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Sample records for rapa ssp chinensis

  1. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin-Shuang; Sun, Cheng-Zhen; Zhang, Shu-Ning; Hou, Xi-Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  2. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Floral Repressor, BcMAF1, From Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feiyi; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin

    2018-01-01

    MADS-box genes form a large gene family in plants and are involved in multiple biological processes, such as flowering. However, the regulation mechanism of MADS-box genes in flowering remains unresolved, especially under short-term cold conditions. In the present study, we isolated BcMAF1 , a Pak-choi ( Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis ) MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING ( MAF ), as a floral repressor and functionally characterized BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis and Pak-choi. Subcellular localization and sequence analysis indicated that BcMAF1 was a nuclear protein and contained a conserved MADS-box domain. Expression analysis revealed that BcMAF1 had higher expression levels in leaves, stems, and petals, and could be induced by short-term cold conditions in Pak-choi. Overexpressing BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis showed that BcMAF1 had a negative function in regulating flowering, which was further confirmed by silencing endogenous BcMAF1 in Pak-choi. In addition, qPCR results showed that AtAP3 expression was reduced and AtMAF2 expression was induced in BcMAF1 -overexpressing Arabidopsis . Meanwhile, BcAP3 transcript was up-regulated and BcMAF2 transcript was down-regulated in BcMAF1 -silencing Pak-choi. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase transient assays showed that BcMAF1 could bind to the promoters of BcAP3 and BcMAF2 . These results indicated that BcAP3 and BcMAF2 might be the targets of BcMAF1. Taken together, our results suggested that BcMAF1 could negatively regulate flowering by directly activating BcMAF2 and repressing BcAP3 .

  3. Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

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    Hansruedi Glatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future.

  4. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106 samples including Chinese ...

  5. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... chinensis irrigated with low quality water in urban areas of Morogoro ... wastewater plays a significant role in food security as it improves crop ... Low quality irrigation water is generally contaminated with humans or animals.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of BrrTCP Transcription Factors in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa

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    Jiancan Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor (TCP gene family is a plant-specific transcription factor that participates in the control of plant development by regulating cell proliferation. However, no report is currently available about this gene family in turnips (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa. In this study, a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed in turnips. Thirty-nine TCP genes in turnip genome were identified and distributed on 10 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that the family was classified as two clades: class I and class II. Gene structure and conserved motif analysis showed that the same clade genes have similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The expression profiles of 39 TCP genes were determined through quantitative real-time PCR. Most CIN-type BrrTCP genes were highly expressed in leaf. The members of CYC/TB1 subclade are highly expressed in flower bud and weakly expressed in root. By contrast, class I clade showed more widespread but less tissue-specific expression patterns. Yeast two-hybrid data show that BrrTCP proteins preferentially formed heterodimers. The function of BrrTCP2 was confirmed through ectopic expression of BrrTCP2 in wild-type and loss-of-function ortholog mutant of Arabidopsis. Overexpression of BrrTCP2 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the diminished leaf size. Overexpression of BrrTCP2 in triple mutants of tcp2/4/10 restored the leaf phenotype of tcp2/4/10 to the phenotype of wild type. The comprehensive analysis of turnip TCP gene family provided the foundation to further study the roles of TCP genes in turnips.

  7. Over-expression of miR158 causes pollen abortion in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiming; Jiang, Jianxia; Hu, Ziwei; Lyu, Tianqi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jingjing; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression. In this study, miR158, a Brassicaceae specific miRNA, was functionally characterized with regard to its role in pollen development of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Two family members of miR158 in B. campestris, namely bra-miR158a1 and bra-miR158a2, and their target gene bra027656, which encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing protein, were identified. Then, qRT-PCR analysis and GUS-reporter system revealed that both bra-miR158 and its target gene had relatively high expression levels in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility and pollen germination ratio, and the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage was also found in those deformed pollen grains, which led to pollen shrinking and collapse in later pollen development stage. These results first shed light on the importance of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

  8. Combining ability for maturity and plant height in brassica rapa (l.) ssp. dichotoma (roxb.) hanelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, A.; Farhatullah, A.; Khan, N.U.; Azam, S.M.; Nasim, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A 5 * 5 F1 diallel cross hybrids of Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt along with parents were evaluated through combining ability for days to flowering (initiation and completion), days to maturity and plant height. Highly significant differences were recorded for all the traits. Mean squares due to general, specific and reciprocal combining ability were significant for all the traits except plant height for which the latter two components were non-significant. Prevalence of additive (plant height), non-additive (days to flowering completion; days to maturity) and reciprocal effects (days to flowering initiation) were detected. Parental line G-403 was best general combiner for all the traits. The F1 hybrids G-902 * G-265 (days to flowering initiation), G-902 * G-403 (days to flowering completion), G-265 * G-1500 (days to maturity) and G-909 * G-265 (plant height) were superior and may be exploited for future breeding programs. (author)

  9. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis irrigated with low quality water in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106...... samples including Chinese cabbage (69) and water (37) were collected. The E. coli were cultured in petri film selective E. coli plates at 44°C. The Chinese cabbage irrigated with river water at Fungafunga area indicated significantly (P... than those irrigated with treated wastewater at Mazimbu 10% (n=48, 0.00-1.36 log cfu/g). The mean counts of E. coli in untreated wastewater ranged from 4.59 to 5.56 log cfu/mL, while in treated wastewater was from 0.54 to 1.05 log cfu/mL and in river water it was 2.40 log cfu/mL. Treated wastewater...

  10. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Nitrogen Application in Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L.

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    Xin Xiong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the influence of drought stress on the growth and nitrogen nutrition status of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L. at different nitrogen (N levels, the changes in N accumulation and enzyme activities involved in N assimilation were investigated. The drought was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG under hydroponic culture conditions. Pakchoi seedlings were exposed to a modified nutrient solution with different nitrogen concentration (N1, N2, and N3 represent 2, 9 and 18 mM NaNO3, respectively and osmotic potential (W1, W2 and W3 represent 0, 60 and 120 g·L−1 PEG 6000 in a full factorial, replicated randomized block design. A short time (seven days of drought stress caused a significant decline in plant water content, transpiration rate, shoot biomass and shoot nitrogen concentration. Increasing N availability considerably alleviate drought stress by increasing the content of total free amino acids in the roots, promoting the acceleration of root biomass accumulation, and improving the activities of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1 and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2 which would reduce moisture limitations. The results suggested that pakchoi supplied with relative higher N had better growth performance under drought stress.

  12. Effect of Solid Biological Waste Compost on the Metabolite Profile of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

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    Susanne Neugart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of biological waste are generated at various steps within the food production chain and a great utilization potential for this solid biological waste exists apart from the current main usage for the feedstuff sector. It remains unclear how the usage of biological waste as compost modulates plant metabolites. We investigated the effect of biological waste of the processing of coffee, aronia, and hop added to soil on the plant metabolite profile by means of liquid chromatography in pak choi sprouts. Here we demonstrate that the solid biological waste composts induced specific changes in the metabolite profiles and the changes are depending on the type of the organic residues and its concentration in soil. The targeted analysis of selected plant metabolites, associated with health beneficial properties of the Brassicaceae family, revealed increased concentrations of carotenoids (up to 3.2-fold and decreased amounts of glucosinolates (up to 4.7-fold as well as phenolic compounds (up to 1.5-fold.

  13. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  14. Combining ability and heterosis for yield and yield contributing traits in brassica rapa (l.) ssp. dichotoma (roxb.) hanelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, A.; Farhatullah, A.; Khan, N.U.; Afzal, M.; Azam, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Combining ability was studied for yield and yield contributing traits in 5 * 5 diallel cross in Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt. Primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1, pod length, 100-seed weight and seed yield plant-1 were significantly different. Heritability and genetic advance estimates were moderate for primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1, 100 seed weight whereas were high for seed yield plant-1. Parental line G-909 for primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1 and seed yield plant-1, genotype G-902 for pod length and genotype G-403 for 100-seed weight were the best general combiners. Based on combing ability and heterosis, the F1 hybrids G-909 * G-265 (for primary branches plant-1), G-265 * G- 403, G-1500 * G-909 (for pods main raceme-1), G-403 * G-909 (for pod length), G-265 * G-1500 (for 100-seed weight) and G-1500 * G-902, G-909 * G-902 (for seed yield plant-1) can be utilized in future breeding endeavors. Non-additive genetic control, as predominant mechanism, for all the traits necessitates the use of schemes like bi-parental mating design, diallel selective mating followed by recurrent or reciprocal recurrent selection. (author)

  15. Impact of different feedstocks derived biochar amendment with cadmium low uptake affinity cultivar of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssb. chinensis L.) on phytoavoidation of Cd to reduce potential dietary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Khan, Kiran; Ali, Barkat; Cui, Xiaoqiang; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe; Joseph Stoffella, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Biochar has become eco-friendly amendment used for phytoavoidation with low cadmium (Cd) accumulating cultivars of crops to ensure food safety in Cd contaminated soils. In this study, biochar with different waste feedstock material were evaluated for their effectiveness on essential trace metals mobility, Cd bioavailability and its accumulation in two contrasting Cd accumulating cultivars of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L.) grown in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with plants grown in Cd contaminated soil that had been amended with biochar derived from barley straw, tomato green waste, chicken manure, duck manure and swine manure at application rate of 0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (w/w). The results showed that soil pH was significantly increased by all treatments. Biochar increased plant dry biomass, micronutrients bioavailability with significant differences in the Cd sorption capacity, with the effectiveness higher with increasing biochar application rate. However, tomato green waste (TGW) and chicken manure (CM) derived biochar were more effective than the other biochar in reducing Cd mobilization in soil by 35-54% and 26-43% and reduced its accumulation in shoots of pak choi cultivars by 34-76% and 33-72% in low Cd accumulator cultivar and 64-85% and 55-80% in high Cd accumulator cultivar than the control. Overall, results indicate that TGW and CM biochar can efficiently immobilize Cd, thereby reducing bioavailability in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil to ensure food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Analysis of genetic diversity of Brassica rapa var. chinensis using ISSR markers and development of SCAR marker specific for Fragrant Bok Choy, a product of geographic indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Xue, J Y; Li, M M; Lin, Y B; Sun, X Q; Hang, Y Y

    2016-04-25

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa var. chinensis (Linnaeus) Kitamura] is a popular vegetable and is also used as a medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Fragrant Bok Choy is a unique accession of non-heading Chinese cabbage and a product of geographic indication certified by the Ministry of Agriculture of China, which is noted for its rich aromatic flavor. However, transitional and overlapping morphological traits can make it difficult to distinguish this accession from other non-heading Chinese cabbages. This study aimed to develop a molecular method for efficient identification of Fragrant Bok Choy. Genetic diversity analysis, based on inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers, was conducted for 11 non-heading Chinese cabbage accessions grown in the Yangtze River Delta region. Genetic similarity coefficients between the 11 accessions ranged from 0.5455 to 0.8961, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0755 to 0.4475. Cluster analysis divided the 11 accessions into two major groups. The primer ISSR-840 amplified a fragment specific for Fragrant Bok Choy. A pair of specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers based on this fragment amplified a target band in Fragrant Bok Choy individuals, but no band was detected in individuals of other accessions. In conclusion, this study has developed an efficient strategy for authentication of Fragrant Bok Choy. The SCAR marker described here will facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique non-heading Chinese cabbage germplasm resource.

  18. VISIBE AND INFRARED SPECTRAL CHARACTERISATION OF CHINESE CABBAGE (BRASSICA RAPA L. SUBSPECIES CHINENSIS, GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN, POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Mokoatsi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to intensify research efforts on improving productivity of indigenous vegetables in South Africa. One research avenue is operationalizing remote sensing techniques to monitor crop health status. This study aimed at characterising the spectral properties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica Rapa L. subspecies Chinensis grown under varying fertilizer treatments: nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 75 kg/ha, 125 kg/ha, 175 kg/ha and 225 kg/ha, phosphorus (0 kg/ha, 9.4 kg/ha, 15.6, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha and potassium (0 kg/ha, 9.4  kg/ha, 15.6 kg/ha, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha. Visible and infrared spectral measurements were taken from a total of 60 samples inside the laboratory. Contiguous spectral regions were plotted to show spectral profiles of the different fertilizer treatments and then classified using gradient boosting and random forest classifiers. ANOVA revealed the potential of spectral reflectance data in discriminating different fertiliser treatments from crops. There was also a significant difference between the capabilities of the two classifiers. Gradient boost model (GBM yielded higher classification accuracies than random forest (RF. The important variables identified by each model improved the classification accuracy. Overall, the results indicate a potential for the use of spectroscopy in monitoring food quality parameters, thereby reducing the cost of traditional methods. Further research into advanced statistical analysis techniques is needed to improve the accuracy with which fertiliser concentrations in crops could be quantified. The random forest model particularly requires improvements.

  19. Genome-wide Investigation of microRNAs and Their Targets in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Root with Plasmodiophora brassicae Infection

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    Xiaochun Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has revealed that microRNAs play a pivotal role in the post transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to pathogens in plants. However, there is little information available about the expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis under Plasmodiophora brassicae stress. In the present study, using deep sequencing and degradome analysis, a genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their targets during P. brassicae stress was performed. A total of 221 known and 93 potentially novel miRNAs were successfully identified from two root libraries of one control (635-10CK and P. brassicae-treated Chinese cabbage samples (635-10T. Of these, 14 known and 10 potentially novel miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed after P. brassicae treatment. Degradome analysis revealed that the 223 target genes of the 75 miRNAs could be potentially cleaved. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that the putative target genes of the miRNAs were predominately involved in selenocompound metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. Then the expression of 12 miRNAs was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These results provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulatory networks underlying the stress response to the plant pathogen P. brassicae.

  20. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  1. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively.

  2. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, H.; Pino del Carpio, D.; Hanhart, C.J.; Bonnema, A.B.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin) with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed), both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map

  3. Identification of Functional Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Affecting Leaf Hair Number in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Mirlohi, Shirin; Li, Xiaorong; He, Yuke

    2018-06-01

    Leaf traits affect plant agronomic performance; for example, leaf hair number provides a morphological indicator of drought and insect resistance. Brassica rapa crops have diverse phenotypes, and many B. rapa single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified and used as molecular markers for plant breeding. However, which SNPs are functional for leaf hair traits and, therefore, effective for breeding purposes remains unknown. Here, we identify a set of SNPs in the B. rapa ssp. pekinenesis candidate gene BrpHAIRY LEAVES1 ( BrpHL1 ) and a number of SNPs of BrpHL1 in a natural population of 210 B. rapa accessions that have hairy, margin-only hairy, and hairless leaves. BrpHL1 genes and their orthologs and paralogs have many SNPs. By intensive mutagenesis and genetic transformation, we selected the functional SNPs for leaf hairs by the exclusion of nonfunctional SNPs and the orthologous and paralogous genes. The residue tryptophan-92 of BrpHL1a was essential for direct interaction with GLABROUS3 and, thus, necessary for the formation of leaf hairs. The accessions with the functional SNP leading to substitution of the tryptophan-92 residue had hairless leaves. The orthologous BrcHL1b from B. rapa ssp. chinensis regulates hair formation on leaf margins rather than leaf surfaces. The selected SNP for the hairy phenotype could be adopted as a molecular marker for insect resistance in Brassica spp. crops. Moreover, the procedures optimized here can be used to explain the molecular mechanisms of natural variation and to facilitate the molecular breeding of many crops. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  5. Molecular evolution, characterization and expression analysis of SnRK2 gene family in Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinan eHuang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 family members are plant-specific serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA-dependent plant development. Further understanding of the evolutionary history and expression characteristics of these genes will help to elucidate the mechanisms of the stress tolerance in Pak-choi, an important green leafy vegetable in China. Thus, we investigated the evolutionary patterns, footprints and conservation of SnRK2 genes in selected plants and later cloned and analyzed SnRK2 genes in Pak-choi. We found that this gene family was preferentially retained in Brassicas after the Brassica-Arabidopsis thaliana split. Next, we cloned and sequenced 13 SnRK2 from both cDNA and DNA libraries of stress-induced Pak-choi, which were under conditions of ABA, salinity, cold, heat, and osmotic treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2s have eight exons and could be divided into three groups. The subcellular localization predictions suggested that the putative BcSnRK2 proteins were enriched in the nucleus. The results of an analysis of the expression patterns of the BcSnRK2 genes showed that BcSnRK2 group III genes were robustly induced by ABA treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2 genes were activated by low temperature, and the BcSnRK2.6 genes responded to both ABA and low temperature. In fact, most of the BcSnRK2 genes showed positive or negative regulation under ABA and low temperature treatments, suggesting that they may be global regulators that function at the intersection of multiple signaling pathways to play important roles in Pak-choi stress responses.

  6. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  7. Identification of SSR markers closely linked to the yellow seed coat color gene in heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanjing; Wu, Junqing; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Lingyu; Zhang, Lugang

    2017-02-15

    Research on the yellow-seeded variety of heading Chinese cabbage will aid in broadening its germplasm resources and lay a foundation for AA genome research in Brassica crops. Here, an F 2 segregating population of 1575 individuals was constructed from two inbred lines (brown-seeded '92S105' and yellow-seeded '91-125'). This population was used to identify the linkage molecular markers of the yellow seed coat trait using simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques combined with a bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Of the 144 SSR primer pairs on the A01-A10 chromosomes from the Brassica database (http://brassicadb.org/brad/), two pairs located on the A06 chromosome showed polymorphic bands between the bulk DNA pools of eight brown-seeded and eight yellow-seeded F 2 progeny. Based on the genome sequence, 454 SSR markers were designed to A06 to detect these polymorphic bands and were synthesized. Six SSR markers linked to the seed coat color gene were successfully selected for fine linkage genetic map construction, in which the two closest flanking markers, SSR449a and SSR317, mapped the Brsc-ye gene to a 40.2 kb region with distances of 0.07 and 0.06 cM, respectively. The molecular markers obtained in this report will assist in the marker-assisted selection and breeding of yellow-seeded lines in Brassica rapa L. and other close species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Identification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in pak choi varieties (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-ESI-MSn and NMR and their quantification by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Wolff, Christian; Herges, Rainer; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2007-10-03

    Twenty-eight polyphenols (11 flavonoid derivatives and 17 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) were detected in different cultivars of the Chinese cabbage pak choi ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n). Kaempferol was found to be the major flavonoid in pak choi, glycosylated and acylated with different compounds. Smaller amounts of isorhamnetin were also detected. A structural determination was carried out by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy for the main compound, kaempferol-3-O-hydroxyferuloylsophoroside-7-O-glucoside, for the first time. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were identified as different esters of quinic acid, glycosides, and malic acid. The latter ones are described for the first time in cabbages. The content of polyphenols was determined in 11 cultivars of pak choi, with higher concentrations present in the leaf blade than in the leaf stem. Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, particularly malic acid derivatives, are present in both the leaf blade and leaf stem, whereas flavonoid levels were determined only in the leaf blade.

  9. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-11

    Sep 11, 2015 ... researchers have been able to map the genes on B. oleracea ... pests, food flavourings, and benefits to human health, such as being an ...... 231 breast cancer cell motility and induces stress fibers and focal adhesion ...

  10. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed, both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26 co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7, seed weight (LOD 4.6, seed oil content (LOD 6.6, number of siliques (LOD 3 and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3. There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.

  11. Short-term salt stress in Brassica rapa seedlings causes alterations in auxin metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlović, I.; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Vujčić, V.; Radić Brkanac, S.; Lepeduš, H.; Strnad, Miroslav; Salopek-Sondi, B.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 125, APR (2018), s. 74-84 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06613S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin metabolism * Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis * Growth inhibition * Principal component analysis * Reactive oxygen species * Short-term salinity stress * Stress hormones Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  12. Cyclopentapeptides from Dianthus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Huang, Maobo; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Yuqing; Zeng, Guangzhi; He, Wenjun; Tan, Ninghua

    2015-07-01

    A new cyclopentapeptide dianthin I (1), together with two known ones pseudostellarin A (2) and heterophyllin J (3), was isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis. The structure of 1 was elucidated as cyclo-(Gly(1)-L-Phe(2)-L-Pro(3)-L-Ser(4)-L-Phe(5)) on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Molecular characterization of the CRa gene conferring clubroot resistance in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Etsuo; Aruga, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Satoshi; Matsumura, Hideo; Hayashida, Nobuaki

    2012-12-01

    Clubroot disease is one of the major diseases affecting Brassicaceae crops, and a number of these crops grown commercially, such as Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), are known to be highly susceptible to clubroot disease. To provide protection from this disease, plant breeders have introduced genes for resistance to clubroot from the European turnip into susceptible lines. The CRa gene confers specific resistance to the clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae isolate M85. Fine mapping of the CRa locus using synteny to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and partial genome sequences of B. rapa revealed a candidate gene encoding a TIR-NBS-LRR protein. Several structural differences in this candidate gene were found between susceptible and resistant lines, and CRa expression was observed only in the resistant line. Four mutant lines lacking clubroot resistance were obtained by the UV irradiation of pollen from a resistant line, and all of these mutant lines carried independent mutations in the candidate TIR-NBS-LRR gene. This genetic and molecular evidence strongly suggests that the identified gene is CRa. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of a clubroot Resistance gene in Brassicaceae and of the disease resistance gene in B. rapa.

  14. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Mark G; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Tapper, Brian A

    2014-07-30

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as "safe" feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicity (facial eczema). Sporadic acute severe cases of turnip photosensitization in dairy cows characteristically exhibit high γ-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase serum enzyme activities that mimic those seen in facial eczema. The two diseases can, however, be distinguished by histopathology of the liver, where lesions, in particular those affecting small bile ducts, differ. To date, the hepato-/cholangiotoxic phytochemical causing liver damage in turnip photosensitization in cattle is unknown. Of the hydrolysis products of the various glucosinolate secondary compounds found in high concentrations in turnip and rape, work has shown that nitriles and epithionitriles can be hepatotoxic (and nephro- or pancreatotoxic) in rats. These derivatives include β-hydroxy-thiiranepropanenitrile and 3-hydroxy-4-pentenenitrile from progoitrin; thiiranepropanenitrile and 4-pentenenitrile from gluconapin; thiiranebutanenitrile and 5-hexenenitrile from glucobrassicanapin; phenyl-3-propanenitrile from gluconasturtiin; and indole-3-acetonitrile from glucobrassicin. This perspective explores the possibility of the preferential formation of such derivatives, especially the epithionitriles, in acidic conditions in the bovine rumen, followed by absorption, hepatotoxicity, and secondary photosensitization.

  15. The SSP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovitz, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Describes a cure for the high school chemistry student with Second Semester Poisoning (SSP), the student disease of apathy which occurs in the spring. Remedy: an outdoor (preferably) demonstration of a series of controlled combustion experiments, with accompanying explanations of the chemistry involved. (MLH)

  16. Construction of chromosome segment substitution lines enables QTL mapping for flowering and morphological traits in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs represent a powerful method for precise quantitative trait loci (QTL detection of complex agronomical traits in plants. In this study, we used a marker-assisted backcrossing strategy to develop a population consisting of 63 CSSLs, derived from backcrossing of the F1 generated from a cross between two Brassica rapa subspecies: ‘Chiifu’ (ssp. pekinensis, the Brassica A genome-represented line used as the donor, and ‘49caixin’ (ssp. parachinensis, a non-heading cultivar used as the recipient. The 63 CSSLs covered 87.95% of the B. rapa genome. Among them, 39 lines carried a single segment; 15 lines, two segments; and nine lines, three or more segments of the donor parent chromosomes. To verify the potential advantage of these CSSL lines, we used them to locate QTL for six morphology-related traits. A total of 58 QTL were located on eight chromosomes for all six traits: 17 for flowering time, 14 each for bolting time and plant height, 6 for plant diameter, 2 for leaf width, and 5 for flowering stalk diameter. Co-localized QTL were mainly distributed on eight genomic regions in A01, A02, A05, A06, A08, A09, and A10, present in the corresponding CSSLs. Moreover, new chromosomal fragments that harbored QTL were identified using the findings of previous studies. The CSSL population constructed in our study paves the way for fine mapping and cloning of candidate genes involved in late bolting, flowering, and plant architecture-related traits in B. rapa. Furthermore, it has great potential for future marker-aided gene/QTL pyramiding of other interesting traits in B. rapa breeding.

  17. Genome-wide identification and role of MKK and MPK gene families in clubroot resistance of Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Yinglan; Jin, Kaining; He, Ying; Liu, Jiaxiu; Liu, Shuang; Li, Xiaonan; Piao, Zhongyun

    2018-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MPK) cascades play key roles in responses to various biotic stresses, as well as in plant growth and development. However, the responses of MPK and MPK kinase (MKK) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) to Plasmodiophora brassicae, a causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, are still not clear. In the present study, a total of 11 B. rapa MKK (BraMKK) and 30 BraMPK genes were identified and unevenly distributed in 6 and 10 chromosomes, respectively. The synteny analysis indicated that these genes experienced whole-genome triplication and segmental and tandem duplication during or after the divergence of B. rapa, accompanied by the loss of three MKK and two MPK orthologs of Arabidopsis. The BraMKK and BraMPK genes were classified into four groups with similar intron/exon structures and conserved motifs in each group. A quantitative PCR analysis showed that the majority of BraMKK and BraMPK genes were natively expressed in roots, hypocotyls, and leaves, whereas 5 BraMKK and 16 BraMPK genes up-regulated in the roots upon P. brassicae infection. Additionally, these 5 BraMKK and 16 BraMPK genes exhibited a significantly different expression pattern between a pair of clubroot-resistant/susceptible near-isogenic lines (NILs). Furthermore, the possible modules of MKK-MPK involved in B. rapa-P. brassicae interaction are also discussed. The present study will provide functional clues for further characterization of the MAPK cascades in B. rapa.

  18. Brassica rapa L. seed development in hypergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musgrave, M.E.; Kuang, A.; Allen, J.; Blasiak, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments had shown that microgravity adversely affected seed development in Brassica rapa L. We tested the hypothesis that gravity controls seed development via modulation of gases around the developing seeds, by studying how hypergravity affects the silique microenvironment and seed

  19. Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneid.: jojoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The Simmondsiaceae (jojoba family), has only 1 genus, Simmondsia, which consists of only 1 species, jojoba - S. chinensis (Link) Schneid. Once considered an isolated member of the box family (Buxaceae), jojoba is now regarded as sufficiently distinct to be placed in its own family. Jojoba is found from coastal and cis-montane southern California east to central Arizona...

  20. New dicyclopeptides from Dianthus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Yu-Qing; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; He, Wen-Jun; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2014-05-01

    One new dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-N-methyl Glu-L-N-methyl Glu) (1), together with one new natural dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-methyl Glu ester) (2), and two known dicyclopeptides cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-Glu) (3), and cyclo-(L-Glu-L-Glu) (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis L. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods.

  1. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  2. Regulation of Streptococcus gordonii sspB by the sspA Gene Product

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sabaeny, Azza; Demuth, Donald R.; Lamont, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii expresses two related adhesins, SspA and SspB, the genes for which are adjacent on the chromosome and are regulated independently. Although the adhesins are functionally similar, the sspA promoter is more active than that of sspB. In this study we show an additional role for SspA in the control of sspB activity. Gel shift and DNA footprinting assays demonstrate that the SspA protein binds to the sspB promoter and protects a region 233 to 264 bp upstream of the predicted...

  3. Unleashing the genome of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eTang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with Arabidopsis thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from Arabidopsis thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in Brassica rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved noncoding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each 'cookbook style' analysis includes a step-by-step walkthrough with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process.

  4. [Chemical constituents of Tamarix chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Peng, Xue-jing; Xia, Peng-fei; Duan, Wen-da

    2014-01-01

    To study the chemical consistuents of Tamarix chinensis. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic analysis. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as isotamarixen(1), matairesinol(2), tetepathine(3), kaempferol(4), 4'-methylkaempferol(5),4',7-dimethylkaempferol (6), hexacosyl-3-caffeate(7), ferulic acid(8) and 3-methoxyl methyl gallate(9). Compounds 1-3,7 and 8 are isolated from this plant for the first time, compounds 1-3,7 are isolated from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  5. Effects of Foliar Selenite on the Nutrient Components of Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We administered foliar applications of 50, 100, and 200 mg L−1 selenium (Se, selenite on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn. and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (IV significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (IV positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper. Se (IV treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (IV could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L−1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 μg person−1 day−1 and its favorable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  6. Effects of foliar selenite on the nutrient components of turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Li, Boqun; Yang, Yongping

    2018-03-01

    We administered foliar applications of 50, 100 and 200 mg L‑1 selenium (Se, selenite) on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.) and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (Ⅳ) significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (Ⅳ) positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese and copper. Se (Ⅳ) treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (Ⅳ) could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L‑1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 µg person‑1 day‑1) and its favourable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  7. Triterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [South Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Yang, Fang; Wang, Sha; Wang, Debin; Xu, Jing; Yang, Guangzhong [South Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2014-04-15

    The chemical constituents of S. chinensis were previously reported to contain nortriterpenoid saponins, neolignan glycosides, flavonoids. To find the biologically active compounds, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on the stem of S. chinensis, which resulted in isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, named as yemuo-side YM. Their structues were established on the basis of 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. In addition, eight known triterpene glycoside 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-30-norhederagenin, sinofoside A, yemuoside YM11, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranos yl-akebonic acid, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin, hederasaponin D and 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-hederagenin were isolated from this plant. Compounds and were isolated from thisplant for the first time.

  8. Triterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Fang; Wang, Sha; Wang, Debin; Xu, Jing; Yang, Guangzhong

    2014-01-01

    The chemical constituents of S. chinensis were previously reported to contain nortriterpenoid saponins, neolignan glycosides, flavonoids. To find the biologically active compounds, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on the stem of S. chinensis, which resulted in isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, named as yemuo-side YM. Their structues were established on the basis of 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. In addition, eight known triterpene glycoside 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-30-norhederagenin, sinofoside A, yemuoside YM11, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranos yl-akebonic acid, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin, hederasaponin D and 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-hederagenin were isolated from this plant. Compounds and were isolated from thisplant for the first time

  9. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa sucrose transporter gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants, sugars (mainly sucrose are produced by photosynthetically assimilated carbon in mesophyll cells of leaves and translocated to heterotrophic organs to ensure plant growth and development. Sucrose transporters, or sucrose carriers (SUCs, play an important role in the long-distance transportation of sucrose from source organs to sink organs, thereby affecting crop yield and quality. The identification, characterization, and molecular function analysis of sucrose transporter genes have been reported for monocot and dicot plants. However, no relevant study has been reported on sucrose transporter genes in Brassica rapa var. rapa, a cruciferous root crop used mainly as vegetables and fodder. We identified and cloned 12 sucrose transporter genes from turnips, named BrrSUC1.1 to BrrSUC6.2 according to the SUC gene sequences of B. rapa pekinensis. We constructed a phylogenetic tree and analyzed conserved motifs for all 12 sucrose transporter genes identified. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted to understand the expression levels of SUC genes in different tissues and developmental phases of the turnip. These findings add to our understanding of the genetics and physiology of sugar transport during taproot formation in turnips.

  10. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus thermotolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Gouesbet , Gwenola; Jan , Gwenaël; Boyaval , Patrick

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is a lactic acid bacterium widely used in the dairy food industry. Since the industrial processes are a succession of constraints, it is essential to understand the behaviour of L. bulgaricus when facing usual stresses. The influence of heat stress was investigated on the viability of L. bulgaricus cells grown in a chemically defined medium. The susceptibility of cells to heat-shock was obvious only above 55 $^{\\circ}$C. We inv...

  11. Brassia campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.var. utilis Tsen et Lee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omodibo

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... The pathogens were isolated by tissue segment method (Fang,. 1996) on potato ... Genomic DNA was extracted from a suspension culture of A. alter- nata by the cetyltrimethyl ... sample of orchid tissue. Biotechniques.

  12. Brassia campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.var. utilis Tsen et Lee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omodibo

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... On the basis of morphological and cultural features, the pathogen ... Alternaria isolate from Purple-Caitai showed 99% identity with other ITS sequences of .... Cho KH, Park SH, Kim KT, Kim S, Kim JS, Park BS, Woo JG, Lee HJ.

  13. Simmondsia chinensis - a plant with a future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppe, C

    1975-10-01

    S. chinensis could become a new crop plant for the semi-arid tropics. Its seeds produce a liquid wax which is similar to sperm whale oil. S. chinensis is a permanent, evergreen, dioecious bush, growing up to 3 m in height and developing a deep taproot. The seed weight ranges from 0.3 to 1.1 g, they contain 43 to 56% of the wax. Places of origin are the deserts of Southwest USA and Northwest Mexico. Presently only seeds from wild populations are collected. The establishment of plantations is possible. Economic crops can be expected about 10 years after planting.

  14. Self-stabilized pinch (SSP) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kiwamu; Hirano, Keiichi.

    1985-01-01

    Self-Stabilized pinch (SSP) consept is revealed. SSP providcs many attractive features for application to a fusion reactor. Design studies for high temperature plasma production are carried out. Use of adiabatic compression leads to a remarkable reduction of required power source. (author)

  15. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus: a chronicle of evolution in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kafsi, Hela; Binesse, Johan; Loux, Valentin; Buratti, Julien; Boudebbouze, Samira; Dervyn, Rozenn; Kennedy, Sean; Galleron, Nathalie; Quinquis, Benoît; Batto, Jean-Michel; Moumen, Bouziane; Maguin, Emmanuelle; van de Guchte, Maarten

    2014-05-28

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus are lactic acid producing bacteria that are largely used in dairy industries, notably in cheese-making and yogurt production. An earlier in-depth study of the first completely sequenced ssp. bulgaricus genome revealed the characteristics of a genome in an active phase of rapid evolution, in what appears to be an adaptation to the milk environment. Here we examine for the first time if the same conclusions apply to the ssp. lactis, and discuss intra- and inter-subspecies genomic diversity in the context of evolutionary adaptation. Both L. delbrueckii ssp. show the signs of reductive evolution through the elimination of superfluous genes, thereby limiting their carbohydrate metabolic capacities and amino acid biosynthesis potential. In the ssp. lactis this reductive evolution has gone less far than in the ssp. bulgaricus. Consequently, the ssp. lactis retained more extended carbohydrate metabolizing capabilities than the ssp. bulgaricus but, due to high intra-subspecies diversity, very few carbohydrate substrates, if any, allow a reliable distinction of the two ssp. We further show that one of the most important traits, lactose fermentation, of one of the economically most important dairy bacteria, L. delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus, relies on horizontally acquired rather than deep ancestral genes. In this sense this bacterium may thus be regarded as a natural GMO avant la lettre. The dairy lactic acid producing bacteria L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus appear to represent different points on the same evolutionary track of adaptation to the milk environment through the loss of superfluous functions and the acquisition of functions that allow an optimized utilization of milk resources, where the ssp. bulgaricus has progressed further away from the common ancestor.

  16. Isozyme variation in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic diversity analysis involving 49 lychee (Litchi chinensis SOM.) accessions using eight enzyme systems encoding 12 loci (Zdh-I, Zdh-2, Mdh-2, Per-l, Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Sk& Tpi-1, Tpi-2, Ugpp-1, and Ugpp-2) revealed moderate to high levels of genetic variability. Cluster analysis of the iso...

  17. Encapsulation of nodal segments of lobelia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hing Thong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobelia chinensis served as an important herb in traditional chinese medicine. It is rare in the field and infected by some pathogens. Therefore, encapsulation of axillary buds has been developed for in vitro propagation of L. chinensis. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were used as inclusion materials for encapsulation. Various combinations of calcium chloride and sodium alginate were tested. Encapsulation beads produced by mixing 50 mM calcium chloride and 3.5% sodium alginate supported the optimal in vitro conversion potential. The number of multiple shoots formed by encapsulated nodal segments was not significantly different from the average of shoots produced by non-encapsulated nodal segments. The encapsulated nodal segments regenerated in vitro on different medium. The optimal germination and regeneration medium was Murashige-Skoog medium. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated nodal segments were hardened, acclimatized and established well in the field, showing similar morphology with parent plants. This encapsulation technology would serve as an alternative in vitro regeneration system for L. chinensis.

  18. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wiscon...

  19. Respon Tiga Varietas Sawi (Brassica Rapa L.) Terhadap Cekaman Air

    OpenAIRE

    Moctava, Mohammad Aries; Koesriharti, Koesriharti; Maghfoer, Mochammad Dawam

    2013-01-01

    Kebutuhan air tanaman berbeda-beda tergantung pada jenis tanamannya. Ketersediaan air bagi tanaman yang tidak mencukupi akan mempengaruhi morfologi dan fisiologis sehingga pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman. Tujuan dari penelitian mendapatkan varietas sawi (Brassica rapa L.) yang tahan terhadap cekaman air. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Oktober sampai dengan Desember 2012. Tempat penelitian Kebun Percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Brawijaya, Desa Jatikerto, Kabupaten Malang.Penelitian menggunakan ...

  20. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  1. Technical Analysis of SSP-21 Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-09

    As part of the California Energy Systems for the Twenty-First Century (CES-21) program, in December 2016 San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform an independent verification and validation (IV&V) of a white paper describing their Secure SCADA Protocol for the Twenty-First Century (SSP-21) in order to analyze the effectiveness and propriety of cryptographic protocol use within the SSP-21 specification. SSP-21 is designed to use cryptographic protocols to provide (optional) encryption, authentication, and nonrepudiation, among other capabilities. The cryptographic protocols to be used reflect current industry standards; future versions of SSP-21 will use other advanced technologies to provide a subset of security services.

  2. Cultivar-Specific Changes in Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Pak Choi (Brassica Rapa, Chinensis Group by Methyl Jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Jung Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products and primary metabolites were analyzed in five pak choi cultivars to determine the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA on metabolite flux from primary metabolites to glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Among detected glucosinolates (total 14 glucosinolates; 9 aliphatic, 4 indole and 1 aromatic glucosinolates, indole glucosinolate concentrations (153–229% and their hydrolysis products increased with MeJA treatment. Changes in the total isothiocyanates by MeJA were associated with epithiospecifier protein activity estimated as nitrile formation. Goitrin, a goitrogenic compound, significantly decreased by MeJA treatment in all cultivars. Changes in glucosinolates, especially aliphatic, significantly differed among cultivars. Primary metabolites including amino acids, organic acids and sugars also changed with MeJA treatment in a cultivar-specific manner. A decreased sugar level suggests that they might be a carbon source for secondary metabolite biosynthesis in MeJA-treated pak choi. The result of the present study suggests that MeJA can be an effective agent to elevate indole glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products and to reduce a goitrogenic compound in pak choi. The total glucosinolate concentration was the highest in “Chinese cabbage” in the control group (32.5 µmol/g DW, but indole glucosinolates increased the greatest in “Asian” when treated with MeJA.

  3. Phenolic Compounds from Belamcanda chinensis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new sucrose derivatives, namely, belamcanosides A (1 and B (2, together with five other known compounds (3−7, were isolated from the seeds of Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC. Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic data. Especially, the absolute configurations of fructose and glucose residues in 1 and 2 were assigned by acid hydrolysis, followed by derivatization and gas chromatography (GC analysis. Among the known compounds, (−-hopeaphenol (3, (+-syringaresinol (4, and quercetin (5, were isolated from B. chinensis for the first time. In addition, biological evaluation of 1 and 2 against cholesterol synthesis and metabolism at the gene level was carried out. The results showed that compounds 1 and 2 could regulate the expression of cholesterol synthesis and metabolism-associated genes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR, squalene epoxidase (SQLE, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR, and sortilin (SORT1 genes in HepG2 cells.

  4. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts o...

  5. The impact of genome triplication on tandem gene evolution in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu eFang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome duplication (WGD and tandem duplication (TD are both important modes of gene expansion. However, how whole genome duplication influences tandemly duplicated genes is not well studied. We used Brassica rapa, which has undergone an additional genome triplication (WGT and shares a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata and Thellungiella parvula, to investigate the impact of genome triplication on tandem gene evolution. We identified 2,137, 1,569, 1,751 and 1,135 tandem gene arrays in B. rapa, A. thaliana, A. lyrata and T. parvula respectively. Among them, 414 conserved tandem arrays are shared by the 3 species without WGT, which were also considered as existing in the diploid ancestor of B. rapa. Thus, after genome triplication, B. rapa should have 1,242 tandem arrays according to the 414 conserved tandems. Here, we found 400 out of the 414 tandems had at least one syntenic ortholog in the genome of B. rapa. Furthermore, 294 out of the 400 shared syntenic orthologs maintain tandem arrays (more than one gene for each syntenic hit in B. rapa. For the 294 tandem arrays, we obtained 426 copies of syntenic paralogous tandems in the triplicated genome of B. rapa. In this study, we demonstrated that tandem arrays in B. rapa were dramatically fractionated after WGT when compared either to non-tandem genes in the B. rapa genome or to the tandem arrays in closely related species that have not experienced a recent whole-genome polyploidization event.

  6. Isolate dependency of Brassica rapa resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the B. rapa R500 x IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive glucosinolates are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen.

  7. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  8. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  9. [Study of quality control on Cuscuta chinensis and C. australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-bin; Lin, Jian-qun; Lu, Ning; Lin, Jian-qiang

    2007-11-01

    To study the estimate method of C. chinensis and C. australia. HPLC was used to determine the contents of four kinds of flavones of C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts. C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts both had hyperoside, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The content range of hyperoside was 2.790-6.502 mg/g and was higher than other flavones. The content ranges of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were 0.025-0.176 mg/g, 0.001-0.213 mg/g and 0.001-0.077 mg/g, respectively. The contents of hyperoside and quercetin are higher in C. chineasis than in C. australia. The contents of kaempferol and isorhamnetin are lower in C. chinensis than in C. australia. The hosts influence flavones content of C. chinensis and C. australia.

  10. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a...

  11. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating...... of Brassica oil and vegetable crops....

  12. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-01-01

    Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscusmanuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiiosciarapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered 'disturbance relicts' and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species.

  13. Genomic inferences of domestication events are corroborated by written records in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xinshuai; An, Hong; Ragsdale, Aaron P; Hall, Tara E; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Chris Pires, J; Barker, Michael S

    2017-07-01

    Demographic modelling is often used with population genomic data to infer the relationships and ages among populations. However, relatively few analyses are able to validate these inferences with independent data. Here, we leverage written records that describe distinct Brassica rapa crops to corroborate demographic models of domestication. Brassica rapa crops are renowned for their outstanding morphological diversity, but the relationships and order of domestication remain unclear. We generated genomewide SNPs from 126 accessions collected globally using high-throughput transcriptome data. Analyses of more than 31,000 SNPs across the B. rapa genome revealed evidence for five distinct genetic groups and supported a European-Central Asian origin of B. rapa crops. Our results supported the traditionally recognized South Asian and East Asian B. rapa groups with evidence that pak choi, Chinese cabbage and yellow sarson are likely monophyletic groups. In contrast, the oil-type B. rapa subsp. oleifera and brown sarson were polyphyletic. We also found no evidence to support the contention that rapini is the wild type or the earliest domesticated subspecies of B. rapa. Demographic analyses suggested that B. rapa was introduced to Asia 2,400-4,100 years ago, and that Chinese cabbage originated 1,200-2,100 years ago via admixture of pak choi and European-Central Asian B. rapa. We also inferred significantly different levels of founder effect among the B. rapa subspecies. Written records from antiquity that document these crops are consistent with these inferences. The concordance between our age estimates of domestication events with historical records provides unique support for our demographic inferences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage and mizuna), and intraspecific differentiation of cytoplasm in B. rapa and Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatono, Saki; Nishimura, Kaori; Murakami, Yoko; Tsujimura, Mai; Yamagishi, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome was determined for two cultivars of Brassica rapa . After determining the sequence of a Chinese cabbage variety, 'Oushou hakusai', the sequence of a mizuna variety, 'Chusei shiroguki sensuji kyomizuna', was mapped against the sequence of Chinese cabbage. The precise sequences where the two varieties demonstrated variation were ascertained by direct sequencing. It was found that the mitochondrial genomes of the two varieties are identical over 219,775 bp, with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the genomes. Because B. rapa is the maternal species of an amphidiploid crop species, Brassica juncea , the distribution of the SNP was observed both in B. rapa and B. juncea . While the mizuna type SNP was restricted mainly to cultivars of mizuna (japonica group) in B. rapa , the mizuna type was widely distributed in B. juncea . The finding that the two Brassica species have these SNP types in common suggests that the nucleotide substitution occurred in wild B. rapa before both mitotypes were domesticated. It was further inferred that the interspecific hybridization between B. rapa and B. nigra took place twice and resulted in the two mitotypes of cultivated B. juncea .

  15. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  16. Scirpus lacustrus L. ssp. flevensis Bakker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.

    1957-01-01

    De ssp. flavensis was tot voor kort alleen bekend van de IJselmeerkust ter hoogte van het Kampereiland en van Schokkerhaven in de Noordoostpolder. In de zomer van 1956 ontdekte ik de plant tevens op een eilandje in het Kadoelermeer hij Vollenhove en aan de rand van een matig voedselrijk veen tussen

  17. In vitro regeneration of 'Feizixiao' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    Different developmental stages of SEs were obtained from the callus on MS ... methods. Key words: litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), anther culture, callus, regeneration, somatic embryogenesis. ...... Induction and maintenance of the embryogenic.

