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Sample records for raoiella indica acari

  1. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Carlos [Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)]. E-mail: carlosvasquez@ucla.edu.ve; Quiros de G, Magally [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, (Venezuela). Museo de Artropodos; Aponte, Orlando [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Estado Aragua (Venezuela). Inst. de Zoologia Agricola; Sandoval, D. Maria F. [Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Agricultura y Tierras (Venezuela). Servicio Autonomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria

    2008-11-15

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10 deg 27' 47{sup N} and 64 deg 10' 38{sup W}) and Monagas (9 deg 46'60{sup N} and 63 deg 12'0{sup W}) states in northeastern Venezuela. (author)

  2. Spatial distributions of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on coconut and their implications for development of efficient sampling plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda, A.; Nachman, G.; Hosein, F.

    2012-01-01

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica), an invasive pest of coconut, entered the Western hemisphere in 2004, then rapidly spread through the Caribbean and into Florida, USA. Developing effective sampling methods may aid in the timely detection of the pest in a new area. Studies were conducted...

  3. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  4. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  5. Temperature-dependent life history of Oligonychus mangiferus (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Ying

    2013-12-01

    The mango red spider mite, Oligonychus mangiferus (Rhaman and Sapra), is a major mango pest in Taiwan. This mite damages the leaves of the mango tree and affects the quality of the fruit. This study investigates the life history of the mango red spider mite on Mangifera indica L. cv. Irwin at five constant temperatures (17, 21, 25, 29, and 33 °C), under 80 ± 5 % RH and L12:D12 photoperiod conditions. An increase in temperature significantly decreased the developmental times for each stage and the overall immature period in females and males. The lower developmental thresholds of the immature stage were 12.5 and 12.4 °C for females and males, respectively. The thermal summations for the development of the immature stage were 185.9 and 175.7 degree-days for females and males, respectively. Based on the annual field temperature, an estimated 26 generations can reproduce in a mango orchard annually. The longevity of adults of both sexes decreased as temperature increased, and adult males lived longer than females. The preoviposition periods were shorter than 1 day when the temperature exceeded 25 °C. The development period and the oviposition period were shortest at 29 °C. At this point, daily fecundity was highest, and fecundity was second highest, resulting in the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r m ), 0.182 day(-1). These life history traits are applied to improve the management of O. mangiferus.

  6. Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) induced morphological changes on oocytes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) tick females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2010-12-01

    Many studies have been conducted with plants whose extracts have the potential to be used for pest control. One of these plants is Azadirachta indica (neem), whose main active ingredient is azadirachtin, a compound shown to have acaricide and insecticide activity. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick) is currently considered to be an "urban pest," because of its high levels of infestation and its ability to attack humans. In the present study partially and fully engorged R. sanguineus females were exposed to aqueous extracts of neem at concentrations of 10% and 20%, and to a control treatment. The results showed that differently from what was observed in the control, the pedicel cells of females exposed to neem at both concentrations lost their original shape. In the latter cases, the cytoplasm of the cells became fully vacuolated, especially near the germinal vesicle (oocyte nuclei) and in the oocyte pole, which is in contact with the cells of the pedicel. Oocytes in early stages of development (I and II) of ticks treated with both concentrations had irregular germinal vesicle, including the presence of two nucleoli as well as fragments of these. Oocytes in stages IV and V of exposed individuals showed full granular cytoplasm with bigger yolk granules when compared to the early stages. Chorion of mature oocytes was also altered, showing folds and deformations along their entire extension. The observed changes in cells of the reproductive system of R. sanguineus, especially in the oocytes, indicated the potential of neem as a new alternative method to control these ectoparasites.

  7. Oxidative enzymes in coconut cultivars in response to Raoiella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Aditionally, changes in oxidative enzyme activities (peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) as response to R. indica feeding were studied in the cultivars where red palm ... More detailed studies are required to determine the effect of these enzymes on coconut resistance to red palm mites.

  8. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

  9. Azadirachta Indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    ABSTRACT. Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, ...

  10. Azadirachta Indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    Baxter-grillo, Dorothea. Department of Anatomy,. School of Basic Medical Sciences,. College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin-City. * Correspondence. KEYWORDS: Azadirachta Indica, Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine. Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). ABSTRACT. Medicinal plants are ...

  11. Acari in archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Anne S

    2009-10-01

    Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.

  12. New and little known feather mites (Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) were analyzed with low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM), including the description of three new species: Plicatalloptes atrichogynus sp. nov. (Analgoidea: Alloptidae) from the Neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789) (Pelecanifo...

  13. Atlas van de Nederlandse watermijten (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Hammen, van der H.

    2000-01-01

    Atlas of the Dutch water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) Few biogeographic studies have been published on water mites. Only Lundblad (1962) has published an atlas of the Swedish water mites. So far, there are no complete publications on the distribution of Dutch water mites. Acarologists who worked on

  14. Two new species of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve species of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) are recorded from Ghana for the first time. Two new species are described and illustrated: Phthiracarus bicarinatus sp. nov. and Austrophthiracarus lacunosus sp. nov. Three species are recorded fromWest Africa for the first time. Key words: Acari, Oribatida, ...

  15. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  16. Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...

  17. Two new species of Armascirus (Acari: Prostigmata: Cunaxidae) from Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalúz, Stanislav; Vrabec, Michal

    2013-11-06

    Two new mite species from Central Europe, viz. Armascirus fendai sp. nov. and Armascirus masani sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata, Cunaxidae) are described and figured. The keys to the known species (females and males) of the genus Armascirus are given.

  18. New species of Uropodina from Madagascar (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3895, č. 4 (2014), s. 547-569 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Mesostigmata * Uropodina * new genus * new species * Madagascar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  19. New Oppioidea taxa from Madagascar (Acari: Oribatida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahunka, S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the continuous survey of the Madagascan Oribatida Fauna some newly surveyed Oppioidea (Acari: Oribatida species are discussed. Altogether 15 species are listed of the recently studied, identified and described taxa originating from several sites of the island (Malagasy Republic. Seven species of them are new to science and some other known only from few localities. One species represents also a new genus, Interbelba gen. nov. Three species, Berniniella bicarinata (Paoli, 1908, Quadroppia circumita (Hammer, 1961 and Discosuctobelba variosetosa (Hammer, 1961are recorded from Madagascar for the first time. With 22 figures.

  20. (baobab) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from two indigenous wild trees namely Adansonia digitata (baobab) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were analyzed. From this study, the protein contents were observed to be 24.98% and 17.99 % for baobab and tamarind respectively. These values are fairly high compared to cereals and root crops such as whole ...

  1. Diversity in Zanonia indica (Cucurbitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2007-01-01

    A revision of the monotypic genus Zanonia L. is presented. The only and widely distributed species Z. indica comprises two subspecies, the typical one, and the newly described subsp. orientalis W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. Subspecies orientalis also contains a distinct variety, var. paludosa W.J. de

  2. Haemaphysalis (Ornithophysalis) phasiana (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Republic of Korea: Two province records and habitat descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Systematic & Applied Acarology (2008) 13, 43–50. ISSN 1362-1971 Haemaphysalis (Ornithophysalis) phasiana ( Acari : Ixodidae) in the Republic of Korea...DATE 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Haemaphysalis (Ornithophysalis) phasiana ( Acari ...ticks ( Acari : Ixo- dida) published from 1973-1997. Journal of Vector Ecology, 24, 115–129. Lee, D.K. & Lee, Y.K. (2002) Roles of Saemaul Undong in

  3. Integrating ecology and genetics to address Acari invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navajas, Maria; Ochoa, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    Because of their small size and tolerance to many of the control procedures used for a wide variety of commodities, Acari species have become one of the fastest, unwanted pest travelers since the beginning of this century. This special issue includes eleven studies on adventive and invasive Acari species affecting major crops and livestock around the world. The nucleus for this special issue is formed by the presentations in the symposium on invasive mites and ticks organized at the International Congress of Acarology in Recife, Brazil (ICA-13), in the summer of 2010. This special issue illustrates the increased concerns about domestic and international invasive mites and ticks worldwide.

  4. Primer registro de Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae en Argentina First record of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cédola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un depredador generalista de origen mediterráneo, empleado en planes de control biológico para trips y moscas blancas. Se registra, por vez primera en la Argentina, esta especie en el cinturón hortícola del gran Buenos Aires.Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a Mediterranean generalist predator used in biological control for thrips and whiteflies. This species is reported for the first time in Argentina in horticultural areas surrounding Buenos Aires city.

  5. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.

  6. Primer registro de Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CÉDOLA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un depredador generalista de origen mediterráneo, empleado en planes de control biológico para trips y moscas blancas. Se registra, por vez primera en la Argentina, esta especie en el cinturón hortícola del gran Buenos Aires.

  7. Nieuwe vondsten van watermijten in Nederland (Acari: Hydrachnidia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Hoek, van den T.-H.; Wiggers, R.

    2006-01-01

    New records of water mites in the Netherlands (Acari: Hydrachnidia) Three species of water mite new to the fauna of the Netherlands are reported, i.e. Hydryphantes flexuosus, Panisus michaeli and Nilotonia borneri. Moreover, a number of new records of rare species is given. Re-identification of

  8. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306

  9. Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajhy, DiefAlla H; Alahmed, Azzam M; Hussein, Hamdy I; Kheir, Salah M

    2003-11-01

    The cardiac glycoside, digitoxin, from Digitalis purpurea L (Scrophulariaceae), a cardiac glycosidal (cardenolide) extract from Calotropis procera (Ait) R Br (Asclepiadaceae), azadirachtin and neem oil from Azadirachta indica A Juss (Meliaceae) were tested for their effects against larvae and adult stages of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch (Acari: Ixodidae). The contact LC50 values of the first three materials against adults were 4.08, 9.63 and >40.7 microg cm(-2), respectively, whereas the dipping LC50 values of the four materials were 409.9, 1096, >5000 and >5000 mg litre(-1), respectively. Contact and dipping LC50 values of the extract and azadirachtin against larvae were 6.16, >20.3 microg cm(-2) and 587.7 and >2500 mg litre(-1), respectively. Azadirachtin had no effects on egg production or feeding of adults up to 5000 mg litre(-1); however at 2500 mg litre(-1), it caused significant reduction in feeding activity of larve, prolonged the period for moulting to nymphal stage, and caused 60% reduction in moultability. Results of the two cardiac glycoside materials are comparable with those of several commercial acaricides. The risks and benefits associated with the use of cardiac glycosides are considered.

  10. ( Azadirachta indica ) et de papayer ( Carica papaya )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité des extraits de neem ( Azadirachta indica ) et de papayer ( Carica papaya ) dans la lutte contre les insectes ravageurs du gombo ( Abelmoschus esculentus ) et du chou ( Brassica oleracea ) en Côte d'Ivoire.

  11. Toxicidade de extratos de nim (Azadirachta indica ao ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis Toxicity of neem extracts (Azadirachta indica to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Abreu Mourão

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade aguda e crônica de extratos de óleo de torta, de sementes e de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (nim a fêmeas do ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. A mortalidade e a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de fêmeas adultas desse ácaro foram avaliadas em discos de folhas de cafeeiro com 3,5 cm de diâmetro, impregnados com resíduo seco dos extratos de nim e flutuando em água. As concentrações dos extratos de óleo de torta, sementes e folhas de nim que mataram 50% e 99% dos indivíduos de O. ilicis, após 72 horas de exposição, foram de 0,02, 15,9 e 121,4 mg/mL e de 10,9, 520,9 e 277,4 mg/mL, respectivamente. A taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de O. ilicis diminuiu, linearmente, com o aumento da concentração dos extratos de óleo de torta, sementes e folhas de nim até 0,075, 15 e 144 mg/mL, respectivamente, a partir das quais as populações desse ácaro foram extintas.The objective of this work was to study the toxicity of extracts of oil cake, seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. Concentration-mortality and instantaneous rate of populational growth were determined for adult females of the red mite on disks of coffee with 3.5 cm diameter, floating on water and impregnated with dry residues of the neem extracts. Concentrations of these extracts which caused 50% mortality of the individuals of O. ilicis were 0.02, 15.9 and 121.4 mg/mL; while 99% mortality of this mite was reached with 10.9, 520.9 and 277.4 mg/mL for oil cake, seeds and leaves extracts, respectively. The instantaneous rate of populational growth of O. ilicis dropped as the extract doses increased up to 0.075, 15 and 144 mg/mL for oil cake, seeds and leaves extracts, respectively.

  12. Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes Scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme Disease Endemic Area of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari : Ixodidae...the ability of the natural, plant-derived acaricides nootkatone and carvacrol to suppress Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) ( Acari ...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari

  13. Recent Discovery of Widespread Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Distribution in North Carolina With Implications for Lyme Disease Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    174 Journal of Vector Ecology June 2010 Recent discovery of widespread Ixodes affinis ( Acari : Ixodidae) distribution in North Carolina with...NOV 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recent discovery of widespread Ixodes affinis ( Acari ...reptiles and rodents as hosts by immature Ixodes scapularis ( Acari : Ixodidae) in the coastal plain of North Carolina, USA. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 17: 719

  14. Records of Ixodes Pomeranzevi Serdyukova, 1941 (Acari: Ixodidae) from Small Mammals in Northern Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Serdyukova, 1941 ( Acari : Ixodidae) from small mammals in northern Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea HEUNG CHUL KIM1, JIN...pomeranzevi Serdyukova, 1941 ( Acari : Ixodidae) from small mammals in northern Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...2002) The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttalliellidae ( Acari : Ixo- dida): a world list of valid tick names. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 28, 27–54

  15. Efficacy of Plant-Derived and Synthetic Compounds on Clothing as Repellents Against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari : Ixodidae) ROBERT A. JORDAN,1,2 TERRY L. SCHULZE,1,3 AND MARC C. DOLAN4 J. Med. Entomol. 49(1): 101Ð106 (2012...repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) ( Acari : Ixodidae) by using treated coveralls. One day after treatment...permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) ( Acari : Ixodidae) by using treated

  16. Astigmata and Prostigmata Acari of Medical Importance in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén, Zoila; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel Alcides Carrión", Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Romero, Giuliana; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Pareja, Elizabeth; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Valencia, Miguel; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; López, Martha; Universidad Nacional del Cuzco "San Antonio Abad", Cuzco, Perú; Suárez, Roxana; Universidad Particular Ricardo Palma, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    This article present species of Astigmata and Prostigmata acari that produce human pathology in Peru. Patients who were seen at Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrion, Huinco, and domestic dust of Lima, Lambayeque, Trujillo and Ucayali, were evaluated, as well as related articles published up to now. In this work, we found the follow Astigmata: Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, Suidasia sp., Dermatophagoides pteromyssinus, Glycyphagus domesticus and Sarcoptes scabiei, and Prost...

