the first days, followed by Lactobacillus plantarum that prevailed the fermentation until the end. Lactobacillus brevis was also detected during the final days of fermentation. A succession at sub-species level was revealed by the combination of RAPD-PCR and rep-PCR analyses. Glucose and fructose were the main carbohydrates detected in brine and were metabolized into lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol.

  10. Genetic diversity in radish germplasm for morphological traits and seed storage proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatoi, S.A.; Siddiqui, S.U.; Masood, M.S.; Javaid, A.; Iqbal, M.; Sayal, O.U.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation of forty-nine local and exotic radish genotypes including two checks was studied for morphological traits and seed storage protein electrophoresis using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) markers. A high variation in germplasm for root shape, root length, root colour (internal and external), flesh texture and root type was observed. Among these genotypes, the genetic variation was apparent for most of the characters like plant biomass, root weight, leaf length, root length and root diameter that indicated the potential for crop improvement in these traits through simple selection. Exotic germplasm exhibited higher variation for plant biomass, root weight and root length which could be utilized through breeding programme. Cluster analysis on the basis of genetic diversity for seven quantitative traits resulted into four clusters. No clustering was found on the basis of origin. Low level of variance was observed for SDS-PAGE electrophoresis that suggested acquisition of more germplasm. On the basis of high yield and crispy root texture some genotypes (10076, 10362, 10429, 10658, 10662 and 10667) were identified for further testing under wide range of agro-ecological conditions. (author)

  11. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue LEDs and White Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Matthew A.; Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond; Birmele, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-range missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop yield, there is also recent interest in analyzing the subtle effects of additional wavelengths on plant growth. For instance, since plants often look purplish gray under red and blue LEDs, the addition of green light allows easy recognition of disease and the assessment of plant health status. However, it is important to know if wavelengths outside the traditional red and blue wavebands have a direct effect on enhancing or hindering the mechanisms involved in plant growth. In this experiment, a comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of red romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. "Outredgeous") and radish (Raphanus sativa cv. 'Cherry Bomb'), which were grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red (630 nm) and blue (450 nm) LEDs alone, while the second treatment consisted of daylight tri-phosphor fluorescent lamps (CCT approximately 5000 K) at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). The treatment effects were evaluated by measuring the fresh biomass produced, plant morphology and leaf dimensions, leaf chlorophyll content, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within plant leaf/storage root tissues.

  12. Energetic balance from biodiesel production of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Rubens [Parana Agronomical Institute (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: siqueira@iapar.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Boller, Walter [University of Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Agronomical and Veterinary College

    2008-07-01

    It was evaluated the energetic balance and the energetic efficiency of the oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) crop under the no-tillage system. The energy input totalized 6,718 MJ ha{sup -1} where the industrial processing, the fertilizer and the herbicide had participation of 30.7; 23.0 and 20.2 %, respectively. The energy production was 56,650.94 MJ ha{sup -1} and the produced grains have represented 33.2 % of the total. The energetic demand for the production of one kg of biomass of the aerial part, one kg of oil and one kg of biodiesel were respectively 1,829; 19,000 and 27,422 kJ. There was a return of 8.44 for each energy unit used in the process. The net gain of energy was 49,932 MJ ha{sup -1} which is equivalent in energy to 1,295 L diesel oil. (author)

  13. Seed yield of radish as affected by uprooting time and root cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Shohidul Hoque

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU, Gazipur, Bangladesh during November 2005 to April 2006 to study the seed production potentiality of BSMRAU developed open pollinated radish varieties (viz., BU Mula 1 and BU Mula 2 under two levels of root cutting (viz., one third and no cutup and three levels of uprooting namely 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing (DAS. Results revealed that both root cutting and uprooting days significantly influenced most of the characters pertaining to seed yield per plant. Root cutting delayed the flowering, pod initiation, maturation of siliqua and reduced plant height, number of branches per plant, number of siliqua per plant, and number of seeds per siliqua. The yields were also impaired by root cutting. In general, the entire yield components and seed yield were highly affected with the one third root cutting. Various uprooting days also had influenced these characters. In case of treatment combination of no cut and 30 days of uprooting there was a significant difference between the varieties. The variety BU Mula 2 produced better seed yield per plot than BU Mula 1. Also in both the varieties the 1/3rd cut treatment with 30 or 50 days uprooting sequence showed unsatisfied number of seeds per siliqua in comparison to the no cut treatment except 40 days uprooting.

  14. Effects of ageing on peroxidase activity and localization in radish (Raphanus sativus L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scialabba

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase activity was assayed in crude extracts of integument, cotyledons and embryo axis of radish seeds, deteriorated under accelerated ageing conditions. Over five days of ageing, in which germination decreased from 100 to 52%, the enzyme activity in integument was higher than that in other seed parts, increasing in the first days of ageing and then decreasing sharply in extremely aged seeds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed four peroxidase isoenzymes with MM of 98, 52.5, 32.8 and 29.5 kDa in the embryo axis of unaged seeds, and only the 32.8 and 29.5 kDa MM isoforms in the integument and cotyledons. In these parts of the seed, only the 29.5 kDa MM isoenzyme increased in activity in early days of ageing and decreased thereafter. In the embryo axis, the 29.5 kDa MM isoenzyme activity increased slowly in the first day of ageing, while the 98 and 52.5 kDa MM isoenzyme activities disappeared. A cytochemical localization of peroxidase activity in the various tissues showed that main differences between unaged and extremely aged seeds occurred in the embryo axis.

  15. Adaptation of radish Raphanus sativus L. in response to continuous exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmsley, L.; Ashmore, M.R.; Bell, J.N.B.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between the development of radish Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle in clean air and under continuous exposure to 0 x 17 ppm (340 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) of ozone. The area and dry weight of the individual leaves, and the dry weight of other plant organs, were determined at frequent, regular intervals throughout the experiment. Although the commercial yield of the ozone-treated plants, expressed as hypocotyl dry weight, was significantly reduced, changes in the pattern of development of these plants were observed which were of adaptive value. The pattern of assimilate distribution was altered so that new leaves were produced more rapidly in the ozone-treated plants. These later leaves were more resistant to ozone, showing a slower rate of senescence than the cotyledons or first leaves. Measurements of stomatal resistance suggested that this was an acquired, rather than an inherent, characteristic of the later leaves. By the end of the experiment, the relative growth rates in the two treatments did not differ significantly.

  16. Intercropped red beet and radish with green bean affected microbial communities and nodulation by indigenous rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ugrinovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intercropping green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra and radish (Raphanus sativus L., two non-legume plants, on the plants’ yields, as well as the effect on occurrence and enumeration of microorganisms in the rhizosphere was studied. The intercrop efficacy evaluation, using Land equivalent ratio, revealed values above 1.0 for all intercropped treatments. Diversity of rhizobia from green bean nodules under different intercropping and fertilizing conditions was observed. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, 67 out of 158 isolates from green bean roots were selected as rhizobia (42.4%, confirmed by detection of 780 bp nifH gene fragments in nifH-PCR, and then clustered in 27 phenotype patterns. Production of exopolysaccharide succinoglycan was observed in 23 rhizobial isolates, while 6 were detected to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Screening of genetic diversity using (GTG5-PCR fingerprinting showed presence of six different patterns on the 92% similarity level.

  17. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nelson, Erik J; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G; Wright, John P; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C; Petkovsek, Melissa; Lewis, Roger; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2017-01-01

    An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. Ecological study. St. Louis, Missouri. Blood lead levels. Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03-1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99-1.03). Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure.