  18. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals--epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of genic male sterility-related genes in Brassica rapa using a newly developed Br300K oligomeric chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available To identify genes associated with genic male sterility (GMS that could be useful for hybrid breeding in Chinese cabbage (Brassicarapa ssp. pekinensis, floral bud transcriptome analysis was carried out using a B. rapa microarray with 300,000 probes (Br300K. Among 47,548 clones deposited on a Br300K microarray with seven probes of 60 nt length within the 3' 150 bp region, a total of 10,622 genes were differentially expressed between fertile and sterile floral buds; 4,774 and 5,848 genes were up-regulated over 2-fold in fertile and sterile buds, respectively. However, the expression of 1,413 and 199 genes showed fertile and sterile bud-specific features, respectively. Genes expressed specifically in fertile buds, possibly GMS-related genes, included homologs of several Arabidopsis male sterility-related genes, genes associated with the cell wall and synthesis of its surface proteins, pollen wall and coat components, signaling components, and nutrient supplies. However, most early genes for pollen development, genes for primexine and callose formation, and genes for pollen maturation and anther dehiscence showed no difference in expression between fertile and sterile buds. Some of the known genes associated with Arabidopsis pollen development showed similar expression patterns to those seen in this study, while others did not. BrbHLH89 and BrMYP99 are putative GMS genes. Additionally, 17 novel genes identified only in B. rapa were specifically and highly expressed only in fertile buds, implying the possible involvement in male fertility. All data suggest that Chinese cabbage GMS might be controlled by genes acting in post-meiotic tapetal development that are different from those known to be associated with Arabidopsis male sterility.

  20. Chloroplast genomes of Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea: Structures and comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-08-08

    We investigated the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of non-model Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea using Illumina paired-end sequencing to understand their genetic organization and structure. Detailed bioinformatics analysis revealed genome sizes of both subspecies ranging between 154.4~154.5 kbp, with a large single-copy region (84,197~84,158 bp), a small single-copy region (17,738~17,813 bp) and pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 26,264~26,259 bp). Both cp genomes encode 130 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 transfer RNA genes. Whole cp genome comparison of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, along with ten other Arabidopsis species, showed an overall high degree of sequence similarity, with divergence among some intergenic spacers. The location and distribution of repeat sequences were determined, and sequence divergences of shared genes were calculated among related species. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the entire genomic data set and 70 shared genes between both cp genomes confirmed the previous phylogeny and generated phylogenetic trees with the same topologies. The sister species of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera is A. umezawana, whereas the closest relative of A. lyrata spp. petraea is A. arenicola.

  1. Mortality risk from entomopathogenic fungi affects oviposition behavior in the parasitoid wasp Trybliographa rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rännbäck, Linda-Marie; Cotes, Belen; Anderson, Peter; Rämert, Birgitta; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of pests in agroecosystems could be enhanced by combining multiple natural enemies. However, this approach might also compromise the control efficacy through intraguild predation (IGP) among the natural enemies. Parasitoids may be able to avoid the risk of unidirectional IGP posed by entomopathogenic fungi through selective oviposition behavior during host foraging. Trybliographa rapae is a larval parasitoid of the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of D. radicum and T. rapae to two species of generalist entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium brunneum isolate KVL 04-57 and Beauveria bassiana isolate KVL 03-90. Furthermore, T. rapae oviposition behavior was assessed in the presence of these entomopathogenic fungi either as infected hosts or as infective propagules in the environment. Both fungi were pathogenic to D. radicum larvae and T. rapae adults, but with variable virulence. When host patches were inoculated with M. brunneum conidia in a no-choice situation, more eggs were laid by T. rapae in hosts of those patches compared to control and B. bassiana treated patches. Females that later succumbed to mycosis from either fungus laid significantly more eggs than non-mycosed females, indicating that resources were allocated to increased oviposition due to perceived decreased life expectancy. When presented with a choice between healthy and fungal infected hosts, T. rapae females laid more eggs in healthy larvae than in M. brunneum infected larvae. This was less pronounced for B. bassiana. Based on our results we propose that T. rapae can perceive and react towards IGP risk posed by M. brunneum but not B. bassiana to the foraging female herself and her offspring. Thus, M. brunneum has the potential to be used for biological control against D. radicum with a limited risk to T. rapae populations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Profiling Analysis of Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Genes in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pectin methylesterase inhibitor genes (PMEIs are a large multigene family and play crucial roles in cell wall modifications in plant growth and development. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the PMEI gene family in Brassica campestris, an important leaf vegetable, was performed. We identified 100 Brassica campestris PMEI genes (BcPMEIs, among which 96 BcPMEIs were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes and nine tandem arrays containing 20 BcPMEIs were found. We also detected 80 pairs of syntenic PMEI orthologs. These findings indicated that whole-genome triplication (WGT and tandem duplication (TD were the main mechanisms accounting for the current number of BcPMEIs. In evolution, BcPMEIs were retained preferentially and biasedly, consistent with the gene balance hypothesis and two-step theory, respectively. The molecular evolution analysis of BcPMEIs manifested that they evolved through purifying selection and the divergence time is in accordance with the WGT data of B. campestris. To obtain the functional information of BcPMEIs, the expression patterns in five tissues and the cis-elements distributed in promoter regions were investigated. This work can provide a better understanding of the molecular evolution and biological function of PMEIs in B. campestris.

  3. Effects of irradiation treatment on shoot regeneration and transformation frequency of chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris SSP. Chinensis L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhengqi; Cui Hairui

    2003-01-01

    Cotyledons with petiole were cultured on MS basic medium containing 5 mg/L BA, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 5 mg/L AgNO 3 , and produced adventitious buds with higher frequency. Induction frequency of adventitious buds could be increased by irradiation treatment of γ-rays with the lower dose of 1-2.5 Gy to seedlings and explants in culture, but decreased dramatically when the dose was higher than 10 Gy. Irradiation treatment in co-culture with lower dose of 1-7.5 Gy also promote transient expression frequency of gus gene, while irradiation treatment in pre-culture did not show obvious effect on transient expression of gus gene

  4. Potassium nutrition on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburto-González, C.A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn is a potential alternative crop for areas with subtropical climate. In Mexico, cv. ‘Brewster’ dominates 98 % in terms of established surface; however, it has many problems to maintain stable production through its production cycles. Worldwide, yield per hectare ranges from 1 to 15 t. In Mexico, yields also fluctuate in that range. Researches who have worked with it agree that much of the problem that leads to low yields is the lack of a proper nutrition program. All existing information regarding the fertilization of this crop has been generated in other countries, mainly India, USA and Australia. Its need for K+ is higher compared to N and P. Since K+ is a nutrient that has an impact on yield and fruit quality, this paper review focuses on studies that have been done on potassium nutrition on lychee and concludes that more research is needed to take correct decision about the amount and time for potassium application.

  5. Antihypertensive effect of extracts from Crateva adansonii DC.ssp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crateva adansonii DC.ssp. adansonii (CA) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases including hypertension. The main objective of ... All rights reserved. Keywords: Crateva adansonii DC.ssp. adansonii, medicinal plant, L-NAME, high blood pressure, Wistar rat, liquid-liquid chromatography ...

  6. Aryltetralin lignans from Linum mucronatum Bertol. ssp mucronatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Konuklugil, B; Evren, H

    2005-01-01

    The dried and aerial part of Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum was analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two aryltetralin lignans, podophylloyoxin, 6-methoxypodophylloyoxin, and P-peltatin, were identified. This is the first report of the analysis of L. mucronatum ssp. mucronatum.

  7. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of five endemic cave-restricted species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Ernest C; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-04-24

    Eight species of Collembola are reported from recent collections made in caves on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Five of these species are new to science and apparently endemic to the island: Coecobrya aitorererere n. sp., Cyphoderus manuneru n. sp., Entomobrya manuhoko n. sp., Pseudosinella hahoteana n. sp. and Seira manukio n. sp. The Hawaiian species Lepidocyrtus olena Christiansen & Bellinger and the cosmopolitan species Folsomia candida Willem also were collected from one or more caves. Coecobrya kennethi Jordana & Baquero, recently described from Rapa Nui and identified as endemic, was collected in sympatric association with C. aitorererere n.sp. With the exception of F. candida, all species are endemic to Rapa Nui or greater Polynesia and appear to be restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A key is provided to separate Collembola species reported from Rapa Nui. We provide recommendations to aid in the conservation and management of these new Collembola, as well as the other presumed cave-restricted arthropods.

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Brassica rapa var. peruviridis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Brassica rapa var. peruviridis 名詞... 一般 * * * * コマツナ コマツナ コマツナ Thesaurus2015 200906099324987960 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Brassica rapa var . peruviridis

  9. THE ELUCIDATION OF STRESS MEMORY INHERITANCE IN BRASSICA RAPA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy eBilichak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are able to maintain the memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and faithfully propagate it into the next generation. Recent evidence argues for the epigenetic nature of this phenomenon. Small RNAs (smRNAs are one of the vital epigenetic factors because they can both affect gene expression at the place of their generation and maintain non-cell-autonomous gene regulation. Here, we have made an attempt to decipher the contribution of smRNAs to the heat-shock-induced transgenerational inheritance in Brassica rapa plants using sequencing technology. To do this, we have generated comprehensive profiles of a transcriptome and a small RNAome (smRNAome from somatic and reproductive tissues of stressed plants and their untreated progeny. We have demonstrated that the highest tissue-specific alterations in the transcriptome and smRNAome profile are detected in tissues that were not directly exposed to stress, namely, in the endosperm and pollen. Importantly, we have revealed that the progeny of stressed plants exhibit the highest fluctuations at the smRNAome level but not at the transcriptome level. Additionally, we have uncovered the existence of heat-inducible and transgenerationally transmitted tRNA-derived small RNA fragments in plants. Finally, we suggest that miR168 and braAGO1 are involved in the stress-induced transgenerational inheritance in plants.

  10. Rapa Nui: Tradition, modernity and alterglobalization in intercultural education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Molina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research are described, analyze and compare the manifestations of the intercultural education in a difficult situation as it is Rapa Nui Island (Easter Island, traditionally isolated, in the “navel of the world” (Te pito o Te Henua, but “discovered” and assimilated by the western people and recoveredfor the intercultural idea that it surpasses this assimilation and/or global homogenization, in a alterglobalization context. We have analyzed four depth interviews and two biographical stories (lifehistories, dividing of the hypothesis of the necessity of a clear link between interculturality and education, to rethink the identity and the cultural continuity of their citizens. The obtained results suggest them programs of immersion in the school are not sufficient if they do not go accompanied of a holistic institutional work in the diverse scopes: cultural, educative, economic, environmental politician, leisure, etc. The construction of the identity sends again to individual and collective scopes, with the participation of the subject and the community. In this sense, intergenerational solidarity plays a fundamental role.

  11. Tamarix chinensis Lour.: saltcedar or five-stamen tamarisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    Saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis (Lour.)) and smallflower tamarisk (T. parviflora DC.) hybridize in the Southwest (Baum 1967; Horton and Campbell 1974) and are deciduous, pentamerous tamarisks that are both commonly referred to as saltcedar. Saltcedar is a native of Eurasia that has naturalized in the southwestern United States within the last century. It was introduced...

  12. Effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Schisandraceae seed extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary beneficial compounds in S. chinensis are the lignins ... important roles in the adaptive immune response. [8]. Lignins stimulate the production of cytokines, ... routinely used to evaluate drug actions, tumor .... on carcinogen metabolism systems in mouse liver. Food ... action and serum bile acid concentration in.

  13. In vitro regeneration of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In vitro plantlet regeneration in the main commercial variety of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv Tai So) in Mauritius was achieved from callus cultures derived from young, tender leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Callogenesis was obtained in all media supplemented with auxin, but was most prominent ...

  14. DNA methylation alteration is a major consequence of genome doubling in autotetraploid Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yanhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyploids are typically classified as autopolyploids or allopolyploids based on the origin of their chromosome sets. Autopolyploidy is much more common than traditionally believed. Allopolyploidization, accompanied by genomic and transcriptomic changes, has been well investigated. In this study, genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression changes in autotetraploid Brassica rapa were investigated. No genetic alteration was detected using an amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP approach. Using a cDNA-AFLP approach, approximately 0.58% of fragments showed changes in gene expression in autotetraploid B. rapa. The methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP analysis showed that approximately 1.7% of the fragments underwent DNA methylation changes upon genome doubling, with hypermethylation and demethylation changes equally affected. Fragments displaying changes in gene expression and methylation status were isolated and then sequenced and characterized, respectively. This study showed that variation in cytosine methylation is a major consequence of genome doubling in autotetraploid Brassica rapa.

  15. BIOACTIVITIES AND MECHANISM OF SPIRO ENOL ETHER ANALOGUES AGAINST PIERIS RAPAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xiangZhang; Dong-meiCheng; Han-hongXu; Yu-linWu; andJun-faFan

    2004-01-01

    Nineteen kinds of spiro enol ether analogues were screened with larvae of Pieris rapae for antifeedant activity. The results showed that the antifeedant activity of compounds No.20 and No.12 was higher than others. In non-choice test, AFC50 values within 24 h of compounds No.20 and No.12 against 3rd instar larvae of P. rapae were 226.93ug/mL and 370.00ug/mL, and that in choice test against 4th larvae were 280.54 ug/mL and 398.88 ug/mL, respectively. Compd. No.20 could prolong the eggs hatch time and reduce the haemolymph content and the protein content in haemolymph of 4th instar larvae obviously. Compd. No.20 could protect tested leaves and control larvae of P. rapae effectively.

  16. Antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Chen, Qianfeng; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Guolin

    2011-05-17

    The seeds of Cuscuta chinensis (Tu-Si-Zi, TSZ) have long been used for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and some Asian countries. The compounds in TSZ responsible for the antiosteoporotic activity are still poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the osteogenic compounds in TSZ, and to evaluate their antiosteoporotic effects in osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells were used for bioactivity-guided isolation of the active compounds. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in UMR-106 cells was measured by p-nitrophenyl sodium phosphate assay. The proliferation of UMR-106 cells was assayed by Alamar-Blue method. Estrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by activation of estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 5×ERE luciferase reporter plasmid. Antiestrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated by activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 6×AP-1 luciferase reporter plasmid. ALP-guided fractionation led to the isolation of five known flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, hyperoside and astragalin from the crude ethanolic extract of TSZ. Further study showed that kaempferol and hyperoside significantly increased the ALP activity in UMR-106 cells. Astragalin promoted the proliferation of UMR-106 cells whereas other compounds had no such effect. The isolated compounds showed estrogenic activity but quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin showed more potent ERβ agonist activity. However, compared with their ER agonist activity, only quercetin and kaempferol showed potent ER antagonist activity by activating ERα/β-mediated AP-1 reporter expression. Our findings validated the clinical use of TSZ in

  17. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Its Evolutionary History

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Deng, Cao; Fan, Gang; Qin, Shishang

    2017-01-01

    The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C. chinensis are poly-A/T. The numbers of mononucleotide SSRs in C. chinensis and other Ranunculaceae species are fewer than those in Berberidaceae species, while the number of dinucleotide SSRs is greater than that in the Berberidaceae. C. chinensis diverged from other Ranunculaceae species an estimated 81 million years ago (Mya). The divergence between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae was ~111 Mya, while the Ranunculales and Magnoliaceae shared a common ancestor during the Jurassic, ~153 Mya. Position 104 of the C. chinensis ndhG protein was identified as a positively selected site, indicating possible selection for the photosystem-chlororespiration system in C. chinensis. In summary, the complete sequencing and annotation of the C. chinensis chloroplast genome will facilitate future studies on this important medicinal species. PMID:28698879

  18. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Its Evolutionary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C. chinensis are poly-A/T. The numbers of mononucleotide SSRs in C. chinensis and other Ranunculaceae species are fewer than those in Berberidaceae species, while the number of dinucleotide SSRs is greater than that in the Berberidaceae. C. chinensis diverged from other Ranunculaceae species an estimated 81 million years ago (Mya. The divergence between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae was ~111 Mya, while the Ranunculales and Magnoliaceae shared a common ancestor during the Jurassic, ~153 Mya. Position 104 of the C. chinensis ndhG protein was identified as a positively selected site, indicating possible selection for the photosystem-chlororespiration system in C. chinensis. In summary, the complete sequencing and annotation of the C. chinensis chloroplast genome will facilitate future studies on this important medicinal species.

  19. Enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Rooting of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se os efeitos de auxilias exógenas e ácido bórico, no enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As estacas foram uniformizadas, com 25 cm de comprimento e 4 folhas cortadas pela metade. Cerca de 2,5 cm da base das mesmas foi mergulhado nos tratamentos: H2O; Boro 150 µg/ml; IBA 5.000 ppm, IBA 2.000 ppm; IBA 5.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; IBA 2.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; NAA 3.000 ppm; NAA 1.500 ppm; NAA 3.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; NAA 1.500 ppm + Boro 150 µ/g/ml. A estaquia foi realizada no mês de setembro (Hemisfério sul, sendo que as estacas foram colocadas em bandejas de isopor, tendo como substrato vermiculita e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o IBA 5.000 ppm por 1 minuto foi o tratamento mais efetivo, proporcionando 83,33% de estacas enraizadas em 120 dias, enquanto o tratamento testemunha (H2O, apresentou somente 16,67% de estacas enraizadas.The effects of exogen auxins and boric add were studied on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings. Cuttings were standardized to twenty-five cm length, with four leaves, cut in half. The bases of the cuttings were dipped of 2,5 cm in water solutions, resulting in the following treatments: H2O; Boron 150 µg/ml; IBA 5,000 ppm; IBA 2,000 ppm; IBA 5,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; IBA 2,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; NAA 3,000 ppm; NAA 1,500 ppm; NAA 3,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; NAA 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml. Cutting was performed in September (southern hemisphere and the cuttings were place in styrofoam trays, using vermiculite as substratum and kept under intermittent mist It was concluded that 5,000 ppm IBA for one minute was the best treatment to improve rooting (83,33%, while the control (H2O showed only 16,67% of rooted cuttings.

  20. School Teams up for SSP Functional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, G.; Lallemand, R.; Celeste, A.; von Muldau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now. Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS-2000 concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions. There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December 2001, the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year 2002- 2003, when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment. The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator. The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for

  1. Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, H.; Soda, El M.; Kim, H.K.; Fritsche, S.; Jung, C.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs)

  2. Population structure and phylogenetic relationships in a diverse panel of Brassica rapa L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The crop species Brassica rapa L. has significant economic importance around the globe. Crop domestication and improvement has resulted in extreme phenotypic diversity and subspecies that are used for oilseed, food for human consumption and fodder for livestock. However, the global distribution and ...

  3. Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: a case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Naja Steen; Poulsen, Gert; Andersen, Bente Anni

    2009-01-01

    When planning optimal conservation strategies for wild and cultivated types of a plant species, a number of influencing biological and environmental factors should be considered from the outset. In the present study Brassica rapa was used to illustrate this: to develop Scandinavian conservation...

  4. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can greatly affect infochemicals with ecological consequences for higher trophic levels. Here we investigated how the presence of a plant pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa affects 1) plant volatiles emitted in r...

  5. Quantitative trait loci analysis of phytate and phosphate concentrations in seeds and leaves of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Jamar, D.C.L.; Lou, P.; Wang, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, X.; Bonnema, A.B.; Koornneef, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2008-01-01

    Phytate, being the major storage form of phosphorus in plants, is considered to be an anti-nutritional substance for human, because of its ability to complex essential micronutrients. In the present study, we describe the genetic analysis of phytate and phosphate concentrations in Brassica rapa

  6. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa : insight into the glucosinolate pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino Del Carpio, Dunia; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Arends, Danny; Lin, Ke; De Vos, Ric C H; Muth, Dorota; Kodde, Jan; Boutilier, Kim; Bucher, Johan; Wang, Xiaowu; Jansen, Ritsert; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical

  7. Metabolic profiling of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in a germplasm collection of Brassica rapa turnips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopsch, Rebecca; Witzel, Katja; Börner, Andreas; Schreiner, Monika; Hanschen, Franziska S

    2017-10-01

    About 10% of the world's vegetable production is generated from Brassicaceae, wherein Brassica rapa is a dominating species. There is growing evidence that glucosinolates (GLSs), main plant secondary metabolites in Brassicales, play an important role in promoting human health. Natural genetic diversity of B. rapa can be explored for vegetable improvement. We analyzed leaves and tubers of 16 B. rapa turnips for their GLS composition by UHPLC-DAD and the corresponding hydrolysis products by GC-MS. Thirteen GLSs were identified, 8 aliphatic, 4 indolic and one aromatic. 3-Butenyl GLS was prevailing in both plant organs while in tubers 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl GLS and 2-phenylethyl GLS occurred in high amounts. A total of 24 GLS breakdown products were detected in tubers and 16 in leaves. Epithionitriles were the main hydrolysis products in both plant organs with 4,5-epithiopentanenitrile and 3-hydroxy-4,5-epithiopentanenitrile being the main compounds. When comparing leaves and tubers, an accumulation of GLSs and their breakdown products was observed in tubers compared to leaves. Our analysis achieved the comprehensive profiling of all GLS metabolites in a collection of B. rapa turnips, underlining the natural variation not only of intact GLS, but also of their breakdown products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural tissue engineering scaffold with sustained RAPA release relieves neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tan; Zhu, Chao; Kou, Zhen-Zhen; Yin, Jun-Bin; Zhang, Ting; Lu, Ya-Cheng; Wang, Li-Ying; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Li, Yun-Qing

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of locally slow-released rapamycin (RAPA) from bionic peripheral nerve stent to reduce the incidence of neuropathic pain or mitigate the degree of pain after nerve injury. We constructed a neural tissue engineering scaffold with sustained release of RAPA to repair 20mm defects in rat sciatic nerves. Four presurgical and postsurgical time windows were selected to monitor the changes in the expression of pain-related dorsal root ganglion (DRG) voltage-gated sodium channels 1.3 (Nav1.3), 1.7 (Nav1.7), and 1.8 (Nav1.8) through immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western Blot, along with the observation of postsurgical pathological pain in rats by pain-related behavior approaches. Relatively small upregulation of DRG sodium channels was observed in the experimental group (RAPA+poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)+stent) after surgery, along with low degrees of neuropathic pain and anxiety, which were similar to those in the Autologous nerve graft group. Autoimmune inflammatory response plays a leading role in the occurrence of post-traumatic neuropathic pain, and that RAPA significantly inhibits the abnormal upregulation of sodium channels to reduce pain by alleviating inflammatory response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Adjusts Reproductive Strategy When Competing for Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rashmi; Minor, Maria A

    2017-06-01

    Parasitoid fitness depends on its ability to manipulate reproductive strategies when in competition. This study investigated the parasitism and sex allocation strategies of the parasitic wasp Diaeretiella rapae McIntosh at a range of host (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) and conspecific densities. The results suggest that D. rapae females adjust their progeny production and progeny sex ratio with changing competition. When foraging alone, female D. rapae parasitize larger number of B. brassicae nymphs when the number of available hosts is increased, but the overall proportion of parasitized hosts decreases with increase in host density. The proportion of female offspring also decreases with elevated host density. Increase in the number of female D. rapae foraging together increased total parasitism, but reduced relative contribution of each individual female. The number of female progeny decreased when multiple females competed for the same host. However, foraging experience in the presence of one or more conspecifics increased the parasitism rate and proportion of female progeny. Competing females were more active during oviposition and had shorter lives. The study suggests that both host and foundress (female parasitoid) densities have significant effect on progeny production, sex allocation, and longevity of foraging females. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivities of the Small White butterfly Pieris rapae crucivora interpreted with optical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

    The compound eye of the Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, has four classes of visual pigments, with peak absorption in the ultraviolet, violet, blue and green, but electrophysiological recordings yielded eight photoreceptors classes: an ultraviolet, violet, blue, double-peaked blue,

  11. Sexual dimorphism of short-wavelength photoreceptors in the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikawa, K; Wakakuwa, M; Qiu, XD; Kurasawa, M; Stavenga, DG; Qiu, Xudong

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of the female small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, are furnished with three classes of short-wavelength photoreceptors, with sensitivity peaks in the ultraviolet (UV) (lambda(max) = 360 nm), violet (V) (lambda max = 425 nm), and blue (B) (lambda(max) = 453 nm) wavelength range.

  12. Sexual dichroism and pigment localization in the wing scales of Pieris rapae butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M. A.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    The beads in the wing scales of pierid butterflies play a crucially important role in wing coloration as shown by spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The beads contain pterin pigments, which in Pieris rapae absorb predominantly in the ultraviolet (UV). SEM demonstrates that in

  13. [Reason for dormancy of Cuscuta chinensis seed and solving method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemin; He, Jiaqing; Cai, Jing; Dong, Zhenguo

    2010-02-01

    To study the reason for the deep dormancy of the aged Cuscuta chinensis seed and find the solving method. The separated and combined treatments were applied in the orthogonal designed experiments. The aged seed had well water-absorbency; the water and ethanol extracts of the seeds showed an inhibition effect on germination capacity of the seeds. The main reason for the deep dormancy of aged C. chinensis seed is the inhibitors existed in seed. There are two methods to solve the problem. The seeds is immersed in 98% of H2SO4 for 2 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 60 min, or in 100 mg x L(-1) of NaOH for 20 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 120 min.

  14. Coptis chinensis Polysaccharides Inhibit Advanced Glycation End Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Li, Yun; Yin, Dengke; Chen, Song; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-06-01

    Coptis chinensis Franch (Huanglian) is commonly used to treat diabetes in China. In this study, the effects of the C. chinensis Franch polysaccharides (CCP) on advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were investigated. CCP significantly inhibited all the three periods of nonenzymatic protein glycation in vitro, including Amadori product, dicarbonyl compound, and AGE formation (P < .01). In diabetic mice, the administration of CCP not only improved both bodyweight and serum insulin and decreased fasting blood glucose and glycated serum protein concentrations but also decreased the AGE accumulations and morphological abnormalities in pancreas and liver. The inhibitory effects of CCP on AGE formation afford a potential therapeutic use in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  15. [Determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yuan-yan; Tong, Yan; Li, Xian-duan; Feng, Xue-feng; Huang, Lu-qi; Zhou, Guo-ping

    2004-11-01

    To establish a quantitative method of determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis. The sample was extracted with 95% ethanol, ODS column was used with methanol-water-acetic acid (60:40:2) as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was set at 274 nm. The linearities of carvacrol and thymol were respectively in the range of 0.23-2.15 microg (r = 0.9999) and 0.39-2.36 microg (r = 0.9999); the average recoveries were 99.9% (RSD 1.4%) and 98.6% (RSD 1.3%); the RSD of repeatability were 1.1% and 1.6%. The method is reliable, and can be used for quality control of M. chinensis.

  16. Transcriptomic Response of Chinese Yew (Taxus chinensis to Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxus chinensis is a rare and endangered shrub, highly sensitive to temperature changes and widely known for its potential in cancer treatment. How gene expression of T. chinensis responds to low temperature is still unknown. To investigate cold response of the genus Taxus, we obtained the transcriptome profiles of T. chinensis grown under normal and low temperature (cold stress, 0°C conditions using Illumina Miseq sequencing. A transcriptome including 83,963 transcripts and 62,654 genes were assembled from 4.16 Gb of reads data. Comparative transcriptomic analysis identified 2,025 differently expressed (DE isoforms at p < 0.05, of which 1,437 were up-regulated by cold stress and 588 were down-regulated. Annotation of DE isoforms indicated that transcription factors (TFs in the MAPK signaling pathway and TF families of NAC, WRKY, bZIP, MYB, and ERF were transcriptionally activated. This might have been caused by the accumulation of secondary messengers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS and Ca2+. While accumulation of ROS will have caused damages to cells, our results indicated that to adapt to low temperatures T. chinensis employed a series of mechanisms to minimize these damages. The mechanisms included: (i cold-enhanced expression of ROS deoxidant systems, such as peroxidase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, to remove ROS. This was further confirmed by analyses showing increased activity of POD, SOD, and CAT under cold stress. (ii Activation of starch and sucrose metabolism, thiamine metabolism, and purine metabolism by cold-stress to produce metabolites which either protect cell organelles or lower the ROS content in cells. These processes are regulated by ROS signaling, as the “feedback” toward ROS accumulation.

  17. Distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin in Fenneropenaeus chinensis larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin (NFLX) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis ovary and egg and newly hatched larvae. Mature parental shrimp were exposed to 4 or 10 mg L-1 NFLX for 2 or 5 d. Ovary and eggs of the shrimp were sampled after spawning in order to detect NFLX residue using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that NFLX residue accumulated in F. chinensis eggs after the parental exposure, with the highest residue detected in ovary. To examine the fate of NFLX residue in larvae, we further determined the concentration of NFLX residue in F. chinensis eggs and larvae at 4 different developmental stages after 24-h exposure. From the newly metamorphosed larvae (0 h post-metamorphosis, h.p.m), samples were taken at different time intervals to 72 h.p.m. HPLC assay showed that the concentrations of NFLX residue in zoea exposed to 4 and 10 mg L-1 NFLX were the highest at 1.5 h, i.e., 0.332 and 0.454 μg g-1, respectively. At the two NFLX exposure levels, the elimination time of half NFLX (half life) in nauplius was 45.36 and 49.85 h, respectively, followed by that in zoea (31.68 and 33.13 h), mysis larvae (42.24 and 47.28 h) and postlarvae (24.48 and 30.96 h). Both NFLX exposure levels had a germicidal effect. The distribution and elimination of NFLX residue in F. chinensis tissue, eggs and larvae correlated well with the drug exposure level. The disappearance of NFLX residue coincided with the larval growth, and the half-life of NFLX decreased with the larval development.

  18. Identification of novel QTLs for isolate-specific partial resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease of the Brassica crops, is widespread in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs for partial resistance to 4 different isolates of P. brassicae (Pb2, Pb4, Pb7, and Pb10 were investigated using a BC1F1 population from a cross between two subspecies of Brassica rapa, i.e. Chinese cabbage inbred line C59-1 as a susceptible recurrent parent and turnip inbred line ECD04 as a resistant donor parent. The BC1F2 families were assessed for resistance under controlled conditions. A linkage map constructed with simple sequence repeats (SSR, unigene-derived microsatellite (UGMS markers, and specific markers linked to published clubroot resistance (CR genes of B. rapa was used to perform QTL mapping. A total of 6 QTLs residing in 5 CR QTL regions of the B. rapa chromosomes A01, A03, and A08 were identified to account for 12.2 to 35.2% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTL regions were found to be novel except for 3 QTLs in the respective regions of previously identified Crr1, Crr2, and Crr3. QTL mapping results indicated that 1 QTL region was common for partial resistance to the 2 isolates of Pb2 and Pb7, whereas the others were specific for each isolate. Additionally, synteny analysis between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that all CR QTL regions were aligned to a single conserved crucifer blocks (U, F, and R on 3 Arabidopsis chromosomes where 2 CR QTLs were detected in A. thaliana. These results suggest that some common ancestral genomic regions were involved in the evolution of CR genes in B. rapa.

  19. The SSP4: A world of deepening inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; Eom, Jiyong; Hartin, Corinne; Kim, Sonny; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Moss, Richard; McJeon, Haewon; Patel, Pralit; Smith, Steve; Waldhoff, Stephanie; Wise, Marshall

    2017-01-01

    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 4 (SSP4), “Inequality” or “A Road Divided,” is one of the five SSPs developed to guide the creation of new scenarios for the “Parallel Process”. We describe, in quantitative terms, the SSP4 as implemented by the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), the marker model for this scenario. We use demographic and economic assumptions, in combination with technology and non-climate policy assumptions to develop a quantitative representation of energy, land-use and land-cover that are consistent with the SSP4 storyline. The resulting scenario is one with stark differences across regions. High-income regions prosper, continuing to increase their demand for energy and food. Electrification increases in these regions, with the increased generation being met by nuclear and renewables. Low-income regions, however, stagnate due to limited growth in income. These regions continue to depend on traditional biofuels, leading to high pollutant emissions. Due to a declining dependence on fossil fuels in all regions, total radiative forcing only reaches 6.4 Wm-2 in 2100, making this a world with relatively low challenges to mitigation. We explore the effects of mitigation effort on the SSP4 world, finding that the imposition of a carbon price has a varied effect across regions. In particular, the SSP4 mitigation scenarios are characterized by afforestation in the high-income regions and deforestation in the low-income regions. Finally, we compare the GCAM SSP4 results to other integrated assessment model (IAM) quantifications of the SSP4 and to other SSPs, both those generated by GCAM and those of the other IAMs.

  20. Mortality risk from entomopathogenic fungi affects oviposition behavior in the parasitoid wasp Trybliographa rapae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rännbäck, Linda-Marie; Cotes, Belen; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    brunneum isolate KVL 04-57 and Beauveria bassiana isolate KVL 03-90. Furthermore, T. rapae oviposition behavior was assessed in the presence of these entomopathogenic fungi either as infected hosts or as infective propagules in the environment. Both fungi were pathogenic to D. radicum larvae and T. rapae...... adults, but with variable virulence. When host patches were inoculated with M. brunneum conidia in a no-choice situation, more eggs were laid by T. rapae in hosts of those patches compared to control and B. bassiana treated patches. Females that later succumbed to mycosis from either fungusi laid...... larvae. This was less pronounced for B. bassiana. Based on our results we propose that T. rapae can perceive and react towards IGP risk posed by M. brunneum but not B. bassiana to the foraging female herself and her offspring. Thus, M. brunneum has the potential to be used for biological control against...

  1. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  2. SSP Plus at 36 Months: Effects of Adding Employment Services to Financial Work Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Michalopoulos, Charles

    A study examined effects of the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) Plus program. A small group of long-term income assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick was offered an earnings supplement and employment services (SSP Plus); a second group was offered the regular SSP earnings supplement only; and a third group was offered neither supplement nor…

  3. Geographic variation in ultraviolet reflectance of the wings of the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Ozawa, Gaku; Fukano, Yuya

    2008-11-01

    The British and Japanese subspecies of the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae , differ in terms of the UV reflectance of their wings ( Obara and Majerus, 2000 ). We studied the biogeographical distribution of the female cabbage butterfly having wings with UV reflectance around the Eurasian continent, and between Britain and Japan. For the study, we collected specimens from various locations. A gradient in the UV reflectance of the wings appears to exist along the west-east axis; reflectance was higher toward the east and reached a peak in butterflies in Japan. The UV-reflecting Japanese subspecies Pieris rapae crucivora was found exclusively along the east coast of the Eurasian continent. This suggests that the Japanese subspecies has evolved from a continental ancestor, with females having UV-absorbing wings. We discuss the results of our study with regard to the evolution and adaptive significance of UV coloration in the Japanese subspecies.

  4. Ono Tupuna, the richness of the ancestors. Multiples Landscapes Relationalities in Contemporary Indigenous Rapa Nui

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary Rapa Nui is formed by a multiple and complex set of interactions, encounters, and circumstances that comprise the core of their indigenous identity, like many other indigenous people's realities. In this dissertation, I argue that there is not a simple or straightforward way of thinking about indigenous identities without falling into the trap of essentialism and stereotyping. Indigenous people are not what remained of ancestral civilizations, nor are they either invented nor fol...

  5. Bt-transgenic oilseed rape hybridization with its weedy relative, Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Millwood, Reginald J; Raymer, Paul L; Stewart, C Neal

    2002-10-01

    The movement of transgenes from crops to weeds and the resulting consequences are concerns of modern agriculture. The possible generation of "superweeds" from the escape of fitness-enhancing transgenes into wild populations is a risk that is often discussed, but rarely studied. Oilseed rape, Brassica napus (L.), is a crop with sexually compatible weedy relatives, such as birdseed rape (Brassica rapa (L.)). Hybridization of this crop with weedy relatives is an extant risk and an excellent interspecific gene flow model system. In laboratory crosses, T3 lines of seven independent transformation events of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) oilseed rape were hybridized with two weedy accessions of B. rapa. Transgenic hybrids were generated from six of these oilseed rape lines, and the hybrids exhibited an intermediate morphology between the parental species. The Bt transgene was present in the hybrids, and the protein was synthesized at similar levels to the corresponding independent oilseed rape lines. Insect bioassays were performed and confirmed that the hybrid material was insecticidal. The hybrids were backcrossed with the weedy parent, and only half the oilseed rape lines were able to produce transgenic backcrosses. After two backcrosses, the ploidy level and morphology of the resultant plants were indistinguishable from B. rapa. Hybridization was monitored under field conditions (Tifton, GA, USA) with four independent lines of Bt oilseed rape with a crop to wild relative ratio of 1200:1. When B. rapa was used as the female parent, hybridization frequency varied among oilseed rape lines and ranged from 16.9% to 0.7%.

  6. The first generation of a BAC-based physical map of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Brassica includes the most extensively cultivated vegetable crops worldwide. Investigation of the Brassica genome presents excellent challenges to study plant genome evolution and divergence of gene function associated with polyploidy and genome hybridization. A physical map of the B. rapa genome is a fundamental tool for analysis of Brassica "A" genome structure. Integration of a physical map with an existing genetic map by linking genetic markers and BAC clones in the sequencing pipeline provides a crucial resource for the ongoing genome sequencing effort and assembly of whole genome sequences. Results A genome-wide physical map of the B. rapa genome was constructed by the capillary electrophoresis-based fingerprinting of 67,468 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones using the five restriction enzyme SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs by means of FPC v8.5.3. After contig validation and manual editing, the resulting contig assembly consists of 1,428 contigs and is estimated to span 717 Mb in physical length. This map provides 242 anchored contigs on 10 linkage groups to be served as seed points from which to continue bidirectional chromosome extension for genome sequencing. Conclusion The map reported here is the first physical map for Brassica "A" genome based on the High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF technique. This physical map will serve as a fundamental genomic resource for accelerating genome sequencing, assembly of BAC sequences, and comparative genomics between Brassica genomes. The current build of the B. rapa physical map is available at the B. rapa Genome Project website for the user community.

  7. Herbivore-Induced DNA Demethylation Changes Floral Signalling and Attractiveness to Pollinators in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman T Kellenberger

    Full Text Available Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa. Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP analysis showed that leaf damage by the caterpillar Pieris brassicae was associated with genome-wide methylation changes in both leaves and flowers of B. rapa as well as a downturn in flower number, morphology and scent. A comparison to plants with jasmonic acid-induced defence showed similar demethylation patterns in leaves, but both the floral methylome and phenotype differed significantly from P. brassicae infested plants. Standardised genome-wide demethylation with 5-azacytidine in five different B. rapa full-sib groups further resulted in a genotype-specific downturn of floral morphology and scent, which significantly reduced the attractiveness of the plants to the pollinator bee Bombus terrestris. These results suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in adjusting plant signalling in response to changing insect communities.

  8. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa: insight into the glucosinolate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Pino Del Carpio

    Full Text Available Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs and transcript QTLs (eQTLs. Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.

  9. Identification of medicinal plant Schisandra chinensis using a potential DNA barcode ITS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-kuan Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To test whether the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region is an effective marker for using in authenticating of the Schisandra chinensis at the species and population levels, separately. And the results showed that the wild populations had higher percentage of individuals that had substitution of C→A at site 86-bp than the cultivated populations. At sites 10-bp, 37-bp, 42-bp and 235-bp, these bases of the Schisandra sphenanthera samples differed from that of S. chinensis. Two species showed higher levels of inter-specific divergence than intra-specific divergence within ITS2 sequences. However, 24 populations did not demonstrate much difference as inter-specific and intra-specific divergences were concerned. Both S. chinensis and S. sphenanthera showed monophyly at species level, yet the samples of different populations shown polyphyly at population level. ITS2 performed well when using BLAST1 method. ITS2 obtained 100% identification success rates at the species level for S. chinensis, with no ambiguous identification at the genus level for ITS2 alone. The ITS2 region could be used to identify S. chinensis and S. sphenanthera in the “Chinese Pharmacopoeia”. And it could also correctly distinguish 100% of species and 100% of genera from the 193 sequences of S. chinensis. Hence, the ITS2 is a powerful and efficient tool for species identification of S. chinensis.

  10. Ex vivo relaxation effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Bo-Ram; Huang, Yi-Ran; Park, Jong-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on the rabbit penile corpus cavernosum (PCC) was evaluated in the present study. Penises obtained from healthy male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) were precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µmol l(-1)) and then treated with various concentrations of Cuscuta chinensis extract (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg ml(-1)). The change in penile tension was recorded, and cyclic nucleotides in the PCC were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The interaction between Cuscuta chinensis and sildenafil was also evaluated. The result indicated that the PCC relaxation induced by Cuscuta chinensis extract was concentration-dependent. Pre-treatment with an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (Nω nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, L-NAME), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ), or a protein kinase A inhibitor (KT 5720) did not completely inhibit the relaxation. Incubation of penile cavernous tissue with the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the PCC. Moreover, the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly enhanced sildenafil-induced PCC relaxation. In conclusion, the Cuscuta chinensis extract exerts a relaxing effect on penile cavernous tissue in part by activating the NO-cGMP pathway, and it may improve erectile dysfunction (ED), which does not completely respond to sildenafil citrate.

  11. The invasion of leptochloa chinensis (L.) nees in the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan Pane; Mashhor Mansor; Ho Nai Kin

    2002-01-01

    In 1981, red sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees] was first observed at site 2 (Sungai Udang) in the southern part of the Muda area. In the first cropping season of 1984, the populations of L. chinensis expanded to three sampling sites. Consequently, the populations gradually spread to other parts of the Muda area. In 1986, the infestations were recorded at sampling site 6 (Kubang Pangas) which is about 50 km from the original infestation sites. In 1988, most of the southern parts of Muda area were colonized by this weed. In 1990, the populations reached the northern part of Muda area. The whole Muda area was finally covered with L. chinensis by 1992. From 1981 until 1994, the increase of area infested per unit time was estimated at about 4% of the area based on the previous year's record. The intensive survey conducted in 1994 from the 20 sampling sites showed that in addition to L. chinensis, twelve dominant weed species were also recorded. However, by far the single most dominant weed species was L. chinensis. Based on the spatial quantitative vegetative analysis, L. chinensis populations were predominantly recorded in 75% of the sampling sites. The L. chinensis populations were also observed to thrive well on slightly acidic rice fields with pH values ranging from 4.0 to 6.8. (Author)

  12. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH—developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP—based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS—derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species. PMID:25790283

  13. Determination of chromosomal ploidy in Agave ssp. | Lingling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosome observation is necessary to elucidate the structure, function and organization of Agave plants' genes and genomes. However, few researches about chromosome observation of Agave ssp. were done, not only because their chromosome numbers are large, but also because their ploidies are complicated.

  14. Campylobacter fetus ssp jejuni en patología humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Echeverri

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos, como los Rotovirus y el Compylobocter fetus ssp jejuni reconocidos y estudiados recientemente, han llegado a ocupar un lugar preponderante en el grupo de enteropatógenos considerados como problema en salud pública.

  15. Bibliography of Selected SCSD, URBS, SSP, SEF, and RAS Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Planning Lab.

    The annotated bibliography contains publications and report listings of the following sources--(1) School Construction Systems Development (SCSD), (2) University Residential Building Systems (URBS), (3) Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project (SSP), (4) Study of Educational Facilities (SEF), and (5) Recherches en Amenagements Scolaires (RAS) Building…

  16. The bright-star masks for the HSC-SSP survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean; Czakon, Nicole; Bosch, James; Komiyama, Yutaka; Medezinski, Elinor; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune

    2018-01-01

    We present the procedure to build and validate the bright-star masks for the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Strategic Subaru Proposal (HSC-SSP) survey. To identify and mask the saturated stars in the full HSC-SSP footprint, we rely on the Gaia and Tycho-2 star catalogues. We first assemble a pure star catalogue down to GGaia SSP, finding that our star catalogue is 99.2% pure down to GGaia SSP observations at "ftp://obsftp.unige.ch/pub/coupon/brightStarMasks/HSC-SSP/".

  17. Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola. Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs from 536 sequenced BACs. 890 SSR markers (designated as BrGMS were developed and used for the construction of an integrated linkage map for the A genome in B. rapa and B. napus. Two hundred and nineteen BrGMS markers were integrated to an existing B. napus linkage map (BnaNZDH. Among these mapped BrGMS markers, 168 were only distributed on the A genome linkage groups (LGs, 18 distrubuted both on the A and C genome LGs, and 33 only distributed on the C genome LGs. Most of the A genome LGs in B. napus were collinear with the homoeologous LGs in B. rapa, although minor inversions or rearrangements occurred on A2 and A9. The mapping of these BAC-specific SSR markers enabled assignment of 161 sequenced B. rapa BACs, as well as the associated BAC contigs to the A genome LGs of B. napus. Conclusion The genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa enabled direct links to be established between the B. napus linkage map and a B. rapa physical map, and thus the assignment of B. rapa BACs and the associated BAC contigs to the B. napus linkage map. This integrated genetic linkage map will facilitate exploitation of the B. rapa annotated genomic resources for gene tagging and map-based cloning in B. napus, and for comparative analysis of the A genome within Brassica species.

  18. First observation on the breeding behavior of endangered species, Chinese many-tooth snake, Sibynophis chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Soung Koo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of reproductive behavior of endangered snake, Sibynophis chinensis in South Korea. On September 24, 2014, one female and three males were observed during the group mating in Oedo-dong, Jeju. Our observation indicates that group mating and the breeding behavior of S. chinensis could be an important way to increase genetic diversity and survival rate. Moreover, autumnal mating affects the breeding success rate of species in isolated areas. Group and autumn mating strategies by S. chinensis are considered to be the most effective way to survive in isolated areas.

  19. Binding Properties of Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB (Antigen I/II Family) Polypeptides Expressed on the Cell Surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Ann R.; Gilbert, Christophe; Wells, Jeremy M.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    1998-01-01

    The oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii expresses two cell wall-associated polypeptides, designated SspA (1,542 amino acid residues) and SspB (1,462 amino acid residues), that have 70% sequence identity. These polypeptides are members of the antigen I/II family of oral streptococcal adhesins and mediate the binding of streptococci to salivary glycoproteins, collagen, and other oral microorganisms such as Actinomyces naeslundii. To determine if SspA and SspB have differential binding propert...