  17. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    de Importancia Veterinaria . São Paulo, Brazil: Pleiade–FAPESP. Hoogstraal, H. (1985). Argasid and nuttalliellid ticks as parasites and vectors...Parasitologı́a Veterinaria . Jakowska, S. (1972). Lesions produced by ticks, Amblyomma dissimile, in Bufo marinus toads from the Dominican Republic. American...A. A. (1990). La distribución geográfica de Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) en Argentina. Veterinaria Argentina, 7

  18. Interaction of Piriformospora indica with Azotobacter chroococcum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Bhuyan, Soubhagya; Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar Mishra, Deepak; Prasad, Ramraj; Kumari, Abha; Chandra Upadhyaya, Kailash; Varma, Ajit; Kumar Yadava, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in rhizosphere interact with each other and form a basis of a cumulative impact on plant growth. Rhizospheric microorganisms like Piriformospora indica and Azotobacter chroococcum are well known for their beneficial interaction with plants. These features make P. indica /A. chroococcum co-inoculation of crops most promising with respect to sustainable agriculture and to understanding the transitions in the evolution of rhizospheric microbiome. Here, we investigated interactions of P. indica with A. chroococcum in culture. Out of five Azotobacter strains tested, WR5 exhibited growth-promoting while strain M4 exerted growth-inhibitory effect on the fungus in axenic culture. Electron microscopy of co-culture indicated an intimate association of the bacterium with the fungus. 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry of P. indica cellular proteins grown with or without WR5 and M4 showed differential expression of many metabolic proteins like enolase-I, ureaseD, the GTP binding protein YPT1 and the transmembrane protein RTM1. Fungal growth as influenced by bacterial crude metabolites was also monitored. Taken together, the results conform to a model where WR5 and M4 influence the overall growth and physiology of P. indica which may have a bearing on its symbiotic relationship with plants. PMID:26350628

  19. Interaction of Piriformospora indica with Azotobacter chroococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Bhuyan, Soubhagya; Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar Mishra, Deepak; Prasad, Ramraj; Kumari, Abha; Chandra Upadhyaya, Kailash; Varma, Ajit; Kumar Yadava, Pramod

    2015-09-09

    Microbial communities in rhizosphere interact with each other and form a basis of a cumulative impact on plant growth. Rhizospheric microorganisms like Piriformospora indica and Azotobacter chroococcum are well known for their beneficial interaction with plants. These features make P. indica/A. chroococcum co-inoculation of crops most promising with respect to sustainable agriculture and to understanding the transitions in the evolution of rhizospheric microbiome. Here, we investigated interactions of P. indica with A. chroococcum in culture. Out of five Azotobacter strains tested, WR5 exhibited growth-promoting while strain M4 exerted growth-inhibitory effect on the fungus in axenic culture. Electron microscopy of co-culture indicated an intimate association of the bacterium with the fungus. 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry of P. indica cellular proteins grown with or without WR5 and M4 showed differential expression of many metabolic proteins like enolase-I, ureaseD, the GTP binding protein YPT1 and the transmembrane protein RTM1. Fungal growth as influenced by bacterial crude metabolites was also monitored. Taken together, the results conform to a model where WR5 and M4 influence the overall growth and physiology of P. indica which may have a bearing on its symbiotic relationship with plants.

  20. Biological control of Eotetranychus lewisi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on strawberry by four phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anna D; Daugovish, Oleg

    2013-02-01

    The spider mite, Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a new emerging pest in California commercial strawberries. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), typically used for biocontrol of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), provided growers little to no control of E. lewisi. Four commonly used phytoseiid predatory mites: P. persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), N. fallacis (Garman), and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), were used in lab studies to investigate which is best at managing E. lewisi populations. We als o investigated t he interactions between T. urticae and E. lewisi and in relation to phytoseiid efficiency given the potential for indirect effects of biocontrol. When E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, T. urticae populations increase and begin displacing E. lewisi. P. persimilis did not feed on E. lewisi, but the other three predatory mites consumed the spider mites and lowered their populations. When both E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, N. fallacis and A. andersoni fed on both types of mites equally and were capable of decreasing both populations. N. californicus fed on E. lewisi first and decreased its population, but allowed T. urticae populations to increase. P. persimilis may be insufficient at controlling E. lewisi and its use may instead enhance E. lewisi populations.

  1. Evaluation of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the performance, Carcass characteristics and egg quality of Laying hens. Neem (Azadirachta indica) is one of the indigenous tropical plants predominant in Nigeria. It is commonly known as Neem and popularly called ...

  2. A new genus and species Mangalaus krishianusandhanus (Acari: Eriophyidae) from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....

  3. Temperature-dependent development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Haque, Md. Ahsanul; Nachman, Gösta

    2012-01-01

    Development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated on kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., at eleven constant temperatures. Tetranychus macfarlanei was able to develop and complete its life cycle at temperatures ranging from 17...

  4. A new species of Brevipalpus Donnadieu (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and key to the Egyptian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Alaa M; Fawzy, Magdy M

    2014-01-20

    A new species, Brevipalpus noranae sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is described and illustrated from females collected on Malus domestica Borkh and Citrus aurantium L. A key to the species of the genus Brevipalpus present in Egypt is provided.

  5. Three new .i.Trachyuropoda./i. (Acari: Uropodina: Trachyuropodidae) species from the Neotropical region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 7-14 ISSN 1300-0179 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Uropodina * Trachyuropoda * Galápagos Islands Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2013

  6. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) in laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza-Pimentel, G C; Reis, P R; Bonatto, C R; Alves, J P; Siqueira, M F

    2016-01-01

    .... Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value...

  7. Characterisation of Indica Special Protein (ISP), a Marker Protein for the Differentiation of Oryza sativa Subspecies indica and japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Keming; Min, Chao; Xia, Hengchuan; Yang, Yanhua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Keping

    2014-01-01

    Based on both morphological and physiological traits, Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) can be classified into two distinct subspecies, indica and japonica. To better understand the differences between the two subspecies, a proteomic approach was used to profile proteins present in the yellow seedling stage of 10 indica and 10 japonica rice varieties. We report the discovery of a new protein, Indica Special Protein (ISP), which was only detected in yellow seedlings of indica varieties...

  8. Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracka, Anna; Magalhães, Sara; Rector, Brian G; Kuczyński, Lechosław

    2015-10-01

    There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists documenting biodiversity assessment as well as to researchers in medicine and agriculture. In this review, we revisit the subject of biodiversity in the Acari and investigate what is currently known about cryptic species within this group. Based on a thorough literature search, we show that the probability of occurrence of cryptic species is mainly related to the number of attempts made to detect them. The use of, both, DNA tools and bioassays significantly increased the probability of cryptic species detection. We did not confirm the generally-accepted idea that species lifestyle (i.e. free-living vs. symbiotic) affects the number of cryptic species. To increase detection of cryptic lineages and to understand the processes leading to cryptic speciation in Acari, integrative approaches including multivariate morphometrics, molecular tools, crossing, ecological assays, intensive sampling, and experimental evolution are recommended. We conclude that there is a demonstrable need for future investigations focusing on potentially hidden mite and tick species and addressing evolutionary mechanisms behind cryptic speciation within Acari.

  9. Three new limonoids from Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jie-Qing; Chen, Jin-Xiong; Chen, Jian-Chao; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Three new limonoids, azadiraindins E-G (1-3, respectively), together with six known analogs, were isolated from the fresh fruit coats of Azadirachta indica. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR).

  10. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica), FALSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. A study to evaluate the insecticidal properties of some plants was undertaken. Powder and aqueous extracts of Neem, Azadirachta indica, False sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides and the Physic nut, Jatropha curcas were evaluated as grain protectants against the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

  11. Antifungal potentials of Azardirachta indica and Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal potentials of Azardirachta indica and Ocimum grattissimum leaf extracts in the control of yam rot. ... Fusarium oxysporium, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicilluim notatum and Aspergillus niger were isolated from the rotted yams. Both fresh and dry extracts of the leaves had significant effects ...

  12. Cactus ( Opuntia ficus indica ) extract improves endoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We reported in this paper the requirement of the extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) for regulating unfolded protein response (UPR) target genes and maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle where many proteins are synthesized and sorted to ...

  13. New antitrypanosomal tetranotriterpenoids from Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic extracts of the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. yielded ten antitrypanosomal terpenoids. Three of these (1 – 3), are novel and are derivatives of nimbolide and nimbin. They were extracted from chloroform fraction of methanol extract. These compounds were found to exhibit strong antitrypanosomal activities ...

  14. mediated transformation in two indica rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying binary vector pCAMBIA 1301 was used for transformation in two economically important highly recalcitrant indica rice cultivars HKR-46 and HKR-126. High concentrations of acetosyringone in the agrobacterium culture and co-cultivation medium proved to be ...

  15. Antibacterial activity of Waltheria indica Linn (Sterculiaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mature roots of Waltheria indica were collected from Blouberg area, Limpopo Province, republic of South Africa. Water, ethanol and methanol extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity at 5 mg/ml against 10 human pathogenic strains using disc diffusion method. Ethanol extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity ...

  16. Infection of the Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma Maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia Parkeri: First Report from the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    0279276E-D761-4A27-BFF7-7329E05E0F66 Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum ( Acari : Ixodidae), with Rickettsia parkeri: first report from...currently valid OMB control number. I. REPORT DATE 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma macula tum ( Acari

  17. Damage caused by Tetranychus Merganser Bondreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae on Nopal Verdura Opuntia Ficus-Indica (L. Miller during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima-Espíndola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus merganser occurs in some crops in Mexico and USA. This mite could be considered a potential pest in countries like Japan. In this work we recorded the damages that T. merganser causes to the nopal verdura (prickly pear vegetable crop in one of the principal cactus crop regions of Mexico.

  18. [Control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Acari: Macronyssidae) infestation in commercial laying hens by using Azadirachta indica extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nilce M; Tucci, Edna C; Guastalli, Elizabeth A L; Yajima, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a neem extract-based product to control O. sylviarum infestations in commercial laying hens. The birds were divided in 3 groups, which received 2, 3, or 4 applications of the product at 7 day intervals. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the neem extract at 2% is effective to control infestations by O. sylviarum, and at least 3 sprays of the product are required weekly for an effective control of the parasite.

  19. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis. PMID:27167761

  20. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-05-03

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis.

  1. Evaluation of predatory mite (Acari: Phytoseiidae) releases to suppress spruce spider mites, Oligonychus ununguis (Acari: Tetranychidae), on juniper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2003-12-01

    A laboratory trial evaluated four phytoseiid species for their potential as biological control agents of spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae). An augmentative biological control approach, using the predatory mites Neoseiulus fallacis Garman and Galendromus occidentalis Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae), was evaluated for reducing pest mite densities and injury, and economic costs on Juniperus chinensis 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae) in an outdoor nursery. Sequential releases of predator species, individually and in combination, were tested and compared with two commonly used miticides, a low-toxicity miticide, horticultural oil, and a conventional miticide, hexythiazox. Timing of treatments was based on grower-determined need, and predator release rates were based on guidelines in literature received from producers of beneficial organisms. Predator releases were more expensive and provided less effective suppression of spruce spider mites, resulting in greater spider mite injury to plants, compared with conventional pesticides. However, spider mite damage to plants did not differ in an economically meaningful way between treatments. Unsatisfactory levels of control seem related to under estimations of actual spider mite abundance based on grower perceptions and the beat sampling technique used to estimate predator release rates. These data suggest that when initial populations of spruce spider mite are high, it is unlikely that sequential releases of predator species, individually or in combination, will suppress spider mite populations. In this trial, augmentative biological control control was 2.5-7 times more expensive than chemical controls.

  2. Relationship between temperature and development of Galendromus flumenis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a predator of Banks grass mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjisaffar, Fatemeh; Perring, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    The Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of grains, grasses and dates. In order to develop and optimize biological control strategies against the Banks grass mite, the survival and development of the predator, Galendromus flumenis (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), at eleven constant temperatures between 12 and 44°C were determined. The survival rates of G. flumenis (67.4-89.5 %) were highest between 26 and 38°C although it developed successfully from egg to adult at temperatures ranging from 18 to 42°C. The lower temperature threshold (T 0 ) and thermal constant (K) for total immature development were 13.3°C and 145.3 degree-days, respectively. The upper temperature threshold was 44.3°C, and the optimal temperature for development was calculated to be 37.5°C. These results indicate that G. flumenis is better adapted to high temperatures than most predators in the Phytoseiidae. In addition, the thermal requirements for total development of G. flumenis was found to be very close to those of O. pratensis which indicates that there should be synchrony between the occurrence of the prey and the predator. Therefore, the lack of predation observed in the field is related to other factors, such as the developmental time between O. pratensis and G. flumenis, or the inability of the predator to establish at the same time, and in the same location, as the prey.

  3. Antioxidant enzyme activities in maize plants colonized with Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Vikas; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2009-03-01

    The bioprotection performance of Piriformospora indica against the root parasite Fusarium verticillioides was studied. We found that maize plants first grown with F. verticillioides and at day 10 inoculated with P. indica showed improvements in biomass, and root length and number as compared with plants grown with F. verticillioides alone. To validate our finding that inoculation with P. indica suppresses colonization by F. verticillioides, we performed PCR analyses using P. indica- and F. verticillioides-specific primers. Our results showed that inoculation with P. indica suppresses further colonization by F. verticillioides. We hypothesized that as the colonization by P. indica increases, the presence of/colonization by F. verticillioides decreases. In roots, catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were found to be higher in F. verticillioides-colonized plants than in non-colonized plants. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes minimizes the chances of oxidative burst (excessive production of reactive oxygen species), and therefore F. verticillioides might be protected from the oxidative defence system during colonization. We also observed decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants first inoculated with F. verticillioides and at day 10 inoculated with P. indica as compared with plants inoculated with F. verticillioides alone. These decreased antioxidant enzyme activities due to the presence of P. indica help the plant to overcome the disease load of F. verticillioides. We propose that P. indica can be used as a bioprotection agent against the root parasite F. verticillioides.

  4. Population Genetic Structure of Tetranychus urticae and Its Sibling Species Tetranychus cinnabaribus (Acari: Tetranychidae) in China as Inferred From Microsatellite Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ting Li; Xiao-Lin Chen; Xiao-Yue Hong

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and its sibling species the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae...

  5. Effect of Neem Extracts (Azadirachta indica) on Bacteria Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Neem extracts, Oral hygiene, antibacterial activity. INTRODUCTION. Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is a very common tree and belongs to the family Meliaceae. It is a tall evergreen tree with clear foliage originally native of. India. Azadirachta indica is one of the most widespread introduced tree species in Nigeria ...

  6. Antibacterial properties of Mangifera indica on Staphylococcus aureus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica stem bark extracts was determined using disk diffusion, agar and broth dilution methods. In disk diffusion method, inhibition zone sizes were used to determine the susceptibility of S. aureus to the extracts. The results showed that the stem-bark extracts of M. indica have antimicrobial ...

  7. The effect of aqueous extract of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After which the animals were sacrificed and the liver was excised and rocessed for histological examinations. Blood samples were collected for Biochemical analysis. A. indica stimulates production and storage of proteins in the liver. These changes are dosedependent. This study suggests that A.indica extract increases ...