  18. Rape revisited: sexual violence against women in the former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentich, M

    1994-01-01

    This article presents information on the rape of women in the former Yugoslavia, focusing more on Muslim women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and examines the evolutionary, sociological, psychological, and feminist theories of this form of sexual violence. Using a case study approach, through documentation from newspapers and other media accounts, this paper investigated the sexual violence that featured strongly in the campaign of ethnic cleansing or genocide of Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It was noted that the variables of power, sex, and aggression in the context of war seem to be linked. This is particularly evident when authority legitimates sexual aggression. Without the backing of authority, some rape is expected, but not of such proportion or brutality. In terms of the theories, the evolutionary perspective appears to have limited applicability in explaining rape as an act of war. However, the feminist and macrosociological multivariate theories that focus on heterogeneity of the population, a cultural foundation of very traditional gender roles, and a historical tradition that legitimates sexual violence by armies in war-time, provide more persuasive insights.

  19. Investigation of telomere length and psychological stress in rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Stefanie; Hemmings, Sian; Kidd, Martin; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-12-21

    Women are at an increased risk of depression and other mental health problems following rape. Various etiological factors for depression, including predisposing genetic factors, have been identified. Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein structures located at chromosomal ends that protect them from premature degradation. Telomeres reduce in length with each cell division, resulting in cellular senescence and apoptosis. Relative quantification of telomeric repeats using qPCR was performed to investigate whether shorter relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a cohort of 64 rape victims was associated with resilience, the development of rape trauma-related major depressive disorder (MDD) or the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 3 months. Out of the 64 participants, 23 participants were diagnosed with MDD at baseline and 31 after 3 months. Nine participants were diagnosed with PTSD (MDD and PTSD specifically related to the trauma). No significant associations were observed between relative LTL and resilience or the development of MDD at either baseline or after 3 months in this cohort. However, a marginally significant association was evident between relative LTL and PTSD status. The significant association between relative LTL and PTSD suggests that shorter relative LTL might have acted as a predisposing factor in the development of PTSD after a severely traumatic event. The results of this study indicate that telomere shortening may be an important marker of PTSD risk, with implications for early intervention and timely treatment, and as such warrant replication in a larger cohort. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-09-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  2. Sexual Scripts and Criminal Statutes: Gender Restrictions, Spousal Allowances, and Victim Accountability After Rape Law Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ethan Czuy

    2018-03-01

    The author provides a mixed-methods assessment of U.S. rape statutes to assess progress in reform. Contemporary statutes offer restrictive frameworks for distinguishing criminal from noncriminal sexual violence, many of which are grounded in gendered and heterosexist assumptions. Fourteen states retain gender restrictions in rape statutes. Twenty maintain marital distinctions that limit accountability for spousal rape. Furthermore, whereas explicit resistance requirements have been eliminated nationwide, implicit resistance expectations manifest through emphasis on physical force and involuntary intoxication. Analyses conclude with recommendations for further legal reform and a discussion of the potential for legislation to affect broader social perceptions of rape.

  3. Fresh and preserved green fodder modify effects of urinary acidifiers on urine pH of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, G; Fritz, J; Dillitzer, N; Hipp, B; Kienzle, E

    2014-04-01

    Hay stabilises urine pH in horses. It is unknown whether this is an effect of structure or of chemical composition. In this study, four ponies (230-384 kg body weight [BW]) were fed six different diets with either a structure or a composition similar to hay with and without acidifiers in a cross-over experimental design in amounts to maintain body weight with the following main compounds: Fresh grass (GRASS), alfalfa hay (ALF), grass cobs (COBS), grass silage (SIL), straw (STR) or extruded straw (STRe) for 2 to 10 days. Urine pH was measured in all trials, blood pH, blood base excess and bicarbonate as well as mineral balance were determined in GRASS, ALF, STR and STRe. In the trials with straw and extruded straw, urine pH decreased significantly (STR control: 7.8 ± 0.23, acidifier: 5.2 ± 0.38) when acidifiers were added, whereas in all other diets that were based on fresh or preserved green fodder, pH did not decrease below 7. Blood pH was similarly affected by diet and acidifiers. Acidifiers had little effect on the pre-prandial blood pH, only in diet STR there was a significant reduction in relation to control. Post-prandial blood pH was significantly reduced by acidifiers in all diets. Blood bicarbonate and base excess showed corresponding effects. Faecal and renal mineral excretion and apparent mineral digestibility were not systematically affected by diet or acidifiers except for chloride. Chloride added as inorganic chloride salt had an even better apparent digestibility than chloride originating from feed. Because only green plant material stabilised acid base balance, chlorophyll and its metabolites are discussed as potential mediators of the effect of green fodder on acid base balance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Men’s Perception of Raped Women: Test of the Sexually Transmitted Disease Hypothesis and the Cuckoldry Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rape is a recurrent adaptive problem of female humans and females of a number of non-human animals. Rape has various physiological and reproductive costs to the victim. The costs of rape are furthermore exaggerated by social rejection and blaming of a victim, particularly by men. The negative perception of raped women by men has received little attention from an evolutionary perspective. Across two independent studies, we investigated whether the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (the STD hypothesis, Hypothesis 1 or paternity uncertainty (the cuckoldry hypothesis, Hypothesis 2 influence the negative perception of raped women by men. Raped women received lower attractiveness score than non-raped women, especially in long-term mate attractiveness score. The perceived attractiveness of raped women was not influenced by the presence of experimentally manipulated STD cues on faces of putative rapists. Women raped by three men received lower attractiveness score than women raped by one man. These results provide stronger support for the cuckoldry hypothesis (Hypothesis 2 than for the STD hypothesis (Hypothesis 1. Single men perceived raped women as more attractive than men in a committed relationship (Hypothesis 3, suggesting that the mating opportunities mediate men’s perception of victims of rape. Overall, our results suggest that the risk of cuckoldry underlie the negative perception of victims of rape by men rather than the fear of disease transmission.

  5. Genome-wide characterization of differentially expressed genes provides insights into regulatory network of heat stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-03-01

    Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways. These pathways played significant roles in reducing stress-induced damages and enhancing heat tolerance in radish. Expression patterns of 24 candidate genes were validated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Based mainly on the analysis of DEGs combining with the previous miRNAs analysis, the schematic model of HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. To counter the effects of HS, a rapid response of the plasma membrane leads to the opening of specific calcium channels and cytoskeletal reorganization, after which HS-responsive genes are activated to repair damaged proteins and ultimately facilitate further enhancement of thermotolerance in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into the regulatory network underlying heat tolerance in radish and facilitate further genetic manipulation of thermotolerance in root vegetable crops.

  6. Effects of Packaging on Shelf Life and Postharvest Qualities of Radish Roots during Storage at Low Temperature for an Extended Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Chandra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of packaging on the quality aspects of radish, Korean radish roots (Raphanus sativus L. var. Kwandong were stored at 0°C after different packaging treatments such as keeping in paper cartoon box (control, keeping in plastic crates (PC, packaging with micro perforated HDPE film in PC (HDPE + PC, curing followed by keeping in PC (Curing + PC, and curing followed by packaging with micro perforated HDPE film in PC (Curing + HDPE + PC. Weight losses of radish roots were remarkably lower (<3% in both HDPE film packaged samples compared to that of control (10% or without film (≈18%. L⁎ values, whiteness index, total soluble solids, and flesh and skin firmness were better maintained in Curing + HDPE + PC treatment compared to other treatments. Lower color difference values were also found in this treatment. Both film packaged samples had lower scores of black spot, surface shrinkage, and fungal infection incidence which revealed significantly longer marketable periods. HDPE film packaged samples exhibited longer shelf life more than one and two months compared to control and unpacked samples, respectively. Results suggest that HDPE film packaging can extend postharvest life of radish while curing might have little but beneficial effects in maintaining the quality characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first report on quality evaluation of Korean radish during an extended storage period simulating the Korean industrial practices.

