Sample records for rape aggravated assault

  1. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.


    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  2. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits (United States)

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.


    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  3. Street Life: Aggravated and Sexual Assaults among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents. (United States)

    Terrell, Nathanial Eugene


    Examines aggravated and sexual assaults among 240 runaway and homeless adolescents (RHAs) in Des Moines (Iowa). Results suggest RHAs are at risk of life-threatening situations on the streets due to aggressive and abusive parents. Additionally, street life situations have significant impacts on the probability that RHAs will be victims of…

  4. A Danish model for treating victims of rape and sexual assault: The multidisciplinary public approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Elklit, Ask; Nielsen, Louise Hjort


    Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards of and the......Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards...... of and the framework behind these centers must be assessed and developed further to accommodate the growing need for rape trauma services in Europe and worldwide. This paper describes the experiences of a public Danish center for rape victims and proposes a management model for current and future rape victim centers....

  5. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of the Revictimization of Rape Victims (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.


    While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…

  6. Circumstances Surrounding Male Sexual Assault and Rape: Findings from the National Violence against Women Survey (United States)

    Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth


    Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the…

  7. Evolution of Rape Myths and Sexual Assaults in Newspaper Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen Tsai


    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the coverage of three newspapers of rape in the daily Press in Taiwan. The idea that rape is a sexual rather than an aggressive act encourages people not to take it seriously as a crime-an attitude frequently revealed in comments by defense attorneys and newspaper. The authors’ investigated that the female victim who did not know most of her attackers will be portrayed as helpless and not responsible for her victimization. The newspapers sustained and reinforced the myths that a woman who is having consensual sex cannot be raped, and if so, she is held culpable and perceived as “asking for it.” A content analysis of newspapers’ headlines and coverage between 2002 and 2013 showed that more than 50% endorsed a rape myth.

  8. Rape Myth Acceptance in Sexually Assaulted Adolescents' School Contexts: Associations with Depressed Mood and Alcohol Use. (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Sessarego, Stephanie N; Pittenger, Samantha L; Edwards, Katie M; Banyard, Victoria L


    High school students exposed to sexual assault (SA) are at risk for negative outcomes like depressed mood and high-risk drinking. Although evidence suggests that both social contexts and internalized stigma can affect recovery from SA, no research to date has directly examined the presence of stigma in social contexts such as high schools as a correlate of adjustment after SA. In this study, the self-reported rape myth acceptance (RMA) of 3080 students from 97 grade cohorts in 25 high schools was used to calculate grade-mean and school-mean RMA, which was entered into multilevel models predicting depressed mood and alcohol use among N = 263 SA survivors within those schools. Two forms of RMA were assessed (i.e., rape denial and traditional gender expectations). Results indicate that higher grade-mean rape denial was associated with higher risk for depressed mood among high school boys and girls exposed to SA, and higher grade-mean traditional gender expectations were associated with higher risk for alcohol use among girls exposed to SA. Survivors' own RMA and school-level RMA were not significantly associated with their depressed mood or alcohol use. Although causality cannot be concluded, these findings suggest that interventions that reduce stigma in social contexts should be explored further as a strategy to improve well-being among high-school-aged survivors of SA. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  9. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration. (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline


    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Sexual Assault Supportive Attitudes: Rape Myth Acceptance and Token Resistance in Greek and Non-Greek College Students From Two University Samples in the United States. (United States)

    Canan, Sasha N; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Crawford, Brandon L


    Colleges are rape-prone cultures with high rates of sexual victimization. Fraternities' and sororities' relationships with sexual assault are consistent themes in literature focusing on sexual violence among college students. Previous research suggests that fraternity men are more likely to endorse rape-supportive attitudes compared with non-Greek men or sorority women. The present study examines rape-supportive attitudes as well as rape and sexual assault victimization in college students with a focus on gender and Greek-life (i.e., involvement in fraternities or sororities) status variables. College students (N = 1,002) completed a survey including the Token Resistance to Sex Scale (TRSS), Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Short Form (IRMA-S), and items related to past experiences of nonconsensual sex. Two regression models tested predictors of token resistance and rape myth acceptance. Chi-square analyses tested between-group differences of experiencing rape and sexual assault. Gender (p myth acceptance than any other group. Chi-square analyses indicate women more frequently report experiences of rape (χ 2 = 25.57, df = 1, p myth acceptance and token resistance by Greeks, who influence college party culture, could be contributing to a culture conducive to rape. Findings demonstrate a continued need for interventions focused on shifting sociocultural dynamics (e.g., traditional roles and sexual scripting) on college campuses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Alcohol-Related Victim Behavior and Rape Myth Acceptance as Predictors of Victim Blame in Sexual Assault Cases. (United States)

    Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Krahé, Barbara; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L


    Two studies analyzed the influence of victim behavior, drink type, and observer rape myth acceptance (RMA) on attributions of blame to victims of sexual assault. In Study 1, people higher in RMA blamed the victim more when she accepted rather than rejected the aggressor's invitation to buy her a drink. In Study 2, we analyzed if the effects depended on who offered the invitation for a drink (a friend or aggressor). RMA was more closely related to victim blame when she accepted (vs. rejected) the offer of a drink from the aggressor. In both studies, drink type (alcoholic vs. nonalcoholic) did not interact with the other variables.

  12. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault. (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke


    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The victimology of rape in Nigeria: Examining victims' post-assault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The secondary victimisation suffered by rape victims in socially conservative Nigeria is not only in the hands of their families, friends, and significant others, but also through the agents and process of criminal justice system of the country. Previous research into rape in Nigeria has often neglected the aftermath of forcible ...

  14. Barriers to working with sexual assault survivors: a qualitative study of rape crisis center workers. (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E; Townsend, Stephanie M


    To better understand barriers service providers may face when advocating for survivors, a study using grounded theory and qualitative, semistructured interviews was conducted of rape victim advocates (N= 25) working in rape crisis centers in a large metropolitan area. Broader societal attitudes framed and were reflected in institutional responses to victims and in barriers faced by advocates working with survivors. Organizational barriers noted by advocates related to resources, environmental factors, professionalization, and racism. Staff burnout was a major barrier affecting advocates' ability to help survivors. Finally, the most salient direct service barrier was secondary victimization by criminal justice and medical or mental health systems.

  15. Rape (sexual assault) - overview (United States)

    ... This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with ... for a different reason, such as headaches, eating problems, pain, or sleep problems. Emotional reactions can vary ...

  16. What Is Rape and Date Rape? (United States)

    ... fault. What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any kind of sexual activity that you do not agree to, including: inappropriate touching vaginal, anal, or oral sex sex that you say ‘no’ to rape ...

  17. Alcohol and Sexual Assault (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam


    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  18. Sexual assault. (United States)


    This document provides information on issues related to sexual assault in the US. The specific topics briefly discussed are incidence, psychological impact, assault assessment kits, medical evaluation, legal concerns, counseling, follow-up, and special circumstances. It is stated that a woman who is sexually assaulted would experience intense anxiety, anger or fear, and rape-trauma syndrome. The physician evaluating the victim should be aware of the state statutory requirements, which may involve the use of kits for gathering evidence. Informed consent from the victim and meticulous physical examination of the entire body should be performed with photographs and drawings made in the injured areas. In counseling, the physician should talk with the patient concerning the degree of the injury and the probability of infection or pregnancy. There is a need for patients to be reevaluated concerning her medical and psychological status.

  19. Accord of 14 April 1989 by which four special female agents of the Public Ministry are designated to deal with sexual crimes of rape and indecent assault. (United States)


    This Accord designates 4 special female agents of the Mexican Public Ministry to deal with the sexual crimes of rape and indecent assault, with the objective, among others, of destroying the impunity with which these crimes are committed and strengthening the trust that necessarily must exist between the authorities constitutionally appointed to bring about justice and the women who require it. It also specifies that medical, psychological, gynecological, and other attention required by a victim will be provided by a woman with skill in the various areas. An Accord of 6 September 1989 (Diario Oficial, Vol. 432, No. 5, 7 September 1989, pp. 20-23), enlarges the responsibilities and competence of these female agents to cover all sexual offenses contained in the Criminal Code. It provides that the agents have the power to initiate, pursue, and bring to a conclusion inquiries relating to such crimes. Appended to the Accord are operative rules relating to the agents and a Technical Council that supervises them. The rules contain procedures to be followed in dealing with and attending to the victims of sexual crimes. Bases of collaboration between the Attorney General of the Federal District and the Secretary of Health with respect to the examination of women who have been the victims of sex crimes appear in the Diario Oficial, Vol. 433, No. 19, 27 October 1989, pp. 9-10).

  20. Heterogeneity of existing research relating to sexual violence, sexual assault and rape precludes meta-analysis of injury data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Kieran M


    In order for medical practitioners to adequately explain to the court the findings of their clinical examinations of victims of sexual violence, they must have access to research data which will place their findings in to context. Unfortunately, existing research has reported a very wide range of injury prevalence data. This papers aims to provide an explanation for this wide variation in results and, furthermore, this paper aims to establish if it is possible to carry out a meta-analysis of existing research data, pertaining to the prevalence of injury after sexual assault. It is suggested that pooling of individual study results may allow statistically robust determination of the true prevalence of injury in victims of sexual violence. It is concluded that heterogeneity in research methodology, between existing research studies, is responsible for the broad range of reported prevalence rates. Finally, this heterogeneity is seen to preclude robust meta-analysis.

  1. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask


    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  2. Profile of rape victims attending the Karl Bremer Hospital Rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, there is a lack of available data on the per-episode risk of HIV infection with specific sexual encounters,1 and in combination with poor ... the incident of sexual assault. • To obtain data regarding the use of newly provided ARV therapy as ..... Baleta A. Journalist's rape adds to rising rape statistics. Lancet 1999 ...

  3. Sexual assault in dating relationships. (United States)

    Rhynard, J; Krebs, M; Glover, J


    This article focuses on acquaintance rape, which under Canadian law constitutes a form of sexual assault. Frequency of acquaintance rape often is underestimated due to under-reporting, resulting in a local perception that acquaintance rape rarely occurs in a small Canadian community. A survey was conducted to determine whether acquaintance rape does occur in this community. One hundred sixty-four male and female students from grades 8-12 completed a questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of respondents reported being forced into some type of sexual activity. Based on the survey, this article explores the type of force used, the relationship between acquaintance rape and use of alcohol and drugs, and the relationship between acquaintance rape and the ability to indicate to a partner to stop a behavior. Results confirmed a need to develop programs to prevent rather than merely respond to issues of sexual assault on a date.

  4. Woman-to-woman rape and sexual assault, and its impact upon the occupation of work: Victim/survivors' life roles of worker or student as disruptive and preservative. (United States)

    Twinley, Rebecca


    Woman-to-woman rape and sexual assault globally remains largely unknown and unaddressed. Expectedly, victim/survivors often cope alone, or with limited support, in the traumatic aftermath of their sexual victimisation. Work is one occupation that is impacted upon at this time. The study explored the perceived impacts of woman-to-woman rape and sexual assault, the subsequent experience of disclosure, reaction, and support, and the consequences for victim/survivors' subjective experience of occupation. The study combined a sociological auto/biographical approach with an occupational science perspective. A web-based survey generated initial data, and was also used as a sampling tool; subsequently, 10 respondents were interviewed face-to-face, in various UK locations. An eleventh respondent shared her story through correspondence. Four key themes emerged: 1) Identity; 2) Emotion; 3) Survival; and 4) Occupation. The latter, occupation, incorporated study and work. For these victim/survivors, work or education can be experienced as either: disrupted (triggering) or as preservative (maintenance). Their life roles as worker or student were impacted by feelings that they could have performed better and achieved more. Occupational therapists and other relevant service providers could work with sexually victimised people in order to participate more satisfactorily and healthily in the occupation of work.

  5. Rape as a Weapon of War: Should Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examiners (SAMFEs) be Added to Female Engagement Teams (FETs) in Africa (United States)


    rape as a weapon of war. The ICC includes rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution , forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form...Nigeria, and South Sudan; providing urban planning and infrastructure expertise in Haiti and Mexico ; replacing evacuated staff in Yemen...slavery, enforced prostitution , forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity as a crime against

  6. Party Rape, Nonconsensual Sex, and Affirmative Consent Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly Oliver


    ... of communication, the communication of pleasure. [...]given the increasingly slippery slope between sex and sexual assault, and uncertainty about what counts as rape, many women are subject to sexual aggression, even sexual assault, and are not...

  7. Rape (For Teens) (United States)

    ... traces of a sexual assault. But being examined right away is the best way to ensure you get proper medical treatment. Immediate medical attention also helps when people decide to report the crime, providing evidence needed to prosecute the rapist if a criminal case is pursued. If you've been raped ...

  8. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: Updated Findings


    Resnick, Heidi S.; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Self-Brown, Shannon


    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape in efforts to ameliorate post assault distress. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address this problem,...

  9. Civil-military relations and sexual assault


    Bluhm, Brandi K.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Bureau of Justice Statistics' Criminal Victimization Survey reported that there were 284,350 rapes or sexual assaults in the United States in 2014. In the same year, the Department of Defense (DOD) Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office (SAPRO) estimated that 18,900 sexual assaults occurred in the military. In recent years, Congress has been increasing pressure on the military to improve sexual assault prevention and respons...

  10. The impact of rape acknowledgment on survivor outcomes: The moderating effects of rape myth acceptance. (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Newins, Amie R; White, Susan W


    Little is known about how rape acknowledgment relates to posttrauma functioning; recent research suggests the effect may depend on additional factors. In the current study, the moderating effect of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the relationships between rape acknowledgment and mental health outcomes was examined. A sample of 181 female rape survivors recruited from a university completed an online survey assessing RMA, rape acknowledgment, depression symptoms, and alcohol use. Generally, the results supported that RMA moderated the influence of rape acknowledgment on depression symptoms and average quantity per drinking episode, but not frequency of alcohol use. The findings demonstrated that when individuals endorsed high levels of RMA, acknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than unacknowledged rape survivors. Among individuals low on RMA, unacknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than acknowledged rape survivors. It is recommended that clinicians recognize the role of survivor beliefs, such as RMA, in the relationship between labeling sexual assault experiences and mental health consequences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 20, 2014 ... a psychologist by the survivor support officer (SSO), who is a trauma counsellor. Within the context of Limpopo Province, survivors who reported sexual assault at the clinic had experienced stranger rape and rape by non-strangers who were not intimate partners, whilst those who reported physical assault ...

  12. A Program on Preventing Sexual Assault Directed toward Greek Leaders. (United States)

    Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia

    This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…

  13. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.


    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  14. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act (United States)


    ... May 23, 2012 Part VI The President Memorandum of May 17, 2012--Implementing the Prison Rape... 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act... assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA...

  15. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim. (United States)

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  16. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul


    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  17. Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Website Analysis (United States)


    35 3. Analyzing Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network Website ....35 D. DEVLOPING THEMATIC WEBSITE ANALSIS METRIC (T- WAM...portable document format PLAIN Plain Language Action and Information Network RAINN Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network SARC sexual assault...the literature review. The Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN) website ( was used to develop the WAM baseline and

  18. The costs of rape. (United States)

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M


    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization.

  19. The Experience of Male Rape in Non-Institutionalised Settings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the effects of the assault on the self, disclosure, the learning and life changes brought about by the assault, the victims' feelings towards their assailants and the effect of the assault on the victims' relationships. This study hopes to facilitate further descriptive research on the phenomenon of male rape in order that greater ...

  20. Sexually assaulted victims are getting younger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels


    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports produced by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), circumstances were.......5% were under 30 years of age. 53% knew the perpetrator. More than one perpetrator was reported in 11%. 46% of the assaulted victims had a total number of 1-5 observed lesions and these were observed in all types of perpetrator relationship. Eight victims with more than 20 lesions were assaulted...

  1. Male victims of sexual assault; 10 years' experience from a Danish Assault Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene


    in several ways; they were more often assaulted by a stranger; more likely to be assaulted by more than one perpetrator; more likely being victim of drug rape; less likely to have experienced previous sexual abuse and less willing to report their assault to the police. Being victim of a sexual assault......This study aims to provide descriptive data regarding male victims of sexual assault seen at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, Denmark. All 55 male victims attending the center in the time period of March 2001 until December 2010 underwent a standardized data collection. Data...... included information on the victim and the sexual assault. Male victims accounted for less than 2% of the total number of visits to the center in this time period. Fifty three percent were between 15 and 24 years. In all cases the perpetrator was male, and 25% were assaulted by more than one perpetrator...

  2. Incapacitated rape and alcohol use: a prospective analysis. (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Neighbors, Clayton; Martell, Joel; Fossos, Nicole; Larimer, Mary E


    This study examined timing of alcohol-related sexual assaults (incapacitated rape) in relation to both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. The sample was drawn from a randomly selected pool of college students across three campuses (n=1238) followed over a three year time period. 91% of students never experienced an incapacitated rape, 2% reported an incapacitated rape prior to the first assessment point (n=30), and 6% reported one over the course of the study (n=76). Results indicated that incapacitated rape was associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences in the years prior to the assault. Incapacitated rape was also associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences during the year in which the rape took place and subsequent years, with highest rates measured for the year of the rape. These results suggest alcohol use can function as both risk factor and consequence of sexual victimization.

  3. Rape reporting: "Classic Rape" and the behavior of law. (United States)

    Clay-Warner, Jody; McMahon-Howard, Jennifer


    Two theories of rape reporting, the Classic Rape perspective and Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law, are tested in this article. We offer the first comprehensive multivariate test of Classic Rape predictions among a nationally representative sample of victims, as well as the first test of Black's predictions for rape reporting. Through the construction of multinomial regression models, we are able to examine reporting patterns for both victims and third parties. Weapon use and physical injury consistently predicted reporting. The likelihood of victim reporting significantly increased when assaults occurred either in public or through a "home blitz," whereas place of assault did not affect the likelihood of third-party reporting. On the other hand, victim-offender relationship significantly affected the likelihood of third-party reporting but was not significant in the victim-reporting models. There were mixed findings regarding Black's stratification and morphology predictions, and we found no significant effects for culture, organization, or social control. Overall, these findings lend greater support to the Classic Rape perspective than to Black's model.

  4. Sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001......) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... was involved in 60% of the cases. One-third of the victims had experienced a previous sexual assault(s). Women were more likely to report to the police when they were assaulted by a stranger (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3-2.6) and sustained a physical injury (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1...

  5. A Compendium of Sexual Assault Research (United States)


    the experimental video. Pinzone-Glover, Gidycz, and Jacobs , 1998 College students 152 Experiment, survey Analyze the effects of a sexual assault...Layman, Cindy L. Rich, Marie Crothers, Julius Gylys, Abigail Matorin, and Cecilia Dine Jacobs , “An Evaluation of an Acquaintance Rape Prevention...gender differences when designing rape prevention programs. Lefley, Harriet P., Clarissa S. Scott, Maria Llabre, and Dorothy Hicks, “Cultural

  6. The Experience of Male Rape in Non-Institutionalised Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    medical and psychological requirements of rape and sexual assault victims .... and can entail a higher degree of psychological manipulation rather ..... and happiness. Conclusion and Future Research. Among the primary observations evident in the descriptions obtained in this study is that the rape has tremendous power in ...

  7. Date Rape (For Teens) (United States)

    ... Breath? Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Date Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Date Rape Print A ... Yourself Getting Help Reporting a Rape What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might ...

  8. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment. (United States)

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L


    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  9. prevalence of sexual assault in asendabo town, oromiya region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dept of Population and Family Health

    punishable by law and 146 (45.2%) respondents believed that penal code of Ethiopia on rape that states maximum of 10 years imprisonment for the act of rape is inadequate. CONCLUSION: sexual assault is an important health and social problem-affecting women. Hence there is a need for more concerted efforts to be ...

  10. Depressive symptoms after a sexual assault among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive symptoms after a sexual assault among women: understanding victim-perpetrator relationships and the role of social perceptions. ... it is more generally assumed that multiple perpetrator rapes, stranger rapes and those with weapons would result in more psychological trauma and thus more enduring symptoms.

  11. Depressive symptoms after a sexual assault among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual assault can be psychologically devastating for survivors and this aspect of impact is often not addressed in post-rape care. After rape, survivors often develop a cluster of symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may develop depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, panic attacks, substance abuse.

  12. What Is an Empowerment Approach to Working with Sexual Assault Survivors? (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.


    This exploratory study sought to better understand what constitutes the empowerment approach used by rape crisis advocates working with sexual assault survivors. A grounded theory, qualitative, semistructured interview study was conducted of rape victim advocates (N=25) working in rape crisis centers in a large metropolitan area. Several…

  13. Evaluation of a sexual assault education/prevention program for female U.S. Navy personnel. (United States)

    Rau, Terri J; Merrill, Lex L; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Stander, Valerie A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Dyslin, Christopher W; Crouch, Julie L; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S


    The U.S. Navy Sexual Assault Intervention Training (SAIT) program for women was evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The SAIT uses multiple presentation modalities (lecture, slides, discussion, film) to provide information related to sexual assault, including risk factors, consequences, prevention, and relevant military regulations. Female personnel who had completed basic training (N = 550) participated in the SAIT or a Comparison condition, and then completed measures of rape knowledge, empathy for rape victims, and acceptance of rape myths (false beliefs about rape justifying sexual violence). Results showed that the SAIT increased factual knowledge about rape. In addition, the SAIT increased empathy with rape victims in some groups of women. However, the program did not reduce women's rape myth acceptance. Given the enormity of the problem of sexual assault and these promising initial findings, additional research on the efficacy of the SAIT is clearly warranted.

  14. Women's Appraisals of Sexual-Assault Risk in Dating Situations. (United States)

    Cue, Kelly L.; And Others


    Investigated how 165 female college students appraised their sexual assault risk in hypothetical dating situations, varying male partner characteristics and the consumption of alcohol. Findings suggest that women are partially accurate in making sexual-assault risk appraisals, and thus may benefit from rape prevention education that specifically…

  15. Sexual assault trauma and trauma change. (United States)

    Ruch, L O; Leon, J J


    An exploratory model of variables affecting level of sexual assault trauma at given times and change in trauma levels over time is developed and tested using a sample of female rape victims admitted to a treatment center over a two-year period. Based on a one-way analysis of variance and multiple classification analysis, the findings indicate that a previous rape best explains trauma change, while victim's demographics, social supports, and other prior life stress variables are important at specific time periods during the rape trauma syndrome. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of treatment-related issues.

  16. Inmates' Cultural Beliefs about Sexual Violence and Their Relationship to Definitions of Sexual Assault (United States)

    Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.


    Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…

  17. 76 FR 18633 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011 (United States)


    ... the trauma of sexual assault. And ultimately, we must prevent sexual assault before it happens. Under...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8643 of March 31, 2011 National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month... confront rape and other forms of sexual violence as a deplorable crime. Too many victims suffer unaided...

  18. Breaking the silence surrounding rape. (United States)

    Ramsay, S


    This article documents the turning points in the rape issue, which led to the acknowledgement of its prevalence in the world, especially in South Africa. November 25 marked the first day of the "Take a Stand" movement in South Africa, which coincided with the International Day Against Violence Against Women. This movement involves peaceful protests and poster campaigns, followed by months of sustained news coverage of rape. This was launched by a coalition of organizations, including women's groups, churches, businesses, and trades unions, that are speaking out against all forms of sexual violence. In the international community, rape is starting to be taken seriously. In 1996, sexual assault was cited as a crime against humanity by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. In addition, a forum in London, UK, on November 25, discussed rape issues and recommendations on how to prevent such violence were given. The need for a change in legal systems, which currently discourage women from taking legal actions, was also recognized. In view of this, the medical community is challenged to provide sensitive and appropriate help to women who have been assaulted.

  19. Sexual Assault of Older Women by Strangers (United States)

    Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve


    This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…

  20. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravati...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  1. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury. (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary


    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  2. Reactions to rape: a military forensic psychiatrist's perspective. (United States)

    Ritchie, E C


    Accusations of rape or sexual harassment are currently very high-profile in the military. This article discusses rape allegations in the military legal system from a psychiatric perspective. The original definition of "rape trauma syndrome" and subsequent psychiatric thinking about the diagnosis are briefly outlined. Common reactions seen in military victims in this era are described. A prototypical military case is presented. An adequate evaluation of an alleged victim is outlined. Credentials and preparation of an expert witness are also briefly discussed, with cautions about the use of expert testimony in cases of alleged sexual assault and rape trauma syndrome.

  3. War rape, natality and genocide. (United States)

    Schott, Robin May


    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  4. Male rape--the silent victims. (United States)

    Ellis, Colin Derek


    This literature review examines the issue of male rape and the possible counselling strategies that may assist in recovery. There are several misconceptions surrounding male rape which can result in the under-reporting and secondary or sanctuary victimisation of the survivor. Men who have been raped may believe that it attacks the very essence of what it is to be masculine and male. Many may not seek help unless they perceive a need for immediate attention, such as physical trauma requiring medical assistance. The literature also reveals that when men do seek help they may be treated poorly. Secondary victimisation or sanctuary trauma results when there is a lack of empathy and understanding of the effect that rape can have on the survivor, such as rape-trauma syndrome. Training in this area is needed for the police, emergency department staff, nurses, general practitioners, and community health services. Management of survivors starts with examining our own beliefs about male rape. Many of the reported counselling strategies are based on therapists' observations, trauma theories, and research related to child abuse or sexual assault of females which may not be transferable to men who have been raped. Education and counselling of survivors' support networks must be considered as part of a holistic approach to management. Secondary prevention strategies aimed at the broader community are required to assist survivors to come forward without fear of further victimisation because of stereotyping.

  5. Plan to Prevent and Respond to Sexual Assault of Military Men (United States)


    2012) . Myths about male rape: A literature review. Psychology of Men & Masculinity , 13, 211-226. 2 Davies, M. (2002). Male sexual assault victims... Violence , 11, 441 -448. Dye, E., & Roth, S. (1990). Psychotherapists’ knowledge about and attitudes toward sexual assault victim clients. Psychology...Edwards, K. M. (2012). Myths about male rape: A literature review. Psychology of Men & Masculinity , 13, 21 1-226. 6 Morral, A.R. , Gore, K.L

  6. College women's perceptions regarding resistance to sexual assault. (United States)

    Easton, A N; Summers, J; Tribble, J; Wallace, P B; Lock, R S


    College women's perceptions about resistance to sexual assault were examined. Twenty-one percent of the 334 women surveyed stated that they had been sexually assaulted. The vast majority of participants had changed their lifestyles to prevent a sexual assault. Less than 1 woman in 5 of those surveyed had taken a self-defense class. Participants believed that resisting sexual assault by a stranger with a weapon was more likely than resisting an unarmed attacker to increase their chances of being physically harmed, raped, or murdered. Twenty-two percent of the participants said they were "very likely" to resist sexual assault by a stranger with a weapon; 52% would resist a stranger without a weapon. The findings indicate the need for an increase in the number of women taking self-defense classes and a revision in women's perceptions about resisting sexual assault.

  7. It's Her Fault: Student Acceptance of Rape Myths On Two College Campuses. (United States)

    Hayes, Rebecca M; Abbott, Rebecca L; Cook, Savannah


    The present study examined factors that are associated with an individual's adherence to rape myths at two colleges located in the same town. Particularly, we examined sex, race, and participants' drinking behavior in relation to rape myth acceptance. We found that males and heavy drinkers are more likely than females and non/low drinkers to adhere to rape myths. An interaction between males and drinking was also found indicating a moderated effect of gender on rape myth acceptance. In addition, the college with sexual assault programming did not experience a lowered acceptance of rape myths compared with the college with no programming. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Correlates of Disclosure Cessation After Sexual Assault. (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Allen, Nicole


    Contacts with responders after sexual assault may influence further disclosure, but this possibility has not been explored empirically. Thus, this study investigates associations between survivors' contacts with responders and their decisions to discontinue disclosure. Fifty-four college students with a history of unwanted sexual experiences described 94 ordered contacts with responders. Results indicate that survivors' perceptions of responsiveness were not associated with continued disclosure, but survivors were more likely to continue disclosing when they perceived more rape myth acceptance from responders and when the assault was more recent. These findings highlight survivors' tenacity in meeting their needs, even after problematic responses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. sexual assault

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2014 ... BACKGROUND: Sexual assault affects one out of every five women, and it is a substantial public health ... public health and human rights problem around ..... against women of a younger age, especially those aged 15 to 19, living in single parent households and grandparent headed households (17).

  10. Rape Culture and Campus Environment: An Introduction for Student Affairs Professionals. (United States)

    Watson, Lemeul W.; Derby, Dustin


    Provides a brief introduction for student affairs professional to the American rape culture. Offers suggestions and examples to assist student affairs professionals in their quest to develop adequate programs and services on their campus with regard to rape and sexual assault incidents. (Contains 31 references.) (GCP)

  11. Where Do I Start?: A Parents' Guide for Talking to Teens about Acquaintance Rape. (United States)

    Bateman, Py; Stringer, Gayle M.

    This is a booklet designed for parents interested in helping their teenage children avoid the possibility of sexual assault. The first section of the booklet provides background on acquaintance rape, discussing attitudes about acquaintance rape, what boys and girls learn about sexual activity, gender different perceptions, and teenagers and peer…

  12. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: updated findings. (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G


    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault.

  13. 78 FR 20221 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013 (United States)


    ..., survivors are more empowered to speak out and get help. But even today, too many women, men, and children.... While rape and sexual assault affect all communities, those at the greatest risk are children, teens... investigate cases of rape, and breaks down barriers that keep lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender victims...

  14. The management of sexual assault victims at Odi District Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University. Correspondence ... interviews were conducted with 20 rape victims, three rape crisis counsellors, nursing staff and doctors working in the casualty .... Medical staff should increase their knowledge and skills in sexual assault.

  15. Enhancing Care and Advocacy for Sexual Assault Survivors on Canadian Campuses (United States)

    Quinlan, Elizabeth; Clarke, Allyson; Miller, Natasha


    Recent media coverage of the rape chant at Saint Mary's University, the misogynist Facebook posts at Dalhousie's dental school, and the suspension of the University of Ottawa's hockey team have brought the topic of campus sexual assault under intense public scrutiny and the media accounts point to a widespread systemic rape culture on Canadian…

  16. Sorority Women's and Fraternity Men's Rape Myth Acceptance and Bystander Intervention Attitudes (United States)

    Bannon, R. Sean; Brosi, Matthew W.; Foubert, John D.