  8. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of ...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N-2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  10. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) in laboratory/Parâmetros reprodutivos de Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) predando Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) em laboratório

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G C Souza-Pimentel; P R Reis; C R Bonatto; J P Alves; M F Siqueira

    2017-01-01

    .... Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value...

  11. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.

  12. Oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Veigaia cerva (Acari: Veigaiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Tomasz; Faleńczyk-Koziróg, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Sławomir

    2013-07-01

    We observed the oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Veigaia cerva (Kramer) (Acari: Veigaiidae) using continuous video-monitoring. Five phases could be recognized. Phase I involved inspection of the substrate. In phase II the female rhythmically moved her gnathosoma and first pair of legs. After an inactive phase III, the soma was raised (IV), and the egg was laid (V). In the actual egg laying three sub-phases could be distinguished: internal egg movement, placing the egg in front of the gnathosoma, and depositing the egg using the chelicerae. The palps and first pair of legs were used to position the egg between the chelicerae. The whole process took on average 333 ± 22 s.

  13. Piriformospora indica enhances plant growth by transferring phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Ruby; Singh, Archana; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonized monocot as well as dicot. P. indica has been termed as plant probiotic because of its plant growth promoting activity and its role in enhancement of the tolerance of the host plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. In our recent study, we have characterized a high affinity phosphate transporter (PiPT) and by using RNAi approach, we have demonstrated the involvement of PiPT in P transfer to the host plant. When knockdown strains of PiPT-P. indica was colonized with the host plant, it resulted in the impaired growth of the host plants. Here we have analyzed and discussed whether the growth promoting activity of P. indica is its intrinsic property or it is dependent on P availability. Our data explain the correlation between the availability of P and growth-promoting activity of P. indica.

  14. First records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Bhutan, with description of two new species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in Bhutan are presented. Two species new to science are described: Sperchon himalayus sp. nov. and Torrenticola bhutana sp. nov. Furthermore, the first records from Bhutan are given for Monatractides tristis (Lundblad), Testudacarus

  15. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mites (Arachnida: Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...

  16. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from

  17. Primeiro registro de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae em mudas de teca no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae (Kock, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae foi relatado e suas injúrias caracterizadas pela primeira vez em viveiro de produção mudas de teca (Tectona grandis no Brasil.

  18. New records of Acari from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, D.J.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Coetzee, L.; Oconnor, B.M.; Pugh, P.J.A.; Theron, P.D.; Ueckermann, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty species of Acari are recorded from the sub-Antarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands (the Prince Edward archipelago). Twenty of the 45 species collected on recent expeditions are new and currently undescribed. Other new taxa include a family of Mesostigmata, four new genera, and the first

  19. A new species of the genus Achaemenothrombium (Acari: Achaemenothrombiidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboori, Alireza; Wohltmann, Andreas; Hakimitabar, Masoud; Shirvani, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Achaemenothrombium dariusi Saboori, Wohltmann & Hakimitabar sp. nov. (Acari, Prostigmata: Trombidioidea) is described and illustrated from larvae ectoparasitic on Euxoafallax (Eversmann) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Sirch and Cheshmeh Bondar, Kerman province, Iran. It is the third species of this genus, which is recorded only from Iran. The status of this small family is discussed and a key to species of A chaemenothrombium (larvae) is presented.

  20. Role of excreta in predator avoidance by the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae) constructs webs over leaf surfaces and usually lives under these webs. T. kanzawai produces two types of excreta, black and yellow pellets, and uses its webs as a place for excretion. T. kanzawai also uses its webs as a refuge when

  1. Two new species of the genus Anoplocheylus Berlese, 1910 (Acari: Trombidiformes: Pseudocheylidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohammad; Zarei, Elham; Ahaniazad, Mansoureh; Gharekhany, Gholamhossein; Navaei-Bonab, Reza

    2013-01-07

    Two new species of the genus Anoplocheylus Berlese, 1910 (Acari: Trombidiformes: Pseudocheylidae), A. sinai Bagheri sp. nov. and A. kazemii Bagheri sp. nov., are described and figured. An updated key to all known species of Anoplocheylus is also provided.

  2. Three new species of the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döker, Ismail; Kazak, Cengiz; Karut, Kamil

    2017-03-16

    Three new species of the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) are described and illustrated based on female specimens collected from various plants in Turkey-Eharius denizliensis Döker & Kazak sp. nov., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) karaisaliensis Döker & Kazak sp. nov. and Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) papadoulisi Döker & Kazak sp. nov.

  3. Water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae) from Australia. Part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Two new water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae), characterized by single or absence of swimming setae on II-L-5, are reported from Australia: Hydrodroma wilesi sp. nov. and H. cooki sp. nov. New information is provided for H. tonapii Cook from

  4. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  5. Piriformospora indica: Potential and Significance in Plant Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet S; Gill, Ritu; Trivedi, Dipesh K; Anjum, Naser A; Sharma, Krishna K; Ansari, Mohammed W; Ansari, Abid A; Johri, Atul K; Prasad, Ram; Pereira, Eduarda; Varma, Ajit; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its exceptional ability to efficiently promote plant growth, protection and stress tolerance, a mycorrhiza like endophytic Agaricomycetes fungus Piriformospora indica has received a great attention over the last few decades. P. indica is an axenically cultiviable fungus which exhibits its versatility for colonizing/hosting a broad range of plant species through directly manipulating plant hormone-signaling pathway during the course of mutualism. P. indica-root colonization leads to a better plant performance in all respect, including enhanced root proliferation by indole-3-acetic acid production which in turn results into better nutrient-acquisition and subsequently to improved crop growth and productivity. Additionally, P. indica can induce both local and systemic resistance to fungal and viral plant diseases through signal transduction. P. indica-mediated stimulation in antioxidant defense system components and expressing stress-related genes can confer crop/plant stress tolerance. Therefore, P. indica can biotize micropropagated plantlets and also help these plants to overcome transplantation shock. Nevertheless, it can also be involved in a more complex symbiotic relationship, such as tripartite symbiosis and can enhance population dynamic of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In brief, P. indica can be utilized as a plant promoter, bio-fertilizer, bioprotector, bioregulator, and biotization agent. The outcome of the recent literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of mechanisms underlying P. indica-crop plant mutual relationship. Together, the discussion will be functional to comprehend the usefulness of crop plant-P. indica association in both achieving new insights into crop protection/improvement as well as in sustainable agriculture production.

  6. Piriformospora indica: potential and significance in plant stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvajeet Singh Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its exceptional ability to efficiently promote plant growth, protection and stress tolerance, a mycorrhiza like endophytic Agaricomycetes fungus Piriformospora indica has received a great attention over the last few decades. P. indica is an axenically cultiviable fungus and exhibits its versatility for colonizing/hosting a broad range of plant species through directly manipulating mainly plant hormone-signaling during the course of mutualism. P. indica-root colonization leads to a better plant performance in all respect including enhanced root proliferation by indole-3-acetic acid production which in turn results into better nutrient-acquisition and subsequently to improved crop growth and productivity. Additionally, P. indica can induce both local and systemic resistance to fungal and viral plant diseases through signal transduction. P. indica-mediated stimulation in antioxidant defense system components and expressing stress-related genes can confer crop/plant stress tolerance. Therefore, P. indica can biotize micropropagated plantlets and also help these plants overcome transplantation shock. Nevertheless, it can also be involved in a more complex symbiotic relationship, such as tripartite symbiosis and can enhance population dynamic of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In brief, P. indica can be utilized as a plant promoter, bio-fertilizer, bioprotector, bioregulator and biotization agent. The outcome of the recent literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of mechanisms underlying P. indica-crop plant mutual relationship. Together, the discussion will be functional to comprehend the usefulness of crop plant-P indica association in both achieving new insights into crop protection/improvement as well as in sustainable agriculture production.

  7. Effect of pyroligneous extract of Acacia mearnsii on Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari, Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari, Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Castro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine the effect of decanted pyroligneous extract (DPE of black Acacia mearnsii on the mites Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Six different concentrations were tested, namely, DPE: water 1:600, 1:300, 1:150, 1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and a control treatment with distilled water. Five females of T. urticae and N. californicus were transferred to arenas, totaling 50 females per treatment, for a period of eight days. DPE caused high mortality in N. californicus, while in T. urticae, high mortality was observed only at high (1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and intermediate (1:150 concentrations. Notably, DPE was slightly harmful to T. urticae at lower concentrations and harmful to N. californicus at all concentrations, indicating that it would have little efficacy in the control of T. urticae.

  8. Neem (Azadirachta indica): towards the ideal insecticide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Canale, Angelo; Toniolo, Chiara; Higuchi, Akon; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Pavela, Roman; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    Pesticide resistance is going to change rapidly our antibiotics and insecticides arsenal. In this scenario, plant-derived natural products are considered valuable candidates to reverse this negative trend. Growing research attention is focused on neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae), exploring the utility of its products as insecticides and antibiotics. In this review, we summarised the knowledge on neem oil and neem cake by-products in arthropod pest control, with special reference to mosquito vectors of public health importance. To the best of our knowledge, neem-borne products currently showed effective and eco-friendly features, including little non-target effects, multiple mechanisms of action, low cost, easy production in countries with limited industrial facilities. In particular, the potentiality of neem cake as ideal and affordable source of mosquitocidal compounds in anopheline and aedine control programmes is outlined. Overall, we propose the employ of neem-based products as an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer arthropod control tools.

  9. Azadirachta indica Mediated Bioactive Lyocell Yarn: Chemical and Colour Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. Aesthetic values of dyed yarns were analyzed in terms of colourimetric parameters, that is, CIE L*  a*  b* and colour fastness. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy (IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. The study showed that lyocell yarn treated at 15% (owf methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves can be utilized as effective bioactive textiles. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Sponge Clathria indica (Dendy, 1889)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravichandran, S.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Anbuchezhian, R.M.

    in marine invertebrates. The aim of the present work was to study the antimicrobial properties of the Indian sponge Clathria indica with special reference to the identification of antimicrobial peptides. Crude methanolic extract and its chloroform, n...

  11. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE) EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OSPINA SALAZAR, Daniel Iván; HOYOS SÁNCHEZ, Rodrigo Alberto; OROZCO SÁNCHEZ, Fernando; ARANGO ARTEAGA, Myrtha; GÓMEZ LONDOÑO, Luisa Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    ... (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum...

  12. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-05-22

    g. Carbohydrates varied widely between 12 to 92%. All analyzed minerals varied, but Pb and Cd were absent. From this study, it is evident that the nutritional composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) varies in regards to age.

  13. Megasporogenesis and Megagametogenesis in Autotetraploid Indica/Japonica Rice Hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-yue HU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Autotetraploid indica/japonica rice hybrid combines both the advantages of polyploidy and the heterosis between indica and japonica rice. Embryo sac abortion is an important factor influencing spikelet fertility in autotetraploid rice hybrid. To clarify the cytological mechanism of embryo sac abortion, the megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis in an autotetraploid japonica/indica hybrid were examined by the whole-mount eosin B-staining confocal laser scanning microscopy (WE-CLSM technique. Abnormalities were observed from the megasporocyte stage to the mature embryo sac stage. The degeneration of the tetrad cells and the functional megaspore was the characteristic of abnormalities during megasporogenesis. Abnormal small embryo sacs and disordered number of nuclei were frequently observed during embryo sac development. Some interesting phenomena, such as two functional megaspores, the diplospory-like megasporocyte, and five-nucleate embryo sac were found. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in more than five types of abnormal embryo sacs (i.e. embryo sac degeneration, embryo sac without female germ unit, embryo sac without egg apparatus, embryo sac with abnormal polar nuclei and abnormal small embryo sac in autotetraploid japonica/indica hybrid. Embryo sac fertility was lower in diploid japonica/indica hybrid than in autotetraploid japonica/indica hybrid although many abnormal phenomena were observed in autotetraploid hybrid.

  14. Chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitharwal, Ramesh K; Patel, Hasit; Karchuli, Manvendra Singh; Ugale, Rajesh Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent, is used in the treatment of cancer owing to its broad-spectrum efficacy, its metabolites exhibit severe undesired toxicities in normal cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Rodents were orally pre-treated with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) for five consecutive days. On 5th day, these animals were injected with CP (50 mg/kg i.p) and sacrificed after 24 hrs. for the evaluation of oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, micronucleus formation, and chromosomal aberrations. We found that the CP significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased catalase and glutathione (GSH) levels in brain, and it was significantly reversed by Coccinia indica extract (400 and 600 mg/kg). Further, pre-treatment with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced micronuclei formation and incidence of aberrant cells. We also found that the CP-induced increase in the serum biomarker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced by Coccinia indica extract. Thus, the present results indicate the protective effect of Coccinia indica extract against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, as well as hepatotoxicity.

  15. Development of phytovesicles containing triterpenoids from Samadera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanad, Vidya; Zachariah, Subin Mary; Sathi, Aiswarya; Aleykutty, N A

    2015-01-01

    Samadera indica belonging to Simaroubaceae family is being used traditionally for many diseases including arthritis, edema, itching, skin diseases, constipation, and general debility. The effectiveness of any drug delivery system depends upon its ability to deliver the active components at therapeutic level. In this study, a novel phyto vesicular formulation for the enhanced topical delivery of methanol extract of S. indica in order to treat skin infections was developed. The methanol extract fraction of leaves of S. indica which showed more antifungal activity was purified to separate an antifungal compound. Phytovesicles were formulated using the more antifungal fraction in order to treat topical and deep seated fungal infections. Pytovesicles were prepared using 1:2 molar ratio of antifungal triterpenoid from S. indica (AFTSI)-phosphatidylcholine by film hydration method. Chloroform 100% fraction of methanol extract of S. indica showed more activity against the fungus Candida albicans. Further purification gave a fraction with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 15.6 mg/ml against C. albicans and showed positive test for triterpenoids. The fraction was named as AFTSI. A compound (20 mg) was isolated from this fraction at an RF value. The phytovesicle gel formulated using AFTSI showed enhanced skin permeability and antifungal activity. The study demonstrated that the phytovesicular gel developed using methanol extract of S. indica would be beneficial for treating deep seated fungal infections.

  16. Aeginetia indica Decoction Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lo, Chieh-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Ni; Pan, Ting-Chun; Chen, Pin-Yin; Yu, Ming-Jiun

    2018-01-09

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a global epidemic despite the introduction of several highly effective direct-acting antivirals that are tagged with sky-high prices. The present study aimed to identify an herbal decoction that ameliorates HCV infection. Among six herbal decoctions tested, the Aeginetia indica decoction had the most profound effect on the HCV reporter activity in infected Huh7.5.1 liver cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The Aeginetia indica decoction exerted multiple inhibitory effects on the HCV life cycle. Pretreatment of the cells with the Aeginetia indica decoction prior to HCV infection reduced the HCV RNA and non-structural protein 3 (NS3) protein levels in the infected cells. The Aeginetia indica decoction reduced HCV internal ribosome entry site-mediated protein translation activity. It also reduced the HCV RNA level in the infected cells in association with reduced NS5A phosphorylation at serine 235, a predominant phosphorylation event indispensable to HCV replication. Thus, the Aeginetia indica decoction inhibits HCV infection, translation, and replication. Mechanistically, the Aeginetia indica decoction probably reduced HCV replication via reducing NS5A phosphorylation at serine 235.