  20. Effect of Galla chinensis on enhancing remineralization of enamel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lei; Huang Shengbin [State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li Jiyao; Zhou Xuedong, E-mail: stonedentist@yahoo.c [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was to investigate the effect of chemical compounds of Galla chinensis (GCE, gallic acid) on the remineralization of enamel crystals in vitro. Bovine enamel blocks with an in vitro produced initial lesion were used. The lesions were subjected to a pH-cycling regime for 12 days. Each daily cycle included 4 x 1 min applications with one of six treatments: group A: 1000 ppm F aq. (as NaF, positive control); group B: deionized water (DDW, negative control); group C: 4000 ppm crude aqueous extract of GCE; group D: 4000 ppm gallic acid; group E: 4000 ppm GCE with 1000 ppm F; group F: 4000 ppm gallic acid with 1000 ppm F. The surface and vertical section of the enamel lesions were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that the chemical compounds of G. chinensis could regulate the de-/remineralization balance through influencing the morphology and structure of enamel crystals, and the mechanisms seem to be different for GCE and gallic acid.

  1. Effect of Galla chinensis on enhancing remineralization of enamel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lei; Huang Shengbin; Li Jiyao; Zhou Xuedong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was to investigate the effect of chemical compounds of Galla chinensis (GCE, gallic acid) on the remineralization of enamel crystals in vitro. Bovine enamel blocks with an in vitro produced initial lesion were used. The lesions were subjected to a pH-cycling regime for 12 days. Each daily cycle included 4 x 1 min applications with one of six treatments: group A: 1000 ppm F aq. (as NaF, positive control); group B: deionized water (DDW, negative control); group C: 4000 ppm crude aqueous extract of GCE; group D: 4000 ppm gallic acid; group E: 4000 ppm GCE with 1000 ppm F; group F: 4000 ppm gallic acid with 1000 ppm F. The surface and vertical section of the enamel lesions were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that the chemical compounds of G. chinensis could regulate the de-/remineralization balance through influencing the morphology and structure of enamel crystals, and the mechanisms seem to be different for GCE and gallic acid.

  2. Antioxidant lipoxygenase inhibitors from the leaf extracts of Simmondsia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mageed, Wael Mostafa; Bayoumi, Soad Abdel Latief Hassan; Salama, Awwad Abdoh Radwan; Salem-Bekhit, Mounir Mohamed; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif Hussein; Sayed, Hanaa Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    To isolate and identify chemical constituents with antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects of the ethanolic extract of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) leaves. The alcoholic extract was subjected to successive solvent fractionation. The antioxidant active fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions) were subjected to a combination of different chromatographic techniques guided by the antioxidant assay with DPPH. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. The antioxidant activity was assessed quantitively using DPPH and β-carotene methods. The inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase was assessed on soybean lipoxygenase enzyme. Ten flavonoids and four lignans were isolated. Flavonoid aglycones showed stronger antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects than their glycosides. Lignoid glycosides showed moderate to weak antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects. A total of 14 compounds were isolated and identified from Simmondsia chinensis; 12 of them were isolated for the first time. This is the first report that highlights deeply on the phenolic content of jojoba and their potential biological activities and shows the importance of this plant as a good source of phenolics in particular the flavonoid content. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea. Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Results Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This

  4. Chemical and Antibacterial Polymorphism of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (Cupressaceae Leaf Essential Oils from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnène Medini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from Juniperus oxycedrus L. have been used since antiquity for fragrance, flavoring, medicinal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, and cosmetic purposes. Several works studied the chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves. The aim of this study is to investigate the chemotaxonomic relationships and antibacterial activity of two Tunisian subspecies: Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (L. K. Deb. and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m. Ball. In addition, and for the first time, we reported the antibacterial activities of Tunisian J. oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus against four bacteria. Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-five constituents were identified. Thirty four major compounds were retained for the study of the chemical variability, and α-pinene, sylvestrene, p-cymene, and 13-epi-manoyl oxide were the main ones. The chemical principal components analysis (PCA identified three chemotypes. The study of the antibacterial activity showed that Escherichia coli was found to be extremely resistant (zone diameter 0 mm to all the oils tested, while Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain (zone diameter 13.5 mm and MIC ranged from 600 to 650 μg/mL.

  5. Transgene escape and persistence in an agroecosystem: the case of glyphosate-resistant Brassica rapa L. in central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Claudio E; Presotto, Alejandro; Carbonell, Francisco Torres; Ureta, Soledad; Poverene, Mónica; Cantamutto, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Brassica rapa L. is an annual Brassicaceae species cultivated for oil and food production, whose wild form is a weed of crops worldwide. In temperate regions of South America and especially in the Argentine Pampas region, this species is widely distributed. During 2014, wild B. rapa populations that escaped control with glyphosate applications by farmers were found in this area. These plants were characterized by morphology and seed acidic profile, and all the characters agreed with B. rapa description. The dose-response assays showed that the biotypes were highly resistant to glyphosate. It was also shown that they had multiple resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides. The transgenic origin of the glyphosate resistance in B. rapa biotypes was verified by an immunological test which confirmed the presence of the CP4 EPSPS protein and by an event-specific GT73 molecular marker. The persistence of the transgene in nature was confirmed for at least 4 years, in ruderal and agrestal habitats. This finding suggests that glyphosate resistance might come from GM oilseed rape crops illegally cultivated in the country or as a seed contaminant, and it implies gene flow and introgression between feral populations of GM B. napus and wild B. rapa. The persistence and spread of the resistance in agricultural environments was promoted by the high selection pressure imposed by intensive herbicide usage in the prevalent no-till farming systems.

  6. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyu Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler. This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample's assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10(-5, and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10(-5, retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological

  7. Male fitness of oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤), weedy ¤B-rapa¤ and their F1 hybrids when pollinating ¤B-rapa¤ seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, M.; Hauser, T.P.; Damgaard, C.

    2002-01-01

    The likelihood that two species hybridise and backcross may depend strongly on environmental conditions, and possibly on competitive interactions between parents and hybrids. We studied the paternity of seeds produced by weedy Brassica rapa growing in mixtures with oilseed rape (B. napus) and the...... is strongly influenced by their local frequencies, and that male fitness of F(1)hybrids, when pollinating B. rapa seeds, is low even when their female fitness (seed set) is high.......The likelihood that two species hybridise and backcross may depend strongly on environmental conditions, and possibly on competitive interactions between parents and hybrids. We studied the paternity of seeds produced by weedy Brassica rapa growing in mixtures with oilseed rape (B. napus......) and their F(1) hybrids at different frequencies and densities. Paternity was determined by the presence of a transgene, morphology, and AFLP markers. In addition, observations of flower and pollen production, and published data on pollen fertilisation success, zygote survival, and seed germination, allowed us...

  8. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Cuscuta chinensis seeds in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jung-Chun; Chang, Wen-Te; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Chao, Wei-Kai; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Cuscuta chinensis, Cuscutae Semen, are commonly used as a medicinal material for treating the aching and weakness of the loins and knees, tonifying the defects of the liver and the kidney, and treating the diarrhea due to hypofunction of the kidney and the spleen. Since aching and inflammation are highly correlated with such diseases, the aim of this study is to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the seeds of C. chinensis. The antinociceptive effect of the seeds of C. chinensis was evaluated via the acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking methods. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated via the λ-carrageenan induced mouse paw edema method. The results found that 100 and 500 mg/kg of the methanol extract of the seeds of C. chinensis( CC MeOH ) significantly decreased (p Cuscutae Semen in inflammatory diseases.

  9. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Cuscuta chinensis against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Feng-Lin; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2007-04-20

    Tu-Si-Zi, the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae), is a traditional Chinese medicine that is commonly used to nourish and improve the liver and kidney conditions in China and other Asian countries. As oxidative stress promotes the development of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C chinensis on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The C chinensis ethanolic extract at an oral dose of both 125 and 250mg/kg showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (PCuscuta chinensis can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and this is likely mediated through its antioxidant activities.

  10. Chemical composition of the leaf oil of Alpinia chinensis Rosc. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of A. chinensis was analyzed by capillary gas chromatog. and gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry. More than 40 components were identified, of which b-bisabolene (47.9%) was the major one

  11. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  12. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  13. Study of organic acids in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangzhou; Dai, Hui; Li, Lin; Lu, Tuling; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang; Yin, Wu

    2017-10-01

    The ripened fruit of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus has unique medical properties in Chinese medicine. It is commonly used after vinegar steaming. Vinegar steaming changes the color of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus from red to black and enhances its acidic and astringent properties. Lignans are the well-investigated components in this herb. However, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus is acidic in the theory of Chinese medicine, and whether vinegar processing changes its organic acid components remains largely unknown. In this study, the organic acids in this herb were derived by the method of methyl esterification, and further analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A total of 39 organic acid compounds were identified. Interestingly, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing showed a significant increase in the content of levulinic acid as compared to the unprocessed ones. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that levulinic acid inhibited the contractility of isolated intestine and had an inhibitory effect on the excessive hyperfunction of small intestinal propulsion. Moreover, the extracts of vinegar-processed Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus had a stronger inhibitory on the excessive hyperfunction of small intestinal propulsion than that of unprocessed ones. Taken together, this study offers novel insight into the effect of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 miniature inverted-repeat transposable element families in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Sampath

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs are ubiquitous, non-autonomous class II transposable elements. Here, we conducted genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 MITE families in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 5894 and 6026 MITE members belonging to the 20 families were found in the whole genome pseudo-chromosome sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. Meanwhile, only four of the 20 families, comprising 573 members, were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, indicating that most of the families were activated in the Brassica genus after divergence from Arabidopsis. Copy numbers varied from 4 to 1459 for each MITE family, and there was up to 6-fold variation between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In particular, analysis of intact members showed that whereas eleven families were present in similar copy numbers in B. rapa and B. oleracea, nine families showed copy number variation ranging from 2- to 16-fold. Four of those families (BraSto-3, BraTo-3, 4, 5 were more abundant in B. rapa, and the other five (BraSto-1, BraSto-4, BraTo-1, 7 and BraHAT-1 were more abundant in B. oleracea. Overall, 54% and 51% of the MITEs resided in or within 2 kb of a gene in the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively. Notably, 92 MITEs were found within the CDS of annotated genes, suggesting that MITEs might play roles in diversification of genes in the recently triplicated Brassica genome. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP analysis of 289 MITE members showed that 52% and 23% were polymorphic at the inter- and intra-species levels, respectively, indicating that there has been recent MITE activity in the Brassica genome. These recently activated MITE families with abundant MIP will provide useful resources for molecular breeding and identification of novel functional genes arising from MITE insertion.

  15. Chemical characteristic of salt fermented meat inoculated with Pediococcus ssp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Y. B.; Rahayu, E. S.; Suparmo; Utami, T.; Nurwantoro; Yunianto, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    The research goal is knowing of the characteristict of salt fermented meat by Pediococcus ssp. There were microbiological, chemical, and off-flavor compound during fermentation. This study was conducted on research of influence of salt-meat fermentation inoculated used starter. They were included microbiological characteristics, and chemical characteristics. Microbiological characteristics observed were total bacteria, number of coliform groups, bacteria producing bioamine, and total lactic acid bacteria. The result showed that decreasing of coliform and bioamine producer bacteria, and total lactic acid bacteria decreased 3 log cycle. While the soluble protein increased of 7-8% and bioamine increased of 5-6 mg/100 g. And then Off-flavour compound, TVN and TMA increased of 36-20 mg/100g and 16-30 mg/100g, respectively. Conclusion of the research that Pedioccoccus ssp. influenced salt fermented meat.

  16. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis as Potential Functional Starter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Cvrtila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and characterise potential autochthonous functional starter cultures in homemade horsemeat sausage. The dominant microflora in the samples of horsemeat sausage were lactic acid bacteria (LAB, followed by micrococci. Among the LAB, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species, and since the first is not common in fermented sausages, we characterised it as a potential functional starter culture. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis produced a significant amount of lactic acid, displayed good growth capability at 12, 18 and 22 °C, growth in the presence of 5 % NaCl, good viability after lyophilisation and in simulated gastric and small intestinal juice, antimicrobial activity against test pathogens, and good adhesive properties in vitro.

  17. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Dual Docked Operations (DDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Joel W., Jr.; Bruno, Erica E.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the concept definition, studies, and analysis results generated by the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), International Space Station (ISS) Program (ISSP), and Mission Operations Directorate for implementing Dual Docked Operations (DDO) during mated Orbiter/ISS missions. This work was performed over a number of years. Due to the ever increasing visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS, it became apparent to both the ISSP and the SSP that there would arise occasions where conflicts between a visiting vehicle docking and/or undocking could overlap with a planned Space Shuttle launch and/or during docked operations. This potential conflict provided the genesis for evaluating risk mitigations to gain maximum flexibility for managing potential visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS and to maximize launch and landing opportunities for all visiting vehicles.

  18. Developmental variation during seed germination and biochemical responses of Brassica rapa exposed to various colored lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Tausif; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Shahid; Khan, Maaz; Fazal, Hina; Khalil, Shahid Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Light acting as elicitor or stress inducer, it plays a pivotal role in all developmental processes of plant providing necessary building blocks for growth and primary and secondary metabolites production. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the individual effect of colored lights on developmental processes and production of polyphenolics contents in Brassica rapa. In this study, the red and white lights (control) were found to be the most effective sources for seed germination (91%) in Brassica rapa. Similarly, red light enhanced radicle growth (102 mm), while green light suppressed radicle growth (60 mm) as compared to control (67 mm). The red light also promoted the plumule growth (50 mm) as compared to control (37 mm). The maximum biomass gain (67 mg) was observed under red light as compared to control (55 mg). Currently, the maximum total phenolics content (9.49 mg/g-DW) and phenolics production (379.616 mg/L) was observed under the influence of blue lights as compared to control (0.23 mg/g-DW and 8.91 mg/L). Similarly, the blue lights also enhanced the biosynthesis of total flavonoids content (2.2611 mg/g-DW) and flavonoids production (90.44 mg/L) as compared to control (0.0318 md/g-DW and 0.8268 mg/L). The current results represents that red and blue lights are the most effective sources for plantlets development and production of polyphenolics content in Brassica rapa. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Cuscuta chinensis Ameliorates Immunosuppression and Urotoxic Effect of Cyclophosphamide by Regulating Cytokines - GM-CSF and TNF-Alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Nidhi; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Kannan, Narayanan; Vinod Prabhu, Venugopal; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is commonly used as anticancer drug which causes toxicity by its reactive metabolites such as acroline and phosphoramide mustard. In this study, Cuscuta chinensis (C. chinensis) (family: Convolvulaceae) was assessed for ability to restore mice against CTX-induced toxicity. Coadministration of C. chinensis extract (10 mg/kg BW, IP, daily) for ten consecutive days reduced CTX-induced (25 mg/kg BW, IP, daily) toxicity. Treatment with C. chinensis extract significantly (p < 0.01) increased the relative organ weight and body weight. Moreover, administration of C. chinensis extract significantly increased bone marrow cellulatity and α-esterase activity in CTX-treated mice which suggested its protective role on the hematopoietic system. The GSH content was drastically reduced by CTX administration in urinary bladder which was enhanced by treatment with C. chinensis extract, indicating that preventing acroline-mediated tissue damage or cell toxicity and also the extract decreased the urinary bladder nitric oxide (NO) level which proves recovery over urinary tract injury associated with CTX treatment. The administration of C. chinensis extract decreased serum urea, creatinine, and bilirubin levels when compared to CTX-alone-treated group. Histopathological analysis of the urinary bladder of CTX-alone-treated group showed necrotic damage whereas the C. chinensis-treated group showed normal bladder architecture. The above data clearly demonstrates chemoprotective role of C. chinensis against CTX-induced toxicities by regulating antioxidant and inflammatory mediators.

  20. Two new lignan glycosides from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Meng, A-Hui; He, Wen-Ni; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

    2010-11-01

    Two new lignan glycosides, 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside C, 1) and 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside D, 2), were isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam., along with six known compounds, 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside A, 4), kaempferol 3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), 5-caffeoyl quinic acid (6), 4-caffeoyl quinic acid (7), and cinnamic acid (8). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including HR-ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and TOCSY.

  1. Flavonoids from Ulex airensis and Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máximo, Patrícia; Lourenço, Ana; Feio, Sónia Savluchinske; Roseiro, José Carlos

    2002-02-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of Ulex airensis three new isoflavonoids, ulexin C (1), ulexin D (2), and 7-O-methylisolupalbigenin (3), were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Ulexin D (2) was also identified from the dichloromethane extract of Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus. Together with these new metabolites, 18 compounds of previously known structures were isolated and identified from both species. The antifungal activity of these compounds was tested against Cladosporium cucumerinum by a bioautographic TLC assay.

  2. Effect of the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae on the feeding rate of its host Brevicoryne brassicae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couchman, J.R.; King, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    The food uptake by Brevicoryne brassicae, as measured by accumulation of radiophosphorus, is influenced by the presence of developing larvae of the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae. Though the egg and embryonic stages of the parasitoid have no effect on host feeding the presence of a first-instar larva lowers the food uptake. Feeding returns to a level similar to that of non-parasitised aphids when a second-instar parasitoid is present within a host, but drops again when the third instar is reached. Host death occurs during the fourth-larval instar. (Auth.)

  3. Choleretic activity of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, N; Herekman-Demir, T; Oztürk, Y; Bozan, B; Başer, K H

    1998-08-01

    Effects of an ethanolic extract prepared from G. lutea ssp. symphyandra roots on the bile production and liver in rats were investigated. Bile flows of rats which were treated by a single i.p. dose of CCl(4) 24 h prior to experiments were measured after the cannulation of bile duct under urethane anaesthesia. After an equilibration period of 1 h, the lyophilized extract were administered intraduodenally (500 mg/kg i.p.), while control animals received physiological saline only. To monitor the effect of multiple dose therapy, rats received the same dose of G. lutea ssp. symphyandra extract for 3 days (2 days prior to CCl(4) administration) and their bile flows were measured after the cannulation. In all groups, bile samples were collected for 3 h with 15 min intervals. After the completion of bile flow experiment, rat livers were removed and put in neutral formaldehyde solution (10%) for the histological examination. According to results obtained, multiple dose treatment of rats with the plant extract normalized the decreased bile flow due CCl(4), whereas single dose therapy was ineffective on the impaired bile flow. These data indicate that the extract prepared from Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has a hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 1998 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  5. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER KEJUJURAN DAN KEPEDULIAN SISWA SD KELAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hariyati Qodriyah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran berupa SSP Tematik yang dapat mengembangkan karakter siswa kelas 2 sekolah dasar, meliputi karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan yang terdiri dari tujuh tahap, yaitu studi pendahuluan, perencanaan, mengembangkan produk awal, uji coba awal, revisi produk utama, uji coba lapangan, dan revisi terhadap produk operasional. SSP yang dikembangkan dievaluasi oleh seorang ahli materi dan media untuk mengetahui validitasnya. Subjek uji coba berjumlah 90 siswa terdiri dari 23 siswa SD Sonosewu, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY sebagai subjek uji coba terbatas dan 33 siswa untuk kelas control dan 34 siswa untuk kelas eksperimen SD 1 Kadipiro, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY. Hasil penelitian ini berupa SSP yang meliputi: silabus, RPP, LKS, dan lembar penilaian. Hasil evaluasi dari ahli materi dan ahli media untuk menguji tingkat kevalidan SSP menyatakan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan adalah valid dan berkategori “baik”. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan dinyatakan layak serta memenuhi kriteria praktis dan efektif dalam mengembangkan karakter siswa. Pembelajaran dengan SSP yang dikembangkan mampu mengembangkan karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Kata Kunci: SSP, karakter jujur dan peduli   DEVELOPING THEMATIC INTEGRATIVE SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF HONESTY AND CARE GRADE II STUDENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Abstract This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of honesty and care of grade II students of elementary school. This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, i.e. preliminary study, planning, preliminary product development, preliminary tryout, main product revision, field tryout, revision of operational product, operational product revision, and revision of the final product. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess

  6. Rapid development of microsatellite markers for Callosobruchus chinensis using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can-Xing Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adzuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L., is one of the most destructive pests of stored legume seeds such as mungbean, cowpea, and adzuki bean, which usually cause considerable loss in the quantity and quality of stored seeds during transportation and storage. However, a lack of genetic information of this pest results in a series of genetic questions remain largely unknown, including population genetic structure, kinship, biotype abundance, and so on. Co-dominant microsatellite markers offer a great resolving power to determine these events. Here, we report rapid microsatellite isolation from C. chinensis via high-throughput sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 94,560,852 quality-filtered and trimmed reads were obtained for the assembly of genome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In total, the genome with total length of 497,124,785 bp, comprising 403,113 high quality contigs was generated with de novo assembly. More than 6800 SSR loci were detected and a suit of 6303 primer pair sequences were designed and 500 of them were randomly selected for validation. Of these, 196 pair of primers, i.e. 39.2%, produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 8 C. chinensis genotypes collected from different geographical regions. Twenty out of 196 polymorphic SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 18 C. chinensis populations. The results showed the twenty SSR loci were highly polymorphic among these populations. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a first report of genome sequencing and de novo assembly for C. chinensis and demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information and SSR loci isolation by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Our results provide a valuable resource for C. chinensis research. These novel markers are valuable for future genetic mapping, trait association, genetic structure and kinship among C. chinensis.

  7. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SABATH methyltransferase in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Mei; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    To clone SABATH methyltransferase (rLjSABATHMT) gene in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, and compare the gene expression and intron sequence of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous in L. japonica with L. japonica var. chinensis. It provide a basis for gene regulate the formation of L. japonica floral scents. The cDNA and genome sequences of LjSABATHMT from L. japonica var. chinensis were cloned according to the gene fragments in cDNA library. The LjSABATHMT protein was characterized by bioinformatics analysis. SABATH family phylogenetic tree were built by MEGA 5.0. The transcripted level of SABATHMT orthologous were analyzed in different organs and different flower periods of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis using RT-PCR analysis. Intron sequences of SABATHMT orthologous were also analyzied. The cDNA of LjSABATHMT was 1 251 bp, had a complete coding frame with 365 amino acids. The protein had the conservative SABATHMT domain, and phylogenetic tree showed that it may be a salicylic acid/benzoic acid methyltransferase. Higher expression of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous was found in flower. The intron sequence of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis had rich polymorphism, and two SNP are unique genotype of L. japonica var. chinensis. The motif elements in two orthologous genes were significant differences. The intron difference of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous could be inducing to difference of gene expression between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. These results will provide important base on regulating active compounds of L. japonica.

  8. ANALISIS WAKTU PEMUPUKAN TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis DENGAN TEKNIK PERUNUT RADIOAKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Sutapa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian analisis waktu pemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensisdengan teknik perunut radioaktif. Untuk menuju sistem pertanian berkelanjutan perlu adanya perbaikan pertanian(intensifikasi selama beberapa tahun yang lalu masih signifikan, karena ketersediaan sumber daya alam danteknologi pertanian cukup memadai dan berimbang dengan ketersediaan lahan dan peningkatan jumlah penduduk.Keadaan ini sulit untuk dipertahankan dimasa yang akan datang, kecuali ada pendekatan baru yang menawarkan ide dan teknik untuk meningkatkan produktifitas pertanian. Efesiensi pemupukan tanaman dengan teknik perunut (tracer radioisotop adalah salah satu potensi menujusistem pertanian berkelanjutan. Teknik perunut dapat digunakan antara lain untuk mempelajari hubungan antaratanah dan tanaman, menentukan kondisi optimal dalam penggunaan pupuk (waktu pemupukan, pola perakaranaktif tanaman, jenis dan takaran pupuk, mempelajari proses dekomposisi dan mineralisasi bahan organik, sertamempelajari proses fotosintesis tanaman,baik dengan metoda langsung maupun tidak langsung.Waktu pemupukanyang lebih tepat dapat ditentukan dengan teknik perunut tersebut, sehingga optimalisasi pemupukan dapat dicapai,tanpa pemborosan yang tidak berguna.Dari penelitian dengan menggunakan radioisotop P, ternyata waktupemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis yang paling signifikan adalah padapukul 9.00 pagi. Waktu siang hari mulai pukul 11.00 sampai pukul 15.00 adalah waktu pemupukan yang sangatburuk. Sedangkan waktu sore hari yaitu pukul 15.00 sampai 17.00 menunjukkan waktu pemupukan yang semakinbaik namun tidak signifikan.32

  9. ANALISIS WAKTU PEMUPUKAN TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis DENGAN TEKNIK PERUNUT RADIOAKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Sutapa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian analisis waktu pemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensisdengan teknik perunut radioaktif. Untuk menuju sistem pertanian berkelanjutan perlu adanya perbaikan pertanian(intensifikasi selama beberapa tahun yang lalu masih signifikan, karena ketersediaan sumber daya alam danteknologi pertanian cukup memadai dan berimbang dengan ketersediaan lahan dan peningkatan jumlah penduduk.Keadaan ini sulit untuk dipertahankan dimasa yang akan datang, kecuali ada pendekatan baru yang menawarkan ide dan teknik untuk meningkatkan produktifitas pertanian. Efesiensi pemupukan tanaman dengan teknik perunut (tracer radioisotop adalah salah satu potensi menujusistem pertanian berkelanjutan. Teknik perunut dapat digunakan antara lain untuk mempelajari hubungan antaratanah dan tanaman, menentukan kondisi optimal dalam penggunaan pupuk (waktu pemupukan, pola perakaranaktif tanaman, jenis dan takaran pupuk, mempelajari proses dekomposisi dan mineralisasi bahan organik, sertamempelajari proses fotosintesis tanaman,baik dengan metoda langsung maupun tidak langsung.Waktu pemupukanyang lebih tepat dapat ditentukan dengan teknik perunut tersebut, sehingga optimalisasi pemupukan dapat dicapai,tanpa pemborosan yang tidak berguna.Dari penelitian dengan menggunakan radioisotop P, ternyata waktupemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis yang paling signifikan adalah padapukul 9.00 pagi. Waktu siang hari mulai pukul 11.00 sampai pukul 15.00 adalah waktu pemupukan yang sangatburuk. Sedangkan waktu sore hari yaitu pukul 15.00 sampai 17.00 menunjukkan waktu pemupukan yang semakinbaik namun tidak signifikan.32

  10. The endogenous nitric oxide mediates selenium-induced phytotoxicity by promoting ROS generation in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV stress. Se(IV-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants.

  11. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  12. Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Hong; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Li; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The root of Brassica rapa L. has been traditionally used as a Uyghur folk medicine to cure cough and asthma by Uyghur nationality in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. In the present study, therefore, extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from the root of B. rapa L. (BRP) were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 21.48 ± 0.41% for crude BRP were obtained as follows: extraction temperature 93°C, extraction time 4.3h and ratio of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 75 mL/g. The crude BRP was purified by chromatographic columns of DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100, affording three purified fractions of BRP-1-1, BRP-2-1 and BRP-2-2 with average molecular weight of 1510, 1110 and 838 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that BRP-1-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and arabinose, BRP-2-1 was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose, and BRP-2-2 was composed of rhamnose and galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 1.27: 54.92. Furthermore, the crude BRP exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity in vitro than purified fractions; hence, it could be used as a natural antioxidant in functional foods or medicines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diversification and evolution of the SDG gene family in Brassica rapa after the whole genome triplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Heng; Liu, Dandan; Han, Tianyu; Zhao, Yuxue; Sun, Ji; Lin, Sue; Cao, Jiashu; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Huang, Li

    2015-11-24

    Histone lysine methylation, controlled by the SET Domain Group (SDG) gene family, is part of the histone code that regulates chromatin function and epigenetic control of gene expression. Analyzing the SDG gene family in Brassica rapa for their gene structure, domain architecture, subcellular localization, rate of molecular evolution and gene expression pattern revealed common occurrences of subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization in BrSDGs. In comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana, the BrSDG gene family was found to be more divergent than AtSDGs, which might partly explain the rich variety of morphotypes in B. rapa. In addition, a new evolutionary pattern of the four main groups of SDGs was presented, in which the Trx group and the SUVR subgroup evolved faster than the E(z), Ash groups and the SUVH subgroup. These differences in evolutionary rate among the four main groups of SDGs are perhaps due to the complexity and variability of the regions that bind with biomacromolecules, which guide SDGs to their target loci.

  14. Cyanide detoxification in an insect herbivore: Molecular identification of β-cyanoalanine synthases from Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ohlen, Maike; Herfurth, Anna-Maria; Kerbstadt, Henrike; Wittstock, Ute

    2016-03-01

    Cyanogenic compounds occur widely in the plant kingdom. Therefore, many herbivores are adapted to the presence of these compounds in their diet by either avoiding cyanide release or by efficient cyanide detoxification mechanisms. The mechanisms of adaptation are not fully understood. Larvae of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores on glucosinolate-containing plants. They are exposed to cyanide during metabolism of phenylacetonitrile, a product of benzylglucosinolate breakdown catalyzed by plant myrosinases and larval nitrile-specifier protein (NSP) in the gut. Cyanide is metabolized to β-cyanoalanine and thiocyanate in the larvae. Here, we demonstrate that larvae of P. rapae possess β-cyanoalanine activity in their gut. We have identified three gut-expressed cDNAs designated PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3 which encode proteins with similarity to β-substituted alanine synthases (BSAS). Characterization of recombinant PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3 shows that they possess β-cyanoalanine activity. In phylogenetic trees, PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3, the first characterized insect BSAS, group together with a characterized mite β-cyanoalanine synthase and bacterial enzymes indicating a similar evolutionary history. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. amani heywood from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Demirci, Fatih; Demirci, Betül; Gören, Nezhun; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2010-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum ssp. argenteum and T. densum ssp. amani from Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. argenteum ssp. argenteum was characterized with alpha-pinene 36.7%, beta-pinene 27.5% and 1,8-cineole 9.8%. T. densum ssp. amani was characterized with beta-pinene 27.2%, 1,8-cineole 13.1%, alpha-pinene 9.7% and p-cymene 8.9%. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against Bacillus cereus for T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil (125 microg/mL) when compared with positive control chloramphenicol it showed the same inhibition potency. However, the same oil showed lower inhibitory activity against B. subtilis when compared. The oil of T. densum ssp. amani did not show significant activity against the tested microorganisms. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil was investigated for 15 and 10 mg/mL concentrations. However, the oil did not show significant activity when compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol. Both oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay.

  16. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea

  17. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  18. Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

  19. Progressive introgression between ¤Brassica napus¤ (oilseed rape) and ¤B-rapa¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Siegismund, H.R.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    We have earlier shown extensive introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and B. rapa in a weedy population using AFLP markers specific for the nuclear genomes. In order to describe the progress of this introgression, we examined 117 offspring from 12 maternal plants from the introgress...

  20. Aphrodisiac pheromones from the wings of the Small Cabbage White and Large Cabbage White butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildizhan, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M.; Arsene, C.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The small and large cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, are found worldwide and are of considerable economic importance. The composition of the male scent-producing organs present on the wings was investigated. More than 120 components were identified, but only a small portion proved

  1. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of seed germination and seedling vigour in Brassica rapa reveals QTL hotspots and epistatic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basnet, R.K.; Duwal, A.; Tiwari, D.N.; Xiao, D.; Monakhos, S.; Bucher, J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Groot, S.P.C.; Bonnema, A.B.; Maliepaard, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigour is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded

  2. Parasitism rate of Myzus persicae (Sulzer by Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh in the presence of an alternative, resistant host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Evangelista Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aphids Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis and Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae are important Brassicaceae pests, occurring worldwide and causing significant damage to crops. Interspecific variations in the resistance to natural enemies can potentially impact the interaction among aphid populations. Here we evaluated the hypothesis of associational resistance by determining if the presence of resistant aphids (L. pseudobrassicae reduces the rate of parasitism by Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh on non-resistant aphids (M. persicae. The experiment was conducted using collard green plants infested with M. persicae and L. pseudobrassicae either resistant or susceptible to D. rapae. The percentage of parasitism by D. rapae was greater on L. pseudobrassicae in the susceptible than in the resistant treatment, but parasitism rates on M. persicae did not differ between the treatments. There was no difference in average growth rate between M. persicae and susceptible L. pseudobrassicae populations, but resistant L. pseudobrassicae had greater growth rate than M. persicae. These results suggest that over a short period of time the presence of resistant L. pseudobrassicae does not affect the rate of parasitism by D. rapae on M. persicae.

  3. Anatomy of the aerial parts and chemical composition of the essential oil of Orthodon chinensis Maxim. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo, V.N.; An, N.T.K.; Dung, N.X.; Nam, Vu Viet; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The aerial parts of Orthodon chinensis Maxim. (syn. Mosla chinensis Maxim.) are used for the treatment of some common diseases (dyspepsia, diarrhoea, epidermophytosis, etc.) and for the production of traditional alcohol yeast. The anatomic structure of the stem and leaves has been studied and is

  4. Study of Commercially Available Lobelia chinensis Products Using Bar-HRM Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yan, Song; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Shi, Yuhua; Wu, Lan; Xiang, Li; Deng, Bo; Ma, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for herbal medicine identification using a fast, sensitive, and easy-to-use method that does not require complex infrastructure and well-trained technicians. For instance, the detection of adulterants in Lobelia chinensis herbal product has been challenging, since current detection technologies are not effective due to their own limits. High Resolution Melting (HRM) has emerged as a powerful new technology for clinical diagnosis, research in the food industry and in plant molecular biology, and this method has already highlighted the complexity of species identification. In this study, we developed a method of species specific detection of L. chinensis using HRM analysis combined with internal transcribed spacer 2. We then applied this method to commercial products purporting to contain L . chinensis . Our results demonstrated that HRM can differentiate L. chinensis from six common adulterants. HRM was proven to be a fast and accurate technique for testing the authenticity of L. chinensis in herbal products. Based on these results, a HRM approach for herbal authentication is provided.

  5. [Effects of water stress and temperature on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of Sinocalycanthus chinensis leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shi-sheng; Jin, Ze-xin

    2008-01-01

    Sinocalycanthus chinensis is an endangered species in Sinocalycanthus, and only distributed in Zhejiang Province of China. This paper studied the photosynthetic responses of 2-year-old pot-cultured S. chinensis to different levels of water stress and temperature. The results indicated that under mild and moderate water stress, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of S. chinensis leaves was decreased to 92.3% and 74.3% of the control, respectively, which was mainly attributed to stomatal limitation; and under severe water stress, the Pn was decreased to 44.4% of the control, which might be mainly linked to non-stomatal limitation. The appropriate temperature for S. chinensis photosynthesis was from 20 degrees C to 28 degrees C. At 39 degrees C, the Pn, water use efficiency (WUE), and maximal photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm) were decreased significantly, while the dark respiration rate (Rd) and transpiration rate (Tr) were enhanced significantly. With increasing water stress and temperature, some photosynthetic parameters including light saturation point (LSP), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and maximal CO2 assimilation rate (Pmax) decreased to certain extents, while light compensation point (LCP) increased, suggesting that both severe water stress and higher temperature were the important environmental factors affecting the survival of S. chinensis.

  6. Effects of salt-drought stress on growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  7. Effects of Salt-Drought Stress on Growth and Physiobiochemical Characteristics of Tamarix chinensis Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  8. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  9. Propagule pressure and climate contribute to the displacement of Linepithema humile by Pachycondyla chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Spicer Rice

    Full Text Available Identifying mechanisms governing the establishment and spread of invasive species is a fundamental challenge in invasion biology. Because species invasions are frequently observed only after the species presents an environmental threat, research identifying the contributing agents to dispersal and subsequent spread are confined to retrograde observations. Here, we use a combination of seasonal surveys and experimental approaches to test the relative importance of behavioral and abiotic factors in determining the local co-occurrence of two invasive ant species, the established Argentine ant (Linepithema humile Mayr and the newly invasive Asian needle ant (Pachycondyla chinensis Emery. We show that the broader climatic envelope of P. chinensis enables it to establish earlier in the year than L. humile. We also demonstrate that increased P. chinensis propagule pressure during periods of L. humile scarcity contributes to successful P. chinensis early season establishment. Furthermore, we show that, although L. humile is the numerically superior and behaviorally dominant species at baits, P. chinensis is currently displacing L. humile across the invaded landscape. By identifying the features promoting the displacement of one invasive ant by another we can better understand both early determinants in the invasion process and factors limiting colony expansion and survival.

  10. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Chen

    Full Text Available Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs. From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51% under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  11. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomeic assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. Thi...

  12. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfang; Li, Ronghua; Xia, Yanshi; Bai, Guihua; Guo, Peiguo; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Hua; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-01-01

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO) categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs). From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51%) under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  13. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  14. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP in NIR. II. Synthesis models (Meneses-Goytia+, 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meneses-Goytia, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present Single Stellar Populations (SSP) models are derived from my Ph.D.'s thesis and this paper. The following nomenclature is used throughout the paper and the website (http://smg.astro-research.net/ssp-models/the-models/) to describe the models, e.g. MarS models use the M08 isochrones (Mar)

  16. Susceptibility of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Finckh, M.R.; Munk, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance...

  17. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  18. Chemosensory basis of behavioural plasticity in response to deterrent plant chemicals in the larva of the Small Cabbage White butterfly Pieris rapae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, D.S.; Wang, C.Z.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological responsiveness to three chemically different secondary plant substances was studied in larvae of Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Three groups of caterpillars were studied that during their larval development were exposed to different rearing diets: an

  19. Transcriptome analysis of Crossostephium chinensis provides insight into the molecular basis of salinity stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Yang

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is becoming a limitation to the utilization of ornamental plants worldwide. Crossostephium chinensis (Linnaeus Makino is often cultivated along the southeast coast of China for its desirable ornamental qualities and high salt tolerance. However, little is known about the genomic background of the salt tolerance mechanism in C. chinensis. In the present study, we used Illumina paired-end sequencing to systematically investigate leaf transcriptomes derived from C. chinensis seedlings grown under normal conditions and under salt stress. A total of 105,473,004 bp of reads were assembled into 163,046 unigenes, of which 65,839 (40.38% of the total and 54,342 (33.32% of the total were aligned in Swiss-Prot and Nr protein, respectively. A total of 11,331 (6.95% differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified among three comparisons, including 2,239 in 'ST3 vs ST0', 5,880 in 'ST9 vs ST3' and 9,718 in 'ST9 vs ST0', and they were generally classified into 26 Gene Ontology terms and 58 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway terms. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, MYB, and AP2/EREBP and proteins involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, amino acid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interactions and carbohydrate metabolism, among others, were substantially up-regulated under salt stress. These genes represent important candidates for studying the salt-response mechanism and molecular biology of C. chinensis and its relatives. Our findings provide a genomic sequence resource for functional genetic assignments in C. chinensis. These transcriptome datasets will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in C. chinensis and facilitate the breeding of new stress-tolerant cultivars for high-saline areas using this valuable genetic resource.

  20. Essential-oil composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and nine different commercial varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), α-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  1. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    In species where chloroplast inheritance is exclusively or predominantly maternal, pollen-mediated flow of transgenes is reduced if transgenes are inserted in chloroplast DNA instead of nuclear DNA. However, transmission of chloroplast-encoded transgeneswill still occur if transgenic individuals ...... affected the thousand-kernel weight significantly. It was concluded that further introgression of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape to B. rapa is mostlikely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed....

  2. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity of Pollinator Insects in Relation to Seed Set of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.: Cruciferae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ATMOWIDI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollinators provide key services to both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Agricultural productivity depends, in part, on pollinator populations from adjacent seminatural habitats. Here we analysed the diversity of pollinator insects and its effect to seed set of mustard (Brassica rapa planted in agricultural ecosystem near the Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. At least 19 species of insects pollinated the mustard, and three species, i.e. Apis cerana, Ceratina sp., and Apis dorsata showed a high abundance. The higher abundance and species richness of pollinators occurred at 08.30-10.30 am and the diversity was related to the number of flowering plants. Insect pollinations increased the number of pods, seeds per pod, seed weights per plant, and seed germination.

  4. Effects of supplementary lighting by natural light for growth of Brassica chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lee, Hui-Ping; Kao, Shih-Tse; Lu, Ju-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This paper present a model of cultivated chamber with supplementary natural colour light. We investigate the effects of supplementary natural red light and natural blue light on growth of Brassica chinensis under natural white light illumination. After 4 weeks of supplementary colour light treatment, the experiment results shown that the weight of fresh leaf were not affected by supplementary natural blue light. However, those Brassica chinensis were cultivated in the chambers with supplementary natural red light obtained a significant increasing of fresh weight of leaf under both white light illuminate models. The combination of natural white light with supplementary natural red light illumination will be benefits in growth for cultivation and energy saving.

  5. NEW INCOMING ACCESSIONS OF BRASSICA RAPA L. INTO THE VIR PLANT COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Artemieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crops of Brassica rapa L. species are varieties such as pak-choi, tatsoi, wutacai, tsoisum, mizuna, mibuna, brokkoletto and Japanese leafy turnips Komatsuna, Kurona, Hiroshimana, Shirona, Mana, which are all characterized by  early-ripening,  high  productivity,  presence of valuable biochemical compounds and relatively simple growing requirements. The nappa cabbage is widespread and cultivated everywhere in the world as open field and greenhouse crop. Other varieties are grown locally, namely brokkoletto is grown in Italy, whereas other mentioned varieties are mostly cultivated in the Southeast Asian countries, where population uses them for different processing technologies. There is the nappa cabbage that is mostly cultivated, particularly for industrial production  in Russia. The Chinese cabbage (pak choi, Japanese cabbage, Japanese mustard  spinach  or  Komatsuna  are  not  very widespread and practically unknown crop. However, vegetable growers are interested in using new cole crops, and gardeners know about values of related varieties of nappa cabbage in the group of Asian cole crops. The analysis of incoming genetic accessions of Brassica rapa L. crops that have been included into the VIR plant collection is given. All  botanical  subspecies  and  varieties of  leafy varieties have been taken for the study. The detailed description of new for Russia varieties, such as purple, brokkoletto, rosette pakchoi as well as well as types of cultivars that haven’t still included into State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russian Federation are given. According to  research results obtained at Pushkin VIR laboratories (Saint-Petersburg the  initial  breeding  accessions  have been selected to  be  sources of  such characteristics as productivity,  early-ripening, disease resistance and valuable biochemical compounds.

  6. Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Catrine L; Larsen, Thomas; Hunt, Terry; Lipo, Carl; Solsvik, Reidar; Wallsgrove, Natalie; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie; Close, Hilary G; Popp, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment. Results of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ 15 N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment. Our results suggest highly elevated δ 15 N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Morpho- biochemical evaluation of Brassica rapa sub-species for salt tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sohail Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the key abiotic stresses that affect both the qualitative and quantitative characters of many Brassica rapa sub-species by disturbing its normal morphobiochemical processes. Therefore, the present research work was designed to study the effect of different NaCl events (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol on morphological and biochemical characters and to screen salt tolerant genotypes among brown, yellow and toria types of B. rapa sub-species. The plants were grown in test tubes with addition of four level of NaCl (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol. The effect of salinity on shoot and root length, shoot/ root fresh and dry weight, relative water content (RWC, proline and chlorophyll a, b, a+b contents was recorded after 4 weeks of sowing. The genotype 22861 (brown type showed excellent morphological and biochemical performance at all stress levels followed by Toria-Sathi and Toria-A respectively as compared to Check variety TS-1. The genotype 26158 (yellow type gave very poor performance and retard growth. The %RWC values and chlorophyll a, b and a+b contents were decreased several folds with the increase of salt concentration. While, the proline contents was increased with raising of salt stress. The brown and toria types showed maximum tolerance to salt stress at early germination stages as compare to yellows one. The present study will serve as model to develop quick salt tolerant genotypes among different plant sub-species against salt stress.

  8. Estimation of heritability of the nectar guide of flowers in Brassica rapa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syafaruddin; Kobayashi, K.; Yoshioka, Y.; Horisaki, A.; Niikura, S.

    2006-01-01

    Flowers of Brassica rapa L, produce a nectar guide, which consists of a coloured pattern (the dark, UV-absorbing centre of the flower) invisible to humans but visible to insect pollinators. As a result, the colour of the flowers typically appears as uniform light yellow to human eyes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mode of inheritance of this character by using two inbred lines and their Fsub(1), Fsub(2) and Fsub(3) progenies with a view to improving this character. After digitizing UV-photographs of each flower, we measured the UV-absorbing area (UVA) and the total flower area (FA), based on image analysis. The ratio of UVA to FA represented the UV colour proportion (UVP). We estimated the broad-sense and narrow-sense heritabilities from within-generation variances in the UVP scores and environmental variance from the average value of the variances in the parental lines. The value of broad-sense heritability of UVP was high (0.75) in the Fsub(2) generation (hBsup2[Fsub(2)]) and higher (0.84) in the Fsub(3) generation (hBsup2[Fsub(3)]), indicating that UVP is a heritable character. Moreover, the high value of broad-sense heritability of UVP indicates that breeders have not focused their selection intentionally on this character in B. rapa. In contrast, the value of narrow-sense heritability was much lower: 0.12 (hBsup2[Fsub(2)]) and 0.24 (hBsup2[Fsub(3)]), respectively, suggesting that the genetic variation in UVP was mainly due to dominance effects. If we attempt to breed new lines with larger or smaller UVP values, we need to select this trait in advanced generations, in which additive effects become larger

  9. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  10. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  11. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  12. Pemanfaatan Limbah Tahu untuk Peningkatan Hasil Tanaman Petsai (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YULIADI ASMORO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A tofu industry potentially produced solid or liquid waste products which are potentially causing pollution. A good treatment of the wastes, waste of solid-wet tofu can be use d to make tempeh gem bus, cattle food and fish food, and the rest is also used as fertilizer especially for pak choi or petsai or Chinese cabbage (Brasssica chinensis L.. The aims of this research were examine: (i The effect of tofu wastes for yield of petsai plant, and (ii the effect of concentration of tofu waste to the yield of petsai plant. There are two methods: independent variable and dependent variable. The method which used was experiment. 20 petsai plants were planted into 20 pots to be treated with solid and liquid tofu wastes with concentration 110%, 20%, and 30%, while as the control 20 pot each 1 plant was treated without wastes. The nutrient contents both for the solid and liquid wastes were analyzed. The data were analyzed by Anova and the difference between means tested using Duncan s Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5%% level of significant. The result indicated that increasing of petsai yields u sing solid tofu waste for concentration 10% is 94.06%, for concentration 20% is 3325.76%, and for 30% is 176.11%. The additional of liquid waste for concentration 10% is 41.226%, for concentration 200% is 64.34%% and for concentration 30% is 1.75%%, compared t o the control. Nitrogen contents (N of solid tofu waste and its organic material is higher than liquid waste one, so it has good effect for the plant growth, than liquid waste solution.