    Sorority women and fraternity men are more likely than other students to be survivors and perpetrators of sexual assault, respectively. The present study examined sorority and fraternity members' rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and bystander willingness to help in potential sexual assault situations. Sorority women were more rejecting of…

  17. "Miscommunication" and Undergraduate Women's Conceptualizations of Sexual Assault: A Qualitative Analysis. (United States)

    Dardis, Christina M; Kraft, Kathryn M; Gidycz, Christine A


    Approximately 60% of legally defined rape victims do not label their experiences as "rape," most of whom label the experience as "a serious miscommunication." However, little research has examined why women choose this label. Labeling rape as a miscommunication could be problematic if chosen due to stereotypical conceptions that one's experience is not "real" rape. The present study used a mixed-methodological approach to understand why women might refer to rape as a "miscommunication," and how their reasons for labeling might differ from those who label their experiences and those who are nonlabeled (i.e., unequivocally state that they were "not victimized"). Participants included 123 undergraduate women who experienced rape. Participants responded to how they labeled rape and answered questions regarding assault characteristics, disclosure, reporting, and self- and perpetrator blame. Chi-square analyses assessed labeling group differences. Responses to an open-ended question about factors contributing to their labeling decision were content analyzed. Whereas miscommunication-labeled and nonlabeled victims reported similar assault characteristics in the quantitative analyses, qualitative content analyses revealed varying reasons for labeling rape as miscommunication, not victimization, and rape. Over three quarters of miscommunication-labeled victims reported that one or more of the following factors influenced their labeling: victim and perpetrator substance use, sexual activity prior to the rape, and perceptions that one did not express nonconsent strongly enough and that the perpetrator "did not realize" their lack of desire. Whereas miscommunication-labeled and nonlabeled victims reported similar assault characteristics, the extent to which those assault characteristics affected their labeling differed. Those who labeled their experiences as miscommunication gave reasons for their label that centered on factors which reflect inconsistencies between their

  18. The Role of Alcohol and Victim Sexual Interest in Spanish Students' Perceptions of Sexual Assault (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara


    Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…

  19. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault among University Students (United States)

    Howard, Donna E.; Griffin, Melinda A.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.


    This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: "experienced an unwanted sexual advance" or "was the victim of sexual assault or date rape" as a result of another's alcohol use. The predictors…

  20. Walking the Woods: The Lived Experience of Sexual Assault Survival for Women in College (United States)

    Monahan-Kreishman, Mollie M.


    This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sexual assault survival for women in college. Through a grounding in the philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology (Gadamer, 1960/2000; Heidegger, 1927/1962, 1968, 1928/1998, 1971/2001, 1950/2002), this work uncovers the lives of six sexual assault survivors who lived through rape during…

  1. Perceptions of interpersonal versus intergroup violence: the case of sexual assault.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Droogendyk

    Full Text Available The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime", crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.

  2. Perceptions of Interpersonal Versus Intergroup Violence: The Case of Sexual Assault (United States)

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C.


    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a “hate crime”), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger. PMID:25419567

  3. "Rape Culture" language and the news media: contested versus non-contested cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April COBOS


    Full Text Available The American news media has recently reported on several rape and sexual assault cases in various cultural settings, sparking public conversations about rape culture in different cultural contexts. The article is focused as a Critical Discourse Analysis that compares the language use in news articles from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal over a six months period in order to more clearly understand the way the news media uses language in regards to gender and sexual assault and creates a spectrum of valid versus contested reports of sexual assault in different cultural settings.

  4. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca


    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  5. Survivors on Campus: A Dialogue about Sexual Assault (United States)

    Gray-Rosendale, Laura; Dierking, Kirsten


    At a conference last fall, Kirsten Dierking came across "College Girl: A Memoir," a book by Laura Gray-Rosendale that tells the story of a brutal sexual assault she experienced as a college student. While she purchased a copy of the book, it sat unopened on her desk for a while; also a victim of brutal rape in college, she was not sure…

  6. Don't tell: Military culture and male rape. (United States)

    O'Brien, Carol; Keith, Jessica; Shoemaker, Lisa


    The issue of sexual assault that occurs during military service has been a focus of attention over the past several years. Although approximately 50% of survivors of military sexual assault are men, virtually all of the literature focuses on the assault of female service members. Research has demonstrated that cultural variables are robust correlates of the sexual assault of women. This paper proposes that cultural variables are equally important when examining the rape of men, especially when this assault occurs in military contexts. We discuss male rape myths and related constructs as they are expressed within military culture. The results of data analysis from a treatment sample of veterans with military sexual trauma (MST)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinical case examples are presented to further explore the concepts. We conclude that male rape myths and related beliefs that arise from cultural norms and are further amplified and modified by military culture impact male MST survivors and delay or obstruct their recovery. Suggestions for clinical application and future research are offered to encourage further efforts in this important area of practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study. (United States)

    Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J


    Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. National Comparisons of Rape Myth Acceptance Predictors Between Nonathletes and Athletes From Multi-Institutional Settings. (United States)

    Navarro, John C; Tewksbury, Richard


    Athletes are cited as common perpetrators of sexual victimization and are at greater risk of becoming offenders compared with nonathletes. Demographic, lifestyle, and social characteristics of 624 nonathletes and 101 athletes from 21 U.S. Division I postsecondary educational institutions were assessed, with the updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale gauging endorsement of rape myths. Results indicate that athletes and nonathletes were similar in the degree of rape myth acceptance, with athletes reporting stronger agreement with rape myths than nonathletes did. Predictors of rape myth acceptance among nonathletes are multidimensional. In contrast, nondemographic characteristics like Greek membership, the number of alcoholic beverages consumed, and knowing a sexual assault victim predict rape myth acceptance for athletes, with gender not predicting rape myth acceptance nor different between genders of athletes. Policy implications and future research are discussed.

  9. Prior Substance Abuse and Related Treatment History Reported by Recent Victims of Sexual Assault (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron


    To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174

  10. Blaming the Victim and Exonerating the Perpetrator in Cases of Rape and Robbery: Is There a Double Standard? (United States)

    Bieneck, Steffen; Krahe, Barbara


    Research in legal decision making has demonstrated the tendency to blame the victim and exonerate the perpetrator of sexual assault. This study examined the hypothesis of a special leniency bias in rape cases by comparing them to cases of robbery. N = 288 participants received descriptions of rape and robbery of a female victim by a male…

  11. Reflections on the society’s reaction towards rape victims in Delhi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetu Vibha


    Full Text Available In general, most people display stronger beliefs in ‘aggravated rape‘ or ‘real rape‘; including victims of such rape cases who often identify themselves as ‘rape victims’ than the victims of ‘simple rape’, where none of the aggravating circumstances are present. Despite myths to the contrary these ‘simple rape’ cases in fact make up the majority of cases. This article considers the implications of ‘real rape‘ and demonstrates how notions about what a ‘typical rape‘ should be, in the form of rape myths, directly impact on societal attitudes towards rape victims and how the media continue to reinforce and perpetuate the notion of real rape through their selective reporting of ‘serial rape’, ‘stranger rape’ or especially ‘violent rapes’.

  12. Rape and Seduction Scripts. (United States)

    Ryan, Kathryn M.


    College students (N=18) wrote scripts about "typical" rape and "typical" seduction. Scripts were coded on 20 dimensions. Results showed that rape and seduction scripts were very different. Most subjects described blitz rape in which woman outdoors was attacked by male stranger. Seductions described were usually indoors and…

  13. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore


    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Rape-accepting attitudes of university undergraduate students. (United States)

    Talbot, Kimberly K; Neill, Karen S; Rankin, Linda L


    The College Date Rape Attitudes Survey and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale were used in a cross-sectional study to assess rape-accepting attitudes of a convenience sample of 1602 university undergraduate students using a survey distributed online. The findings evidenced that males and individuals with more traditional gender role beliefs had attitudes more accepting of rape than the females and individuals who had more egalitarian gender role beliefs. Respondents who personally knew a rape survivor had attitudes less accepting of rape than those respondents who did not know a survivor. These findings support a continuing need to address rape myths in sexual violence prevention programming. The sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE-A) has an important role in prevention services to educate and build awareness of rape myths both on campus and through community-based efforts to reach this high risk population. Further, the SANE can build important linkages between the college campus and the healthcare setting to support the provision of effective intervention services and improved outcomes in victims of sexual violence. © 2010 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  15. When antiepileptic drugs aggravate epilepsy. (United States)

    Genton, P


    Paradoxically, an antiepileptic drug (AED) may aggravate epilepsy. The number of AEDs is steadily increasing, and the occurrence of paradoxical aggravation will probably become a frequent problem. The overall status of the patient treated for epilepsy can be altered due to maladjustment to the diagnosis of epilepsy, to unwanted side-effects, to overdosage and to the occurrence of tolerance. However, the main mechanism of aggravation is the occurrence of an inverse pharmacodynamic effect. The specific effect of the AED is such that it controls epilepsy in most cases and increases seizures in other cases. Idiopathic generalised epilepsies (IGE) are particularly prone to pharmacodynamic aggravation: typical absences are constantly increased by carbamazepine (CBZ), vigabatrin, tiagabine, gabapentin, while phenytoin (PHT) is less aggravating. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is often aggravated by CBZ, less constantly by PHT and other AEDs. Generalised tonic-clonic seizures found in IGEs may respond to AEDs that aggravate the other seizure types. In symptomatic generalised epilepsies, patients have often several seizure types that respond differently to AEDs: myoclonias are generally aggravated by the same drugs that aggravated IGEs; tonic seizures in the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome respond to CBZ, which may however aggravate atypical absences. In severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, there is a nearly constant aggravating effect of lamotrigine. In some patients with benign rolandic epilepsy, a clear aggravation may be produced by CBZ, with occurrence of negative myoclonias, atypical absences, drop attacks, and at the maximum evolution into a state of electrical status epilepticus during sleep. It is much more difficult to pinpoint specific pharmacological sensitivity in other focal epilepsies, but aggravation clearly occurs. When treating epilepsy, the clinician should act according to seizure type, or, better, to epilepsy type. Patients are usually aware of aggravation before

  16. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents. (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah


    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  17. Police Officers' Rape Myth Acceptance: Examining the Role of Officer Characteristics, Estimates of False Reporting, and Social Desirability Bias. (United States)

    Venema, Rachel M


    This study examines police officers' perceptions of sexual assault and those who report sexual assault to the police, using a revised version of the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale along with a measure of social desirability bias. The study includes survey responses from 174 officers from 1 mid-sized police department in the Great Lakes region. Results show low to moderate levels of rape myth acceptance scores on the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, with highest scores related to victim lying. Officers report very high estimates of false reporting, indicating some rape myth acceptance. Officer level of education, rank, and estimates of false reporting influence rape myth acceptance; however, social desirability bias is an important explanatory factor. Implications for measurement and training are discussed.

  18. Discrepancy between information reported by the victims of sexual assaults and clinical forensic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels


    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports made at the Department of Forensic Medicine, the University of Copenhagen, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), information about the assault, including both violence and the perpetrator's line of sexual...... by slight, blunt force. Information on line of sexual action was present in 148 cases. A total of 123 victims reported penetration: 94% vaginal, 16% anal and 20% oral. Three were exposed to anal penetration only. Eleven perpetrators used a condom. 50% of the cases with vaginal and/or anal penetration had...

  19. Misogyny, acculturation, and ethnic identity: relation to rape-supportive attitudes in Asian American college men. (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H


    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality.

  20. It Is All About Respect: The Army’s Problem with Sexual Assault (United States)


    sexual assault is a crime defined as, “intentional sexual contact, characterized by use of force, physical threat, abuse of authority, when the...dealing with sexual abuse or assault.8 7Antoinette Bonsignore, “The Military’s Rape and Sexual ... Hollywood , “Creating a True Army of One: Four Proposals to Combat Sexual Harassment in Today’s Army,” (accessed January 2, 2012). 10

  1. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Evalina van Wijk


    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  2. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

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    Nowsher Ali


    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  3. Drugs Used in Sexual Assaults: Features and Toxicological Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Efeoglu


    Full Text Available Drugs used in sexual assault, which are also called as date rape drugs, are common phenomenon of crime in many countries. In a typical scenario, a perpetrator adds a date-rape drug which has sedative effect into alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person. After drug administration, mostly amnesia and symptoms such as confussion, loss of memory, lack of muscle control, dizziness occur. The main drugs in sexual assaults are benzodiazepines such as γ-hydroxy butyrate and its analogs, clonazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam, oxazepam, ketamine, barbiturates, antidepressants, cocaine and stimulants. Most of these drugs are colorless, odorless and highly soluble in alcohol or other beverages quickly. They are rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration. A victim may complain to police or other legal forces after several days due to emotional trauma as shame, fear, doubt and disbelief. For this reason, It is important to know what time the sample is taken from the victim to confirm the presence of the drug. In this study, we will present a general approach to date-rape drugs used in sexual assault. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 418-425

  4. Rape: an Asian perspective. (United States)

    Nadesan, K


    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  5. Explaining wartime rape. (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan


    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  6. Males as sexual assault victims: multiple levels of trauma. (United States)

    Anderson, C L

    The definite and persistent phenomenon of sexual assault upon males is virtually ignored in the literature, although incidence data reported here suggest the greater scope of the problem. The avoidance of the subject of sexual assault on males creates a negative environment for victims. While the motivation of assailants is briefly discussed, the article focuses on the psychological aftermath for sexual assault victims. A paradigm is offered, consisting of "Set-up," "Attack," and "Aftermath" phases. Male victims suffer "Rape Trauma Syndrome" as described for females, as well as various forms of stigmatization and secondary trauma. Differences and similarities between male and female victims are identified. Victim responses are discussed as they proceed through several stages, with implications for appropriate interventions on both the clinical and community levels. The article concludes with an extensive bibliography.

  7. Collateral Damage Related to Rape and Interpersonal Violence in Higher Education (United States)

    Jones, Dan L.


    Collegiate communities are often faced with difficult situations from sexual assault, rape, and other forms of interpersonal violence. These events are not only tragic or traumatic for the individuals involved but also have ripple effects and create collateral damage within the campus community. Many universities are instituting bystander training…

  8. Substance Abuse and Behavioral Correlates of Sexual Assault among South African Adolescents (United States)

    King, Gary; Flisher, Alan, J.; Noubary, Farzad.; Reece, Robert; Marais, Adele; Lombard, Carl


    Objective: The aim of this article is twofold: first, to examine the prevalence of being the victim of actual and attempted rape among a large representative sample of Cape Town high school students; and second, to identify the correlates of sexual assault for both boys and girls, including alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, behavioral problems,…

  9. Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism: the Kobe Bryant case. (United States)

    Franiuk, Renae; Seefelt, Jennifer L; Cepress, Sandy L; Vandello, Joseph A


    Two studies examine the prevalence and effects of rape myths in the print media covering a real-life case of alleged sexual assault. Study 1 was an archival study of 156 sources from around the country. Articles about the Kobe Bryant case were coded for instances of rape myths, among other variables. Of the articles, 65 mentioned at least one rape myth (with "she's lying" being the single most common myth perpetuated). Study 2 assessed participants' (N = 62) prior knowledge of the Bryant case and exposed them to a myth-endorsing or myth-challenging article about the case. Those exposed to the myth-endorsing article were more likely to believe that Bryant was not guilty and the alleged victim was lying. The implications for victim reporting and reducing sexual assault in general are discussed.

  10. Does Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Training Affect Attitudes of Emergency Department Nurses Toward Sexual Assault Survivors? (United States)

    Nielson, Mary Hugo; Strong, Linda; Stewart, Julie G


    There are over 243,800 female sexual assaults in the United States annually. Of those who seek healthcare services after being sexually assaulted, 90% present to hospitals. Unfortunately, care and services for women who have been sexually assaulted are inconsistent. Increased burnout, frustration, and feelings of inadequacy can lead healthcare providers to exhibit personal biases or negative attitudes toward their patients. The Joint Commission, responsible for accreditation of healthcare organizations, has stated that nurses must provide competent care to all patients. Therefore, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) training needs to be available for emergency department (ED) nurses who care for patients who have been sexually assaulted. A survey using the Attitude Toward Rape Victims Scale was sent to 1503 ED nurses throughout the United States, from the Emergency Nursing Association's mailing list. The results of the survey showed that there was a significant difference in attitudes toward the patients between SANE-trained emergency nurses and those without training. This study also showed that 35.5% of hospitals represented by the respondents did not have SANE services available for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted, and furthermore, 85.5% of the respondents who cared for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted were not SANE trained. The negative attitudes held toward such patients as found in this study, coupled with a lack of training provides evidence that ED nurses may benefit from education related to appropriate treatment for patients who have been sexually assaulted. As evidence-based practice becomes the gold standard of care, ensuring that nurses are properly trained to care for all patients must be the goal.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Alcohol Use and Sexual Assault Risk among College Women at High Risk for Victimization (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.


    Current sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher incidence and severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less incidence/severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. PMID:26408290

  12. A randomized controlled trial targeting alcohol use and sexual assault risk among college women at high risk for victimization. (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H


    Sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Culture of Rape (United States)



  14. Bystander education training for campus sexual assault prevention: an initial meta-analysis. (United States)

    Katz, Jennifer; Moore, Jessica


    The present meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of bystander education programs for preventing sexual assault in college communities. Undergraduates trained in bystander education for sexual assault were expected to report more favorable attitudes, behavioral proclivities, and actual behaviors relative to untrained controls. Data from 12 studies of college students (N = 2,926) were used to calculate 32 effect sizes. Results suggested moderate effects of bystander education on both bystander efficacy and intentions to help others at risk. Smaller but significant effects were observed regarding self-reported bystander helping behaviors, (lower) rape-supportive attitudes, and (lower) rape proclivity, but not perpetration. These results provide initial support for the effectiveness of in-person bystander education training. Nonetheless, future longitudinal research evaluating behavioral outcomes and sexual assault incidence is needed.

  15. "I Believe What I See": College Students' Use of Media, Issue Engagement, and Perceived Responsibility Regarding Campus Sexual Assault. (United States)

    Li, Jo-Yun; Kim, Sei-Hill; O'Boyle, Jane


    The topic of campus sexual assault has received much media attention recently, prompting scholars to examine media effects on students' attitudes and behaviors. A survey of 567 American college students examined how their media exposure is related to issue engagement, perceived responsibility, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that reading newspaper stories about campus sexual assault might contribute to college students' victim blaming. Among other media channels examined, social media were found to be highly correlated with students' engagement with the issue. We also found that victim blaming and acceptance of rape myths could be reduced by raising students' perceived importance of the issue. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in detail.

  16. Older women: victims of rape. (United States)

    Tyra, P A


    Older female rape victims usually live alone, are raped by strangers, experience physical force and injury, and also are robbed. Rape trauma syndrome, a nursing diagnosis, consists of an acute phase of disorganization, and a long-term phase of reorganization of the victim's lifestyle. Rape victims experience emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the trauma of rape. Nursing actions can include providing specific interventions to victims during the acute phase, identifying victims during routine exams, referring victims for ongoing counseling, conducting community education programs on primary prevention and available services, and participating in longitudinal rape studies.

  17. Rape Beyond Crime. (United States)

    Kaplan, Margo


    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  18. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape. (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nelson, Erik J; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G; Wright, John P; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C; Petkovsek, Melissa; Lewis, Roger; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard


    An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. Ecological study. St. Louis, Missouri. Blood lead levels. Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03-1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99-1.03). Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure.

  19. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

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    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  20. Judgments toward male and transgendered victims in a depicted stranger rape. (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Hudson, Jenefer


    There has been an increasing amount of research interest into perceptions of male rape in recent years. However, no research has assessed how people react when a transgendered person is raped. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transgendered status and sexuality on victim blame and perceived severity in a depicted rape scenario. The sexuality of the victim was manipulated to include a heterosexual, homosexual, cross-dresser, female-to-male transsexual, and male-to-female transsexual. It was predicted that the heterosexual victims would be judged the most positively and that heterosexual male participants would make the most anti-victim judgments. One hundred thirty-three lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual members of the general population read a scenario depicting a rape and then completed a questionnaire measuring victim blame and perceived severity of the assault. Results conformed to the predictions. Results are discussed in relation to traditional gender roles and homophobia.

  1. Women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma : a grounded theory - Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Duma


    Full Text Available Thousands of women and children experience sexual assault trauma annually in South Africa. The challenge posed by recovery from sexual assault trauma is a reality that confronts the survivors of sexual assault, their families and the larger community of service providers. Yet, little research has been conducted on recovery from sexual assault as a phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering and developing the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: What constitutes the journey of recovery undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault? A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted using the principles of grounded theory methodology as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1990,1998. A series of indepth one-to-one interviews were conducted with a sample of ten women. The participants were selected through open, purposive and theoretical sampling procedures. The study was conducted over a period of six months following the event of sexual assault.

  2. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games? (United States)

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  3. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko


    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  4. Examining the Psychological Effect of Rape Acknowledgment: The Interaction of Acknowledgment Status and Ambivalent Sexism. (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E; Leheney, Emma K; Ballman, Alesha D; Scarpa, Angela


    Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants. The participants completed measures of sexual assault experiences, ambivalent sexism, and depression and PTSD symptoms. The results supported a significant interaction between acknowledgement status and benevolent sexism in relation to both depression and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, the present study failed to find support for an interaction between acknowledgment status and hostile sexism. The clinical implications suggest that rather than seeing acknowledging rape as essential to the recovery process, clinicians should assess for and take into account other factors that may contribute to psychological functioning. Additionally, the findings support that more complex models of trauma recovery should be investigated with the goal of working toward a more comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal process of rape acknowledgment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis among women raped in Antananarivo, 2005-2011. (United States)

    Andrianarivelo Andry, M; Raherinaivo Anjatiana, A; Razafindrakoto Ainamalala, C; Rasoanandrasana, S; Ravaoarisaina Zakasoa, M; Rasamindrakotroka, A


    Rape is a forensic emergency due to the possibility of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Moreover, an upsurge is currently underway. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis in women undergoing tests at the Microbiology Unit of the Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona Antananarivo Hospital after being raped. This retrospective descriptive study covers the 7-year period from 2005 to 2011 and reports the results of direct examination of the vaginal discharge after vulvar smears from rape patients. We studied the age of patients and the results of these direct smear examinations that tested for T. vaginalis. In our study, the number of women with T. vaginalis increased markedly with age. The mean age of the patients was 13.7 years (range: 2 to 41 years). Among the 232 rape victims tested, only 26 were positive for it (11.20%); trichomoniasis was thus rare among these women. T. vaginalis is a common cause of vaginitis in women and one of the most common infections transmitted by sexual assault. In children, the presence of T. vaginalis in vaginal sample is a strong indicator of sexual abuse. Other sexually transmitted infections can be transmitted during sexual abuse.

  6. Sexual assault in the military. (United States)

    Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H


    Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military.

  7. Efficacy of a sexual assault resistance program for university women. (United States)

    Senn, Charlene Y; Eliasziw, Misha; Barata, Paula C; Thurston, Wilfreda E; Newby-Clark, Ian R; Radtke, H Lorraine; Hobden, Karen L


    Young women attending university are at substantial risk for being sexually assaulted, primarily by male acquaintances, but effective strategies to reduce this risk remain elusive. We randomly assigned first-year female students at three universities in Canada to the Enhanced Assess, Acknowledge, Act Sexual Assault Resistance program (resistance group) or to a session providing access to brochures on sexual assault, as was common university practice (control group). The resistance program consists of four 3-hour units in which information is provided and skills are taught and practiced, with the goal of being able to assess risk from acquaintances, overcome emotional barriers in acknowledging danger, and engage in effective verbal and physical self-defense. The primary outcome was completed rape, as measured by the Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Victimization, during 1 year of follow-up. A total of 451 women were assigned to the resistance group and 442 women to the control group. Of the women assigned to the resistance group, 91% attended at least three of the four units. The 1-year risk of completed rape was significantly lower in the resistance group than in the control group (5.2% vs. 9.8%; relative risk reduction, 46.3% [95% confidence interval, 6.8 to 69.1]; P=0.02). The 1-year risk of attempted rape was also significantly lower in the resistance group (3.4% vs. 9.3%, Pwomen. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the University of Windsor; SARE number, NCT01338428.).

  8. First-Year Male Students' Perceptions of a Rape Prevention Program 7 Months after Their Participation: Attitude and Behavior Changes (United States)

    Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Godin, Eric E.


    Seven months after seeing The Men's Program, a commonly used rape prevention program, 248 first-year college men responded to four open-ended questions concerning whether or not the program impacted their attitudes or behavior, particularly regarding alcohol related sexual assault. Two thirds of participants reported either attitude or behavior…

  9. Treating sexual assault victims. A protocol for health professionals. (United States)

    Beckmann, C R; Groetzinger, L L


    Sexual assault victims require a multidisciplinary approach encompassing emotional, medical, and forensic care. Evaluation should include general and genital examinations, collection of forensic specimens, and culturing for sexually transmitted diseases. Obtaining a complete history is not only medically and legally crucial, but also can be a valuable therapeutic activity. Antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital contraception, and testing for human immunodeficiency virus should be offered. An understanding of the rape trauma syndrome is the foundation for providing emotional support. The need for follow-up evaluation and counseling should be stressed.

  10. Sexual Assaults on College Campuses (United States)

    Kerner, Laura Lynn; Kerner, Jim; Herring, Susan D.


    Recent sexual assault scandals have brought public attention to the fact that there is a need for colleges to aggressively address the issues surrounding sexual assaults on their campuses. Studies indicate that one in four women are being sexually assaulted each year, but few women report this. Women suffer major psychological issues when…

  11. The Internet as Spectator Disclosure: Consent, Community, and Responsibility in Patricia Lockwood’s Viral Poem “Rape Joke”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lanphier


    Full Text Available In “Rape as Spectator Sport and Creepshot Entertainment: Social Media and the Valorization of Lack of Consent,” the American philosopher Kelly Oliver provides a compelling and chilling analysis of the use and impact of social media by perpetrators of or bystanders to sexual assault. Patricia Lockwood’s 2013 long-form narrative poem, “Rape Joke,” which was published online and went viral on social media, offers a complement to Oliver’s analysis by presenting an Internet account of sexual assault from the survivor’s perspective. “Rape Joke,” through its content and form, raises questions to which we must philosophically and socially respond. These include both the importance of first-person narratives for social and philosophical engagements with trauma as well as the use of humor to constitute moral community and shape moral accountability.

  12. Women's journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma: a grounded theory--part 1. (United States)

    Duma, S E; Mekwa, J N; Denny, L D


    Thousands of women and children experience sexual assault trauma annually in South Africa. The challenge posed by recovery from sexual assault trauma is a reality that confronts the survivors of sexual assault, their families and the larger community of service providers. Yet, little research has been conducted on recovery from sexual assault as a phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering and developing the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: What constitutes the journey of recovery undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault? A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted using the principles of grounded theory methodology as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1990, 1998). A series of in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with a sample of ten women. The participants were selected through open, purposive and theoretical sampling procedures. The study was conducted over a period of six months following the event of sexual assault. The substantive theory was discovered and constructed through the inductive and deductive analysis of data, grounded on the ten women's descriptions of their journey of recovery from sexual assault. The theory of women's journey of recovery that was discovered and developed consisted of eight theoretical concepts or categories. These included the following concepts: 1. Sexual assault trauma 2. Awakening 3. Pragmatic acceptance 4. Turning point 5. Reclaiming what was lost 6. Defining own landmarks of healing 7. Readiness for closure 8. Returning to self. The grounded theory of the journey of recovery from sexual assault is a contribution to the knowledge about women's journey of recovery from sexual assault. It provides a process and language for understanding women

  13. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity. (United States)

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A


    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  14. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective. (United States)

    Jiloha, R C


    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India 'rape laws' began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of 'rape and inclusion of 'marital rape' in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed.

  15. 2014 Department of Defense Report of Focus Groups on Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (United States)


    no uniformed representative attended sessions in order to minimize the risk of making participants uncomfortable and potentially biasing can’t call somebody ’that’s homosexual ,’ you can’t call them a ‘something something.’ So it’s just not good to espouse those different things and...Assault Response Coordinators (SARCs)/On-call SAPR Victim Advocates (VAs), civilian rape crisis centers or the Suicide Prevention Lifeline. ◦TEXT

  16. The journalists’ obligation of protecting the victims of sexual assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Valeriu Voinea


    Full Text Available The most debated media story of 2015 in Romania was related to a case of sexual assualt. On the 19th of July 2015 seven teenagers were released from house arrest in the case where they were accused of collectively raping an 18-year-old high school student. The Romania media landscape was quickly overtaken by this story: we had in depth media reports about the alleged assailaints and their home town, scandal regarding a facebook group created by a parent of one of the former mentioned and even a TV appearance from the victim and her mother on live television. The present article will attempt an analysis of the responsabilities that journalists have in protecting victims of sexual assault, according to the European law, Romanian legislation and in the media code of ethics. The questions we are starting from are these: were the Romanian journalists really disgusted by the actions of the seven or was it just a race for larger readership and viewership? What did the journalists do wrong when reporting n this story? What could they and should they have done more in order to protect a victim of sexual assault? And why was this case so widely reported while other cases of rape are constantly ignored by the Romanian media and society?

  17. The Impact of Victim Alcohol Consumption and Perpetrator Use of Force on Perceptions in an Acquaintance Rape Vignette. (United States)

    Brown, Amy L; Horton, Jada; Guillory, Ariel


    Research suggests that victims of incapacitated rape (when someone has sex with a person who is unable to consent to or resist sexual activity, usually because of intoxication) face higher levels of victim blame than do victims of forcible rape (Krahé, Temkin, & Bieneck, 2007). However, it is not clear whether blame is the result of victim alcohol consumption or the lack of force and resistance present during incapacitated rape; both of these factors have been shown to increase victim blame. The current vignette study crossed victim alcohol consumption and perpetrator use of force. We found main effects of both independent variables on judgments of victim responsibility, but no interaction, suggesting that the effects of alcohol and force are additive rather than interactive. These results indicate that victims of incapacitated rape may indeed face challenges upon disclosing their assaults.

  18. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J.; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G.; Wright, John P.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Petkovsek, Melissa; Lewis, Roger; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard


    Context An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. Objective The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. Design Ecological study. Setting St. Louis, Missouri. Exposure measure Blood lead levels. Main outcome measure Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. Results With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03–1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02–1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02–1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99–1.03). Conclusions Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure. PMID:29176826

  19. Condom use during sexual assault. (United States)

    O'Neal, Eryn Nicole; Decker, Scott H; Spohn, Cassia; Tellis, Katharine


    This study examines questions about forced unprotected sex. Study objectives include assessing the prevalence of condom use in sexual assault and improving our understanding of the correlates of condom use in sexual assault. We analyze 841 sexual assault complaints reported to three law enforcement agencies. Descriptive data are used to assess the prevalence of condom use in sexual assault and to examine the contextual factors associated with condom use in sexual assault. We conduct logistic regression analysis to examine motivations for condom use during sexual assault. Condom use prevalence rates across the sites range from 11.7% to 15.6%. Few differences exist across jurisdictions regarding the correlates of condom use. Condom use during sexual assault appears to be motivated by three contextual factors. Younger suspects and suspects who use a weapon during assaults are more likely to use a condom. The suspect's use of alcohol is negatively related to condom use. The low rates of condom use found in this study, coupled with the dangers of unprotected sexual contact, suggest that public health efforts must address the needs of victims of sexual assault more carefully. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Women's Behavioral Responses to the Threat of a Hypothetical Date Rape Stimulus: A Qualitative Analysis. (United States)

    Anderson, RaeAnn E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Wendorf, Angela R; Cahill, Shawn P


    One in four college women experience sexual assault on campus; yet, campuses rarely provide the in-depth self-defense programs needed to reduce sexual assault risk. Further, little is known about the range of possible behaviors elicited by sexual assault threat stimuli besides assertion. To fill this gap, the aim of the current study was to explore qualitative themes in women's intended behavioral responses to a hypothetical sexual assault threat, date rape, by using a laboratory-controlled threat. College women (N = 139) were randomly assigned to one of four different levels of sexual assault threat presented via an audio-recorded vignette. Participants articulated how they would hypothetically respond to the experimentally assigned threat. Responses were blinded and analyzed using Consensual Qualitative Research methodology. Six major themes emerged: assertion, compliance/acceptance, conditional decision making, avoidance, expressions of discomfort, and allusion to future contact. Although almost all participants described assertion, a number of non-assertive responses were described that are not currently recognized in the literature. These non-assertive responses, including compliance/acceptance, conditional decision making, and avoidance, may represent unique behavioral response styles and likely reflect the complex psychological process of behavioral response to threat. The variety of themes found illustrates the great range of behavioral responses to threat. This broad range is not currently well represented or measured in the literature and better understanding of these responses can inform future interventions, advocacy efforts, and policies focused on sexual assault.