  7. The Effects of EDTA and H2SO4 on Phyto-extraction of Pb from contaminated Soils by Radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mansouri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil contamination by heavy metals is one of the most important environmental concerns in many parts of the world. The remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals is necessary to prevent the entry of these metals into the human food chain. Phyto-extraction is an effective, cheap and environmental friendly method which uses plants for cleaning contaminated soils. The plants are used for phytoremediation should have high potential for heavy metals uptake and produce enormous amount of biomass. A major problem facing phyto-extraction method is the immobility of heavy metals in soils. Chemical phyto-extraction is a method in which different acids and chelating substances are used to enhance the mobility of heavy metals in soil and their uptake by plants. The aims of this study were: (a to determine the potential of radish to extract Pb from contaminated soils and (b to assess the effects of different soil amendment (EDTA and H2SO4 to enhance plant uptake of the heavy metal and (c to study the effects of different levels of soil Pb on radish growth and Pb concentrations of above and below ground parts of this plant. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve and analysed for some physico-chemical properties and then artificially contaminated with seven levels of lead (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/kg using Pb(NO32 salt and then planted radish. During the growth period of radish and after the initiation of root growth, the plants were treated with three levels of sulfuric acid (0, 750 and 1500 mg/kg or three levels of EDTA (0, 10 and 20 mg/kg through irrigation water. At the end of growth period, the above and below ground parts of the plants were harvested, washed, dried and digested using a mixture of HNO3, HCl, and H2O2. The concentrations of Pb, N, P and K in plant extracts were measured. Statistical analysis of data was performed using MSTATC software and comparison of means was

  8. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Evalina; Duma, Sinegugu E; Mayers, Pat M

    2014-09-23

    Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner's rape. We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1) within 14 days of, (2) a month after, (3) three months after, and (4) six months after the rape. Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant's familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  9. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  10. Prospective study of rape perpetration by young South African men: incidence & risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation).

  11. Rape and its relation to social disorganization, pornography and inequality in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, L; Straus, M A

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical model seeks to integrate social disorganization and feminist theories of rape, reporting an empirical test of that model using data on rapes per 100,000 population known to the police in the 50 states of the United States. The model includes the following aspects of the social organization of the states: social disorganization (measured by a six item index), sexual inequality (measured by a status of women index to men), pornography (measured by a sex magazine circulation index for eight sexually explicit magazines) and the level of culturally legitimate violence (measured by a 12 item legitimate violence index using indicators like corporal punishment in schools. There were marked differences between states of the USA in the incidence of rape during the 1980-82. Path analysis was used to test the theoretical model, which posits rape as a function of the direct and indirect effects of social disorganization, sexual inequality, pornography, legitimate violence and seven control variables. The results show that all four variables play an important part in explaining differences between states in rape; and that together, the variables in the model explain 83 per cent of the state-to-state variation in rape. Women are in much greater danger of being raped in some American states than in others. Since the FBI began compiling statistics on rape, states like Alaska, Nevada, and California have consistently registered many more rapes per capita than North Dakota, Maine, and Iowa. What factors account for such differences between states? Could the variation in the rape rate be explained by four aspects of the social structure of states: (1) the proliferation of pornography (2) sexual inequality (3) culturally legitimate violence and (4) social disorganization. Each factor represents a theory which will be examined within the context of an integrated theory on rape.

  12. Wartime Women Rape: A Means of Moral Attack and Emasculation in Lynn Nottage’s Ruined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaff Ganim Salih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women rape at warfare was considered a consequence of war in the social, literary and political world for a long period of time. Some criminals of rape escaped justice and others were persecuted on the basis that they were involved in mass rape because it was a natural consequence of war. But, women are targeted with rape in time of war because they are the symbolic representation of a culture, ethnicity, and the unifying fabric of their people and nation. The objective of this paper is to show that war rape is not a result of war; instead it is a means of human destruction through moral attack and emasculation. It aims to show that women rape in warfare is neither a misogynist act nor a sexual violence but it is a pre-planned weapon used strategically and systematically to fulfill certain political and military agenda. The study focuses on the sexual abuse of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo in time of war in Lynn Nottage’s Pulitzer Prize play, Ruined (2007. The study applies Jonathan Gottschall’s Strategic Rape theory, which highlights war rape as a pre-planned military strategy. The enemy emasculates men and attacks them morally by raping their women. Consequently, men’s failure to protect their women causes them to give up resistance, leave their lands and families because of shame and humiliation. The study concludes that women rape in time of war is a tactic followed by conquerors intentionally to facilitate and guarantee the achievement of certain pre-planned goals as was the case of mass rape in the DRC.

  13. Factors that affect college students' perceptions of rape: what is the role of gender and other situational factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandiver, Donna M; Dupalo, Jessica Rager

    2013-05-01

    Prior research has shown that various situational factors and behaviors can affect one's perception of whether a rape has occurred. Moreover, some hold false beliefs about rape. This can also affect one's perception of ambiguous situations. This study included the administration of a survey to 584 college students; the survey examined the prevalence of rape myths and responses to vignettes of potential rape scenarios. It was found that although the majority of this sample did not support rape myths, male students were significantly more likely than female students to support rape myths. Furthermore, approximately 20% of students did support one subscale of the rape myth scale: He didn't mean to [commit rape]. The results also revealed an interaction effect between the observer's sex and the victim's sex, suggesting a complex gender relationship.

  14. Rape oil for technical uses - a cost-benefit analysis. A cost-benefit analysis of the production and use of rape oil as fuels and lubricants and for technical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhanss, W.; Kerckow, B.; Schrader, H.

    1992-01-01

    A brief description of the methodical fundamentals of cost-benefit analyses, the quantitative analytical models and the relevant data basis is followed by a survey of existing and potential rape oil uses. Basic data for the economic evaluation of rape seed production, rape oil production and rape oil uses are compiled, and the potentials of rape oil marketing in the Federal Republic of Germany are evaluated. The results of an evaluation of the importance of rape oil to the national trade and industry are discussed considering the optimum large-scale expansion of rape oil production, the individual uses, technical concepts, and the economic significance of technical progress. The cost benefit analysis and subsequent evaluation are based on a comparative evaluation of the additional rape oil production and of the grain production which has been giving way to rape production. In accordance with the assumed world market reference conditions rape oil production and rape oil/byproduct uses compete with grain exports at world market prices. The rape oil production costs are estimated applying the marginal costing principle, i.e production costs and follow-up effects are quantified by means of a modified regionally differentiated simulation model assuming the local conditions applicable to the Federal Republic of Germany. Four scenarios for projection of EC agricultural prices, world market prices and energy prices through 2000 are made available to level the different basic economic conditions. (UA) [de

  15. EVALUATION OF ESTERASE POLYMORPHISMS IN MATURE SEEDS OF RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. ACCESSIONS OF VIR COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rudakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A biochemical evaluation of 25 radish accessions (Raphanus sativus L. on esterase isozymes of mature seeds has been carried out. The results of the experiments showed a wide range of diversity among the genotypes based on electrophoretic zones of esterase isoenzymes. The revealed isoenzyme complex of esterases was represented by eight isoforms with molecular weights from 37.7 kD to 57.6 kD. All accessions were divided into 13 electrophoretic zymotypes, differing from each other by the presence or absence of definite zones. The most often observed electrophoretic zymo-type is Gr. 1, which includes 24% of the total number of accessions evaluated. There are 8 zymotypes (Gr. 6 Gr. 13 with a frequency of occurrence 4%. Three groups (Gr. 2 – Gr. 4 had the same frequency of occurrence – 12%. Zimotype of Gr. 5 containes the maximum number of zones – 8. 2 zimotypes – Gr. 3 and Gr. 12 had the smallest number of 4 zones. Two zones of esterases – zones 7 and 8 (Мr 39.7кD and Мr 37.7 kD, respectively were monomorphic. The remaining six zones were polymorphic, i.e. could be absent in some zimotypes. The frequency of occurrence of each zone in different zymotypes has varied from 6.58% to 17.11%. As results of this research the accessions that were selected can become the most promising parent forms for future genetic and selection studies of this culture.