  13. Efficiency of PCR-based methods in discriminating Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis strains of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srůtková, Dagmar; Spanova, Alena; Spano, Miroslav; Dráb, Vladimír; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozaková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2011-10-01

    Bifidobacterium longum is considered to play an important role in health maintenance of the human gastrointestinal tract. Probiotic properties of bifidobacterial isolates are strictly strain-dependent and reliable methods for the identification and discrimination of this species at both subspecies and strain levels are thus required. Differentiation between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis is difficult due to high genomic similarities. In this study, four molecular-biological methods (species- and subspecies-specific PCRs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method using 5 primers, repetitive sequence-based (rep)-PCR with BOXA1R and (GTG)(5) primers and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA)) and biochemical analysis, were compared for the classification of 30 B. longum strains (28 isolates and 2 collection strains) on subspecies level. Strains originally isolated from the faeces of breast-fed healthy infants (25) and healthy adults (3) showed a high degree of genetic homogeneity by PCR with subspecies-specific primers and rep-PCR. When analysed by RAPD, the strains formed many separate clusters without any potential for subspecies discrimination. These methods together with arabionose/melezitose fermentation analysis clearly differentiated only the collection strains into B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis at the subspecies level. On the other hand, ARDRA analysis differentiated the strains into the B. longum/infantis subspecies using the cleavage analysis of genus-specific amplicon with just one enzyme, Sau3AI. According to our results the majority of the strains belong to the B. longum ssp. infantis (75%). Therefore we suggest ARDRA using Sau3AI restriction enzyme as the first method of choice for distinguishing between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural killer cell activities of synbiotic Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei in conjunction with dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Asai, Y; Tamai, R; Makimura, Y; Sakamoto, H; Hashikawa, S; Yasuda, K

    2006-01-01

    We have reported previously that Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei, together with specific substrate dextran, exhibited an adjuvant effect of stimulating humoral immune responses against bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model antigen in BALB/c mice. In the present study, among the Lactobacillus species tested, L. casei ssp. casei with dextran significantly elevated the natural killer (NK) cell activities in spleen mononuclear cells from BALB/c mice in comparison to L. casei ssp. casei alone or other Lactobacillus species with or without dextran. Oral administration of L. casei ssp. casei together with dextran also resulted in a significant increase of NK cell activities in healthy human volunteers. Further, L. casei ssp. casei induced significant production of interleukin (IL)-12 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and IL-15 mRNA expression in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. L. casei ssp. casei with dextran in food also significantly elevated the survival rate of BALB/c mice bearing Meth-A cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that dietary synbiotic supplementation which is a combination of the L. casei ssp. casei used as a probiotic together with the dextran, a specific substrate as a prebiotic, efficiently elicits murine and human NK cell activities.

  15. Composition of the root oil of Alpinia chinensis Rose. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The essential oil of the roots of Alpinia chinensis Rosc. of Vietnamese origin has been analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and GC/MS. Nineteen components, representing about 70% of the oil, have been identified. Most of them are sesquiterpenes such as b-caryophyllene (5.2%), a-humulene

  16. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  17. Transcriptome Profiling and In Silico Analysis of the Antimicrobial Peptides of the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis sinuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Woo; Markkandan, Kesavan; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seungil; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-11-28

    Antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are present in all types of organisms, from microbes and plants to vertebrates and invertebrates such as insects. The grasshopper Oxya chinensis sinuosa is an insect species that is widely consumed around the world for its broad medicinal value. However, the lack of available genetic information for this species is an obstacle to understanding the full potential of its AMPs. Analysis of the O. chinensis sinuosa transcriptome and expression profile is essential for extending the available genetic information resources. In this study, we determined the whole-body transcriptome of O. chinensis sinuosa and analyzed the potential AMPs induced by bacterial immunization. A high-throughput RNA-Seq approach generated 94,348 contigs and 66,555 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 36,032 (54.14%) matched known proteins in the NCBI database in a BLAST search. Functional analysis demonstrated that 38,219 unigenes were clustered into 5,499 gene ontology terms. In addition, 26 cDNAs encoding novel AMPs were identified by an in silico approach using public databases. Our transcriptome dataset and AMP profile greatly improve our understanding of O. chinensis sinuosa genetics and provide a huge number of gene sequences for further study, including genes of known importance and genes of unknown function.

  18. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  19. The role of chemical cues in host finding and acceptance by Callosobruchus chinensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignacimuthu, S.; Wäckers, F.L.; Dorn, S.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the response of female Callosobruchus chinensis to chemical cues emitted by cowpea seeds at different stages of bruchid infestation (uninfested, egg carrying, L1-, and L4-infested). Olfactory attractiveness was determined in Y-tube olfactometer assays by testing individual seed categories

  20. Comparison of Composition and Anticaries Effect of Galla Chinensis Extracts with Different Isolation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Deng, Meng; Liu, Mingdong; Cheng, Lei; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Li, Jiyao; Zhou, Xuedong; Ten Cate, Jacob. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Galla chinensis water extract (GCE) has been demonstrated to inhibit dental caries by favorably shifting the demineralization/remineralization balance of enamel and inhibiting the biomass and acid formation of dental biofilm. The present study focused on the comparison of composition and anticaries effect of Galla chinensis extracts with different isolation methods, aiming to improve the efficacy of caries prevention. Methods: The composition of water extract (GCE), ethanol extract (eGCE) and commercial tannic acid was compared. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) analysis was used to analyze the main ingredients. In vitro pH-cycling regime and polymicrobial biofilms model were used to assess the ability of different Galla chinensis extracts to inhibit enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation. Results: All the GCE, eGCE and tannic acid contained a high level of total phenolics. HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the main ingredients of GCE were gallic acid (GA), while eGCE mainly contained 4-7 galloylglucopyranoses (GGs) and tannic acid mainly contained 5-10 GGs. Furthermore, eGCE and tannic acid showed a better effect on inhibiting enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation compared to GCE. Conclusions: Galla chinensis extracts with higher tannin content were suggested to have higher potential to prevent dental caries. PMID:28979574

  1. Effect of Galla chinensis on growth and metabolism of microcosm biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Zhou, X.; Li, J.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Galla chinensis extract (GCE) interferes with de- and remineralization of dental enamel and the growth and metabolism in planktonic bacteria. However, no information is available on GCE effects on biofilms formed with saliva as inoculum. The aim of the current experiments was to investigate the

  2. Proteome dynamics and physiological responses to short-term salt stress in Leymus chinensis leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Li

    Full Text Available Salt stress is becoming an increasing threat to global agriculture. In this study, physiological and proteomics analysis were performed using a salt-tolerant grass species, Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis. The aim of this study is to understand the potential mechanism of salt tolerance in L. chinensis that used for crop molecular breeding. A series of short-term (<48 h NaCl treatments (0 ~ 700 mM were conducted. Physiological data indicated that the root and leaves growth were inhibited, chlorophyll contents decreased, while hydraulic conductivity, proline, sugar and sucrose were accumulated under salt stress. For proteomic analysis, we obtained 274 differentially expressed proteins in response to NaCl treatments. GO analysis revealed that 44 out of 274 proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism. Our findings suggested that L. chinensis copes with salt stress by stimulating the activities of POD, SOD and CAT enzymes, speeding up the reactions of later steps of citrate cycle, and synthesis of proline and sugar. In agreement with our physiological data, proteomic analysis also showed that salt stress depress the expression of photosystem relevant proteins, Calvin cycle, and chloroplast biosynthesis.

  3. Rhizomes Help the Forage Grass Leymus chinensis to Adapt to the Salt and Alkali Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junfeng; Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Ying; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis has extensive ecological adaptability and can grow well in saline-alkaline soils. The knowledge about tolerance mechanisms of L. chinensis could be base for utilization of saline-alkaline soils and grassland restoration and rebuilding. Two neutral salts (NaCl : Na2SO4 = 9 : 1) and two alkaline salts (NaHCO3 : Na2CO3 = 9 : 1) with concentration of 0, 100, and 200 mmol/L were used to treat potted 35-day-old seedlings with rhizome growth, respectively. After 10 days, the biomass and number of daughter shoots all decreased, with more reduction in alkali than in salt stress. The rhizome biomass reduced more than other organs. The number of daughter shoots from rhizome was more than from tillers. Under both stresses, Na+ contents increased more in rhizome than in other organs; the reduction of K+ content was more in underground than aerial tissue. Anion ions or organic acids were absorbed to neutralize cations. Na+ content in stem and leaf increased markedly in high alkalinity (200 mmol/L), with accumulation of soluble sugar and organic acids sharply. Rhizomes help L. chinensis to adapt to saline and low alkaline stresses by transferring Na+. However, rhizomes lost the ability to prevent Na+ transport to aerial organs under high alkalinity, which led to severe growth inhibition of L. chinensis. PMID:25121110

  4. Tetrahydroxanthones from Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuangxin; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Damdinjav, Davaadagva; Dorjbal, Enkhjargal; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-10-01

    Two tetrahydroxanthones, 1,3,5S,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (1) and 1,3,5R,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (2), and six new tetrahydroxanthone glycosides, amarellins A-F (3-8), were isolated from the aerial parts of a Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta (Gentianaceae). The structures of 1-8 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, chemical conversion, and ECD calculation. Amarellins A-C (3-5) were assigned as 8-O-β-D-glucoside, 8-O-β-D-xyloside, and 1-O-β-D-glucoside of 1, respectively, while amarellins D-F (6-8) were elucidated to be 8-O-β-D-xyloside, 1-O-β-D-glucoside, and 3-O-β-D-glucoside of 2, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of RO modules for the SSP ETC/LSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Bambenek, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    During the past eight years the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an Integrated Water and Waste Management System for use in the Space Station Prototype (SSP) Environmental Thermal Control/Life-Support System (ETC/LSS). This system includes the reverse osmosis (RO) process for recycling wash water and the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water and the wash water concentrated by RO. This paper summarizes the experimental work performed during the past four years to select the best commercially available RO module for this system and to also define which surfactants and germicides are most compatible with the selected module.

  6. Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, Matt G.

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

  7. Desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal' Fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal'. Realizaram-se amostragens semanais, com início aos 35 dias após a antese e término no início da senescência dos frutos. A partir do 77º dia após a antese, os frutos foram decompostos em pericarpo, semente e arilo. A antese ocorreu na primeira semana de setembro. Foram ajustados modelos sigmoidais simples para acúmulo de matéria seca, comprimento e diâmetro. Para o acúmulo de matéria seca, uma fase inicial, de crescimento lento, prolongou-se até o 63º dia após a antese e coincidiu com um período de intensa queda natural de frutos. Do 63º ao 98º dia após a antese, houve uma fase de rápido acúmulo de matéria seca. Até o 77º dia, pericarpo e semente foram os principais responsáveis pelo acúmulo de matéria seca. Oitenta e oito por cento do comprimento e 65% do diâmetro máximos foram atingidos nesse período. Do 84º ao 98º dia após a antese, o desenvolvimento do fruto foi determinado basicamente pelo arilo. As dimensões e a matéria seca do fruto estabilizaram-se a partir do 98º dia após a antese. O ponto de colheita comercial dos frutos, caracterizado pela coloração avermelhada do pericarpo, ocorreu a partir do 112º dia após a antese. Verificou-se um quadro senescente nos frutos a partir do 119º dia após a antese.It was studied the fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. The samples were taken weekly 35 days after anthesis until the beginning of fruit senescence. From the 77th day after anthesis, fruits were decomposed in pericarp, aril and seed. Anthesis occurred in the first week of September. The fruit dry matter, length and diameter followed a single-sigmoid pattern. For dry matter accumulation, an initial phase, of slow growth, ended the 63rd day after anthesis and was coincident with a period of intense fruit drop. The next phase occurred from the 63rd to the 98th day and showed a rapid dry matter

  8. Functional characterization of gynodioecy in Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Gynodioecy is a phylogenetically widespread and important sexual system where females coexist with hermaphrodites. Because dioecy can arise from gynodioecy, characterization of gynodioecy in close relatives of dioecious and sub-dioecious species can provide insight into this transition. Thus, we sought to determine whether Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata, a close relative to F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, exhibits the functional and population genetic hallmarks of a gynodioecious species. We compared reproductive allocation of females and hermaphrodites grown in the greenhouse and estimated genetic diversity (allelic diversity, heterozygosity) and inbreeding coefficients for field-collected adults of both sexes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We estimated mating system and early seed fitness from open-pollinated families of both sex morphs. Under greenhouse conditions, females and hermaphrodites allocated similarly to all reproductive traits except flower number, and, as a consequence, females produced 30 % fewer seeds per plant than hermaphrodites. Under natural conditions, hermaphrodites produce seeds by self-fertilization approx. 75 % of the time, and females produced outcrossed seeds with very little biparental inbreeding. Consistent with inbreeding depression, seeds from open-pollinated hermaphrodites were less likely to germinate than those from females, and family-level estimates of hermaphrodite selfing rates were negatively correlated with germination success and speed. Furthermore, estimates of inbreeding depression based on genetic markers and population genetic theory indicate that inbreeding depression in the field could be high. The joint consideration of allocation and mating system suggests that compensation may be sufficient to maintain females given the current understanding of sex determination. Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata exhibited similar sex morph-dependent patterns of mating system and genetic diversity, but less reproductive

  9. DNA Methylation Alterations at 5'-CCGG Sites in the Interspecific and Intraspecific Hybridizations Derived from Brassica rapa and B. napus.

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    Wanshan Xiong

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an important regulatory mechanism for gene expression that involved in the biological processes of development and differentiation in plants. To investigate the association of DNA methylation with heterosis in Brassica, a set of intraspecific hybrids in Brassica rapa and B. napus and interspecific hybrids between B. rapa and B. napus, together with parental lines, were used to monitor alterations in cytosine methylation at 5'-CCGG sites in seedlings and buds by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The methylation status of approximately a quarter of the methylation sites changed between seedlings and buds. These alterations were related closely to the genomic structure and heterozygous status among accessions. The methylation status in the majority of DNA methylation sites detected in hybrids was the same as that in at least one of the parental lines in both seedlings and buds. However, the association between patterns of cytosine methylation and heterosis varied among different traits and between tissues in hybrids of Brassica, although a few methylation loci were associated with heterosis. Our data suggest that changes in DNA methylation at 5'-CCGG sites are not associated simply with heterosis in the interspecific and intraspecific hybridizations derived from B. rapa and B. napus.

  10. Pengaruh SSP tematik terhadap peningkatkan karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik kelas I SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masnur Masnur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui, pengaruh Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP tematik dan pembelajaran tematik yang tidak menggunakan SSP tematik terhadap peningkatan karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik pada tema peristiwa alam semester genap kelas I SDN di Kecamatan Ujung kota Parepare tahun ajaran 2013/2014. Penelitian eksperimen semu dengan nonequivalent groups pretest-posttest design ini mengandung satu variabel bebas dan dua variabel terikat. Variabel bebas adalah Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP tematik sedangkan variabel terikat adalah karakter kejujuran dan disiplin. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh peserta didik kelas I SDN di Kecamatan Ujung Kota Parepare. Sampel dipilih dengan tekhnik purposive sampling, sehingga didapat tiga kelas sebagai sampel penelitian. Kelompok eksperimen 1 dan kelompok eksperimen 2 diberi perlakuan menggunakan SSP tematik, dan kelompok kontrol diberi perlakuan menggunakan pembelajaran tematik yang tidak menggunakan SSP tematik. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah teknik angket dan teknik observasi. Teknik angket digunakan untuk mengetahui nilai karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik. Teknik observasi digunakan untuk mengungkap perilaku karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik. Teknik analisis data digunakan adalah Analisys of Variance (ANOVA dengan taraf signifikansi 0.05. Hasil penelitian ini adalah SSP tematik secara signifkan berpengaruh positif terhadap peningkatan karakter kejujuran peserta didik dibandingkan dengan pembelajaran tematik yang tidak menggunakan SSP tematik diperoleh p < α yaitu p = 0,000 < α = 0,05 dengan F = 27,890; dan karakter disiplin peserta didik dibandingkan dengan pembelajaran tematik diperoleh p < α yaitu p = 0,000 < α = 0,05 dengan F= 9,294. Kata kunci: Subject Specific Pedagogy tematik, kejujuran, disiplin The effect of SSP thematic on the increase of characters honesty and discipline of grade 1 elementary school students Abstract The

  11. Apoptosis and pro-death autophagy induced by a spirostanol saponin isolated from Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) on HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaomin; Xiang, Limin; Huang, Yuying; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study has revealed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the rhizomes of Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) (Convallariaceae) (a reputed folk medicine) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of purified saponins remains unclear. More studies are necessary to assess the apoptosis and autophagy activities of the saponins from R. chinensis and clarify their antiproliferative mechanisms. The present study certificated the potential antiproliferative activity and mechanism of 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)- β-D-xylopyranosyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (SPD), a spirostanol saponin from R. chinensis, against human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). The antiproliferative activity of SPD in vitro was evaluated by MTT assay compared with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II). The autophagic activity was assessed using MDC staining and western blot, cell apoptosis inspection was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 fluorescence dye combined with flow cytometry. The potential mechanisms for protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated by western blot. Treatment of HL-60 cells with SPD resulted in growth inhibition (IC 50 value of 2.0 ± 0.2 µM, after 48 h treatment) and induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Results from Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay and mitochondrial membrane potential detection showed that apoptosis was happened after SPD treatment. The regulation of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PARP following SPD treatment contributed to the induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Meanwhile, SPD induced autophagy related with Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling and activated of AMPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, blocking autophagy with bafilomycin A1 reduced the cytotoxicity of SPD in HL-60 cells. The antiproliferative, apoptosis and pro

  12. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis Linn. against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    oorthy kannaiyan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis Linn. against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: The Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (MTCC 96, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis (MTCC 435, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis (MTCC 121, Escherichia coli (E. coli (MTCC 443, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae (MTCC 432, Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis (MTCC 1429, Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A (MTCC 735, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium (MTCC 98, Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri (MTCC 1457 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424, Candida albicans (C. albicans (MTCC 183 and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans (clinical isolate were originally obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection Centre, Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods against pathogens by using crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Results: Ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (33.20 mm, C. albicans (30.40 mm and C. neoformans (18.20 mm mean values were documented. Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against C. neoformans (19.8 mm and S. epidermidis (17.80 mm were observed. Based on broth dilution method, the ethanolic extract of crude plant material showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values against S. epidermidis, C. neoformans (256 毺 g/mL and C. albicans (512 毺 g/mL, whereas the aqueous extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (512 毺 g/mL and C. neoformans (1024 毺 g/mL were observed. Conclusions: The present result revealed that ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. possesses significant antifungal activity when compared as the antibacterial activities.

  13. Chloroplast microsatellite markers for Pseudotaxus chienii developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Zhang, Hanrui; He, Yipeng; Wang, Ting; Su, Yingjuan

    2017-03-01

    Pseudotaxus chienii (Taxaceae) is an old rare species endemic to China that has adapted well to ecological heterogeneity with high genetic diversity in its nuclear genome. However, the genetic variation in its chloroplast genome is unknown. Eighteen chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) were developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei and successfully amplified in four P. chienii populations and one T. chinensis var. mairei population. Of these loci, 10 were polymorphic in P. chienii , whereas six were polymorphic in T. chinensis var. mairei . The unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.641 and 0.000 to 0.545 for P. chienii and T. chinensis var. mairei , respectively. The 18 cpSSRs will be used to further investigate the chloroplast genetic structure and adaptive evolution in P. chienii populations.

  14. Investigating genotype specific response in photosynthetic behavior under drought stress and nitrogen limitation in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Weinig, C.; Aston, T.

    2015-12-01

    Challenges in terrestrial ecosystem modeling include characterizing the impact of stress on vegetation and the heterogeneous behavior of different species within the environment. In an effort to address these challenges the impacts of drought and nutrient limitation on the CO2 assimilation of multiple genotypes of Brassica rapa was investigated using the Farquhar Model (FM) of photosynthesis following a Bayesian parameterization and updating scheme. Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements from an unstressed group (well-watered/well-fertilized) and two stressed groups (drought/well-fertilized and well-watered/nutrient limited) were used to estimate FM model parameters. Unstressed individuals were used to initialize Bayesian parameter estimation. Posterior mean estimates yielded a close fit with data as observed assimilation (An) closely matched predicted (Ap) with mean standard error for all individuals ranging from 0.8 to 3.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Posterior parameter distributions of the unstressed individuals were combined and fit to distributions to establish species level Bayesian priors of FM parameters for testing stress responses. Species level distributions of unstressed group identified mean maximum rates of carboxylation standardized to 25° (Vcmax25) as 101.8 μmol m-2 s-1 (± 29.0) and mean maximum rates of electron transport standardized to 25° (Jmax25) as 319.7 μmol m-2 s-1 (± 64.4). These updated priors were used to test the response of drought and nutrient limitations on assimilation. In the well-watered/nutrient limited group a decrease of 28.0 μmol m-2 s-1 was observed in mean estimate of Vcmax25, a decrease of 27.9 μmol m-2 s-1 in Jmax25 and a decrease in quantum yield from 0.40 mol photon/mol e- in unstressed individuals to 0.14 in the nutrient limited group. In the drought/well-fertilized group a decrease was also observed in Vcmax25 and Jmax25. The genotype specific unstressed and stressed responses were then used to

  15. An abstract class loader for the SSP and its implementation in TL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE); Fraij, Fares (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Roach, Steve (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Beranek, Jason (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE)

    2004-08-01

    The SSP is a hardware implementation of a subset of the JVM for use in high consequence embedded applications. In this context, a majority of the activities belonging to class loading, as it is defined in the specification of the JVM, can be performed statically. Static class loading has the net result of dramatically simplifying the design of the SSP as well as increasing its performance. Due to the high consequence nature of its applications, strong evidence must be provided that all aspects of the SSP have been implemented correctly. This includes the class loader. This article explores the possibility of formally verifying a class loader for the SSP implemented in the strategic programming language TL. Specifically, an implementation of the core activities of an abstract class loader is presented and its verification in ACL2 is considered.

  16. ICLUS v2.1 land use projections for the Fourth National Climate Assessment (SSP2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SSP2 is a “middle-of-the-road” projection, where social, economic and technological trends do not shift markedly from historical patterns, resulting in a U.S....

  17. Comparison between MRI and 3D-SSP in olivopontocerebellar atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio; Hosaka, Kayo; Fujii, Masahiko; Chihara, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    We compared images of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) of SPECT with MRI images in spinocerebellar degeneration patients (13 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 7 cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA)). We analyzed a brain blood flow pattern with an image of statistics by 123 I-IMP SPECT. In OPCA patients, a blood flow reduction was more remarkable in 3D-SSP than a degree of cerebellar atrophy in MRI. In patients with CCA, the cerebellum showed little blood flow reduction in 3D-SSP despite of apparent atrophy in MRI. Simultaneous examination both MRI and 3D-SSP might be useful for differential diagnosis of spinocerebellar degenerations. (author)

  18. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M...

  19. Kvalitet, faglighed og legitime videnformer i SSP-samarbejdet under transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    2016-01-01

    Quality, professionalism and legitimate knowledge in a changing SSP-collaboration. This article explores the inter professional collaboration in a crime preventive initiative called SSP, which is a collaboration between school, social work and police. By drawing on interviews of actors from...... the collaboration and on historic sources that document the background of the establishment of SSP, the articles main focus is to explore and explain how the actors in the collaboration view legitimate and valuable knowledge. The article’s main conclusion is that the actors mainly view knowledge legitimate...... to the extent it can be linked to research based models. Consequently, this means that the conception of professional knowledge in SSP is at risk of being reduced to only include their information, which can be linked to these models....

  20. Comparative pathogenicity of Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes in juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, T J; Bricknell, I R; Preziosi, B M

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile Atlantic halibut (~100 mg, Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were exposed to Vibrio proteolyticus, a Vibrio spp. isolate, Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five different isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes via an hour-long bath immersion to ascertain their variation in pathogenicity to this fish species. Results were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Analysis of the data from challenges using A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes revealed three survival values of zero and a spread of values from 0 to 28.43. Challenges using a Vibrio spp isolate, V. proteolyticus and P. damselae resulted in Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 31.21, 50.41 and 57.21, respectively. As all bacterial species tested could induce juvenile halibut mortalities, they must all be considered as potential pathogens. However, the degree of pathogenicity of A. salmonicida is isolate dependent. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. MglA/SspA complex interactions are modulated by inorganic polyphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrench, Algevis P; Gardner, Christopher L; Siegel, Sara D; Pagliai, Fernando A; Malekiha, Mahsa; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD = 0.3 µM). These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC), where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm) of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP.

  2. MglA/SspA complex interactions are modulated by inorganic polyphosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algevis P Wrench

    Full Text Available The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD = 0.3 µM. These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC, where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP.

  3. [Quality level assessment of lowly efficient Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiang-Bao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Zhu, Jin-Fang; Xu, Jing-Wei; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Jing-Tao; Liu, Qing

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta as test objects, and by using synthetic factor method, this paper studied the main factors causing the lowly efficiency of T. chinensis secondary shrubs as well as the main parameters for the classification of lowly efficient T. chinensis secondary shrubs. A total of 24 indices including shrubs growth and soil physical and chemical properties were selected to determine the main affecting factors and parameters in evaluating and classifying the lowly efficient shrubs. There were no obvious correlations between the indices reflecting the shrubs growth and soil quality, and thus, only using shrub growth index to reflect the lowly efficiency level of T. chinensis was not enough, and it would be necessary to combine with soil quality factors to make a comprehensive evaluation. The principal factors reflecting the quality level of lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs included soil salt content and moisture content, stand age, single tree's aboveground stem, leaf biomass, and basal diameter, followed by soil density, porosity, and soil nutrient status. The lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs in the Bay could be classified into five types, namely, shrub with growth potential, slightly low quality shrub, moderately lowly efficient shrub, moderately low quality and lowly efficient shrub, and seriously low quality and lowly efficient shrub. The main features, low efficiency causes, and management measures of these shrubs were discussed based on the mean cluster value.

  4. RAPA NUI, ISLA DE PASCUA OR EASTER ISLAND: TRADITION, MODERNITY AND ALTERGLOBALIZATION IN INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Molina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research are described, analyze and compare the manifestations of the intercultural education in a difficult situation as it is Rapa Nui Island, traditionally isolated, in the “navel of the world” (Te pito o Te Henua, but “discovered” and assimilated by the western people and recovered for the intercultural idea that it surpasses this assimilation and/or global homogenization, in a alterglobalization context. We have analyzed four depth interviews and two biographical stories (life histories, dividing of the hypothesis of the necessity of a clear link between interculturality and education, to rethink the identity and the cultural continuity of their citizens. The obtained results suggest them programs of immersion in the school are not sufficient if they do not go accompanied of a holistic institutional work in the diverse scopes: cultural, educative, economic, environmental politician, leisure, etc. The construction of the identity sends again to individual and collective scopes, with the participation of the subject and the community. In this sense, intergenerational solidarity plays a fundamental role.

  5. Ion competition effects on the selective absorption of radionuclides by komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, S.; Shinonaga, T.; Ozaki, T.; Enomoto, S.; Yasuda, H.; Uchida, S.

    1999-01-01

    The selective absorption coefficient, which is a parameter of an uptake model of radionuclides by plants, was determined for various radionuclides by a multitracer technique. Komatsuna, Brassica rapa var. perviridis, was hydroponically cultivated in a nutrient solution containing a multitracer for 1 day. Nutrient concentration dependence of the selective absorption coefficient of various elements from Be to Re was obtained separately for leaves and roots. The selective absorption coefficients of these elements were, in general, found to decrease with an increase in the concentration of nutrient solutions. Regression equations of the power function for the selective absorption coefficients and the concentration of nutrient solutions were obtained for the leaves and roots. The effects of photon flux and growth stage of plants on the selective absorption coefficients were also studied. It was found that the photon flux influenced the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots but had no significant effect on the selective absorption coefficients for the leaves in 1-day cultivation with the multitracer. The selective absorption coefficients of Mn and Zn in the leaves of the plants at the development stage were higher than those at the maturation stage. For the other elements, no significant effects of the growth stage on the selective absorption coefficients were observed. (author)

  6. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  7. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m boxgirder 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    was part of a proof of concept investigation for a patent. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2007. The tests are an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risø National Laboratory for sustainable energy – Technical university of Denmark, SSP......This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test......-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Mølholt Jensen’s PhD thesis. This report is the second data report containing the complete test data for the three full-scale tests. This report deals only with the test methods and the obtained results...

  8. Venturia chinensis sp. nov., a new venturialean ascomycete from Khingan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Venturia (V. chinensis is described and illustrated from the leaves of Lonicera praeflorens collected from Lesser Khingan Mountains, the northeast China. It is characterized by habitat saprobic; ascomata small-sized, solitary or scattered, superficial, subglobose to citriform, wall black, papillate, ostiolate, covered with setae; peridium thin; hamathecium evanescent in mature ascomata; asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, oblong to obclavate, with or without a short, knob-like pedicel; ascospores ellipsoidal, olivaceous pale brown, 1-septate, ascospore wall thin, smooth. Comparisons of V. chinensis with V. lonicerae (another species on Lonicera caerulea and other species of Venturia lead to the conclusion that collected taxon is new. Its relationships with other species of Venturia are discussed based on morphology and 28S nrDNA and ITS nrDNA sequence comparisons.

  9. Biological observations for invasive and exotic insect species Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Hizal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, invasive and exotic insect species have been frequently found in Turkey. Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 was first recorded in Şile (Istanbul province county, Turkey, in June 2014 and later in Zeytinburnu (the garden of the Abdi Ipekçi Sports Complex and the surrounding in July in the same year. This study was conducted in these two counties in particular between June 2014 and July 2016 with the aims of making remarks on an earlier misidentification of Anoplophora species and determining the life cycle and the host plants in Istanbul, Turkey. It was noted that the record of A. glabripennis in Istanbul was a misidentification of A. chinensis. It took 1 year to complete its generation. The primary host plant of this insect was found to be Acer negundo.

  10. [Soil catalase activity of main plant communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Guo, Jixun; Zhu, Li

    2002-06-01

    The seasonal dynamics of soil catalase activity of three different plants communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China were in a parabolas shape. The seasonal variation of Chloris virgata community was greater than those of Leymus chinensis community and Puccinellia tenuiflora community, and "seed effect" might be the main reason. The correlation between the activity of soil catalase in different soil layers and environmental factors were analyzed. The results showed that the activity of soil catalase was decreased gradually with depth of soil layer. The activity of soil catalase was closely correlated with rainfall and air temperature, and it was affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interactions. The correlation between the activity and aboveground vegetation was very significant, and the growing condition of plant communities could be reflected by the activity of soil catalase.

  11. SSP: an interval integer linear programming for de novo transcriptome assembly and isoform discovery of RNA-seq reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safikhani, Zhaleh; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the sequencing technologies have provided a handful of RNA-seq datasets for transcriptome analysis. However, reconstruction of full-length isoforms and estimation of the expression level of transcripts with a low cost are challenging tasks. We propose a novel de novo method named SSP that incorporates interval integer linear programming to resolve alternatively spliced isoforms and reconstruct the whole transcriptome from short reads. Experimental results show that SSP is fast and precise in determining different alternatively spliced isoforms along with the estimation of reconstructed transcript abundances. The SSP software package is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/software/ssp. © 2013.

  12. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

  13. Induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in Actinidia chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Hu; Ferguson, A. Ross; Murray, Brian G.; Jia, Yilin; Datson, Paul M.; Zhang, Jingli

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Some otherwise promising selections of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. We have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading. Methods Flow cytometric analysis of young leaves and chromosome analysis of flower buds and root tips was used to confirm the stability of induced autotetraploids. Fruit weight, size and crop load were measured in the third year after planting in the field and for three consecutive years. DNA fingerprinting was used to confirm the origin of the material. Key Results There was a very significant increase in fruit size in induced autotetraploids of different genotypes of A. chinensis. With the commercially important diploid cultivar ‘Hort16A’, most regenerants, Type A plants, had fruit which were much the same shape as fruit of the diploid but, at the same fruit load, were much larger and heavier. Some regenerants, Type B plants, produced fruit similar to ‘fasciated’ fruit. Fruit of the autotetraploids induced from three female red-fleshed A. chinensis selections were also 50–60 % larger than fruit of their diploid progenitors. The main increase in fruit dimensions was in their diameters. These improved fruit characteristics were stable over several seasons. Conclusions Chromosome doubling has been shown to increase significantly fruit size in autotetraploid A. chinensis, highlighting the considerable potential of this technique to produce new cultivars with fruit of adequate size. Other variants with differently shaped fruit were also produced but the genetic basis of this variation remains to be elucidated. Autoploids of other Actinidia species with commercial potential may also show improved fruit characteristics, opening up many new possibilities for commercial development. PMID:21980192

  14. Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link). Schindler

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Yeşim

    2017-01-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link). Schnider)  leaves and seeds werescreened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidative potential of ethanol andmethanol extracts of Jojoba (Simmondsiachinensis) were investigated for the first time using DPPH2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity.Total phenolic substance amounts were calculated according to Folin-Ciocalteumethod, substance concentrations in mg/GAE g, equivalent to gall...

  15. Comparison of transcriptome profiles by Fusarium oxysporum inoculation between Fusarium yellows resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Naomi; Shimizu, Motoki; Miyazaki, Junji; Osabe, Kenji; Sato, Maho; Ebe, Yusuke; Takada, Satoko; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Fujimoto, Ryo; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2017-12-01

    Resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa have different immune responses against Fusarium oxysporum inoculation. Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) is an important disease of Brassicaceae; however, the mechanism of how host plants respond to Foc is still unknown. By comparing with and without Foc inoculation in both resistant and susceptible lines of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the bulked inoculated (6, 12, 24, and 72 h after inoculation (HAI)) and non-inoculated samples. Most of the DEGs were up-regulated by Foc inoculation. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that most up-regulated genes increased their expression levels from 24 HAI. An independent transcriptome analysis at 24 and 72 HAI was performed in resistant and susceptible lines. GO analysis using up-regulated genes at 24 HAI indicated that Foc inoculation activated systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in resistant lines and tryptophan biosynthetic process and responses to chitin and ethylene in susceptible lines. By contrast, GO analysis using up-regulated genes at 72 HAI showed the overrepresentation of some categories for the defense response in susceptible lines but not in the resistant lines. We also compared DEGs between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana after F. oxysporum inoculation at the same time point, and identified genes related to defense response that were up-regulated in the resistant lines of Chinese cabbage and A. thaliana. Particular genes that changed expression levels overlapped between the two species, suggesting that they are candidates for genes involved in the resistance mechanisms against F. oxysporum.

  16. Mortality estimate of Chinese mystery snail, Bellamya chinensis (Reeve, 1863) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species found throughout the USA. Little is known about this species’ life history or ecology, and only one population estimate has been published, for Wild Plum Lake in southeast Nebraska. A recent die-off event occurred at this same reservoir and we present a mortality estimate for this B. chinensis population using a quadrat approach. Assuming uniform distribution throughout the newly-exposed lake bed (20,900 m2), we estimate 42,845 individuals died during this event, amounting to approximately 17% of the previously-estimated population size of 253,570. Assuming uniform distribution throughout all previously-reported available habitat (48,525 m2), we estimate 99,476 individuals died, comprising 39% of the previously-reported adult population. The die-off occurred during an extreme drought event, which was coincident with abnormally hot weather. However, the exact reason of the die-off is still unclear. More monitoring of the population dynamics of B. chinensis is necessary to further our understanding of this species’ ecology.

  17. Nanoparticles formulation of Cuscuta chinensis prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Feng-Lin; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Cham, Thau-Ming; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2008-05-01

    Cuscuta chinensis is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine to nourish the liver and kidney. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as flavonoids and lignans, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The purpose of the present study was to use the nanosuspension method to prepare C. chinensis nanoparticles (CN), and to compare the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of C. chinensis ethanolic extract (CE) and CN on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An oral dose of CE at 125 and 250 mg/kg and CN at 25 and 50mg/kg showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P<0.05) by reducing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat hepatic biopsy examinations. In addition, the antioxidant activities of CE and CN both significantly increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondialdehyde (P<0.05). Moreover, the results also indicated that the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of 50 mg/kg CN was effectively better than 125 mg/kg CE (P<0.05), and an oral dose of CN that is five times as less as CE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other water poorly soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  18. Genetic isolation by distance in the endangered plant sinocalycanthus chinensis endemic to China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junmin, L.; Jingjing, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sinocalycanthus chinensis, narrowly endemic to China, is a tertiary relict species. We analyzed the genetic structure pattern of 6 populations of S. chinensis using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and the isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was tested in order to understand the relative influences of gene flow and genetic drift on population structure. The genetic diversity at species level was relatively high (P=51.00%, h =0.1397 and I=0.2191, respectively), while that at populations level was relatively low (P=18.00%, h=0.0733 and I=0.1108, respectively). High genetic differentiation was detected among populations (fi ST=0.6320). Neighbor-joining method of clustering results showed that six populations were clearly separated into eastern and western group. Mantel test showed that there was significant association between genetic distance and geographical distance (r/sup =0.8600, P=0.0470). Limited gene flow due to species traits and habitat fragmentation and the consequent genetic drift might be the 2 main causes for the genetic isolation by distance of S. chinensis populations. (author)

  19. Effect of tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae and Galla chinensis on gamma ray exposed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Feng; Wang Qingmin; Tang Ying; Li Yu; Shi Hai; Lei Chengxiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protective effect of tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae and Galla chinensis on radiation injury. Methods: Forty male Chinese Kunming mice were randomly divided into non-radiation group, radiation group without drugs,radiation group with tea polyphenols, radiation group with tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae and radiation group with tannins from Galla chinensis. The radiation groups were irradiated with a single exposure of 8.0 Gy γ rays from 60 Co. The mice were intragastric ally administered 2 h before radiation and were done 18 h after radiation. The 30-day survival rate, the mean survival time and the protective coefficients were confirmed. Results: All the mice of radiation group without drugs died in 16 d after exposure,and their mean survival time was (12.0±2.45) d, while the radiation groups with tannins from Dioscoreae Cirrhosae, with tannins from Galla chinensis and with tea polyphenols were (26.25±7.13) d, (21.88±8.89) d and (23.25±9.33) d respectively. There was significant difference in comparison with radiation group without drugs (P 60 Co and could present a significant protection effect on radiation injuries. (authors)

  20. THE BIOLOGY OF THE PROPAGATION OF SPECIES SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS (TURCZ. BAILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIORCHINĂ NINA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding the possibilities for the propagation of species Schisandra chinensis (Turz. Baill, as well as its reaction in the pedo-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova. Situated in the Lianarium of the Botanical Garden (Institute AŞM since 1975, Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. grows, develops and fructifies abundantly every year. It is propagated vegetatively and generatively with some difficulty. In the case of generative propagation, in order to obtain a high germination percentage, the seeds are stratified in three phases, at different temperatures and are sown in spring. Germination percentages of 80-90% were obtained. Schisandra chinensis is also propagated by greenwood cuttings, semi-hardwood or hardwood cuttings, by layering or by division. The best results were obtained by using semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings taken in summer, in June-July, from younger plants. The potential for in vitro propagation of this species was also tested. The explants consisting of apical meristems inoculated on MS medium + 0.5 mg/l BAP evolved the best.

  1. Experimental analysis of the liquid-feeding mechanism of the butterfly Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chul; Kim, Bo Heum; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-06-01

    The butterfly Pieirs rapae drinks liquid using a long proboscis. A high pressure gradient is induced in the proboscis when cibarial pump muscles contract. However, liquid feeding through the long proboscis poses a disadvantage of high flow resistance. Hence, butterflies may possess special features to compensate for this disadvantage and succeed in foraging. The main objective of this study is to analyze the liquid-feeding mechanism of butterflies. The systaltic motion of the cibarial pump organ was visualized using the synchrotron X-ray imaging technique. In addition, an ellipsoidal pump model was established based on synchrotron X-ray micro-computed tomography. To determine the relationship between the cyclic variation of the pump volume and the liquid-feeding flow, velocity fields of the intake flow at the tip of the proboscis were measured using micro-particle image velocimetry. Reynolds and Womersley numbers of liquid-feeding flow in the proboscis were ~1.40 and 0.129, respectively. The liquid-feeding flow could be characterized as a quasi-steady state laminar flow. Considering these results, we analyzed the dimensions of the feeding apparatus on the basis of minimum energy consumption during the liquid-feeding process. The relationship between the proboscis and the cibarial pump was determined when minimum energy consumption occurs. As a result, the volume of the cibarial pump is proportional to the cube of the radius of the proboscis. It seems that the liquid-feeding system of butterflies and other long-proboscid insects follow the cube relationship. The present results provide insights into the feeding strategies of liquid-feeding butterflies. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Searching for moving objects in HSC-SSP: Pipeline and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Alexandersen, Mike; Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wang, Jen-Hung; Yoshida, Fumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    The Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) is currently the deepest wide-field survey in progress. The 8.2 m aperture of the Subaru telescope is very powerful in detecting faint/small moving objects, including near-Earth objects, asteroids, centaurs and Tran-Neptunian objects (TNOs). However, the cadence and dithering pattern of the HSC-SSP are not designed for detecting moving objects, making it difficult to do so systematically. In this paper, we introduce a new pipeline for detecting moving objects (specifically TNOs) in a non-dedicated survey. The HSC-SSP catalogs are sliced into HEALPix partitions. Then, the stationary detections and false positives are removed with a machine-learning algorithm to produce a list of moving object candidates. An orbit linking algorithm and visual inspections are executed to generate the final list of detected TNOs. The preliminary results of a search for TNOs using this new pipeline on data from the first HSC-SSP data release (2014 March to 2015 November) present 231 TNO/Centaurs candidates. The bright candidates with Hr 5 show that the best-fitting slope of a single power law to absolute magnitude distribution is 0.77. The g - r color distribution of hot HSC-SSP TNOs indicates a bluer peak at g - r = 0.9, which is consistent with the bluer peak of the bimodal color distribution in literature.

  3. Staphylococcus saprophyticus surface-associated protein (Ssp) is associated with lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, Florian; Mohner, Amelie; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcal lipases have been proposed as pathogenicity factors. In Staphylococcus saprophyticus the surface-associated protein (Ssp) has been previously characterized as a cell wall-associated true lipase. A S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutant has been described as less virulent in an in vivo model of urinary tract infection compared with its wild-type. This is the first report showing that S. saprophyticus induced a lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans similar to that of S. aureus RN4220. In two S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutants lifespan reduction in C. elegans was partly abolished. In order to attribute virulence to the lipase activity itself and distinguish this phenomenon from the presence of the Ssp-protein, the conserved active site of the lipase was modified by site-directed ligase-independent mutagenesis and lipase activity-deficient mutants were constructed. These results indicate that the Ssp is associated with pathogenicity in C. elegans and one could speculate that the lipase activity itself is responsible for this virulence.

  4. DNA barcoding implicates 23 species and four orders as potential pollinators of Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M-M; Lim, C-L; Wilson, J-J

    2015-08-01

    Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) is of ecological and economic importance as a high-risk invasive species and a traditional medicinal herb. However, the insects associated with P. chinensis pollination have received scant attention. As a widespread invasive plant we would expect P. chinensis to be associated with a diverse group of insect pollinators, but lack of taxonomic identification capacity is an impediment to confirm this expectation. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the insect pollinators of P. chinensis in peninsular Malaysia using DNA barcoding. Forty flower visitors, representing the range of morphological diversity observed, were captured at flowers at Ulu Kali, Pahang, Malaysia. Using Automated Barcode Gap Discovery, 17 morphospecies were assigned to 23 species representing at least ten families and four orders. Using the DNA barcode library (BOLD) 30% of the species could be assigned a species name, and 70% could be assigned a genus name. The insects visiting P. chinensis were broadly similar to those previously reported as visiting Persicaria japonica, including honey bees (Apis), droneflies (Eristalis), blowflies (Lucilia) and potter wasps (Eumedes), but also included thrips and ants.