  1. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A


    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.


    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  3. Understanding how advocates can affect sexual assault victim engagement in the criminal justice process. (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Tringali, Brenda


    Following a sexual assault, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). However, sexual assault survivors often feel apprehensive about participating in the CJS and thus, few report their victimizations to law enforcement. Of those who report, many withdraw their participation from the CJS. Rape crisis center advocates often are one of the first professionals victims encounter while seeking help after a victimization and thus, they may play a key role in reducing barriers to victim participation in the CJS. Qualitative interviews were conducted with forensic nurses and victim advocates at a Midwest Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program to examine how advocacy services may influence victim engagement with the CJS. This study found multiple components of advocacy services that may address common barriers to victim participation. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.


    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  5. A Synthesized (Biosocial) Theory of Rape. (United States)

    Ellis, Lee


    Integrates features of contemporary theories of rape (feminist theory, social learning theory, evolutionary theory) with information on neurohormonal variables to formulate synthesized theory of rape. Synthesized theory of rape, consisting of four propositions, proposes that people are not all equally prone toward rape and that men are much more…

  6. Factors Associated with Use of Verbally Coercive, Incapacitated, and Forcible Sexual Assault Tactics in a Longitudinal Study of College Men (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Thompson, Martie


    Although verbally coerced and incapacitated sexual assaults are common, less is known about perpetrators of these incidents in comparison to perpetrators of forcible assaults. Furthermore, few studies have investigated factors that differentiate perpetrators who employ different forms of sexual assault tactics. The current study included 526 men who completed self-report inventories at the end of each of their four years in college. Measures assessed sexual assault tactics, demographics, incident characteristics, risky behavior, rape supportive beliefs and peer norms, antisocial traits, and childhood adversity. Perpetrators were grouped based on the most severe tactics reported over the course of 7 assessed time periods, with 13% in the verbal coercion group, 16% in the incapacitation group, and 5% in the forcible group. ANOVAs determined that the forcible group scored significantly higher than incapacitation and verbal coercion groups on risky behavior, rape supportive beliefs/norms, antisocial traits, and childhood adversity. The incapacitation group scored higher than the verbal coercion group on risky behavior. In a multinomial logistic regression analysis comparing tactic groups to non-perpetrators, all tactic groups scored significantly higher on risky behavior and rape supportive beliefs/norms, and the forcible group scored higher on antisocial traits and childhood adversity. Perpetrators in the forcible group had engaged in more repeat offenses, and perpetrators of both the incapacitated and forcible assaults were more likely to use alcohol before the incident. Findings highlight the need for interventions that are tailored to offense trajectories, alter rape supportive attitudes and peer norms, and decrease campus substance use. PMID:27539872

  7. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective (United States)

    Jiloha, R. C.


    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  8. What Counts as Rape? The Effect of Offense Prototypes, Victim Stereotypes, and Participant Gender on How the Complainant and Defendant are Perceived. (United States)

    McKimmie, Blake M; Masser, Barbara M; Bongiorno, Renata


    Jurors rely on a range of schemas when evaluating allegations of rape and sexual assault. For example, they may be influenced by the prototypicality of the alleged offense, the stereotypicality of the victim, or gender-related stereotypes. These schemas have often been conflated however, making it difficult to determine the unique impact of each on jurors' perceptions. To be able to effectively counter any schema-related misconceptions, we must first identify which beliefs are important and when. An experiment (N = 420) examined the independent effects of offense prototypicality and victim stereotypicality on mock jurors' perceptions. As expected, victim stereotypicality had a greater effect on judgments in the counter-prototypical (acquaintance) assault scenario than in the prototypical (stranger) assault scenario. When the complainant was described as being a counter-stereotypical victim in the acquaintance rape scenario, the defendant was seen as less likely to be guilty and evaluated more positively and the complainant less positively compared with when the complainant was described as being a stereotypical victim. Analysis of the qualitative data suggested a focus on different factors in reaching verdicts in the stranger and acquaintance rape scenarios. Results were interpreted as evidence that jurors "step down" through a hierarchy of schemas in their attempts to determine what happened in cases of rape and sexual assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Evaluation of a Victim-Centered, Trauma-Informed Victim Notification Protocol for Untested Sexual Assault Kits (SAKs). (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Shaw, Jessica; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina


    Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system. Victims of nonstranger sexual assaults were less likely to reengage postnotification compared with victims of stranger rape.

  10. Rape trauma syndrome as scientific expert testimony. (United States)

    Block, A P


    Behavioral science studies conducted on rape victims reveal a posttraumatic stress disorder which follows the attack known as rape trauma syndrome. Evidence of rape trauma syndrome can be very useful in explaining the behavior of rape victims. Rape trauma syndrome can help corroborate the victim's assertion of lack of consent and also help the jury understand the typical reactions of rape victims. Courts have held that expert testimony of rape trauma syndrome is admissible as evidence of (i) lack of consent, (ii) the amount of damages in civil suits, (iii) a defense to culpable behavior, and (iv) an explanation for behavior of the victim that is inconsistent with the claim of rape. Rape trauma syndrome meets the requirements for admissibility when it is used for the proper purpose and with adequate safeguards to prevent any unfair prejudice. Based on case precedent on the admissibility of rape trauma syndrome as scientific expert testimony, rape trauma syndrome should be admissible if (i) the evidence presented only shows the typical reactions to rape and does not make any legal conclusions as to whether the victim was raped, (ii) the expert is qualified, (iii) a proper foundation is laid, (iv) liberal cross-examination of the expert is allowed, and (v) the defense can introduce its own expert testimony on rape trauma syndrome.

  11. An Application of Art Therapy to the Trauma of Rape. (United States)

    Hargrave-Nykaza, Karen


    Explores rape in terms of specific trauma usually experienced after rape: posttraumatic stress disorder, rape trauma syndrome, and permanent life changes. Explores ways in which art therapy can help rape victim engage in healing. Reviews study of one rape victim and current literature as example of life-altering effects of rape and importance of…

  12. Introducing colposcopy and vulvovaginoscopy as routine examinations for victims of sexual assault. (United States)

    Mancino, P; Parlavecchio, E; Melluso, J; Monti, M; Russo, P


    Victims of sexual assault require appropriate care, follow-up and information regarding their legal rights. Clinicians are faced with the challenging responsibility of identifying victims and providing effective interventive and preventive counselling. The most pressing medical task is to confirm the assault and to undertake correct documentation and exhibition of biological traces. Performing colposcopy and vulvovaginoscopy does not allow us to diagnose a sexual assault trauma, but it can help us to identify those microscopic lesions (due to the enhanced visualization and the higher resolution under which the genital areas are examined) that may not be seen during a normal clinical examination. The colposcopic and vulvovaginoscopic examination starts from the vulvar region looking for superficial lacerations and ecchymosis; the labia majora and minor are examined scrupulously, then the posterior forchette, the perineum and the hymen where it is possible to report microulcerations, contusions and even possible scars due to a precedent defloration. Recent advances in clinical forensic medicine show that trained examiners using colposcopy obtain evidence of genital trauma in 87% to 92% of rape victims. Colposcopy and vulvovaginoscopy must be performed within 48 hours from the sexual assault, because most of the lesions heal rapidly. Colposcopy and vulvovaginoscopy may be seen as a stressful invasion of a woman who is already vulnerable and at risk of the rape trauma syndrome. Prior information about colposcopy may reduce the level of anxiety experienced by many women undergoing this procedure. Incorporating colposcopy and vulvovaginoscopy into the routine assessment of sexual assault victims could be a valid way of identifying genital injuries; moreover the medical report will be more detailed and precise.

  13. From parallel to intersecting narratives in cases of sexual assault. (United States)

    Bletzer, Keith V; Koss, Mary P


    Restorative justice alternatives to criminal justice are designed to balance the needs of victims, offenders, families, friends, and the community at large to achieve social justice, repair of victims, and deterrence of crime. In the model we evaluated from RESTORE (Responsibility and Equity for Sexual Transgressions Offering a Restorative Experience), each offender and victim received individual services and met in guided conferencing to mutually determine reparative actions for the offender. At the exit meeting, the offender, as the responsible person, read a written apology to the survivor/victim. In this article, we analyze the expression of empathy in the apology, in which the initial mitigation of responsibility in early documents was replaced by acknowledgment of harm to the survivor/victim and acceptance of responsibility for the assault. Those accused of felony rape and those targeting a visible person in cases of misdemeanor indecent exposure expressed greater regret and remorse than offenders of indecent exposure with an indeterminate victim.

  14. Tonic immobility during sexual assault - a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. (United States)

    Möller, Anna; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti


    Active resistance is considered to be the 'normal' reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. Tonic immobility at the time of the assault was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale in 298 women who had visited the Emergency clinic for raped women within 1 month of a sexual assault. Information about the assault and the victim characteristics were taken from the structured clinical data files. After 6 months, 189 women were assessed regarding the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Of the 298 women, 70% reported significant tonic immobility and 48% reported extreme tonic immobility during the assault. Tonic immobility was associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.50-5.03, p = 0.001) and severe depression (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.51-7.72, p = 0.003) at 6 months. Further, previous trauma history (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.48-3.77, p depression. Knowledge of this reaction in sexual assault victims is important in legal matters and for healthcare follow up. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness. (United States)


    Washington, DC. Medea , A. and Thompson, K. Against Rape. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroud, 1974. Rape: A Preventative Inquiry (film) 345-10 DN...programmed text study guide. UNITED STATES COAST GUARD The Coast Guard Training Center, Cape May, New Jersey, does not include rape awareness/prevention...82. September 1982. Arlington, Virginia. Connell, N. and Wilson, C. Rape: The First Resource Book for Women. New York: New American Library, 1974

  16. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray


    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  17. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feminist theory is used to explain rape, the societal reaction to it and the health outcomes for the victims. The paper concludes that many health problems suffered by women in Nigeria are as a result of rape. Public health practitioners should devise mechanisms of eliciting rape information from victims so as to effectively ...

  18. A rapid appraisal of the status of mental health support in post-rape care services in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams


    Full Text Available Background: Despite the well-known impact of rape on mental health and the widespread problem of rape in South Africa, mental health services for rape victims are scant and not a priority for acute-phase services. Survivors encounter multiple mental health struggles in this period including adherence to the post-exposure prophylaxis drugs to prevent HIV and finding support from important others. We have little information on what mental health is provided, by whom and how it is integrated into the post-rape package of care. Aim: The aim of the study was to do a rapid appraisal of mental health services for rape survivors to gain a better understanding of the current acute and long-term (secondary mental health services. Method: We conducted a qualitative study using a rapid assessment with a purposive sample of 14 rape survivors and 43 service providers recruited from post-rape sexual assault services in urban and rural Western Cape Province. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and observations of survivor sessions with counsellors, nurses and doctors. The data were coded thematically for analysis. Results: Survivors of rape experienced a range of emotional difficulties and presented varying levels of distress and various levels of coping. Receiving support and care from others assisted them, but the poor integration of mental health within post-rape services meant few received formal mental health support or effective referrals. Multiple factors contributed to the poor integration: mental health was not given the same level of priority as other rape services (i.e. clinical care, including forensic management, the inadequate capacity of service providers to provide mental healthcare, including mental health illiteracy, the lack of continuity of care, the poor linkages to ongoing mental healthcare, and the mental health challenges caused by vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue. Conclusion: Providing effective

  19. Why, when and how men rape: Understanding rape perpetration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research confirms that rape is highly prevalent in South Africa, with only a small proportion of incidents reported to the police. Many of the roots of the problem lie in our accentuated gender hierarchy. This highlights the importance of interventions and policies that start in childhood and seek to change the way in which ...

  20. [The nursing experience of caring for a sexual assault victim]. (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Hui-Chu


    The more advancements in technology, the more temptations there are for teenagers on the Internet. Despite satisfying the fancies of juveniles, the Internet predisposes them to many kinds of danger. In this article, a seventeen-year-old girl met a net pal on the Internet, went out with him out of curiosity, and was sexual assaulted. The Roy's adaptation model was applied to the victim. Further, all data were collected by observation and conversation in the emergency room, during routine outpatient follow-up and through phone conversations from April, 27, 2006 to June, 1, 2006. Sleep pattern disturbance, situational low self-esteem, impaired social interaction, and Rape-trauma syndrome were diagnosed after nursing assessment. In accordance with these diagnoses, individualized nursing implementation was performed, including encouraging her to express herself, listening to her patiently, and providing her with support as well as social welfare resources. Finally, the victim was assisted not only to overcome the dark shadow of her assault but to develop a positive attitude and set a new goal through the cooperation of her family, our medical group, and herself. This nursing experience may provide some helpful information for us to share in caring for such cases.

  1. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción


    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  2. Marital rape: history, research, and practice. (United States)

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A


    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  3. Relationship of genital injuries and age in adolescent and young adult rape survivors. (United States)

    Baker, Rachel B; Sommers, Marilyn S


    To examine the associations between age and genital injuries in adolescent and young adult women examined following rape. A retrospective review of 234 medical records from an emergency department sexual assault program. Women aged 14 to 29 years. Fifty percent of the sample was African American, 48% was White, and 2% was either Asian or an "other" race. Genital injury was described by injury prevalence, frequency, and anatomical locations of injuries. Overall genital injury prevalence was 62.8%. Younger age was not significantly associated with the presence or absence of genital injury. However, younger age was significantly associated with an increased number of genital injuries overall and to the thighs, labia minora, periurethral area, fossa navicularis, and vagina. These findings support the need for further research to determine if the current care provided to rape survivors is age appropriate.

  4. The Influence of Gender Ideology, Victim Resistance, and Spiking a Drink on Acquaintance Rape Attributions. (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Smith, Danielle


    The current study examined observer's attributions about the victim and perpetrator of an alleged acquaintance rape. Participants included 504 college students from a public university in the northeastern United States who read a brief crime report and completed a series of questionnaires for course credit. While men tended to attribute more blame to the victim than women, gender ideology emerged as a stronger predictor of rape attributions, and some types of sexist beliefs were associated with greater victim blaming and others with less victim blaming. Endorsement of hostile sexism, rape myths, and heterosexual intimacy was generally associated with the attribution of greater victim culpability, as well as less perpetrator culpability, perpetrator criminality, and victim credibility. However, complementary gender differentiation was associated with greater perpetrator culpability and criminality, while protective paternalism was associated with greater victim credibility. Observers attributed lower victim culpability and greater perpetrator criminality when the victim's drink was spiked, and attributed greater perpetrator culpability when the victim verbally resisted the perpetrator's advances. Given the implications that observer attitudes can have on professional and personal support for survivors, as well as juror decision making, the ongoing examination of the complex interplay between the person and situational factors affecting attributions of rape is essential. Sexual assault prevention programs may also benefit from a psychoeducational component that targets reducing traditional gender ideology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Patterns of rape and approaches to care. (United States)

    Pepiton-Rockwell, F


    The family physician is likely to be involved in the care of the rape victim. This paper focuses on the social and legal definitions of rape as well as the incidence of rape. The Rape Trauma Syndrome is explained and normative responses of victims are discussed. Eight common myths about rape are identified which the victim and the physician may share. In discussing the myths, guidelines for counseling the rape victim are delineated: encourage the victim to talk about her feelings; as the physician, remain nonjudgmental; provide information or resources to the victim; view the aftermath of rape as a response to a life-threatening event; and enlist the support of the victim's significant others. Finally, the importance of understanding the available community resources is stressed.

  6. Romeo, Juliet, and Statutory Rape. (United States)

    Bierie, David M; Budd, Kristen M


    Statutory rape is an important yet understudied topic. There is broad public support for the prosecution of older adults who engage in sexual relationships with minors regardless of perceptions of consent by either party. However, some scholars worry that expansive definitions within these laws have led to the widespread involvement of the justice system in the lives of similarly aged teenagers engaging in relatively normal sexual behavior, so called "Romeo and Juliet" liaisons. This, in turn, has called into question the legitimacy of national policies, such as sex offender registration, because of the presumption that registries are likely filled with these kinds of cases which may not represent the intent of legislatures and the public. Despite the importance of these debates, there is little research assessing the prevalence of Romeo and Juliet cases in official crime statistics or that analyze differences in characteristics of statutory rape as a function of victim-offender age differences. Drawing on more than 20 years of police data from over 6,000 police departments in the United States, this study found statutory rape cases were rare and Romeo and Juliet cases were even rarer. Multivariate models showed several distinctions between statutory rape cases as a function of the age differences between victim and offender. Of note, the odds that additional forms of sexual aggression occurred in the incident grew as the age difference expanded. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial). (United States)

    Senn, Charlene Y; Eliasziw, Misha; Barata, Paula C; Thurston, Wilfreda E; Newby-Clark, Ian R; Radtke, H Lorraine; Hobden, Karen L


    More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance

  8. The "justice gap" for sexual assault cases: future directions for research and reform. (United States)

    Lonsway, Kimberly A; Archambault, Joanne


    Media coverage often reports "good" news about the criminal justice system's ability to effectively respond to sexual assault, concluding that the past two decades have seen an increase in rape reporting, prosecution, and conviction. The objective of this article is to examine the validity of such conclusions by critically reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of various data sources and comparing the statistics they produce. These statistics include estimates for sexual assault reporting rates and case outcomes in the criminal justice system. We conclude that such pronouncements are not currently supported by statistical evidence, and we outline some directions for future research and reform efforts to make the "good news" a reality in the United States.

  9. Sexual assault, domestic violence and HIV: promoting women's rights through legislation. (United States)

    Pearshouse, Richard


    General HIV laws seldom, if ever, address the human rights abuses that most affect women, particularly rape, sexual assault and domestic violence. In this article, which is based on his presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Richard Pearshouse describes a Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network project to develop draft legislation covering certain areas of women's rights. The draft legislation is intended to be used as a practical resource for bringing about concrete law reform. This presentation won for Richard the International AIDS Society's Young Investigator Award for the conference's Track E (Policy and Political Sciences).

  10. Psychological and Social Problems of Adult Female Victims After Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Belma Gölge


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological and social problems faced by female victims after rape and additionally the impact of also being a victim of childhood sexual abuse in Turkey, where opportunity of getting medical and psychological support for sexual assault for victims is limited and legal process lasts for years. Method: Participants consisted of 93 female rape victims who were examined by the Second Specialization Board of State Council of Forensic Medicine.  An interview form, which is developed in order to investigate socio-demographic features, assault charactersitics, psychological and social problems of victim, Post Traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS  and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were applied for the investigation. Results:  61.3 % of victims were diagnosed with post traumatic stres disorder (PTSD and 54.8% of victims had sexual dysfunctions caused by the sexual assault. 68.8 % of victims reported that they were exposed to negative social reactions. 70,3% of victims who were exposed to negative social reactions met diagnostic criteria for PTSD while only 41,4% of people who were not exposed to negative social reactions met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Difference between groups was analyzed with chi squre method and there is significant difference between them ( X2:7.04, df:1, p<0.01. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts were high in victims of adult rape who were also sexually abused in childhood. Discussion:  Considering duration between the sexual assault and interview, in our research findings the ratio of the people who have PTSD and sexual issues, is more than the other studies consequences. On the other hand, the victims which reported that incident occured more than three years ago, are fitted to the diagnosis criterias of PTSD, with the ratio of 58.8%. It’s been thought that, studying with the victims who has been sent for physical examination and the continuation of judicial

  11. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    in Denmark. It was hypothesized that there would be a lower representation of rape victims, measured by the number of calls, to a regional rape crisis center in the rural communities further away from the regional rape crisis center of Aarhus compared to the urban communities closer to the rape crisis center....... A one-way ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significant association between the number of victim calls and the distance to the rape crisis center. The closer the residence of the victim was to the rape crisis center the more victim calls were registered. The study also examined what types of help...

  12. Changing the Hidden Curriculum of Campus Rape Prevention and Education: Women's Self-Defense as a Key Protective Factor for a Public Health Model of Prevention. (United States)

    McCaughey, Martha; Cermele, Jill


    Recent activist, policy, and government efforts to engage in campus rape prevention education (RPE), culminating in the 2014 White House Task Force recommendations to combat campus sexual assault, prompt a need to examine the concept of "prevention" in the context of sexual assault on U.S. college campuses and their surrounding community service agencies. This article reviews previous research on effective resistance to sexual assault, showing that self-defense is a well-established protective factor in a public health model of sexual assault prevention. The article goes on to show, through an examination of campus rape prevention efforts framed as "primary prevention," that self-defense is routinely excluded. This creates a hidden curriculum that preserves a gender status quo even while it strives for change. The article concludes with recommendations for how administrators, educators, facilitators, funding agencies, and others can incorporate self-defense into campus RPE for a more effective, data-driven set of sexual assault prevention efforts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Some types of hookups may be riskier than others for campus sexual assault. (United States)

    Flack, William F; Hansen, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Bryant, Leigh A; Lang, Katherine W; Massa, Andrea A; Whalen, Jenni E


    The high prevalence of campus sexual assault (CSA) among college students in the United States is a chronic public health crisis. Some risk factors for CSA victimization, such as alcohol consumption and female gender, are firmly established, but the evidence for others is less robust. One factor that has received little attention in the literature on CSA is "hooking up," defined as a physically intimate dyadic encounter that may not entail further contact between partners. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of hooking up, both as a general risk factor for CSA victimization, and the roles of different types of hookups, varying in degree of relatedness between partners, for different types of victimization. A stratified random sample of female undergraduate students (n = 373) from a single, small campus in the northeastern United States completed measures of demographics, alcohol consumption, hooking up, and sexual victimization in an online survey. Results revealed high-risk levels of drinking, and a low-to-moderate frequency of hooking up. Overall prevalence of CSA reported by this sample was 44%, with 40% reporting nonconsensual sexual contact, and 33% attempted rape or rape. Follow-up questions to reports of sexual assaults indicated that most (78%) took place during hookups, and that the riskiest hookups were those with acquaintances and previous romantic partners. If found to generalize to other campus populations, the role of hooking up in sexual assault should be added to systems-based models of sexual assault (e.g.,Heise, 1998) and to educational prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia (United States)

    ... eating potassium-rich foods such as bananas and potatoes. Stiffness occurs in skeletal muscles throughout the body. Potassium-aggravated myotonia ranges in severity from mild episodes of muscle stiffness to severe, disabling disease with frequent attacks. Unlike some other forms of ...

  15. Disregarding Graduated Treatment: Why Transfer Aggravates Recidivism (United States)

    Johnson, Kristin; Lanza-Kaduce, Lonn; Woolard, Jennifer


    These data merge correctional histories with official state and courthouse information for a sample of teenage offenders, some of whom had been transferred to the adult system. Previous research indicated that transfer aggravates recidivism after the age of 18. The correctional data allow the examination of the relationship between sanctions and…

  16. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime. (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D


    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  17. Assessment of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs in college men: development, reliability, and validity of the rape attitudes and beliefs scale. (United States)

    Burgess, Gerald H


    Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory factor analysis using only male participants revealed five factors: a) justifications for sexual aggression based on women's behavior, b) belief that women should hold more responsibility for sexual assault, peer c) pressure/need for sexual status and misreading women's sexual intent, d) acceptance of the use of alcohol and coercive tactics to acquire sexual compliance, and e) dislike for the feminine and acceptance of traditional gender roles. Initial reliability and validity studies were favorable for the RABS, including evidence that these factors were positively related to measures of sexual aggression. Each factor demonstrated differential power to predict sexual aggression, with justifications being the most powerful. Implications for counseling and education are discussed.

  18. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte


    With the aim of contributing to the development of models forecasting the melliferous characteristics and the potential honey yield of oilseed rape, we analyzed data on the temporal pattern of number of oilseed rape flowers, nectar secretion, sugar concentration, and weight of bee hives in relation...... with significantly reduced quality of the nectar in terms of both volume and sugar concentration, and our results suggest that the oilseed rape in this year did not contribute notably to bee colony development. In years in which the oilseed rape flowered around the normal time (beginning of May), the amount...... of secreted sugar decreased over the flowering period, being governed by inherent oilseed rape characteristics modified by climatic factors preceding the onset of flowering, as well as climatic conditions during flowering. The exploitation of oilseed rape nectar by bee colonies was found to be influenced...

  19. Rape and the Serial Rapist (United States)


    suffered from various personality disorders . "Twenty-two (16 percent) were diagnosed as borderline personalities , and thirteen (10 percent) showed...75 percent) were predominantly diagnosed as suffering from a personality disorder . Richard T. Rada in his study found that the category of the...Rape: The Psychology of the Offender (New York: Plenum Press), 109. 45 Fritz A. Kenn et al., " Forensics Psychiatry: Profiles of Two Types of Sex

  20. Rape: psychopathology, theory and treatment. (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A; Collie, Rachael M; Ward, Tony; Thakker, Jo


    Whether treatment programs are effective at rehabilitating rapists is yet to be determined empirically. From a scientist-practitioner perspective, treatment should be based on an empirical understanding of rape and rapists, and evidence-based knowledge of treatment outcome with rapists. In this paper we comprehensively review the characteristics of rapists, etiological features implicated in the commission of rape, and relevant treatment outcome research. We pay particular attention to contemporary knowledge about the core vulnerabilities and features required to understand and treat rapists effectively, and, where possible, highlight similarities and differences between rapists, child molesters and non-sexual violent offenders. We use an epistemological framework to (a) critique the various etiological accounts of rape available and (b) help guide professionals' use of such knowledge in both treatment design and evaluation. Gaps in the understanding of rapists' characteristics and etiological features are highlighted, as are discrepancies between current knowledge and treatment approaches. We conclude by highlighting areas for future research and practice innovation.

  1. College students' social reactions to the victim in a hypothetical sexual assault scenario: the role of victim and perpetrator alcohol use. (United States)

    Untied, Amy S; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Mastroleo, Nadine; Gidycz, Christine A


    College students' responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario involving alcohol use by the victim and/or perpetrator were examined (N = 295). Participants reported on victim/perpetrator responsibility, the extent to which the scenario would be considered rape, and their likelihood of providing positive or negative responses to the victim. Compared to women, men indicated that they would provide more negative and less positive social reactions to the victim, were less likely to identify the scenario as rape, and endorsed less perpetrator responsibility. When the victim was drinking, participants endorsed greater victim responsibility and lower perpetrator responsibility for the assault. Participants indicated that they would provide the victim with less emotional support when only the perpetrator was drinking, compared to when both the individuals were drinking.

  2. Participation in High School Sports and Bystander Intentions, Efficacy to Intervene, and Rape Myth Beliefs. (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah


    Debate exists as to whether male athletes are more prone to commit acts of sexual violence and maintain problematic attitudes about sexual assault. To contribute to the literature on this relationship, this study posed the following research questions: (1) Do those students who participated in high school sports and those who did not differ significantly in their attitudes about sexual violence and willingness to intervene as a bystander? Do these differ among types of rape myths and bystander intervention situations? (2) Within a group of athletes, are there significant differences by gender or type of sport (contact sport vs. non-contact?) To answer these questions, surveys were analyzed with a sample of recent high school graduates the summer before entering college (N = 3,588). Results indicate that there were only minor differences between those students who participated in high school varsity sports and those who did not. Students who participated in sports had greater acceptance of three out of five types of rape myths, and less willingness to intervene with perpetrators after an assault; however, the effect sizes were small. There were no significant differences for bystander efficacy. The interaction between sport and gender was significant, but contact sport was not. The findings suggest that there may be aspects of male athletic participation in sports that needs to be addressed, yet there also exists the potential for engaging athletes as leaders who can act as prosocial bystanders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Individual-and Setting-Level Correlates of Secondary Traumatic Stress in Rape Crisis Center Staff. (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Sorell, Nicole R; Allen, Nicole E


    Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an issue of significant concern among providers who work with survivors of sexual assault. Although STS has been studied in relation to individual-level characteristics of a variety of types of trauma responders, less research has focused specifically on rape crisis centers as environments that might convey risk or protection from STS, and no research to knowledge has modeled setting-level variation in correlates of STS. The current study uses a sample of 164 staff members representing 40 rape crisis centers across a single Midwestern state to investigate the staff member-and agency-level correlates of STS. Results suggest that correlates exist at both levels of analysis. Younger age and greater severity of sexual assault history were statistically significant individual-level predictors of increased STS. Greater frequency of supervision was more strongly related to secondary stress for non-advocates than for advocates. At the setting level, lower levels of supervision and higher client loads agency-wide accounted for unique variance in staff members' STS. These findings suggest that characteristics of both providers and their settings are important to consider when understanding their STS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Alcohol use as a strategy for obtaining nonconsensual sexual relations: incidence in Spanish university students and relation to rape myths acceptance. (United States)

    Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Megías, Jesús L


    This study analyzed the strategy of college men who give alcohol to girls to facilitate their acceptance when pursuing sexual relationships. It also studied the role of attitudes towards sexual assaults (rape myths) in the social perception of this practice; finally, this research examined how the fact that, in some cases, college women accept taking alcohol in their interactions with college men was perceived. Participants were 349 heterosexual students (154 men and 195 women) from the University of Granada. 28% of males reported having given alcohol to females in order to have sexual contacts with them, while 44% of females acknowledged having suffered this practice. Men, compared to women, were more favourable to this practice; however, this effect was moderated by their rape myths endorsements. It was also found that males and, in general, those participants who endorsed rape myths, tended to consider that girls who accept alcohol in their interactions with boys are promiscuous.

  5. Civil Military Relations And Sexual Assault (United States)


    some form of social (bullying, disabling of a car, harassed by multiple phone calls, etc.) or professional (being denied training opportunities...the Stigma : Changing Public Perceptions of Sexual Assault in Rural Communities,” California Coalition Against Sexual Assault, accessed September 1...uploads/2011/05/Training- Standards.pdf. ———. “Stopping the Stigma : Changing Public Perceptions of Sexual Assault in Rural Communities. Accessed

  6. Fear of rape from behind prison walls. (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather


    Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.