  17. Piriformospora indica confers cadmium tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Feiqiong; Liu, Jian; Gao, Qikang; Lou, Binggan

    2015-11-01

    Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, promotes plant growth and confers resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to confirm the influence of P. indica on growth, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll, and cadmium (Cd) amounts in Nicotiana tabacum under Cd stress, hydroponics, pot and field trials were conducted. The results showed that P. indica can store Cd in plant roots and reduce leaf Cd content, reduce the concentration of MDA, and increase the proline and chlorophyll content and the activities of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase under hydroponic Cd stress. RT-PCR analysis showed that the relative expression level of genes Gsh2, TaPCS1, oas1, GPX, and Hsp70 in colonized plants was 4.3, 1.4, 2.9, 1.7, and 6.9 fold higher than in un-colonized plants respectively. Cd exposure significantly reduced un-colonized plants' agronomic traits compared to P. indica-colonized ones. Our results suggested that P. indica can sequester Cd in roots, so that much less cadmium was transported to leaves, and the increased concentrations of antioxidant enzymes, pigments and proline contents, as well as the higher expression of stress-related phytochelatin biosynthesis genes in P. indica-inoculated plants, may also serve to protect N. tabacum plants against oxidative damage, enhancing Cd tolerance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Vassilis A; Kitsis, Pavlos

    2013-08-01

    Five field and greenhouse populations of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were collected from five different districts across the island of Cyprus, both in field and greenhouse crops, and tested to determine levels of resistance. Standard leaf-disk spray application bioassay procedures were used to determine the LC50s for five chemicals: abamectin, acrinathrin, fenazaquin, pirimiphos methyl, and bifenazate. Selection of these compounds was based on the widespread use by farmers as well as on the frequent control failures against T. urticae reported in the past. Resistance of T. urticae was detected to abamectin, acrinathrin, fenazaquin, and pirimiphos methyl. The resistance ratios were calculated relative to the German susceptible reference strain. The highest resistance ratios at LC50 value were recorded for abamectin in a greenhouse rose population (RR = 3822), followed by a field bean (RR = 1356) and field tomato population (RR = 1320). Significantly high resistance levels were also found for acrinathrin where the highest resistance ratios at LC50 were recorded in a field bean T. urticae population (RR = 903). For fenazaquin, the highest resistance levels were recorded in a field tomato population (RR = 310). Lower resistance levels were found for pirimiphos methyl (13.3 urticae was observed for bifenazate (2.7 urticae populations in indoor and outdoor environments.

  19. A New Sucrase Enzyme Inhibitor from Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhady, Mohamed I S; Shaheen, Usama; Bader, Ammar; Youns, Mahmoud A

    2016-05-01

    Sucrase enzyme inhibitor considered as an oral anti-diabetic therapy that delays the absorption of eaten carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and insulin peaks to reach normoglycemia. Chromatographic fractionation of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Azadirachta indica growing in KSA, followed by in-vitro assay of sucrase enzyme inhibition activity. This investigation led to the isolation of a new remarkable sucrase enzyme inhibitor; 4'-methyl Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (1) alongside with four known compounds; 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(α/β)-D-(4)C1-glucopyranose (2), Avicularin (3), Castalagin (4) and Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (5). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including ESI-MS, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC. Under the assay conditions, hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica and compounds 1-5 exhibited significant sucrase enzyme inhibitory activity. Chromatographic fractionation of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Azadirachta indica, led to the Isolation of a new flavonoid glycoside named 4'-methyl Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside, alongside to other 4 known polyphenols. The hydroalcoholic extract as well as the isolated compounds exhibited significant sucrase enzyme inhibitory activity. Abbreviations used: ESI-MS; electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, UV; ultraviolet, NMR; nuclear magnetic resonance, 1H-1H COSY; 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, NOESY; nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy, and HSQC; heteronuclear multiple bond correlation. A. indica; Azadirachta indica.

  20. Drought stress responses in maize are diminished by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenying; Wang, Jun; Xu, Le; Wang, Aiai; Huang, Lan; Du, Hewei; Qiu, Lijuan; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2018-01-02

    As an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, Piriformospora indica promotes plant growth and resistance to abiotic stress, including drought. Colonization of maize roots promoted the leaf size, root length and number of tap roots. Under drought stress, the maize seedlings profited from the presence of the fungus and performed visibly better than the uncolonized controls. To identify genes and biological processes involved in growth promotion and drought tolerance conferred by P. indica, the root transcriptome of colonized and uncolonized seedlings was analyzed 0, 6 and 12 h after drought stress (20% polyethylene glycol 6000). The number of P. indica-responsive genes increased from 464 (no stress at 0 h) to 1337 (6 h drought) and 2037 (12 h drought). Gene Ontology analyses showed that the carbon and sulfur metabolisms are major targets of the fungus. Furthermore, the growth promoting effect of P. indica is reflected by higher transcript levels for microtubule associated processes. Under drought stress, the fungus improved the oxidative potential of the roots, and stimulated genes for hormone functions, including those which respond to abscisic acid, auxin, salicylic acid and cytokinins. The comparative analyses of our study provides systematic insight into the molecular mechanism how P. indica promotes plant performance under drought stress, and presents a collection of genes which are specifically targeted by the fungus under drought stress in maize roots.

  1. A new record and a new species of the genus Agistemus Summers (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathakis, Theodoros I; Kapaxidi, Eleftheria V; Papadoulis, Georgios Th

    2014-03-20

    The genus Agistemus Summers (Acari: Stigmaeidae) is reported for the first time in Greece. Agistemus duzgunesae Koç, Çobanoğlu & Madanlar, a new record for the Greek fauna, is re-described and illustrated based on specimens collected from various plants. Furthermore, Agistemus macrosetosus Stathakis & Kapaxidi n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected on Rubus sp. A list of all species of the genus Agistemus is provided. 

  2. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  3. A large parasitengonid mite (Acari, Erythraeoidea from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A new large, fossil mite (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., is described from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian Crato Formation from Ceará State, Brazil. It is assigned to the Cohort Parasitengona and the superfamily Erythraeoidea, some extant members of which can reach up to seven millimetres in body length. Given that doubts have been raised about the identity of putative Crato feather mite eggs, this new fossil represents the first unequivocal record of Acari from the Crato Formation, the first non-amber record of an erythraeoid mite and the oldest named example of this superfamily. Fossil erythraeoids from Mesozoic and Tertiary ambers are briefly reviewed – including a widely overlooked Late Cretaceous species – with comments on Mesozoic mites in general. Thirteen Baltic amber erythraeoids have been formally described, but much unstudied material from various amber sources remains. Ein neues großes Milbenfossil (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., wird aus der Crato Formation (Unterkreide, Aptium des Ceará Gebietes in Brasilien beschrieben. Es wird der Kohorte Parasitengona und der Überfamilie Erythraeoidea zugeordnet; die modernen Vertreter erreichen eine Körperlänge bis zu sieben mm. Weil die Identität von Federmilbeneiern aus der Crato Formation in Frage gestellt wurde, ist dieser Neufund der erste klare Hinweis von Acari aus der Crato Formation. Es ist die erste erythraeoide Milbe, die nicht aus dem Bernstein stammt sowie das älteste genannte Beispiel dieser Überfamilie. Fossile erythraeoide Milben aus dem Bernstein des Mesozoikum und des Tertiärs werden kurz zusammengefasst – u. a. eine weitgehend übersehene Art aus der Oberkreide – mit allgemeinen Anmerkungen zu den mesozoischen Milben. Dreizehn erythraeoide Milbenarten sind aus dem baltischen Bernstein genannt und beschrieben worden, aber weiteres unbearbeitetes Material von verschiedenen Bernstein-Fundpunkten liegt noch vor

  4. Amblydromalus limonicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a biocontrol agent: literature review and new findings

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, M.; van Houten, Y.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Bolckmans, K.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Amblydromalus limonicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was described in 1956 from citrus in California; its distribution range covers North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. It first caught the attention of biocontrol workers in the 1960s as natural enemy of the spider mites Oligonychus punicae and Tetranychus cinnabarinus in avocados and other fruit trees. In laboratory studies, A. limonicus developed into adults and laid eggs on several species of mites, thrips, w...

  5. Biologia de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) em Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    EA. Silva; PR, Reis; TMB. Carvalho; BF. Altoé

    2009-01-01

    Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook,) is an ornamental Asteraceae of great commercial value, and pests can affect adversely its cultivation. More than 20 species of arthropods cause economic damage on gerbera, among them the two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), considered a key pest for this and other ornamental plants. In this work, some life-cycle aspects of T. urticae on gerbera, considered important for the knowledge of its population dynamics and...

  6. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE) EM CITROS SELECTIVITY OF CHLORFENAPYR AND FENBUTATIN-OXIDE ON TWO SPECIES OF PREDACEOUS MITES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE) IN CITRUS

    OpenAIRE

    REIS PAULO REBELLES; SOUSA ÉLBER OLIVEIRA

    2001-01-01

    Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae), associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, confo...

  7. Molecular approach to identify antidiabetic potential of Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, K.; Sravanthi, K.; Shaker, I. Anand; Ponnulakshmi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a medicinal plant, used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus. It is known to possess antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and diverse pharmacological properties. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of A. indica on insulin signal transduction and glucose homeostasis is obscure. Objective: The aim was to study the effects of A. indica aqueous leaf extract on the expression of insulin signaling molecules and glucose oxidation in target tissue of high-fat and fructose-induced type-2 diabetic male rat. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf extract (400 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) was given once daily for 30 days to high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, and the levels of insulin signaling molecules, glycogen, glucose oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle were assessed. Results: Diabetic rats showed impaired glucose tolerance and impairment in insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, phospho-IRS-1Tyr632, phospho-IRS-1Ser636, phospho-AktSer473, and glucose transporter 4 [GLUT4] proteins), glycogen concentration and glucose oxidation. The treatment with A. indica leaf extract normalized the altered levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile and insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins at 400 mg/kg b.wt dose. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present study that A. indica may play a significant role in the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, by improving the insulin signaling molecules and glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle. PMID:26604551

  8. Molecular approach to identify antidiabetic potential of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, K; Sravanthi, K; Shaker, I Anand; Ponnulakshmi, R

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a medicinal plant, used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus. It is known to possess antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and diverse pharmacological properties. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of A. indica on insulin signal transduction and glucose homeostasis is obscure. The aim was to study the effects of A. indica aqueous leaf extract on the expression of insulin signaling molecules and glucose oxidation in target tissue of high-fat and fructose-induced type-2 diabetic male rat. The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf extract (400 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) was given once daily for 30 days to high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, and the levels of insulin signaling molecules, glycogen, glucose oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle were assessed. Diabetic rats showed impaired glucose tolerance and impairment in insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, phospho-IRS-1(Tyr632), phospho-IRS-1(Ser636), phospho-Akt(Ser473), and glucose transporter 4 [GLUT4] proteins), glycogen concentration and glucose oxidation. The treatment with A. indica leaf extract normalized the altered levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile and insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins at 400 mg/kg b.wt dose. It is concluded from the present study that A. indica may play a significant role in the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, by improving the insulin signaling molecules and glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle.

  9. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf (A. indica) is commonly used in treatment of malaria by Nigerians. Most often, aqueous extract of A. indica leaf is taken in combination with chloroquine in order to cure malaria infection without ...

  10. Piriformospora indica: a Friend in Need is a Friend in Deed

    OpenAIRE

    Dipesh Kumar Trivedi; Amit Srivastava; Praveen Kumar Verma; Narendra Tuteja; Sarvajeet Singh Gill

    2016-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic root-colonizing fungal species classified in the genus Piriformospora of the order Sebacinales. The chlamydospores of P. indica has a typical pear-shape and it was first discovered from the orchid plants in the Thar desert in Rajasthan, India and thus named P. indica.

  11. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  12. Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaves Extract on Growth Response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decrease in growth was observed as the inclusion level increases, fish mortality was also observed to increase as the inclusion levels increases. Mangifera indica leaves which are widely available and easily assessable throughout the country, could serve as growth promoter especially when incorporated at a very low ...

  13. Adsorption characteristics of mango ( magnifera indica ) seed shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption characteristics of mango (Magnifera indica) seed shell activated carbon for phenol rem-oval from wastewater were examined by experimental single stage batch operation. Contact time, stirring rate, adsorbent dose, pH, initial phenol concentration, carbon particle size and impregnation ratio of ZnCl2 to the seed ...

  14. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English: Ashoka; Hindi: Asok) ofCaesalpilliaceae is a medium sized extremely ornamental evergreen tree with numerous spreading and drooping branches, compound leaves and orange-yellow flowers in clusters. Fruits are black, leathery pods with compressed seeds.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts of Coccinia indica | Shaheen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioactive compounds of fruits of Coccinia indica were investigated for antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. The aqueous extracts did not show much significant activity, while the organic extracts (petroleum ether and methanol) showed the highest activity against the test bacteria. The activity was more ...

  16. Haemolytic anaemia after ingestion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Cristy; Hawes, Emily M

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a clinically relevant and possible cause of haemolytic anaemia from ingestion of a Mexican tea from the Neem tree, also known as Azadirachta indica, in a 35-year-old Hispanic man who was found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. PMID:24136910

  17. Biotransformation of Dydrogesterone by Cell Suspension Cultures of Azadirachta indica

    OpenAIRE

    KHAN, Saifullah; CHOUDHARY, Muhammad Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    Biotransformation of dydrogesterone (1) by using cell suspension cultures of Azadirachta indica yielded a metabolite 20R-hydroxy-9b ,10a-pregna-4,6-diene-3-one (2). The structure of this compound was deduced on the basis of various spectroscopic techniques.

  18. Study on the acaricidal effects of Azadirachta indica and Phytolacca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the acaricidal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) and Phytolacca dodecandra (locally known endod in Ethiopia) on Amblyomma cohaerens and Amblyomma variegatum. An adult stage of A. cohaerens was collected from east Wollega zone of the Oromia region of Ethiopia ...

  19. The effect of pesticides and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pesticides and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) and Jatropha carcus L. on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrididae) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) found on tomato plants in Côte d'Ivoire.

  20. Physico-Chemical Stability Studies of Neem ( Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neem oil cream is a semi solid formulation that is being developed for its therapeutic activity dermatologically. The need for stability of the new formulation over the period of its shelf life remains a sacred factor. In the present study, neem oil had been extracted from the ripe seed of Azadirachta indica (A. juss) plant. The oil ...

  1. Kocuria indica sp nov., isolated from sediment sample

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Tang, S.K.; Krishnamurthi, S.; Lee, J.C.; Li, W.-J.

    characteristics, strain NIO-1021T represents a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NIO-1021T(=NCIM 5455T= DSM 25126T =CCTCC AA 209050T) as the type strain...