  16. Modeling and Testing of Growth Status for Chinese Cabbage and White Radish with UAV-Based RGB Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional crop-monitoring methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, necessitating new techniques to provide faster measurements and higher sampling intensity. This study reports on mathematical modeling and testing of growth status for Chinese cabbage and white radish using unmanned aerial vehicle-red, green and blue (UAV-RGB imagery for measurement of their biophysical properties. Chinese cabbage seedlings and white radish seeds were planted at 7–10-day intervals to provide a wide range of growth rates. Remotely sensed digital imagery data were collected for test fields at approximately one-week intervals using a UAV platform equipped with an RGB digital camera flying at 2 m/s at 20 m above ground. Radiometric calibrations for the RGB band sensors were performed on every UAV flight using standard calibration panels to minimize the effect of ever-changing light conditions on the RGB images. Vegetation fractions (VFs of crops in each region of interest from the mosaicked ortho-images were calculated as the ratio of pixels classified as crops segmented using the Otsu threshold method and a vegetation index of excess green (ExG. Plant heights (PHs were estimated using the structure from motion (SfM algorithm to create 3D surface models from crop canopy data. Multiple linear regression equations consisting of three predictor variables (VF, PH, and VF × PH and four different response variables (fresh weight, leaf length, leaf width, and leaf count provided good fits with coefficients of determination (R2 ranging from 0.66 to 0.90. The validation results using a dataset of crop growth obtained in a different year also showed strong linear relationships (R2 > 0.76 between the developed regression models and standard methods, confirming that the models make it possible to use UAV-RGB images for quantifying spatial and temporal variability in biophysical properties of Chinese cabbage and white radish over the growing season.

  17. Protective Effect of Humic acid and Chitosan on Radish (Raphanus sativus, L. var. sativus Plants Subjected to Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. EL-Gahmery

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHumic acid or chitosan has been shown to increase plant growth, yield and improving physiological processes in plant, but its roles on alleviating the harmful effect of cadmium on plant growth and some physiological processes in plants is very rare. Pot experiments were conducted to study the role of 100 and 200 mg/kg dry soil from either humic acid or chitosan on counteracted the harmful effects of cadmium levels (100 and 150 mg/kg dry soil on radish plant growth and some physiological charactersResultsCadmium at 100 and 150 mg kg-1 soil decreased significantly length, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root systems as well as leaf number per plant in both seasons. Chlorophyll, total sugars, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, relative water content, water deficit percentage and soluble proteins as well as total amino acids contents were also decreased. Meanwhile, cadmium concentration in plants was increased. On the other hand, application of chitosan or humic acid as soil addition at the concentration of 100 or 200 mg kg-1 increased all the above mentioned parameters and decreased cadmium concentrations in plant tissues. Chitosan at 200 mg kg-1 was the most effective than humic acid at both concentrations in counteracting the harmful effect of cadmium stress on radish plant growth.ConclusionIn conclusion, both natural chelators, in particular, chitosan at 200 mg/kg dry soil can increase the capacity of radish plant to survive under cadmium stress due to chelating the Cd in the soil, and then reduced Cd bio-availability.

  18. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria: The Stark Realities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, women have always been subjugated and oppressed by men in most cultures in Nigeria. This situation is due to the inequality in gender relations between men and women. Rape has always been with mankind throughout the world. However, in recent times, the incidence of rape has increased in Nigeria.

  19. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  20. Exploring the Aesthetics of Rape in the Work of Juan de Moncayo y Gurrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Ted E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Interpreting the occurrence of sexual violation in seventeenth-century Spanish literary works necessitates for modem scholars the difficult task of understanding prevailing contemporary attitudes toward rape. Studies by Higgins and Silver, Casas, and Welles discuss how literary texts with rape scenes as narrative material often use the act or its…

  1. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  2. Perceptions of Appropriate Punishment for Committing Date Rape: Male College Students Recommend Lenient Punishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Theodore W.; Kline, Linda M.

    2004-01-01

    Past research has shown that date rape is a crime that is committed with surprising frequency, particularly on college campuses, and that college men may hold a number of rape-tolerant attitudes that make this crime more likely. In the present research, 300 men and women college students read one of three vignettes, varying the type of descriptive…

  3. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  4. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acquaintance Rape Workshops: Their Effectiveness in Changing the Attitudes of First Year College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The statistics on acquaintance rape and sexual assault against women are a clear indication that this is a problem that needs to be confronted. An increasing number of articles address the problems that rape survivors face and examine methods mental health professionals can use to assist survivors in dealing with these problems. Articles that…

  6. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  7. Pelvic floor muscle problems mediate sexual problems in young adult rape victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Riemke; Bicanic, Iva; van der Vaart, Huub; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have addressed sexual abuse and sexual function in adult women. No studies have focused on the effect of adolescence rape on sexual functioning. To investigate the effect of rape on sexual problems and on pelvic floor problems, as well as the mediating role of pelvic floor problems on

  8. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape: An Examination of Perpetrator Motivation, Relationship Length, and Gender Role Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J.; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding…

  9. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  10. Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a forensic epidemic? ... creates so much negative impact on the legal outcome. There is a need to provide a holistic support to the victims and to review Nigerian laws on sexual offences for the good of all. Keywords: Gang-Rape, Sexual violence, Forensic, Ep ...

  11. The victimology of rape in Nigeria: Examining victims' post-assault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The secondary victimisation suffered by rape victims in socially conservative Nigeria is not only in the hands of their families, friends, and significant others, but also through the agents and process of criminal justice system of the country. Previous research into rape in Nigeria has often neglected the aftermath of forcible ...

  12. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  13. Physical health status of female veterans: contributions of sex partnership and in-military rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M; Davis, Teri D; Cheney, Ann M; Mengeling, Michelle A; Torner, James C; Sadler, Anne G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether current physical health status in female veterans is associated with rape during military service and same-sex partnership. Retrospective computer-assisted telephone interviews of 1004 Midwestern US female veterans identified from Veterans Affairs electronic records were conducted. Data included rape history including rape in military, sex partnership history, demographics, and medical history including chronic pain, mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), and the physical health component of the Short-Form 12-item interview (PCS-12). Physical health in this sample was lower than norm values [PCS-12: mean (standard deviation) = 43 [12]; norm: mean (standard deviation) = 50 [10]). Fifty-one percent of the participants reported rape in their lifetime, 25% reported rape in military, 11% reported history of women as sex partners, and 71% reported history of chronic pain. Multiple regression analysis indicated that physical health (PCS-12) was associated with chronic pain history (β = -.40, p rape in military (β = -.09, p = .002), and current PTSD (β = .07, p = .03), adjusting for demographic data. Mediational analysis indicated that chronic pain history significantly mediated relationships of women who have sex with women, childhood rape, PTSD, depression, and current substance use disorder with PCS-12. Both rape and sex partnership are adversely associated with lower physical functioning in female veterans. Clinicians evaluating the physical health of this population should therefore consider obtaining detailed sexual histories, and a multidisciplinary team is needed to address mental health issues in female veterans.

  14. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  15. Men as Allies: The Efficacy of a High School Rape Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand-Gunn, Theresa L.; Heppner, Mary J.; Mauch, Pamela A.; Park, Hyun-joo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a Men as Allies--based intervention on high school students' rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. As hypothesized at posttest, the male and female experimental groups demonstrated a significant decrease in rape-supportive attitudes, which was maintained at follow-up. Male participants viewed peers'…

  16. How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in Selected Police Cells and the Central Prison in Kumasi, Ghana. ... Regarding punishment, some respondents expressed a preference for the handling of rape cases within the community, suggesting that the sanctions for those cases were less severe than ...

  17. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological

  18. 76 FR 56481 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... Law School; David L. Moss Criminal Justice Center (Tulsa, OK)--facility with a low prevalence of...