  7. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape. (United States)

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  8. Rape victim assessment: Findings by psychiatrists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    valid at the lower end of the IQ range. The assessment of rape victims is a sensitive matter and poses a number of challenges to the clinician. Rape victims are often traumatised by their experience, and this can make them reluctant to talk about the incident. In a study done by Elklit et al.,[2] it was found that ~70% of sexual ...

  9. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I.A.E.


    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  10. Self-efficacy, male rape myth acceptance, and devaluation of emotions in sexual trauma sequelae: Findings from a sample of male veterans. (United States)

    Voller, Emily; Polusny, Melissa A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Street, Amy; Grill, Joseph; Murdoch, Maureen


    Sexual trauma is an understudied but regrettably significant problem among male Veterans. As in women, sexual trauma often results in serious mental health consequences for men. Therefore, to guide potential future interventions in this important group, we investigated associations among self-efficacy, male rape myth acceptance, devaluation of emotions, and psychiatric symptom severity after male sexual victimization. We collected data from 1,872 Gulf War era Veterans who applied for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) disability benefits using standard mailed survey methods. The survey asked about history of childhood sexual abuse, sexual assault during the time of Gulf War I, and past-year sexual assault as well as Veterans' perceived self-efficacy, male rape myth acceptance, devaluation of emotions, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy partially mediated the association between participants' sexual trauma history and psychiatric symptoms. Greater male rape myth acceptance and greater devaluation of emotions were directly associated with lower self-efficacy, but these beliefs did not moderate associations between sexual trauma and self-efficacy. In this population, sexual trauma, male rape myth acceptance, and devaluation of emotions were associated with lowered self-efficacy, which in turn was associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms. Implications for specific, trauma-focused treatment are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Needs of Sexual Assault Advocates in Campus-Based Sexual Assault Centers (United States)

    Carmody, Dianne; Ekhomu, Jessica; Payne, Brian K.


    Most campuses have sexual assault crisis centers that are designed to assist victims and educate the college community about this crime. While much is known about sexual assault victimization patterns on college campuses, there is still a lack of understanding about the needs of those working to prevent sexual assault. In the current study, campus…

  12. Facial Emotion Identification and Sexual Assault Risk Detection among College Student Sexual Assault Victims and Nonvictims (United States)

    Melkonian, Alexander J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Bridges, Ana J.; Fugitt, Jessica L.


    Objective: High rates of sexual victimization among college students necessitate further study of factors associated with sexual assault risk detection. The present study examined how social information processing relates to sexual assault risk detection as a function of sexual assault victimization history. Participants: 225 undergraduates…

  13. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg


    In every known society human sexual intercourse is enacted as a rule-bound practice that involves certain rights and obligations. In Denmark the official policy is that the rules to govern lawful sexual intercourse should be based on the idea of mutual and voluntary consent between two adults......; and as a matter of fact such rules are accepted and followed by far the most. Yet, the approach taken by Danish Criminal Law to rape does not pay heed to these rules, but is rather based on a most narrow conception of male responsibility and obligation that stands in clear opposition with practice and policy...

  14. The Effects of Sexual Victimization History, Acute Alcohol Intoxication, and Level of Consensual Sex on Responses to Sexual Assault in a Hypothetical Scenario. (United States)

    Parkhill, Michele R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Hessler, Danielle M; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Zawacki, Tina

    Assertive resistance to sexual assault can decrease the likelihood of completed rape and its subsequent aftermath; however, this relationship may be influenced by situational characteristics. This study examined how 2 manipulated variables, level of consensual sex during an encounter and acute alcohol intoxication, along with sexual victimization history, affected women's responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario. Female participants were assigned to a drink condition (alcohol/control) and to a consent history condition (low/high). Path analysis found that women who were previously victimized, consumed alcohol, and who were in the high consent condition endorsed greater immobility intentions during the assault; only level of consent predicted likelihood of assertive resistance. Resistance strategies were related to subsequent responding. Results suggest that interventions should seek to decrease negative consequences by empowering women to assertively resist unwanted sexual advances.

  15. Trapezoid fracture caused by assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshikare V


    Full Text Available In this report we describe an open fracture of trapezoid and break in anterior cortex of capitate due to assault in a young adult male. Direct impact force of a sharp object to the first web space caused the above fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of the trapezoid was carried out using Kirschner wires. Cut extensor tendons, extensor retaniculum, capsule, adductor pollicis muscle, first dorsal interosseous muscle, soft tissue and overlying skin were sutured primarily. Three months after the operation the patient has made a complete recovery. There is no similar case reported in the literature.

  16. Present and future instances of virtual rape in light of three categories of legal philosophical theories on rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska


    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in

  17. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville


    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  18. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim (United States)

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie


    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  19. The Shadow of Physical Harm? Examining the Unique and Gendered Relationship Between Fear of Murder Versus Fear of Sexual Assault on Fear of Violent Crime. (United States)

    Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L


    The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Institutional Perpetuation of Rape Culture: A Case Study of the University of Colorado Football Rape and Recruiting Scandal


    Folchert, Kristi Engle


    Heterosexual rape among university students is neither new nor uncommon. Research in rape prevention is largely limited to two areas: (1) what women can do to protect themselves from rape, which continues to place the burden of prevention on women; and (2) understanding why men rape. The studies in these fields have added to the body of knowledge surrounding rape on university campuses. The current study takes this information into consideration while using a different lens to examine the...

  1. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)


    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  2. Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995-2013 (United States)

    ... crime occurred Traveling to or from other place/shopping or errands/leisure activity away from home Sleeping/ ... crime occurred Traveling to or from other place/shopping or errands/leisure activity away from home 4. ...

  3. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception. (United States)

    Anderson, Irina


    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualize a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents' gender; (3) to examine the 'cultural lag' theory of male rape, where it was hypothesized that if the public perception of male rape lags behind female rape, then a typical male rape will be conceptualized as the classic stranger rape stereotype. Findings showed that contrary to predictions, a typical female rape was conceptualized according to the stranger rape stereotype. It was also found that instead of lagging behind female rape along the stranger-acquaintance rape dimension, male rape was viewed predominantly in terms of 'other' factors (factors not found on the stranger-acquaintance dimension, e.g. victim/rapist sexual orientation, rapist calls victim names), which were erroneous, sexualizing and homophobic.

  4. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M


    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... victims according to a full ASD diagnosis. Regardless of whether cases were classified according to full PTSD status or according to meeting the criteria for the three PTSD core symptom clusters, the classification was correct only in approximately two thirds of the cases. A regression analysis based...

  5. Understanding rape perpetration in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a child. <15. Raped in the last. 12 months. Raped a man. SA Crime Quarterly no 34 • December 2010. 25 woman or girl when she didn't consent to sex or after you .... Secondary schooling. 26.7. 22.7, 30.7. 182 / 682. Matric complete. 28.9. 24.2, 33.5. 130/ 450. Incomplete tertiary education. 38.8. 30.4, 47.2. 57 / 147. Degree.

  6. “Campus Craft”: A Game for Sexual Assault Prevention in Universities (United States)

    Ekbia, Hamid R.


    Abstract Objective: Sexual assault is prevalent among college students. In response, universities have implemented prevention education initiatives. These interventions, however, often ignore the broader sociocultural context in which sexual violence occurs. This calls for innovative approaches in prevention education, which address the broader context. Computer games provide such an opportunity by providing simulated real-life scenarios, nonlinear narratives, and an interactive medium. We report the development and pilot testing of “Campus Craft,” a game prototype that focuses, among other things, on sexual assault prevention. Materials and Methods: The prototype was developed through a participatory design process; students, educators, and subject matter experts helped design and develop scenarios, game mechanics, and learning objectives. The prototype was evaluated by college students (n=141) in a multi-method approach. The evaluation encompassed issues of usability, game mechanics, attitudes, and learning outcomes. Results: Findings indicated that participants rated various aspects of the game positively. Additionally, use of “Campus Craft” contributed to differences in student learning of prevention concepts between the pre- and post-test such that students scored higher on the post-test. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate that, on average, students learned several core concepts related to sexual consent and rape culture through gameplay. Results suggest that computer-based gaming may be a viable avenue for sexual assault prevention education. Findings demonstrate that this approach could be effective in increasing student knowledge and understanding of factors that contribute to sexual assault in college. Future research is needed to corroborate findings and better understand the feasibility of using this approach among larger samples of college students. PMID:26181803

  7. Patient assault support group: achieving educational objectives. (United States)

    Lanza, Marilyn Lewis; Demaio, Jennifer; Benedict, Mary Anne


    As violence increases in society at large, violence is also increasing in hospitals and other health care facilities. Assault is one of the most serious occupational hazards reported in both public and private hospitals and their outpatient clinics. Despite prevention and intervention measures, experts predict that assault in hospitals will continue to be a serious problem. This paper describes using a support group to decrease the negative consequences to staff that have been assaulted. This paper explores in detail the program content and reactions by member of the group.

  8. Sorority participation and sexual assault risk. (United States)

    Minow, Jacqueline Chevalier; Einolf, Christopher J


    This study tested the relationship between sexual assault victimization, sorority membership, and participation in a range of sorority activities, using data from a large-sample (N = 779) survey conducted at a midsize public university. A total of 29% of sorority women reported having been sexually assaulted while in college, four times the rate (7%) among nonsorority members. The difference between Greek and non-Greek women remained large even when controls were included for alcohol consumption and attendance at Greek parties where alcohol is served. Among sorority members, participation in social events not involving alcohol correlated negatively with sexual assault, indicating a possible protective effect.

  9. Sensitization to turnip rape and oilseed rape in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study. (United States)

    Poikonen, Sanna; Puumalainen, Tuija J; Kautiainen, Hannu; Palosuo, Timo; Reunala, Timo; Turjanmaa, Kristiina


    Turnip rape and oilseed rape 2S albumins are new allergens in children with atopic dermatitis suspected for food allergy. We recently found that 11% (206/1887) of these children had a positive skin prick test to seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and/or turnip rape (Brassica rapa). In the present case-control study we examined how the children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to turnip rape and oilseed rape had been breast-fed and whether they had some common sensitization pattern to certain foods or pollens. A total of 64 children with atopic dermatitis and a positive skin prick test to turnip rape and/or oilseed rape (>or=5 mm) were examined. Sixty-four age- and sex-matched children with atopic dermatitis but negative skin prick tests to turnip rape and oilseed rape served as case controls. The turnip rape and/or oilseed rape sensitized children with atopic dermatitis had significantly more often positive skin prick tests reactions and IgE antibodies to various foods (cow's milk, egg, wheat, mustard; p children. They had been exclusively breast-fed for a longer period (median 4 months; p Children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to oilseed rape and turnip rape had high frequency of associated sensitizations to all foods and pollens tested showing that oilseed plant sensitization affects especially atopic children who have been sensitized to multiple allergens.

  10. Taking About Rape-and Why it Matters: Adjudicating rape in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... begins by establishing why judgements are an important source for understanding what rape means in society at large; it then discusses the relationship between power, language, and the law. This is followed by specific analyses of cases that show how patriarchy still defines how judges express themselves about rape.

  11. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production...

  12. Hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada Aggravated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Campo González


    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La mayoría de las veces la ictericia en el recién nacido es un hecho fisiológico, causado por una hiperbilirrubinemia de predominio indirecto, secundario a inmadurez hepática e hiperproducción de bilirrubina. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de la hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal en el Hospital Docente Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en los años 2007 a 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 173 recién nacidos que ingresaron al Departamento de Neonatología con diagnóstico de hiperbilirrubinemia agravada. RESULTADOS. La incidencia de hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada fue del 3,67 % y predominó en hermanos con antecedentes de ictericia (56,65 %. El tiempo de aparición fue de 48 a 72 h (76,87 % y entre los factores agravantes se hallaron el nacimiento pretérmino y el bajo peso al nacer. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron tratados con luminoterapia (90,17 %. CONCLUSIÓN. La hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada constituye un problema de salud. Los factores agravantes son la prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer. La luminoterapia es una medida terapéutica eficaz para su tratamiento.INTRODUCTION. Most of times jaundice in newborn is a physiological fact due to hyperbilirubinemia of indirect predominance, secondary to liver immaturity and to bilirubin hyperproduction. The aim of present of present study was to determine the behavior of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from 2007 to 2009. METHODS. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in 173 newborn patients admitted in the Neonatology Department diagnosed with severe hyperbilirubinemia. RESULTS. The incidence of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was of 3,67% with predominance in brothers with a history of jaundice (56,65%. The time of appearance was of 48 to 72 hrs (76,87% and among the aggravating factors were the preterm birth and

  13. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman


    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  14. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis. (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L


    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  15. Rape Myth Acceptance, Efficacy, and Heterosexual Scripts in Men's Magazines: Factors Associated With Intentions to Sexually Coerce or Intervene. (United States)

    Hust, Stacey J T; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Ebreo, Stephanie; Stefani, Whitney


    Sexual coercion has gained researchers' attention as an underreported form of sexual abuse or harm. The percentage of male and female college students who reported engaging in sexual coercion was as high as 82% for verbally coercive behaviors over the course of a year. Guided by heterosexual scripting theory and the integrated model of behavioral prediction, we examine potential factors associated with college students' intentions to sexually coerce or to intervene when friends plan to sexually coerce (bystander intention). Factors included young college students' beliefs about rape myth acceptance, perceived norms, efficacy to reduce sexual-assault risk, and exposure to men's and women's magazines. As predicted, results indicate rape myth acceptance was positively associated with intentions to sexually coerce, and negatively associated with bystander intentions to intervene. Students' efficacy to reduce sexual-assault risk was negatively associated with intentions to sexually coerce, and positively associated with bystander intentions. Exposure to the heterosexual scripts in men's magazines, which connect sexual prowess to masculinity, was associated with intentions to sexually coerce. Exposure to magazines was not associated with bystander intentions to intervene. Overall, an understanding of the independent contribution of these factors toward sexual coercion and intervention has implications for dating violence prevention programming. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Emergency Centre care for sexual assault victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana M. Krolikowski


    Full Text Available Sexual assault is a topic of importance worldwide to health professionals that provide emergency care. Victims of sexual assault include adult men, adult women, and children. The prevalence of sexual assault is likely under-reported. These patients should be offered comprehensive medical care upon arrival to the emergency centre. This includes assessment for acute injuries; medical history; physical examination; and possible collection of evidence. Depending on the patient's situation, he or she may be offered prophylactic and therapeutic management, which includes pregnancy testing and emergency contraception, prophylaxis for sexually transmitted infections, and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. This article addresses the most up-to-date information on this management. Patients should also be offered mental health counselling on-site if appropriate health professionals are available. A number of countries have national protocols for care of the sexual assault patient. Implementing these protocols can be strengthened through such interventions as hiring sexual assault nurse examiners or creating a sexual assault centre within the emergency centre. The patient's immediate and future safety and emotional needs should be evaluated and a plan formulated for safety when the patient is discharged. Medical follow up is recommended and should be strongly encouraged.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A REVIEW OF LITERATURE: RAPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA. STRATEGIES IN NIGERIA. *Omolola Tosan AKINWOLE. **Osakue Stevenson OMOERA. Abstract. Using historical-analytic methodology, this article reviews literature on rape and the ... The third assumption is the linguistic representation postulation. This.

  18. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture. (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C


    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. β1-Adrenoceptor blocker aggravated ventricular arrhythmia. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Patel, Dimpi; Wang, Dao Wu; Yan, Jiang Tao; Hsia, Henry H; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Chun Xia; Zuo, Hou Juan; Wang, Dao Wen


    To assess the impact of β1 -adrenoceptor blockers (β1 -blocker) and isoprenaline on the incidence of idiopathic repetitive ventricular arrhythmia that apparently decreases with preprocedural anxiety. From January 2010 to July 2012, six patients were identified who had idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias that apparently decreased (by greater than 90%) with preprocedural anxiety. The number of ectopic ventricular beats per hour (VPH) was calculated from Holter or telemetry monitoring to assess the ectopic burden. The mean VPH of 24 hours from Holter before admission (VPH-m) was used as baseline (100%) for normalization. β1 -Blockers, isoprenaline, and/or aminophylline were administrated successively on the ward and catheter lab to evaluate their effects on the ventricular arrhythmias. Among 97 consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias, six had reduction in normalized VPHs in the hour before the scheduled procedure time from (104.6 ± 4.6%) to (2.8 ± 1.6%) possibly due to preprocedural anxiety (P < 0.05), then increased to (97.9 ± 9.7%) during β1 -blocker administration (P < 0.05), then quickly reduced to (1.6 ± 1.0%) during subsequent isoprenaline infusion. Repeated β1 -blocker quickly counteracted the inhibitory effect of isoprenaline, and VPHs increased to (120.9 ± 2.4%) from (1.6 ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Isoprenaline and β1 -blocker showed similar effects on the arrhythmias in catheter lab. In some patients with structurally normal heart and ventricular arrhythmias there is a marked reduction of arrhythmias associated with preprocedural anxiety. These patients exhibit a reproducible sequence of β1 -blocker aggravation and catecholamine inhibition of ventricular arrhythmias, including both repetitive ventricular premature beats and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sexual Assaults in the Marine Corps: Really Increasing? (United States)


    local law enforcement the following: rape, spousal rape, sodomy, oral copulation, sexual penetration, sexual banerv~ Incest , procurtng any female to...DoD) SAPR Website (USMC) Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network Office...Against Women: National Sexual Violence Resources Center Rape Abuse Incest

  1. Rape survivor care crisis – mines the worst?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dire need for better healthcare worker training in rape forensics and safe survivor care has never been better illustrated than by the horrifying rape statistics Médecins. Sans Frontières (MSF) presented last month from the platinum-mining boom town of. Rustenburg. Promising to increase its rape survivor care and ...

  2. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths. (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others


    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  3. Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture. (United States)

    Abrams, Julie M.; And Others

    This publication is a collection of 20 supporting documents for a conference program, "Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture." Contents include: (1) "Presenter Contact Information"; (2) "Characteristics of Rape-Prone versus Rape-Free Cultures"; (3) "Dater's Bill of Rights"; (4)…

  4. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rape and incest. 50.306 Section 50.306 Public... § 50.306 Rape and incest. Federal financial participation is available in expenditures for medical procedures performed upon a victim of rape or incest if the program or project has received signed...

  5. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.


    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  6. Theoretical Consideration of Forcible Rape: A Critical Analysis. (United States)

    Clagett, Arthur F.


    Examined differences in hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of committing forcible rape, which are held by male subjects, as compared with the hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of being forcibly raped, held by the female subjects. Developed a critical analysis of social and cross-cultural variables affecting rape. (Author/ABL)

  7. An Empirical Investigation of Campus Demographics and Reported Rapes (United States)

    Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Martinez, Taylor


    Objective: Rape on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health issue with approximately 11% of women experiencing rape while in college. As such, it is important to examine factors unique to college campuses that influence the occurrences of rape. Methods: Using data from 1,423 four-year universities (public and private with at…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the child after collecting same willingly give in for it with the adult, it is said to be rape as well. ... in their teens, while others are matured adults (Obasi, 2007). ... Christian teen girls are no less likely to become victims of the rape". Rape cases are not limited to Nigeria alone. Other countries of the globe have their own side of ...

  9. Counting the countless – rape victimisation during the Rwandan Genocide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Morssinkhof, A.; Smeulers, A.L.


    Rape is regularly committed during a period of collective violence such as war. The article discusses the Rwandan genocide during which rape was used with the deliberate intent to destroy in whole or in part the Tutsi community. Rape is not often studied in such particular contexts, so little is

  10. The Psychology of the Politics of Rape: Political Ideology, Moral Foundations, and Attitudes Toward Rape. (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Hilz, Emily N


    Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.

  11. Rape trauma syndrome in the military courts. (United States)

    Young, S A


    The military courts have developed a rich case law tradition in the area of rape trauma syndrome testimony. These cases are particularly important in the context of a military that is both increasingly female and increasingly sensitive to mixed gender relationships. This article reviews the military court's approach to rape trauma testimony over the past 15 years. The author notes that military courts have been accepting of this testimony within certain well defined limits. The author analyzes the approach to testimony at one military medical center and offers a testimony model for the forensic psychiatrist who testifies in a military setting.

  12. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna


    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  13. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa). (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki


    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender differences in heterosexual college students' conceptualizations and indicators of sexual consent: implications for contemporary sexual assault prevention education. (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael


    Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives.

  15. Criminal poisoning: drug-facilitated sexual assault. (United States)

    Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P


    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a complex and ever-prevalent problem presenting to emergency departments. Emergency personnel should consider DFSA in patients who are amnestic to the specific details of the event following a reported sexual assault. The presence of ethanol or a positive routine drug screen in a sexual assault victim does not exclude the potential of a surreptitious drug being present. In addition, a negative routine drug screen does not exclude all potential agents that are used in DFSA. This article discusses agents reported in DFSA. It is imperative for emergency personnel to clearly document the history and the presenting signs and symptoms to assist laboratory personnel to hone in and detect the correct agent used in a DFSA.

  16. The role of the sexual assault centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve


    Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence.

  17. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)


    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  18. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)


    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter.

  19. Alcohol Consumption and Responsibility Judgment for Rape. (United States)

    Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; And Others

    One explanation for the positive relationship between alcohol consumption and violent crime considers alcohol consumption to be a socially accepted excuse for otherwise inappropriate behaviors. A policy capturing methodology was used to examine judgments of responsibility for rape. Male (N=30) and female (N=66) undergraduates received 40 profiles…

  20. Taking a chance: Sex, alcohol & acquaintance rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Heinskou, Marie Bruvik


    to grasp more of the complexities of the situation. By analyzing a single case of acquaintance rape and then reflect this case in the light of interviews on young people's drinking habits it is argued that the complexities within the analytical frame of chance is crucial in understanding reported...

  1. Rape Myths and the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale in China. (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Fang, Gang; Huang, Hui; Cui, Naixue; Rhodes, Karin V; Gelles, Richard


    The study examines the similarities and differences between China and the United States with regard to rape myths. We assessed the individual level of rape myth acceptance among Chinese university students by adapting and translating a widely used measure of rape myth endorsement in the United States, the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) scale. We assessed whether the IRMA scale would be an appropriate assessment of attitudes toward rape among young adults in China. The sample consisted of 975 Chinese university students enrolled in seven Chinese universities. We used explorative factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the Chinese translation of the IRMA scale. Results suggest that the IRMA scale requires some modification to be employed with young adults in China. Our analyses indicate that 20 items should be deleted, and a five-factor model is generated. We discuss relevant similarities and differences in the factor structure and item loadings between the Chinese Rape Myth Acceptance (CRMA) and the IRMA scales. A revised version of the IRMA, the CRMA, can be used as a resource in rape prevention services and rape victim support services. Future research in China that employs CRMA will allow researchers to examine whether individual's response to rape myth acceptance can predict rape potential and judgments of victim blaming and community members' acceptance of marital rape. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women). (United States)

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon


    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  3. Detection of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine in the blood, urine and hair samples of the victim of a drug-facilitated sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe


    A drug rape facilitated with the sedative antipsychotic drug quetiapine is presented here. A teenage girl and her girlfriend went to the home of an adult couple they had met at a bar. Here, the teenage girl (victim) felt tired after consuming some alcoholic drinks and fell asleep. While she...... negative. The low level of quetiapine in the hair segment and its absence in the other segments indicate that the victim had only consumed one or a few doses of quetiapine within that period and was not a regular user. This study describes the first drug-facilitated assault involving a single dose...

  4. 75 FR 17845 - National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2010 (United States)


    ... suffer the pain and trauma of sexual assault. From verbal harassment and intimidation to molestation and... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8492 of April 1, 2010 National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2010 By the... physical and emotional scars. During National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, we recommit ourselves not...

  5. Sexual Assault: Pattern and Related Complications among Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with the aim of assessing sexual assault patterns and related complications on 99 sexual assault cases which were managed at the Gynecology Out-patient Department of the Hospital. Data on circumstances of sexual assault, survivor specific ...

  6. Factors Associated with Reports of Wife Assault in New Zealand. (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; And Others


    Examined the frequency of wife assault among New Zealand mothers. Wife assault occurred at a rate of 2 percent to 3 percent per year. Rates of assault were related to length of marriage, type of marriage, planning of pregnancy, parental age, church attendance, and family socioeconomic status. (Author/BL)

  7. Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress. (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C


    Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p shame. These findings offer new insight concerning the intervening role of assault-related shame and highlight the importance of shame as a target for therapeutic intervention. This study suggests the need for future research concerning the role of shame in the etiology of PTSD and process of disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students. (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah


    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  9. Going Too Far: Sexual Assault on Campus (United States)

    Marshall, Sarah; Betron, Rachel; Bubbers, Caroline; Keightley, Melissa


    This case involves the alleged sexual assault of a college athlete by her professor. Rather than report the incident, the athlete turns to social media to cryptically share her story. Her messages are clear cries for help and give window to her accelerating depressed state. Given the nature of her postings and follow-up accusations, various…

  10. Prevention of victimization following sexual assaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine


    Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...

  11. Experiences of healthcare providers managing sexual assault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit of a community hospital in the Nkangala district in the Mpumalanga Province. A qualitative, phenomenological design was applied. Purposeful sampling was used to select ...

  12. "Fresh" Thoughts on Studying Sexual Assault (United States)

    Norris, Jeanette


    When the author started graduate school in the late 1970s, she was drawn to studying sexual assault. She had been a declared feminist since high school as the Women's Movement even reached the coal region of eastern Pennsylvania! Attending college in New York City, with its myriad opportunities for more exposure to what feminists were up to, made…

  13. Dealing with Sexual Assault, Challenges, and Insights (United States)


    seem fragmented…. [Health problems comprise of] depression, chronic pain, diabetes, anxiety, eating disorders , and post- traumatic stress disorder .”41...sexual assault problem starts with the American culture. Perpetrators reside in society ??? communities, businesses, churches, schools, and sports ...culture. Perpetrators reside in society – communities, businesses, churches, schools, and sports – and in the military. In an all-voluntary military, the

  14. Drug facilitated sexual assault with lethal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin


    A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...

  15. Exploring different explanatory psychological models of perpetrators of rape



    M.A. Without prejudice to race or culture, rape is the hurt of both males and females of all ages. Rape can be one of the most devastating emotional events in a person’s life, the effects of which are entrenched for life (Rozee & Koss, 2001). Motives underscoring the need to commit rape have received much attention in the literature. Evolutionary theorists such as Thornhill and Palmer (2000) report that sexual needs and reproduction are the primary motivational factors. Feminist theorists ...

  16. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus (United States)

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.


    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  17. Rape: Past and present legal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapović Lasta S.


    Full Text Available Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC. In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapists. Laws following the Second Serbian Uprising, also provide severe punishment for sexual violence, especially towards women but also male minors. Legal and court practice, following the Second World War, indicate that the protection of women from sexual violence is completely inadequate and this at a time when women had achieved equal rights with men in many spheres of life. World events at the end of the 20th century: collapse of the Soviet Union: as well as the happenings in this region,: war, ethnic and religious conflicts resulted in massive rape of women, opening of brothels, trading women and family violence. Non state organizations, mainly women in expert associations, invest great effort to rectify this very unsatisfactory situation. They exert pressure for change in the law and in court practice, by which women would have more effective defense against sexual violence, as well as organized assistance for women victims of traffic, and warning of the possible danger.

  18. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.


    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  19. Ending Rape in War: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Fiske


    Full Text Available The rape of women has for centuries been an endemic feature of war, yet perpetrators largely go unpunished. Women were sanctioned as the spoils of war in biblical times and more recently it has been claimed that it is more dangerous to be a woman than a soldier in modern conflict. Nevertheless, until the establishment of the ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia – there was very little concern regarding the need to address the rape of women in conflict. This paper briefly maps historical attitudes towards rape in war, outlines some analyses and explanations of why rape in war occurs and finally turns more substantively to recent efforts by the international community to prosecute rape as a war crime and a crime against humanity. We argue, that while commendable in some ways, contemporary approaches to rape in war risk reinforcing aspects of women’s status which contribute to the targeting of women for rape and continue to displace women from the centre to the margins in debates and practices surrounding rape in both war and peace time.  We conclude by arguing that criminal prosecutions alone are insufficient and that, if we are to end the rape of women and girls in war (and peace we need a radical restructuring of gender relations across every sphere of social and political life.

  20. Fostering Constructive Dialogue on Military Sexual Assault (United States)


    while the victim was “substantially inca - pacitated.” Anecdotally, substantial incapaci- tation is the most frequently charged type of aggravated...the new statute is that the accused will face a “knew or should have known” standard about whether the victim was inca - pacitated. Results from cases

  1. Sexual Assault Characteristics and Perceptions of Event-Related Distress. (United States)

    Blayney, Jessica A; Read, Jennifer P


    Sexual assault (SA) is a potent psychological stressor, linked to harmful mental health outcomes in both the short- and long-term. Specific assault characteristics can add to the toxicity of SA events. Although research has assessed characteristics of the assault itself (e.g., force, penetration), few studies have examined the larger socioenvironmental context in which SA takes place. This was the purpose of the present study. Young adults (N = 220; 80% female; 54% current students) reported on their most recent SA during college. Cross-sectional associations were tested via structural equation modeling to determine the contributions of socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics in predicting event-related distress. Socioenvironmental context from the most recent assault included assault setting, intoxication at the time of the assault, perpetrator relationship, and prior consensual sexual experiences with the perpetrator. We also examined assault characteristics, including physical force and penetration. Participants reported how upsetting the most recent assault was (a) at the time it occurred and (b) currently. Results revealed differential patterns for socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics based on the timing of distress (past or present). Notably, many of the socioenvironmental factors showed associations with distress above and beyond the powerful effects of physical force and penetration. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the unique factors that contribute to and maintain psychological distress in sexually victimized young adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Perceptions of stranger and acquaintance rape: the role of benevolent and hostile sexism in victim blame and rape proclivity. (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Viki, G Tendayi; Masser, Barbara; Bohner, Gerd


    In Studies 1 and 2, after reading an acquaintance-rape but not a stranger-rape scenario, higher benevolent sexist but not hostile sexist participants blamed the victim significantly more. In Study 2, higher hostile sexist but not benevolent sexist male participants showed significantly greater proclivity to commit acquaintance (but not stranger) rape. Studies 3 and 4 supported the hypothesis that the effects of benevolent sexism and hostile sexism are mediated by different perceptions of the victim, as behaving inappropriately and as really wanting sex with the rapist. These findings show that benevolent sexism and hostile sexism underpin different assumptions about women that generate sexist reactions toward rape victims.

  3. Inducing and Aggravating Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhiyatam Mardhiyah


    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (subsequently abbreviated as GERD is a disease commonly found in the community. Several factors have been recognized as inducing and aggravating factors of GERD symptoms such as older age, female gender, obesity, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, certain diet and poor eating habit like eating fatty, spicy, and acid food.

  4. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine


    BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (...