  2. Effect of lyophilized Azadirachta indica leaf powder on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of lyophilized A. indica leaf extract (125, 250 and 375 mg in suspension of 1 mL Propylene Glycol, respectively / kg body weight) on androgen-dependent biochemical parameters such as cholesterol and glycogen in the testis, total protein, total free sugar, enzymes ...

  3. Heavy metal contents of Azidirachta indica collected from Akungba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica has many medicinal values, particularly among the Africans, and these have been reported [9, 10, 11, 12, 13]. Plants located along highways .... of heavy metals indicate that significant heavy metal pollution from extraneous source(s) has taken place. Table 6 showed correlation coefficients carried out.

  4. Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica linn 1753 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science World Journal ... Physical parameters and nutrient contents of the whole seeds and seed nuts of Tamarindus indica L. 1753 were determined. ... were found to be potential sources of mineral elements while the whole seeds were richer in other proximate components with the exception of moisture and ash contents.

  5. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango (Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit that requires specialized postharvest handling to extend its storage life. The study was undertaken at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) to evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on ...

  6. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit that requires specialized postharvest handling to extend its storage life. The study was undertaken at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) to evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on ...

  7. Haemolytic anaemia after ingestion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Cristy; Hawes, Emily M

    2013-10-17

    The authors report a clinically relevant and possible cause of haemolytic anaemia from ingestion of a Mexican tea from the Neem tree, also known as Azadirachta indica, in a 35-year-old Hispanic man who was found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

  8. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory,

  9. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) fruit juice protects against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HICHEM

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... is used for inflammation and pain treatment (Zou et al.,. 2005). To our knowledge, there is no information hitherto about the effect of O. ficus indica f. inermis ..... Resveratrol ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 28:350-356. Galati EM, Mondello MR, ...

  10. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  11. Seed germination and growth of Eleucine indica and Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three experiments were conducted in a glasshouse and a laboratory to provide information on the effect of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) on, seed germination, seedling emergence and growth of goosegrass (Eleucine indica (L.) Gaertn) and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla Linn), Glyphosate sprayed ...

  12. Screening upland rice ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica ) genotypes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening upland rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) genotypes for salt-tolerance using multivariate cluster analysis. S Cha-um, M Ashraf, C Kirdmanee. Abstract. Seedlings of thirteen genotypes of rice were photoautotrophically grown on MS medium and subsequently exposed to 0 (control) or 200 mM NaCl (salt stress) for 14 ...

  13. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. Juss) fruit yield determination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined fruit yield of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in the guinea savanna of Nigeria at Makurdi. Fifteen mature neem trees which had no overlapping canopies and had not been previously pruned were purposively selected out of 207 stands growing at the study site. All ripped fruits felling from the ...

  14. Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and characterization of major fragrance gene by microsatellite markers. ... At some SSR loci, new/recombinant alleles were observed, which indicate the active recombination between genomes of two rice varieties and can be used for linkage mapping once ...

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn | Doughari | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Tamarindus indica is a plant that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cold, fever, stomach disorder, diarrhea and jaundice and as skin cleanser. To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of the plant, the antimicrobial activities of extracts of the stem bark and leaves were evaluated against some ...

  16. vitro Release of Saraca indica Caesalpiniaceae Bark Powder Tablets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-vitro dissolution study showed that more than a 90% of tannin was released within 30 and. 60 min from tablets prepared by wet ... Keywords: Saraca indica, Flowability, Powder, Tablets, Compressibility, Dissolution. Received: 16 September 2011 ... Talc and magnesium stearate (1. %w/w) were added and mixed for 4 min ...

  17. glucuronidase gene in indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transient expression of β- glucuronidase gene in indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) callus cultures after different stages of co-bombardment. ... presence of hygromycin B. Successful co-transfer of DNAs to cells was monitored by analyzing transient gus expression 24 h after bombardment and 24 days after selection.

  18. Interaction of Mycobiont: Piriformospora Indica with Medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An endophytic symbiotic fungus, Piriformospora indica isolated from desert soils of Rajasthan, India promotes growth as well as important ingredients of the medicinal as well as economically important plants by forming association with roots of various plants and it has been established as biofertilizer, bioprotector, ...

  19. Evaluation of different morphotypes of mango (mangifera indica l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of different morphotypes of mango (mangifera indica l.) for use as rootstock in seedlings production. H Baita, A Manga, Y Mustapha. Abstract. The experiment was designed to assess the growth performance of improved cultivars of Mango grafted on adapted local morphological types. Two trials were conducted ...

  20. Antimicrobial activity of three medicinal plants ( Artemisia indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Artemisia indica, Medicago falcata and Tecoma stans are traditionally being use for medicinal purposes in Pakistan. Present study was designed to check in-vitro efficacy of these plants against selected bacterial and fungal strains. Methodology: Chloroform, butanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts of these ...

  1. Effect of Neem Extracts ( Azadirachta indica ) on Bacteria Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of the bark, Leaf, Seed and fruit extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) on bacteria isolated from adult mouth was carried out using agar- well diffusion method. The test bacteria were isolated from patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. The bark and leaf extracts ...

  2. Performance of broiler chickens fed neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of forty eight (48) birds each in a ...

  3. Assessment of the insecticidal potency of neem ( Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potency of aqueous and methanolic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernel, in inhibiting and disrupting development of Anopheles mosquito was assessed in the laboratory. Different concentrations of aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested on eggs, larvae and pupae. Both extracts were found ...

  4. Effects of Dietary Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) Leaf Extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract (NLE) on egg production, egg quality characteristics and blood indices of laying hens were investigated. Dry matter content of fresh neem leaves was determined and used to determine the quantity of the fresh leaves to be extracted to correspond with the required ...

  5. Toxic effects of neem products ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment and comparative analysis of the properties of aqueous extracts of seed kernel of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) was carried out on Aedes aegypti larvae. The aim of this work was to evaluate lethal effects of neem products (1% Suneem, formulated neem oil and neem powder) on A. aegypti larvae. Assays ...

  6. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Seed Extracts: A Supplement for Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Neem seed extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was tested against Aspergillus niger isolated from soil to determine whether the neem seed extracts will inhibit or enhance the growth of Aspergillus niger . Three different concentrations of neem seed extracts were prepared 10%, 20% and 50%.

  7. Larvaecidal effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) against the larvae of Anopheles mosquito was investigated. Exposure of the larvae to undiluted extracts of seed oil, leaf and bark for 12 hours led to 100, 98, and 48% mortality, respectively. Dilution of these extracts also resulted in mortality of the larvae.

  8. (Azadiracta indica) extract on sheep infested with Amblyomma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... indica) extract on sheep infested with Amblyomma variegatum. Makeri, H. K.1, Maikai, V. A.1 and Nok, J. A.2. 1College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, P. M. B. 2134, Mando – Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria.

  9. Physical and strength properties of Azadirachta indica , (a. Juss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical and strength properties of Azadirachta indica growing in Morogoro, Tanzania were determined and the results compared with already known properties of timber of the same family. The properties determined included basic density, bending strength, stiffness, work to maximum load, total work, compression and ...

  10. Mangifera indica Leave Extracts as Organic Inhibitors on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibition efficiency and adsorption characteristics of alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins extracts of Mangifera indica leaves in controlling corrosion of Zinc sheet in 5 M hydrogentetraoxosulphate (VI) acid solution has been evaluated by gasometric method. The formulation consisting of 2 g/L of extract offers 96.2%, 85.3% ...

  11. 10406 EFFICACY OF CACTUS PEAR (Opuntia ficus-indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bdu

    Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) serves as a source of food, feed, as well as a means of additional income to the ... This study was conducted to assess the food and feed value of the Cactus Pear varieties in Endamehoni District, ..... food, feed, soil and water conservation and other products in Africa. Proceedings of ...

  12. Dough Rising Ability of Tamarindus Indica, Citrus Limon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASANAWA

    Dough Rising Ability of Tamarindus Indica, Citrus Limon and Hibiscus Sabdariffa Yeast. Isolates. Ado, A. 1. , Ajibade, G.A. 2 ... yeasts correlate positively with the standard yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisea) in maize dough rising (α = 0.05> p – value 0.02, .... The sterile medium was allowed to cool at 55. 0. C, subsequently ...

  13. Efficacy of two selected plant extracts Azadirachta indica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... latitude 7o 23׀N and longitude 3o 51 ׀E Plant extracts of both Azadirachta indica and Ageratum conizoides at 50g and 100g dissolved in 100cl of water was applied to the vegetables replicated three times and laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD).

  14. Evaluation Of Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica ) Seed Meal As A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding study was conducted to assess the value of Tamarind, Tamarindus indica seed meal as dietary carbohydrate in the diets of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Tamarind seeds were used to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 % substitution levels for treatments 1 to 6. Growth trial was conducted in outdoor ...

  15. Antiplasmodial Activity of Extracts and Fractions of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica was carried out in a 4-day suppressive and 7-day curative test procedure. Six groups of animals were administered with crude extracts of 80% methanol, dichloromethane, and fractions of petroleum acetate, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol ...

  16. Effects of Mangifera indica and Casuarina equistifolia extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean survival time (mst) and haematocrit was determined following treatment of Plasmodium berghei infected mice with Casuarina equistifolia and Mangifera indica (leaf) extracts during established infection and repository test procedures. The survival time was significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent compared to the ...

  17. Genetic diversity of Tamarindus indica populations: Any clues on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have studied 10 populations using markers RAPDs with the seeds collected from Asia (India and Thailand), Africa (Burkina Faso, Senegal, Kenya and Tanzania), from three islands (Madagascar, Réunion and Guadeloupe). The results showed that T. indica has a high intra population genetic variability with a higher ...

  18. Transient expression of β-glucuronidase gene in indica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    successfully used as target tissue to develop transgenic plants expressing various traits. Earlier, optimization of various parameters for the introduction of β- glucuronidase gene into embryogenic callus cultures of indica rice variety Basmati 370 (Minhas et al., 1996) and suspension cells of Pusa Basmati 1 (Jain et al., 1996).

  19. Investigation On Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Aristolochia Indica Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure. Materials and Methods: ...

  20. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  1. The Effect of Aqueous Root Extract of Watherian Indica on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Watherian indica is a dicotyledonous shrub used in the treatment of diarrhoea in Northern Nigeria. It consists of a well-defined mixture of flavonoids, saponins, sugars, alkaloids and mucilage. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments of the aqueous extract were done. The study to determine the in vivo effect of aqueous root ...

  2. Anther culture response in indica rice and variations in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of organic adjuvants, synthetic plant hormones and diverse carbon sources in influencing anther culture response in five indica rice genotypes (IR 72, Mansarovar, Tarori Basmati, Pusa Basmati and Karnal local 95) were assessed. Androgenic callus induction as well as green plantlet regeneration was more when ...

  3. Sugar and dietary fibre components of tamarind (tamarindus indica l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarindus indica L.), a fruit tree belonging to the Ceasalpinicae family, grows naturally in many tropical and subtropical regions. It grows wild on wastelands, backyards and roadsides in the Savannah region of Nigeria. Tamarind fruit, though, has considerable industrial potential, is largely underutilised in Nigeria. Mature ...

  4. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Total ...

  5. High frequency plant regeneration from desiccated calli of indica rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and reproducible protocol is required to achieve high frequency transformation from transformed calli. We report here high frequency plant regeneration from mature seed derived embryogenic calli of two recalcitrant indica rice cultivars HKR-46 and HKR-126 after partial desiccation treatment. Embryogenic and ...

  6. Hepatoprotective studies of Coccinia indica Linn. in carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocciana indica Linn (Cucurbitaceae) is widely distributed throughout India. It was employed in ancient system of medicine as anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestant, liver tonic, and expectorant. Though it is traditionally used in jaundice and other hepatic manifestations, there are no reports on their validation and ...

  7. Genetic analysis of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Embryos excised from seeds of six generations (P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2) of a cross WH 283 × WH 533 were cultured on modified MS medium already inoculated with secondary sporidia of Neovossia indica. Significant variations for callusing response (CR) (54.55–75.55%) were observed among generations but the ...

  8. contributory pharmacological effects of azadirachta indica leaf in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three crude extracts from Azadirachta indica leaves were assessed on various signs and symptoms of infection in vivo and in vitro. The methanolic and diethylether extracts have significant antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory activities, while the chloroform extract did not show appreciable effect.

  9. Tyrosinase inhibitory mechanism of betulinic acid from Dillenia indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rajarshi; Chanda, Joydeb; Kar, Amit; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2017-10-01

    The fruit of Dillenia indica L. is extensively used as a food additive. Betulinic acid (BA) is the most prominent secondary metabolite present in D. indica. This study screened the bioassay guided isolation of BA from D. indica and explored its tyrosinase inhibitory mechanism. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of BA were calculated as 13.93µM and 25.66µM for diphenolase and monophenolase. Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed that BA inhibited tyrosinase activity non-competitively. Further, conformational analysis of tyrosinase with BA was measured by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. These results implied that diminish rigidity of enzyme might disturb the catalytic conformation of tyrosinase. Moreover, In-silico analysis confirmed probable binding polar and non-polar region on the active site of tyrosinase. Based on these findings, we suggest that BA from D. indica may be useful in preventing enzymatic browning reactions in food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica L. seeds against some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Mangifera indica L. seeds was done against 41 clinically isolated and 20 standard bacterial strains. Clinical bacterial strains were isolated from different specimens like blood, urine, catheter, stool and pus. Antibacterial activity was done by agar disc diffusion method at two different ...

  11. Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Ajit; Savita Verma; Sudha; Sahay, Nirmal; Bütehorn, Britta; Franken, Philipp

    1999-01-01

    Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems.

  12. Turbidity removal from surface water using Tamarindus indica crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. This paper examined the turbidity removal efficiency of Tamarindus indica fruit crude pulp extract (CPE) towards evaluating a low-cost option for drinking-water treatment. Laboratory analysis was carried out on high ...

  13. (Azadirachta indica) seed extract for tick control in Small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Matayo David

    This approach has had limited success and lack of sustainability (poor efficiency, poor adoption rate by the ... would result in a more sustainable livestock production in southern Africa. Azadirachta indica or ... powder (crushed with a wooden mortar and pestle) sun-dried seeds collected from ripe fruits. The control animals ...

  14. Effect of pyroligneous extract of Acacia mearnsii on Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari, Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari, Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Castro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p99 This work aimed to determine the effect of decanted pyroligneous extract (DPE of black Acacia mearnsii on the mites Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Six different concentrations were tested, namely, DPE: water 1:600, 1:300, 1:150, 1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and a control treatment with distilled water. Five females of T. urticae and N. californicus were transferred to arenas, totaling 50 females per treatment, for a period of eight days. DPE caused high mortality in N. californicus, while in T. urticae, high mortality was observed only at high (1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and intermediate (1:150 concentrations. Notably, DPE was slightly harmful to T. urticae at lower concentrations and harmful to N. californicus at all concentrations, indicating that it would have little efficacy in the control of T. urticae.