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  6. Variation in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) land use indicates production and population peaks prior to European contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Christopher M; Puleston, Cedric O; Vitousek, Peter M; Chadwick, Oliver A; Haoa, Sonia; Ladefoged, Thegn N

    2015-01-27

    Many researchers believe that prehistoric Rapa Nui society collapsed because of centuries of unchecked population growth within a fragile environment. Recently, the notion of societal collapse has been questioned with the suggestion that extreme societal and demographic change occurred only after European contact in AD 1722. Establishing the veracity of demographic dynamics has been hindered by the lack of empirical evidence and the inability to establish a precise chronological framework. We use chronometric dates from hydrated obsidian artifacts recovered from habitation sites in regional study areas to evaluate regional land-use within Rapa Nui. The analysis suggests region-specific dynamics including precontact land use decline in some near-coastal and upland areas and postcontact increases and subsequent declines in other coastal locations. These temporal land-use patterns correlate with rainfall variation and soil quality, with poorer environmental locations declining earlier. This analysis confirms that the intensity of land use decreased substantially in some areas of the island before European contact.

  7. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  8. Genetic Variation and Divergence of Genes Involved in Leaf Adaxial-abaxial Polarity Establishment in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leaf adaxial–abaxial (ad-ab polarity are one of the main factors that are responsible for leaf curvature. In Chinese cabbage, to form a leafy head, leaf incurvature is an essential prerequisite. Identifying ad-ab patterning genes and investigating its genetic variations will facilitate in elucidating the mechanism underlying leaf incurvature during head formation. In the present study we conducted comparative genomic analysis of the identification of 45 leaf ad-ab patterning genes in Brassica rapa based on 26 homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that these genes underwent expansion and were retained after whole genome triplication (WGT. We also assessed the nucleotide diversity and selection footprints of these 45 genes in a collection of 94 Brassica rapa accessions that were composed of heading and non-heading morphotypes. Six of the 45 genes showed significant negative Tajima’s D indices and nucleotide diversity reduction in heading accessions compared to that in non-heading accessions, indicating that these underwent purifying selection. Further testing of the BrARF3.1 gene, which was one of the selection signals from a larger collection, confirmed that purifying selection did occur. Our results provide genetic evidence that ad-ab patterning genes are involved in leaf incurvature that is associated in the formation of a leafy head, as well as promote an understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage.

  9. Study of selective metals accumulation in green mustard (Brassica rapa var. parachinesis L.) from Cameron Highlands farmlands, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Marlinda Musa; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat

    2011-01-01

    There are many essential and non-essential elements including metals and radionuclides present in vegetables. However, the accumulation of the several metals and radionuclides might cause the contamination to vegetables itself. Green mustard (Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L.) was selected to represent the vegetable in this study. Objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of metals and radionuclides in the samples and to calculate the enrichment factor (EF) and also to estimate the uptake, base on biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), for the various parts of selected vegetables. Three farmlands in the Cameron Highlands were studied namely Bharat, Kg Raja and Bertam area. The green mustard and soil samples were collected during the harvest season. Samples were dried, ground and sieved prior to analysis. Analyses for both samples were done by using X-rays Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to measure the concentration of Fe, Zn, Hg, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in the soils is lower than their concentration in the control soil, except for Zn, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in Green Mustard is lower than their concentration in the soil where it was grown. The EF values in the Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L are lower than 2 except for U and Th, indicating some degree of contamination due to anthropogenic activities or naturally origin. The BAC values show that Zn and Hg were accumulated in the green mustard, depending on where the plant grows. (Author)

  10. DNA-based genetic markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants type designed for the teaching laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryn E. Slankster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr, also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for Brassica rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a nongenic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology.

  11. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera Parts Essential Oils Depending on Geographic Variation and Extraction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Terfi, Souhila; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. Gas-chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. RASS sound speed profile (SSP) measurements for use in outdoor sound propagation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, S G [Physics Department, University of Auckland (New Zealand); Huenerbein, S v; Waddington, D [Research Institute for the Built and Human Environment, University of Salford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.vonhunerbein@salford.ac.uk

    2008-05-01

    The performance of outdoor sound propagation models depends to a great extent on meteorological input parameters. In an effort to improve speed and accuracy, model output synthetic sound speed profiles (SSP) are commonly used depending on meteorological classification schemes. In order to use SSP measured by RASS in outdoor sound propagation models, the complex profiles need to be simplified. In this paper we extend an investigation on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the meteorological data set required to yield adequate comparisons between models and field measurements, so that the models can be fairly judged. Vertical SSP from RASS, SODAR wind profiles as well as mast wind and temperature data from a flat terrain site and measured over a period of several months are used to evaluate applicability of the logarithmic approximation for a stability classification scheme proposed by the HARMONOISE working group.

  13. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  14. RASS sound speed profile (SSP) measurements for use in outdoor sound propagation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, S G; Huenerbein, S v; Waddington, D

    2008-01-01

    The performance of outdoor sound propagation models depends to a great extent on meteorological input parameters. In an effort to improve speed and accuracy, model output synthetic sound speed profiles (SSP) are commonly used depending on meteorological classification schemes. In order to use SSP measured by RASS in outdoor sound propagation models, the complex profiles need to be simplified. In this paper we extend an investigation on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the meteorological data set required to yield adequate comparisons between models and field measurements, so that the models can be fairly judged. Vertical SSP from RASS, SODAR wind profiles as well as mast wind and temperature data from a flat terrain site and measured over a period of several months are used to evaluate applicability of the logarithmic approximation for a stability classification scheme proposed by the HARMONOISE working group

  15. Does SSP Plus Increase Employment? The Effect of Adding Services to the Self-Sufficiency Project's Financial Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quets, Gail; Robins, Philip K.; Pan, Elsie C.; Michalopoulos, Charles; Card, David

    In 1992, Human Resources Development Canada launched the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP), which was a research and demonstration effort involving long-term, single-parent Income Assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick and British Columbia. Under SSP, IA recipients who left IA and worked at least 30 hours per week were offered a generous but…

  16. Some aspects of cultivation and utilization of waxy maize (Zea mays L. ssp. ceratina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of available literature on Zea mays L.ssp.ceratina. It contains information on the origin, cul- tivation and utilization of waxy maize in the world and can be a contribution to the development of new research on maize cultivation and starch processing technology. Maize, as an old and economically important cereal, played an enormous role in the ancient civilisations of the New World. Among the maize subspecies compared, Z. mays ssp. indurata and Z. mays ssp. indentata are now the most important in Poland. The subspecies Z. mays ssp. saccharata has a marginal role, while Z. mays ssp. ceratina has not been hitherto cultivated. Decisions to introduce the subspecies Z. mays ssp. ceratina into cultivation are based on different grounds, taking into account both agro-climatic conditions and industrial uses of grain processing products. The growing demand for maize grain, stimulated by the increased demand for maize starch and oil in the global market as raw materials that are important in food production, is an impulse for the development of agrobiological research. The development of the starch industry, associated with the demand for industrial starch, will probably contribute to increased interest in this subspecies in Central Europe, also including Poland. Waxy maize grain can be a major ingredient of high-energy feeds for livestock, replacing in this role the type of maize that has been grown for this purpose until now. A great advantage of waxy maize is its specific structure of starch, due to its unique and high amylopectin content (95-98%, which creates unlimited possibilities of industrial use. Currently, waxy maize acreage in Europe does not exceed 2% of the maize crop area in this continent.

  17. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur sources for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: Regulation of sulfur uptake and assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghajanzadeh, T.; Hawkesford, M.J.; De Kok, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa were able to utilize foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for growth and resulted in a decreased sink capacity of the shoot for sulfur supplied by the root and subsequently in a partial decrease in sulfate uptake capacity of the roots. Sulfate-deprived

  18. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: Impact on the glucosinolate composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghajanzadeh, T.; Kopriva, S; Hawkesford, M.J.; Koprivova, A.; De Kok, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sulfate deprivation and atmospheric H2S and SO2 nutrition on the content and composition of glucosinolates was studied in Brassica juncea and Brasscia rapa. Both species contained a number of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates. The total glucosinolate content was more than 5.5-fold

  19. Analysis of the a genome genetic diversity among brassica napus, b. rapa and b. juncea accessions using specific simple sequence repeat markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, H.; Yan, J.; Zhang, R.; Guo, Y.; Hu, S.; Channa, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at evaluating the genetic diversity of 127 accessions among Brassica napus, B. rapa, and B. juncea by using 15 pairs of the A genome specific simple sequence repeat primers. These 127 accessions could be clearly separated into three groups by cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and population structure analysis separately, and the results analyzed by the three methods were very similar. Group I comprised of mainly B. napus accessions and the most of B. juncea accessions formed Group II, Group III included nearly all of the B. rapa accessions. The result showed that 36.86% of the variance was due to significant differences among populations of species, indicated that abundance genetic diversity existed among the A genome of B. napus, B. rapa, and B. juncea accessions. B. napus, B. rapa, and B. juncea have the abundant genetic diversity in the A genome, and some elite genes can be used to broaden the genetic base of them, especially for B. napus, in future rapeseed breeding program. (author)

  20. A stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) perspective on human diet on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) ca. AD 1400-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendador, Amy S; Dudgeon, John V; Finney, Bruce P; Fuller, Benjamin T; Esh, Kelley S

    2013-10-01

    Ecological and environmental evidence suggests that Rapa Nui was among the most marginally habitable islands in Eastern Polynesia, with only a fraction of the biotic diversity found on archipelagos to the west, and capable of sustaining many fewer cultigens traditionally transported by Polynesian colonizers. However, archaeological evidence for human dietary adaptations under such restrictions is limited. Little is known about the particulars of the subsistence base and dietary changes on Rapa Nui that may be associated with a hypothesized late prehistoric decline in the quality and diversity of food sources. To better understand prehistoric Rapa Nui diet we examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of human teeth along with archaeological faunal material thought to comprise the Rapa Nui food web. Our results indicate that contrary to previous zooarchaeological studies diet was predominantly terrestrial throughout the entire sequence of occupation, with reliance on rats, chickens and C3 plants. While a few individuals may have had access to higher trophic level marine resources, this is evident only later in time (generally post-AD 1600). A decline in (15)N through time was observed, and may be attributed to declines in available terrestrial proteins; however, presently we cannot rule out the effect of changing soil and plant baseline δ(15)N. Our results also suggest differential access to higher trophic level marine resources among contemporaneous populations, but more research is required to clarify this observation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4?C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A ...

  2. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  3. Differentiation of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta australis by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis and HPLC-UV quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianghui; Yang, Wenzhi; Ye, Min; Wang, Qing; Guo, Dean

    2011-11-01

    Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta australis, the two botanical sources of the Chinese herbal medicine Tu-Si-Zi, were distinguished from each other based on qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. By HPLC‑DAD‑MS, a total of 36 compounds were characterized from these two Cuscuta species, including 14 flavonoids, 17 quinic acid derivatives, and 5 lignans. In addition, HPLC‑UV was applied to determine seven major compounds (6 flavonoids plus chlorogenic acid) in 27 batches of Tu-Si-Zi. The results revealed that the amounts of the three classes of compounds varied significantly between the species. C. australis contained more flavonoids but less quinic acid derivatives and lignans than C. chinensis. Particularly, the amounts of kaempferol and astragalin in C. australis were remarkably higher than in C. chinensis. This finding could be valuable for the quality control of Tu-Si-Zi. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Lead (Pb Accumulation in Water, Sediment and Mussels (Hiatula chinensis from Pasir Panjang Coast, Lekok-Pasuruan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defri Yona

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to evaluate Pb accumulation in the water, sediment and mussels (Hiatula chinensis from Lekok-Pasuruan. There were four sampling stations representing the study area: (1 urban areas, (2 water flow area from steam power plant (PLTU, (3 waste disposal area of PLTU, (4 fishing port. The average concentration of lead varied between stations in the water (0.279 ppm, sediment (0.423 ppm and mussels (0.427 ppm. Pearson`s correlation test shows strong relationship (p > 0.05 between Pb in the water, sediment and Hiatula chinensis. Mussels accumulation of lead from the sediment was assessed using bio-concentration factor (BCF and the result shows Hiatula chinensis is an accumulator of Pb (BCF > 1.

  5. Symptoms of main Callistephus chinensis L. Nees. diseases under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko Alla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathological monitoring of C. chinensis (L. Nees. has proven withering and root rot to be the dominating diseases in agrobiocenoses under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone. Their spread was 5,1 and 4 times more than one of spotting. The complex of plant pathogenic overground and underground microflora consists of 24 causative agents. B. cinerea, F. oxysporum, V. albo-atrum have been found on all the vegetative and reproductive parts of Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees., , Ph. cactorum – on plant overground and underground parts, Rh. solani – on underground parts and seeds, A. zinniae – on overground parts and seeds. The main C. chinensis (L. Nees. disease symptoms have been diagnosed (leaf spots, powdery mildew, verticillium wilt, rust, ramularia spot, septoria spots, botrytis blight, grey mold rot, late blight, fusarium blight, black stem.

  6. A Hypomethylated population of Brassica rapa for forward and reverse Epi-genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic marks superimposed on the DNA sequence of eukaryote chromosomes provide agility and plasticity in terms of modulating gene expression, ontology, and response to the environment. Modulating the methylation status of cytosine can generate epialleles, which have been detected and characterised at specific loci in several plant systems, and have the potential to generate novel and relatively stable phenotypes. There have been no systematic attempts to explore and utilise epiallelic variation, and so extend the range of phenotypes available for selection in crop improvement. We developed an approach for generating novel epialleles by perturbation of the DNA methylation status. 5- Azacytidine (5-AzaC provides selective targeting of 5mCG, which in plants is associated with exonic DNA. Targeted chemical intervention using 5-AzaC has advantages over transgenic or mutant modulation of methyltransferases, allowing stochastic generation of epialleles across the genome. Results We demonstrate the potential of stochastic chemically-induced hypomethylation to generate novel and valuable variation for crop improvement. Systematic analysis of dose–response to 5-AzaC in B. rapa guided generation of a selfed stochastically hypomethylated population, used for forward screening of several agronomic traits. Dose–response was sigmoidal for several traits, similar to that observed for chemical mutagens such as EMS. We demonstrated transgenerational inheritance of some phenotypes. BraRoAZ is a unique hypomethylated population of 1000 E2 sib lines. When compared to untreated controls, 5-Aza C-treated lines exhibited reduced immuno-staining of 5mC on pachytene chromosomes, and Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP profiles that were both divergent and more variable. There was coincident phenotypic variation among these lines for a range of seed yield and composition traits, including increased seed protein content and

  7. Dianthus chinensis L.: The Structural Difference between Vascular Bundles in the Placenta and Ovary Wall Suggests Their Different Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue-Min; Yu, Ying-Ying; Bai, Lan; Gao, Rong-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis is a perennial herbaceous plant with great ornamental, botanical, ecological, and medicinal value. The pistil of D. chinensis is composed of two fused carpels with free central placenta and two separate styles. The placenta is a columnar structure extending about two-thirds the length of the maturing fruit, which is typical of the Caryophyllaceous. Traditionally, free central placenta is thought to have evolved from axial placenta by septal disappearance, and axial placenta to have occurred through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placenta. However, the traditional opinion is becoming more and more inconsistent with the new data gained in recent research of angiosperm systematics. To clarify the origin of D. chinensis pistil, the present anatomical study was carried out. The results show that the vascular system of placenta is independent to that of the ovary wall in D. chinensis . Moreover, in the central part of placenta there are one or two amphicribral bundles, and correspondingly numerous ones in the pistil which supply the ovules/seeds. It is obvious that the central amphicribral bundles in placenta are comparable to the counterparts in branches but not to those in leaves or their derivatives. Therefore, it is reasonable to deduce that the placenta of D. chinensis was not derived from conduplicate carpels through fusion of collateral vascular bundles, and actually a floral axis with ovules/seeds laterally adhering. On the contrary, the ovary wall was the lateral appendages of the floral axis. The result of the present study is completely in agreement with Unifying Theory, in which the placenta is taken as an ovule-bearing branch. Except for D. chinensis , the similar vascular organization has been observed in placenta of numerous isolated taxa. But till now, it is uncertain that whether this vascular organization pattern is popular in the whole angiosperms or not. More intensive and extensive investigations are needed.

  8. Lack of gender effect on the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in Fenneropenaeus chinensis after intramuscular administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Chang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Wenting; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao

    2015-04-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis, an economically important shrimp species, currently suffers from epizootic diseases due to high density stocking and bacterial infections. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used to treat various systemic bacterial infections in shrimp farming. In the present study, the effect of gender on pharmacokinetics of OTC in F. chinensis was investigated. The OTC concentrations in hemolymph of shrimp after single intramuscular administration (75 mg OTC per kg body weight) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and best described with a two-compartment open model which is characterized by a short elimination half-life, low clearance, and a relatively large apparent volume of distribution. The pharmacokinetic equations were C t = 58.54e-0.38 t + 11.67e-0.04 t for females; and C t = 27.94e-0.28 t + 14.87e-0.04 t for males. The distribution and elimination half-lives of OTC were 1.82 and 19.58 h, respectively, in females and 2.50 and 16.11 h, respectively, in males at 22°C. The areas under the drug concentration curve were 480 mg L-1 h-1 in females and 430 mg L-1 h-1 in males. The total body clearance of the drug was 157.11 mL kg-1 h-1 in females and 172.47 mL kg-1 h-1 in males. The apparent volume distribution was 4.44 in females and 4.01 L kg-1 in males. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between female and male shrimps, indicating that there is no need to consider the gender effect in clinical use of OTC in F. chinensis farming.

  9. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the essential oil from seven common spices, Anethum graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Illicium verum, Myristica fragrans, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum and Trachyspermum ammi was isolated and its insecticidal, oviposition, egg hatching and developmental inhibitory activities were determined against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus. These essential oils caused death of adults and larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis when fumigated. The 24-h LC(50) values against the adults of the insect were 8.9 mul, 10.8 mul, 11.0 mul, 12.5 mul, 13.6 mul, 14.8 mul and 15.6 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils respectively. On the other hand, against larval stage these values were 6.4 mul, 7.9 mul, 8.9 mul, 11.1 mul, 11.7 mul, 12.2 mul and 13.5 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi respectively. These essential oils reduced the oviposition potential, egg hatching rate, pupal formation and emergence of adults of F(1) progeny of the insect when fumigated with sublethal concentrations. These essential oils also caused chronic toxicity as the fumigated insects caused less damage to the stored grains. The essential oil of N. sativa was found most effective against all the different stages of the Callosobruchus chinensis followed by A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils. All the responses were found concentration-dependent. The toxic and developmental inhibitory effects may be due to suffocation and inhibition of various biosynthetic processes of the insects at different developmental stages.

  10. Global Gene-Expression Analysis to Identify Differentially Expressed Genes Critical for the Heat Stress Response in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available Genome-wide dissection of the heat stress response (HSR is necessary to overcome problems in crop production caused by global warming. To identify HSR genes, we profiled gene expression in two Chinese cabbage inbred lines with different thermotolerances, Chiifu and Kenshin. Many genes exhibited >2-fold changes in expression upon exposure to 0.5- 4 h at 45°C (high temperature, HT: 5.2% (2,142 genes in Chiifu and 3.7% (1,535 genes in Kenshin. The most enriched GO (Gene Ontology items included 'response to heat', 'response to reactive oxygen species (ROS', 'response to temperature stimulus', 'response to abiotic stimulus', and 'MAPKKK cascade'. In both lines, the genes most highly induced by HT encoded small heat shock proteins (Hsps and heat shock factor (Hsf-like proteins such as HsfB2A (Bra029292, whereas high-molecular weight Hsps were constitutively expressed. Other upstream HSR components were also up-regulated: ROS-scavenging genes like glutathione peroxidase 2 (BrGPX2, Bra022853, protein kinases, and phosphatases. Among heat stress (HS marker genes in Arabidopsis, only exportin 1A (XPO1A (Bra008580, Bra006382 can be applied to B. rapa for basal thermotolerance (BT and short-term acquired thermotolerance (SAT gene. CYP707A3 (Bra025083, Bra021965, which is involved in the dehydration response in Arabidopsis, was associated with membrane leakage in both lines following HS. Although many transcription factors (TF genes, including DREB2A (Bra005852, were involved in HS tolerance in both lines, Bra024224 (MYB41 and Bra021735 (a bZIP/AIR1 [Anthocyanin-Impaired-Response-1] were specific to Kenshin. Several candidate TFs involved in thermotolerance were confirmed as HSR genes by real-time PCR, and these assignments were further supported by promoter analysis. Although some of our findings are similar to those obtained using other plant species, clear differences in Brassica rapa reveal a distinct HSR in this species. Our data could also provide a

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the fitness component of the pulse beetle, callosobruchus chinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, A.M.; Aboulnasr, A.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Ahmed, M.Y.; Haiba, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with the fines components of the F 1 generation of pulse beetle, callosobruchus chinensis, developed from adults irradiated (as newly emerged adults) with higher doses and fractionation of sterilizing doses. The results obtained show a gradual decrease in egg production and hatchability. The dosages caused complete sterility in females and males respectively, shortening the life span of developed adults. The dose 200,000 rad caused immediate death to the irradiated adults. Fractionation of the sterilizing dose had no effect on either longevity or the percent of egg hatchability

  12. Two new lignans from Saururus chinensis and their DGAT inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Tuo, Zhen-Dong; Qi, Shi-Zhou; Xing, Shan-Shan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Chen, Jian-Guang; Cui, Long

    2015-03-01

    Two new lignans were isolated from Saururus chinensis, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and physico-chemical analyses. All the isolates were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against DGAT1 and DGAT2. Among them, compounds 2, 3, 5 and 7 were found to exhibit selective inhibitory activity on DGAT1 with IC50 values ranging from 44.3±1.5 to 87.5±1.3μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. biostudy on vigna sinensis beetle, callosobruchus chinensis l.and its control by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.I.A.

    2005-01-01

    the present study carried out to determine: 1.the effects of the separate and combined effect of bacillus thuringiensis and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of callosobruchus chinensis. 2. the weight loss in infected seeds and total population of the pest after store it for different on adult beetles to determine the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates contents. 4. some analysis in the cowpea vigna anguiculata seeds to investigate the nutritive value after different treatments with bacillus thuringiensis (b.t) and gamma radiation

  14. Coptis chinensis Franch. exhibits neuroprotective properties against oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Thomas; Otto, Benjamin; Klätschke, Kristin; Schumacher, Udo; Tao, Yi; Leung, Alexander Kai-Man; Efferth, Thomas; Schröder, Sven

    2014-08-08

    The dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch. (family Ranunculaceae) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and diabetes. Recent studies showed a variety of activities of Coptis chinensis Franch. alkaloids, including neuroprotective, neuroregenerative, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no report on the neuroprotective effect of Coptis chinensis Franch. watery extract against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced oxidative damage. The aim of the study is to investigate neuroprotective properties of Coptis chinensis Franch. rhizome watery extract (CRE) and to evaluate its potential mechanism of action. Neuroprotective properties on t-BOOH induced oxidative stress were investigated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Cells were pretreated with CRE for 2 h or 24 h followed by 2 h of treatment with t-BOOH. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of CRE, cell viability, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the apoptotic rate were determined and microarray analyses, as well as qRT-PCR analyses were conducted. Two hours of exposure to 100 µM t-BOOH resulted in a significant reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate, declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased ROS production. Reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate and declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) could be significantly reduced in cells pretreated with CRE (100 µg/ml) for 2h or 24h ahead of t-BOOH exposure with the greatest effect after 24h of pretreatment; however ROS production was not changed significantly. Furthermore, microarray analyses revealed that the expressions of 2 genes; thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1, were significantly regulated. Down regulation of TXNIP was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Due to its neuroprotective properties CRE might be a potential

  15. Spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana methanolic extracts on the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Rodríguez, Rodolfo; González-Trujano, María Eva; Ángeles-López, Guadalupe E; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Gómez, Claudia

    2017-01-20

    Agastache mexicana has been used in traditional medicine for relief of abdominal pain and treatment of other diseases. Two subspecies have been identified: A. mexicana ssp. mexicana (AMM) and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (AMX) and both are used traditionally without distinction or in combination. To determine the effect of methanol extracts of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana on gut motility and their possible mechanism of action. The effect of AMM and AMX methanol extracts were tested on the spontaneous activity in the isolated guinea pig ileum and on tissues pre-contracted with KCl, electrical field stimulation (EFS) or ACh. In addition, the possible mechanism of action of each subspecies on gut motility was analyzed in the presence of hexametonium, indomethacin, L-NAME, verapamil, atropine or pyrylamine. A comparative chromatographic profile of these extracts was also done to indicate the most abundant flavonoids presents in methanol extracts of both subspecies. AMM, but not AMX, induced a contractile effect in the guinea pig ileum. This spasmogenic effect was partially inhibited by atropine, antagonist of muscarinic receptors; and pyrilamine, antagonist of H 1 receptors. In contrast, AMX, but not AMM, diminished the contractions induced by KCl, EFS or ACh. The spasmolytic activity of AMX was partially inhibited by hexamethonium, ganglionic blocker; and indomethacin, inhibitor of the synthesis of prostaglandins; but not by L-NAME, inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, AMX diminished the maximal contraction induced by CaCl 2 in a calcium-free medium. Chromatographic analyses of these methanol extracts showed the presence of acacetin and tilanin in both. These results suggest that in folk medicine only AMX should be used as spasmolytic, and not in combination with AMM as traditionally occurs, due to the spasmogenic effects of the latter. In addition, activation of nicotinic receptors, prostaglandins and calcium channels, but

  16. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  17. Interrelationships among light, photosynthesis and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; W. K. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Scaling leaf-level measurements to estimate carbon gain of entire leaf crowns or canopies requires an understanding of the distribution of photosynthetic capacity and corresponding light microenvironments within a crown. We have compared changes in the photosynthetic light response and nitrogen (N) content (per unit leaf area) of Pinus contorta Dougl. ssp. latifolia...

  18. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  19. Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis ssp collina cultivated in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R; Hendriks, H; Pras, N; St Stojanova, A; Georgiev, EV

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from air-dried subterranean parts of Valeriana officinalis ssp. collina (Wallr.) Nyman (Valerianaceae), 'Shipka,' was analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and 62 components were identified. The oil yield, collected in plants grown in 1995 and 1938, was 0.42% (v/m) and 0.40% (v/m)

  20. PENGEMBANGAN SSP FISIKA BERBASIS PENDEKATAN CTL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS DAN MOTIVASI BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiq Makhdum Noor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a learning device as Subject-Specific Pedagogy (SSP of physics, and to improve science process skills and learning motivation of the students. This research used the 4D model. The subjects of this research were the XI grade students of Muhammadiyah High School 2 Yogyakarta. The data collecting instruments were expert validation sheets, science process skill observation sheets, questionnaire of students’ response to the student books and worksheets, question-naire of students’ response to teaching process, students’ motivation learning sheets, and science process skill paper test. The research data were collected through observation, questionnaire, and paper test, and analyzed quantitatively. The results show as follows. (1 The development of physics SSP is carried out in accordance with the procedures of 4D model product development. (2 The results of expert’s validation show the physics SSP is in the very good criteria. (3 The readability of the student books and worksheets is in the good criteria. (4 The increasing of the score of science process skills and students’ learning motivation in the experimental class is higher than that in the control class. This shows that the physics SSP is fit for use in physics teaching.

  1. Bovine glycomacropeptide promotes the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis and modulates its gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, N; O'Callaghan, J; Buttò, L F; Kilcoyne, M; Joshi, L; Hickey, R M

    2018-05-23

    Bovine milk glycomacropeptide (GMP) is derived from κ-casein, with exclusively o-linked glycosylation. Glycomacropeptide promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis in a concentration-dependent manner, and this activity was lost following periodate treatment of the GMP (GMP-P), which disables biological recognition of the conjugated oligosaccharides. Transcriptional analysis of B. longum ssp. infantis following exposure to GMP revealed a substantial response to GMP relative to bacteria treated with GMP-P, with a greater number of differentially expressed transcripts and larger fold changes versus the control. Therefore, stimulation of B. longum ssp. infantis growth by GMP is intrinsically linked to the peptide's O-linked glycosylation. The pool of differentially expressed transcripts included 2 glycoside hydrolase (family 25) genes, which were substantially upregulated following exposure to GMP, but not GMP-P. These GH25 genes were present in duplicated genomic islands that also contained genes encoding fibronectin type III binding domain proteins and numerous phage-related proteins, all of which were also upregulated. Homologs of this genomic arrangement were present in other Bifidobacterium species, which suggest it may be a conserved domain for the utilization of glycosylated peptides. This study provides insights into the molecular basis for the prebiotic effect of bovine milk GMP on B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  3. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions.

  4. Surveillance of Campylobacter ssp. in broiler flocks by PCR on boot sock samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Lund, Marianne; Hald, Birthe

    on sampling with one pair of boot sock was established. Samples were collected by the farmer app. 10 days before slaughter and send to laboratory for analysis. To detect Campylobacter ssp. in these fecal samples, a PCR based method was established and validated. The assay was developed as a genus specific...

  5. Uranium accumulation in Brassica rapa L. and effect of citric acid and humic acids as chelating agents; Acumulacion de uranio en Brassica rapa L. y efecto del acido citrico y acidos humicos como agentes quelantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Perez C, G. A.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rodriguez H, G., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Agronomia, Carretera Zacatecas-Guadalajara Km 15.5, Cieneguillas, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Phyto extraction is a technique that makes use of plants for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. In this study the uranium incorporation in the Brassica rapa L. species was evaluated, in artificially contaminated inert soils with 40 mg U/kg, and the effect of adding of the natural chelating agents citric acid and humic acids in the accumulation of uranium was analyzed. Soil free of organic matter and biologically inert was obtained by controlled calcination s of natural soil. Cultures in the prepared soil consisted of five growth treatments: 1) cultivation without uranium or additives; 2) cultivation in the uranium presence; 3) cultivation with uranium and citric acid (2 g/kg); 4) cultivation with uranium and humic acids (10 g/kg); 5) uranium cultivation and combination of citric and humic acids at the same concentrations. There was no adverse effect on plant growth with the presence of uranium at the given concentration. Regarding the controls, the total biomass in the presence of uranium was slightly higher, while the addition of humic acids significantly stimulated the production of biomass with respect to the citric acid. The combined action of organic acids produced the highest amount of biomass. The efficiency of phyto extraction followed the order Humic acids (301 μg U/g) > Non-assisted (224 μg U/g) >> Citric acid + Humic acids (68 μg U/g) > Citric acid (59 μg U/g). The values of uranium concentration in the total biomass show that the species Brassica rapa L. has the capacity of phyto extraction of uranium in contaminated soils. The addition of humic acids increases the uranium extraction while the addition of citric acid disadvantages it. (Author)

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Analysis of the Calcineurin B-like Protein and Calcineurin B-like Protein-Interacting Protein Kinase Gene Families in Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL–CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK complex has been identified as a primary component in calcium sensors that perceives various stress signals. Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa has been widely cultivated in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau for a century as a food crop of worldwide economic significance. These CBL–CIPK complexes have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, no report is available on the genome-wide characterization of these two gene families in turnip. In the present study, 19 and 51 members of the BrrCBL and BrrCIPK genes, respectively, are first identified in turnip and phylogenetically grouped into three and two distinct clusters, respectively. The expansion of these two gene families is mainly attributable to segmental duplication. Moreover, the differences in expression patterns in quantitative real-time PCR, as well as interaction profiles in the yeast two-hybrid assay, suggest the functional divergence of paralog genes during long-term evolution in turnip. Overexpressing and complement lines in Arabidopsis reveal that BrrCBL9.2 improves, but BrrCBL9.1 does not affect, salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Thus, the expansion of the BrrCBL and BrrCIPK gene families enables the functional differentiation and evolution of some new gene functions of paralog genes. These paralog genes then play prominent roles in turnip's adaptation to the adverse environment of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Overall, the study results contribute to our understanding of the functions of the CBL–CIPK complex and provide basis for selecting appropriate genes for the in-depth functional studies of BrrCBL–BrrCIPK in turnip.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK-INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER DISIPLIN DAN KREATIF SISWA KELAS I SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Wahyu Setyawan

    2015-01-01

    DEVELOPING THEMATIC-INTEGRATED SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF DISCIPLINE AND CREATIVE OF GRADE I STUDENT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ABSTRACT This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of discipline and creative of grade I students of elementary school.This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, namely: preliminary study and data collection, planning, product draft development, preliminary field tryout, revision of the tryout result, field tryout, product finalization based the field tryout result, field implementation testing, final product finalization, and dissemination. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess the validity. The tryout subjects comprised 82 students consisting of 26 students of SD Baran, Pundong, Bantul, DIY in the small-scale tryout, 25 students in the control class of SD Manding Tengah, Bantul, DIY and 31 students in the experimental class of SD 1 Tulung, Bantul, DIY. The results of this study are in the form of SSP consisting of: a syllabus, lesson plans, course sheets, student worksheets, and evaluation sheets. The results of the evaluation show that the developed syllabus is good score of 47. The developed lesson plans score of 67, student course sheets score of 65, student worksheets score of 47, and assessment instruments, are very good , while the developed learning media are good score of 66. The results of the tryout show that the developed SSP otherwise meet the criteria for the practical views of teacher assessment score of 281 and a score of 730 student responses. In field trials the results obtained for the control class average pretest score of 70.8 and an average posttest score of 80.8. While the experimental class scored an average of 74.1 pretest and posttest score of 90.9. Improved control class scores of 10 and an increase of 16.8 experimental class. Teaching using developed SSP is capable of developing

  8. Effect of Mo-Doped Mesoporous Al-SSP Catalysts for the Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol to Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titinan Chanchuey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic dehydration of ethanol to ethylene over the mesoporous Al-SSP and Mo-doped Al-SSP catalysts was investigated. The Al-SSP catalyst was first synthesized by the modified sol-gel method and then doped with Mo by impregnation to obtain 1% Mo/Al-SSP and 5% Mo/Al-SSP catalysts (1 and 5 wt% of Mo. The final catalysts were characterized using various techniques such as XRD, N2 physisorption, SEM/EDX, TEM, and NH3-TPD. The catalytic activity for all catalysts in gas-phase ethanol dehydration reaction was determined at temperature range of 200°C to 400°C. It was found that the most crucial factor influencing the catalytic activities appears to be the acidity. The acid property of catalysts depended on the amount of Mo loading. Increased Mo loading in Al-SSP resulted in increased weak acid sites, which enhanced the catalytic activity. Besides acidity, the high concentration of Al at surface of catalyst is also essential to obtain high activity. Based on the results, the most suitable catalyst in this study is 1% Mo/Al-SSP catalyst, which can produce ethylene yield of ca. 90% at 300°C with slight amounts of diethyl ether (DEE and acetaldehyde.

  9. Cuscuta chinensis seeds water extraction protecting murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-mei; Li, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Li-long; Ying, Xi-xiang; Dou, De-qiang; Li, Jian-chun; Li, Hai-bo

    2013-07-09

    Cuscuta chinensis (C. chinensis) is a well-known traditional Chinese herb that has been used to treat heart disease, diabetes, liver injury, cancer, and aging. Murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with various concentrations of C. chinensis water extraction at different time intervals. The antioxidant effect of C. chinensis on MC3T3-E1 cells was evaluated using MTT and TUNEL assays. The effect of C. chinensis on cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Lipid peroxidation was measured by the HPLC method. The cellular redox status was determined from the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) and the enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism, including glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The changes in relative mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) in the MC3T3-E1 cells were analyzed with rhodamine 123 staining. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the levels of cytochrome c (cyto c), Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 3, Sirt3, and IDH2 expressions. The C. chinensis water extraction protects tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-treated MC3T3-E1 cells from death in a dose-dependent manner. C. chinensis treatment significantly inhibited the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), GR, GST, and G6PD. The release of cyto c from mitochondria was reduced by C. chinensis, which increased the expression of antiapoptotic IDH2, Sirt3, and Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax, cyto c, and caspase 3. C. chinensis modulated the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, probably due to its antioxidant activity and functioning via mitochondria-dependent pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of enamel organic matrix on the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesions in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Linglin; Zou Ling; Li Jiyao; Hao Yuqing; Xiao Liying; Zhou Xuedong; Li Wei, E-mail: leewei2000@sina.co, E-mail: zhll_sc@yahoo.c [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2009-06-15

    Galla chinensis, a natural traditional Chinese medicine with main composition of tannic acid and gallic acid, is formed when the Chinese sumac aphid Baker (Melaphis chinensis bell) parasitizes the levels of Rhus chinensis Mill. Galla chinensis has shown the potential to enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, but the mechanism is still unknown. This study was to investigate whether the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries. Bovine sound enamel blocks and non-organic enamel blocks were demineralized and exposed to a 12 day pH cycling. During the pH cycling, 30 specimens with the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into three groups, and treated with 1 g L{sup -1} NaF (group A), 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B1) or double deionized water (group C1). Twenty specimens without the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into two groups, and treated with 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B2) or double deionized water (group C2). The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of all the specimens were analysed by transverse microradiography. The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of group B1 were less than those of groups B2, C1 and C2, and there were no statistical differences among groups B2, C1 and C2. In conclusion, Galla chinensis can enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, and the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in this potential of Galla chinensis.

  11. Streptococcus mutans SpaP binds to RadD of Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; Shokeen, Bhumika; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2017-10-01

    Adhesin-mediated bacterial interspecies interactions are important elements in oral biofilm formation. They often occur on a species-specific level, which could determine health or disease association of a biofilm community. Among the key players involved in these processes are the ubiquitous fusobacteria that have been recognized for their ability to interact with numerous different binding partners. Fusobacterial interactions with Streptococcus mutans, an important oral cariogenic pathogen, have previously been described but most studies focused on binding to non-mutans streptococci and specific cognate adhesin pairs remain to be identified. Here, we demonstrated differential binding of oral fusobacteria to S. mutans. Screening of existing mutant derivatives indicated SpaP as the major S. mutans adhesin specific for binding to Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum but none of the other oral fusobacteria tested. We inactivated RadD, a known adhesin of F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum for interaction with a number of gram-positive species, in F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum and used a Lactococcus lactis heterologous SpaP expression system to demonstrate SpaP interaction with RadD of F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. This is a novel function for SpaP, which has mainly been characterized as an adhesin for binding to host proteins including salivary glycoproteins. In conclusion, we describe an additional role for SpaP as adhesin in interspecies adherence with RadD-SpaP as the interacting adhesin pair for binding between S. mutans and F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. Furthermore, S. mutans attachment to oral fusobacteria appears to involve species- and subspecies-dependent adhesin interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

  13. Uranium accumulation in Brassica rapa L. and effect of citric acid and humic acids as chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del R, H.; Perez C, G. A.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.; Rodriguez H, G.

    2016-09-01

    Phyto extraction is a technique that makes use of plants for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. In this study the uranium incorporation in the Brassica rapa L. species was evaluated, in artificially contaminated inert soils with 40 mg U/kg, and the effect of adding of the natural chelating agents citric acid and humic acids in the accumulation of uranium was analyzed. Soil free of organic matter and biologically inert was obtained by controlled calcination s of natural soil. Cultures in the prepared soil consisted of five growth treatments: 1) cultivation without uranium or additives; 2) cultivation in the uranium presence; 3) cultivation with uranium and citric acid (2 g/kg); 4) cultivation with uranium and humic acids (10 g/kg); 5) uranium cultivation and combination of citric and humic acids at the same concentrations. There was no adverse effect on plant growth with the presence of uranium at the given concentration. Regarding the controls, the total biomass in the presence of uranium was slightly higher, while the addition of humic acids significantly stimulated the production of biomass with respect to the citric acid. The combined action of organic acids produced the highest amount of biomass. The efficiency of phyto extraction followed the order Humic acids (301 μg U/g) > Non-assisted (224 μg U/g) >> Citric acid + Humic acids (68 μg U/g) > Citric acid (59 μg U/g). The values of uranium concentration in the total biomass show that the species Brassica rapa L. has the capacity of phyto extraction of uranium in contaminated soils. The addition of humic acids increases the uranium extraction while the addition of citric acid disadvantages it. (Author)

  14. Streptococcal adhesin SspA/B analogue peptide inhibits adherence and impacts biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Ito

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of dental caries, adheres to tooth surfaces via the host salivary glycoprotein-340 (gp340. This adherence can be competitively inhibited by peptides derived from the SspA/B adhesins of Streptococcus gordonii, a human commensal microbe that competes for the same binding sites. Ssp(A4K-A11K, a double-lysine substituted SspA/B peptide analogue, has been shown to exhibit superior in vitro binding affinity for a gp340-derived peptide (SRCRP2, suggesting that Ssp(A4K-A11K may be of clinical interest. In the present work, we tested the inhibitory effects of Ssp(A4K-A11K on adherence and biofilm formation of S. mutans by reconstructing an artificial oral environment using saliva-coated polystyrene plates and hydroxyapatite disks. Bacterial adherence (adherence period: 1 h was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using biotinylated bacterial cells. Biofilm formation (periods: 8, 11, or 14 h was assessed by staining and imaging of the sessile cells, or by recovering biofilm cells and plating for cell counts. The pH values of the culture media were measured as a biofilm acidogenicity indicator. Bactericidality was measured by loss of optical density during culturing in the presence of the peptide. We observed that 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K significantly inhibited adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated polystyrene; a similar effect was seen on bacterial affinity for SRCRP2. Ssp(A4K-A11K had lesser effects on the adherence of commensal streptococci. Pretreatment of polystyrene and hydroxyapatite with 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K significantly attenuated biofilm formation, whether tested with glucose- or sucrose-containing media. The SspA/B peptide's activity did not reflect bactericidality. Strikingly, pH in Ssp-treated 8-h (6.8 ± 0.06 and 11-h (5.5 ± 0.06 biofilms showed higher values than the critical pH. Thus, Ssp(A4K-A11K acts by inhibiting bacterial adherence and cariogrnic biofilm formation. We further

  15. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  16. [Effects of exogenous AsA and GSH on the growth of Dianthus chinensis seedlings exposed to Cd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ji-Jun; Liu, Shi-Liang; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Li, Li

    2014-02-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg x L(-1)) of exogenous AsA, GSH on Dianthus chinensis seedlings which were stressed by 50 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the soil. The results indicated that 50 mg x kg(-1) of Cd significantly inhibited the growth of D. chinensis seedlings. An appropriate concentration of exogenous AsA significantly improved the biomass, plant height, tiller number, GAT and APX activities, and AsA and GSH contents. However, with the increase of exogenous AsA concentration, the ameliorating effect decreased and prooxidant effect occurred. Exogenous GSH could replenish the non-enzymatic antioxidants of D. chinensis seedlings, but the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities were relatively slight. The main mechanisms of GSH to alleviate Cd toxicity might be promoting root PCs synthesis, thereby reducing the Cd concentration in the seedlings. Both 35-45 mg x L(-1) exogenous AsA and 55-65 mg x L(-1) exogenous GSH could alleviate the Cd toxicity on D. chinensis seedlings, and the former was superior to the latter.

  17. Application of capillary electrochromatography using macroporous polyacrylamide columns for the analysis of lignans from seeds of Schisandra chinensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvasničková, L.; Glatz, O.; Štěrbová, H.; Kahle, Vladislav; Slanina, J.; Musil, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 916, 1-2 (2001), s. 265-271 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/00/D062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : electrochromatography * Schisandra chinensis * plant materials Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2001

  18. Morpho-anatomical features of Schisandra chinensis leaf under conditions of introduction in forest-steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Skrypchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the morpho-anatomical study of the leaves of Schisandra chinensis under conditions of foreststeppe of Ukraine are given. Since the specific features were found, in particular the presence of intercellular spaces with essential oils in leaf blade and petioles.

  19. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P var. (P var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  20. De novo characterization of the Iris lactea var. chinensis transcriptome and an analysis of genes under cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-Qin; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Xia; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is tolerant to accumulations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In this study, the transcriptome of I. lactea var. chinensis was investigated under Cd or Pb stresses. Using the gene ontology database, 31,974 unigenes were classified into biological process, cellular component and molecular function. In total, 13,132 unigenes were involved in enriched Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways, and the expression levels of 5904 unigenes were significantly changed after exposure to Cd or Pb stresses. Of these, 974 were co-up-regulated and 1281 were co-down-regulated under the two stresses. The transcriptome expression profiles of I. lactea var. chinensis under Cd or Pb stresses obtained in this study provided a resource for identifying common mechanisms in the detoxification of different heavy metals. Furthermore, the identified unigenes may be used for the genetic breeding of heavy-metal tolerant plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. De novo sequencing, assembly, and analysis of Iris lactea var. chinensis roots' transcriptome in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chunsun; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Zhiquan; Liu, Liangqin; Zhang, Yongxia; Deng, Yanming; Huang, Suzhen

    2018-04-01

    As a halophyte, Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is widely distributed and has good drought and heavy metal resistance. Moreover, it is an excellent ornamental plant. I. lactea var. chinensis has extensive application prospects owing to the global impacts of salinization. To better understand its molecular mechanism involved in salt resistance, the de novo sequencing, assembly, and analysis of I. lactea var. chinensis roots' transcriptome in response to salt-stress conditions was performed. On average, 74.17% of the clean reads were mapped to unigenes. A total of 121,093 unigenes were constructed and 56,398 (46.57%) were annotated. Among these, 13,522 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between salt-treated and control samples Compared to the transcriptional level of control, 7037 DEGs were up-regulated and 6539 down-regulated. In addition, 129 up-regulated and 1609 down-regulated genes were simultaneously detected in all three pairwise comparisons between control and salt-stressed libraries. At least 247 and 250 DEGs encoding transcription factors and transporter proteins were identified. Meanwhile, 130 DEGs regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system were also summarized. Based on real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we verified the changes in the expression patterns of 10 unigenes. Our study identified potential salt-responsive candidate genes and increased the understanding of halophyte responses to salinity stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Cuscuta chinensis extract promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun Mo; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of To-Sa-Za (TSZ-AE), the seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam., which is a traditional medicinal herb commonly used in Korea and other oriental countries, could induce osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. TSZ-AE treatment mildly promoted the proliferation of MG-63 cells at doses of 500 and 1,000 microg/mL in the 24-hour culture period. Dose-dependent increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen synthesis were shown at 48 and 72 hours of incubation. The release of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 but not osteocalcin in the MG-63 cells was induced by TSZ-AE at 72 hours (100-1,000 microg/mL). In addition, TSZ-AE markedly increased mRNA expression of ALP, collagen, and BMP-2 in the MG-63 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Mineralization in the culture of MG-63 cells was significantly induced at 500 and 1,000 microg/mL TSZ-AE treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that TSZ-AE enhanced ALP activity, collagen synthesis, BMP-2 expression, and mineralization in MG-63 cells. These results strongly suggest that C. chinensis can play an important role in osteoblastic bone formation and may possibly lead to the development of bone-forming drugs.