  5. 38 CFR 3.306 - Aggravation of preservice disability. (United States)


    ... disability. 3.306 Section 3.306 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Connection § 3.306 Aggravation of preservice disability. (a) General. A preexisting injury or disease will be... disability during such service, unless there is a specific finding that the increase in disability is due to...

  6. What Factors Predict Women's Disclosure of Sexual Assault to Mental Health Professionals? (United States)

    Starzynski, Laura L.; Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Long, LaDonna M.; Long, Susan M.


    Although many sexual assault survivors seek support from mental health sources for adverse psychological symptoms due to sexual assault, many do not. A diverse sample of adult sexual assault survivors was surveyed about their sexual assault experiences, social reactions received when disclosing assault, attributions of blame, coping strategies,…

  7. A closer look at non-accidental trauma: Caregiver assault compared to non-caregiver assault. (United States)

    Litz, Cristen N; Ciesla, David J; Danielson, Paul D; Chandler, Nicole M


    The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of non-accidental trauma (NAT) patients compared to other trauma (OT) patients across the state of Florida. In addition, NAT and OT patients with a mechanism of injury of assault were further analyzed. A statewide database was reviewed from January 2010 to December 2014 for patients aged 0-18years who presented following trauma. Patients were sorted by admitting diagnosis into two groups: rule out NAT and all other diagnoses. Patients with a mechanism of assault were subanalyzed and outcomes were compared. There were 46,557 patients included. NAT patients were younger, had more severe injuries and had a higher mortality rate compared to OT patients. Assault was the mechanism of injury in 95% of NAT patients. NAT assault patients were younger, required more intensive care unit (ICU) resources, and had a higher mortality rate compared to other assault patients. Non-accidental trauma patients require more resources and have a higher mortality rate compared to accidental trauma patients, and these differences remain even when controlling for the mechanism of injury. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The ties that bind: understanding the impact of sexual assault disclosure on survivors' relationships with friends, family, and partners. (United States)

    Ahrens, Courtney E; Aldana, Erendira


    A growing body of research suggests that the type of social reactions sexual assault survivors receive from others can have a profound impact on their health and well-being. Far less is known about the impact of social reactions on the ensuing relationship between survivors and the people to whom they disclose. The current study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the impact of disclosure on survivors' relationships with friends, family members, and romantic partners. A total of 76 rape survivors described 153 different disclosures to informal support providers. Qualitative analysis suggested that most relationships either were strengthened or remained strong following the disclosure, but a substantial number of survivors described relationships that deteriorated or remained poor following the disclosure. These outcomes were related to the quality of the relationship prior to the disclosure and to survivors' perceptions of the reactions they received during the disclosure. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

  9. The Decline of Air Assault Operations (United States)


    outside the town—including female counter-intelligence soldiers of the Fuerzas Femininas.40 38 Lieutenant Colonel Douglas I. Smith, Army Aviation in...kilometers by air assault along the western flank of the coalition main body to the Euphrates River. The division’s tasks included destroying goggles. Among other arrangements, this meant sending Black Hawk, Huey, and Chinook crews from Fort Bragg to Panama, together with door gunners

  10. Female University Student and Staff Perceptions of Rape (United States)

    Herman, Michele H.; Sedlacek, William E.


    This study explores the fears of potential rape victims and the amount of information about rape and self-defense that such women possess. Many dimensions were found to explain the variability of responses among female members of the campus community. Suggestions for programs were offered. (Author/PC)

  11. "Corrective rape" of lesbians in the era of transformative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been numerous incidents of “corrective” rape of lesbians in recent years. This article examines the adequacy of the existing South African legal framework to deal with incidents of “corrective” rape against the background of transformative constitutionalism. The various definitions of transformative ...

  12. Date rape among undergraduates in southwestern Nigeria federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlational survey design was adopted to examine the extent to which attitude towards date rape is associated with the respondents' emotional empathy, beliefs in rape myths and gender. Simple random sampling technique was adopted at three stages to draw one thousand two hundred and sixteen undergraduates ...

  13. Knowledge and Perceptions of Date Rape among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    (Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17[3]: 137-148). Keywords: Female undergraduate students, Date rape perception, Date rape-related knowledge. Introduction. Violence against women is a pervasive human rights abuse worldwide1,2. It is any act that results in, or may result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering ...

  14. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah


    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  15. A review of literature: rape and communication media strategies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using historical-analytic methodology, this article reviews literature on rape and the communication strategies that can be used to address rape issues in Nigeria. In doing this, it critically engages communication theories as they apply to some communication media strategies that have been/can be deployed to redress the ...

  16. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.


    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  17. Understanding the innermost nature of genocidal rape: A community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article shows that existing explanations of wartime rapes that are the biosocial, cultural and war strategy approaches do not capture sufficiently the innermost nature of genocidal rape. It proposes a new theoretical framework, the community-based approach, and confronts its premises with the real-life experiences of ...

  18. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 14, 2012 ... were investigated to elucidate the contributions of root morphology and organic acids exudation to P uptake by rape from ... experiments, the activation capacity of insoluble Fe-P and Al-P of organic acids secreted by different rape genotypes roots ..... root morphology, root exudates, root architecture and.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    connection is one which takes place otherwise than between husband and wife. A lot of issues arise ... It can therefore be said that rape is any sexual contact that is accompanied by penetration of whatever orifice of .... through its lens to look also at the Nigerian society which encourages offences of rape. It is a statement of ...

  20. [Rape: a social problem and a public health issue]. (United States)

    Piet, Emmanuelle


    The French legal definition of rape was somewhat vague until the 1970s. In December 1980, the increased awareness created by the feminist movement led to a precise legal definition and to the possibility for self-help groups to participate in legal actions. In 1985, a telephone helpline was created after several rapes were following several rapes committed in public. Since 1986, more than 39 000 women have called this hotline. Other recent studies confirm the frequency of rape. Major advances have been made in recent years, in terms of justice for minors who are victims of rape (lengthening of the statutory limitation on sexual crimes) and healthcare provision (opening of refuges, medical-legal consultations, victim management centers, greater awareness among healthcare professionals, etc.). Women need to be better informed of the frequency of rape, its legal implications, rapists' strategies, mental disorders, and the physical (especially gynecological) repercussions of rape. Women must also be aware that the rapist is the only guilty party. Finally, a multidisciplinary strategy is needed, notably involving self-help associations and hospital units that deal with rape victims.

  1. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: The Problem, the Victims, and Prevention. (United States)

    Neff, Laurie


    Asserts that, although providing educational programs and materials on acquaintance rape and prevention strategies is important, attention must also be given to victims. Discusses recognition of stress response pattern of victims suffering from Rape Trauma Syndrome and provision of appropriate referral and support services. Includes selected list…

  2. The emergency management of a rape case in a nutshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of a rape case in the emergency department is shrouded in an unacceptable level of lack of confidence. Since South Africa has a high incidence of rape, the contribution of health practitioners in addressing the crime successfully is essential. The medical management of such cases carries a high level of ...

  3. Rape, sexual politics and the construction of manhood among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pascah Mungwini

    198). Burgess and Holmstrom (1974), in their analysis of the rape trauma syndrome, characterized rape as an act of violence which uses sex as a weapon. As will be highlighted below, the construction of Shona masculinity presents the male in contraposition to the female, thus attributing the active role to the male and the.

  4. Perception of Rape Amongst Secondary School Students In Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Background: Rape in children is a significant public health problem and represents the least reported but most devastating major form of child abuse all over the world. It occurs when one person does not fully and freely consent to sexual intercourse. This study seeks to evaluate the perception of rape among secondary ...

  5. Attitudes toward rape among Nigerian young adults: the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hypotheses were tested with the independent group t-test. Attitudes of young adults toward rape was found to be different based on gender and parental family structure; male young adults had more positive attitudes toward rape than their female counterparts (t = 2.02, df = 318, p < .05); youth from polygamous family ...

  6. Psycho-legal challenges facing the mentally retarded rape victim

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 3, 2011 ... against women and children is rife in South Africa, the country has been branded the 'rape capital of the world'. ... the criminal justice system, have regarded people with mental retardation as unreliable witnesses. ..... Another important role player in this legal battle is the police. If a rape survivor with mental ...

  7. The Influence of Rape Myth Acceptance and Situational Factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through mixed-method victimisation surveys that covered four universities in Lagos and Ogun states, involving 206 respondents and 12 in-depth interviewees, the study found that emotions and societal perception of rape are strong factors in determining personal conception and description of rape-like experiences.

  8. From crime scene actions in stranger rape to prediction of rapist type: single-victim or serial rapist? (United States)

    Corovic, Jelena; Christianson, Sven Å; Bergman, Lars R


    The differences in crime scene actions in cases of stranger rape committed by convicted offenders were examined between 31 single-victim rapists and 35 serial rapists. Data were collected from police files, court verdicts, psychiatric evaluations, and criminal records. Findings indicate that the serial rapists were more criminally sophisticated than the single-victim rapists, during their first and second rapes. The single-victim rapists were significantly more likely to engage in the interpersonal involvement behavior of kissing the victim, and to engage in pre-assault alcohol use, than the serial rapists. There was, however, no significant difference in physically violent or sexual behaviors. To investigate the possibility of predicting rapist type, logistic regression analyses were performed. Results indicate that three behaviors in conjunction, kissed victim, controlled victim, and offender drank alcohol before the offense, predicted whether an unknown offender is a single-victim or serial rapist with a classification accuracy of 80.4%. The findings have implications for the classification of stranger rapists in offender profiling. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Narrative constructions of sexual violence as told by female rape survivors in three populations of the southwestern United States: scripts of coercion, scripts of consent. (United States)

    Bletzer, Keith V; Koss, Mary P


    There is a growing literature on the narrative construction of rape as sexual violence. This is puzzling, since, in certain contexts, violence may stifle narrative production. Researchers of atrocities, for example, propose that the experience of recurring terror disrupts narrative cohesion in reporting lived trauma. Genocidal horror occurs in the context of communities and ethnic groups. Our rape survival data from women of three populations in the southwestern United States reflect traumas of sexual violence against women, experienced within everyday lives. From interviews with 62 female rape survivors, we (1) identify narrative conventions and linguistic devices to show how these women structure accounts of sexual assault that reflect their cultural background; (2) contrast scripts of coercion and consent; (3) examine how the way in which these women describe the coercive actions of the perpetrator(s) contradicts the assumptions of legal discourse; and (4) discuss the narrative production of several women in abusive relationships and compare it to the narrative production (or lack thereof) of persons who experience state-engineered terror.

  10. Relationship of sexual assault with self-concept and general health in victims referred to forensic Center in Ahvaz city. (United States)

    Alboebadi, F; Afshari, P; Jamshidi, F; Poor, Rm; Cheraghi, M

    We aimed to study the relationship of sexual assault with self-concept and the general health of the victims referred to forensics in Ahvaz city (Iran). It was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study that was designed by two groups as case and control which has done on 128 subjects. Sixty-four rape victims who were referred to the forensic center, considered as case group and in control group, 64 people who were being referred to health clinics in Ahvaz city. The data were collected through Rogers's standard self-concept and general health questionnaires. Questionnaires were filled in self-completion way. Data had entered and analyzed by using SPSS software (version 22). A level of significance was less than 0.05. The average score of self-concept in the case group was 14.97 ±4.78 and in control group was 6.08 ±2.9. Average score of general health of the case and control groups, respectively, were 51.09 ±18.07 and 16.92 ±12.79. A significant statistical difference between the average score of self-concept, social functioning, physical and general health components in the groups was observed. More negative self-concept and vulnerable general health was observed in the rape victims group than in the control group. Providing counseling and health services and family and social support of these victims can be effective in their general health promotion.

  11. Aggravating andmitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas,, Konstantinos; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011. Method: This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature......Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury......–80 km/h, slippery road surface, and location of the crash on road sections are aggravating infrastructure factors, while the availability of cycling paths and dense urban development are mitigating factors. Heavy vehicle involvement and conflicts between cyclists going straight or turning left and other...

  12. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose


    Sherajee, Shamshad J.; Rafiq,Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira


    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 μg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (...

  13. Late Adolescents' Perspectives on Marital Rape: The Impact of Gender and Fraternity/Sorority Membership. (United States)

    Auster, Carol J.; Leone, Janel M.


    Examined attitudes toward marital rape-in particular, the impact of gender and fraternity/sorority membership on respondents' views regarding marital rape versus rape by a stranger, as well as feelings about actions that a victim of marital rape may take. While fraternity and nonfraternity men showed significant differences in responses, sorority…

  14. Date Rape: Its Relationship to Trauma Symptoms and Sexual Self-Esteem. (United States)

    Shapiro, Brenda L.; Schwarz, J. Conrad


    Extends previous research on date rape by assessing trauma symptoms and sexual self-esteem among college women who had, or who had not, been raped. Results indicate that rape victims had significantly more trauma symptoms and lower sexual self-esteem compared to other women, thus suggesting date rape's significant consequences. (RJM)

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of male sexual assault in a criminological database. (United States)

    Choudhary, Ekta; Gunzler, Douglas; Tu, Xin; Bossarte, Robert M


    Sexual assault among males, compared with females, is understudied, and may also be significantly underreported. Past studies have relied primarily on population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of sexual assault and associated health outcomes. However, survey-based studies rely primarily on self-reports of victimization and may not accurately estimate the true prevalence of male sexual assault victimization. In order to obtain a detailed assessment of sexual assault among males, criminological databases like the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) may provide an important and unique source of information. The objective of the current study was to use data from the 2001-2005 NIBRS to construct an epidemiological profile of sexual assault among males. Our results suggest that the incidence of sexual assault was higher among young males (less than 19 years of age), with approximately 90% of all cases being reported among members of this age group. Among males of all ages, forcible fondling and sodomy were the most prevalent forms of sexual assault. Results from additional analyses include age- and race-specific rates of male sexual assault, the prevalence and severity of injury, and time trends detailing incidence by time of the day and location of the incident. Our analyses show that sexual assault is experienced by males of all age groups. However, the rate of sexual assault is higher among younger males. Despite some limitations, results from this study suggest that NIBRS data may provide a important complement to survey data for understanding breadth and consequences of male sexual assault.

  16. Latent Profiles among Sexual Assault Survivors: Understanding Survivors and Their Assault Experiences (United States)

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette


    Little guidance exists about how to tailor empowerment and resistance sexual assault programming to be responsive to varying groups of women. Using an investigation of 415 college women who completed a self-administered survey about a range of sexually aggressive experiences by a known male assailant, this investigation tested for distinct…

  17. Patterns of Injury and Reported Violence Depending on Relationship to Assailant in Female Swedish Sexual Assault Victims (United States)

    Moller, Anna Sofia; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Sondergaard, Hans Peter; Helstrom, Lotti


    Earlier studies have explored the differences between known-assailant sexual assaults and stranger assaults and reported the stranger assaults as being more violent. Only a few studies have discriminated between sexual assaults by intimate partners from assaults by other known assailants when comparing with assaults by strangers. In this study, we…

  18. Management and Profile of Rape Victims attending the Karl Bremer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Given the high prevalence of HIV infection in this country today it is not difficult to observe the risk faced by victims of sexual assault. In addition, there is a lack of available data on the per-episode risk of HIV infection with specific sexual encounters,1 and in combination with poor follow-up of sexual assault ...

  19. Genocide Rape Trauma Management: An Integrated Framework for Supporting Survivors. (United States)

    Mukamana, Donatilla; Brysiewicz, Petra; Collins, Anthony; Rosa, William


    During the 1994 Rwandan genocide, rape was widely used as a strategic weapon against Tutsi women. More than 20 years later, many of these women are still suffering devastating psychological, social, and physical effects of these experiences and remain in need of effective interventions that address their complex trauma. This article develops the theory of genocide rape trauma management as a conceptual framework for promoting the holistic health and recovery of female genocide rape survivors. A qualitative study using grounded theory explored the lived experiences of genocide rape survivors and led to the development of this model. The need for a contextually appropriate model is highlighted, with historical and current data regarding the Rwandan context and the experiences of genocide rape survivors. The research details the complex dynamics of emotional, physical, existential, and psychosocial sequelae related to genocide rape trauma, and how these interact with both local community and broader political attitudes toward survivors, as well as the serious interrelated economic challenges and limitations in current public health and welfare services. The research demonstrates the necessary elements of a holistic approach encompassing a synergistic combination of skilled psychological care, self-help strategies, collaborative support groups, community education, social reintegration, advocacy, accessible medical care, and economic empowerment. These interacting elements form the basis of the theory of genocide rape trauma management, offering an encompassing integrated framework that can be adapted to, and evaluated in, other similar contexts.

  20. Prevention of Sexual Assault in Nigeria | Eze | Annals of Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights ...

  1. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Service Goal Priorities (United States)

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary


    We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…

  2. Original Research Article Prevalence and Nature of Sexual Assault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of Sexual Violence or Recidivism. Am J Publ. Health 2010; 100(3): 412-419. 2. Micheal CL, Jessica SL, Halfin VP. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault. In: Decherney AH (Ed). Current Diagnosis and treatment, 10th Edition. NewYork. McGrawHills Publishers, 2007: 1025 –. 1030. 3. Delahunta E, Baram DA. Sexual Assault ...

  3. Prevalence and Nature of Sexual Assault among Female Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the sexual assault reported (57.6%) occurred in the evenings and nights. In 35.6% of the cases, the respondents sustained extra-genital trauma, while others had psychological (24.9%) and genital trauma (15.6%). Conclusion: Sexual assault rate among female students in the University of Maiduguri is high and is ...

  4. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both parametric and non-parametric statistics were employed. Ethical measures were adhered to throughout the research process. Results: A significantly-higher proportion of sexually-assaulted women disclosed the incident to family (p = 0.021). The majority of sexually- (90%) and physically- (86%) assaulted women were ...

  5. Sexual Assault against Female Nigerian Students | Kullima | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio ...

  6. 77 FR 4239 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program (United States)


    ... consistent with the U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women Protocol. Gender-responsive.... Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, ``A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical... services provided to victims of domestic violence to victims who are sexually assaulted, in violation of...

  7. Sexual Assault Victim Participation in Police Investigations and Prosecution. (United States)

    Alderden, Megan; Long, LaDonna

    This research seeks to examine why victim participation rates in police investigations and prosecution decline following reporting of sexual assault to police. It was hypothesized that several factors would impact victim participation, including whether the incident reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios, if the victim used alcohol or illicit drugs prior to the incident, and if the hospital staff initially reported the incident. The study coded victim participation following initial police reporting from police case investigation narratives. Based on the 544 cases of sexual assault reported to a Midwestern police department, it was found that victims were indeed more likely to continue participating after initial reports to police if their assaults reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios. Future research should include discussions with victims about their participation in the criminal justice system following initial reporting to further clarify the findings noted here.

  8. Changes in women's sexual behavior following sexual assault. (United States)

    Deliramich, Aimee N; Gray, Matt J


    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity postassault. Such outcomes are not mutually exclusive possibilities but may instead reflect subtypes of sexual assault victims. A significant percentage of assault survivors did report increases in sexual activity following trauma. Assault survivors also reported increases in posttraumatic alcohol consumption relative to a comparison sample of motor vehicle accident survivors. In both groups, increases in posttraumatic alcohol usage predicted increases in posttraumatic sexual activity, suggesting that use of alcohol as a coping strategy may result in an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. If true, this maladaptive coping mechanism could help to account for some instances of revictimization.

  9. ["Biastophilia"--rape as a form of paraphilia?]. (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas


    Rape is primarily regarded as a crime against sexual integrity. If rape is the only way for an individual to get sexual satisfaction, it meets the criteria of paraphilia, i.e. a disorder of sexual preference. The correct technical term is "biastophilia". The author investigates the evolutionary origins of this deviant form of copulation behavior, whose crucial characteristic is breaking the will of the sexual object. He shows that in a primeval environment this type of mating behavior may have been a promising strategy to pass on one's genes to the next generation. Thus, the behavioral pattern of raping had the chance to become widely spread in spite of its social undesirability.

  10. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance. (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly


    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Rape in South Africa: an invisible part of apartheid's legacy. (United States)

    Armstrong, S


    Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases and other forms of gender violence have increased. Under an apartheid system, where only the rape of white women was prosecuted, and gender and race issues could diffuse the black struggle, there were difficulties in mobilizing support to end violence against black women. There was social acceptance that rape of black women was part of life. Police statistics on the incidence of rape were notoriously unreliable, because only a small percentage of cases are reported to police, and many women would be ashamed to admit to marital abuse, including rape. In women's groups, it was reported that 1 out of every 4 women had been raped, and raped at early ages, such as 14 years of age. In impoverished communities, there is widespread poverty, injustice, prejudice, alcohol abuse, and other conditions impacting on women. The rapists may be school classmates, or street fighters, or political activists. The sexual initiation of women worldwide and in South Africa frequently is accompanied by coercion. Abduction and forced sex is considered legitimate for young men, who believe that mental health is deleteriously affected by lack of sex. Girls may even be abducted from the classroom, as a way of preventing women's power and control over assets and resources and diminishing the potential threat to gender power relations. School girls who become pregnant are often forced to leave school. Victims of rape may be excluded from family life and forced to seek prostitution as a means of support. Rape is reportedly experienced among older women with bottles, tins, or other devices which inflict injury. Only rape with penal penetration is an

  12. Rape trauma syndrome: time to open the floodgates? (United States)

    Keogh, Andrew


    The conviction rate in rape cases remains remarkably low, leading many to believe a new approach is needed to prosecuting such crimes. Many important steps have been taken in relation to the collection and retention of evidence and the setting up of specialist rape prosecutors, but important evidential weaknesses remain present in the system alongside Victorian attitudes to sexual conduct. The British Home Office is currently consulting on a number of measures, including the admissibility of evidence showing the presence of rape trauma syndrome. This paper examines the history of this controversial evidential debate.

  13. Changing attitudes and perceptions of Hispanic men ages 18 to 25 about rape and rape prevention. (United States)

    Lawson, Sarah Lynn; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gutman, Lauren Samantha; Siman, Matilde Nathalia


    This exploratory study was designed to test the effectiveness of Foubert's intervention, The Men's Program, on a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Hispanic men who are not enrolled at a University or College. We explored participants' perceptions of, reactions to, and experience of the program. The information collected will be used to adapt the program to this specific population in order to increase cultural relevancy and specificity and create lasting attitudinal change. Three groups of six-eight Hispanic males (n = 22) were exposed to the intervention program. The Bystander Attitude Scale and the Rape Attitude and Beliefs Scale were administered as pre- and post-test measures. A short focus group was conducted to ask the men about their experience of the intervention. Analysis showed a significant increase in participants' willingness to intervene (p = 0.005) along with a decrease in rape myth acceptance in four of the five subscales (Justice p = 0.03; Status p = 0.004; Tactics p = 0.04; and Gender p = 0.002) after exposure to the intervention. Analysis of focus group material yielded several interesting themes about knowledge of rape, family and culture, perceptions of women, and the program material. This study showed promising change in attitudes about rape beliefs and bystander behaviors in Hispanic males exposed to an educational intervention. Through the information obtained, a cultural adaption from the analysis of the focus group data will be implemented during Phase 2 of the study. The adapted intervention will be tested before, after, and 1- and 3-months post-intervention to test whether the change in attitudes and behaviors are sustainable over time.

  14. Immediate medical care after sexual assault. (United States)

    Cybulska, Beata


    Immediate needs after sexual assault include safety and privacy in the first instance, followed by treatment of injuries and prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus. Management should include risk identification of self-harm and suicide, as well as safeguarding children and vulnerable adults. Pregnancy prevention can be achieved through oral or mechanical methods of emergency contraception. Availability of emergency contraception may vary between districts and countries, depending on local laws and cultural or religious beliefs. Sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhoea, chlamydia, hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus, represent an important part of management of victims of sexual assault. They can be prevented immediately by offering bacterial and viral prophylaxis followed by sexual health screening 2 weeks later unless symptomatic. In deciding what antibiotics to use as prophylaxis, local prevalence of infections and resistance to antibiotics should be considered. Prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus infection after sexual exposure should be discussed and offered in high-risk cases for up to 72 h after exposure. This should be accompanied by baseline human immunodeficiency virus test and referral for follow up. In high prevalence areas, prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus infection after sexual exposure should be offered as a routine. Psychosocial support and risk assessment of vulnerabilities, including self-harm or domestic violence and practical support should be addressed and acted on depending on identified needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Media Re-victimization of Rape Victims in a Shame Culture? Exploring the Framing and Representation of Rape Cases in Nigerian Dailies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinenye Nwabueze; Fidelis Oduah


      [...]India as a country has in recent time, continued to have its doses of not just rape cases but "gang raping" of powerless, defenseless and innocent women and girls by rapists and "the situation...

  16. Rape embryogenesis. V. Accumulation of lipid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska


    Full Text Available In embryo of winter rape var. Górczański lipid bodies have been observed in the light microscope starting from two-celled proembryo. Their number and size increase in the course of embryogenesis, especially since greening of endosperm and embryo. Lipid bodies, either single or in clusters, are present in all embryo cells, the clusters occur in various parts of the cytoplasm. During embryo maturation lipid bodies move and locate in a number of layers by the cell wall. At the same time their appearance change. Typical storage lipids originate. Lipid bodies are unevenly distributed within the embryo: their number and size decrease along the embryo axis from its part below cotyledons towards root apex. Moreover, they are histologically diversified: the biggest are located in epidermis and cortex, whereas the smallest -in central cylinder. In columella there are fewest lipid bodies.

  17. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska


    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  18. [Anxiety and depression levels in rape offenders]. (United States)

    Herrera-Hernández, E; Marván, L; Saavedra, M; Contreras, C M


    Whether the active subject of rape possesses a particular personality trait is a much debated matter. It is an accepted fact that a small amount of rapists fall into the sadistic diagnostic category. Other psychopatologic traits likely to identify a rapist are, however, unknown. The present study was carried over at a jail near the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) Mexico. Hamilton, IDARE, and Zung scales, in their modified Spanish version were applied to a sample of imprisoned adult rapists. Compared to their control group (men serving sentences for other felonies), rapists scored higher in anxiety, and depression scales. In the light of these results, it is suggested that some rapists are likely to be anxious-depressive subjects that, after having "acquired" a sociopathic repertoire, offend other people in conditions of indefensiveness, contrary to depressive subjects who aggress themselves.

  19. Rape embryogenesis I. The proembryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska


    Full Text Available The development of the proembryo of rape Brassica napus L. from the zygote to the young embryo proper is described. A number of regularities were found in the direction, succession, and distribution of segmental and differentiating divisions of the proembryo. The direction of the divisions seems to foe determined by the direction of growth and the shape of the cells. The termyoung embryo proper is proposed to denote the globular embryo which already possesses separate plerome and periblem mother-cells and mother-cells of the iec layer and of clumella. The body of the embryo proper is derived from the apical cell ca which arose from the first division of the zygote and from the hypophysis - the only suspensor cell which closes the spheroid of the embryo. The development of the Brassica napus L. proembryo follows the sub-archetype Capsella bursa-pastoris in the IV megarchetype of Soueges.

  20. Dowling-Degos disease--a heat aggravated variant. (United States)

    Kossard, S; Krivanek, J


    A 22-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of a micropapular eruption localized to the flexor aspect of her limbs as well as persistent reticulate pigmentation of her neck and upper chest resembling Darier's disease. The eruption was associated with pruritus that was precipitated by heat and was worse in summer. The axillae, groins and inframammary areas had multiple papules but lacked reticulate pigmentation. Multiple biopsies showed an epidermis with club- and antler-like rete ridges but no acantholysis or dyskeratosis. This distinct clinical presentation may represent an unusual heat aggravated variant of Dowling-Degos disease that clinically shares features with Darier's disease and transient acantholytic dermatosis.

  1. Correlates of Serious Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Female Adult Sexual Assault Survivors (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.


    Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…





    2014 ARDHIANSYAHAKSAN (B111 10105), dengan judul ???Analisis Kriminologis Terhadap Tindak Kejahatan Pemerkosaan Lelaki (Male Rape)???. Di bawah bimbingan bapak Prof. Dr. AndiSofyan, S.H., M.H., sebagai Pembimbing I dan bapak KaisaruddinKamaruddin, S.H., sebagai Pembimbing II. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor penyebab terjadinya tindak kejahatan pemerkosaan lelaki (male rape) dan upaya yang dapat ...

  3. Religiousness and Rape Myth Acceptance: Risk and Protective Effects. (United States)

    Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J


    This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.

  4. Rape-seed oil - a substitute for mineral oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badent, R.; Kist, K.; Schwab, A.J. [University of Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute of Electric Systems and High-Voltage Technology


    This paper presents the results obtained from the study on the basic characteristics of rape-seed oil considered to be a substitute of mineral oil in power transformers. The results show that rape- seed oil is usable as an insulating liquid. Furthermore, results are presented concerning the breakdown behaviour in uniform (plane-plane geometry) and non-uniform (rod-plane geometry) fields under impulse conditions with gaps up to 40 mm and voltages up to 650 kV. A sufficient high 50 Hz breakdown voltage is the most important precondition for a medium to be used as an insulator. The dielectric strength of rape-seed oil exceeds more than 50 kV/2,5 mm and consequently fulfils the requirements of the standards. The measurement of the permittivity and tan {delta} at 90{sup o}C yields to 3,18 and 0,015, respectively and is comparable to the values of standard mineral oil. However, there are still some problems to be overcome. Beside the insulating task the liquid dielectric has also a cooling function in power apparatus. Since the dynamic viscosity of rape-seed oil (about 70 mm{sup 2}/s at 40{sup o}C) is higher than that of mineral oil, rape-seed oil has a lower ability for heat conduction. A further problem is the solidification of rape-seed oil below -5{sup o}C. (author)

  5. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research. (United States)

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M


    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  6. A postgraduate sexual assault forensic medicine program: sexual assault medicine from scratch. (United States)

    Parekh, Vanita; Currie, Marian; Brown, Cassandra Beaumont


    A government-funded service to provide forensic and medical care to survivors of sexual assault was established in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) in 2001. Doctors employed by the service lacked the specific skills required to care comprehensively for survivors. Our aim was to develop, implement and evaluate a sexual assault medical education program. It consisted of an 'in-house' education program, and external university course and incorporated team-building, networking activities and protocol development. Core elements were: forensic evidence collection, assessment and management of injuries, prevention of sexually transmissible infections and pregnancy, counselling and emotional support. Participant satisfaction and knowledge acquisition were evaluated using a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire. Seven doctors participated in a 16-session program conducted by the director and nurse coordinator with help from local forensic, legal and medical experts. All doctors successfully completed the Certificate in Forensic Medicine, and reported satisfaction with the program and their increased knowledge, particularly associated with collection of forensic evidence and court procedures. A compete set of protocols was developed and cohesive networks established. We have designed an effective education program for doctors working in the field of sexual assault and offer it as a template to other health professionals working in this area.