  15. Toxicity of Three Acaricides to the Predatory Mite, Neoseiulus bicaudus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Their Impact on the Functional Response to Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Yan-Nan; Li, Ting; Jiang, Jue-Ying-Qi; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2017-10-01

    The use of chemical pesticides particularly acaricides can reduce the control efficacy of natural enemies. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the toxicity of three acaricides to the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus bicaudus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) by spraying acaricides on N. bicaudus adult females and 2) to determine the effect of these acaricides on the functional response of different stages of N. bicaudus to the prey Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov & Nikolski (Acari: Tetranychidae). The results indicated that the survivability of N. bicaudus differed among the three acaricides tested. Pyridaben exhibited the highest toxicity to N. bicaudus not only because it caused higher mortality but also because it reduced the peak consumption for adults and increased the peak consumption for deutonymphs of N. bicaudus. The two other acaricides, azocyclotin and bifenazate, also slightly reduced the peak consumption, but not significantly, and the overall functional response was not different from control, untreated predatory mites. Bifenazate (143-4,300 mg a.i./liter) was relatively nontoxic to N. bicaudus (less than 10% mortality) but highly toxic to T. turkestani (more than 95% mortality). Accordingly, bifenazate is the most suitable for maintaining N. bicaudus in the field. Combining bifenazate and azocyclotin with N. bicaudus is a possible strategy for T. turkestani management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Efficacy of indigenous predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) against the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae): augmentation and conservation biological control in Israeli citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Yonatan; Gal, Shira; Argov, Yael; Domeratzky, Sylvie; Melamed, Eti; Gan-Mor, Samuel; Coll, Moshe; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The citrus rust mite (CRM), Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae) is a cosmopolitan key pest of citrus, inflicting severe economic damage if not controlled. In Israel, CRM damages all citrus cultivars. International regulation and increasing control failures of CRM led growers to seek sustainable biological control solutions such as acarine biological control agents. Laboratory studies conducted in Israel have indicated that the indigenous predator species Amblyseius swirskii, Iphiseius degenerans, Typhlodromus athiasae and Euseius scutalis (all Acari: Phytoseiidae) can potentially control CRM. Our general objective in the present study was to bridge the gap of knowledge between laboratory studies and the lack of control efficacy of these species in commercial orchards. Predator augmentation in the field showed that although predator populations increased immediately following releases they later decreased and did not affect CRM populations. When A. swirskii augmentation was combined with a series of maize pollen applications, A. swirskii populations were enhanced substantially and continuously but again CRM populations were not affected. Growth chamber studies with CRM-infested seedlings, with or without a maize pollen supplement, indicated that pollen provisioning led to population increase of E. scutalis and A. swirskii but only E. scutalis significantly lowered CRM populations. Control with E. scutalis was confirmed in the field on CRM infested seedlings with pollen provisioned by adjacent flowering Rhodes grass. While experiments in mature citrus orchard showed that pollen supplement usually increased predator populations they also indicated that other factors such as intraguild interactions and pesticide treatments should be taken into account when devising CRM biological control programs.

  17. The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) follows extracts of trails left by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmen, Tsubasa; Yano, Shuichi; Osakabe, Mh

    2010-10-01

    As it walks, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) spins a trail of silk threads, that is followed by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Starved adult female N. womersleyi followed T. urticae trails laid down by five T. urticae females but did not follow a trail of one T. urticae female, suggesting that the amount of spun threads and their chemical components should correlate positively with the number of T. urticae individuals. To examine whether chemical components of T. urticae trails are responsible for the predatory mite's trail following, we collected separate T. urticae threads from the exuviae and eggs, and then washed the threads with methanol to separate chemical components from physical attributes of the threads. Female N. womersleyi did not follow T. urticae trails that had been washed with methanol but contained physical residues, but they did follow the direction to which the methanol extracts of the T. urticae trails was applied. These results suggest that the predatory mite follows chemical, not physical, attributes of T. urticae trails.

  18. Population dynamics of Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) and its predatory mite, Neoseiulus baraki (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in two coconut growing areas in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratchige, N S; Fernando, L C P; Waidyarathne, K P; Chandrasiri, K A S

    2012-04-01

    Densities of coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) and its predatory mite, Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were monitored on coconut fruits in two coconut mite infested areas, Kalpitiya and Madurankuliya, in Sri Lanka, over a period of 3 years and were compared with local rainfall records. Significant differences in A. guerreronis densities were observed among years and months of the year. Rainfall (amount and frequency, i.e. the total number of days with rainfall of >5 mm) was not significantly correlated with the variation of A. guerreronis densities. But the drought length (i.e. the number of days without rainfall of >5 mm) significantly influenced A. guerreronis densities. Generally, peak densities of A. guerreronis were observed during February-March and June-September in both areas. The differences in the N. baraki densities were significantly different between the two areas and among the 3 years but not among months of the year. Although the amount of rainfall was not significantly correlated with the population densities of N. baraki, frequency of rainfall showed a negative significant correlation and drought length showed a positive significant correlation with the population densities. The results of this experiment indicated that the application of control methods for A. guerreronis may be more advantageous if they are carried out at the onset and during the dry seasons.

  19. Dispersal of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on High-Tunnel Bell Peppers in Presence or Absence of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, L; Smith, H A; Hoy, M A; Cave, R D

    2017-01-01

    Amblyseius swirskiiAthias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a predatory mite used to control thrips (Thysanoptera), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and broad mites (BMs) (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks, Acari: Tarsonemidae). Dispersal of A. swirskii, using the ornamental pepper "Explosive Ember" as a banker plant was evaluated for control of BMs in high-tunnel peppers. Open-canopy plants (5 weeks old) versus closed-canopy plants (10-weeks old) were used to evaluate the effect of plant connectedness in A. swirskii dispersal, in the presence (two females per plant) and absence of BMs. Plots consisted of a single central banker plant and four bell peppers extending linearly north and south. Sets of all treatments were destructively sampled 1, 4, and 7 days after releasing A. swirskii Within 24 h, A. swirskii dispersed four plants away from the banker plants (1 m), regardless of the state of the canopy. Canopy connectedness did increase the presence of A. swirskii on the crop plants. Predatory mite numbers on closed-canopy treatments doubled within the 7-day sampling period, whereas no significant increase was observed on open-canopy treatments. The presence of BMs had no significant effect on the movement of A. swirskii The results suggest further experiments with A. swirskii and banker plants for control of BMs is warranted. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. Herbivore exploits chink in armor of host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mites in the genus Raoiella Hirst are obligate plant parasites that feed via stylet-like mouthparts adapted to pierce plant tissues. A species of particular interest in this genus, the red palm mite, R. indica Hirst, is currently spreading aggressively throughout the Americas on species of palm (Ar...

  1. Effect of indica pedigree on eating and cooking quality in rice backcross inbred lines of indica and japonica crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingyu; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Qun; Xu, Zhengjin; Xu, Quan

    2017-12-01

    Amylopectin is one of the major determinants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain quality, and a large difference in amylopectin is found between two subspecies: japonica and indica. However, the relationship among rice grain quality, indica/japonica genetic background, and amylopectin has not been clearly established. In this study, a series of backcross inbred lines derived from the cross between japonica (cv. Sasanishiki) and indica (cv. Habataki) were used to survey eating and cooking quality (ECQ), rapid visco analyzer (RVA) profiles, and the chain length distribution of amylopectin. The frequency of indica pedigree (Fi) was calculated to analyze the effects of Fi on grain quality and amylopectin. The results showed that the Sasanishiki cultivar was markedly enriched in chain length with DP6-15 and DP34-45 compared to the Habataki. DP34-45 strongly correlated to RVA characteristics, cooking quality, and prolamin content. The Fi also has significant correlations to RVA characteristics and ECQ, but only significantly negative correlation to DP34-45. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) corresponding to amylopectin were mapped, of which three were in agreement with previous findings. The results of this study provide valuable information for amylopectin characteristics in the offspring derived from the subspecies cross, and the novel QTLs may provide new insights to the identification of minor starch synthesis-related genes.

  2. Response of forest soil Acari to prescribed fire following stand structure manipulation in the southern Cascade Range.Can

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Camann; Nancy E. Gillette; Karen L. Lamoncha; Sylvia R. Mori

    2008-01-01

    We studied responses of Acari, especially oribatid mites, to prescribed low-intensity fire in an east side pine site in the southern Cascade Range in California. We compared oribatid population and assemblage responses to prescribed fire in stands that had been selectively logged to enhance old growth characteristics, in logged stands to minimize old growth...

  3. A mite (Acari: Erythraeidae) as unusual parasite on an adult caddisfly (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) from the Dominican Republic (West Indies)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Bolland, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    BOTOSANEANU, L. & H.R. BOLLAND, 1997. A mite (Acari: Erythraeidae) as unusual parasite on an adult caddisfly (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) from the Dominican Republic (West Indies). Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam 1997: 71-76. First known case of a caddisfly (adult Leucotrichia

  4. Two new species of Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 from the Iberian Peninsula, with a key to European species (Acari, Gamasida, Pachylaelapidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašán, Peter; Özbek, Hasan Hüseyin; Fenďa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pachylaelaps (Pachylaelaps) pyrenaicus sp. n. and Pachylaelaps (Longipachylaelaps) brevipilis sp. n. (Acari, Pachylaelapidae) are described and illustrated based on specimens from litter and soil detritus of forest habitats in Spain (Pyrenees Mts) and Portugal (Serra da Labruja Mts), respectively. An identification key to European species of the genus Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 is provided. PMID:27551197

  5. A new species of the genus Promacrolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) associated with Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joharchi, Omid; Halliday, Bruce; Beyzavi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of mite from Iran - Pronacrolaelaps propomacrus sp. nov. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected in association with the beetle Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Euchirinae) in holes in the trunk of oak trees. The genus Promacrolaelaps is redescribed and distinguished from the related genus Hypoaspis Canestrini sells. strict.

  6. Arrenurus boruzkii, a water mite new to the Dutch fauna, with some notes on its morphology (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.

    1999-01-01

    Arrenurus boruzkii, een nieuwe watermijt voor Nederland, met opmerkingen over de morfologie (Acari: Hydrachnidia) In 1998 werd de watermijt Arrenurus boruzkii Ssujetow, 1931 voor het eerst in Nederland aangetroffen. Een vrouwtje werd verzameld in een sloot in Overijssel. De morfologische verschillen

  7. A novel disease affecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae): 2. disease transmission by adult females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütte, C.; Poitevin, O.J.L.; Negash, T.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations (=NR-population), show the following set of symptoms: predators shrink several days after mating, cease egg production and die several days after shrinking, show a lower degree of

  8. Water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from the hyporheic waters of the Selwyn River (New Zealand), with descriptions of nine new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from hyporheic waters of Selwyn River (South Island, New Zealand) are reported. One new genus, Canterburaturus Pesic & Smit n. gen. (Aturidae) and nine new species are described: Taintaturus selwynus Pesic & Smit n. sp., T. rostratus Pesic &

  9. A new genus and species of larval mite (Acari: Prostigmata: Microtrombidiidae) parasitising Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae) from the Sierra Nevada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Jaime G; Barranco, Pablo

    2012-09-01

    Nevada capileirarum n. g., n. sp. (Acari: Microtrombidiidae: Microtrombidiinae) is described from ectoparasitic larvae parasitising two endemic species of Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae), Baetica ustulata (Rambur) and Pycnogaster inermis (Rambur) from the Sierra Nevada mountain range, Granada, Spain. A key to the larvae of microtrombidiine genera with three dorsal scuta and a coxal setal formula of 2-1-1 is presented.

  10. Water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Thailand, part II. The genus Monatractides K.Viets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2009-01-01

    New records of water mites of the genus Monatractides K.Viets (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Torrenticolidae) from streams in Thailand are presented. One species, Monatractides gledhilli, new to science is described; a first description of the male is given for M. circuloides (Halík); first records from

  11. A phytoseiid predator from the tropics as potential biological control agent for the spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, H.; Janssen, A.; Pallini, A.; Venzon, M.; Fadini, M.; Duarte, V.

    2007-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is one of the most important pests of many crops in temperate and tropical climates. Chemical control is the main method of combating this mite, but it is less preferred due to the development of resistance as well as

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi (Arthropoda: Arachnida) provides insights into Acari phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited available sequence information has greatly impeded population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics studies in the subclass Acari (mites and ticks). Mitochondrial (mt) DNA is well known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mt genomic data have been lacking for many Acari species. Herein, we present the complete mt genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Methods P. cuniculi was collected from a naturally infected New Zealand white rabbit from China and identified by morphological criteria. The complete mt genome of P. cuniculi was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The relationships of this scab mite with selected members of the Acari were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP). Results This mt genome (14,247 bp) is circular and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 22 genes for tRNA, 2 genes for rRNA. The gene arrangement in mt genome of P. cuniculi is the same as those of Dermatophagoides farinae (Pyroglyphidae) and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Acaridae), but distinct from those of Steganacarus magnus (Steganacaridae) and Panonychus citri (Tetranychidae). Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (BI, ML and MP), showed the division of subclass Acari into two superorders, supported the monophylies of the both superorders Parasitiformes and Acariformes; and the three orders Ixodida and Mesostigmata and Astigmata, but rejected the monophyly of the order Prostigmata. Conclusions The mt genome of P. cuniculi represents the first mt genome of any member of the family Psoroptidae. Analysis of mt genome sequences in the present study has provided new insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of Acari species. PMID:25052180

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi (Arthropoda: Arachnida) provides insights into Acari phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Liu, Tian-Yu; Yang, Guang-You; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-07-22

    Limited available sequence information has greatly impeded population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics studies in the subclass Acari (mites and ticks). Mitochondrial (mt) DNA is well known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mt genomic data have been lacking for many Acari species. Herein, we present the complete mt genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi. P. cuniculi was collected from a naturally infected New Zealand white rabbit from China and identified by morphological criteria. The complete mt genome of P. cuniculi was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The relationships of this scab mite with selected members of the Acari were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP). This mt genome (14,247 bp) is circular and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 22 genes for tRNA, 2 genes for rRNA. The gene arrangement in mt genome of P. cuniculi is the same as those of Dermatophagoides farinae (Pyroglyphidae) and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Acaridae), but distinct from those of Steganacarus magnus (Steganacaridae) and Panonychus citri (Tetranychidae). Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (BI, ML and MP), showed the division of subclass Acari into two superorders, supported the monophylies of the both superorders Parasitiformes and Acariformes; and the three orders Ixodida and Mesostigmata and Astigmata, but rejected the monophyly of the order Prostigmata. The mt genome of P. cuniculi represents the first mt genome of any member of the family Psoroptidae. Analysis of mt genome sequences in the present study has provided new insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of Acari species.