  3. In Vitro Cytotoxic Effects of Cuscuta chinensis Whole Extract on Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zeraati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the major paths for drug development isthe study of bioactivities of natural products. Therefore, theaim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects ofaqueous extract of whole Cuscuta chinensis Lam., which is atraditional medicinal herb commonly used in Iran and otheroriental countries, on the human caucasian acute lymphoblasticleukemia (CCRF-CEM and another human lymphocyte,Jurkat (JM cell lines.Methods: In vitro cytotoxic screening with various concentrations(0, 0.1, 1, 10, 25 and 50 μg/ml of the extract wasperformed using microscope and methyl tetrazolium bromidetest (MTT.Results: The minimum effective concentration of the plantextract was 1 μg/ml, and increasing the dose to 10 μg/mlinduced increasingly stronger effects. The inhibitory concentration50% (IC50 of the extract against CCRF wasabout 3 μg/ml in 24 hours and 2.5 μg/ml in 48 hrs. In contrast,the extract did not have cytotoxic effect for the JMcells at these doses.Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that C.chinensis is toxic against CCRF-CEM and JM tumor cells.Whether or not such effects can be employed for the treatmentof such tumors must await future studies.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 310-314.

  4. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  5. Pistacia chinensis: A Potent Ameliorator of CCl4 Induced Lung and Thyroid Toxicity in Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Naz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study protective effect of ethanol extract of Pistacia chinensis bark (PCEB was investigated in rats against CCl4 induced lung and thyroid injuries. PCEB dose dependently inhibited the rise of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, and protein content and restored the levels of antioxidant enzymes, that is, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and quinone reductase in both lung and thyroid tissues of CCl4 treated rats. Decrease in number of leukocytes, neutrophils, and hemoglobin and T3 and T4 content as well as increase in monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes count with CCl4 were restored to normal level with PCEB treatment. Histological study of CCl4 treated rats showed various lung injuries like rupture of alveolar walls and bronchioles, aggregation of fibroblasts, and disorganized Clara cells. Similarly, histology of CCl4 treated thyroid tissues displayed damaged thyroid follicles, hypertrophy, and colloidal depletion. However, PCEB exhibited protective behaviour for lungs and thyroid, with improved histological structure in a dose dependant manner. Presence of three known phenolic compounds, that is, rutin, tannin, and gallic acid, and three unknown compounds was verified in thin layer chromatographic assessment of PCEB. In conclusion, P. chinensis exhibited antioxidant activity by the presence of free radical quenching constituents.

  6. Fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'. Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric. Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom.

  7. Antioxidant activity of Dianthus chinensis L. flowers processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly used in culinary preparations, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. Irradiation treatment is safe and an effective alternative for food conservation, guaranteeing food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation. This technology offers a versatile way to get good quality food while reducing post-harvest losses. Dianthus chinensis L. flowers, popularly known as Chinese pink, are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their bioactive components and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of D. chinensis flowers submitted to electron beam and gamma irradiation at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy. The antioxidant properties were evaluated through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant activity was higher for irradiated samples, especially those treated with 0.5 and 0.8 kGy, independently of the radiation source, which showed the highest capacity to inhibit β-carotene bleaching inhibition. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent feasible technology to preserve the quality of edible flower petals, being able to improve the antioxidant activity. (author)

  8. Antioxidant activity of Dianthus chinensis L. flowers processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H., E-mail: amandaramos@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R., E-mail: iferreira@ipb.pt [Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO) - ESA, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança (Portugal)

    2017-07-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly used in culinary preparations, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. Irradiation treatment is safe and an effective alternative for food conservation, guaranteeing food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation. This technology offers a versatile way to get good quality food while reducing post-harvest losses. Dianthus chinensis L. flowers, popularly known as Chinese pink, are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their bioactive components and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of D. chinensis flowers submitted to electron beam and gamma irradiation at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy. The antioxidant properties were evaluated through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant activity was higher for irradiated samples, especially those treated with 0.5 and 0.8 kGy, independently of the radiation source, which showed the highest capacity to inhibit β-carotene bleaching inhibition. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent feasible technology to preserve the quality of edible flower petals, being able to improve the antioxidant activity. (author)

  9. Changes in the content of water-soluble vitamins in Actinidia chinensis during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of cold storage on nine water-soluble vitamins in 7 cultivars of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were collected at three time points during cold storage: one day, 30 days, and when edible. We found that vitamin C in most cultivars was raised with cold storage, but there was no consistent increased or decreased trend for other water-soluble vitamins across cultivars in storage. After one day of cold storage, vitamins B1 and B2 were the most prevalent vitamins in Control (wild fruit, while vitamins B5 and B6 were most prevalent in the Hongyang and Qihong cultivars. However, B12 was the most prevalent vitamin in the Qihong cultivar after 30 days of cold storage. Vitamins B3, B7, B9, and C were detected at the edible time point in Huayou, Hongyang, Jinnong-2, and Control fruit. Vitamin contents varied significantly among cultivars of kiwifruit following different durations of cold storage. Out of the three durations tested, a period of 30 days in cold storage was the most suitable for the absorption of water-soluble vitamins by A. chinensis.

  10. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  11. Sedative and hypnotic effects of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction from Schisandra chinensis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for treating insomnia and neurasthenia for centuries. Lignans, which are considered to be the bioactive components, are apt to be extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. This study was conducted to investigate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of S. chinensis (SFES in mice and the possible mechanisms. SFES exhibited an obvious sedative effect on shortening the locomotor activity in mice in a dose-dependent (10–200 mg/kg manner. SFES (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg, intragstrically showed a strong hypnotic effect in synergy with pentobarbital in mouse sleep, and reversal of insomnia induced by caffeine, p-chlorophenylalanine and flumazenil by decreasing sleep latency, sleep recovery, and increasing sleeping time. In addition, it produced a synergistic effect with 5-hydroxytryptophan (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. The behavioral pharmacological results suggest that SFES has significant sedative and hypnotic activities, and the mechanisms might be relevant to the serotonergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic system.

  12. Improved antimelanogenesis and antioxidant effects of polysaccharide from Cuscuta chinensis Lam seeds after enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Wang, Ya-Lan; Li, Qi-Ling; Yang, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Cuscuta chinensis polysaccharide (CPS) was extracted using hot water and enzymatically hydrolyzed C. chinensis polysaccharide (ECPS) was produced by the mannase enzymatic hydrolysis process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimelanogenic activity of ECPS and CPS in B16F10 melanoma cells. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by their ferric iron reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides was determined using SEC-MALLS-RI. CPS was successfully enzymatically degraded using mannase and the weighted average molecular weights of CPS and ECPS were 434.6 kDa and 211.7 kDa. The results of biological activity assays suggested that the enzymatically hydrolyzed polysaccharide had superior antimelanogenic activity and antioxidant effect than the original polysaccharide. ECPS exhibited antimelanogenic activity by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase, MITF, and TRP-1 without cytotoxic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells. In conclusion, ECPS have the potential to become a skin whitening product.

  13. Morphological beak differences of loliginid squid, Uroteuthis chinensis and Uroteuthis edulis, in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Staples, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    The mitre squid ( Uroteuthis chinensis) and the swordtip squid ( U. edulis) are Indo-Pacific cephalopod species that are abundant in the western Pacific Ocean. They are currently exploited in the East and South China Seas and make up a significant portion of the Chinese neritic squid catch. Beaks, the feeding organs of squid, are important for individual size and biomass estimation because of their high resistance to degradation in predator stomachs and consistent dimensions. In this study, 104 U. chinensis and 143 U. edulis individuals were sampled from northern South China Sea with mantle length from 70 to 260 mm and 96 to 284 mm, respectively. The results indicated that morphological beak values were greater for U. edulis, compared to U. chinensis, for upper hood length (UHL), upper crest length (UCL), upper lateral wall length (ULWL), lower crest length (LCL), and lower lateral wall length (LLWL). According to principal component analysis, UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LCL/ML, LLWL/ML and LWL/ML could represent the characteristics of beaks for U. chinensis, while UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LHL/ML, LCL/ML and LLWL/ML could represent it for U. edulis. According to Akaike's information criterion (AIC) values, a power function was the most suitable model for U. chinensis, while a linear function was the most suitable model for U. edulis. The beak variable-mantle length ratio (beak variable/mantle length) declined with the increasing of mantle length and declined sharply at the early stage of growth in both beaks and species. The ratio changed quickly after achieving the mantle length of 140 mm for U. chinensis, while the ratio changed quickly after 170 mm for U. edulis. Beaks in both species experienced sharper changes through maturity stage I to II than other maturity stages. This study gives us basic beak morphology information for U. chinensis and U. edulis in the East and South China Seas. Geometric morphological methods combined with dietary analysis should be used

  14. A manually annotated Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis (kiwifruit) genome highlights the challenges associated with draft genomes and gene prediction in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Sarah M; Crowhurst, Ross; Hilario, Elena; Nardozza, Simona; Fraser, Lena; Peng, Yongyan; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Simpson, Robert; Tahir, Jibran; Deroles, Simon C; Templeton, Kerry; Luo, Zhiwei; Davy, Marcus; Cheng, Canhong; McNeilage, Mark; Scaglione, Davide; Liu, Yifei; Zhang, Qiong; Datson, Paul; De Silva, Nihal; Gardiner, Susan E; Bassett, Heather; Chagné, David; McCallum, John; Dzierzon, Helge; Deng, Cecilia; Wang, Yen-Yi; Barron, Lorna; Manako, Kelvina; Bowen, Judith; Foster, Toshi M; Erridge, Zoe A; Tiffin, Heather; Waite, Chethi N; Davies, Kevin M; Grierson, Ella P; Laing, William A; Kirk, Rebecca; Chen, Xiuyin; Wood, Marion; Montefiori, Mirco; Brummell, David A; Schwinn, Kathy E; Catanach, Andrew; Fullerton, Christina; Li, Dawei; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Read, Nicola; Prakash, Roneel; Hunter, Don; Zhang, Huaibi; McKenzie, Marian; Knäbel, Mareike; Harris, Alastair; Allan, Andrew C; Gleave, Andrew; Chen, Angela; Janssen, Bart J; Plunkett, Blue; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Voogd, Charlotte; Leif, Davin; Lafferty, Declan; Souleyre, Edwige J F; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Gambi, Francesco; Hanley, Jenny; Yao, Jia-Long; Cheung, Joey; David, Karine M; Warren, Ben; Marsh, Ken; Snowden, Kimberley C; Lin-Wang, Kui; Brian, Lara; Martinez-Sanchez, Marcela; Wang, Mindy; Ileperuma, Nadeesha; Macnee, Nikolai; Campin, Robert; McAtee, Peter; Drummond, Revel S M; Espley, Richard V; Ireland, Hilary S; Wu, Rongmei; Atkinson, Ross G; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; Bulley, Sean; Chunkath, Shayhan; Hanley, Zac; Storey, Roy; Thrimawithana, Amali H; Thomson, Susan; David, Charles; Testolin, Raffaele; Huang, Hongwen; Hellens, Roger P; Schaffer, Robert J

    2018-04-16

    Most published genome sequences are drafts, and most are dominated by computational gene prediction. Draft genomes typically incorporate considerable sequence data that are not assigned to chromosomes, and predicted genes without quality confidence measures. The current Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) 'Hongyang' draft genome has 164 Mb of sequences unassigned to pseudo-chromosomes, and omissions have been identified in the gene models. A second genome of an A. chinensis (genotype Red5) was fully sequenced. This new sequence resulted in a 554.0 Mb assembly with all but 6 Mb assigned to pseudo-chromosomes. Pseudo-chromosomal comparisons showed a considerable number of translocation events have occurred following a whole genome duplication (WGD) event some consistent with centromeric Robertsonian-like translocations. RNA sequencing data from 12 tissues and ab initio analysis informed a genome-wide manual annotation, using the WebApollo tool. In total, 33,044 gene loci represented by 33,123 isoforms were identified, named and tagged for quality of evidential support. Of these 3114 (9.4%) were identical to a protein within 'Hongyang' The Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR v2). Some proportion of the differences will be varietal polymorphisms. However, as most computationally predicted Red5 models required manual re-annotation this proportion is expected to be small. The quality of the new gene models was tested by fully sequencing 550 cloned 'Hort16A' cDNAs and comparing with the predicted protein models for Red5 and both the original 'Hongyang' assembly and the revised annotation from KIR v2. Only 48.9% and 63.5% of the cDNAs had a match with 90% identity or better to the original and revised 'Hongyang' annotation, respectively, compared with 90.9% to the Red5 models. Our study highlights the need to take a cautious approach to draft genomes and computationally predicted genes. Our use of the manual annotation tool WebApollo facilitated manual checking and

  15. Foliar-applied ethephon enhances the content of anthocyanin of black carrot roots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Glied, Stephan; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) constitute a valuable source of anthocyanins, which are used as natural red, blue and purple food colourants. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds are specialised metabolites, accumulation of which often requires elicitors...

  16. A 16 deg2 survey of emission-line galaxies at z SSP Public Data Release 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Furusawa, Hisanori; Momose, Rieko; Koyama, Yusei; Silverman, John D.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2018-01-01

    We present initial results from the Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) with Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on a comprehensive survey of emission-line galaxies at z SSP fields suggests that a survey volume of >5 × 105 Mpc3 is essential to overcome cosmic variance. Since the current data have not reached the full depth expected for the HSC-SSP, the color cut in i - NB816 or z - NB921 induces a bias towards star-forming galaxies with large equivalent widths, primarily seen in the stellar mass functions for the H α emitters at z ≈ 0.25-0.40. Even so, the emission-line galaxies clearly cover a wide range of luminosity, stellar mass, and environment, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the narrowband data from the HSC-SSP for investigating star-forming galaxies at z < 1.5.

  17. Validación de la Escala Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA en población chilena adulta consultante en Atención Primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carola Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la práctica de actividad física es esencial para el cuidado de la salud. Se requiere contar con instrumentos que permitan medirla y monitorear los cambios en las personas que la practican. Objetivos: adaptar culturalmente el cuestionario Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA, y estimar sus propiedades psicométricas, su validez y confiabilidad, para medir el nivel de actividad física en personas adultas consultantes en centros de atención primaria en Santiago (Chile. Materiales y métodos: el RAPA adaptado fue aplicado a 180 adultos asistentes a 5 centros de salud. Se determinó su índice de masa corporal (IMC y circunferencia de cintura (CC. Resultados: las puntuaciones en la escala RAPA se relacionaron en forma inversa y significativa con el perímetro de cintura y el IMC. Las personas categorizadas con bajo nivel de actividad física (Poco Activo y Poco Activo Regular Ligero presentan un IMC promedio más elevado y son más frecuentemente categorizados con CC alterada. La confiabilidad del instrumento fue moderada (r = 0,61; K = 0,34. Conclusiones: el RAPA en su versión en español adaptada para Chile, es un instrumento de fácil aplicación, que pese a su moderada confiabilidad, logra ser sensible al desarrollo de actividad física, que presenta una relación coherente con los parámetros antropométricos de IMC y CC sensibles a dicha actividad.

  18. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  19. Intrascrotal Abscess, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano, Masciovecchio; Del Rosso, Alessandro; Saldutto, Pietro; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The Propionibacterium acnes and the Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii are occasional pathogenic bacteria. The intrascrotal localization of the Propionibacterium acnes is exceptional. The Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii is not able to colonize the urogenital apparatus but it is the most frequently responsible for blood culture contamination even if it can sustain, in particular conditions, systemic infections. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who is un...

  20. Multiple plasmid-borne virulence genes of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici critical for disease development in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Sun; Oh, Eom-Ji; Kim, Donghyuk; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2018-02-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici is a Gram-positive plant-pathogenic bacterium causing bacterial canker disease in pepper. Virulence genes and mechanisms of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici in pepper have not yet been studied. To identify virulence genes of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici, comparative genome analyses with C. michiganensis ssp. capsici and its related C. michiganensis subspecies, and functional analysis of its putative virulence genes during infection were performed. The C. michiganensis ssp. capsici type strain PF008 carries one chromosome (3.056 Mb) and two plasmids (39 kb pCM1 Cmc and 145 kb pCM2 Cmc ). The genome analyses showed that this bacterium lacks a chromosomal pathogenicity island and celA gene that are important for disease development by C. michiganensis ssp. michiganensis in tomato, but carries most putative virulence genes in both plasmids. Virulence of pCM1 Cmc -cured C. michiganensis ssp. capsici was greatly reduced compared with the wild-type strain in pepper. The complementation analysis with pCM1 Cmc -located putative virulence genes showed that at least five genes, chpE, chpG, ppaA1, ppaB1 and pelA1, encoding serine proteases or pectate lyase contribute to disease development in pepper. In conclusion, C. michiganensis ssp. capsici has a unique genome structure, and its multiple plasmid-borne genes play critical roles in virulence in pepper, either separately or together. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-04

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.

  2. Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mgṡkg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

  3. Effects of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra on the central nervous system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Nilgün; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Aydin, Süleyman; Oztürk, Yusuf; Caliş, Ihsan

    2002-11-01

    A methanolic extact of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has been investigated for its possible effects on the central nervous system of mice. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg (i.p.), the methanol extract of Gentiana roots caused a significant increase in the swimming endurance test and exhibited slight analgesic activity, but no lethality in mice suggesting some activity on the central nervous system. However, there was no indication of sedation or muscular fatigue at the doses employed. HPLC analysis showed that three secoiridoid compounds, gentiopicroside, swertiamarine and sweroside were present and may have been responsible for the CNS effects of the methanol extract of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Purification and partial characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Akkoç, Nefise; Akçelik, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are possessing ability to synthesize antimicrobial compounds (like bacteriocin) during their growth. In this regard, novel bacteriocin compound secreting capability of LAB isolated from Tulum Cheese in Turkey was demonstrated. The synthesized bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration. The molecular weight (≈3.4 kDa) of obtained bacteriocin was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed single peptide band. Molecular identification of LAB strain isolated from Tulum Cheese was conducted using 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171. The amino acid sequences (KKIDTRTGKTMEKTEKKIELSLKNMKTAT) of the bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171 was found unique and novel than reported bacteriocins. Further, the bacteriocin was possessed the thermostable property and active at wide range of pH values from 1 to 11. Thus, bacteriocin reported in this study has the potential applications property as food preservative agent.

  5. SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

  6. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  7. Brain SPECT analysis by 3D-SSP and clinical features of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, Yasunori; Yoshida, Kazuto; Makino, Kenichi; Yabe, Ichiro; Kikuchi, Seiji; Sasaki, Hidenao; Tashiro, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) with cerebral perfusion on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The clinical features of PD were compared with SPECT images of the brain obtained by three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analysis. Thirty-eight patients who had PD without dementia (17 men and 21 women with a mean age of 68.6±4.7 years) were enrolled in this study. Their symptoms were rated using the unified parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS). Within a week, all patients were examined by SPECT with I-123, and reconstructed images were analyzed with 3D-SSP using an image-analysis software, iSSP ver. 3.5. Data on brain surface perfusion extracted by 3D-SSP analysis were compared between the PD patients and the normal control group. The same comparisons were made for subgroups of PD patients with severe symptoms, such as tremor, gait disturbance, bradykinesia, and the UPDRS motor score. Cerebral perfusion was decreased at the anterior cingulate cortex and occipital lobe of the PD patients compared with the normal controls. In the subgroups with severe gait disturbance and severe bradykinesia, additional hypoperfusion was seen at the lateral frontal association and lateral temporal association and the medial frontal gyrus, and by the pixel-by-pixel comparison, perfusion was significantly decreased (p<0.05) at the medial frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex compared with the normal control group. In PD patients, severe gait disturbance and bradykinesia may be correlated with hypoperfusion of the medial aspect of the frontal lobe. This suggests that functional disturbance of the supplementary motor area and other parts of the frontal lobe are involved in the development of gait disturbance and bradykinesia in PD. (author)

  8. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests and 7 controls (negative serology, all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  9. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Prończuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997-2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L.perenne, F.rubra, P.pratensis cultivated for seed. It was found that the changes in environmental conditions during last years influenced earlier occurrence of stem rust on grasses in Poland. All examined species were the host of P.graminis ssp. graminicola, however the period of infection of particular hosts were different. L.perenne and D.caespitosa were infected in early summer but F.rubra and P.pratensis in late summer or in the autumn. Morphological analysis of spores of P.graminis ssp. graminicola have shoved significant differences between populations obtained from L.perenne and D.caespitosa. Some differences were found between populations from F.rubra and P.pratensis also, but they need more study. Every year occurrence of stem rust on L.perenne and D.caespitosa and its relation with spring temperature in Radzików indicated that populations of patogen could overwinter in local turf. Incidental appearance of stem rust on F.rubra and P.pratensis in centre of Poland allowed to suppose that spores of these forms might be transfer by wind from other regions. The investigation revealed that stem rust can be dangerous for L.perenne grown for seed when infection occurs at flowering time. It has been established that infection of F.rubra and P.pratensis in autumn should not be disregarded. Damages of leaves by P.graminis ssp. graminicola substantially limited plant heading in the next year.

  10. Extinction risk assessment for the species survival plan (SSP) population of the Bali mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnhardt, Joanne M; Thompson, Steven D; Faust, Lisa J

    2009-05-01

    The Bali mynah Species Survival Plan (SSP), an Association of Zoos and Aquariums program, strives to maintain the genetic and demographic health of its population, avoid unplanned changes in size, and minimize the risk of population extinction. The SSP population meets current demographic and genetic objectives with a population size of 209 birds at 61 institutions and 96% genetic diversity (GD) retained from the source population. However, participating institutions have expressed concerns regarding space allocation, target population size (TPS), breeding restrictions, inbreeding depression, and harvest in relation to future population availability and viability. Based on these factors, we assess five questions with a quantitative risk assessment, specifically a population viability analysis (PVA) using ZooRisk software. Using an individual-based stochastic model, we project potential population changes under different conditions (e.g. changes in TPS and genetic management) to identify the most effective management actions. Our projections indicate that under current management conditions, population decline and extinction are unlikely and that although GD will decline over 100 years the projected loss does not exceed levels acceptable to population managers (less than 90% GD retained). Model simulations indicate that the combination of two genetic management strategies (i.e. priority breeding based on mean kinship and inbreeding avoidance) benefits the retention of GD and reduces the accumulation of inbreeding. The current TPS (250) is greater than necessary to minimize the risk of extinction for the SSP population but any reduction in TPS must be accompanied by continued application of genetic management. If carefully planned, birds can be harvested for transfer to Bali for a reintroduction program without jeopardizing the SSP population.

  11. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Katz, Samantha; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C; Solomon, Anthony W; Chen, Cheng Y; Pillay, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  12. 1H-NMR-Based Metabonomics of the Protective Effect of Coptis chinensis and Berberine on Cinnabar-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyue Su

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coptis chinensis Franch has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases for over two thousand years. Berberine (BN, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is the main component of Coptis chinensis. The pharmacological basis for its therapeutic effects, which include hepatoprotective effects on liver injuries, has been studied intensively, yet the therapy of liver injuries and underlying mechanism remain unclear. We investigated the detoxification mechanism of Coptis chinensis and berberine using metabolomics of urine and serum in the present study. After the treatment with Coptis chinensis and berberine, compared with the cinnabar group, Coptis chinensis and berberine can regulate the concentration of the endogenous metabolites. PLS-DA score plots demonstrated that the urine and serum metabolic profiles in rats of the Coptis chinensis and berberine groups were similar those of the control group, yet remarkably apart from the cinnabar group. The mechanism may be related to the endogenous metabolites including energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and metabolism of intestinal flora in rats. Meanwhile, liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analysis verified the experimental results of metabonomics.

  13. Machine learning for the prediction of L. chinensis carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and understanding of mechanisms underlying grassland degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefen; Liang, Shuo; Zhao, Yiying; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Yuejiao

    2017-05-01

    The grasslands of Western Jilin Province in China have experienced severe degradation during the last 50 years. Radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) and support vector machines (SVM) were used to predict the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis) and explore the degree of grassland degradation using the matter-element extension model. Both RBFNN and SVM demonstrated good prediction accuracy. The results indicated that there was severe degradation, as samples were mainly concentrated in the 3rd and 4th levels. The growth of L. chinensis was shown to be limited by either nitrogen, phosphorus, or both during different stages of degradation. The soil chemistry changed noticeably as degradation aggravated, which represents a destabilization of L. chinensis community homeostasis. Soil salinization aggravates soil nutrient loss and decreases the bioavailability of soil nutrients. This, along with the destabilization of C/N, C/P and N/P ratios, weakens the photosynthetic ability and productivity of L. chinensis. This conclusion was supported by observations that L. chinensis is gradually being replaced by a Chloris virgata, Puccinellia tenuiflora and Suaeda acuminate mixed community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762

  15. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoung Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.

  16. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

  17. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Site-Specific Plan (SSP) for fiscal year 1992 (FY92)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The FY-92 Site-Specific Plan (FY-92 SSP) for environmental restoration and waste management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is designed to provide the reader with easy access to the status of environmental restoration and waste management activities at INEL. The first chapter provides background on INIEL's physical environment, site history and mission, and general information about the site and its facilities. In addition, this chapter discusses the inter-relationships between the Site Specific Plan, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, the environmental restoration and waste management prioritization systems, and the Activity Data Sheets (ADSs) for environmental restoration and waste management. This discussion should help readers understand what the SSP is and how it fits into the environmental restoration and waste management process at INEL. This understanding should provide the reader with a better context for understanding the discussions in the SSP as well as a better feel for how and what to comment on during the public comment period that will be held from the first of September through the end of October 1991

  18. Simultaneous genotyping of HPA-17w to -21w by PCR-SSP in Chinese Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haojie; Ding, Haoqiang; Chen, Yangkai; Li, Xiaofan; Ye, Xin; Nie, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported the polymorphism of human platelet antigen (HPA)-17w, -18w, -19w, -20w, and -21w. However, the distribution of these five antigens in Chinese Cantonese is still unknown. In this study, we designed new sequence-specific primers for HPA-19w to -21w and used published primers for HPA-17w and -18w to develop a polymerase chain reaction with the sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w. A total of 820 unrelated Cantonese apheresis platelet donors in Guangzhou were involved in this study. Among the five HPAs, complete a/a homozygosity was observed for HPA-17w to -20w with an allele frequency of 1.0000. For HPA-21w, nine individuals (9/820, 1.10%) were found to be HPA-21a/bw heterozygous and the allele frequencies of HPA-21a and HPA-21bw were 0.9945 (1631/1640) and 0.0055 (9/1640), respectively. The reliability of the PCR-SSP method was determined by comparing with the genotyping results by DNA sequencing, and no inconsistencies were observed between the two methods. This study provides a reliable PCR-SSP method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w and could improve HPA-matched platelet transfusion in Chinese Cantonese.

  19. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays . These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize.

  20. First detection of Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Dobler, Gerhard; Schaper, Sabine; Küpper, Thomas; Kattner, Simone; Wölfel, Silke

    2017-11-01

    Ticks are important vectors for Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group all around the world. Rickettsia conorii is the etiological agent of boutonneuse fever in the Mediterranean region and Africa. Tick identification was based on morphological features and further characterized using the 16S rRNA gene. The ticks were individually tested using pan-Rickettsia real-time-PCR for screening, and 23S-5S intergenic spacer region, 16S rDNA, gltA, sca4, ompB, and ompA genes were used to analyze the Rickettsia positive samples. Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia was detected in tick collected in Zambia for the first time, thus demonstrating the possibility of the occurrence of human disease, namely Astrakhan fever, due to this Rickettsia ssp. in this region of Africa. The prevalence of R. conorii ssp. caspia was 0.06% (one positive tick out of 1465 tested ticks) and 0.07% (one positive tick out of 1254 tested Rh. sanguineus).

  1. CD4 T Cell Dependent Colitis Exacerbation Following Re-Exposure of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Pils, Marina C; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Singh, Anurag K; Basler, Tina; Falk, Christine S; Seidler, Ursula; Hornef, Mathias W; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of cattle characterized by intermittent to chronic diarrhea. In addition, MAP has been isolated from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The impact of MAP on severity of clinical symptoms in JD as well as its role in CD are yet unknown. We have previously shown that MAP is able to colonize inflamed enteric tissue and to exacerbate the inflammatory tissue response (Suwandi et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed how repeated MAP administration influences the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In comparison to mice exposed to DSS or MAP only, repeated exposure of DSS-treated mice to MAP (DSS/MAP) revealed a significantly enhanced clinical score, reduction of colon length as well as severe CD4 + T cell infiltration into the colonic lamina propria . Functional analysis identified a critical role of CD4 + T cells in the MAP-induced disease exacerbation. Additionally, altered immune responses were observed when closely related mycobacteria species such as M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. hominissuis were administered. These data reveal the specific ability of MAP to aggravate intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms. Overall, this phenotype is compatible with similar disease promoting capabilites of MAP in JD and CD.

  2. The new record for Turkish invasive alien insect fauna Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Hızal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International trade is increasing rapidly with developing transportation routes. As a result of this, it became easier for many animal species to move from their natural habitats with the break down of the natural barriers between countries and continents. Insects take an important place among these animals. Insect populations are controlled by several factors in their natural habitats, but they causes important problems as they move by living plants and wood materials to another area. They are so called invasive alien insect species in their new location. These species’ common characteristics are fast growth and reproduction, high dispersal ability, tolerance of wide range of enviromental conditions and ability to feed with various food types. The increase in importing of the plants and wood material in the recent years has been causing the prensence of these species in Turkey. In this research Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771 (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae is given as a new record to Turkish invasive alien insect species fauna.

  3. Molecular cloning of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Cho, Hyun Kook; Park, Eun-Mi; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ok; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Woo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Han, Hyon Sob; Jang, In-Kwon; Lee, Chang Hoon; Cheong, Jaehun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors play important roles in host defence systems involving blood coagulation and pathogen digestion. We isolated and characterized a cDNA clone for a Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor (KPI) from a hemocyte cDNA library of the oriental white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The KPI gene consists of three exons and two introns. KPI cDNA contains an open reading frame of 396 bp, a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA, and a poly (A) tail. KPI cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 131 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of KPI contains two homologous Kazal domains, each with six conserved cysteine residues. The mRNA of KPI is expressed in the hemocytes of healthy shrimp, and the higher expression of KPI transcript is observed in shrimp infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), suggesting a potential role for KPI in host defence mechanisms.

  4. Forecasting Brassica rapa: Merging climate models with genotype specific process models for evaluation whole species response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Weinig, C.; Guadagno, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Human society has modified agriculture management practices and utilized a variety of breeding approaches to adapt to changing environments. Presently a dual pronged challenge has emerged as environmental change is occurring more rapidly while the demand of population growth on food supply is rising. Knowledge of how current agricultural practices will respond to these challenges can be informed through crafted prognostic modeling approaches. Amongst the uncertainties associated with forecasting agricultural production in a changing environment is evaluation of the responses across the existing genotypic diversity of crop species. Mechanistic models of plant productivity provide a means of genotype level parameterization allowing for a prognostic evaluation of varietal performance under changing climate. Brassica rapa represents an excellent species for this type of investigation because of its wide cultivation as well as large morphological and physiological diversity. We incorporated genotypic parameterization of B. rapa genotypes based on unique CO2 assimilation strategies, vulnerabilities to cavitation, and root to leaf area relationships into the TREES model. Three climate drivers, following the "business-as-usual" greenhouse gas emissions scenario (RCP 8.5) from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) were considered: temperature (T) along with associated changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), increasing CO2, as well as alternatives in irrigation regime across a temporal scale of present day to 2100. Genotypic responses to these drivers were evaluated using net primary productivity (NPP) and percent loss hydraulic conductance (PLC) as a measure of tolerance for a particular watering regime. Genotypic responses to T were witnessed as water demand driven by increases in VPD at 2050 and 2100 drove some genotypes to greater PLC and in a subset of these saw periodic decreases in NPP during a growing season. Genotypes able to withstand the greater

  5. Rain, Sun, Soil, and Sweat: A Consideration of Population Limits on Rapa Nui (Easter Island before European Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric O. Puleston

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The incongruity between the small and apparently impoverished Rapa Nui population that early European travelers encountered and the magnificence of its numerous and massive stone statues has fed a deep fascination with the island. Ethnographic and archaeological evidence suggest that the indigenous population was previously greater than the estimated 1,500–3,000 individuals observed by visitors in the eighteenth century. Our goal was to determine the maximum population that might have lived on the island by estimating its agricultural productivity in the time before European contact. To determine the agricultural potential of the island we sampled soils and established six weather stations in diverse contexts and recorded data over a 2-year period. We find that the island is wetter on average than previously believed. We also find that rainfall and temperature respond linearly to elevation, but a spatial model of precipitation requires correction for a rain shadow effect. We adapted to Rapa Nui an island-wide spatial model designed to identify agriculturally viable zones elsewhere in Polynesia. Based on functions relating climate and substrate age to measurements of soil base saturation, we identified 3,134 ha that were suitable for traditional dryland sweet potato cultivation, or about 19% of the 164 km2 island. We used a nutrient-cycling model to estimate yields. Modeled yields are highly sensitive to nitrogen (N inputs and reliable estimates of these rates are unavailable, requiring us to bracket the rate of N inputs. In the case of low N availability, yields under continuous cultivation were very small, averaging 1.5 t/ha of wet sweet potato tuber. When the N fixation rate was quadrupled sustainable yields increased to 5.1 t/ha. In each N scenario we used a model of food-limited demography to examine the consequences of altering agricultural practices, the labor supply, the ability of the population to control its fertility, and the

  6. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on pollen quantity, quality, and seed yield in Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchik, S.M.; Day, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Three experiments examined the influence of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) exposure on reproduction in Brassica rapa (Brassicacaeae). Plants were grown in a greenhouse under three biologically effective UV-B levels that stimulated either an ambient stratospheric ozone level (control), 16% (open-quotes low enhancedclose quotes), or 32% (open-quotes high enhancedclose quotes) ozone depletion levels at Morgantown, WV, USA in mid-March. In the first experiment,pollen production and viability per flower were reduced by ∼50% under both enhanced UV-B levels relative to ambient controls. While plants under high-enhanced UV-B produced over 40% more flowers than plants under the two lower UV-B treatments, whole-plant production of viable pollen was reduced under low-enhanced UV-B to 34% of ambient controls. In the second experiment, the influence of source-plant UV-B exposure on in vitro pollen from plants was examined and whether source-plant UV-B exposure influenced in vitro pollen germination and viability. Pollen from plants under both enhanced-UV-B was reduced from 65 to 18%. Viability of the pollen from plants grown under both enhanced UV-B treatments was reduced to a much lesser extent: only from ∼43 to 22%. Thus, ambient source-plant pollen was more sensitive to enhanced UV-B levels to fertilize plants growing under ambient-UV-B levels, and assessed subsequent seed production and germination. Seed abortion rates were higher in plants pollinated with pollen from the enhanced UV-B treatments, than from ambient UV-B. Despite this, seed yield (number and mass) per plant was similar, regardless of the UV-B exposure of their pollen source. Our findings demonstrate that enhanced UV-B levels associated with springtime ozone depletion events have the capacity to substantially reduce viable pollen production, and could ultimately reduce reproductive success of B. rapa. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Genetic load and transgenic mitigating genes in transgenic Brassica rapa (field mustard × Brassica napus (oilseed rape hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Suzanne I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One theoretical explanation for the relatively poor performance of Brassica rapa (weed × Brassica napus (crop transgenic hybrids suggests that hybridization imparts a negative genetic load. Consequently, in hybrids genetic load could overshadow any benefits of fitness enhancing transgenes and become the limiting factor in transgenic hybrid persistence. Two types of genetic load were analyzed in this study: random/linkage-derived genetic load, and directly incorporated genetic load using a transgenic mitigation (TM strategy. In order to measure the effects of random genetic load, hybrid productivity (seed yield and biomass was correlated with crop- and weed-specific AFLP genomic markers. This portion of the study was designed to answer whether or not weed × transgenic crop hybrids possessing more crop genes were less competitive than hybrids containing fewer crop genes. The effects of directly incorporated genetic load (TM were analyzed through transgene persistence data. TM strategies are proposed to decrease transgene persistence if gene flow and subsequent transgene introgression to a wild host were to occur. Results In the absence of interspecific competition, transgenic weed × crop hybrids benefited from having more crop-specific alleles. There was a positive correlation between performance and number of B. napus crop-specific AFLP markers [seed yield vs. marker number (r = 0.54, P = 0.0003 and vegetative dry biomass vs. marker number (r = 0.44, P = 0.005]. However under interspecific competition with wheat or more weed-like conditions (i.e. representing a situation where hybrid plants emerge as volunteer weeds in subsequent cropping systems, there was a positive correlation between the number of B. rapa weed-specific AFLP markers and seed yield (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001, although no such correlation was detected for vegetative biomass. When genetic load was directly incorporated into the hybrid genome, by inserting a

  8. Induksi Ginogenesis melalui Kultur Multi Ovule Slice dan Kultur Ovary Slice Dianthus chinensis

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    Suskandari Kartikaningrum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction was studied in five genotypes of Dianthus chinensis using 2.4 D and NAA. Calluses can be obtainedfrom unfertilized ovule culture and ovary culture. The aim of the research was to study gynogenic potential and responseof Dianthus chinensis through ovule slice and ovary slice culture for obtaining haploid plants. Five genotypes of Dianthuschinensis and five media were used in ovule slice culture and two genotypes and three medium were used in ovary culture.Flower buds in the 7th stage were incubated for the purpose of dark pre-treatment at 4 oC for one day. Ovules and ovaries wereisolated and cultured in induction medium. Cultures were incubated for the purpose of dark pre-treatment at 4 oC for seven days, followed by 25 oC light incubation. The result showed that 2.4D was better than NAA in inducing callus. Percentage of regenerated calluses were produced in V11, V13 and V15 genotypes in M7 medium (MS + 2 mg L-1 2.4D + 1 mg L-1 BAP + 30 g L-1 sucrose and M10 medium (MS + 1 mg L-1 2.4D + 1 mg L-1 BAP + 20 g L-1 sucrose. All calluses originated from ovule and ovary cultures flowered prematurely. Double haploid (V11-34 were obtained from ovule slice culture based on PER (peroksidase and EST (esterase isoenzym marker.Keywords: ovule slice culture, ovary slice culture, callus, Dianthus sp., haploid

  9. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9-1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5-1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5-1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions.

  10. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangbao Xia

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL, soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC and absolute soil solution concentration (CS decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9-1.2 m and shallow water levels (0.6 m respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5-1.8 m.The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5-1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions.

  11. Reduction of Allergenicity of Litchi chinensis Flowers Pollen Protein Conjugated with Polysaccharide by Maillard Reaction

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    Ranajit Kumar Shaha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergy to pollen from gymnosperms is well documented in the west. The objective was to define the allergologic protein from Litchi chinensis (Litchi pollen and conjugate the protein with polysaccharides by Maillard reaction to reduce the allergic effect of that protein. Methods: Total soluble proteins were extracted from the pollen of Litchi flower pollen and subjected to ammonium sulphate precipitation at 80% saturation. Pollen antigen from Litchi chinensis (Litchi was prepared by gel cutting method and characterized by biochemical and designated by LFPP. The homogeneity of this protein was demonstrated by a single band on SDS-PAGE. The protein then conjugated with galactomannan through Maillard Reaction. The resulting purified pollen protein and conjugated protein were administered to the Swiss albino mice as amount of 5.8mg/kg body weight. Results: The total protein was then separated on a 12% SDS-Polyacrylamide gel which revealed 5 bands between molecular weight range of 29kDa and 69kDa. Each band was recovered from the gel by electroelution and sent for skin tests. 28kDa proteins was the only allergenic protein while others were not shown reactivity in patients. Intraperitoneal injection of the purified protein (LFPP caused a significant rise in the levels of neutrophils (38-81% and eosinophils (3-14% compared to control (P < 0.001 whereas conjugated protein caused only a 2% increase of both neutrophils and eosinophils level. On the other hand treatment with LFPP-galactomannan conjugate causes no such change in physical appearance with eosinophils and neutrophils level. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the protein extracted and purified from Litchi flowers pollen has been recognized as a new allergen from Bangladesh for the first time and the allergic effects can be reduced by conjugation with polysaccharides.

  12. Delayed progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy by Litchi chinensis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2017-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aqueous fruit pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis (APLC) on parameters which leads to diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The objective of the study is to evaluate the APLC for in vivo antioxidant activity and its role in inhibiting the polyol pathway and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The diabetic animals were treated with L. chinensis for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, the animals were killed and the biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress by protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and polyolpathway by aldose reductase (AR) in lens homogenates, alterations in protein carbonyl content (PCO) and AGEs in both serum and lens the APLC-treated diabetic rats were compared against diabetic control rats. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit lamp bio microscope and classified into four stages. Fundoscope test and retinal histopathology were done for assessing retinopathy. Statistically significant reduction in glucose, and elevation of protein content, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels and decreased levels of AR and PCO in lens homogenate and significant reduction in AGEs serum and lens homogenate were observed. Slit lamp examination, fundoscope, and histopathology showed improvement in retinal changes in APLC-treated rats compared to diabetic control animals. The treatment with APLC found to delay the progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy, which might be due to its antioxidant activity, because of the presence of active phytochemicals in APLC.

  13. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9–1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5–1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5–1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  14. Comparison of the results of climate change impact assessment between RCP8.5 and SSP2 scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. K.; Park, J. H.; Park, C.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change scenarios are mainly published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and include SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario) scenarios (IPCC Third Report), RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios (IPCC 5th Report), and SSP (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) scenarios. Currently widely used RCP scenarios are based on how future greenhouse gas concentrations will change. In contrast, SSP scenarios are that predict how climate change will change in response to socio-economic indicators such as population, economy, land use, and energy change. In this study, based on RCP 8.5 climate data, we developed a new Korean scenario using the future social and economic scenarios of SSP2. In the development of the scenario, not only Korea's emissions but also China and Japan's emissions were considered in terms of space. In addition, GHG emissions and air pollutant emissions were taken into consideration. Using the newly developed scenarios, the impacts assessments of the forest were evaluated and the impacts were evaluated using the RCP scenarios. The average precipitation is similar to the SSP2 scenario and the RCP8.5 scenario, but the SSP2 scenario shows the maximum value is lower than RCP8.5 scenario. This is because the SSP2 scenario simulates the summer precipitation weakly. The temperature distribution is similar for both scenarios, and it can be seen that the average temperature in the 2090s is higher than that in the 2050s. At present, forest net primary productivity of Korea is 693 tC/km2, and it is 679 tC/km2 when SSP2 scenario is applied. Also, the damage of forest by ozone is about 4.1-5.1%. On the other hand, when SSP2 scenario is applied, the forest net primary productivity of Korea is 607 tC/km2 and the forest net primary productivity of RCP8.5 scenario is 657 tC/km2. The analysis shows that the damage caused by climate change is reduced by 14.2% for the SSP2 scenario and 6.9% for the RCP8.5 scenario. The damage caused

  15. Entomofauna visitante de Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC (Iridaceae durante o período de floração Flowering entomofauna Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC. (Iridaceae during flowering time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Vitali

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the reproductive biology of B. chinensis (L. DC. (Iridaceae was realized comprising floral biology and breeding systems. The floral biology studies included analyses of nectar production, occurence of osmophores, corolla pigments, ultraviolet reflexion and absortion patterns, viability of pollen, pollinators and flower visitors. The breeding systems were studied taking into account the results of manual pollinators tests. B. chinensis is self-compatible bul cross-pollination is more frequent. The effective pollinators are Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1906 (45,7%, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (27,3%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (9,3%. Others insects visitors are considered nectar and pollen thieves. The flowering begins generally in January and February. The complete reproductive cicle, as here considered, begining with floral bud production ending with development of mature fruits, lasts January to June. Seed dispersion is ornitocoric.