  7. Does simultaneous bilingualism aggravate children's specific language problems? (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Stenroos, Maria; Mickos, Annika; Westman, Martin; Ekholm, Pia; Byring, Roger


    There is little data on whether or not a bilingual upbringing may aggravate specific language problems in children. This study analysed whether there was an interaction of such problems and simultaneous bilingualism. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old children with specific language problems (LANG group, N = 56) or who were typically developing (CONTR group, N = 60). Seventy-three children were Swedish-Finnish bilingual and 43 were Swedish-speaking monolingual. Assessments (in Swedish) included tests of expressive language, comprehension, repetition and verbal memory. Per definition, the LANG group had lower scores than the CONTR group on all language tests. The bilingual group had lower scores than the monolingual group only on a test of body part naming. Importantly, the interaction of group (LANG or CONTR) and bilingualism was not significant on any of the language scores. Simultaneous bilingualism does not aggravate specific language problems but may result in a slower development of vocabulary both in children with and without specific language problems. Considering also advantages, a bilingual upbringing is an option also for children with specific language problems. In assessment, tests of vocabulary may be sensitive to bilingualism, instead tests assessing comprehension, syntax and nonword repetition may provide less biased methods. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  8. Cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells aggravate tumor progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eKudo-Saito


    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have both stemness and multi-modulatory activities on other cells, and the immunosuppressive and tumor-promotive mechanisms have been intensively investigated in cancer. The role of MSCs appears to be revealed in tumor aggravation, and targeting MSCs seems to be a promising strategy for treating cancer patients. However, it is still impractical in clinical therapy, since the precise MSCs are poorly understood in the in vivo setting. In previous studies, MSCs were obtained from different sources, and were prepared by ex vivo expansion for a long term. The inconsistent experimental conditions made the in vivo MSCs obscure. To define the MSCs in the host is a priority issue for targeting MSCs in cancer therapy. We recently identified a unique subpopulation of MSCs increasing in mice and human with cancer metastasis. These MSCs are specifically expanded by metastatic tumor cells, and promote tumor progression and dissemination accompanied by immune suppression and dysfunction in the host, more powerfully than normal MSCs growing without interference of cancer. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the role of MSCs in tumor aggravation, along with our new findings of the bizarre MSCs.

  9. Beyond bullying: Aggravating elements of peer victimization episodes. (United States)

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry; Mitchell, Kimberly


    This study sought to identify features of peer victimization that aggravate negative outcomes in children. The features that were assessed include "power imbalance," a commonly used criterion in defining bullying, and 5 other characteristics: injury, weapon involvement, Internet involvement, sexual content, and bias content. Three outcomes were assessed: level of fear, missing school, and trauma symptoms. A nationally representative sample of 3,164 children and youth ages 6-17 (51.8% male; 68.4% white, 12.5% black, 13.5% Hispanic, 5.7% other race) was obtained through Random Digit Dial and supplemented with an address-based sample to capture cell-phone-only households. One child was randomly selected from each household. Interviews were conducted with parents of children age 6-9 and with the youths themselves if they were age 10-17. Peer victimization was assessed with the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Almost half (48.4%) of the entire sample of school-age children experienced at least 1 form of peer victimization in the past year. Injury and power imbalance independently increased the impact on children for all 3 outcomes. Additionally, weapon involvement and sexual content were associated with trauma symptoms, with sexual content having the strongest effect (B = .23, p peer victimization along with more research to identify the aggravating features that signal the greatest need for intervention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose. (United States)

    Sherajee, Shamshad J; Rafiq, Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira


    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 µg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (fruc, 10% in drinking water, n=8), Unx+aldo+fruc, (aldo+fruc, n=8), and Unx+aldo+fruc+spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (aldo+fruc+spiro, 20mg/kg/day, p.o., n=8). Aldo+fruc rats manifested the hypertension, and induced glucose intolerance compared to fruc intake rats assessed by oral glucose tolerance test, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. Spironolactone, significantly improved the aldosterone-accelerated glucose intolerance. Along with improvement in insulin resistance, spironolactone suppressed upregulated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) target gene, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinases-1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle in aldo+fruc rats. In conclusion, these data suggested that aldosterone aggravates fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance through MR activation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. II. Evaluation of potential antagonistic fungi isolated from rape seeds against the main pathogens of rape crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan


    Full Text Available In vitro relationships between identified seed- and soil-borne fungi from rape samples have been investigated in order to evaluate their antagonistic ability as potential biocontrol agents. The bioproduct obtained from the Trichoderma viride Pers. (strain Td50 has been tested in vivo against the main phytopathogens of rape: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. in greenhouse at the Laboratory of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Biology Faculty, University of Bucharest – Romania and in the field at the Agricultural Experimental Research-Development Station Caracal (AERDS, Olt district. The T. viride (strain Td50 bioproduct formulated as a powder for the seed treatment has been effective in the protection of rape plantlets against the above mentioned phytopathogens.

  12. Interpersonal violence amongst primary health care patients in Lesotho: A qualitative study of the reasons for assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabilabe N.W. Ngobale


    Full Text Available Background: Interpersonal violence is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of and weapons used in interpersonal violence vary amongst countries and may even vary within regions of a country. Substance abuse, including alcohol, has been linked to interpersonal violence, but other socio-economic factors, cultural and traditional practices may also influence the perpetration of violence.Methods: In 2002, a qualitative study was conducted to explore the experiences of physically assaulted victims of interpersonal violence at a local clinic in Leribe district of the Kingdom of Lesotho.Results: Aggravating factors for interpersonal violence included jealousy, unemployment, availability of weapons, substance abuse and poor levels of education. Interpersonal violence was ameliorated by family interventions, reporting to the authorities, seeking protection fromassailants and religious assistance. Most interpersonal violence occurred during the night and on weekends. The head and neck regions are the most common anatomical sites of injury.Conclusion: Emotional and socio-cultural factors aggravate interpersonal violence in Lesotho, whilst family and religious interventions ameliorate it. Legislation addressing the protection of victims needs to be enacted, and community agencies dealing with interpersonal violence should be established. Studies which assess the requirements and the feasibility of intervention programs are also needed in the kingdom of Lesotho.

  13. Rape and child sexual abuse: what beliefs persist about motives, perpetrators, and survivors? (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronán


    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and local rape myths is necessary if they are to be successfully challenged through public campaigns and other means. This study sought to assess the prevalence of myths concerning rape and sexual abuse in a national population survey.

  14. Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Paul J; Jones, Alan M; Lipari, Rachel N; Lancaster, Anita R


    This report provides the results for the Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey that the Defense Manpower Defense Center conducted in response to Section 527 of the National Defense...

  15. In the media: Burns as a method of assault. (United States)

    O'Halloran, E; Duke, J; Rea, S; Wood, F


    The aims of this study were to determine whether a change occurred in the pattern of assault burn injury cases hospitalised to the adult state burns unit, Western Australia, from 2004 to mid-year of 2012, and to compare patient and burn characteristics of adult assault burns with those admitted for unintentional burns. Study data were obtained from the Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) Burns Minimum Dataset (BMDS). Aggregated data of unintentional burn admissions during the same period were provided by the BMDS data manager to enable comparisons with assault burn patients. Assault burn admissions during 2004-2012 accounted for approximately 1% of all adult burn hospitalisations. All assault victims were burned by either thermal or scald agents. A high rate of intubation (24%) and ICU admission (1 in 3 cases) was observed in the fire assault group. The six assault cases undergoing intubation were severe burns, median TBSA 50%, most commonly affecting the face, head and torso, half of these cases had inhalational injuries and also required escharotomies. Comparison of admissions by calendar period showed no statistically significant differences in demographic, burn cause or TBSA%. However, statistically significant differences were found for pre-morbid psychiatric history (15% vs. 58%, p=0.025) and concomitant fractures or dislocations (46% vs. 2%), p=0.011). While the proportion of assault burn admissions per total burn admissions steadily increased from 0.4% in 2009 to 1.5% in mid-2012, this proportion did not exceed that peak level observed of 2.1% for 2004. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual assault as a crime against young people. (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Cundiff, Patrick R


    Evidence based on almost 300,000 sexual assaults from the National Incident-Based Reporting System showed that the modal age of victims was 15 years, regardless of the age of the offender, the gender of the offender, or the gender of the victim. We suggest that adolescents have the highest risk of victimization because of their sexual attractiveness, vulnerability, and exposure to motivated offenders. As a result of these factors, sexual assault is as much an offense against young people as it is against women. The sexual attractiveness of young people also has implications for the age of offenders. Older men have much higher rates of offending than one would expect, given the age-desistance relationship. Thus, we found that older men have much higher rates of sexual assault than physical assault. Finally, evidence suggested that homosexual men were at least as likely as heterosexual men to commit sexual assault. The pattern suggests that the tendency for sexual assaults to involve male offenders and female victims reflects male sexuality rather than attitudes toward women.

  17. Dangerous liaisons?: A feminist and restorative approach to sexual assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pali Brunilda


    Full Text Available The appropriateness of restorative justice (RJ for gendered violence offences such as domestic violence and sexual assault has always been and still is highly contested. This paper focuses on the appropriateness of RJ measures in addressing sexual assault, primarily with reference to experience of restorative dialogues as practiced at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, and it takes a feminist approach to the application of RJ measures to sexual assault. Within this framework, the paper tackles two issues in particular: the privacy element of RJ versus the public aspect of the criminal justice system (CJS, and the intersection of the CJS and RJ in cases of sexual assault. In relation to the relationship between CJS and RJ, the authors argue that RJ could be used for victims of sexual assault, not primarily as part of diversion programmes, but when offered apart from and/or parallel to the CJS. In relation to the private/public debate, the authors argue that while RJ encounters, by taking place in highly confidential settings, might have a negative impact on efforts by women’s movements to move violence against women out of the private and into the public realm, creating high standard alternatives for individual women who are in need of support and constantly generating public debate about gendered violence is a good feminist response to this complex issue.

  18. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban. (United States)


    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  19. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov


    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  20. Investigating the Victim Pseudomaturity Effect: How a Victim's Chronological Age and Dress Style Influences Attributions in a Depicted Case of Child Sexual Assault. (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie


    Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered.

  1. Indoor air pollution aggravates symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children. (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Gyo-Boong; Jung, Kweon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ahn, Kangmo


    Most of researches on the impact of indoor air pollutants on atopic dermatitis (AD) have been based upon animal models, in vitro experiments and case-control studies. However, human data to elucidate the role of indoor air pollution on worsening symptoms of pre-existing AD from a longitudinal study are scarce. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of indoor air pollution on AD symptoms in children. We surveyed 30 children with AD in a day-care centre, which moved to a new building during the study. These children stayed there for 8 hours a day Monday through Friday, and their daily symptom scores were recorded. Indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels were continuously measured 24 hours a day for 12 months (Period 1 to 4). Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Compared to the period before moving (Period 1), concentrations of indoor air pollutants mostly increased after moving (Period 2) and decreased by natural ventilation and bake-out (Periods 3 and 4). The rate of positive AD symptom increased from 32.8% (Period 1) up to 43.8% (Period 2) and 50.5% (Period 3), then decreased to 35.4% in Period 4 (P indoor air pollutants on AD symptoms 2 days later were evaluated, AD symptoms significantly increased by 12.7% (95% CI: -0.01 to 27.1) as toluene levels increased by 1 ppb (P = 0.05). In conclusion, indoor air pollutants increase the risk of AD aggravation in children and toluene in the indoor environment might act as an aggravating factor.

  2. Aggravated Cardiac Remodeling post Aortocaval Fistula in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats.

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    Jie Wu

    Full Text Available Aortocaval fistula (AV in rat is a unique model of volume-overload congestive heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Living donor kidney transplantation is regarded as beneficial to allograft recipients and not particularly detrimental to the donors. Impact of AV on animals with mild renal dysfunction is not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effects of AV in unilateral nephrectomized (UNX rats.Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into Sham (n = 10, UNX (right kidney remove, n = 10, AV (AV established between the levels of renal arteries and iliac bifurcation, n = 18 and UNX+AV (AV at one week after UNX, n = 22, respectively. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, fractional excretion of sodium, albuminuria, plasma creatinine, and cystatin C. Focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS incidence was evaluated by renal histology. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements.UNX alone induced compensatory left kidney enlargement, increased plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels, and slightly reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased FGS. AV induced significant cardiac enlargement and hypertrophy and reduced cardiac function and increased FGS, these changes were aggravated in UNX+AV rats.Although UNX only induces minor renal dysfunction, additional chronic volume overload placement during the adaptation phase of the remaining kidney is associated with aggravated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in UNX rats, suggesting special medical care is required for UNX or congenital monokidney subjects in case of chronic volume overload as in the case of pregnancy and hyperthyroidism to prevent further adverse cardiorenal events in these individuals.

  3. "Lucrece this night I must enjoy thee" : a narcissistic reading of The Rape of Lucrece

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koketso, Daniel


    The circumstances under which acts of rape are committed, and the relationship between power and sexual aggression, may seem to be distinctly modern concerns, yet Shakespeare explores them in The Rape of Lucrece (1594...

  4. “You Have to Confess”: Rape and the Politics of Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Roeder


    Full Text Available This article examines the discourse of rape in contemporary culture, paying special attention to the courtroom setting, where rape victims are often required to tell cohesive, linear narratives that underscore their blamelessness if they hope to be believed. Because of deeply entrenched cultural myths about rape, the type of story often required for the successful prosecution of perpetrators may require rape victims to construct narratives that do not accurately reflect their lived experience. Writers such as Susan Brison, Patricia Weaver Francisco, and Alice Sebold engage with the complex politics of rape and its telling in their memoirs. While constructing stories that will suffice in the courtroom setting remains an important task for many rape victims, such stories may ultimately have to be relinquished and rewritten in order to revise prevailing cultural perceptions of rape, its perpetrators, and its victims. The memoirs of rape survivors thus come to function as a different—and necessary—type of public testimony.

  5. Mutilating granuloma inguinale after rape A case report | O'Farrell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A woman with extensive mutilating lesions of genital granuloma inguinale following rape is described. As far as is known granuloma inguinale has not previously been reported in a rape victim.

  6. Suspect aggression and victim resistance in multiple perpetrator rapes. (United States)

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire


    Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships.

  7. “You Have to Confess”: Rape and the Politics of Storytelling


    Tara Roeder


    This article examines the discourse of rape in contemporary culture, paying special attention to the courtroom setting, where rape victims are often required to tell cohesive, linear narratives that underscore their blamelessness if they hope to be believed. Because of deeply entrenched cultural myths about rape, the type of story often required for the successful prosecution of perpetrators may require rape victims to construct narratives that do not accurately reflect their lived experience...

  8. Lack of Control as a Predictive Factor for Stress-related Symptoms in Rape Victims


    Sombke, Chad


    Researchers have agreed that most rape victims vii experience stress-related symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder. There have also been numerous studies that have tried to predict the severity of those stress-related symptoms, but the literature is inconclusive. Lack of perceived control is consistently mentioned in the rape research literature as being present in rape victims, but no study has empirically examined the relationship between perceived control and a rape victim's s...

  9. Isolating DNA from sexual assault cases: a comparison of standard methods with a nuclease-based approach. (United States)

    Garvin, Alex M; Fischer, Andrea; Schnee-Griese, Jutta; Jelinski, Andrea; Bottinelli, Michel; Soldati, Gianni; Tubio, Monica; Castella, Vincent; Monney, Nathalie; Malik, Naseem; Madrid, Michelle


    Profiling sperm DNA present on vaginal swabs taken from rape victims often contributes to identifying and incarcerating rapists. Large amounts of the victim's epithelial cells contaminate the sperm present on swabs, however, and complicate this process. The standard method for obtaining relatively pure sperm DNA from a vaginal swab is to digest the epithelial cells with Proteinase K in order to solubilize the victim's DNA, and to then physically separate the soluble DNA from the intact sperm by pelleting the sperm, removing the victim's fraction, and repeatedly washing the sperm pellet. An alternative approach that does not require washing steps is to digest with Proteinase K, pellet the sperm, remove the victim's fraction, and then digest the residual victim's DNA with a nuclease. The nuclease approach has been commercialized in a product, the Erase Sperm Isolation Kit (PTC Labs, Columbia, MO, USA), and five crime laboratories have tested it on semen-spiked female buccal swabs in a direct comparison with their standard methods. Comparisons have also been performed on timed post-coital vaginal swabs and evidence collected from sexual assault cases. For the semen-spiked buccal swabs, Erase outperformed the standard methods in all five laboratories and in most cases was able to provide a clean male profile from buccal swabs spiked with only 1,500 sperm. The vaginal swabs taken after consensual sex and the evidence collected from rape victims showed a similar pattern of Erase providing superior profiles. In all samples tested, STR profiles of the male DNA fractions obtained with Erase were as good as or better than those obtained using the standard methods.

  10. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie


    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  11. Profile of rape victims referred by the court to the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The psychological evaluation of rape victims to determine their competency to testify in court and whether they are capable of consenting to sexual intercourse is challenging, especially when the rape victim is mentally retarded. Objective. To describe the profile of mentally retarded rape victims referred to the ...

  12. Rape Perception and the Function of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender-Role Traditionality (United States)

    Yamawaki, Niwako


    This study explores the roles of benevolent sexism (BS), hostile sexism (HS), and gender-role traditionality (GRT) in minimizing rape, blaming the victim, and excusing the rapist. As predicted, hostile sexists minimize the seriousness of the rape in both stranger and date-rape scenarios. In the victim-blame scale, both BS and GRT significantly…

  13. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students (United States)

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles


    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  14. 75 FR 27000 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (United States)


    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on June 3-4, 2010. The hearing... Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, Public Law 108-79, 117 Stat. 972 (codified as amended at 42 U.S.C...

  15. Pilot study to assess the viability of a rape trauma syndrome questionnaire. (United States)

    Long, F Y; Pang, E; Kee, C


    Studies have revealed that rape victims undergo a number of psychological symptoms following the attack, which constitute a specific syndrome termed the rape trauma syndrome (RTS). Evidence of the RTS has been admitted as scientific testimony in the prosecution of sexual offences and has been integral in their successful conviction. The present study aims to assess the viability of a questionnaire designed to identify the RTS in victims of alleged rape. A 77-item rape trauma syndrome questionnaire (RTSQ) was developed and administered to 30 women who reported rape and 57 nurses who formed the control group. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Windows Version 6.0). Statistical analysis suggested that the questionnaire was internally consistent and effective in uncovering significant differences between rape victims and controls in their experience of rape trauma symptoms. Rape victims scored significantly higher than controls on the RTS scale. Those who faked rape were also found to endorse a greater number of the rape trauma symptoms than actual rape victims, as well as a greater number of fictitious and unlikely symptoms. This pilot study confirmed the viability of the RTSQ and paves the way for a more rigorous examination of its reliability and validity. In the future, the questionnaire may be of use in ascertaining the veracity of victims' claims of rape in the conviction of sexual offences where circumstances are equivocal.

  16. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan


    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  17. Fear of rape among college women: a social psychological analysis. (United States)

    Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R


    This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences.

  18. Physical violence against women: evaluation of women assaulted by spouses. (United States)

    Balci, Yasemin Gunay; Ayranci, Unal


    To investigate the characteristic of physical violence against women sent to the Forensic Medicine Council for the forensic reports with a history of being assaulted by their spouses. One hundred and thirty five women attending judicial institutions from August 1st 2000 to January 31st 2001 were interviewed. The demographic characteristics of assaulted women and their spouses, time of violence, beginning and continuation of violence after marriage, frequency of violence, women's judgment of the reason for being assaulted, violence against children by the husbands, history of violence in the husbands' family, the husbands' manner at home, women' attitudes against violence, existence and type of physical trauma and injury severity according to Turkish Penalty Law were evaluated. The data were analyzed using chi(2) test and percent ratios. The majority of both women and their husbands had been born in rural areas (73.3% and 71.1%, respectively). Approximately three quarters of the men and women had secondary school or lower education levels (80.7% and 81.5%, respectively). Most women (63.7%) and 17.8% of men were unemployed. For the most part, women were assaulted between 18.01 and 06.00 h (73.3%). Nearly 80% of husbands had at least one 'bad' habit such as alcohol intake and gambling. 60.7% of the assaulted women did not react to their spouses' violence. The most frequently encountered result of violence was soft tissue lesions (91.9%). After being assaulted nearly all of the women (91.9%) were provided with forensic reports advising of between 1 and 7 days of inability to follow ordinary pursuits. Women from all socioeconomic-cultural levels reported a history of partner violence. Routine screening with structured questions during visits to doctors is necessary in order to identify assaulted women so as to prevent potential violence and to interrupt existing violence.

  19. Law & Order, CSI, and NCIS: The Association Between Exposure to Crime Drama Franchises, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Sexual Consent Negotiation Among College Students. (United States)

    Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Lei, Ming; Ren, Chunbo; Ran, Weina


    Previous research has identified that exposure to the crime drama genre lowers rape myth acceptance and increases sexual assault prevention behaviors such as bystander intervention. However, recent content analyses have revealed marked differences in the portrayal of sexual violence within the top three crime drama franchises. Using a survey of 313 college freshmen, this study explores the influence of exposure to the three most popular crime drama franchises: Law & Order, CSI, and NCIS. Findings indicate that exposure to the Law & Order franchise is associated with decreased rape myth acceptance and increased intentions to adhere to expressions of sexual consent and refuse unwanted sexual activity; whereas exposure to the CSI franchise is associated with decreased intentions to seek consent and decreased intentions to adhere to expressions of sexual consent. Exposure to the NCIS franchise was associated with decreased intentions to refuse unwanted sexual activity. These results indicate that exposure to the specific content of each crime drama franchise may have differential results on sexual consent negotiation behaviors.

  20. Imprecise methods may both obscure and aggravate a relation between fat and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Frederiksen, Peder


    -protein energy has been found to be substantial, particularly among those who are obese or have high dietary intakes. Such a non-random bias on the group level would tend to aggravate associations between dietary non-protein and disease. Whether the net result of the random and non-random bias aggravates...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Longdou


    Full Text Available The hypocotyl and cotyledon of Brassica napus L. H165 and Brassica juncea DB3 were transformed with chitinase gene and herbicide-resistance gene by co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefacients LBA4404, and rape plants were obtained which could grow on the medium containing herbicide. The PCR result showed that exotic genes were integrated in the genome of the rape. Further study was performed to determine the impact of temperature on the transgenic rate and the differentiation of explants.

  2. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  3. Sexual rape in children and adolescents: a medical emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Piña Corina Araceli


    Full Text Available Sexual rape is defined as vaginal, anal or oral sex with violent and forceful penetration of the penis or of any other object. Patients who have been raped are a medical emergency which requires immediate attention, if possible, within 24 to 72 hours, since there is the risk of sustaining external and internal injuries and of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Detection and Centers for Disease Control (CDC have reported that the maximum effective- ness of HIV prophylaxis is obtained when given within the first 24 to 72 hours post exposure.

  4. Structural, Organizational, and Interpersonal Factors Influencing Interprofessional Collaboration on Sexual Assault Response Teams. (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer


    Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are multidisciplinary teams that coordinate multiple systems (e.g., medical, law enforcement, prosecutors, and rape crisis center advocates) to provide comprehensive care to victims and to collect high-quality forensic evidence to facilitate investigation and prosecution. Relatively little guidance is provided about effective teamwork strategies in resources on forming SARTs. Using in-depth surveys with the SART coordinators and telephone surveys (including close-ended and open-ended questions) with 79 professionals involved in three active, formal SARTs in one state, this study examined structural, organizational, and interpersonal factors that influence interprofessional collaboration on SART. Study findings indicate that perceived structural factors and interpersonal factors were significantly associated with SART members'/responders' perceptions of the quality of interprofessional collaboration on their SART. Findings suggest that individuals' perceptions of professionalization and power disparities between professions pose challenges to perceived interprofessional collaboration on SART. Compared with criminal justice and medical professionals, victim advocacy rated the level of collaboration on their SART significantly lower. The overall picture from the data was that SART professionals perceived mutual respect, trust, and commitment to collaboration to be pervasive on their SARTs, even though recognition of professional conflicts was also prevalent, suggesting that professionals understood that interpersonal conflict was distinct from professional conflict. Initial SART trainings should address the benefits of the team response, professional roles, and communication and conflict resolution skills, and ongoing training should provide professionals the opportunity to raise positive and negative examples of their collaborative efforts to explore existing tensions and constraints on the team for conflict resolution. © The

  5. [Patients assaulted in psychiatric institutions: Literature review and clinical implications]. (United States)

    Ladois-Do Pilar Rei, A; Chraïbi, S


    The psychiatric ward is a place where all forms of violence are treated. Occasionally, this violence involves acts of aggression between patients in emergency psychiatric units or hospital wards. Such events can lead to the development or worsening of posttraumatic stress disorder. To establish the context, we first examined the epidemiology data concerning posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatric patients who were frequently exposed to assaults. Secondly, we examined the issue of sexual and physical assaults between patients receiving treatment in a psychiatric ward. In this context, we studied possible occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder associated with exposure to assaults of this kind. In certain cases, potentially traumatic exposure to violence was unknown to the medical staff or not taken into consideration. This would induce a risk of later development of posttraumatic stress disorder that would not be treated during the stay in psychiatry. To date, few scientific studies have focused on the proportion of patients assaulted by other patients during treatment in a psychiatric ward and the subsequent development of peritraumatic reactions and/or posttraumatic stress disorder associated with these assaults. We know that an insufficient number of public and private health institutions report the existence of such facts to the competent authorities. Also, a minority of clinicians and caregivers are trained in screening and management of trauma victims. Yet, these issues are particularly relevant in the scope of public health and health promotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Sexual assaults in Geneva between 2006 and 2010]. (United States)

    La Harpe, Romano; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse


    In Geneva, all sexual assault victims are examined both by a gynaecologist and a forensic pathologist with special training in clinical forensic medicine. Between 2006 and 2010, 473 victims were examined following such an assault. Over the years, the number of sexual assaults rose steadily. Most victims were aged between 15 and 30 years. The majority of the assaults occurred at night and on the weekend and often happened at the place where the perpetrator or the victim lived. Usually, the offender acted alone and was known to the victim. Many victims hesitate to present for an examination, which makes it difficult to collect evidence. Penetration was usually vaginal and without the use of a condom. Injuries on the body or genitals were seen in only half of the cases for the first ones and in less than one third for the second ones. Quite often (at least in 42 % of the cases), the victim consumed alcohol before the assault and the use of drugs--especially cannabis--was not uncommon either.

  7. Attitude May Be Everything, But Is Everything an Attitude? Cognitive Distortions May Not Be Evaluations of Rape. (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; White, Kristen; Pettersen, Cathrine; Bumby, Kurt


    Cognitive distortions are often referred to as attitudes toward rape in theory, research, and clinical practice pertaining to sexual aggression. In the social-psychological literature, however, attitudes are typically defined as evaluations; thus, in this context, attitudes toward rape are considered evaluations of rape (e.g., rape is negative vs. positive). The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a widely used measure of cognitive distortions (RAPE Scale; Bumby, 1996) assesses evaluation of rape, and, if not, whether evaluation of rape and the cognitions assessed by the RAPE Scale are independently associated with sexually aggressive behavior. Participants (660 male undergraduate students) completed the RAPE Scale as well as measures of evaluation of rape and sexually aggressive behavior. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the RAPE Scale items formed a correlated but distinct factor from the Evaluation of Rape Scale items. Regression analyses indicated that the Evaluation of Rape Scale and the RAPE Scale had small to moderate independent associations with self-report measures of sexually aggressive behavior. Our results suggest that evaluation of rape may be distinct from cognitive distortions regarding rape, and both evaluation and cognitive distortions may be relevant for understanding sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Pain in Breast Cancer Treatment: Aggravating Factors and Coping Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate pain in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema and the characteristics of aggravating factors and coping mechanisms. The study was conducted in the Clinica Godoy, São Jose do Rio Preto, with a group of 46 women who had undergone surgery for the treatment of breast cancer. The following variables were evaluated: type and length of surgery; number of radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions; continued feeling of the removed breast (phantom limb, infection, intensity of pain, and factors that improve and worsen the pain. The percentage of events was used for statistical analysis. About half the participants (52.1% performed modified radical surgery, with 91.3% removing only one breast; 82.6% of the participants did not perform breast reconstruction surgery. Insignificant pain was reported by 32.60% of the women and 67.3% said they suffered pain; it was mild in 28.8% of the cases (scale 1–5, moderate in 34.8% (scale 6–9, and severe in 4.3%. The main mechanisms used to cope with pain were painkillers in 41.30% of participants, rest in 21.73%, religious ceremonies in 17.39%, and chatting with friends in 8.69%. In conclusion, many mastectomized patients with lymphedema complain of pain, but pain is often underrecognized and undertreated.

  9. [Characteristic and treatment of acute aggravating cubital tunnel syndrome]. (United States)

    Chen, Ran; Kan, Shilian; Li, Jin


    To investigate the causes and the characteristics of acute aggravating cubital tunnel syndrome. The enrolling criteria of subjects were as follows: (1) Patients with manifestation of cubital tunnel syndrome for more than 6 months; (2) acute exacerbation of the disease for no more than 4 weeks. The clinical data from March 2011 to December 2014 was collected and analyzed retrospectively. Twelve cases aged 52 to 65 met the enrolling criteria and were included in this study, and among them 10 patients were male, 2 were female; 5 cases were on the left and the other 7 on the right. All of them had some degree of cubital tunnel syndrome symptoms before the onset of acute exacerbation. When nerve decompression and anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve was performed, the elbow joint cysts which squeezed the ulnar nerve were found. The cysts were then resected. In all 12 cases, the compression symptoms of ulnar nerve were relieved after surgery. The mean follow up period was 13 months, ranging from 6 to 45 months. According to Gu Yudong functional evaluation criteria for cubital tunnel syndrome, 2 of the patients can be judged as "Excellent", 8 "good" and 2 "acceptable" at the follow-up. Cyst compression may induce the acute exacerbation of ulnar nerve symptom in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical for these patients.

  10. 5-Lipoxygenase Knockout Aggravated Apical Periodontitis in a Murine Model. (United States)

    Wu, Y; Sun, H; Yang, B; Liu, X; Wang, J


    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) plays a vital role in the host innate immune response, including bacteria-induced inflammation. Apical periodontitis (AP) is due to immune disorders caused by imbalances between bacterial invasion and subsequent host defense response. In this work, we investigated the role of 5-lipoxygenase in AP by using 5- lo knockout mice (5- lo-/- mice). Results showed that 5- lo-/- mice had greater periapical bone loss and more osteoclasts positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining than did wild-type mice, as determined by micro-computed tomography and histologic staining. The inflammation- and osteoclastogenesis-related factors IL-1β, TNF-α, RANK, and RANKL were also significantly elevated in 5- lo-/- mice, whereas osteoprotegerin was reduced. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from 5- lo-/- mice revealed an obviously impaired ability to phagocytose the AP pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum. In vivo experiments confirmed that 5- lo knockout led to decreased macrophage recruitment and increased F. nucleatum infection around the periapical area due to decreased leukotriene B4 and LXA4 production. All these results showed that 5- lo knockout impaired the host innate immune system to promote the release of bone resorption-related factors. Therefore, 5- lo deficiency aggravated AP in an experimental murine AP model.