  19. Risk Factors for Physical Assault and Rape among Six Native American Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David

    2006-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…

  20. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  1. Avoidant Coping and Treatment Outcome in Rape-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…

  2. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  3. Ozone effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle): foliar sensitivity as related to metabolite levels and cell architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassious, R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the first four leaves of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle) was followed to determine the relationship between foliar sensitivity to ozone as related to selected soluble metabolites and leaf-cell arrangement. Although relatively high metabolite (protein, sugars, phenols) levels and compact cell arrangement may be advanced as factors contributing to the resistance of young leaves (L/sub 3,4/ of 21-day old plants) these same parameters do not explain the resistance of old leaves (L/sub 1,2/ of 30-day old plants). 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  4. Ozone effects on growth of radish plants as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition and by temperature. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Adedipe, N.O.; Hofstra, G.

    1973-10-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish) plants were grown in sand culture at two temperatures and fed with nutrient solutions containing relatively low or high levels of either N or P. At the 4-leaf stage, the plants were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 25 pphm for 4 h. Ozone treatments resulted in decreased dry weight of low- and high-N plants at both temperatures and of low and high P plants only at the lower temperature. The study showed that air pollutant growth reduction is not necessarily accentuated by luxuriant growth resulting from high nutritional status. Responses to the nutrition of specific mineral nutrients depend on the modifying affect of temperature.

  5. Genome-wide characterization of the MADS-box gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L. and assessment of its roles in flowering and floral organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC*. Among them, 41 (28.47% RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  6. Genome-wide characterization of the WRKY gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) reveals its critical functions under different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Bernard Kinuthia; Fan, Lianxue; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Tang, Mingjia; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Fei; Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Liu, Liwang

    2017-11-01

    The radish WRKY gene family was genome-widely identified and played critical roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses. The WRKY is among the largest transcription factors (TFs) associated with multiple biological activities for plant survival, including control response mechanisms against abiotic stresses such as heat, salinity, and heavy metals. Radish is an important root vegetable crop and therefore characterization and expression pattern investigation of WRKY transcription factors in radish is imperative. In the present study, 126 putative WRKY genes were retrieved from radish genome database. Protein sequence and annotation scrutiny confirmed that RsWRKY proteins possessed highly conserved domains and zinc finger motif. Based on phylogenetic analysis results, RsWRKYs candidate genes were divided into three groups (Group I, II and III) with the number 31, 74, and 20, respectively. Additionally, gene structure analysis revealed that intron-exon patterns of the WRKY genes are highly conserved in radish. Linkage map analysis indicated that RsWRKY genes were distributed with varying densities over nine linkage groups. Further, RT-qPCR analysis illustrated the significant variation of 36 RsWRKY genes under one or more abiotic stress treatments, implicating that they might be stress-responsive genes. In total, 126 WRKY TFs were identified from the R. sativus genome wherein, 35 of them showed abiotic stress-induced expression patterns. These results provide a genome-wide characterization of RsWRKY TFs and baseline for further functional dissection and molecular evolution investigation, specifically for improving abiotic stress resistances with an ultimate goal of increasing yield and quality of radish.

  7. Use of sewage sludge - nitrogen availability and heavy metal uptake into rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M. H.; Lombi, E.; Herger, P.

    1998-07-01

    The results of a three years experiment with large pots in the field evaluating the effects of sewage sludge (sterilised by γ-irradiation or not sterilised) on rape growth, heavy metal-and N-uptake, using the 15 N-dilution technique, are presented. Mobile fractions of Cd, Cu and Zn increased significantly in the substrate due to sewage sludge treatments. However heavy metal transfer into rape plants did not respond clearly. Rape growth was clearly enhanced in the first and third year due to sewage sludge applications. The average N-utilization by rape from sewage sludge in a three years period decreased from 7.4 % (first year), 1.8 % (second year) to 1.1 % (third year), resulting in an overall utilization of 10.3 % of sewage sludge - N t by rape plants. Irradiation of sewage sludge did not result in any significant effect on the investigated parameters. (author)

  8. Surviving wife rape: how women define and cope with the violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, R K

    1995-06-01

    This article investigates how women define their experiences of marital rape and cope with the violence. The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted among 35 survivors of marital rape. It found out that women's definition of sexual violence often change over the course of the relationship in a similar manner, from seeing the sexual attacks as an aberrant incident, to redefining the incident as rape, to terminating the relationship with a ¿rapist¿. This study further describes the 6 stages through which women pass in coping with the violence, which include entering a violent relationship; managing the violence; experiencing a loss of self; redefining the violence; ending the violence; and recovering from the trauma. This study, however, gives particular attention to understanding how women manage the violence and redefine their experiences as rape. It concludes by acknowledging that marital rape is a serious problem with very real consequences for the women who experience it.

  9. Feminist Framework Plus: Knitting Feminist Theories of Rape Etiology Into a Comprehensive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Beverly A

    2016-07-01

    The radical-liberal feminist perspective on rape posits that the assault is motivated by power and control rather than sexual gratification and is a violent rather than a sexual act. However, rape is a complex act. Relying on only one early strand of feminist thought to explain the etiology of rape limits feminists' understanding of rape and the practice based upon the theory. The history of the adoption of the "power, not sex" theory is presented and the model critiqued. A more integrated model is developed and presented, the Feminist Framework Plus, which knits together five feminist theories into a comprehensive model that better explains the depth and breadth of the etiology of rape. Empirical evidence that supports each theory is detailed as well as the implications of the model on service provision, education, and advocacy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Reflections on the society’s reaction towards rape victims in Delhi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetu Vibha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, most people display stronger beliefs in ‘aggravated rape‘ or ‘real rape‘; including victims of such rape cases who often identify themselves as ‘rape victims’ than the victims of ‘simple rape’, where none of the aggravating circumstances are present. Despite myths to the contrary these ‘simple rape’ cases in fact make up the majority of cases. This article considers the implications of ‘real rape‘ and demonstrates how notions about what a ‘typical rape‘ should be, in the form of rape myths, directly impact on societal attitudes towards rape victims and how the media continue to reinforce and perpetuate the notion of real rape through their selective reporting of ‘serial rape’, ‘stranger rape’ or especially ‘violent rapes’.

  11. A Danish model for treating victims of rape and sexual assault: The multidisciplinary public approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Elklit, Ask; Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    2009-01-01

    Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards of and the......Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards...... of and the framework behind these centers must be assessed and developed further to accommodate the growing need for rape trauma services in Europe and worldwide. This paper describes the experiences of a public Danish center for rape victims and proposes a management model for current and future rape victim centers....

  12. The uptake of Cs and Sr from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus L.)- potential for phytoextraction and remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dan; Wen, Fangping; Xu, Changhe; Tang, Yunlai; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-01-01

    The 133 Cs and 88 Sr uptake by plant Raphanus sativus L. was studied during cultivation in outdoor potted-soil. The distribution, accumulation of 133 Cs, 88 Sr and the antioxidant responses in plants were measured after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. The results showed that the uptake capacity of radish for 88 Sr was far higher than that for 133 Cs when the concentration of 88 Sr was as the same as that of 133 Cs in the soil (The concentration of 88 Sr or 133 Cs in the soil was from 2.5 mg kg −1 to 40 mg kg −1 ). The highest 88 Sr accumulation was 239.18 μg g −1 dw, otherwise, the highest 133 Cs accumulation was 151.74 μg g −1 dw (The concentration of 88 Sr in the soil was 40 mg kg −1 ), and the lowest 88 Sr accumulation was 131.03 μg g −1 dw, otherwise, the lowest 133 Cs accumulation was 12.85 μg g −1 dw (The concentration of 88 Sr in the soil is 5 mg kg −1 ). The 88 Sr and 133 Cs TF values were 1.16–1.72 and 0.24–0.60, respectively. There was little influence of high concentration of 88 Sr on the total biomass of plants, so the radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance to 88 Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the 88 Sr stress than that under the 133 Cs stress, and the activities of POD and CAT were lower under the 88 Sr stress than that under 133 Cs stress. - Highlights: ► Radish is a kind of native plant with high biomass and fast growth. Its uptake capacity of radish for 88 Sr was far higher than that for 133 Cs when the concentration of 88 Sr was the same as that of 133 Cs in the soil. ► The TF values of radish for 88 Sr were 1.16–1.72. ► Radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. ► The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance toward 88 Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the 88 Sr stress than under the 133 Cs stress, and the activities of POD