  14. New and little known species of Halolaelaps (Acari: Mesostigmata: Halolaelapidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A

    2016-08-23

    A new species of the family Halolaelapidae (Acari: Mesostigmata), Halolaelaps euxinus sp. nov. is described from Black Sea coast. Adult mites were found in seaweed, while deutonymphs were collected from the amphipod Talorchestia deshayesii and from seaweed. The adult female of Halolaelaps saproincisus Hirschmann & Götz, 1968 is recorded in new localities of Ukraine for the first time, in soil and bird faeces in chicken coops, and new morphological information is provided. The adult male (collected from chicken coops) and the deutonymph (collected from chicken coops and on dung-beetles) of H. saproincisus are described for the first time.

  15. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  16. A new species of Rhipicephalus (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of giraffes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Ivan G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Kariuki, Edward K

    2013-07-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), namely, Rhipicephalus walkerae n. sp., is described. The male and female of this species are similar to those of several species in the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus group but can be distinguished from them by the very dense pattern of medium-sized punctations covering the conscutum and scutum, long and narrow dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plate, and relatively short dorsal cornua; in addition, the male has long and narrow adanal plates without a posterolateral angle. R. walkerae is known only from Kenya, where the adults were collected from giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.).

  17. The oribatid mite subgenus Galumna (Galumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Ermilov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Five species of the subgenus Galumna (Galumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae are registered in the Philippine oribatid mite fauna. A new species, G. (G. makilingensis sp. n., is described; it is most similar morphologically to G. (G. tokyoensis Aoki, 1966, but differs from the latter by the morphology of porose areas Aa and Ap, rostral setae, and length of interlamellar setae. Three species, G. (G. crenata Deb & Raychaudhuri, 1975, G. (G. cf. exigua Sellnick, 1925 and G. (G. khoii Mahunka, 1989, are recorded in the Philippines for the first time. The species G. (G. crenata is redescribed. An identification key to the Philippine species of Galumna (Galumna is given.

  18. New taxa of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from African barbets and woodpeckers (Piciformes: Lybiidae, Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorack, Maciej; Klimovičová, Miroslava; Muchai, Muchane; Hromada, Martin

    2014-02-25

    New taxa of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) are described from African barbets and woodpeckers in the Ethiopian region. A new monotypic genus Picineoaulonastus gen. nov. is established for a new species Picineoaulonastus pogoniulus sp. nov., parasitising 2 lybiid species, Pogoniulus bilineatus (Sundevall) (type host) in Kenya and Tanzania and P. pusillus (Dumont) (Piciformes: Lybiidae) in Ethiopia. Additionally, 2 more new syringophilid species are described: Neosyringophilopsis lybidus sp. nov. from P. bilineatus in Kenya, and Syringophiloidus picidus sp. nov. from Dendropicos fuscescens (Vieillot) (Piciformes: Picidae) in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

  19. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  20. New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade

    2016-03-03

    Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively.

  1. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from springs and running waters in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pešić V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with interesting new records of water mites (Acari; Hydrachnidia) from springs and running waters of the Kožuf and Alšar Mountains (Southern Macedonia). In the paper 12 new species are added to the list of water mites known from Macedonia, and one of them is recorded for the first time for the water mite fauna of the Balkan Peninsula. The water mite fauna of Macedonia is thus represented by 154 species, belonging to 45 genera. Slide-mounted specimens and material pre­s...

  2. Azadirachta indica: A herbal panacea in dentistry – An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, T.; Krishnan, Vidya; Rajendran, R; Madhusudhanan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem, is an evergreen tree. Since time immemorial it has been used by Indian people for treatment of various diseases due to its medicinal properties. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-helminthic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, astringent, anti-viral, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity. Neem bark is used as an active ingredient in a number of toothpastes and toothpowders. Neem bark has anti-bacterial properties, it is quite useful in dentistry for curing gingival problems and maintaining oral health in a natural way. Neem twigs are used as oral deodorant, toothache reliever and for cleaning of teeth. The objective of this article is to focus on the various aspects of Azadirachta indica in dentistry in order to provide a tool for future research. PMID:26009692

  3. Azadirachta indica: A herbal panacea in dentistry - An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, T; Krishnan, Vidya; Rajendran, R; Madhusudhanan, N

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem, is an evergreen tree. Since time immemorial it has been used by Indian people for treatment of various diseases due to its medicinal properties. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-helminthic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, astringent, anti-viral, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity. Neem bark is used as an active ingredient in a number of toothpastes and toothpowders. Neem bark has anti-bacterial properties, it is quite useful in dentistry for curing gingival problems and maintaining oral health in a natural way. Neem twigs are used as oral deodorant, toothache reliever and for cleaning of teeth. The objective of this article is to focus on the various aspects of Azadirachta indica in dentistry in order to provide a tool for future research.

  4. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Leea indica: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drug therapy is the most trusted system of medicine in countries like India, where people strongly believe in Ayurveda as herbs are the part of rural Indian lifestyle. Most of the diseases which have no medicine in allopathic system can be cured successfully by using traditional medicines. Leea indica, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant is the sole member of the family Leeaceae, which is closely related to the economically important grape family, Vitaceae. It is widely distributed from Southern Asia to Northern Oceania. The plant parts are enriched with various bioactive compounds such as gallic acid, quercitrin, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol and lupeol, etc. Traditionally, it is used to treat itchy skin, fever, diarrhea, and body aches. The current review attempts to encompass the available literature on Leea indica with respect to its phytochemistry, traditional uses and gist of its various pharmacological activities.

  5. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  6. Perbandingan Aktivitas Antioksidan Campuran Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica dan C.asiatica terhadap Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemas R Notariza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radikal bebas, dalam kadar rendah atau menengah, mempunyai peran fisiologis bagi kehidupan sel tubuh. Pada konsentrasi tinggi, radikal-bebas dapat memicu stres oksidatif yang menjadi dasar patogenesis berbagai penyakit. Suplai antioksidan eksogen dibutuhkan untuk membantu kinerja antioksidan endogen dalam menangkal stres oksidatif. Ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica masing-masing diketahui memiliki aktivitas antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica terhadap ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica. Kombinasi ekstrak diharapkan mampu meningkatkan aktivitas antioksidan yang dihasilkan dan menurunkan dosis yang digunakan. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak diukur dengan metode spektrofotometri melalui uji DPPH. Kandungan fitokimia ekstrak juga diuji secara kualitatif. Hasil uji kualitatif menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica maupun campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica positif mengandung fitokimia berupa flavonoid dan steroid. Hasil pengukuran aktivitas antioksidan menunjukkan bahwa Vitamin C yang menjadi kontrol positif menunjukkan nilai EC50 sebesar 0,012 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica adalah 13,68 mg/mL, sedangkan nilai EC50 campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica adalah 39,65 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 yang lebih kecil mengindikasikan aktivitas antioksidan yang lebih tinggi. Dengan demikian, aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica.   Kata kunci: Acalypha indica; aktivitas antioksidan; Centella asiatica Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) use and conservation in Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebifa-Othieno, Esther; Mugisha, Antony; Nyeko, Philip; Kabasa, John David

    2017-01-21

    Tamarindus indica L is one of the indigenous fruit tree species that traditionally contributes to food security and ecosystem stability in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that the indigenous people of Eastern Uganda have used T. indica for generations and developed practices that promote its conservation and therefore we expected that they possess an elaborate indigenous knowledge (IK) system and that most of them have planted the species. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of IK, attitudes and practices on the use and conservation of T. indica. A cross sectional survey was conducted in two districts purposively selected from the T. indica natural range. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi-structured interviews and observation were used to collect data. Data was processed using qualitative analytical methods. Tamarindus indica was highly valued by the majority of the population. Tamarindus indica was used for food, medicinal, cultural, social, environmental amelioration and income generation purposes. The population possessed a high level of IK about T. indica evidenced by 18 categories of uses and multiple modes of use. Fruit pulp was the most commonly used tamarind product. Relative frequency of citation of the different uses provides insight into usage levels and IK possessed. The communities' food and medicinal uses concurred with scientific reports of health benefits of consuming T. indica. Approximately half of respondents had T. indica on their compounds or homegardens (53%). Fifty two percent of the tamarind population was self-propagated, 45% were planted while the propagation history for the remaining 3% was not known. Constraints towards planting T. indica included limited land, long maturation period and low monetary value. Fifty three percent of those who were growing T. indica did not carry out any silvicultural practices. The majority of T. indica encountered (87%) was intercropped with other crops or trees

  8. Azadirachta indica : A herbal panacea in dentistry - An update

    OpenAIRE

    T Lakshmi; Vidya Krishnan; R Rajendran; N Madhusudhanan

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem, is an evergreen tree. Since time immemorial it has been used by Indian people for treatment of various diseases due to its medicinal properties. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-helminthic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, astringent, anti-viral, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity. Neem bark is used as an act...

  9. Ethnomedicine: Applications of Neem (Azadirachta indica) in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kaushik; Renu Tanwar; Monika Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Ethnomedicine is the study of traditional medicines having relevant written sources (Ayurveda, traditional Chinese Medicine) as well as those whose knowledge and practices have been orally transmitted over the centuries. The Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) has been known as the wonder tree for centuries in the Indian subcontinent. It has become important in the global context today because it offers solutions to the multiple concerns faced by mankind. Each part of the Neem tree has some medici...

  10. Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Seed Oils On Alloxan-Induced Diabetes In New Zealand White Rabbits. ... The whole neem seed oil had an acid value of 4.56 0.11, saponification value of 191.25 0.84, a pH of 4.85 0.15, a refractive index of 1.4653 at 29oC, a density of 0.9048 ...

  11. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Eric M. Rivera-Muñoz; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosph...

  12. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem, margosa. Meliaceae. Mahogany family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Parrotta; A. N. Chaturvedi

    1994-01-01

    AzadirachJa indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem in English and Hindi and margosa and paraiso de India in Spanish, is a medium-sized to large tree characterized by its short, straight bole, furrowed, dark-brown to gray bark. and dense, rounded crown of pinnate leaves. Native to south Asia, neem is widely planted and naturalized in semiarid areas throughout Asia and...

  13. Cancer chemopreventive activity of compounds isolated from Waltheria indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteillier, Aymeric; Cretton, Sylvian; Ciclet, Olivier; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Christen, Philippe; Cuendet, Muriel

    2017-05-05

    Waltheria indica L. is traditionally used in several countries against inflammatory related diseases and cancer, mainly as a decoction of the aerial parts. The transcription factor NF-κB is known to induce tumor promotion and progression and is considered a major player in inflammation-driven cancers. Therefore, inhibitors of this pathway possess cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. This study aimed first to confirm the use of Waltheria indica as a traditional anti-inflammatory remedy by assessing the NF-κB inhibitory activity and then to identify the major bioactive compounds. The isolated compounds were also tested for their QR inducing property, a complementary strategy in cancer chemoprevention able to target tumor initiation. Finally, the relevance of in vitro results was examined by investigating the occurrence of the active compounds in traditional preparations. Compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts using flash chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. NF-κB inhibitory activity of pure compounds from Waltheria indica was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay in HEK293 cells. Their QR inducing activity was also assessed in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Twenty-nine compounds, of which 5 are new, were obtained from the dichloromethane extract and tested for their cancer chemoprevention activity. Eleven compounds inhibited NF-κB and/or induced QR in the low to mid µM range. Chrysosplenol E (20) was active in both tests. Two of the most potent NF-κB inhibitors, waltherione A (4) and waltherione C (5), as well as 20 were found in the traditional decoction, in which 4 and 5 were major compounds. The presence of potent NF-κB inhibitors and QR inducing compounds in the decoction of the aerial parts of Waltheria indica supports its traditional use in inflammatory-related diseases and cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Piriformospora indica requires kaurene synthase activity for successful plant colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Chen, Xi; Ma, Chaoyang; Wu, Hongqing; Qi, Shuting

    2016-05-01

    Ent-kaurene (KS) synthases and ent-kaurene-like (KSL) synthases are involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins and/or gibberellins which play a role in plant immunity and development. The relationship between expression of five synthase genes (HvKSL1, HvKS2, HvKS4, HvKS5, HvKSL4) and plant colonization by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica was assessed in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The KS gene family is differently up-regulated at 1, 3 and 7 day after P. indica inoculation. By comparison, the HvKSL4 gene expression pattern is more significantly affected by UV irradiation and P. indica colonization. The characterizations of two silencing lines (HvKSL1-RNAi, HvKSL4-RNAi) also were analyzed. HvKSL1-RNAi and HvKSL4-RNAi lines in the first generation lead to less dark green leaves and slower plant development. Further, reduced spikelet fertility in progenies of RNAi plants heterozygous for HvKSL1 were observed, but not for HvKSL4. T2 generation of HvKSL1-RNAi line showed semi-dwarf phenotype while the wild type phenotype could be restored by applying GA3. Silencing of HvKSL4 and HvKSL1 resulted in reduced colonization by P. indica especially in the HvKSL1-RNAi line. These results probably suggest the presence of two ent-KS synthase in barley, one (HvKSL1) that participates in the biosynthesis of GAs and another (HvKSL4) that is involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Anticancer biology of Azadirachta indica L (neem): a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajkumar; Prasad, Murari; Sah, Nand K

    2011-09-15

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), a member of the Meliaceae family, is a fast growing tropical evergreen tree with a highly branched and stout, solid stem. Because of its tremendous therapeutic, domestic, agricultural and ethnomedicinal significance, and its proximity with human culture and civilization, neem has been called "the wonder tree" and "nature's drug store." All parts of this tree, particularly the leaves, bark, seed-oil and their purified products are widely used for treatment of cancer. Over 60 different types of biochemicals including terpenoids and steroids have been purified from this plant. Pre-clinical research work done during the last decade has fine-tuned our understanding of the anticancer properties of the crude and purified products from this plant. The anticancer properties of the plant have been studied largely in terms of its preventive, protective, tumor-suppressive, immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects against various types of cancer and their molecular mechanisms. This review aims at scanning scattered literature on "the anticancer biology of A. indica," related toxicity problems and future perspectives. The cogent data on the anticancer biology of products from A. indica deserve multi-institutional clinical trials as early as possible. The prospects of relatively cheaper cancer drugs could then be brighter, particularly for the under-privileged cancer patients of the world.

  16. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Kodlady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2. The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  17. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica. PMID:22536394

  18. Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp; Waller, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development.

  19. Ethylene supports colonization of plant roots by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica.

  20. Ethylene supports colonization of plant roots by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Khatabi

    Full Text Available The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica.

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sudha Madhuri; Rajalakshmi Mohanvelu; S. Ramabhimaiah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mangifera indica (MI) commonly known as mango belongs to the family anacardiaceae, distributed in rural and semi urban parts of India. According to Ayurveda, various medical properties are attributed to different parts of the mango tree. The purpose of the study was to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves. Methods: Aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves was prepared and tested for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats weighin...

  2. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcrip...