  11. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine


    BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (h......REN) and angiotensinogen (hAGT) genes received vitamin D-depleted (n=18) or standard chow (n=15) for 3 weeks. The depleted group had very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (mean±SEM; 3.8±0.29 versus 40.6±1.19 nmol/L) and had higher mean systolic BP at week 5 (158±3.5 versus 134.6±3.7 mm Hg, P....6±3.3 versus 162.3±3.8 mm Hg, PVitamin D depletion led to increased relative heart weights and increased serum creatinine concentrations. Furthermore, the mRNAs of natriuretic peptides, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, hREN, and r...

  12. Evaluating stranger and acquaintance rape: the role of benevolent sexism in perpetrator blame and recommended sentence length. (United States)

    Viki, G Tendayi; Abrams, Dominic; Masser, Barbara


    In most jurisdictions, the law does not recognize the distinction between stranger and acquaintance rape. However, these two types of rape seem to elicit different responses from both lay observers and legal practitioners. Two studies investigating the role of benevolent sexism (BS) in accounting for participants' responses to acquaintance vs. stranger rape perpetrators are reported. Participants were presented with vignettes describing either an acquaintance rape or a stranger rape. As predicted, relative to low-BS individuals, participants who scored high in BS attributed less blame (Study 1) and recommended shorter sentences (Study 2) for the acquaintance rape perpetrator. Benevolent sexism was unrelated to reactions to the perpetrator in the stranger rape condition.

  13. The Western Danish Center for Prevention, Treatment and Research of Sexual Assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann-Hansen, Ole


    During the 1980’s and 1990’s several Sexual Assault Centers were established in the Nordic countries in order to counteract the health consequences of sexual assault. In Denmark the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center (WDSAC) was established in November 1999 in the town of Aarhus. The victims ar...... as the frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder in relation to sexual assault. Multidisciplinary centers as WDSAC may be the strategy for preventing the serious disability of the posttraumatic stress disorder following sexual assault.......During the 1980’s and 1990’s several Sexual Assault Centers were established in the Nordic countries in order to counteract the health consequences of sexual assault. In Denmark the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center (WDSAC) was established in November 1999 in the town of Aarhus. The victims...

  14. Co-occurring posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms after sexual assault: a latent profile analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Au, Teresa M; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Comer, Jonathan S; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn; Litz, Brett T


    ... meaningfully distinct subgroups with discordant PTSD and depression symptoms. Latent profile analysis was used to examine self-reported PTSD and depression symptoms among 119 female sexual assault survivors at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-months post-assault...

  15. Students' Misperceptions of Violence: Affirming the Need for Better Education. (United States)

    Mersky, Rebecca A.; Chambliss, Catherine A.

    Despite the fact that both national and regional statistics show that violent crimes (murder, non negligent manslaughter, aggravated assault, robbery, and forcible rape) in the U.S. have been declining in recent years, many believe that violent crime rates have been steadily escalating. Exaggerated media portrayals of violence, including both news…

  16. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna


    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  17. Visualising Shattered Lives: Potentiality in Representations of Rape Victimisation in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Lei Cheng


    Full Text Available This article examines how cinematic representations of rape can challenge the silence which surrounds the issue of rape and sexual violence in Japan. A textual analysis of two contemporary fictional Japanese films, DV: Domestic Violence [2005] and The Ravine of Goodbye [2013], was performed to illustrate how filmmakers can use narrative and cinematographic techniques to influence the viewer to reflect upon their attitudes to rape and rape victims. By examining how these two films depict rape and rape recovery, this article argues that there is discursive potential inherent within cinema to shape our imaginations and ideals about the world. But while the filmmaker can construct rape representations that encourage reflection, how the viewer decides to engage with the film has bearing on whether this potential for reflection is realised.

  18. Women’s Situational Coping With Acquaintance Sexual Assault (United States)



    Drawing on theories of appraisal-based coping, the present study applied structural modeling to examine relationships among personal goal orientations, primary and secondary appraisals of acquaintance sexual assault, and women’s emotional and behavioral responses to it. Based on 415 college women’s reports of a sexual assault experience, the model shows both direct and indirect effects. Assertive, diplomatic, and immobilized responding were each predicted by a unique profile of appraisals and orientations; personal goal orientations and primary appraisals were completely mediated by secondary appraisals. Ways that these findings can facilitate self-protective coping in an acquaintance sexual assault situation, leading to the development of effective, well-tailored self-defense and resistance programs, are discussed. PMID:26345173

  19. When should psychiatrists seek criminal prosecution of assaultive psychiatric inpatients? (United States)

    Ho, Justin; Ralston, D Christopher; McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H


    This Open Forum commentary reviews the ethical considerations relevant to the question of prosecuting assaultive psychiatric patients, with particular attention to the significance that should be attached to the arguments generated by those considerations. A comprehensive literature search was conducted incorporating the terms "assaultive patients," "ethics," "psychiatric inpatients," and "law." The literature of professional medical ethics was applied to identify relevant domains of ethical argument. Five domains were identified: fiduciary obligations of physicians to assaultive and other patients; obligations to staff members; professional virtues of compassion, self-sacrifice, and self-effacement; retributive justice; and the patient's right to confidentiality. The content of each domain is explained, and guidance is provided on how to assess the relative strengths of ethical argument within each domain. All five domains must be explicitly addressed in order to make ethically disciplined judgments about whether to seek prosecution. A distinctive feature of this ethical analysis is the central importance of the professional virtues.

  20. Leaving an Abusive Relationship (United States)

    ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault Rape Sexual ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Other types of violence ...

  1. Pornography, Sexual Callousness, and the Trivialization of Rape. (United States)

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings


    Explored the consequences of continued exposure to pornography on beliefs about sexuality in general and on dispositions toward women in particular. Found that massive exposure to pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape victims and toward women in general. (PD)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Albertyn C "Gendered Transformation in South African Jurisprudence: Poor. Women and the Constitutional Court" 2011 Stell LR 591-613. Anguita 2012 Int'l J Hum Rts. Anguita LA "Tackling Corrective Rape in South Africa: The Engagement between the LGBT CSO's and the NHRI's (CGE and SAHRC) and its Role" 2012.

  3. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4H2O) and Al-P (AlPO4), were investigated to elucidate the contributions of root morphology and organic acids exudation to P uptake by rape from iron phosphate and aluminum phosphate. By solution culture and sand culture experiments, the ...

  4. The relationshp between rape experience and post-traumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the relationship between rape experience and of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among victims. One hundred and thirty-two female participants made up of seventy-two from Nasarawa State University and sixty from the general public in Keffi town of Nasarawa State participated in the ...

  5. Event characteristics and socio-demographic features of rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: On account of increasing awareness of the need for Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and availability of requisite drugs, victims of rape are now presenting at health facilities including ours to access PEP for HIV. This study set to document the socio-demographic features of these victims and the event ...

  6. Psychological Techniques In Helping Rape Victims | Ayinde | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling psychology is concerned with assisting people who have personal, social, educational and vocational problems to better understand themselves and solve their problems. Rape is seen as a problem that militates against the psychological well being of victims, because of the devastating aftermath of the incident ...

  7. Constructing victims and perpetrators of rape in the advice column

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This article reports on the ways in which the rape of women by men is constructed in the advice column Dear Dolly, published in the South African periodical Drum Magazine. The data collected for the study spans from 1984 to 2004, encompassing both 10 years before and 10 years after the onset of democracy in ...

  8. Forcible Rape: A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Chappell, Duncan; Fogarty, Faith

    This selective, annotated bibliography provides guidance to the source and content of a small proportion of the existing publicity about rape, Non-English-language publications, as well as those receiving only limited distribution, are excluded. All materials are recent, most having been published during the 1970's. Outdated materials, such as…

  9. Alcohol-Involved Rapes: Are They More Violent? (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.


    Alcohol's psychological, cognitive, and motor effects contribute to rape. Based on theory and past research, we hypothesized that there would be a curvilinear relationship between the quantity of alcohol consumed by perpetrators and how aggressively they behaved. Moderate levels of intoxication encourage aggressiveness; however, extreme levels…

  10. Rape and Adultery in Ancient Greek and Yoruba Societies | Olasope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Athens and other ancient cultures, a woman, whatever her status and whatever her age or social class, was, in law, a perpetual minor. Throughout her life, she was in the legal control of a guardian who represented her in law. Rape, as unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman, warranted a capital charge in the ...

  11. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates, Streptomyces sp. isolate 422 ...

  12. Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape (United States)

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.


    The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…

  13. Knowledge and Perceptions of Date Rape among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    in, or may result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or ... normalization of sexual coercion in intimate relationships8. Sometimes even .... Vaginal expansion. 6. 1.2. Psychological health effects of date rape. PTSD. 151. 29.5. Depression. 125. 25.6. Low self esteem. 57. 11.6. Fear of having sex. 42. 8.6. Shame. 22. 4.5.

  14. Rape, sexual politics and the construction of manhood among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper interrogates the language that mediates sex and sexuality among the Shona of Zimbabwe. It draws from the method of ordinary language philosophy to argue that culture, and specifically language, can constitute an effective incubator for the emotions that result in rape. Further, the paper shows how the ...

  15. Centering: reducing rape trauma syndrome anxiety during a gynecologic examination. (United States)

    Dole, P J


    1. Individuals often delay seeking routine gynecologic care or have difficulty completing gynecologic examinations due to the effects of trauma. 2. Advance practice nurses (APN) are challenged to participate with clients to reduce their anxiety, thereby decreasing the health risks associated with avoiding routine gynecologic care. 3. "Centering" is a holistic, noninvasive modality to reduce anxiety associated with rape trauma syndrome.

  16. Maps of Woe Narratives of Rape in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti


    Full Text Available By considering a selection of texts, both fictional and non-fictional, this study ad- dresses different representations of rape in early modern English culture. Its aim is to highlight the interconnections between aspects of culture and the creative exchange, the confrontation and mutual assimilation between ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultural forms.

  17. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal experimental condition for the crude protein enrichment was: 10% (v/w) C. utilis inoculum was added to the rape straw medium after ...

  18. Sexual Coercion on Dates: It's Not Just Rape. (United States)

    Waldner-Haugrud, Lisa


    Contends that sexual coercion while dating falls under the umbrella of school-related violence. Discusses acquaintance and date rape, a sexual coercion continuum, and coercion victims. Concludes with a discussion of six techniques to reduce risk of sexual coercion. (CFR)

  19. Perception of Spousal Rape among Lagos State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recognition of sex in the context of marriage as crime is strange. Men are often accused of exclusively perpetrating this culturally alien offence which exclusively causes enormous trauma to women within the family. This study examines the perception of undergraduates about marital rape among married couples in ...

  20. Clinical Perspective Psycho-legal issues surrounding the rape of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rape of individuals with mental retardation poses challenges for the judicial system as well as for the survivors themselves. As a result, the courts tend to refer these individuals for forensic mental health examination to assist them in proceeding with criminal trials. This sequence of events may appear unusual, ...

  1. The lived experience of genocide rape survivors in Rwanda. (United States)

    Mukamana, Donatilla; Brysiewicz, Petra


    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of women who were raped during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. A phenomenological approach was used and this study was carried out in Rwanda in three different locations. The 7 participants took part in three semi-structured, individual interviews which were audiotaped. Participants reported many themes unique to Rwandan women survivors of genocide. These themes included violation by perceived inferiors, loss of dignity and respect, loss of identity, social isolation, loss of hope for the future (i.e., HIV/AIDS), the ongoing torture of rape babies, and developing a sense of community. Rwandan women survivors of the 1994 genocide have lived through unimaginable suffering. Limited information is available regarding the experiences of these rape survivors and this information could create awareness and some understanding of what these women endured. This study can help nurses to understand the sequelae of war and rape and thus have needed information which can be used to offer assistance to women in these circumstances.

  2. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.


    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  3. 75 FR 73997 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010... (United States)


    ... are aware of the DoD definition of ``sexual assault'' as defined in DoD Directive 6495.01, Sexual... Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics to develop requirements in all DoD contracts supporting contingency... ``sexual assault,'' as defined in DoD Directive 6495.01, Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR...

  4. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International. (United States)

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family.

  5. Aggravated Relations between Turkey and Russia: Prospects for Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslambek Totirbekovich Mozloyev


    Full Text Available The article examines the strategic analysis of the reasons and outcomes of the aggravation of the relations between Russia and Turkey after the catastrophe with the Russian military plane Su-24. The author outlines the most critical problems which have led to this tragic event using the philosophical approach. The article analyses the relations between the two countries from the strategic point of view on the assumption of the necessity to build up fruitful cooperation in the future. According to the author, purely economic factors because of which bilateral relations could be defined as strategic partnership, have proven to be insufficient when it has come to the political rapprochement of Russia and Turkey based on the commonly understood values of the regional cooperation amid the formation of the multipolar world. The author claims that Russia and Turkey could together become one of the poles using their regional cooperation in the regions of the Black sea and the Middle-East. Nevertheless, extra idealization of the two countries' rapprochement, taking into account the events of the 24th November, 2015, has caused political disenchantment with the perspective of taking the bilateral relations to the real level of strategic partnership which would include not only economic but other factors as well. The tragic event is not only about our plane being shut down but also about the murder of our soldiers what, also considering the reluctance of the Turkish elite to make apologies and its aspiration to postpone the normalization of the relations, makes it difficult to at least bring the relations back to their initial level.

  6. Bacillus megaterium A6 suppresses Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field and promotes oilseed rape growth (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China and other regions of the world. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the plant-growth promoting bacterium Bacillus megaterium A6 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rap...

  7. The Relationships Between Psychopathy and Rape: Focus on Keffi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keffi prisons consist of 98 inmates, 88 male and 20 female, and they were used as participants of the study. Data from the ... Biologically some rapists inherited some sexual behavioural elements from their parents that actually arouse them sexually and as such indulges in sexual assault is a problem. The sample size of the ...

  8. Characteristics of sexual assaults in which adult victims report penetration by a foreign object. (United States)

    Sturgiss, Elizabeth Ann; Tyson, Alexandra; Parekh, Vanita


    This retrospective clinical audit reviews cases of adult sexual assault where the victim alleges that they were penetrated with a foreign object. These assaults were more likely to have positive genital and non-genital findings recorded by the clinician compared to assaults where no object was used. There is a suggestion that these assaults may be more violent with multiple assailants more common and an association with more use of threats and weapons. It is important to ask about the penetrative use of foreign objects in a sexual assault history and for clinicians to be aware of the greater possibility of injury in these cases.

  9. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.


    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  10. Retaliation against Sexual Assault: Self-Defense or Public Duty? (United States)

    Towson, Shelagh M. J.; Zanna, Mark P.


    Examined differences in responses to retaliation against sexual assault in a study of 107 students who read vignettes in which the victim or her fiance shot the rapist. Results indicated women regarded the retaliation as more morally justified and were more lenient in their legal judgments. (JAC)

  11. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 20, 2014 ... Background: Gender-based violence is a challenge in South Africa, despite available interventions. Caring for the survivors of both forms of violence is critical for ensuring their speedy recovery. Objectives: To compare the effects of trauma on female survivors of sexual assault versus those experienced by ...

  12. Journey "during" crime: predicting criminal mobility patterns in sexual assaults. (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; Busina, Irina


    The aim of this study was to test whether there is a relationship between situational and modus operandi characteristics and criminal mobility during the sexual assault event. Data collected from both police files and semistructured interviews with 72 serial sex offenders who have committed 361 sexual assaults have been used. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationships between the situational and modus operandi characteristics and the criminal mobility exhibited during the sexual assault. Events that involved child or adolescent victims, those where the offender did not use pornography prior to crime, and those where victim resistance was observed exhibited more criminal mobility. Moreover, crimes in which the victim was selected, the victim was alone when approached by the offender, and the assault was characterized by sexual penetration and a lack of premeditation exhibited more criminal mobility. Results seem to suggest that criminal mobility is a goal-oriented action taken by serial sex offenders to successfully complete their crime and to avoid detection and apprehension.

  13. Victim Confidentiality on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART) (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer


    The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…

  14. Expressed Sexual Assault Legal Context and Victim Culpability Attributions (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K.; Markman, Keith D.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Menaker, Tasha A.


    Legal scholars have argued that laws have an "expressive function", specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages--specifically their…

  15. Sexual assault against women at Osogbo Southwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 22, 2011 ... The United Nation defines violence against women as any act of sexual assault that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering to women including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty whether occurring in public or private life.[1,2] Following.

  16. Defending Letters: A Pragmatic Response to Assaults on the Humanities (United States)

    Hay, Iain


    This paper is a mainly pragmatic response to utilitarian criticisms of the humanities. It first outlines political, public and practical fronts on which the humanities are under assault, identifying critics and their conspirators. Then, as a part of its defence of the humanities it expounds some of their central strengths. These range from the…

  17. Vulnerability and revictimization: Victim characteristics in a Dutch assault center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, J.E.; Esselink, G.; Moors, M.L.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.


    Sexual and family violence are highly prevalent problems with numerous negative health consequences. Assault centres, such as the Centre for Sexual and Family Violence (CSFV) in the Netherlands, have been set up to provide optimal care to victims. We wanted to gain insight into characteristics of


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It gives me great pleasure and joy to be invited as guest of honour to give this keynote address on this occasion of the 25th annual. Scientific Conference and Silver Jubilee. Celebration of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. The theme of this conference is ''The effects of environmental assaults on human physiology''.

  19. prevention of sexual assault in nigeria feature article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND. Sexual violence is a common phenomenon and occurs worldwide. Data available suggests that in some countries one in five women report sexual violence by an intimate partner and up to a third of girls report forced sexual initiation.1 Sexual assault encompasses a range of acts, including coerced sex in ...

  20. The Global Crisis and the Assault on Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper argues that the current global capitalist crisis entails an assault on democracy. Since crisis connotes danger and opportunity, the recent crisis appears to be a danger to democracy but an opportunity to its antithetical ideals. At the international level, multilateral institutions have...

  1. Assessment of Sexual Assault Among Women in Assendabo Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... objective of this study is therefore to assess the magnitude of sexual assault among women in Assendabo town. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 323 women 10 years and above. Data was collected by trained female interviewers using structured questionnaire and entered into computer, ...

  2. Retaliatory attitudes and violent behaviors among assault-injured youth. (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Johnson, Sara B; Haynie, Denise L; Chung, Shang-en; Cheng, Tina L


    To examine the effect of retaliatory attitudes on subsequent violent behavior and fight-related injuries among youth who presented to the emergency department with assault injuries. Assault-injured youth were interviewed at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months to assess fighting behavior, retaliatory attitudes, weapon carrying, and injury history as part of a larger randomized control trial. Two emergency departments in urban areas were selected for the study. A total of 129 adolescents aged 10-15 years were included in the study. Fighting behavior, assault injury, weapon carrying, and aggressive behavior. Higher retaliatory attitudes at baseline were associated with more aggression and a higher frequency of fighting over time. Retaliatory attitudes may fuel cycles of violence among youth. Medical professionals in acute care settings have an opportunity to identify youths at risk of future assault injury by assessing retaliation, providing anticipatory guidance, and referring to intervention programs. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents (United States)

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.


    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  4. Guidelines: Medical management of a survivor of sexual assault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guidelines: Medical management of a survivor of sexual assault/abuse: Including Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and the Forensic Kit. Adrienne Wulfsohn. Abstract. No Abstract Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine Vol. 5 (1) 2004: 21-27. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  5. Under-expression of α8 integrin aggravates experimental atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Cordasic, Nada; Neureiter, Daniel; Amann, Kerstin; Marek, Ines; Volkert, Gudrun; Stintzing, Sebastian; Jahn, Angelika; Rascher, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl F; Hartner, Andrea


    Integrins play an important role in vascular biology. The α8 integrin chain attenuates smooth muscle cell migration but its functional role in the development of atherosclerosis is unclear. Therefore, we studied the contribution of α8 integrin to atherosclerosis and vascular remodelling. We hypothesized that α8 integrin expression is reduced in atherosclerotic lesions, and that its under-expression leads to a more severe course of atherosclerosis. α8 Integrin was detected by immunohistochemistry and qPCR and α8 integrin-deficient mice were used to induce two models of atherosclerotic lesions. First, ligation of the carotid artery led to medial thickening and neointima formation, which was quantified in carotid cross-sections. Second, after crossing into ApoE-deficient mice, the formation of advanced vascular lesions with atherosclerotic plaques was quantified in aortic en face preparations stained with Sudan IV. Parameters of renal physiology and histopathology were assessed: α8 integrin was detected in the media of human and murine vascular tissue and was down-regulated in arteries with advanced atherosclerotic lesions. In α8 integrin-deficient mice (α8(-/-) ) as well as α8(+/-) and α8(+/+) littermates, carotid artery ligation increased media:lumen ratios in all genotypes, with higher values in ligated α8(-/-) and α8(+/-) compared to ligated α8(+/+) animals. Carotid artery ligation increased smooth muscle cell number in the media of α8(+/+) mice and, more prominently, of α8(-/-) or α8(+/-) mice. On an ApoE(-/-) background, α8(+/-) and α8(-/-) mice developed more atherosclerotic plaques than α8(+/+) mice. α8 Integrin expression was reduced in α8(+/-) animals. Renal damage with increased serum creatinine and glomerulosclerosis was detected in α8(-/-) mice only. Thus, under-expression of α8 integrin aggravates vascular lesions, while a complete loss of α8 integrin results in reduced renal mass and additional renal disease in the presence of

  6. Mercury in wintering seabirds, an aggravating factor to winter wrecks? (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Nguyen, Hanh Linh; Boué, Amélie; Spitz, Jérôme; Bustamante, Paco


    Every year, thousands of seabirds are cast ashore and are found dead along the coasts of North America and Western Europe. These massive mortality events called 'winter wrecks' have generally been attributed to harsh climatic conditions and prolonged storms which affect bird energy balance and impact their body condition. Nevertheless, additional stress factors, such as contaminant body burden, could potentially cumulate to energy constraints and actively contribute to winter wrecks. However, the role played by these additional factors in seabird massive winter mortality has received little attention to date. In February/March 2014, an unprecedented seabird wreck occurred along the Atlantic French coasts during which > 43,000 seabirds were found dead. By analyzing mercury (Hg) concentrations in various tissues collected on stranded birds, we tested the hypothesis that Hg played a significant role in this mortality. More specifically, we aimed to (1) describe Hg contamination in wintering seabirds found along the French coasts in 2014, and (2) determine if Hg concentrations measured in some vital organs such as kidney and brain reached toxicity thresholds that could have led to deleterious effects and to an enhanced mortality. We found some of the highest Hg levels ever reported in Atlantic puffins, common guillemots, razorbills and kittiwakes. Measured concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 3.6 μg · g(-1) of dry weight in brain, 1.3 to 7.2 μg · g(-1) in muscle, 2.5 to 13.5 μg · g(-1) in kidney, 2.9 to 18.6 μg · g(-1) in blood and from 3.1 to 19.5 μg · g(-1) in liver. Hg concentrations in liver and brain were generally below the estimated acute toxicity levels. However, kidney concentrations were not different than those measured in the liver, and above levels associated to renal sub-lethal effects, suggesting a potential Hg poisoning. We concluded that although Hg was not directly responsible for the high observed mortality, it has been a major aggravating

  7. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038 (China); Peng, Shuangqing [Evaluation and Research Center for Toxicology, Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Science, 20 Dongdajie Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071 (China); Wang, Weidong, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Li, Rong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038 (China)


    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  8. 78 FR 34995 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel); Notice of Federal... (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... crimes involving adult sexual assault and related offenses under section 920 of title 10, United States...

  9. Symptoms and beyond: Self-concept among sexually assaulted women. (United States)

    Keshet, Hadar; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva


    The unique characteristics of sexual assault (SA)-a toxic mix of an interpersonal harm, a violent exploitation of one's body, and a transformation of an act of connectedness into an act of submission-are postulated to negatively affect the self-concept. We sought to deepen the understanding of self-concept impairments among sexually assaulted women with varying levels of posttraumatic distress. To this end, we compared women with a main trauma of SA to women with a main trauma of motor-vehicle accident (MVA) and to nontraumatized (NT) women on several self-concept aspects. Our main hypotheses were (a) sexually assaulted women without PTSD exhibit impaired self-concept as compared with NT women and (b) SA is related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when posttraumatic distress is statistically controlled. Women (N = 235: NT = 69, MVA = 87, SA = 79) completed a web-based survey including measures designed to assess the global and domain-specific contents and structure of the self-concept as well as background and clinical questionnaires. Sexually assaulted women without PTSD reported impaired self-concept as compared with NT women. Furthermore, SA was related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when considering participants' levels of posttraumatic distress. SA is related to unique self-concept impairments that extend beyond symptoms, emphasizing the need to assess and address self-concept impairments in sexually assaulted women. The importance of adopting a multifaceted conceptualization of the self to gain a deeper understanding of the aftermath of trauma is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. (United States)

    Christian, C W; Lavelle, J M; De Jong, A R; Loiselle, J; Brenner, L; Joffe, M


    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends forensic evidence collection when sexual abuse has occurred within 72 hours, or when there is bleeding or acute injury. It is not known whether these recommendations are appropriate for prepubertal children, because few data exist regarding the utility of forensic evidence collection in cases of child sexual assault. This study describes the epidemiology of forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. The medical records of 273 children Criminalistics Laboratory were retrospectively reviewed for history, physical examination findings, forensic evidence collection, and forensic results. Some form of forensic evidence was identified in 24.9% of children, all of whom were examined within 44 hours of their assault. Over 90% of children with positive forensic evidence findings were seen within 24 hours of their assault. The majority of forensic evidence (64%) was found on clothing and linens, yet only 35% of children had clothing collected for analysis. After 24 hours, all evidence, with the exception of 1 pubic hair, was recovered from clothing or linens. No swabs taken from the child's body were positive for blood after 13 hours or sperm/semen after 9 hours. A minority of children (23%) had genital injuries. Genital injury and a history of ejaculation provided by the child were associated with an increased likelihood of identifying forensic evidence, but several children had forensic evidence found that was unanticipated by the child's history. The general guidelines for forensic evidence collection in cases of acute sexual assault are not well-suited for prepubertal victims. The decision to collect evidence is best made by the timing of the examination. Swabbing the child's body for evidence is unnecessary after 24 hours. Clothing and linens yield the majority of evidence and should be pursued vigorously for analysis.

  11. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Oilseed Rape in the Wheat-Oilseed Rape Strip Intercropping Influenced by Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amirmardfar


    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum and oilseed rape (Brassica napus strip intercropping on yield components, seed and biological yields of oilseed rape, field experiments were carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran during 2010-2012 cropping seasons. The first factor consisted of four types of wheat and oilseed rape cropping system, sole crop of oilseed rape (A1,: strip intercropping with 8:3 (A2, 12:4 (A3 and 16:5 (A4 of wheat and oilseed rape rows, respectively and the other factor consisted of two fertilizer levels, B1: 100% chemical fertilizers (urea and triple superphosphate and B2: 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers (Nitrazhin and Barvar2. The results showed that strip intercropping of wheat- oilseed rape resulted in significant increase in yield components, seed yield per occupied unit area and biological yield per occupied unit area of oilseed rape as compared with mono-cropping. The number of silique per plant in intercropping systems was significantly higher than that of mono-cropping. The highest seed yield was obtained in the 16:5 rows of wheat-oilseed rape with 343.76 g.m-2 and the lowest mean was observed in mono-cropping of oilseed rape with 260.21 g.m-2. Biological yield per occupied unit area and seed yield per intercropped unit area in B1 were significantly greater than that of B2, but this treatment had no significant effect on the other traits. Because, B1 and B2 had no significant difference in seed yield per occupied unit area and due to the importance of reduction in chemical fertilizers consumption and food and environmental health care, strip intercropping of wheat-oilseed rape under 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers can be recommended as a suitable cultural method.

  12. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia. (United States)

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B


    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade.

  13. Rape Crimes Reviewed: The Role of Observer Variables in Female Victim Blaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Ferrão


    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of empirical research on the role of observer variables in rape victim blaming (female attacked by a male perpetrator. The focus is on literature from the last 15 years. The variables observer gender, ambivalent sexism, rape myth acceptance, and rape empathy are discussed in relation to victim blaming. Most research on rape is conducted using diverse methods and approaches that result in a great disparity regarding the role of these variables in predicting blame assignments. Despite the inconsistencies, most studies show that men hold the victim more responsible for her own victimization than women. Findings further indicate that higher scores on sexist ideologies and rape myth acceptance predict higher victim blame, and that higher rape empathy scores predict lower victim blame. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  14. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  15. Seed dressings to control slug damage in oilseed rape. (United States)

    Simms, Louise C; Mullins, Christopher E; Wilson, Michael J


    Slugs are major pests of oilseed rape that are poorly controlled by conventional bait pellets. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the potential of seed-dressings to control slug damage in this crop. Four compounds: metaldehyde, methiocarb, cinnamamide and 3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) were tested at a range of doses for phytotoxicity and ability to reduce damage by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Metaldehyde and methiocarb were not phytotoxic at any doses, whereas all doses of cinnamamide and DMCA were. All compounds reduced slug damage, but metaldehyde and methiocarb consistently performed better than cinnamamide and DMCA. Metaldehyde and methiocarb seed-dressings were compared with baited pellets containing the same active ingredients at recommended field doses. The seed-dressings protected plants from damage by D reticulatum and Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud) as well as, or better than, baited pellets. We therefore recommend that metaldehyde and methiocarb should be field-tested as seed dressings to control slugs in oilseed rape.

  16. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action. (United States)

    Koss, Mary P


    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  17. Sexual Assault: Better Resource Management Needed to Improve Prevention and Response in the Army National Guard and Army Reserve (United States)


    together reported 604 sexual assault incidents in fiscal year 2015; however, sexual assault is generally an underreported crime . Congress included a... reported to Army and National Guard personnel; however, sexual assault is generally an underreported crime . Based on a survey of reserve-component... reporting of sexual assault crimes , and improve victim response capabilities. Starting with its fiscal year 2007 report on sexual assault in the military

  18. A History of Rape in American Society Prior to 1900. (United States)

    Crossman, Leslie

    By tracing the concept of rape as it has been defined by man in the earliest laws, it is evident that the criminal act was viewed with horror, and the deadly punishments that were seen fit to apply had little to do with an actual act of sexual violence that a woman might sustain. The past records indicate a gradual decrease in the prosecution rate…

  19. Worth their while?: Pursuing a rape complaint through the criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the criminal justice system were to advertise itself to victims of sexual violence, would its tag line be L'Oreal's 'Because you're worth it'? Or would the Foundry ... Certainly, a lack of faith in, or fear of, legal processes, is one of the reasons why eight out of nine women who are raped do not report the matter to the police.1 ...

  20. Integrated pests monitoring of oilseed rape in means of biodiesel manufacture


    Alasić, Vesna


    Because of its high oil content (35 - 44 %) oilseed rape is an important industrial culture. Recently, biodiesel manufacture is especially active. In fact, in the countries of the EU, manufacture of biodiesel has reached its optimum, but sadly, in Republic of Croatia that small amount of biodiesel that is manufactured is obtained from recycled oil. This paper writes about the statistic data in manufacture of oilseed rape, pests of oilseed rape and about presentation of the project: “Integrate...