  13. Quality of durable cookies enriched with rape bee pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to enrich durable cookies with different additions of rape (Brassica napus var. napus bee pollen to increase nutritional properties of cookie samples and to improve technological and sensorial properties as well. Bee pollen is an important raw material due to its nutritional and functional properties. Cookie samples were prepared by substituting wheat flour with rape bee pollen in the amount of 16 % (1 g of bee pollen per cookie and 32 % (2 g of bee pollen per cookie using bee pollen from two localities Lenártovce and Nové Zámky. In baked samples beside sensory properties also chemical parameters and technological parameters of cookies were evaluated. It was found out that with the gradual addition of rape bee pollen the amount of ash content increased and the highest ash content was analysed in variants II and IV (0.71 and 0.77 % using 32 % addition of rape bee pollen. In terms of reducing sugars, addition of bee pollen caused that the content of reducing sugars in the products increased slightly. The highest reducing sugar content was determined in variant II. (24.59 %. On the other hand amount of crude protein the most considerably raised by addition of 2 g of pollen per cookie. The highest content of crude protein was analysed in variants II and IV (8.72 and 9.00 %. From the results of a linear models in which the dependent variables were the ash, crude protein and moisture it was determined the significant effect (p <0.05 only of the pollen addition. In the case of the model with the dependent variable reducing sugars it was found out significant effect (p<0.0001 of pollen addition and locality and their interactions. With the gradual addition of bee pollen values of technological parameters such as diameter and weight of cookies increased and thickness of products decreased. Based on sensory scores using a 9-point Hedonic scale the best sensorial acceptability (7.4 was found in variant I (1 g of bee

  14. Obtaining a new variety of rape by biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z H; Cun, S X; Zhang, Z Z; Wang, W F; Zhang, T H; Li, W B; Zhang, L H [Institute of Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); [Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming (China)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: High-frequency induction of pollen embryoids and plantlets of rape was obtained by stepped float anther culture. In addition, somatic embryoids and plantlets were induced with a high frequency from several species by cell suspension culture. The erucic acid (EA) content of embryoids was analysed by a micro-analysis technique and a semi-micro-analysis of glucosinolates (GS) content in culture was used. A new variety 'H86-166' with low EA and low GS content was selected by these techniques. It gave a yield of 3169 kg/ha and has been released for commercial production on about 1000 ha in Yunnan Province. (author)

  15. Interdisciplinary team communication among forensic nurses and rape victim advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Victim advocates and forensic nurses provide integrated care to address the complex legal, medical, and mental health needs of rape survivors. Research suggests that conflict exists between nurses and advocates, but it remains unknown how their communication patterns contribute to or resolve these conflicts. Utilizing a qualitative case study approach, the current study interviewed 24 nurses and advocates from a Midwest organization to better understand team communication patterns when addressing conflicts. The findings suggest that most nurses communicate concerns directly while advocates avoid direct communication. Factors that influenced direct and indirect communication and their implications for practice will be discussed.

  16. Practices Regarding Rape-related Pregnancy in U.S. Abortion Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rachel; Murphy, Molly; Rankin, Kristin M; Cowett, Allison; Harwood, Bryna

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to explore current practices regarding screening for rape and response to disclosure of rape-related pregnancy in the abortion care setting. We performed a cross-sectional, nonprobability survey of U.S. abortion providers. Individuals were recruited in person and via emailed invitations to professional organization member lists. Questions in this web-based survey pertained to providers' practice setting, how they identify rape-related pregnancy, the availability of support services, and their experiences with law enforcement. Providers were asked their perceptions of barriers to care for women who report rape-related pregnancy. Surveys were completed by 279 providers (21% response rate). Most respondents were female (93.1%), and the majority were physicians in a clinical role (69.4%). One-half (49.8%) reported their practice screens for pregnancy resulting from rape, although fewer (34.8%) reported that screening is the method through which most patients with this history are identified. Most (80.6%) refer women with rape-related pregnancy to support services such as rape crisis centers. Relatively few (19.7%) have a specific protocol for care of women who report rape-related pregnancy. Clinics that screen were 79% more likely to have a protocol for care than centers that do not screen. Although the majority (67.4%) reported barriers to identification of women with rape-related pregnancy, fewer (33.3%) reported barriers to connecting them to support services. Practices for identifying and providing care to women with rape-related pregnancy in the abortion care setting are variable. Further research should address barriers to care provision, as well as identifying protocols for care. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Localization of pain and self-reported rape in a female community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Helena K; Ciccone, Donald S; Raphael, Karen G

    2006-01-01

    Studies suggest that rape increases risk of medically unexplained pain in women. At present it is not clear whether rape is associated with pain at specific locations or at multiple locations. In this study we tested the hypothesis that rape was associated with a preferential increase in risk of pelvic pain that was not explained by pain at other sites. We relied on an existing community study that oversampled women with fibromyalgia and major depression. Localization was assessed by asking about pain at four sites: pelvic region; jaw/face; headache; and lower back. Three groups were identified using a structured telephone interview: Abuse Only (sexual/physical abuse excluding rape); Rape+Abuse (rape in addition to other sexual/physical abuse); and No Abuse. Compared with the No Abuse group, the Rape+Abuse group was eight times more likely to have pelvic pain and 3.7 times more likely to have jaw/face pain after we controlled for the effect of widespread pain. Rape was not associated with lower back pain or headache. The Abuse Only group did not show a preferential increase in risk of pain at any of the four locations that were assessed. After controlling for pain at other locations, we found that the Rape + Abuse group was 10 times more likely to report pelvic pain than the No Abuse group (Prape was uniquely associated with pelvic pain. Future efforts to account for pain in the aftermath of rape must specify a mechanism that can simultaneously cause widespread pain as well as increase risk of localized pain.

  18. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  19. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Xiafang; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng

    2008-01-01

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape

  20. Psychological consequences of rape on women in 1991-1995 war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncar, Mladen; Medved, Vesna; Jovanović, Nikolina; Hotujac, Ljubomir

    2006-02-01

    To explore the short- and long-term psychological consequences of rape on women victims of rape during the 1992-1995 war against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study included 68 women victims of rape and was conducted at the Medical Center for Human Rights, Zagreb, Croatia, from 1992 to 1995. Testimony method and a questionnaire were used to retrospectively obtain the description of rapes and symptoms women suffered immediately after rape and at the time of the study, ie, 11.9-/+2.4 after the trauma. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to diagnose psychiatric disorders that were present at the time of study, according to the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The raped women were Croatian and Muslim (Bosniak) women, residents of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forty-four of them were raped more than once, 21 were raped every day during their captivity, and 18 were forced to witness rapes. Most of the rapes (n=65) were accompanied by physical torture. The most frequent psychological symptoms felt immediately after the rape were depressiveness (n=58), avoidance of thoughts or conversations associated with the trauma (n=40), and suicidal ideas (n=25). Although none of the women had a psychiatric history before the rape, at the time of study 52 suffered from depression, 51 from social phobia, 21 from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 17 had sexual dysfunctions. These disorders were often comorbid. Out of 29 women who got pregnant after rape, 17 had artificial abortion. The decision to have an abortion was strongly predicted by suicidal thoughts and impulses (odds ratio, 25.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-263.2). War-time rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women victims of rapes and their social and interpersonal functioning.