  16. [Cultural regionalization for Coptis chinensis based on 3S technology platform Ⅰ. Study on growth suitability for Coptis chinensis based on ecological factors analysis by Maxent and ArcGIS model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Yan-Fang; Song, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wu, He-Zhen

    2016-09-01

    At the urgent request of Coptis chinensis planting,growth suitability as assessment indicators for C. chinensis cultivation was proposed and analyzed in this paper , based on chemical quality determination and ecological fators analysis by Maxent and ArcGIS model. Its potential distribution areas at differernt suitability grade and regionalization map were formulated based on statistical theory and growth suitability theory. The results showed that the most suitable habitats is some parts of Chongqing and Hubei province, such as Shizhu, Lichuan, Wulong, Wuxi, Enshi. There are seven ecological factor is the main ecological factors affect the growth of Coptidis Rhizoma, including altitude, precipitation in February and September and the rise of precipitation and altitude is conducive to the accumulation of total alkaloid content in C. chinensis. Therefore, The results of the study not only illustrates the most suitable for the surroundings of Coptidis Rhizoma, also helpful to further research and practice of cultivation regionalization, wild resource monitoring and large-scale cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine plants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Absorbability, Mechanism and Structure-Property Relationship of Three Phenolic Acids from the Flowers of Trollius chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Wen Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The absorption properties, mechanism of action, and structure-property relationship of three phenolic acids isolated from the flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge, namely, proglobeflowery acid (PA, globeflowery acid (GA and trolloside (TS, were investigated using the human Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The results showed that these three phenolic acids were transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayer in a time and concentration dependent manner at the Papp level of 10−5 cm/s, and their extent of absorption correlated with their polarity and molecular weight. In conclusion, all three of these compounds were easily absorbed through passive diffusion, which implied their high bioavailability and significant contribution to the effectiveness of T. chinensis.

  18. [Monitoring method of extraction process for Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus based on near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical process control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yue, Hong-Shui; Pang, Hong-Wei; Ye, Zheng-Liang; Ding, Li

    2017-10-01

    To establish an on-line monitoring method for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, the formula medicinal material of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection by combining near infrared spectroscopy with multi-variable data analysis technology. The multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model was established based on 5 normal batches in production and 2 test batches were monitored by PC scores, DModX and Hotelling T2 control charts. The results showed that MSPC model had a good monitoring ability for the extraction process. The application of the MSPC model to actual production process could effectively achieve on-line monitoring for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, and can reflect the change of material properties in the production process in real time. This established process monitoring method could provide reference for the application of process analysis technology in the process quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Prevalence of Epidermal Conditions in Critically Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the Waters of Western Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Yang1, Wei-Lung Chang2, Ka-Hei Kwong1, Yi-Ting Yao1 and Lien-Siang Chou2*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of epidermal conditions in a small critically endangered population (<100 individuals of coastal Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the waters of western Taiwan was assessed during a photo-identification study conducted between 2006 and 2010. Of 97 individuals photographically examined, 37% were affected by one or multiple conditions. Besides, mature individuals had significantly higher prevalence than immature ones. Five different skin condition categories were considered, including pox-like lesion, pale lesion, orange film, prolonged ulcer lesion, and nodule on body. This first study to investigate epidermal conditions on S. chinensis in the world offers data for comparison with other studies in the future and new ground for discussion on the health of these animals and the potential impact of anthropogenic activities.

  20. Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis: an alternative for the economic development of the arid and semi arid zones of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda Betancourt, J I; Parra Hake, H

    1976-01-01

    Simmondsia chinensis is, in spite of its name, a species indigenous to SE California and Arizona (US) and to the states of Sonora, Baja California Norte and Baja California Sur in Mexico. It is a shrubby forage plant that reaches a height of 1.5 m and can grow under conditions of extreme drought and high salinity provided that frost does not occur; it is thus suitable for many arid and semi-arid parts of Mexico as well as other similar regions of the world. The seed, traditionally associated with medicinal properties, was found in 1933 to produce a liquid wax with properties similar to those of sperm-whale oil, an increasingly scarce product used for the lubrication of machinery run at high temperatures and speeds. Some other uses for S. chinensis wax are listed, and silvicultural research on the species in progress in Baja California Sur and elsewhere is briefly described.

  1. Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis. An alternative for the economic development of the arid and semi arid zones of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda Betancourt, J I; Parra Hake, H

    1976-01-01

    S. chinensis is, in spite of its name, a species indigenous to SE California and Arizona (US) and to the states of Sonora, Baja California Norte and Baja California Sur in Mexico. It is a shrubby forage plant that reaches a height of 1.5 m and can grow under conditions of extreme drought and high salinity provided that frost does not occur; it is thus suitable for many arid and semi-arid parts of Mexico as well as other similar regions of the world. The seed, traditionally associated with medicinal properties, was found in 1933 to produce a liquid wax with properties similar to those of sperm-whale oil, an increasingly scarce product used for the lubrication of machinery run at high temperatures and speeds. Some other uses for S. chinensis wax are listed, and silvicultural research on the species in progress in Baja California Sur and elsewhere is briefly described.

  2. Sympatric and allopatric experimental infections of the planorbid snail Gyraulus chinensis with miracidia of Euparyphium albuferensis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Marín, A; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J-G

    2010-12-01

    An experimental infection with echinostomatid miracidia in sympatric or 'local' vs. allopatric or 'away' snail combinations, as a model to examine parasite compatibility, was carried out. We employed Euparyphium albuferensis miracidia to infect Gyraulus chinensis snails, from three different natural parks: Albufera (Valencia, Spain); the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) and Coto de Doñana (Huelva, Spain). Insignificant differences between the three snail strains were noted for the infection rate and the rhythm of daily cercarial production. However, a significantly higher total cercarial production per snail, patent period and life span were observed in local snails. The different infection characteristics in the three G. chinensis strains considered reveal that E. albuferensis miracidia demonstrate local adaptation.

  3. Effects of mercury on visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of mustard spinach plants (Brassica rapa P.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunagan, Sarah C.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Varekamp, Johan C.

    2007-01-01

    Mustard spinach plants were grown in mercury-spiked and contaminated soils collected in the field under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle to test if vegetation grown in these soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993 ppm) of the Mustard spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentration of soils and varied throughout the growing season. Equations relating foliar Hg concentration to spectral reflectance, its first derivative, and selected vegetation indices were generated using stepwise multiple linear regression. Significant correlations are found for limited wavelengths for specific treatments and dates. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Red Edge Position (REP) values of plants in Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soils are significantly lower relative to control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle which may be related to lower chlorophyll abundance or functioning in Hg-contaminated plants. - Some spectral characteristics of leaves of Brassica rapa P. may be associated with foliar mercury content

  4. Selection during crop diversification involves correlated evolution of the circadian clock and ecophysiological traits in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkhunova, Yulia; Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; Baker, Robert L; Aston, Timothy Llewellyn; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Crop selection often leads to dramatic morphological diversification, in which allocation to the harvestable component increases. Shifts in allocation are predicted to impact (as well as rely on) physiological traits; yet, little is known about the evolution of gas exchange and related anatomical features during crop diversification. In Brassica rapa, we tested for physiological differentiation among three crop morphotypes (leaf, turnip, and oilseed) and for correlated evolution of circadian, gas exchange, and phenological traits. We also examined internal and surficial leaf anatomical features and biochemical limits to photosynthesis. Crop types differed in gas exchange; oilseed varieties had higher net carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance relative to vegetable types. Phylogenetically independent contrasts indicated correlated evolution between circadian traits and both gas exchange and biomass accumulation; shifts to shorter circadian period (closer to 24 h) between phylogenetic nodes are associated with higher stomatal conductance, lower photosynthetic rate (when CO2 supply is factored out), and lower biomass accumulation. Crop type differences in gas exchange are also associated with stomatal density, epidermal thickness, numbers of palisade layers, and biochemical limits to photosynthesis. Brassica crop diversification involves correlated evolution of circadian and physiological traits, which is potentially relevant to understanding mechanistic targets for crop improvement. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  6. Analysis of cold resistance and identification of SSR markers linked to cold resistance genes in Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Xuexian; Jiang, Shouhua; Qin, Mengfan; Zhao, Na; Lang, Lina; Liu, Yaping; Tian, Zhengshu; Liu, Xia; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Binbin; Xu, Aixia

    2017-06-01

    Currently, cold temperatures are one of the main factors threatening rapeseed production worldwide; thus, it is imperative to identify cold-resistant germplasm and to cultivate cold-resistant rapeseed varieties. In this study, the cold resistance of four Brassica rapa varieties was analyzed. The cold resistance of Longyou6 and Longyou7 was better than that of Tianyou2 and Tianyou4. Thus, an F 2 population derived from Longyou6 and Tianyou4 was used to study the correlation of cold resistance and physiological indexes. Our results showed that the degree of frost damage was related to the relative conductivity and MDA content (r1 = 0.558 and r2 = 0.447, respectively). In order to identify the markers related to cold resistance, 504 pairs of SSR (simple sequence repeats) primers were used to screen the two parents and F 2 population. Four and five SSR markers had highly significant positive correlation to relative conductivity and MDA, respectively. In addition, three of these SSR markers had a highly significant positive correlation to both of these two indexes. These three SSR markers were subsequently confirmed to be used to distinguish between cold-resistant and non-cold-resistant varieties. The results of this study will lay a solid foundation for the mapping of cold-resistant genes and molecular markers assisted selection for the cold-resistance.

  7. Leaf proteome analysis of clematis chinensis: a traditional chinese medicine (tcm) by two-dimensional electrophoresis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, M.; Maqbool, M.; Hussaini, T.; Azami, S.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf proteome of Clematis chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technique. The samples were extracted by phenol-SDS method (PSM) with high protein quantity i.e. 2.35, 0.345 mg/g (yield/dw). Proteins were visualized by staining of gels by silver stain and CBB. The gel images of each species were compared by Image Master 2D Platinum software for analytical purpose. The 2-DE profile depicted distribution of 1085 spots and out of these only 255 protein spots (23.5%) were common to all analyzed taxa. The visualized protein spots showed pI range from 3.0 to 10.0 (pH) and Mr of 7 kDa to 70 kDa. Twelve proteins were exclusively specific to C. chinensis when compared with its allies, C. finetiana and C. armandii, which may be used as biomarkers. Thirteen proteins were up-regulated in C. finetiana (0.75-0.95 fold) and twelve proteins in C. armandii (1.05-1.66 fold) whilst seven proteins down-regulated (0.66-0.94 fold) in former and three proteins (1.07-1.20 fold) in later one in comparison with C. chinensis. Twenty five differential and similar protein spots were picked and analyzed by LC-MS/MS technique. Identified proteins are related to energy metabolism (ATP synthesis), photosynthesis. environmental stimuli, regulating RNA metabolism, growth hormone regulators, evolutionary trends and gene expression. The efficiency and applicability of proteomic approach as biomarker for identification of C. chinensis is discussed in its quality control (QC) perspectives. Leaf proteins of Clematis plants are explored for the first time by 2-DE technique and debated for their metabolic role. (author)

  8. Actinidia chinensis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. The NB-ARC domain sequences of 96 NBS-encoding genes were aligned by using MUSCLE program in MEGA 5.0. (Tamura et al. 2011). The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the neighbour-joining (NJ) method with the default options and 1000 bootstraps by ...

  9. Simmondsia chinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... lived evergreen perennial shrub with extensive deep tap root system which helps to withstand drought ... propagate jojoba in vitro on various culture media (Elhag et al., 1998; Agrawal et al., 1999; Agrawal et al. .... covered with polyethylene bags to minimize the loss of moisture and kept in a greenhouse for ...

  10. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Uptake and Translocation of Lead in Brassica chinensis and Potential Health Risk of Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renying Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM can affect the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil, especially in soils used for vegetable production, where intensive organic fertilization is applied. The present study examined the effects of DOM derived from commercial organic fertilizers (COF, cow manure (COM and chicken manure (CHM, on uptake and translocation of lead (Pb in Brassica chinensis in a pot experiment. The results indicate that DOM derived from CHM (DOMCHM significantly increased Pb concentrations in roots of B. chinensis (p < 0.05. By contrast, there was no significant increase in shoot Pb concentration for all the DOM treatments except the high DOMCHM treatment in the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb. Consistent with the Pb concentrations in shoots, translocation factor of Pb from soil to shoot and specific lead uptake (SLU by B. chinensis were significantly increased for the high DOMCHM treatment in the high Pb soil, but not for other DOM treatments. Based on the results of this study, the application of DOM to the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb could result in an increase in total Pb annually ingested by the inhabitants of Nanjing City in the range of 2018–9640 kg, with the highest estimates resulting from the high DOMCHM treatment. This study suggests the risk may rise under some conditions as indicated in the high DOMCHM treatment and high Pb pollution level.

  11. [Effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jie; Wang, De-Zhen; Zou, Zong-Yao; Wang, Yan-Zhi; Gao, Qian; Li, Xue-Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root. The content of alkaloids were analyzed by HPLC. The content of total alkaloids in adventitious root harvested in different time was ranged from 2.5% to 2.9%, in which that of berberine and coptisine were the highest, reaching to 1%, and that of palmatine was only 0.1%. It suggested there was no significant difference of total alkaloids at different harvesting time. Nevertheless, the difference of the alkaloids content from different parts was much significant. The content of total alkaloid of adventitious root near to rhizome was about 4%, 2 times higher than that away from rhizome (only 2%). In addition, different processing technologies would affect alkaloids content obviously. There was hardly loss of alkaloids when the fresh adventitious root was washed with water, but it would decrease alkaloids content when the dried adventitious root was washed. Medicine value of Coptis chinensis adventitious root near to rhizome is higher than that away from rhizome. And fresh Coptis chinensis adventitious root can be washed with water.

  12. A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kirsty L.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Davis, Katie S.; Van Den Berg, Albert H.; Christie, James S.; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J.; Van West, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments. PMID:25088077

  13. Occurrence of Diaretiella rapae (Mc´Intosh, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae Parasitising Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach, 1843 and Brevicoryne brassicae (L. 1758 (Homoptera: Aphididae in Brassica napus in Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussury Rosilda Mara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Diaretiella rapae parasitising Lipaphis erysimi and Brevicoryne brassicae in canola field (Brassica napus was evaluated through two sample methods in Dourados-MS. The methods, used weekly, were: entomologic sweep net and plants sacking. The aphids population was observed from initial to the senescence plant development. Aphids were more abundant during the flowering phase, and they were usually located in the stems of the inflorescence and development fruits. In this phase the largest parasitism level for D. rapae (89,7% occurred. The sample method with a sweep net captured significantly (t=4,484, P <= 0,01 more D. rapae while sacking method captured more parasitise aphids (t=2,199 with P <= 0,05 and active aphids (t=3,513, P <= 0,01.

  14. Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis on mined lands: Science and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Belden, S.E. [ARS, Cheyenne, WY (United States). High Plains Grasslands Research Station

    2005-12-01

    In 1996, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality enacted regulations governing the reestablishment of woody shrubs on mined lands. The regulation required that an average density of one shrub m{sup -2} be reestablished on at least 20% of the disturbed land area and that the shrub composition must include dominant premine species. In Wyoming, and much of the Northern Great Plains, that meant that Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) had to be reestablished on mined lands. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis had proven difficult to reestablish on mined lands because of poor quality seed, seed dormancy and a poor understanding of the seedbed ecology of this species. Research in the last two decades has produced significant knowledge in the area of direct-seed establishment of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis on mined lands. Our research has shown that reducing grass seeding rates will reduce competition and result in larger sagebrush plants that are more likely to survive and provide greater structural diversity to the plant community. Economic analyses demonstrated that big sagebrush can be established at a cost of $0.01-0.05 per seedling using direct seeding methods compared to transplanting nursery grown seedlings, estimated to cost $0.72-$1.65 per seedling (depending on size) to grow and from $1.30-$2.40 to plant (flat land to 2:1 slopes). An adequate level of precipitation will be necessary to ensure successful establishment of this species no matter what method of propagation is selected and direct seeding gives greater opportunity for success because of the demonstrated longevity of the seed to germinate 3-5 years after the initial seeding.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow in pure dysarthria. A 3D-SSP study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kensho; Kamogawa, Kenji; Okuda, Bungo; Kawabata, Keita; Tachibana, Hisao

    2007-01-01

    Pure dysarthria from brain infarction is a rare condition, and its pathophysiology remains unclear. To clarify the underlying mechanism of pure dysarthria, we investigated the lesion sites and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with pure dysarthria. We examined 18 consecutive patients with pure dysarthria (9 men and 9 women; mean age, 71 years) who underwent MRI and cerebral blood flow studies. To visualize the regional cerebral blood flow, we generated Z score images using the three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and N-isopropyl-p [ 123 I]iodoamphetamine. Data on the brain surface perfusion extracted by the 3D-SSP analysis were compared between the pure dysarthria (PD) patients and 9 control subjects. MRI revealed multiple lacunar infarctions involving the internal capsule and/or corona radiata in 11 patients, left internal capsule-corona radiata infarction in 4 patients, and pontine infarction in 3 patients. SPECT with 3D-SSP demonstrated bilateral frontal cortical hypoperfusion in all patients, particularly in the anterior opercular region. Based on intergroup comparisons, the PD group exhibited pronounced cortical hypoperfusion in the opercular and medial frontal regions, left more than right. In conclusion, pure dysarthria is considered to originate from frontal cortical hypoperfusion, mainly in the anterior opercular and medial frontal regions, which is probably due to interruption of the corticosubcortical neural networks relevant to speech expression and articulation. In addition, it is suggested that left hemispheric lesions may make a greater contribution to the development of pure dysarthria than do right ones. (author)

  16. Global cost analysis on adaptation to sea level rise based on RCP/SSP scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, N.; Tamura, M.; Yotsukuri, M.; Kuwahara, Y.; Yokoki, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low-lying areas are the most vulnerable to sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change in the future. In order to adapt to SLR, it is necessary to decide whether to retreat from vulnerable areas or to install dykes to protect them from inundation. Therefore, cost- analysis of adaptation using coastal dykes is one of the most essential issues in the context of climate change and its countermeasures. However, few studies have globally evaluated the future costs of adaptation in coastal areas. This study tries to globally analyze the cost of adaptation in coastal areas. First, global distributions of projected inundation impacts induced by SLR including astronomical high tide were assessed. Economic damage was estimated on the basis of the econometric relationship between past hydrological disasters, affected population, and per capita GDP using CRED's EM-DAT database. Second, the cost of adaptation was also determined using the cost database and future scenarios. The authors have built a cost database for installed coastal dykes worldwide and applied it to estimating the future cost of adaptation. The unit costs of dyke construction will increase with socio-economic scenario (SSP) such as per capita GDP. Length of vulnerable coastline is calculated by identifying inundation areas using ETOPO1. Future cost was obtained by multiplying the length of vulnerable coastline and the unit cost of dyke construction. Third, the effectiveness of dyke construction was estimated by comparing cases with and without adaptation.As a result, it was found that incremental adaptation cost is lower than economic damage in the cases of SSP1 and SSP3 under RCP scenario, while the cost of adaptation depends on the durability of the coastal dykes.

  17. PENGEMBANGAN SUBJECT SPECIFIC PEDAGOGY (SSP IPA TERPADU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yuliawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background of this research is the analysis of the results of interviews some junior secondary schools in Yogyakarta and the conclusion that teachers do not use an integrated science teaching and teachers still find difficulties in the application of learning science in an integrated manner. It can be influenced by several factors, such as the lack of reference used by teachers in presenting the material Integrated Science relevantly, most of science teachers are from educational background of chemistry, physics, and biology instead of science education, so that teachers find difficulties to create an integrated learning of science. In addition, teachers feel difficulty in determining the depth of the material, limits of integration in integrated science teaching, and did not know the concept of integrated science teaching. This research is a development research. Learning tools developed included : student books, lesson plans, student activity sheets and evaluation tools. The development of the learning which is done in this study use the models of 4D development which includes the step of Define (definition which at this stage conducted a needs analysis. Design : it is the stage of Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP software design. Development, it is the stage of development after the draft was made followed by a learning device validation by experts. This stage is also conducted to seek input from all the responses, reactions and comments from teachers, students, and observers so that it can be used for further improvement of science teaching later. The Disseminate, it is the stage of field tests are widely but not done. Data collection instruments used in this study include : test items and questionnaire. The conclusion of this development research are as follows : the results of the validation SSP integrated science by learning tools expert, material experts and media experts indicate the category of Very Good (SB so that SSP integrated

  18. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, Combined load. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt

    This report is part of the research project entitled “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last” where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55...... of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades’ respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed....

  19. Chemical Composition and Possible in Vitro Phytotoxic Activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth Don ssp. italicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected.

  20. Lineages of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi in the Irish equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Emma; Kavanagh, Kerrie S; Buckley, Tom C; Cooney, Jakki C

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is the causative agent of 'Strangles' in horses. This is a debilitating condition leading to economic loss, yard closures and cancellation of equestrian events. There are multiple genotypes of S. equi ssp. equi which can cause disease, but to date there has been no systematic study of strains which are prevalent in Ireland. This study identified and classified Streptococcus equi ssp. equi strains isolated from within the Irish equine industry. Two hundred veterinary isolates were subjected to SLST (single locus sequence typing) based on an internal sequence from the seM gene of Streptococcus equi ssp equi. Of the 171 samples which successfully gave an amplicon, 162 samples (137 Irish and 24 UK strains) gave robust DNA sequence information. Analysis of the sequences allowed division of the isolates into 19 groups, 13 of which contain at least 2 isolates and 6 groups containing single isolates. There were 19 positions where a DNA SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) occurs, and one 3 bp insertion. All groups had multiple (2-8) SNPs. Of the SNPs 17 would result in an amino acid change in the encoded protein. Interestingly, the single isolate EI8, which has 6 SNPs, has the three base pair insertion which is not seen in any other isolate, this would result in the insertion of an Ile residue at position 62 in that protein sequence. Comparison of the relevant region in the determined sequences with the UK Streptococcus equi seM MLST database showed that Group B (15 isolates) and Group I (2 isolates), as well as the individual isolates EI3 and EI8, are unique to Ireland, and some groups are most likely of UK origin (Groups F and M), but many more probably passed back and forth between the two countries. The strains occurring in Ireland are not clonal and there is a considerable degree of sequence variation seen in the seM gene. There are two major clades causing infection in Ireland and these strains are also common in the UK.

  1. Estudo da viabilidade de Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis em suco de Yacon

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Felipe Miguel Farion

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A maioria dos produtos probióticos são elaborados à base de leite, com desvantagens aos consumidores intolerantes à lactose, tornando assim produtos probióticos não lácteos vantajosos. O yacon é uma planta que acumula em suas raízes compostos prebióticos conhecidos como frutooligossacarídeos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir o suco de yacon e utilizá-lo como matriz não láctea para a bactéria probiótica Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis. O yacon apresentou rápido escurecimento...

  2. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. BIOPHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCHES IN VITRO ON THE CHOICE OF OPTIMAL COMPOSITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL AID FOR OINTMENT PRODUCTION BASED ON СО2 EXTRACT OF SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Morozov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis is valuable species of herbal medicines raw materials (fruits, seeds, caruncles, leaves, stem cortex, and roots with root systems which are used for medicines and biologically active supplements production in food and cosmetic industry. However nowadays medicines from Schisandra chinensis are only represented by tincture for internal use on domestic pharmaceutical market. There are data about positive implementation of medicines based on raw materials of Schisandra chinensis as external medicine forms in folk medicine and in literature. The purpose of this work is the development of soft external medicine form – ointment based on СО2 extract of Schisandra chinensis seeds. Biopharmaceutical researches in vitro on the choice of optimal ointment composition by the method of dialysis through semi permeable membrane were conducted for this purpose. Release rate was calculated in relation to base biologically active substances of Schisandra chinensis – lignans (schizandrin and γ-schizandrin which determine its basic pharmacological value. Based on the results of the research conducted it is possible to conclude that the best ointment bases are hydrophilous “classic” poly ethylene oxide and oleogel based on paraffinic oil and aerosil.

  4. Low Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Variation in the Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Inferences About the Role of Balancing Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyang; Lin, Wenzhi; Zhou, Ruilian; Gui, Duan; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    It has been widely reported that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is under balancing selection due to its immune function across terrestrial and aquatic mammals. The comprehensive studies at MHC and other neutral loci could give us a synthetic evaluation about the major force determining genetic diversity of species. Previously, a low level of genetic diversity has been reported among the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using both mitochondrial marker and microsatellite loci. Here, the expression and sequence polymorphism of 2 MHC class II genes (DQB and DRB) in 32 S. chinensis from PRE collected between 2003 and 2011 were investigated. High ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates, codon-based selection analysis, and trans-species polymorphism (TSP) support the hypothesis that balancing selection acted on S. chinensis MHC sequences. However, only 2 haplotypes were detected at either DQB or DRB loci. Moreover, the lack of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg expectation at DRB locus combined with the relatively low heterozygosity at both DQB locus and microsatellite loci suggested that balancing selection might not be sufficient, which further suggested that genetic drift associated with historical bottlenecks was not mitigated by balancing selection in terms of the loss of MHC and neutral variation in S. chinensis. The combined results highlighted the importance of maintaining the genetic diversity of the endangered S. chinensis. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae): loss of an inverted repeat region and comparative analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Li, Ruyi; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae) is a domestic variety of yew species in local China. This plant is one of the sources for paclitaxel, which is a promising antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs during the last decade. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of T. chinensis var. mairei. The T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome is 129,513 bp in length, with 113 single copy genes and two duplicated genes (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG). Among the 113 single copy genes, 9 are intron-containing. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome has lost one of the large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperm such as Cycas revoluta and Ginkgo biloba L. Compared to related species, the gene order of T. chinensis var. mairei has a large inversion of ~110kb including 91 genes (from rps18 to accD) with gene contents unarranged. Repeat analysis identified 48 direct and 2 inverted repeats 30 bp long or longer with a sequence identity greater than 90%. Repeated short segments were found in genes rps18, rps19 and clpP. Analysis also revealed 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced CBF recovery detected by longitudinal 3D-SSP SPECT analyses predicts outcome of postoperative patients after subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Tatsushi; Totsune, Tomoko; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Tatewaki, Yasuko; Nakagawa, Manabu; Suarez, Jose I; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral blood flow (CBF) recovery obtained from brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images on postoperative outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Twenty-nine patients who had undergone surgical clipping for ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms were analyzed prospectively. Routine measurements of CBF were performed using technetium-99 m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxine SPECT on days 4 and 14 after SAH. Regional voxel data analyzed by three dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) were compared between patients and age-matched normal database (NDB). In 3D-SSP analysis of all patients, cortical hypoperfusion around the surgical site in bilateral frontal lobes was evident on day 4 (P SSP SPECT image analyses can be a potential predictor of poor prognosis in postoperative patients after SAH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Biological Evaluation, Overpressured Layer Chromatography (OPLC) separation and Isolation of a New Acetylenic Derivative Compound from Prangos platychlaena ssp. platychlaena Fruit Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present work, fruits of Prangos platychlaena Boiss. ex Tchihat. ssp. platychlaena (Apiaceae) collected from eastern (Sample A) and central (Sample B) parts of Turkey were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield essential oils (EOs). The chemical composition of P. platychlaena ssp. platychlaen...

  8. The Non-universality of the Low-mass End of the IMF is Robust against the Choice of SSP Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiniello, C.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance

  9. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25° or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means.

  10. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25 deg or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means. (author)

  11. Physiological and Growth Characteristics of Brassica rapa 'Tokyo Bekana' Grown within the International Space Station Crop Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgner, Samuel Edward

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as well as many other space research organizations across the globe have advanced the idea of using plants as a method of bioregenerative life support for decades. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) houses a small vegetable-production system named "Veggie." Veggie is equipped with a light-emitting diode (LED) cap, a reservoir that provides water to the root zone through capillary action, and adjustable bellows that enclose the growing environment allowing for controlled air circulation. However, Veggie draws air from the cabin space and ISS environmental conditions are controlled for human comfort and function as opposed to optimal plant growth conditions. During the first experiment within Veggie aboard the ISS, temperature averaged 22 ºC (+/- 0.25), relative humidity was 43.9% (+/- 3.7), and CO2 fluctuated around 2,800 ppm (+/- 678). Preliminary trials selected Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa 'Tokyo Bekana') as the most suitable cultivar for production within Veggie based on its horticultural, organoleptic, and nutritional characteristics. Introducing this cultivar into ISS conditions (mimicked in a growth chamber) led to extensive chlorosis, necrosis, and growth inhibition. Attempts to ameliorate this observed stress by changing light spectrum, slow-release fertilizer composition, and growth substrate were unsuccessful suggesting that this issue could be attributed to environmental conditions. Analyzing effects of CO2 at 450, 900 and 1350 ppm on growth, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance in this cultivar revealed a poor ability to acclimate to this environmental variable. In order to develop an efficient system of plant production aboard the ISS or other potential spacecraft, a more efficient CO2 regulation system must be implemented within the cabin space or within a defined plant production area and species should be screened based on their ability to thrive in such an environment.

  12. Effects of submicron ammonium sulfate particles on the growth and yield of komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motai, Akira; Nakaba, Satoshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Watanabe, Makoto; Wada, Yoshiharu; Izuta, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of submicron ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. cv. Hakkei) plants. First, we optimized a leaf-washing method to measure the amount of AS particles deposited on the leaf surface of the plants. Then, we used this method to determine the retention time of particles deposited on the leaf surface of the plants. We also investigated the effects of AS particles on the growth and yield of the plants. Almost all the AS particles deposited on the leaf surface were removed within 1 min washing time with ultrapure water, and ion leaching from the leaf was relatively slow but continuous during the leaf-washing procedure. On the basis of these results, we determined that 1 min was a suitable washing time to remove most of the AS particles while minimizing the influence of ion leaching from the leaf. The amount of particulate SO42- deposited on the leaf surface decreased over time, probably because AS particles deposited on the leaf surface deliquesced, allowing ions such as SO42- in the deliquescence solution to be absorbed into the leaf. The plants were grown and exposed to AS particles for 16 days in naturally lit phytotrons. The daily mean increase in the concentration of SO42- in PM2.5 by the exposure to AS particles was 22.5 μg m-3 in the phytotrons. The growth and yield of the plants were significantly reduced by the exposure to AS particles. The exposure to AS particles did not affect the leaf concentrations of nitrogen and chlorophyll, but significantly reduced stomatal conductance. Therefore, stomatal closure is one of the reasons for the AS particle-induced reductions in the growth and yield of komatsuna plants.

  13. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delourme Régine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38 populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research.

  14. Physicochemical, agronomical and microbiological evaluation of alternative growing media for the production of rapini (Brassica rapa L.) microgreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Francesco; De Bellis, Palmira; Mininni, Carlo; Santamaria, Pietro; Serio, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Peat-based mixes and synthetic mats are the main substrates used for microgreens production. However, both are expensive and non-renewable. Recycled fibrous materials may represent low-cost and renewable alternative substrates. Recycled textile-fiber (TF; polyester, cotton and polyurethane traces) and jute-kenaf-fiber (JKF; 85% jute, 15% kenaf-fibers) mats were characterized and compared with peat and Sure to Grow® (Sure to Grow, Beachwood, OH, USA; http://suretogrow.com) (STG; 100% polyethylene-terephthalate) for the production of rapini (Brassica rapa L.; Broccoletto group) microgreens. All substrates had suitable physicochemical properties for the production of microgreens. On average, microgreens fresh yield was 1502 g m -2 in peat, TF and JKF, and was 13.1% lower with STG. Peat-grown microgreen shoots had a higher concentration of K + and SO 4 2 - and a two-fold higher NO 3 - concentration [1959 versus 940 mg kg -1 fresh weight (FW)] than those grown on STG, TF and JKF. At harvest, substrates did not influence microgreens aerobic bacterial populations (log 6.48 CFU g -1 FW). Peat- and JKF-grown microgreens had higher yeast-mould counts than TF- and STG microgreens (log 2.64 versus 1.80 CFU g -1 FW). Peat-grown microgreens had the highest population of Enterobacteriaceae (log 5.46 ± 0.82 CFU g -1 ) and Escherichia coli (log 1.46 ± 0.15 CFU g -1 ). Escherichia coli was not detected in microgreens grown on other media. TF and JKF may be valid alternatives to peat and STG because both ensured a competitive yield, low nitrate content and a similar or higher microbiological quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  16. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

    2013-01-01

    . Methods and Results: The strains were identified by gyrB gene sequencing and phenotypic tests as B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar spot and well assay, being inhibitory to a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria....... They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains...

  17. Development of a typing system for epidemiological studies of porcine toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Nielsen, Jens; Bisgaard, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate capsular-typing, plasmid-profiling, phage-typing and ribotyping for epidemiological studies of toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark. The evaluation of methods was based on 68 strains from nasal swabs and 14 strains from...... by HindIII ribotyping, as 85% of isolates from all herds were assigned to one ribotype. In conclusion, HindIII ribotyping seems to represent a useful tool for epidemiological studies of toxigenic P. multocida ssp. multocida....

  18. Lactoferrin affects the adherence and invasion of Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Fiona; Beecher, Christine; Chaurin, Valerie; Sweeney, Torres; Giblin, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae is an important causative agent of bovine mastitis worldwide. Lactoferrin is an innate immune protein that is associated with many functions including immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, and antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to investigate the interactions between lactoferrin and a clinical bovine mastitis isolate, Strep. dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae DPC5345. Initially a deliberate in vivo bovine intramammary challenge was performed with Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345. Results demonstrated a significant difference in lactoferrin mRNA levels in milk cells between the control and infused quarters 7h postinfusion. Milk lactoferrin levels in the Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345 infused quarters were significantly increased compared with control quarters at 48h postinfusion. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactoferrin had a bacteriostatic effect on the growth of Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345 and significantly decreased the ability of the bacteria to internalize into HC-11 mammary epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy images of HC-11 cells exposed to Strep. dysgalactiae and lactoferrin further supported this effect by demonstrating reduced invasion of bacteria to HC-11 cells. The combined data suggest that a bovine immune response to Strep. dysgalactiae infection includes a significant increase in lactoferrin expression in vivo, and based on in vitro data, lactoferrin limits mammary cell invasion of this pathogen by binding to the bacteria and preventing its adherence. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Salmonella type III effector SspH2 specifically exploits the NLR co-chaperone activity of SGT1 to subvert immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit P Bhavsar

    Full Text Available To further its pathogenesis, S. Typhimurium delivers effector proteins into host cells, including the novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL effector SspH2. Using model systems in a cross-kingdom approach we gained further insight into the molecular function of this effector. Here, we show that SspH2 modulates innate immunity in both mammalian and plant cells. In mammalian cell culture, SspH2 significantly enhanced Nod1-mediated IL-8 secretion when transiently expressed or bacterially delivered. In addition, SspH2 also enhanced an Rx-dependent hypersensitive response in planta. In both of these nucleotide-binding leucine rich repeat receptor (NLR model systems, SspH2-mediated phenotypes required its catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and interaction with the conserved host protein SGT1. SGT1 has an essential cell cycle function and an additional function as an NLR co-chaperone in animal and plant cells. Interaction between SspH2 and SGT1 was restricted to SGT1 proteins that have NLR co-chaperone function and accordingly, SspH2 did not affect SGT1 cell cycle functions. Mechanistic studies revealed that SspH2 interacted with, and ubiquitinated Nod1 and could induce Nod1 activity in an agonist-independent manner if catalytically active. Interestingly, SspH2 in vitro ubiquitination activity and protein stability were enhanced by SGT1. Overall, this work adds to our understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms used by bacterial effectors to co-opt host pathways by demonstrating that SspH2 can subvert immune responses by selectively exploiting the functions of a conserved host co-chaperone.

  20. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis: Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Liu

    Full Text Available The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH, a type of marine protected area (MPA for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species.

  1. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  2. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  3. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (psausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (psausage significantly (psausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (psausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (psausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  4. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah; Storey, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling. Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination. PMID:16662104

  5. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  6. [Chemical composition and content of antiphysiological factors of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) residual meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil, F; Sanginés, G L; Torreblanca, R A; Grande, M L; Carranco, J M

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial plant with an interesting economic value by processing it for liquid wax production. By pressing of jojoba seeds, by-product which has been called "residual meal" has been obtained, and because of its high protein content, it would be a great interest to evaluate it as animal feedstuff. The results of this study showed the following. Both seed and residual meal were analyzed in regard to their chemical proximal composition: crude protein 14.03 and 25.24%; ether extract, 48.89 and 14.73%; crude fiber, 10.03 and 10.07%; ash, 1.59 and 4.72, and nitrogen-free extract, 25.46 and 45.25, the limiting amino acids being methionine, lysine and isoleucine. The trypsin inhibitor factors were 13.747 and 11,197 TIU/g; and hemagglutinins and saponins were negative for both samples. Cyanogenic glucosides were positive in both samples. It was concluded that jojoba residual meal is an alternative as an adequate feedstuff in those regions where jojoba is produced. Nevertheless, prior to consumption it must be treated so as to eliminate the toxic factors.

  7. Isolation and identification of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine from jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Fabian; Van Boven, Maurits; de Witte, Peter; Busson, Roger; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2004-03-10

    A mixture of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been isolated by column chromatography from a jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) extract. The molecular species of both classes could be separated and isolated by C18 reversed phase HPLC. The two major compounds were identified by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR, by MS, and by GC-MS as 1-oleoyl-3-lysophosphatidylcholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylcholine. Eight other molecular species of LPC and four other molecular species of PC could be assigned by comparison of the mass spectra of the isolated compounds with the spectra of the two major compounds. Complete characterization of the individual molecular species was achieved by GC and GC-MS analysis of the fatty acyl composition from the isolated compounds. The PC/LPC proportion in the phospholipid mixture from three different samples is 1.6 +/- 0.1. LPC is considered to be an important bioactive compound; the results of this study suggest further research for the evaluation of potential health benefits of jojoba meal phospholipids.

  8. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  9. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Pan

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez, though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  10. Structure and biological activities of a pectic polysaccharide from Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-En; Cui, Steve W; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble pectic polysaccharide (MP-A40) was isolated and purified from Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru for the first time, with a molecular weight of 32,600Da. MP-A40 was comprised of 68.63% galacturonic acid and 13.05% neutral sugar. In addition, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose composed the neutral sugar in a relative ratio of 4.94, 3.07, 2.13, 1.62 and 1.29% of the dry weight of MP-A40, respectively. Structural characterization of MP-A40 was investigated by methylation analysis and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. From the results, the structure of MP-A40 was revealed as follows: 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA and 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA6Me interspersed with rare t-Araf (0.60%), t-Rhap (1.67%) and t-GalpA (10.15%). Esterification assay showed that about 32% of the carboxylic groups in GalA residues existed as methyl ester. In addition, MP-A40 could inhibit the growth of human leukemic cell line K562 and stimulate nitric oxide production from RAW 264.7 macrophages both in dose-dependent manners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Quality evaluation and antioxidant activity research of Schisandra chinensis from various habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Fu; Hu, Gao-Sheng; Li, Na; Fan, Xing; Jia, Jing-Ming

    2012-12-01

    To determine the contents of lignans, crude polysaccharides (CP) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of Schisandra chinensis from various habitats in Liaoning province and evaluate their quality and free radical scavenging (FRS) activity. Contents of schisandrol, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B were determined by RP-HPLC. Contents of TPC, CP and FRS activity were determined by Folin-Cicalteu's, phenol-sulfuric acid and DPPH x method, respectively. Sample from Liaoyang city had the highest contents of lignans (21.75 mg/g); Sample from Shenbei New district of Shenyang city had the highest contents of CP (88.72 mg/g); Sample from Guanmenshan district of Benxi city had the highest contents of TPC and FRS activity (26.06 mg/g and 86.3%, respectively). Linear regression analysis results showed that contents of TPC had higher correlation coefficient with FRS activity than that of lignans. Their linear regression equations were Y = 1.3677X + 46.97, R2 = 0.6869 and Y = 2.5916X + 57.927, R2 = 0.1747 for TPC and lignans with FRS activity, respectively. The contents of lignans, CP and TPC are significantly different from samples collected from various habitats in Liaoning province. The main antioxidative substances are TPC, and lignans have no significant correlation with FRS activity.

  12. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  13. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  14. Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of Subtropical Plant Extracts Against Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis

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    H.T. AI Lawati

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of eight plants local to Oman, namely Qarat (Acacia nilotica, Mustafal (Annona squamosa, Shereesh (Azadirachta indica, Luban (Boswellia sacra, Kheshkhash (Crotolaria juncea, Zebrot (Jatropha dhofarica Yas, (Myrtus communis and Suwwad (Suaeda aegyptiaca were prepared by steeping shaded dried leaf/ seed powder of each plant in water and solvent (methanol or ethanol. The extracts were tested for their insecticidal and repellent properties against the pulse beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. The extracts from the seeds of A. squamosa recorded l00% mortality of beetles within twenty and four hours of their exposure to methanol and ethanol extracts, respectively. The other extracts that caused high mortality were from A. nilotica, C. juncea, M. communis and S. aegzptiaca in methanol and B. sacra, J. dhofarica, S. aegptiaca and commercial neem in ethanol. Extracts of M. communis in methanol were highly repellent to the beetles compared to other extracts. Legume seeds treated with extracts of A. squamosa were not repellent, rather the beetles were attracted to them.

  15. Biology and Conservation of the Taiwanese Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Y; Riehl, Kimberly N; Klein, Michelle N; Javdan, Shiva; Hoffman, Jordan M; Dungan, Sarah Z; Dares, Lauren E; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2016-01-01

    The humpback dolphins of the eastern Taiwan Strait were first discovered scientifically in 2002 and since then have received much research attention. We reviewed all information published in peer-reviewed scientific journals on these dolphins and where appropriate and available, peer-reviewed scientific workshop reports and graduate theses were also examined. Recent evidence demonstrated that this population warranted recognition as a subspecies, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis. It is found in a highly restricted and linear strip of coastal waters along central western Taiwan. Numbering fewer than 80 individuals and declining, five main threats (fisheries interactions, habitat loss and degradation, loss of freshwater to estuaries within their habitat, air and water pollution, and noise) threaten the future existence of this subspecies. These dolphins have cultural and religious importance and boast the highest level of legal protection for wildlife in Taiwan. However, despite enormous efforts by local and international non-governmental groups urging immediate conservation actions, there have been no real government efforts to mitigate any existing threats; instead, some of these threats have worsened. Based on recent studies, we suggest the IUCN Red List status be revised to Critically Endangered CR 2a(ii); D for the subspecies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in fresh omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) fruit and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye Ran; Lim, Sung Jin; Cho, Jae Young

    2012-02-01

    Schizandra chinensis Baillon, or omija, is a fruit native to northeast Asia that is cultivated in South Korea and China. Fresh omija fruit has been used in beverages, traditional East Asian medicine and cosmetics because of its complex flavor and pharmacological effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze residue levels of 33 kinds of pesticides on fresh omija fruits and in omija juices produced in South Korea. A risk assessment of the pesticides in omija juice was conducted by calculating EDI and ADI. Most of the pesticide levels were below the LOD in fresh omija fruits. Among the detected compounds, the most frequently detected pesticide was ethoprophos. The EDIs of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole were 5.89E-03, 7.08E-04 and 4.73E-05, respectively. The percent of EDI to ADI of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole was 28.0%, 13.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The results of this research concluded that the detected pesticides are not harmful to human beings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Phylogeography of the Chinese Beard Eel, Cirrhimuraena chinensis Kaup, Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA: A Range Expansion after the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese beard eel (Cirrhimuraena chinensis Kaup is an intertidal fish and a model organism for the study of impacts caused by topological fluctuations during the Pleistocene and current intricate hydrological conditions on fauna living in the coastal areas of China. In this study, we examined the phylogeographical pattern, population genetic profile and demographical history of C. chinensis using mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b (cyt b and control region (CR from 266 individuals sampled in seven localities across the coastal area of southeastern China. The combined data indicated high levels of haplotype diversity and low levels of nucleotide diversity. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA and FST statistics suggested the absence of a significant population structure across the Chinese coast. Neutrality tests, mismatch distributions and Bayesian skyline plots uniformly indicated a recent population expansion. The phylogeographic structure of C. chinensis may be attributed to past population expansion and long-distance pelagic larval dispersal facilitated by present-day ocean currents.

  18. Effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide on intracerebral acetylcholinesterase and monoamine neurotransmitters in a D-galactose-induced aging brain mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingsan Miao; Jianlian Gao; Guangwei Zhang; Xiao Ma; Ying Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most prominent characteristic of brain aging is decreased learning and memory ability. The functions of learning and memory are closely related to intracerebral acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and monoamine neurotransmitter activity. Previous studies have shown that Schisandra chinensis potysaccharide has an anti-aging effect. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide on AChE activity and monoamine neurotransmitter content, as well as learning and memory ability in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse brain model compared with the positive control drug Kangnaoling. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Completely randomized, controlled experiment based on neurobiochemistry was performed at the Pharmacological Laboratory, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from September to December 2003.MATERIALS: Schisandra chinensis was purchased from Henan Provincial Medicinal Company. Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide was obtained by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Kangnaoling pellets were provided by Liaoning Tianlong Pharmaceutical (batch No. 20030804;state drug permit No. H21023095). A total of 50 six-week-old Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups: blank control, model, Kangnaoling, high and low dosage Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide groups, with 10 mice per group. METHODS: Mice in the blank control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.5 mL/20 g normal saline into the nape of the neck each day, while the remaining mice were subcutaneously injected with 5% D-galactose saline solution (0.5 mL/20 g) in the nape for 40 days to induce a brain aging model. On day 11, mice in the high and low dosage Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide groups were intragastrically infused with 20 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide solution (0.2 mL/10 g), respectively. Mice from the Kangnaoling group were intragastrically infused with 35 mg/mL Kangnaoling suspension (0.2 mL/10 g), and the mice in the

  19. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

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    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  20. Systems Analysis of Early Host Gene Expression Provides Clues for Transient Mycobacterium avium ssp avium vs. Persistent Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Sangeeta; Drake, Kenneth L; Lawhon, Sara D; Nunes, Jairo E S; Figueiredo, Josely F; Rossetti, Carlos A; Gull, Tamara; Everts, Robin E; Lewin, Harris A; Adams, Leslie Garry

    It has long been a quest in ruminants to understand how two very similar mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (MAA) lead to either a chronic persistent infection or a rapid-transient infection, respectively. Here, we hypothesized that when the host immune response is activated by MAP or MAA, the outcome of the infection depends on the early activation of signaling molecules and host temporal gene expression. To test our hypothesis, ligated jejuno-ileal loops including Peyer's patches in neonatal calves were inoculated with PBS, MAP, or MAA. A temporal analysis of the host transcriptome profile was conducted at several times post-infection (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours). When comparing the transcriptional responses of calves infected with the MAA versus MAP, discordant patterns of mucosal expression were clearly evident, and the numbers of unique transcripts altered were moderately less for MAA-infected tissue than were mucosal tissues infected with the MAP. To interpret these complex data, changes in the gene expression were further analyzed by dynamic Bayesian analysis. Bayesian network modeling identified mechanistic genes, gene-to-gene relationships, pathways and Gene Ontologies (GO) biological processes that are involved in specific cell activation during infection. MAP and MAA had significant different pathway perturbation at 0.5 and 12 hours post inoculation. Inverse processes were observed between MAP and MAA response for epithelial cell proliferation, negative regulation of chemotaxis, cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin and regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling. MAP inoculated tissue had significantly lower expression of phagocytosis receptors such as mannose receptor and complement receptors. This study reveals that perturbation of genes and cellular pathways during MAP infection resulted in host evasion by mucosal membrane barrier weakening to access entry in the ileum

  1. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, A; Ghannadi, A; Mohebi, B

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents.