  1. Rape in the metropolis: the geography of crime in Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Vikram Dwivedi


    Full Text Available This paper is a study of rape in the national capital of India, and the focus is on the amendments of rape law aftermath 12 December 2012 crime. It questions at the safety and security issues of women in the metropolis of India, and it also discusses critically how laws amendments have been made aftermath this barbaric crime. Though this paper doesn’t set an inquiry yet it provides common criticism against the new amendments and it remains observational in nature, and sets a study. The temporal aspect revolves around the gang rape case of December 2012, but it also peeks in the past for the reference purpose only. The insensitive reactions from the political party leaders and religious leaders also find a space in the paper to show the general reaction of the society. The urban middle-class carefree attitude is reflected by an example of a popular reality show. But finally this paper advocates for lengthy prison sentences that have some behavior-altering deterrent value.

  2. Endogaeic ground beetles fauna in oilseed rape field in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka DRMIĆ


    Full Text Available The abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in oilseed rape field can be an important indicator of different agricultural measures in arable land fauna. Surveys about ground beetle fauna in Croatia are generally very scarce and only few research on oilseed rape were conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the endogaeic ground beetle fauna in oilseed rape field and to determine species abundance and frequency. The study was carried out in Podravina region of Croatia, from the end of May till the mid-September in 2015. Ground beetles were collected using endogaeic traps incorporated in the soil. Altogether, 487 individuals classified into 8 species were collected. Species with the highest abundance and frequency was Brachinus (Brachinus psophia Audinet-Serville, 1821, which was classified as eudominant and constant species. The highest ground beetle abundance was observed in summer period. All of the species found were spring breeders, except for species Trechus (Trechus quadristriatus (Schrank, 1781 which breeds in autumn.

  3. Unit support protects against sexual harassment and assault among national guard soldiers. (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C


    Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault after the 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members' relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Participants were 1,674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008 and 2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Approximately 13.2% of men (n = 198) and 43.5% of women (n = 74) reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% of men (n = 17) and 18.8% of women (n = 32) reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Greater unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Greater unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has the potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reported assaults and observed injuries in detainees held in police custody. (United States)

    Gahide, Sophie; Lepresle, Aude; Boraud, Cyril; Mahindhoratep, Tiao S; Chariot, Patrick


    The deprivation of liberty in police custody can be associated with violent situations and traumatic injuries. The rare available data did not mention whether alleged assaults occurred at the time of the arrest or during custody. Our objectives were to describe the frequency of recent traumatic injuries observed in detainees at the time of medical examination and to record detainees' self-reports of received physical violence, either before being arrested, at the time of the arrest, or during custody. In 2694 consecutive detainees examined in a suburban area near Paris, we compared persons' characteristics in four groups, according to the existence of alleged assaults or the presence of recent traumatic injuries, or both. Detainees reported to be victims of physical assaults in 25% of cases (686 of 2694): 374 assaults of 686 (55%) occurred at the time of arrest and 87 of 686 (13%) during custody. The opinion of assaulted detainees on custody was worse than non-assaulted detainees. Detainees alleging assaults by the police, whatever the time of the assault, accounted for 396 cases (15%). Three quarters of detainees (547 of 686, 79%) alleging assaults had recent traumatic injuries. When we considered all detainees, medical examination showed recent traumatic injuries in 724 of 2694 (27%). Injured detainees were declared unfit for detention more frequently than non-injured non-assaulted detainees (Pcustody. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate partner violence in Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele


    Full Text Available Background:Gender-based violence is a challenge in South Africa, despite available interventions. Caring for the survivors of both forms of violence is critical for ensuring their speedy recovery. Objectives:To compare the effects of trauma on female survivors of sexual assault versus those experienced by survivors of physical assault by their intimate partners. Method:A quantitative cross-sectional comparative study design was used to compare 30 sexually-assaulted women and 30 physically-assaulted women regarding depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder and coping styles three months after the incident. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the survivors of both types of assault and the Beck Depression Inventory posttraumatic stress disorder checklist and Brief COPE Inventory were administered in order to obtain quantitative data. Both parametric and non-parametric statistics were employed. Ethical measures were adhered to throughout the research process. Results:A significantly-higher proportion of sexually-assaulted women disclosed the incident to family (p = 0.021. The majority of sexually- (90% and physically- (86% assaulted women were likely to recall the incident. Sexually-assaulted women had a significantly-higher mean for avoidance/numbness (p 0.051. About 41%of sexually-assaulted participants reported severe depression. Findings confirmed that sexual assault is more personal whilst physical assault is more interpersonal. If physically-assaulted women were removed from the perpetrators they recovered faster than sexually-assaulted women. Their stay with the perpetrators may perpetuate the violence. Conclusion:The need for counselling and support for the survivors of both traumas was recommended. All stakeholders should be educated to provide support to survivors of both traumas.

  6. Sexual preference, gender, and blame attributions in adolescent sexual assault. (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Austen, Kerry; Rogers, Paul


    The study investigated the impact of victim sexual orientation, perpetrator gender, and participant gender on judgements toward a 15-year-old male victim of a depicted sexual assault. One hundred and eight-eight participants (97 male, 91 female) read a hypothetical scenario depicting the sexual assault of a 15-year-old male victim where the victim's sexual orientation and the perpetrator's gender were varied between subjects. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their attributions toward both the victim and the perpetrator. Results revealed that male participants blamed the victim more than female participants when the victim was both gay and attacked by a male perpetrator. All participants, regardless of gender, made more positive judgements toward the female as opposed to male perpetrator. Results are discussed in relation to gender role stereotypes and homophobia.

  7. (Missing) Knowledge About Sexual Assault Resources: Undermining Military Mental Health. (United States)

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M


    In 2005, the Department of Defense reformed military sexual assault (MSA) prevention and response efforts. However, research suggests that some Service members may not be informed of MSA resources. We examined how lacking such knowledge may undermine psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress) among MSA survivors as well as Service members who feel unsafe from MSA. The data were collected by the DoD in 2010 and sampled active duty Service women and men. Experiencing MSA, feeling unsafe from MSA, and lacking knowledge of MSA resources predicted greater psychiatric symptoms. Service members who felt unsafe from MSA reported greater psychiatric symptoms as a function of lacking knowledge of MSA resources. Findings suggest that education about sexual assault resources may be critical for the protection of mental health-among survivors and nonvictims alike.

  8. Autonomic logistic capability of the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle


    Mack, Paul G.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study examined the feasibility of using on-board sensory data from the Marine Corps Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV) as inputs to the Marine Corps Asset Tracking Logistics and Supply System, version II+ (ATLASS II+) as a way to improve sustained-logistics decision making. It also looks at the possibility of feeding AAAV sensory data to the Optimized Naval Aviation Logistics Command Information System (NALCOMIS) at the Or...

  9. Interviewing the incarcerated offender convicted of sexually assaulting the elderly. (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory M; King, Michael R


    Sexual assault is considered one of the most terrible crimes committed against the elderly, particularly as they are noted to be among the most innocent and vulnerable of populations. To better understand offender motivation and related behaviors, this article presents suggestions that are possible guidelines for forensic interviews, including an examination of potential methods for obtaining cooperation to optimize a truthful and accurate disclosure of offenders' crimes for research purposes.

  10. Sexual Assault: The Dark Side of Military Hypermasculinity (United States)


    Masculinity Approach Definition Essentialism Sexual assault or violence occurs due to the aggressive and natural tendencies of humans. It also serves as a... violence . 2. Allied masculinity : Access to the inner sanctum of hegemonic masculinity is open not just to men but even to woman—as long as...Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2011), 13-20. 16. Aaron Belkin, Bring Me Men: Military Masculinity and the

  11. Inhibition of common cold-induced aggravation of childhood asthma by leukotriene receptor antagonists. (United States)

    Yoshihara, Shigemi; Fukuda, Hironobu; Abe, Toshio; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Yumi; Kanno, Noriko; Arisaka, Osamu


    Virus infection is an important risk factor for aggravation of childhood asthma. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of drugs on aggravation of asthma induced by a common cold. Asthma control was examined in a survey of 1,014 Japanese pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. The occurrence of common cold, asthma control, and drugs used for asthma control were investigated using a modified Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) for patients aged common cold and aggravation of asthma were significantly higher in patients aged common cold-induced aggravation was significantly less effective in patients aged common cold, asthma control was significantly more effective for those treated with leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) compared to treatment without LTRAs. Asthma control did not differ between patients who did or did not take inhaled corticosteroids or long-acting β2 stimulants. These findings showed a high prevalence of common cold in younger patients with childhood asthma and indicated that common cold can induce aggravation of asthma. LTRAs are useful for long-term asthma control in very young patients who develop an asthma attack due to a common cold.

  12. Wartime Women Rape: A Means of Moral Attack and Emasculation in Lynn Nottage’s Ruined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaff Ganim Salih


    Full Text Available Women rape at warfare was considered a consequence of war in the social, literary and political world for a long period of time. Some criminals of rape escaped justice and others were persecuted on the basis that they were involved in mass rape because it was a natural consequence of war. But, women are targeted with rape in time of war because they are the symbolic representation of a culture, ethnicity, and the unifying fabric of their people and nation. The objective of this paper is to show that war rape is not a result of war; instead it is a means of human destruction through moral attack and emasculation. It aims to show that women rape in warfare is neither a misogynist act nor a sexual violence but it is a pre-planned weapon used strategically and systematically to fulfill certain political and military agenda. The study focuses on the sexual abuse of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo in time of war in Lynn Nottage’s Pulitzer Prize play, Ruined (2007. The study applies Jonathan Gottschall’s Strategic Rape theory, which highlights war rape as a pre-planned military strategy. The enemy emasculates men and attacks them morally by raping their women. Consequently, men’s failure to protect their women causes them to give up resistance, leave their lands and families because of shame and humiliation. The study concludes that women rape in time of war is a tactic followed by conquerors intentionally to facilitate and guarantee the achievement of certain pre-planned goals as was the case of mass rape in the DRC.

  13. Presentation of the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Ingemann

    November 1999 the first Center for (adult) Victims of Sexual Assault in Denmark opened in the town of Aarhus in cooperation with the Aarhus County’s Health Service, Aarhus University Hospital, the police and the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus. The Center is located at the em......November 1999 the first Center for (adult) Victims of Sexual Assault in Denmark opened in the town of Aarhus in cooperation with the Aarhus County’s Health Service, Aarhus University Hospital, the police and the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus. The Center is located...... at the emergency department, open 24-hours a day and no referral is needed nor police notification. The victim can talk to specially trained nurses and get a medical examination with collection of forensic evidence performed by a specially trained physician. The day after the acute treatment and crisis care......, the forensic scientists, the department of gynaecology, the county’s general practitioners and the university institutes of psychology and forensic medicine. The prevention of sexual assault is a difficult issue, but the fact that half the cases happens in privacy or at work, and that only 25...

  14. Lifetime sexual assault and cervical cytologic abnormalities among military women. (United States)

    Sadler, Anne G; Mengeling, Michelle A; Syrop, Craig H; Torner, James C; Booth, Brenda M


    Little is known about the reproductive health of military women. This study sought to determine women Veterans' competing risk factors, including life span sexual assault (LSA) exposures, associated with recent and lifetime cervical cytologic abnormalities. This cross-sectional study of a retrospective cohort of 999 Midwestern Veterans (enrolled in the VA) included computer-assisted telephone interviews and chart reviews. Over half (57%) of participants self-reported lifetime abnormal cytology. Chart review demonstrated 16% had abnormal cytology in the preceding 5 years. Almost two thirds of participants (62%) reported LSA, and one third (32%) reported assault during military service. Women with completed LSA were more likely to self-report abnormal cytology than peers with no or attempted-only assaults (63% vs. 51%, pmilitary service (Active Component [AC] or both AC and Reserve or National Guard) was significant even when human papillomavirus (HPV) was included. LSA was significant when well-established risk factors, except HPV, were included. Nearly all participants had health insurance (84%), and only one third (32%) used the VA for all care. Military type and completed LSA are significant risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology and should be routinely assessed by women's care providers. LSA and gynecologic health risk factors are widespread in the female Veteran population. These findings have clinical implications for vigilant screening, gynecologic follow-up, and behavioral health interventions. Most participants had insurance and used only some or no VA care, so findings are relevant to all women's health providers.

  15. Urban trauma transport of assaulted patients using nonmedical personnel. (United States)

    Branas, C C; Sing, R F; Davidson, S J


    To describe one urban trauma transport system to clarify the impact of transport by nonmedical personnel on patient outcome. Retrospective data were assembled over a six-year period through the use of the state trauma registry for an urban county served by seven state-accredited trauma centers. A subset of 4,767 consecutive assaulted patients was analyzed using the TRISS method to estimate survival probability. An unexpected death index (UDI), calculated as the difference between expected (TRISS method) and observed death rates, also was determined. Outcomes for patients transported by fire medics (FMs) vs nonmedical, police personnel (NPs) were compared. FMs transported 2,108 (44%) and NPs transported 1,356 (29%) of the injured assault victims. The FM-transported patients had a lower expected probability of survival than had the NP-transported patients (p UDIs were not different overall, although the NP-transported patients who had blunt trauma had a significantly lower UDI (p < 0.01). NP transport of assaulted patients is generally associated with equivalent outcomes in comparison with FM transport in this urban environment. However, these data also provide evidence of an on-scene implicit triage with more severely injured patients generally transported by FMs.

  16. Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military: Fiscal Year 2015 (United States)


    sexual assaults go unreported each year. Some victims may never consider reporting a sexual assault, as they may minimize the incident or cope in...FY15. Qualitative data about reporting concerns indicated that stigma and perceptions about sexual orientation were quite prominent for men who...with sufficient information to dispel myths about male sexual assault and combat stigma associated with victimization. The Service and NGB

  17. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  18. Biological control of Sclerotinia disease by Aspergillus sp. on oilseed rape in the field (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on oilseed rape and other crops worldwide. Aspergillus sp. Asp-4, previously shown to inhibit germination of sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum in vitro and in the field, was evaluated in field trials for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rape. S...

  19. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca


    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  20. Images of rape in African fiction. Between the assumed fatality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A horrendous aspect of patriarchy and dominator ideology, rape has in recent times captured the attention of civil society and the imagination of creative writers. The frequency of rape in peacetime, traditional, colonial, liberation war, and civil war contexts, since the dawn of time, seems to suggest that this gendered violence ...

  1. Attitudes Toward Victims of Rape: Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Social Class (United States)

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy


    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…

  2. Ethical problems of rape as a social cankerworm in our present day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rape is a worrisome epidemic that is becoming problematic in contemporary Nigeria due to many factors that are already inherent in the Nigerian society such as myths, culture of silence associated with rape, modernizing influences and peer group pressure among several others. This article is essentially library ...

  3. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape: An Examination of Perpetrator Motivation, Relationship Length, and Gender Role Beliefs (United States)

    Angelone, David J.; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren


    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding…

  4. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (United States)


    ... Office of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on April 26-27, 2011. The... U.S. prisons, and the common characteristics of prisons with the highest and lowest incidence of...

  5. 76 FR 56481 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (United States)


    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on September 15-16, 2011. The... August 26, 2010, the BJS issued the report Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates...

  6. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape Based on Individual Beliefs and Female Alcohol Consumption. (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L.; Davis, Clive M.


    Investigates whether female alcohol consumption predicts perceptions of date rape based on two personality measures administered to 290 undergraduates. Results indicate that a stronger belief in token resistance to sex was related to weaker perceptions of rape. As hypothesized, participants scoring higher on sex-role stereotyping perceived fewer…

  7. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad


    Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological

  8. Avoidant Coping and Treatment Outcome in Rape-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.


    Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…

  9. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 19, 2009 ... The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings. (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0.

  10. Rape and the State: Sexual Violence and its Political Narrative and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It proposes a political lens, positing the rape crisis continuum as the result of an interplay within South Africa's past and current political spaces during and after apartheid that produces and reproduces a specific political narrative of rape through a continuous gendered 'othering' of women. The emergence of this political ...

  11. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.


    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  12. 76 FR 6247 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape (United States)


    ... national standards for the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape, as mandated by... adopt national standards for the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape. PREA... and factual study of the penological, physical, mental, medical, social, and economic impacts of...

  13. 75 FR 11077 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape (United States)


    ..., and punishment of prison rape, as mandated by PREA. DATES: Written comments must be postmarked on or... standards for the detection, prevention, reduction, and punishment of prison rape. PREA established the Commission to carry out a comprehensive legal and factual study of the penological, physical, mental, medical...

  14. Effects of Victim Sex and Sexual Orientation on Perceptions of Rape. (United States)

    White, Bradley H.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson


    Investigated the relationship of sex, gender role attitudes, and sexual orientation to perceptions of rape. College students responded to scenarios depicting the rape of heterosexual and homosexual males and females. Men assigned more blame to victims (particularly male victims) than did women. Traditional gender role attitudes positively related…

  15. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Theory Model of Community Change: Connecting Individual and Social Change (United States)

    Cox, Pamela J.; Lang, Karen S.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca


    Social work practice has long focused on the connections between an individual and the social environment that affect the individual's social functioning. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program's theory model, Creating Safer Communities: The Rape Prevention and Education Model of Community Change, provides family social workers with a…

  16. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria: The Stark Realities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, women have always been subjugated and oppressed by men in most cultures in Nigeria. This situation is due to the inequality in gender relations between men and women. Rape has always been with mankind throughout the world. However, in recent times, the incidence of rape has increased in Nigeria.

  17. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field (United States)

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  18. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape (United States)

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot


    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  19. A study of rape cases in Benin City, Nigeria. | Uchendu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a six months prospective study of rape cases seen in the study centre. Rape cases are relatively common with an average of 17 cases seen monthly. Children from poor parents are the most vulnerable group affected with peak occurring between 11-15 years. Late reporting of these cases in health facilities often ...

  20. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel


    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  1. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung


    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  2. Losing control: assaultive behavior as a predictor of impulse control disorders in young adults. (United States)

    Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Derbyshire, Katherine; Grant, Jon E


    Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders, an association that has yet to be examined, especially in young adults. The authors conducted a university-wide email survey in the spring of 2011 on 6000 university students. The survey examined assaultive behavior and associated mental health variables (using a clinically validated screening instrument, the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview), stress and mood states, and psychosocial functioning. The rate of response was 35.1% (n=2108). 109 (5.9%) participants reported that they had assaulted another person or destroyed property at some time in their lives. Compared with respondents without lifetime assaultive behavior, those with a history of assaultive or destructive behavior reported more depressive symptoms, more stress, and higher rates of a range of impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, and skin picking disorder). Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for young adults attending college who report problems with assaultive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Factors of Sexual Assault and Victimization Among Youth in Custody. (United States)

    Ahlin, Eileen M


    Research suggests that youth are at higher risk of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than adult inmates. However, compared with adult inmates, very little is known about the risk factors associated with such violence among youth in custody. Without sufficient research on risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody, practitioners and policy makers may be reliant on the adult literature when making decisions about how to address and prevent such violence among juveniles. This article seeks to determine if extrapolating data from the substantial prison literature is appropriate by assessing the parallels between risk factors of sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody and those identified for adult inmates. This study uses data of 8,659 youth from the second administration of the National Survey of Youth in Custody (NSYC-2) to assess correlates of sexual assault and victimization during periods of detention. Study findings show that experiences with assault and victimization prior to the present period of detention were stronger indicators of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than youth characteristics and demographics and other experiences with assault and victimization. Further, there are differences in risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody compared to adult inmates, which emphasizes the risk of prior sexual assault and victimization in the community and prior custodial settings.

  4. Sexual assault training in the military: evaluating efforts to end the "invisible war". (United States)

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M


    Sexual assault is an insidious problem in the United States military. In 2005 the Department of Defense (DoD) created the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office, which centralizes responsibility for sexual assault training. However, this training initiative has undergone little evaluation by outside researchers. Addressing this need, we analyzed responses from over 24,000 active duty personnel who completed the 2010 DoD Workplace and Gender Relations Survey. We assessed whether sexual assault training exposure (None, Minimal, Partial, or Comprehensive) predicted accurate knowledge of sexual assault resources and protocols. Using a social-ecological framework, we investigated whether institutional and individual factors influenced Service members' training exposure and judgment of training effectiveness. According to our results, exposure to comprehensive training predicted lower sexual assault incidence and superior knowledge. However, comprehensive training differed as a function of military branch, rank, gender, and sexual assault history. Judgments of training effectiveness also varied across these dimensions. Our results highlight the importance of considering context, gender, and victimization history when evaluating institutional efforts to end sexual violence. The DoD's 2010 annual report on military sexual assault concluded that "most Active Duty members receive effective training on sexual assault" (p. 104). Our results cast doubt on that assertion.

  5. The Use of Vignettes to Empower Effective Responses to Attempted Sexual Assault (United States)

    Allen, Kaylie T.; Meadows, Elizabeth A.


    Objective: Women assertively resisting sexual aggression have the best chances of avoiding completed rape. Especially with acquaintances, there are significant social and psychological barriers to resistance. Novel vignettes depicting acquaintance rape were designed to enhance self-efficacy, reduce unrealistic optimism, and empower assertive…

  6. A preliminary study of eighth grade students' attitudes toward rape myths and women's roles. (United States)

    Boxley, J; Lawrance, L; Gruchow, H


    This preliminary study examined the relationship between sex-role stereotypes of women and beliefs in rape myths among adolescents. A 35-item survey was completed by 211 female and males in eighth grade health classes. Findings indicate both females and males accept some rape myths and sex-role stereotyping of women. The data also indicated an association between belief in rape myths and sex-role stereotyping of women. Few racial and age differences emerged. The most profound differences involved gender. Most adolescents rejected rape myths, but 10% of girls and 30% of boys tended to accept rape myths. Most females (98.2%) and males (83.3%) rejected sex-role stereotypes of women. According to feminist perspective, sex-role stereotyping of women's role in society is associated with tolerance of sexual violence toward women.

  7. The Exploitive Mating Strategy of the Dark Triad Traits: Tests of Rape-Enabling Attitudes. (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Girgis, Mary; Milne-Home, Josephine


    The Dark Triad traits have been repeatedly labeled as facilitating an exploitive mating strategy. However, various researchers have repeatedly conflated short-term mating or casual sex with an exploitive mating strategy. In this study using Mechanical Turk participants (N = 252; 142 men, 110 women), we provided a better test of just how sexually exploitive those high on the Dark Triad traits might be by examining how the traits related to rape-enabling attitudes. We examined how each trait may facilitate rape, whether these associations were robust to partialing the variance associated with the Big Five traits and similar in men and women, and showed that one reason why men may be more likely to rape than women is they are characterized by the Dark Triad traits more than women are. In so doing, we test the confluence model of rape that asserts that personality traits similar to the Dark Triad traits act as one pathway to rape.

  8. Prevalence of physical violence in a forensic psychiatric hospital system during 2011-2013: Patient assaults, staff assaults, and repeatedly violent patients. (United States)

    Broderick, Charles; Azizian, Allen; Kornbluh, Rebecca; Warburton, Katherine


    Introduction We examined physical violence in a large, multihospital state psychiatric system during 2011-2013, and associated demographic and clinical characteristics of violent patients to better understand issues of patient and staff safety. Acts of physical violence committed by patients against other patients (n=10,958) or against staff (n=8429) during 2011-2013 were collected and analyzed for all hospitalized patients during the same time period to derive prevalence rates and associated odds ratios. Overall, 31.4% of patients committed at least 1 violent assault during their hospitalization. Differential risk factor patterns were noted across patient and staff assault. Younger age was associated with a higher prevalence of both patient and staff assault, as was nonforensic legal status. Females had a higher prevalence of staff assault than patient assault. Ethnic groups varied on rates of patient assault, but had no significant differences for staff assault. Schizoaffective disorder was associated with higher prevalence and odds of patient (OR 1.244, 95% CI 1.131 to 1.370) and staff (OR 1.346, 95% CI 1.202 to 1.507) assault when compared to patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Most personality disorder diagnoses also had a higher prevalence and odds of physical violence. One percent of patients accounted for 28.7% of all assaults. Additionally, violent patients had a significantly longer length of hospitalization. Discussion Implications of these findings to enhance patient safety and inform future violence reduction efforts, including the need for new treatments in conjunction with the use of violence risk assessments, are discussed.

  9. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape. (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing


    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  10. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Xiafang [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail:; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)


    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape.

  11. Military-related sexual assault in Canada: a cross-sectional survey. (United States)

    Watkins, Kimberley; Bennett, Rachel; Zamorski, Mark A; Richer, Isabelle


    Most research on military-related sexual assault is based on the United States military and has important limitations, such as low response rates. We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault, assess its relation to military service and identify the circumstances, correlates and associations with mental disorders of military-related sexual assault among Canadian military personnel. We used the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional representative survey of Canadian Regular Force personnel (n = 6696). The sample was weighted to be representative of the entire Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force population in 2012 (n = 67 776), as per Statistics Canada requirements. We assessed lifetime trauma exposure and past-year mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We defined lifetime military-related sexual assault as forced sexual activity or unwanted sexual touching that occurred on deployment or in another military workplace, or was perpetrated by Department of National Defence or Canadian Armed Forces personnel. We defined all other sexual assault as non-military-related sexual assault. Self-reported sexual assault was more prevalent among women (non-military-related sexual assault 24.2%, military-related sexual assault 15.5%) than men (5.9% and 0.8%, respectively). About a quarter of women with military-related sexual assault reported experiencing at least 1 event on deployment. After covariates were controlled for, military-related sexual assault was independently associated with any lifetime and any past-year mental disorder (adjusted odds ratio 2.9 and 3.0, respectively) and lifetime and past-year posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio 4.3 and 4.1, respectively). Canadian military women are at increased risk for sexual assault and military-related sexual assault relative to their male counterparts. Deployment may be a period of elevated risk for military-related sexual assault, and

  12. Sexual assault incidents among college undergraduates: Prevalence and factors associated with risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude A Mellins

    Full Text Available Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration. Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively, although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%. Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%; physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups" vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across

  13. Sexual assault incidents among college undergraduates: Prevalence and factors associated with risk. (United States)

    Mellins, Claude A; Walsh, Kate; Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie; Gilbert, Louisa; Santelli, John S; Thompson, Martie; Wilson, Patrick A; Khan, Shamus; Benson, Stephanie; Bah, Karimata; Kaufman, Kathy A; Reardon, Leigh; Hirsch, Jennifer S


    Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes) and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration). Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively), although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%). Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%); physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women) and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups") vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across gender

  14. Sexual Assault Training in Emergency Medicine Residencies: A Survey of Program Directors

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    Margaret K Sande


    Full Text Available Introduction: There is currently no standard forensic medicine training program for emergency medicine residents. In the advent of sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE programs aimed at improving the quality of care for sexual assault victims, it is also unclear how these programs impact emergency medicine (EM resident forensic medicine training. The purpose of this study was togather information on EM residency programs’ training in the care of sexual assault patients and determine what impact SANE programs may have on the experience of EM resident training from the perspective of residency program directors (PDs.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. The study cohort was all residency PDs from approved EM residency training programs who completed a closed-response self-administered survey electronically.Results: We sent surveys to 152 PDs, and 71 responded for an overall response rate of 47%. Twenty-two PDs (31% reported that their residency does not require procedural competency for the sexual assault exam, and 29 (41% reported their residents are required only to observe sexual assault exam completion to demonstrate competency. Residency PDs were asked how their programs established resident requirements for sexual assault exams. Thirty-seven PDs (52% did not know how their sexual assault exam requirement was established.Conclusion: More than half of residency PDs did not know how their sexual assault guidelines were established, and few were based upon recommendations from the literature. There is no clear consensus as to how PDs view the effect of SANE programs on resident competency with the sexual assault exam. This study highlights both a need for increased awareness of EM resident sexual assault education nationally and also a possible need for a training curriculum defining guidelines forEM residents performing sexual assault exams. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:461–466.

  15. The Relationship Between Television Sports Exposure and Rape Myth Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Sexism and Sexual Objectification of Women. (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; McNallie, Jenna


    Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance. These results suggest that sports programming contributes to the perpetuation of rape myths in society. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Bad Laws or Bad Attitudes? Assessing the Impact of Societal Attitudes upon the Conviction Rate for Rape in Ireland


    Leahy, Susan


    The low conviction rate for rape is often highlighted as a cause for concern. The typical response is to call for reform of Irish rape law. Although reform is necessary, this article argues that the low conviction rate for rape is caused not simply by ‘bad’ or inadequate laws but also by ‘bad’ or prejudicial attitudes about rape which persist in Irish society. These attitudes are at odds with the reality of rape and therefore create unrealistic expectations as to what, for example, constitu...

  17. Codeine-spiked beer in a date rape case? (United States)

    Havig, Stine Marie; Wiik, Elisabeth; Karinen, Ritva; Brochmann, Gerd Wenche; Vevelstad, Merete


    A case of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, involving codeine and acetaminophen, possibly mixed in beer, was recently addressed at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. To examine the case, a small study was performed, spiking beer with preparations containing codeine and acetaminophen and observing the concentrations, appearance, and taste of the solutions. The study revealed the majority of the preparations to be quickly soluble in beer, achieving high concentrations, but at the expense of strong taste and drastic visible changes in the beer.

  18. Rape in World War II film: comparing narrations

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    Dzadevych, Tetyana


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.

  19. Forensic sexology: paraphilic serial rape (biastophilia) and lust murder (erotophonophilia). (United States)

    Money, J


    Forensic sexology is not synonymous with either forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology. It is a specialty in its own right, and is needed in the courtroom. Paraphilic sex offenders on trial are misrepresented as being, by their own choice, psychopathic or sociopathic deviates. They are unable to explain their paraphilic criminality to either themselves or society. In a case of serial rape and serial lust murder here presented, the contributory causes are examined and differentiated as hereditary predisposition, hormonal functioning; pathological relationships, sexual abuse; and syndrome overlap with bipolar disorder, schizoid disorder, antisocial personality disorder, epilepsy, and multiple personality. The precipitating causes were differentiated as childhood head injuries, and adult head injury at age 20. Left impact trauma and sexological trauma were sequelae of the adult injury. The full range of diagnostic resources was not available for a prisoner on death row. Capital punishment has not prevented the reemergence in each new generation of serial rape and serial lust murder as an epidemiological, public health problem. Punishment is an ineffectual substitute for epidemiological research into cause, effect, and prevention.

  20. Aggravation and Stress in Parenting: Associations with Coparenting and Father Engagement among Resident Fathers (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Horowitz, Allison; Carrano, Jennifer


    This study uses a sample of 2,139 resident biological fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing surveys (baseline and 12-month follow-up), to examine whether paternal aggravation and stress in parenting is associated with father engagement and coparenting and whether this association differs by father's socioeconomic status. Results of…