  1. A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic method for the direct analysis of several fodder-related chemical components in drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Li, Shuqi; Lin, Mengfei; Yang, Endian; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2018-05-01

    The drumstick tree has traditionally been used as foodstuff and fodder in several countries. Due to its high nutritional value and good biomass production, interest in this plant has increased in recent years. It has therefore become important to rapidly and accurately evaluate drumstick quality. In this study, we addressed the optimization of Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to analyze crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, iron (Fe), and potassium (K) in a variety of drumstick accessions (N = 111) representing different populations, cultivation programs, and climates. Partial least-squares regression with internal cross-validation was used to evaluate the models and identify possible spectral outliers. The calibration statistics for these fodder-related chemical components suggest that NIRS can predict these parameters in a wide range of drumstick types with high accuracy. The NIRS calibration models developed in this study will be useful in predicting drumstick forage quality for these five quality parameters.

  2. 不同颜色肉质萝卜核型分析研究%Karyotype Analysis of Radish(Raphanus sativus L.)with Different Freshy Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江; 许冬梅; 姚启伦; 陈发波

    2011-01-01

    Thirty two radish(Raphanus sativus L. ) accessions with different flesh colors were used to analyze the karyotypes and the red pigment content for the first time. It showed that the red accessions with red flesh had a high red pigment content as high as 16. 21% on the average (ranging from 3. 4%o~28. 8%o) , and there existed significant differences in the red pigment content between accessions. With the same number of chromosomes (2n = 2x=18) the karyotype formulae of the red radish with red flesh,green radish with red flesh,white radish with red flesh, and white radish were 14m + 4sm, 16 tn + 2 sm,as well as 18m,and belonged to 2A,Lb,La,and 1 A, respectively. As all the accessions without satellites presented almost exclusively m and sm chromosomes,some changes in chromosome size and structure occurred but no great changes in chromosome morphology were obseved. Ranking of radish accessions based on the chromosomal a-symmetry index was in turn: the red radish with red flesh,green radish with red flesh,red radish with white flesh,and white radish. With respect to the karyotype evolution,the white flesh radish could be considered more ancestral than the red flesh accessions. In additon,it was deduced that the latter might be a variant of the former.%以红皮红心、绿皮红心、红皮白心和白皮白心4种不同肉质颜色的32份萝卜品种为材料,室内检测红色肉质萝卜的色素含量及镜检观测不同颜色肉质萝卜的核型.结果表明,供试红色肉质萝卜色素含量变幅为3.4‰~28.8%,基因型间存在显著差异.不同颜色肉质萝卜品种的染色体数目均为2n=2x=18,且未见随体,红皮红心萝卜核型公式为2n=2x=14m+4 sm,属于2A型,核不对称系数为59.28%;绿皮红心萝卜核型公式为2n=2 x=16m+2 sm,属于1B型;红皮白心萝卜核型公式为2 n=2 x=18 m,属于1A型;白皮白心萝卜核型公式为2 n=2x=16m+2sm,属于1A型.从核型进化看,红色肉质萝卜比白色肉质萝卜进化

  3. The impact of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-involved rape among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.

  4. There are no "innocent victims": the influence of just world beliefs and prior victimization on rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, Rebecca L; Carmody, Dianne Cyr

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing data from an online survey of 979 university students, this study explores the relationship between prior sexual assault victimization experiences, belief in a just world, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that men, younger respondents, and those with less education were more likely to support rape myths. Support for just world beliefs and rape myths were also positively associated, while rape victims exhibited less support for rape myths than non-victims. Implications for future studies are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The Relationship Between Television Sports Exposure and Rape Myth Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Sexism and Sexual Objectification of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; McNallie, Jenna

    2016-06-30

    Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance. These results suggest that sports programming contributes to the perpetuation of rape myths in society. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. [Analysis of genomic DNA methylation level in radish under cadmium stress by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Li-Wang; Gong, Yi-Qin; Huang, Dan-Qiong; Wang, Feng; He, Ling-Li

    2007-06-01

    The level of cytosine methylation induced by cadmium in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome was analysed using the technique of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). The MSAP ratios in radish seedling exposed to cadmium chloride at the concentration of 50, 250 and 500 mg/L were 37%, 43% and 51%, respectively, and the control was 34%; the full methylation levels (C(m)CGG in double strands) were at 23%, 25% and 27%, respectively, while the control was 22%. The level of increase in MSAP and full methylation indicated that de novo methylation occurred in some 5'-CCGG sites under Cd stress. There was significant positive correlation between increase of total DNA methylation level and CdCl(2) concentration. Four types of MSAP patterns: de novo methylation, de-methylation, atypical pattern and no changes of methylation pattern were identified among CdCl(2) treatments and the control. DNA methylation alteration in plants treated with CdCl(2) was mainly through de novo methylation.

  7. Pattern of growth and 14C-assimilates distributions in relation to photosynthesis in radish plants treated with growth substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of radish plants, with very thin hypocotyl and with a normal storage organ, the rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration and dark respiration did not differ. Therefore, the conclusion may be advanced, that translocation to the swollen hypocotyl is not determinated by the photosynthetic productivity, but rather the by storage capacity. To check it this is connected with an unbalanced hormonal content, plants were treated with lanoline paste, with IAA, GA3, zeatin and all three in mixture or with injections of GA3-water solution into the swollen hypocotyl. In young radish plants, with high rate of growth of aerial parts, treatment with the above mentioned substances stimulated 14CO2-assimilation and increased retention of assimilates in 14C-donors, probably owing to retardation of their senescence. It increased the competition for photosynthates between shoot and storage organ. In older plants, in the stage of accumulation of nutrients in the swollen hypocotyl, IAA +GA3+zeatin did not affect 14CO2-assimilation, but in plants treated with growth regulators separately, assimilation decreased; IAA and GA3 stimulated transport and accumulation of labelled substances in the swollen hypocotyl. On the basis of experimental data the conclusion may be advanced that responsiveness of the particular organs and processes to growth regulators depends on the stage of plant development. Phytohormone did not changed quantitatively the pattern of 14C-assimilates distribution. They stimulated processes with preference for particular stages of development.

  8. Structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible and resistant radish (Raphanus sativus L., var. oleiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Grymaszewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible Raphanus sativus L. cv. "Siletina" and resistant radish cv. "Pegletta" was investigated. In the radish cultivar "Siletina" the syncytia most often appeared in the elongation zone of lateral roots. They were initiated in the procambium and pericycle but also included the parenchyma cells of vascular cylinder. In the susceptible cultivar "Siletina" the cells forming the female's syncytia were subject to hypertrophy. Their cytoplasmic density increased. The cytoplasm contained numerous organella. The proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum took place. Branched cell wall ingrowths were formed next to the vessels. In the male's syncytia the cells were only slightly increased. Their protoplasts contained few organelles. The cell wall ingrowths were poorly developed. In the syncytia of the resistant cultivar "Pegletta" there was only a slight increase of the cell volume. A well developed system of rough endoplasmic reticulum was observed in the protoplast. Distended ER cisterns contained fine fibrillar material. Material of similar structure also appeared in numerous small vacuoles. In resistant plants only some, not numerous, syncytia spreading in procambium fully developed and functioned long enough for the parasite females to mature. At an advanced stage of infection a well developed system of a rough ER was observed also in those syncytia and numerous vacuoles appeared.

  9. Multipurpose fodder trees in Ethiopia : farmers'perception, constraints to adoption and effect of long-term supplementation on sheep performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mekoya, A.

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations in Ethiopia have promoted exotic multipurpose fodder tree species particularly Sesbania sesban for livestock feed and soil improvement. Despite the apparent benefits, the number of farmers planting these trees was low. Moreover, some farmers feeding Sesbania sesban reported reproduction problems in sheep. The latter was supported by a few short term reproduction studies conducted in Ethiopia. The present thesis was conducted to assess farmers’ perceptions about multipurpose...