  2. Pendimethalin aplicado à casca de arroz e serragem para o controle de plantas daninhas em Ixora chinensis Lam. Pendimethalin applied on rice husks and sawdust for weed control on Ixora chinensis Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Seixas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de herbicidas residuais à coberturas mortas pode aumentar a eficiência desses materiais no manejo da comunidade infestante. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a possibilidade de aplicação do pendimethalin à casca de arroz e à serragem para o controle de plantas daninhas em Ixora chinensis. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos aplicando-se o pendimethalin às coberturas mortas através de embebição e pulverização do herbicida, variando-se também a quantidade de cobertura utilizada. As espécies de plantas daninhas que ocorreram com maior frequência foram Alternanthera tenella, Blainvillea rhomboidea, Cenchrus echinatus e Commelina benghalensis. Há possibilidade de aplicação do herbicida pendimethalin à palha de arroz ou à serragem para controle de plantas daninhas em I. chinensis, principalmente quando ocorrem chuvas regulares e bem distribuídas. Há evidências de que a embebição da cobertura morta no herbicida seja um pouco mais eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas que a sua pulverização sobre a cobertura. Possivelmente, a quantidade de cobertura morta utilizada influencia na eficiência de controle, apesar deste fato não ter ficado claro neste trabalho.Applying herbicides at mulches may increase the efficiency of these materials for weed management. The objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of pendimethalin applied on rice husks and sawdust for weed control on Ixora chinensis. In two field trials, pendimethalin was applied to the mulches through imbibition and spraying herbicide, also varying the amount of mulches. Higher frequent weeds were Alternanthera tenella, Blainvillea rhomboidea, Cenchrus echinatus and Commelina benghalensis. There are possibility of pendimethalin application on rice husks or sawdust for controlling weeds in I. chinensis mainly when regular and well-distributed rainfalls occur. There are evidences that the imbibition of these mulches to the herbicide

  3. Functional analysis and tissue-differential expression of four FAD2 genes in amphidiploid Brassica napus derived from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; In Sohn, Soo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays a crucial role in producing linoleic acid (18:2) through catalyzing the desaturation of oleic acid (18:1) by double bond formation at the delta 12 position. FAD2 catalyzes the first step needed for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the glycerolipids of cell membranes and the triacylglycerols in seeds. In this study, four FAD2 genes from amphidiploid Brassica napus genome were isolated by PCR amplification, with their enzymatic functions predicted by sequence analysis of the cDNAs. Fatty acid analysis of budding yeast transformed with each of the FAD2 genes showed that whereas BnFAD2-1, BnFAD2-2, and BnFAD2-4 are functional enzymes, and BnFAD2-3 is nonfunctional. The four FAD2 genes of B. napus originated from synthetic hybridization of its diploid progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, each of which has two FAD2 genes identical to those of B. napus. The BnFAD2-3 gene of B. napus, a nonfunctional pseudogene mutated by multiple nucleotide deletions and insertions, was inherited from B. rapa. All BnFAD2 isozymes except BnFAD2-3 localized to the ER. Nonfunctional BnFAD2-3 localized to the nucleus and chloroplasts. Four BnFAD2 genes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns. © 2013.

  4. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have Developmental Effects on the Crop Pest, the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae.

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    Stefanie M Hixson

    Full Text Available Nutritional enhancement of crops using genetic engineering can potentially affect herbivorous pests. Recently, oilseed crops have been genetically engineered to produce the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA at levels similar to that found in fish oil; to provide a more sustainable source of these compounds than is currently available from wild fish capture. We examined some of the growth and development impacts of adding EPA and DHA to an artificial diet of Pieris rapae, a common pest of Brassicaceae plants. We replaced 1% canola oil with EPA: DHA (11:7 ratio in larval diets, and examined morphological traits and growth of larvae and ensuing adults across 5 dietary treatments. Diets containing increasing amounts of EPA and DHA did not affect developmental phenology, larval or pupal weight, food consumption, nor larval mortality. However, the addition of EPA and DHA in larval diets resulted in progressively heavier adults (F 4, 108 = 6.78; p = 0.011, with smaller wings (p < 0.05 and a higher frequency of wing deformities (R = 0.988; p = 0.001. We conclude that the presence of EPA and DHA in diets of larval P. rapae may alter adult mass and wing morphology; therefore, further research on the environmental impacts of EPA and DHA production on terrestrial biota is advisable.

  5. Cuscuta chinensis Lam.: A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnapee, Sineeporn; Li, Jin; Yang, Xi; Ge, Ai-hua; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2014-11-18

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. has found its use as a traditional medicine in China, Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Thailand. It is commonly used as an anti-aging agent, anti-inflammatory agent, pain reliever and aphrodisiac. To provide an overview of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and clinical applications of Cuscuta chinensis, as well as being an evidence base for further research works of the plant. The present review covers the literature available from 1985 to 2014. The information was collected from journals, books, theses and electronic search (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ESBCO, Springerlink and CNKI). Literature abstracts and full-text articles were analyzed and included in the review. Many phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date, including: at least 18 flavonoids; 13 phenolic acids; 2 steroids; 1 hydroquinone; 10 volatile oils; 22 lignans; 9 polysaccharides; 2 resin glycosides; 16 fatty acids. These phytochemicals and plant extracts exhibit a range of pharmacological activities that include hepatoprotective, renoprotective, antiosteoporotic, antioxidant, anti-aging, antimutagenic, antidepressant, improve sexual function, abortifacient effects, etc. This present review offers primary information for further studies of Cuscuta chinensis. The in vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a bioscientific explanation for its various ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities (most notably antioxidant effects) especially in the prevention of hepatic disease and renal failure. It is necessary and important to do more pharmacokinetic and toxicological research works on human subjects in order to inform the possible active compounds in the body and validate its safety in clinical uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of exogenous glutathione and cysteine on growth, lead accumulation, and tolerance of Iris lactea var. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongxia; Huang, Suzhen; Yang, Yongheng; Gu, Chunsun

    2015-02-01

    Effects of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) on growth, lead (Pb) accumulation, and nonprotein thiol (NPT) contents of Iris lactea var. chinensis under 100 and 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress were studied. Our results showed that 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress caused a dramatical decline in fresh weights, while the reduction of aboveground biomass was alleviated by exogenous GSH and Cys even though keeping higher Pb contents in roots and shoots. Exogenous GSH and Cys could enhance Pb accumulation in the shoots and roots compared with single Pb treatment. The promoting effect of GSH to Pb accumulation was larger than the effect of Cys, and the Pb contents in the shoots and roots treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH reached 1,712 and 14,603 mg kg(-1), about 4.19 and 2.78 times of single 500 mg L(-1) Pb treatment, respectively. Microscopic imaging of Pb in roots and leaves showed that higher intensive fluorescence was observed in cell wall of root epidermis, stele, vascular tissues of the roots, and sclerenchyma cells of leaves treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH and treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + Cys. Exogenous GSH had an apparent promoting effect on root and shoot GSH synthesis, while exogenous Cys reduced the synthesis of cellular GSH in shoot and increased Cys contents. Pb only induced the synthesis of phytochelatin (PC)2 in roots, and the PC2 content declined in GSH- and Cys-treated plant roots. These results suggested that GSH synthesis was a more effective approach to improve Pb accumulation and translocation of I. lactea var. chinensis. Further analysis of protein expression in plants by exogenous GSH and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) application showed that the proteins regulated by GSH and BSO may constitute various enzymes involved in GSH biosynthesis and play certain roles in Pb accumulation and tolerance of I. lactea var. chinensis.

  7. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijing Yi

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea. The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4, α-farnesene synthase (AFS, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea. This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi.

  8. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  9. Introgression of genetic material from Zea mays ssp. Mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Gu, X.; Qu, M.; Luan, J.; Zhang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Zea mays ssp. mexicana, a wild relative of cultivated maize (Z. mays ssp. mays), is a useful gene resource for maize breeding. In this study, two populations were generated by conventional breeding scheme (population I) or tissue culture regime (population II), respectively, to introgress genetic material of Z. mays ssp. mexicana into maize. Karyotype analysis showed that the arm ratios of 10 pairs of chromosomes in parent maize Ye515 and derivative lines from 2 different populations with 26% and 38% chromosome variation frequencies, respectively. Alien chromatin was detected in the root tip cells of progeny plants through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). There were 3.3 chromosomes carrying alien chromatin on average in population I and 6.5 in population II. The hybridization signals were located mainly at the terminal or sub terminal regions of the chromosomes and the sizes were notably variant among lines. Based on those results, it is concluded that the introgression of genetic material from Z. mays ssp. mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture, and subsequently some excellent materials for maize breeding were created. (author)

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lompo, Z.; Heide, van der D.; Beek, van der E.M.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Sawadogo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the traditional belief that Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii (AN) can stimulate milk production in lactating women, experiments were performed to determine the effect of an aqueous extract of AN on milk production in rats. Female rats that received oral doses of aqueous extract of this plant

  11. Intrascrotal Abscess, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Masciovecchio; Del Rosso, Alessandro; Saldutto, Pietro; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The Propionibacterium acnes and the Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii are occasional pathogenic bacteria. The intrascrotal localization of the Propionibacterium acnes is exceptional. The Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii is not able to colonize the urogenital apparatus but it is the most frequently responsible for blood culture contamination even if it can sustain, in particular conditions, systemic infections. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who is under observation for pain and swelling of the left hemiscrotum associated to high fever. The scrotal ultrasound shows the presence of a left intra-scrotal abscess with didymus, epididymis, and intact didymus-epididymis tunicae. The blood culture executed for evening fever during antibiotic therapy has underlined an infection with Propionibacterium acnes. A following blood culture has shown an increase in Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii. Due to fever the patient has undergone left orchifunicolectomy with inguino-scrotal toilet. The anatomical pathological examination has also shown the presence of nonspecific granulomatous inflammation compatible with Propionibacterium acnes infection. Conclusion. The onset of an intrascrotal abscess likely sustained by Propionibacterium acnes complicated by a possible systemic Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii suprainfection is an exceptional event that, in our case, has been resolved with surgical toilet.

  12. Intrascrotal Abscess, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masciovecchio Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Propionibacterium acnes and the Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii are occasional pathogenic bacteria. The intrascrotal localization of the Propionibacterium acnes is exceptional. The Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii is not able to colonize the urogenital apparatus but it is the most frequently responsible for blood culture contamination even if it can sustain, in particular conditions, systemic infections. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who is under observation for pain and swelling of the left hemiscrotum associated to high fever. The scrotal ultrasound shows the presence of a left intra-scrotal abscess with didymus, epididymis, and intact didymus-epididymis tunicae. The blood culture executed for evening fever during antibiotic therapy has underlined an infection with Propionibacterium acnes. A following blood culture has shown an increase in Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii. Due to fever the patient has undergone left orchifunicolectomy with inguino-scrotal toilet. The anatomical pathological examination has also shown the presence of nonspecific granulomatous inflammation compatible with Propionibacterium acnes infection. Conclusion. The onset of an intrascrotal abscess likely sustained by Propionibacterium acnes complicated by a possible systemic Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii suprainfection is an exceptional event that, in our case, has been resolved with surgical toilet.

  13. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ieremia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  14. Fate of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, in weeds and field crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Hukkanen, A.; Karjalainen, R.; Muller, P.

    2005-01-01

    Crops and weeds were tested for their ability to host Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato. Ten crops grown in rotation with potato in Europe, namely maize, wheat, barley, oat, bush bean, broad bean, rape, pea and onion and five cultivars

  15. A black, non-troglomorphic amphibian from the karst of Slovenia: Proteus anguinus parkelj n. ssp. (Urodela: Proteidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sket, B.; Arntzen, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A morphologically distinct cavernicolous salamander Proteus anguinus from southeastern Slovenia (Bela Krajina) is described as P. a. parkelj ssp. n. It differs from P. a. anguinus in a dark pigmentation, fully developed eyes, a skull with broader and shorter bones and fewer teeth, a voluminous jaw

  16. The response of Plantago major ssp pleiosperma to elevated CO2 is modulated by the formation of secondary shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho Guerra da Fonseca, F.M; den Hertog, J; Stulen, G

    The effect of elevated CO2 on the relative growth rate (RGR) of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma was studied during the vegetative stage, in relation to plant development, by growing plants at 350 mu l l(-1) or at 700 mu l l(-1) CO2 in non-limiting nutrient solution with nitrate. To minimize

  17. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components

  18. Heterologous Expression and Characterization of an N-Acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nguyen, A. H.; Nguyen, T.-H.; Křen, Vladimír; Eijsink, V. G. H.; Haltrich, D.; Peterbauer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 12 (2012), s. 3275-3281 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0629 Keywords : N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase * Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis IL1403 * pNP-GlcNAc Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.906, year: 2012

  19. Assessing the effects of exposure to environmental stress on some functional properties of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amund, O D; Ouoba, L I I; Sutherland, J P; Ghoddusi, H B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of exposing a strain of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis to acid, bile and osmotic stresses on antagonistic properties, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile. Exposure to each stress factor appeared to have no significant effect on the antagonism against Escherichia coli NCTC 12900 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. No suppression in biofilm formation due to exposure to stress was observed. Bile and osmotic stresses resulted in significantly higher biofilm formation. Expression of an exopolysaccharide synthesis gene, gtf 01207, was significantly higher when the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain was exposed to osmotic stress. Susceptibility of the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin and vancomycin, and resistance to tetracycline remained unchanged when exposed to each stress. The expression of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), was significantly higher when exposed to each stress. These results may suggest that the potential for the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to provide probiotic benefit, after exposure to the stressful conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, remains intact.

  20. Iridoids from Scutellaria goulimyi Rech. f., Lamiaceae. Morphological and chemical relations with Scutellaria albida L. ssp albida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    the close relationship between the two species (Bothmer, 1991), we undertook to investigate chemical similarities between S. goulimyi and S. albida L. ssp albida (Gousiadou et al., 2007; 2012) for taxonomic purposes. To our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the chemical fingerprint of S...

  1. Pengembangan Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP Tematik Berbasis Local Wisdom Untuk Membangun Karakter Hormat dan Kepedulian Siswa SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaliyah Ulfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at generating possible thematic Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP based on local wisdom and examining the results teachers and students perception on the pedagogical approach developed in the preliminary field testing. Drawing upon the notion of research and development by Borg & Gall, this research was conducted through different stages involving information gathering, planning, developing preliminary product, preliminary field testing, and revising. The subjects were a small group of second grade students of SD Muhammadiyah Bodon and SD Muhammadiyah Sidoarum Yogyakarta. Each consists of 10 students. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation, character observation sheets, and teacher assessment sheets. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation tool, character observation sheets, and teachers’ assessment sheets. The SSP product generated in this study consists of lesson plans, teaching materials, worksheets, and expert perception. According to the experts of media, materials, and evaluation, the SSP product is in good categories. First grade teachers result a good score to the syllabus and lesson plans, while the worksheets and evaluation are in very good category. The results from the students responses to the textbooks is 78, which is in very good category, while the students worksheets score 71 which includes in excellent category. Therefore, the developed thematic SSP based on local wisdom can be declared appropriate for use in learning.

  2. An Optimally Stable and Accurate Second-Order SSP Runge-Kutta IMEX Scheme for Atmospheric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhzadi, Arman; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Charron, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop an optimized implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta scheme for atmospheric applications focusing on stability and accuracy. Following the common terminology, the proposed method is called IMEX-SSP2(2,3,2), as it has second-order accuracy and is composed of diagonally implicit two-stage and explicit three-stage parts. This scheme enjoys the Strong Stability Preserving (SSP) property for both parts. This new scheme is applied to nonhydrostatic compressible Boussinesq equations in two different arrangements, including (i) semiimplicit and (ii) Horizontally Explicit-Vertically Implicit (HEVI) forms. The new scheme preserves the SSP property for larger regions of absolute monotonicity compared to the well-studied scheme in the same class. In addition, numerical tests confirm that the IMEX-SSP2(2,3,2) improves the maximum stable time step as well as the level of accuracy and computational cost compared to other schemes in the same class. It is demonstrated that the A-stability property as well as satisfying "second-stage order" and stiffly accurate conditions lead the proposed scheme to better performance than existing schemes for the applications examined herein.

  3. The effect of calcium ions on adhesion and competitive exclusion of Lactobacillus ssp. and E. coli O138

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Nissen, Peter; Willats, William G.T.

    2007-01-01

    The adhesion abilities of 11 strains of Lactobacillus were determined in vitro using the IPEC-J2 cell line as a model system. Bacteria cultures included the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri DSM 12246, and new isolates of Lactobacillus ssp...

  4. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  5. Shelf life extension of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and overcoming quarantine barriers to international trade using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Hajare, Sachin N.; Wadhawan, Surbhi; Mishra, B.B.; More, Varsha S.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) has a very short shelf life of 2-3 days at ambient temperature limiting its marketability. Gamma radiation processing in combination with low temperature storage was explored as a method to achieve shelf life extension and fulfill quarantine requirement for export during storage physics, biochemical, microbiological, organoleptic, antioxidant and radioprotective properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China', were analysed. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Radiation (0.5kGy) treated and low temperature stored fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating till 28 days of storage while maintaining other quality attributes. (author)

  6. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  7. Aspectos ecológicos y distribución de Tropaeolum tuberosum ssp. silvestre (Tropaeolaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bulacio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav. ssp. silvestre Sparre es una hierba rizomatosa trepadora que en Argentina fue encontrada en las Sierras de Calilegua (Jujuy y en áreas montanas de Catamarca, aunque de esta última localidad sólo se conoce un único e incompleto ejemplar. Habita quebradas húmedas, entre los 2.100 y 2.650 m s.n.m., en el límite superior del bosque montano. El tallo es grácil de hasta 3 m de largo y la porción subterránea está constituida por rizomas alargados y de hasta 1 cm de diámetro. Estas son las principales diferencias con la ssp. tuberosum, en la cual el tallo es más corto, erguido y desarrolla tubérculos bien definidos.Ecological features and distribution of Tropaeolum tuberosum ssp. silvestre (Tropaeolaceae in Argentina. Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav. ssp. silvestre Sparre is a rhizomatous climbing herb that in Argentina was found in the Sierras of Calilegua (Jujuy and Catamarca mountains, yet of this last locality only is known an one and incomplete specimen. It inhabits humid gorges, between 2100-2650 masl, in the upper limit of the montane forest. The slender stem reaches 3 meters in lenght and the underground portion shows elongated rhizomes up to 1 cm in diameter. These are the main differences with the ssp. tuberosum, in which the stem is shorter, erect and develop well-defned tubers.

  8. Identification of small secreted peptides (SSPs) in maize and expression analysis of partial SSP genes in reproductive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye Long; Dai, Xin Ren; Yue, Xun; Gao, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Maize 1,491 small secreted peptides were identified, which were classified according to the character of peptide sequences. Partial SSP gene expressions in reproductive tissues were determined by qRT-PCR. Small secreted peptides (SSPs) are important cell-cell communication messengers in plants. Most information on plant SSPs come from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, while little is known about the SSPs of other grass species such as maize (Zea mays). In this study, we identified 1,491 SSP genes from maize genomic sequences. These putative SSP genes were distributed throughout the ten maize chromosomes. Among them, 611 SSPs were classified into 198 superfamilies according to their conserved domains, and 725 SSPs with four or more cysteines at their C-termini shared similar cysteine arrangements with their counterparts in other plant species. Moreover, the SSPs requiring post-translational modification, as well as defensin-like (DEFL) proteins, were identified. Further, the expression levels of 110 SSP genes were analyzed in reproductive tissues, including male flower, pollen, silk, and ovary. Most of the genes encoding basal-layer antifungal peptide-like, small coat proteins-like, thioredoxin-like proteins, γ-thionins-like, and DEFL proteins showed high expression levels in the ovary and male flower compared with their levels in silk and mature pollen. The rapid alkalinization factor-like genes were highly expressed only in the mature ovary and mature pollen, and pollen Ole e 1-like genes showed low expression in silk. The results of this study provide basic information for further analysis of SSP functions in the reproductive process of maize.

  9. Relationship between line spread function (LSF), or slice sensitivity profile (SSP), and point spread function (PSF) in CT image system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Masaki; Wada, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Teiji; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih

    2004-01-01

    In the CT image system, we revealed the relationship between line spread function (LSF), or slice sensitivity profile (SSP), and point spread function (PSF). In the system, the following equation has been reported; I(x,y)=O(x,y) ** PSF(x,y), in which I(x,y) and O(x,y) are CT image and object function, respectively, and ** is 2-dimensional convolution. In the same way, the following 3-dimensional expression applies; I'(x,y,z)=O'(x,y,z) *** PSF'(x,y,z), in which z-axis is the direction perpendicular to the x/y-scan plane. We defined that the CT image system was separable, when the above two equations could be transformed into following equations; I(x,y)=[O(x,y) * LSF x (x)] * LSF y (y) and I'(x,y,z) =[O'(x,y,z) * SSP(z)] ** PSF(x,y), respectively, in which LSF x (x) and LSF y (y) are LSFs in x- and y-direction, respectively. Previous reports for the LSF and SSP are considered to assume the separable-system. Under the condition of separable-system, we derived following equations; PSF(x,y)=LSF x (x) ·LSF y (y) and PSF'(x,y,z)=PSF(x,y)·SSP(z). They were validated by the computer-simulations. When the study based on 1-dimensional functions of LSF and SSP are expanded to that based on 2- or 3-dimensional functions of PSF, derived equations must be required. (author)

  10. Cytosine methylation alteration in natural populations of Leymus chinensis induced by multiple abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N addition, and warming+nitrogen (N addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid

  11. Cytosine Methylation Alteration in Natural Populations of Leymus chinensis Induced by Multiple Abiotic Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingjie; Yang, Xuejiao; Wang, Huaying; Shi, Fengxue; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jushan; Li, Linfeng; Wang, Deli; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Background Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and warming+nitrogen (N) addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML) indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid adaptation by

  12. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuangyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Huang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Yang, Xiaohan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Gongshe [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing

    2013-07-04

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  13. Quality profile of litchi ( Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B. B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2010-09-01

    Litchi ( Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 μg catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was ˜3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was ˜2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the "good" organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 °C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  14. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jahangir Hossen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP- 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN- induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events.

  15. Quality profile of litchi (Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, Arun, E-mail: ksarun@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 {mu}g catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was {approx}3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was {approx}2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 {sup o}C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  16. Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from a root of Dianthus chinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; He, Hairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Lianjie; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Shuanghe; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-CY18(T), was isolated from the root of a Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus chinensis L and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The novel strain was found to develop spherical sporangia with non-motile spores on aerial mycelium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were identified as madurose, mannose, ribose, galactose and glucose. The phospholipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were identified as C17:0 10-methyl, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. EzTaxon-e analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Sphaerisporangium and was most closely related to Sphaerisporangium cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) (98.9 %) and Sphaerisporangium melleum JCM 13064(T) (98.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-CY18(T) forms a monophyletic clade with S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T), an association that was supported by a bootstrap value of 97 % in the neighbour-joining tree and also recovered with the maximum-likelihood algorithm. Comparisons of some phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) and S. melleum JCM 13064(T). Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-CY18(T) represents a novel Sphaerisporangium species, for which the name Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-CY18(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7132(T) = DSM 46736(T)).

  17. A successful microbound diet for the larval culture of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Mai, Kangsen

    2005-07-01

    A 13-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a microbound diet for rearing the larvae of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in comparison with the live foods that consist of Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis chuii, rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia sp. Larvae of 0 to 13d post-hatch (dph) were reared in a temperature-controlled semi-open culture system and stocked at a density of 100 larvae L-1 in tanks, each containing 50 L sterilized seawater with salinity 30 32. Larvae were manually fed either the live foods or the microbound diet 6 times per day. At 13dph, the growth of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was approximately 84% of that fed on the live foods. The survival rate of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was 44.29% at 13 dph, which was not significantly different from that of larvae fed on live foods (63.55% ). The body length and development index (DI) of the larvae fed on the microbound diet were always lower than those of larvae fed on live foods. However, the differences reached significant levels only at 11 and 13dph (P<0.05). The mean dry weight loss of the microbound diet was 9.2% after 90min immersion in seawater, indicating that this diet has a good water stability. The microbound diet contains 5223% crude protein and 10.27% lipid and is easy to prepare. These characteristics of the diet suggest good potentials for its successful use in the larviculture of other penaeid and fish species.

  18. Pseudonocardia nantongensis sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from the coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ke; Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Zhang, Wen-Di; Dai, Chuan-Chao; Liu, Chang-Hong; Li, Wen-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2012-11-01

    A novel isolate, designated strain KLBMP 1282(T) was isolated from the surface-sterilized leaves of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour., collected from Nantong, Jiangsu Province, east of China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this strain belongs to the genus Pseudonocardia, being most closely related to Pseudonocardia kongjuensis LM 157(T) (98.33 %), Pseudonocardia autotrophica IMSNU 20050(T) (97.77 %), Pseudonocardia endophytica YIM 56035(T) (97.63 %), Pseudonocardia ammonioxydans H9 (T) (97.62 %) and Pseudonocardia compacta IMSNU 20111(T) (97.56 %); similarity to other type strains of the genus Pseudonocardia was <97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data confirmed the affiliation of strain KLBMP 1282(T) to the genus Pseudonocardia. Strain KLBMP 1282(T) contained MK-8(H(4)) as the predominant ubiquinone and iso-C(16:0) as the major fatty acid. The polar lipids detected in strain KLBMP 1282(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, one unknown phospholipid and four unknown glycolipids. The DNA G + C content of strain KLBMP 1282(T) was 73.1 mol %. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and the phylogenetic analysis, together with the phenotypic and biochemical tests, allowed the differentiation of strain KLBMP 1282(T) from strains of other recognized Pseudonocardia species. Therefore, strain KLBMP 1282(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia nantongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP 1282(T) (=KCTC 29053(T) = NBRC 108677(T)).

  19. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Ding, Guo-Hua; Fan, Xiao-Li; Yu, Miao-Ling; Lin, Zhi-Hua

    2014-07-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas.

  20. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  1. Comparisons of Growth and Survival Performance Among Selected Families and Wild Populations of Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Kong, Jie; Meng, Xianhong; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Chen, Baolong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, families of selected population for growth (SP_BWT), selected population for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistance (SP_RW), Bohai wild population (WP_BH) and Huanghai wild population (WP_HH) of F. chinensis were constructed through artificial insemination and with the standardized procedure of larvae rearing. Growth and survival performance were studied among four populations after a 70 days common test. The results showed that the maximum least square mean of body weight was 17.50 g in SP_BWT while the minimum was 13.03 g in WP_HH. Compared with WP_BH, body weight of SP_BWT increased by 23.41% ( P 0.05). Body weights of SP_BWT and SP_RW were significantly higher than that of WP_HH, which increased by 34.31% ( P populations was 0.19, 0.18, 0.17 and 0.16 g d-1, respectively. Coefficient of variation of body weight among four populations was high, which ranged from 32.67% to 35.25%. Such a range showed that there was the potentiality for further improvement in selected populations. Coefficient of variation of survival rate among four populations was low, varying between 3.20% and 5.90%. The difference of survival was highly significant ( P populations ( P growth performances were also observed among different families in each population. The body weight of 798F family was the highest. The absolute growth rate (AGR) was 0.25 g d-1, 150% higher than that of the lowest one, 0.1 g d-1 in 807F family. Survival rate of families among four populations was different. The highest was 94.74%, and the lowest was 71.88%.

  2. [A comparative study on soil respiration between grazing and fenced typical Leymus chinensis steppe, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Fengyu; Wang, Yuhui

    2004-09-01

    With enclosed chamber Method, this paper studied the soil respiration in grazing and fenced typical Leymus chinensis steppes, Inner Mongolia, and its relationships with environmental factors. The results showed that the daily pattern of soil respiration could be expressed as a one-humped curve, and the highest values appeared at 13:00-15:00 in the fenced and grazing plots. The diurnal dynamics of soil respiration mainly depended on the surface temperature at the fenced plots and the soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the grazing plots. In June and July, the average soil respiration rate was 2.7 times greater at the fenced plots than that at the grazing plots, while the difference was not distinct in August and September, which was similar with the change of the belowground biomass. The reason was probably that the plant was influenced differently in different phenological phases by grazing and the change of environmental factors. It showed that human activity may not result in the increase of soil respiration rate. The seasonal dynamics of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil water content at the 0-10 cm depth at the fenced and grazing sites, and the maximum R2 was 0.853 and 0.741, respectively. The difference was that the correlation of soil respiration seasonal dynamics with soil water content was larger at the fenced plots than at the grazing plots. The correlations of soil respiration diurnal and seasonal dynamics with temperature and soil water content at lower profiles were larger than those at deeper profiles at the fenced and grazing sites.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Imura, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the effects of gamma radiation on different life stages of Callosobruchus chinensis were carried out in a growth chamber at 30±1degC and 70±2 % R.H. with 12:12 hr light and dark cycle. Eggs (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-day-old), larvae (7- and 10-day-old), mature pupae (one day before adult eclosion) along with adzuki beans and 1-day-old adults were exposed to gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. Complete mortality of the 1-day-old eggs was obtained by exposure to 12 Gy, and a dose of 40 Gy caused 100 % mortality of the 7-day-old larvae after 24 hr of exposure. A dose of 640 Gy caused instant kill of the mature pupae and 1-day-old adults. The fecundity and fertility of adults irradiated either as mature pupae or 1-day-old adults decreased with the increase of the dose. Eggs, laid by females which had been exposed and/or had mates which had been exposed as mature pupae to 20 Gy or more, had negligible hatching rates. Complete sterility was obtained at 80 Gy in the 1-day-old adults. The sterilized males irradiated as 1-day-old at 80 Gy were capable of competing sexually with untreated ones. The percentage of egg hatch decreased as the ratio of sterile males to normal males increased, becoming less than 10 % at the ratios of 9 : 1 and 15 : 1. (author)

  4. Modeling responses of the meadow steppe dominated by Leymus chinensis to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yonghe

    2007-01-01

    Grassland is one of the most widespread vegetation types worldwide and plays a significant role in regional climate and global carbon cycling. Understanding the sensitivity of Chinese grassland ecosystems to climate change and elevated atmospheric CO2 and the effect of these changes on the grassland ecosystems is a key issue in global carbon cycling. China encompasses vast grassland areas of 354 million ha of 17 major grassland types, according to a national grassland survey. In this study, a process-based terrestrial model the CENTURY model was used to simulate potential changes in net primary productivity (NPP) and soil organic carbon (SOC) of the Leymus chinensis meadow steppe (LCMS) under different scenarios of climatic change and elevated atmospheric CO2. The LCMS sensitivities, its potential responses to climate change, and the change in capacity of carbon stock and sequestration in the future are evaluated. The results showed that the LCMS NPP and SOC are sensitive to climatic change and elevated CO2. In the next 100 years, with doubled CO2 concentration, if temperature increases from 2.7-3.9C and precipitation increases by 10% NPP and SOC will increase by 7-21% and 5-6% respectively. However, if temperature increases by 7.5-7.8C and precipitation increases by only 10% NPP and SOC would decrease by 24% and 8% respectively. Therefore, changes in the NPP and SOC of the meadow steppe are attributed mainly to the amount of temperature and precipitation change and the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the future

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Imura, O.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the effects of gamma radiation on different life stages of Callosobruchus chinensis were carried out in a growth chamber at 30 .+-. 1.degree.C and 70 .+-. 2% R.H. with a 12: 12 hr light and dark cycle. Eggs (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-day-old), larvae (7- and 10-day-old), mature pupae (one day adult eclosion) along with adzuki beans and 1-day-old adults were exposed to gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Complete mortality of the 1-day-old eggs was obtained by exposure to 12 Gy, and a dose of 40 Gy caused 100% mortality of the 7-day-old larvae after 24 hr of exposure. A dose of 640 Gy caused instant kill of the mature pupae and 1-day-old adults. The fecundity and fertility of adults irradiated either as mature pupae or 1-day-old adults decreased with the increase of the dose. Eggs, laid by females which had been exposed and/or had mates which had been exposed as mature pupae to 20 Gy or more, had negligible hatching rates. Complete sterility was obtained at 80 Gy in the 1-day-old adults. The sterilized males irradiated as 1-day-old at 80 gy were capable of competing sexually with untreated ones. The percentage of egg hatch decreased as the ratio of sterile males to normal males increased, becoming less than 10% at the ratios of 9:1 and 15:1

  6. Investigation of the biosynthesis in Achillea millefolium ssp. collina Becker using radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzarne Petri, G.; Shalaby El-Sayed, A.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis in Achillea millefolium ssp. collina Becker was studied using CH 3 - 14 COONa and 14 CH 3 - COONa precursors. It has been found that CH 3 - 14 COONa incorporates more slowly and in lower rate into the biosynthetic pathway of essential oil than 14 CH 3 - COONa. The incorporation of both demonstrates the oil forming ability of herb and flowers. The process is more emphasized in the flower out of the organs of the plants. Further on it was stated that the biosynthesis leads to bicyclic α-pinene and borneol through some aliphatic and cyclic monoterpenes, while eucalyptole (cineol) as an oxydation product appears in an early stage. Of sesquiterpenes the caryophyllene procedes the formation of camazulene. (author)

  7. Sesquiterpene Lactones of Amphoricarpos autariatus ssp. autariatus from Montenegro - Antifungal Leaf - Surface Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Jadranin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The composition of leaf cuticular neutral lipids of Amphoricarpos autariatus ssp. autariatus collected at canyon of river Tara (North Montenegro was investigated by GC/MS (nonpolar fraction, LC-ESI TOF MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy (more polar fraction. The nonpolar fraction (ca. 15% of the whole surface extract contained C 27 - 33 n-alkanes, those with odd-number of carbons predominating. The LC-ESI MS and 1H NMR of the more polar fraction revealed 13 sesquiterpene lactones, constituting ca. 97.5% of the lactone mixture, identified as the known guaianolides, so-called amphoricarpolides, found previously in the aerial parts of the genus. The lactone fraction exhibited considerable in vitro effect against eight fungi, i.e. Aspergillus ochraceus , A. niger, A. versicolor , Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, Trichoderma viride, Fusarium verticillioides and Fulvia fulvum.

  8. Assessment of (Fouquieria splendens ssp. breviflora Cell Cultures Response Under to Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Angélica Guerrero Zúñiga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell cultures are homogenous experimental systems, highly controllable that allow the study of short and large water stress adaptations without the interference of the different tissues and development of plants. An approach to understand these adaptations is through the presence of induced proteins; as a result of changes in genetic expression. This work analyze the response of Fouquieria splendens ssp. breviflora cell cultures exposed to abscisic acid (ABA, through the electrophoretic characterization of quantity and quality of stress induced proteins. There were recorded low molecular weight polypeptides (< 35kDa, common in experiments under ABA 10mM, followed by the association with 20 and 30mM ABA conditions, with a particularly response of cell cultures without the stress agent.

  9. Full Scale Test of SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    This report is a part of the research project “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last” where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The applied load is 60......% of an unrealistic extreme event, corresponding to 75% of a certificated extreme load. This report describes the background, the test set up, the tests and the results. For this project, a new solution has been used for the load application and the solution for the load application is described in this report...... as well. The blade has been submitted to thorough examination. More areas have been examined with DIC, both global and local deflections have been measured, and also 378 strain gauge measurements have been performed. Furthermore Acoustic Emission has been used in order to detect damage while testing new...

  10. The Consensus from the Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP Conference 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Todd Kuenstner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On March 24 and 25, 2017 researchers and clinicians from around the world met at Temple University in Philadelphia to discuss the current knowledge of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP and its relationship to human disease. The conference was held because of shared concern that MAP is a zoonotic bacterium that poses a threat not only to animal health but also human health. In order to further study this problem, the conferees discussed ways to improve MAP diagnostic tests and discussed potential future anti-MAP clinical trials. The conference proceedings may be viewed on the www.Humanpara.org website. A summary of the salient work in this field is followed by recommendations from a majority of the conferees.

  11. Dampak Ketiadaan Pengaturan Kuota Ekspor Hiu Tikus (Alopias Ssp. di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Hardiningsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kuota ekspor merupakan salah satu mekanisme perlindungan ekosistem laut. Banyaknya perburuan Ikan Hiu Tikus (Alopias Ssp. di Indonesia saat ini karena permintaan pasar yang tinggi, khususnya dari luar negeri. Tingginya permintaan menyebabkan ikan jenis ini masuk ke dalam daftar Convention on International Trade in Endanger Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES Appendiks II pada tahun 2016. Jika Ikan Hiu Tikus yang merupakan predator puncak pada rantai makanan di laut ini sampai terancam punah, maka ekosistem laut akan mengalami kerusakan parah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia belum memiliki perangkat hukum yang memadai terkait dengan penentuan komponen-komponen kuota ekspor Ikan Hiu, khususnya Ikan Hiu Tikus sebagaimana ketentuan yang diatur di dalam CITES. Keadaan ini menimbulkan dampak terhadap kelestarian Ikan Hiu Tikus itu sendiri, kepentingan masyarakat Indonesia, keberlangsungan lingkungan laut dan generasi yang memanfaatkannya, serta berdampak terhadap perdagangan internasional.

  12. Bioactive Pentacyclic Triterpene Ester Derivatives from Alnus viridis ssp. viridis Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Miroslav; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Veselinovic, Jovana; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Vidakovic, Vera; Tesevic, Vele; Milosavljevic, Slobodan

    2017-05-26

    Seven derivatives of pentacyclic triterpene acids (1-7) were isolated from the bark of Alnus viridis ssp. viridis using a combination of column chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Compounds 1-3, 6, and 7 were determined to be new after spectroscopic data interpretation and were assigned as 27-hydroxyalphitolic acid derivatives (1-3), a 27-hydroxybetulinic acid derivative (6), and a 3-epi-maslinic acid derivative (7), respectively. Pentacyclic triterpenoids with a C-27 hydroxymethyl group have been found in species of the genus Alnus for the first time. These compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity testing against a number of cancer cell lines. Also, selected pentacyclic triterpenoids were selected as potential inhibitors of topoisomerases I and IIα for an in silico investigation.

  13. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, combined load. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-11-15

    This report is part of the research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of an imaginary extreme event based on the certification load of the blade. This report describes the reason for choosing the loads and the load direction and the method of applying the loads to the blade. A novel load introduction allows the blade to deform in a more realistic manner, allowing the observation of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades' respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed. (Author)

  14. Effect of explant origin and different growth regulators on micropropagation of Pistacia atlantica ssp. mutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Ashraf Mehrabi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of wild pistachio as a multipurpose woody species is a hard and tedious task. In this research, an effective in vitro protocol was developed for rapid proliferation of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica ssp. mutica in MS medium supplemented with B5 vitamins and different growth regulators. Rooting of plantlets was tested by two treatments containing Rhizopon and IBA in ex vitro. With respect to the results, the nodal segments explants, produced the highest shoot frequency, leaf frequency and the tallest shoots. On the other hand, the tallest shoots were generated from shoot tip explant and medium containing of TDZ plus IAA. Both treatments (Rhizopon and IBA led to a remarkable increase in the number of roots, root length and rooting percentage compared to the control. These results may be applied for rapid proliferation to spread the pistachio trees and shrubs that are difficult and time consuming.

  15. Structural characterization of a D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Simon J; Anandhakrishnan, Madhankumar; Geerlof, Arie; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases, responsible for the stereospecific conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids in lactic acid producing bacteria, have a range of biotechnology applications including antibiotic synthesis, flavor development in dairy products and the production of valuable synthons. The genome of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a member of the heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria, encodes multiple hydroxyacid dehydrogenases whose structural and functional properties remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the apo and coenzyme NAD⁺ complexed crystal structures of the L. bulgaricusD-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, D2-HDH. Comparison with closely related members of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family reveals that whilst the D2-HDH core fold is structurally conserved, the substrate-binding site has a number of non-canonical features that may influence substrate selection and thus dictate the physiological function of the enzyme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New Benzophenones and Xanthones from Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium and Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Andersen, Raymond J; Cheng, Ping; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Raksat, Achara; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-11-23

    Two new benzophenones (1 and 2) and four new xanthones (4-6 and 17) together with 24 known compounds (3, 7-16, and 18-30) were isolated from the roots and twigs of Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 5 and 26 showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus epidermis with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 4 to 8 μg/mL, whereas compounds 7, 20, and 26 displayed selective antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (8 μg/mL), Salmonella typhimurium (4 μg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 μg/mL), respectively. The radical scavenging effects of some isolated compounds were investigated. Compounds 11 and 21 exhibited potent activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC 50 values of 7.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 0.2 μM, respectively.

  17. Characterization of SeseC_01411 as a surface protective antigen of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Honglin; Wei, Zigong; Ma, Chunquan; Li, Shun; Liu, Xiaohong; Fu, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is a commensal bacterium related to opportunistic infections of many species, including humans, dogs, cats, and pigs. SeseC_01411 has been proven to be immunogenic. However, its protective efficacy remained to be evaluated. In the present study, the purified recombinant SeseC_01411 could elicit a strong humoral antibody response and protect against lethal challenge with virulent SEZ in mice. Our finding confirmed that SeseC_01411 distributes on the surface of SEZ. In addition, the hyperimmune sera against SeseC_01411 could efficiently kill the bacteria in the phagocytosis test. The present study identified the immunogenic protein, SeseC_01411, as a novel surface protective antigen of SEZ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

  19. Intra-specific genetic diversity in wild olives (Olea europaea ssp cuspidata) in Hormozgan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadi, Z; Samadi-Molayousefi, H; Sheidai, M

    2012-03-19

    Wild olive (O. europaea ssp cuspidata) plants grow in various regions of Iran and are expected to have considerable genetic diversity due to adaptation to the various environmental conditions. We examined the genetic diversity of four populations of wild olive growing in Hormozgan Province located in southern Iran by using 30 RAPDs and 10 ISSR markers. The mean value of polymorphism for RAPD loci was 73.71%, while the value for ISSR loci was 81.74%. The Keshar population had the highest value of intra-population polymorphism for both RAPD and ISSR loci (66.86 and 62.71%, respectively), while the Tudar population had the lowest values (20.35 and 28.81%, respectively). Similarly, the highest and lowest number of effective alleles, Shannon index and Nei's genetic diversity were also found for these two populations. The highest value of H(pop)/H(sp) within population genetic diversity for RAPD and ISSR loci was found for the Keshar population (H(pop) = 0.85 and H(sp) = 0.90). OPA04-750, OPA13-650 and OPA02-350 RAPD bands were specific for Tudar, Bondon and Keshar populations, respectively, while no specific ISSR bands were observed. Analysis of molecular variance as well as the pairwise F(ST) test showed significant differences for RAPD and ISSR markers among the populations. The NJ and UPGMA trees also separated the wild olive populations from each other, indicating their genetic distinctness. UPGMA clustering of the four wild olive populations placed the Tudar population far from the other populations; Keshar and Bokhoon population samples revealed more similarity and were grouped together. We conclude that there is high genetic diversity among O. europaea ssp cuspidata populations located in southern Iran. We also found RAPD and ISSR markers to be useful molecular tools to discriminate and evaluate genetic variations in wild olive trees.

  20. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophylla Root

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    Seyde Nargess Sadati Lamardi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophylla, is an herbaceous and perennial plant which belongs to Paeoniaceae family. Two species of this plant grow in northern parts of Iran. The roots in powder form have been used in Persian traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy, nightmares and gynecological diseases. Several biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-tumor effects of Paeonia species have been reported. Methods: methanol-water (80-20 extract (total extract was fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Antioxidant activity of the total extract and fractions were evaluated using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenolics content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. In addition, cytotoxic activity of the fractions was determined against brine shrimp larvae. Column chromatography with normal phase silica gel and preparative TLC were also used for the isolation and purification of compounds. Results: Evaluation of the results indicated that the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions with IC50 values of 16.55, 23.9 µg/mL, respectively showed potent radical scavenging activity. As well, the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions indicated the highest antioxidant power by FRAP assay. Due to the potent antioxidant activity, the chloroform fraction was chosen for further investigations. Three compounds were identified as benzoic acid, veratric acid and oleanolic acid by different spectroscopic methods. Conclusion: According to our findings in this study, the root of Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophyla has beneficial antioxidant activity without toxicity and the therapeutic use of this plant in traditional medicine can be somewhat justifiable.