  10. Histological Investigations on an Intestinal Level in Common Carp, One Summer Old, Fed with Organic Selenium (Selplex Supplemented Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the intestinal mucosa and theimpact on the growth and consumption performances in one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitzand Galitian varieties. The research were conducted on a number of 392 fish, Lausitz variety divided in 2 groups andon 192 fish, Galitian variety, divided into 2 groups. The fish were raised in 2 ponds (one pond for the control groupand one pond for the experimental group, in a semi-intensive polyculture system. The rearing conditions wereidentical for the 2 groups. The fodder for the experimental group was supplemented with Selenium (0.03mg/kgfodder. At the end of the experiment, the Selenium supplementation had a positive influence on the height of theintestinal villi. The experimental group (both varieties showed significant differences compared with the controlgroup. The mean height of the intestinal microvilli from the experimental group, Lausitz variety, was 2.328μm,0.95% bigger compared to the same variety of the control group. The Galitian variety showed a mean height of themicrovilli of 2.227μm, 0.72% biger than the same variety of the control group. This development of the villistructures in the experimental groups led to an increase in the absorption surface of the intestine which explains theaccelerated growth and the improvement of the feed conversion ratio.

  11. Co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not affect cadmium toxicity in radish seeds (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, R Roshan; Grassi, G; Bergami, E; Marques-Santos, L F; Faleri, C; Liberatori, G; Corsi, I

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments on environmental fate models indicate that as nano waste, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) could reach terrestrial ecosystems thus potentially affecting environmental and human health. Plants can be therefore exposed to ENMs but controversial data in terms of fate and toxicity are currently available. Furthermore, there is a current lack of information on complex interactions/transformations to which ENMs undergo in the natural environment as for instance interacting with existing toxic compounds. The aim of the present study was to assess the behavior and biological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO 2 ) (Aeroxide P25, Degussa Evonik) and its interaction with cadmium (CdCl 2 ) in plants using radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L. Parvus) as model species. Radish seeds were exposed to n-TiO 2 (1-1000mg/L) and CdCl 2 (1-250mg/L) alone and in combination using a seed germination and seedling growth toxicity test OECD 208. Percentage of seed germination, germination index (GI) and root elongation were calculated. Cell morphology and oxidative stress parameters as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities (CAT) were measured in radish seeds after 5 days of exposure. Z-Average, PdI and Z-potential of n-TiO 2 in Milli-Q water as exposure medium were also determined. DLS analysis showed small aggregates of n-TiO 2 , negative Z-potential and stable PdI in seed's exposure media. Germination percentage, GI and root length resulted affected by n-TiO 2 exposure compared to controls. In particular, n-TiO 2 at 1mg/L and 100mg/L did not affect radish seeds germination (100%) while at concentration of 10mg/L, 200mg/L, 500mg/L, and 1000mg/L a slight but not significant decrease of germination % was observed. Similarly root length and GI resulted significantly higher in seeds exposed to 10mg/L and 200mg/L compared to 1mg/L, 100mg/L, 500mg/L, 1000mg/L and control (p germination % and GI compared to control seeds and a concentration dependent

  12. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorathiya, L M; Patel, M D; Tyagi, K K; Fulsoundar, A B; Raval, A P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50%) of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  13. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sorathiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50% of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  14. Nudity as a Disinhibiting Cue in a Date Rape Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Annabree; Kingston, Drew A; Lalumière, Martin L

    2016-05-01

    Situational factors likely play a role in date rape. The sexual inhibition hypothesis suggests that men are typically sexually inhibited by violence and non-consent, but that inhibition can also be disrupted. We attempted to determine if female nudity reduces inhibition of sexual arousal to non-consensual cues in sexually non-aggressive men. In two studies, heterosexual men (aged 18-25) were presented with six 2-min audiotaped narratives depicting consensual sexual interactions, non-consensual sexual interactions (rape), and non-sexual interactions (neutral) involving a man and a woman. In the first study, 20 participants saw pictures depicting nude or clothed women while listening to the stories. In the second study, 20 other participants saw videos depicting nude or clothed women exercising, also while listening to the stories. Genital responses and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggested that nudity may have a disinhibitory effect on sexual arousal to non-consensual cues, but only when presented in the form of moving images.

  15. Rape in World War II film: comparing narrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzadevych, Tetyana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.

  16. The cultural context of nondisclosure of alcohol-involved acquaintance rape among Asian American college women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Andrasik, Michele P; George, William H

    2015-01-01

    With high college enrollment and increasing alcohol use, Asian American (AA) college women may be at particular risk for experiencing alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Although AA women have expressed the weakest intentions to report rape when compared to other ethnic groups, cultural factors influencing these intentions remain unexamined. Guided by grounded theory, 17 self-identified AA college women were interviewed about how the average AA college woman would respond to an alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Despite awareness of benefits of disclosing rape, participants emphasized that nondisclosure would be the normative response. Three themes emerged from participants: institutional, sociocultural, and psychological contexts of nondisclosure. At an institutional level, nondisclosure referenced mental health and police services, which included Asian stereotypes and mistrust of police. Within a sociocultural context, rape nondisclosure focused on negative consequences on relationships with parents and, to a lesser extent, on friendships. Emotional avoidance and not labeling an acquaintance rape as rape were psychological strategies for rape nondisclosure. Participant's conceptualizations of mental and physical health concerns, specifically post-rape concerns, were framed within sociocultural/macrostructural contexts and may not match that of the more individualistic U.S. mainstream conceptualizations of health. Culturally sensitive rape education may be more effective in increasing rape prevention and support.

  17. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  18. Explicating the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in rape attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; White, Katherine M; Palk, Gavan R M

    2015-07-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that alcohol expectancies may influence people's rape perceptions, no study to date has measured context-specific expectancies comprehensively. This study represents an initial investigation of the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in young Australian adults' rape blame attributions. Using a vignette method, it was hypothesized that participants' stronger expectancy endorsement would predict lesser perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Participants (n = 210; 34.9% males; 18-25 years) read a hypothetical rape scenario and rated dimensions of blameworthiness attributed to the intoxicated sexual perpetrator and victim. Participants completed the Sexual Coercion and Sexual Vulnerability subscales of the Drinking Expectancy Sexual Vulnerabilities Questionnaire for the targets self, men, and women in addition to measures of traditional gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, as expected, stronger sexual coercion expectancy predicted lower perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Self-oriented expectancy predicted evaluations of the perpetrator whereas other-oriented expectancy predicted victim evaluations. These effects were robust after controlling for gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Alcohol expectancies appear to be part of a network of beliefs and attitudes which perpetuate biased rape attributions and may be useful to challenge in altering rape perceptions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Examining the Psychological Effect of Rape Acknowledgment: The Interaction of Acknowledgment Status and Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E; Leheney, Emma K; Ballman, Alesha D; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-07-01

    Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants. The participants completed measures of sexual assault experiences, ambivalent sexism, and depression and PTSD symptoms. The results supported a significant interaction between acknowledgement status and benevolent sexism in relation to both depression and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, the present study failed to find support for an interaction between acknowledgment status and hostile sexism. The clinical implications suggest that rather than seeing acknowledging rape as essential to the recovery process, clinicians should assess for and take into account other factors that may contribute to psychological functioning. Additionally, the findings support that more complex models of trauma recovery should be investigated with the goal of working toward a more comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal process of rape acknowledgment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How Motherhood Triumphs Over Trauma Among Mothers With Children From Genocidal Rape in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeth Kantengwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rape is a common occurrence during genocide and the presence of children born as a result of rape poses a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper treats mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi as a separate category of survivors and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood in their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen women from Kigali city, Karongi District in the Western Province and Huye District in the Southern Province. Qualitative analysis of individual interviews and focus groups provided a means to explore in-depth the perceptions of mothers and the value of motherhood. It was found that mothers of children of rape experienced challenges raising their children, especially in the early stages of parenting. Social stigma related to rape and children born of rape created challenges, as did the lack of psychosocial resources for the women, particularly when faced with disclosing paternity to the children. However, despite these and other difficulties, motherhood played a positive role for many women, often providing a reason to live again after the genocide. These findings show that positive experiences of motherhood can be key to the recovery of survivors of genocidal rape in Rwanda and points to future directions for research and health promotion among populations affected by conflict-related sexual violence.