  3. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Neeraja M; Pattnaik, Swetansu; Jain, Prachi; Gaur, Prakhar; Choudhary, Rakshit; Vaidyanathan, Srividya; Deepak, Sa; Hariharan, Arun K; Krishna, Pg Bharath; Nair, Jayalakshmi; Varghese, Linu; Valivarthi, Naveen K; Dhas, Kunal; Ramaswamy, Krishna; Panda, Binay

    2012-09-09

    The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  4. Hepatoprotective flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica fruits by reducing oxidative stress in primary rat hepatocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jung Kim; Tae Kim; Hyun Kim; Sang Park; Hong Kim; Sang Sung

    2017-01-01

    .... Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. Objective...

  5. Endophytic life strategies decoded by genome and transcriptome analyses of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Güldener, Ulrich; Langen, Gregor; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Wong, Philip; Samans, Birgit; Grimm, Carolin; Basiewicz, Magdalena; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    .... Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism...

  6. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Suganya, H; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in Swiss albino mice. Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score in Swiss albino mice. The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea in Southern parts of India. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Parvizi, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    Interest in Tatera indica rodent arises mostly because it is believed that this species is survived among four subspecies reported from Iran, two of which exist in Khuzestan Province. In addition, it might has a role as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the transmission of Leishmania major in some of the widespread Asian foci including southwestern Iran. Diagnostic morphological and molecular markers for T. indica were sought by characterizing from individual specimens, such as some taxonomic features and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that had previously proven useful for the taxonomy of rodents. Wild rodents were caught using live wooden and wire traps. The specimens were identified morphologically using external criteria and molecularly by sequencing of Cyt b gene and phylogenetic analyses. Forty one T. indica were collected and identified morphologically in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Two morphotypes of T. indica were found and classified but sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial Cyt b gene did not support any subspecies between two morphotypes of T. indica. Because all 21 sequences of both morphotypes of T. indica had no variation with only one common and novel haplotype (GenBank accession No KP001566). This is the first time that T. indica was characterized molecularly in Iran. There is no molecular evidence for T. indica morphotypes or subspecies, and so a population genetics approach using several polymorphic genes might be employed using species-specific molecular markers. In addition, more specimens of T. indica species in large geographical locations should be tested.

  8. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) in laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Pimentel, G C; Reis, P R; Bonatto, C R; Alves, J P; Siqueira, M F

    2016-07-11

    Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro) in mean generation time (T), which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ) and doubled every 3.7 days (TD).

  9. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  10. Repellent efficacy of DEET, Icaridin, and EBAAP against Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari, Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Kerstin; Bendin, Juliane; Gharbi, Amina; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle; Dautel, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Repellent efficacy of 10% EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester) and 10% Icaridin ((2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester)) were evaluated against 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) in human subject trials against ticks. Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the European castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus L.; Acari: Ixodidae) and the North American blacklegged tick (I. scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) were compared. Tests were carried out according to the US-EPA standard protocol with ethanolic solutions of the active ingredients of repellents being applied to the forearm of 10 volunteers. The upward movement of ticks was monitored until repellent failure taking up to 12.5 h. Application of 20% DEET resulted in median complete protection times (CPT; Kaplan-Meier median) between 4 and 4.5 h, while 10% EBAAP yielded CPTs of 3.5-4h. No significant differences were found between the efficacies of two repellents nor between the two species tested. The median of the CPT of a 10% Icaridin solution was 5h in nymphs of I. scapularis, but 8h in those of I. ricinus (PIxodes ticks with Icaridin demonstrating particularly promising results against I. ricinus. Future research should investigate whether similar results occur when adult Ixodes ticks or other tick species are tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Insights Into the Evolution of Chemoreceptor Genes Superfamily in Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, S X; Li, H P; Ma, L; Song, J D

    2016-07-01

    All living organisms, including animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria, use the olfactory system to recognize chemicals or pheromone from their environment. Insects detect a volatile substance using odorant receptors (ORs) or gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). The gene families of the olfactory system in Acari are still not clear. In this study, we identified seven ORs, one GR, and five IRs from the transcriptome of the storage mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Schrank. No olfactory coreceptor was found in this transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis of these gene families with other Arthropoda species revealed the conservation of carbon dioxide receptors in all tested flying insects and T. putrescentiae Most of these ORs and GRs were unique to three mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae Giles, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Aedes aegypti L.), Ixodes scapularis Say and Pediculus humanus L., indicating their involvement in specific aspects of both gustatory and olfactory perception. Some clades contained receptors obtained from all tested insect vector species, indicating a degree of conservation among some vector-dependent OR lineages. IRs family was a highly dynamic and independent original of the chemoreceptor genes subfamily. Our findings would make it possible for future research on the chemosensory recognition mechanism in Acari. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Oxidative enzymes in coconut cultivars in response to Raoiella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usuario

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... 4Department of Civil Engineering, Catholic University of Murcia, 30107 Murcia, Spain. 5Instituto de Ciencias Químicas Aplicadas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, 7500138. Santiago, Chile. 6Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. Technical University of Ambato, 180104 Ambato, Ecuador.

  13. Infestação de Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae em sapos Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: novo registro de hospedeiro Infestation of Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae ticks on Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: new host record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Woehl Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 toad population (N = 125 foraging in lighted areas in the Corupá Municipality, Santa Catarina State, was surveyed to evaluate the prevalence (percentage of infestation and the mean infestation intensity of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae ticks. The prevalence was of 19.2% and the mean infestation intensity was 7.4 ticks per infested toad. For the first time B. ictericus as host of A. rotundatum is reported.

  14. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Dillenia indica (L. leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Dillenia indica methanolic leaves extracts in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats by administering graded oral doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. The extract showed significant antidiabetic activity (pRealizou-se o presente estudo para avaliar os efeitos antidiabético e anti-hiperlipidêmico de extratos metanólicos de folhas de Dillenia indica em ratos wistar com diabetes induzido por estreptozotocina por meio da administração de doses orais (250 e 500 mg/kg de peso corporal por 21 dias. O extrato mostrou atividade antidiabética significativa (p<0,001. Além disso, a diminuição do peso corporal dos ratos foi significativamente melhorada após o tratamento com os extratos. O tratamento com doses orais do extrato por 21 dias aos ratos diabéticos também resultou em redução significativa do colesterol, triglicerídios e níveis de transaminase séricos, mas o nível de HDL-colesterol foi melhorado (p<0,001, quando comparado ao grupo controle diabético. O tratamento com extrato também mostrou aumento do nível sérico de insulina em ratos diabéticos comparativamente ao grupo controle diabético. Em conclusão, o extrato de folha de D. indica poderia ser útil para o controle do diabetes mellitus e de outras anormalidades associadas a essa disfunção metabólica.

  15. Neem (Azadirachta indica): prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Venugopalan Santhosh; Navaratnam, Visweswaran

    2013-07-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  16. Identification and antifeedant activities of limonoids from Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jie-Qing; Wang, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jin-Xiong; Chen, Jian-Chao; Chen, Li; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Four new limonoids, azadiraindins A-D (1-4, resp.), together with seven known analogs, were isolated from the MeOH extract of Azadirachta indica. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses, and the relative configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The compounds isolated in comparatively large amount were evaluated for their antifeedant activities against Plutella xylostella; the antifeedant rate of 10 was 90.6% and the corrected mortality of 8 was 79.2%. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most. Nazma Parvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1, betulinaldehyde (2, betulinic acid (3 and stigmasterol (4 were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4 were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid.

  18. Photooxygenation of Nimonol, a Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kasinath

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Nimonol (1, a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae, upon photolysis undergoes both Diels-Alder and ene reactions with singlet oxygen at different sites leading to 14,15,20,21-diepoxy-23-nimonolactone (3, along with nimonolide (4, which have been well-characterised. The novelty of the reported reactions lies in hitherto unreported formation of an α-epoxide in the ring D in tetranortriterpenoids. The photoproduct 4 exhibited antifeedancy comparable to that of azadirachtin-A, the most potent antifeedant constituent isolated from neem.

  19. Protective potential of Tamarindus indica against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Naveed; Azam Khan, Mir; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-01-13

    Abstract Context: Gentamicin is an antibiotic that is effective against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, its clinical applications are often limited due to nephrotoxic effects. Objective: This study investigated the protective effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae) fruits against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity. Materials and methods: A daily dose of 200 mg/kg of 70% aqueous-ethanol extract derived from T. indica was employed in male rabbits as a co-therapy with gentamicin (80 mg/kg) for a period of three weeks. Serum and urinary renal function parameters and histological assessments were carried out and compared with one way analysis of variance (Graphpad prism version 5.00, Graphpad Software, San Diego, CA). Results: The results showed that gentamicin-treated animals had significantly elevated blood urea nitrogen (54.1 ± 2.6 mg/dl), serum creatinine (4.0 ± 0.1 mg/dl), serum uric acid (2.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl) and urinary protein excretion (3.8 ± 0.3 mg/dl) with a fall in body weight (10 ± 1%), creatinine clearance (0.7 ± 0.09 ml/min), serum potassium (3.4 ± 0.1 mEq/l), serum calcium (7.6 ± 0.2 mg/dl), urinary volume (126 ± 9 ml/24 h) and urinary lactate dehydrogenase secretion (103.1 ± 4.2 U/l). However, animals treated by co-therapy with gentamicin and T. indica had significantly improved renal structure and function. Discussion and conclusion: Co-therapy of 200 mg/kg/d of T. indica for a period of three weeks successfully prevented functional and morphological derangements caused by gentamicin as assessed by different renal function parameters and histological examinations.

  20. Effects of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACADEMIC

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Accepted 30 June, 2009. The neem tree Azadirachta indica Juss (Meliaceae) is one of the most studied plant species for pest ... Key words: Azadirachta indica, Culex quinquefasciatus, insecticide plant, instars, mosquitoes. INTRODUCTION .... These data indicate a greater susceptibility of larvae at the 2nd ...

  1. Evaluation of hepatoprotective potential of Erythrina indica leaves against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Mohd; Hussain, Talib; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Hussain, Arshad

    Erythrina indica Lam. traditionally used in the treatment of laxative, diuretic, worm infestation, liver ailment and joints pain. To evaluate the antihepatotoxic potential of Erythrina indica against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced by antitubercular drugs (INH+ RIF) at dose level of 50 mg/kg each, p.o for 28 days. 50% methanolic extract of Erythrina indica (100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally once daily for 28 days. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin, total protein, albumin and LDH. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as SOD, CAT, GSH and, LPO were measured in liver homogenate also histological examinations were carried out to assess hepatoprotective activity. The values were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey multiple compare test. Results were considered statistically significant when P indica (E. indica) significantly prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, Erythrina indica significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation (P indica attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis, regeneration and repair of cells toward normal. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of Erythrina indica against liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and there by scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the ethanol extract of Waltheria indica on parasitaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of Waltheria indica on parasitaemia as well as glucose level of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Waltheria indica dose and time dependently inhibited parasitaemia and extended the life span of the treated rats from 8.5 days ...

  3. Antioxidant enzymes in chickpea colonized by Piriformospora indica participate in defense against the pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Om Prakash; Verma, Nidhi; Singh, Alok Kumar; Oelmüller, Ralf; Kumar, Manoj; Prasad, Durga; Kapoor, Rupam; Dua, Meenakshi; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2017-10-19

    Piriformospora indica, a root endophytic fungus, promotes growth of the economically important chickpea plant (Cicer arietinum Linn.) and protects it against the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Biomass and root development were found to be significantly improved in chickpea plants colonized with P. indica as compared to the plants grown without P. indica as well as from the plants infected with the B. cinerea. Our PCR analyses showed that gradual increase in the colonization of P. indica in the plants result in the inhibition of the colonization of B. cinerea. P. indica colonized plants showed increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Interestingly, there were pronounced decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities in shoots infected with B. cinerea and colonized with P. indica in alternate and simultaneous mode as compared to plants infected with B. cinerea alone. We conclude that P. indica helps plants to overcome the disease load by enhancing antioxidant enzyme defense system. Our data suggest that, bio-protective action of P. indica might be mediated via systemic induction of antioxidant defense in the host plants.

  4. A new species and new host records of the quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with sunbirds (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimovičová, Miroslava; Smoľák, Radoslav; Njoroge, Peter; Hromada, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Neoaulonastus cinnyris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitising Cinnyris mediocris (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from Tanzania is described. Additionally, Picobia oritis Skoracki et al. 2009 was recorded on four new hosts belonging to the family Nectariniidae from Ethiopian region: Cinnyris oustaleti (Bocage) from Angola, Cinnyris venustus (Shaw) from West Somalia, Cinnyris talatala Smith from Botswana and Zambia and Cinnyris erythrocercus (Hartlaub) from Uganda. All known quill mite species from family Nectariniidae are summarized in table.

  5. A new genus and species of Discozerconidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in New Zealand .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Owen D; Baker, Michelle R

    2013-12-18

    Berzercon ferdinandi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Acari: Mesostigmata: Discozerconidae) is described from carabid beetles in New Zealand. As in all Discozerconidae, Berzercon has large ventrally-directed opisthogastric suckers. However it is distinctive in its long marginal setae, tripartite gnathotectum, fused palp tibia and tarsus, the female's large dome-shaped genital shield and the male's highly modified hypostomal seta h1. This new species also represents the first Heterozerconina from an insect host. 

  6. A new species of the genus Halolaelaps Berlese & Trouessart, 1889 (Acari, Gamasida, Halolaelapidae from the Spanish mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrnsberger, R.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The new species Halolaelaps (Saprogamasellus hispanicus sp. nov. of Halolaelapidae mites (Acari, Gamasida is described and determination keys to the males and females of the subgenus Saprogamasellus are given.Se describe una nueva especie de ácaro de la familia Halolaelapidae, Halolaelaps (Saprogamasellus hispanicus sp. nov., y se proporcionan claves de identificación de machos y hembras del subgénero Saprogamasellus.

  7. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Kai Zhang; Ya-Ting Chen; Kun Yang; Ge-Xia Qiao; Xiao-Yue Hong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts? biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested speci...

  8. Two new quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) parasitising the tapaculos (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Bozena; Kaszewska, Katarzyna; Skoracki, Maciej

    2014-12-16

    Two new species of syringophilid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with passeriform birds of the family Rhinocryptidae in South America are described: Syringophiloidus teledromas sp. nov. from Teledromas fuscus (Sclater and Salvin) in Argentina and Aulonastus pteroptochos sp. nov. from Pteroptochos tarnii (King) in Chile. The genus Aulonastus Kethley, 1970 is recorded from the tapaculos for the first time, and the new species of Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 described here is the second record of this genus on rhinocryptid birds.

  9. In vitro plant development and root colonization of Coleus forskohlii by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparajita; Tripathi, Swati; Varma, Ajit

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted for optimization of in vitro substrates under aseptic conditions for interaction of Piriformospora indica with the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. It aims to test the effects of different substrates on P. indica colonization as well as growth parameters of the in vitro raised C. forskohlii. Interaction of in vitro C. forskohlii with root endophyte P. indica under aseptic condition resulted in increase in growth parameters in fungus colonized plants. It was observed that P. indica promoted the plant's growth in all irrespective of substrates used for co-culture study. The growth was found inferior in liquid compared to semisolid medium as well as there was problem of hyperhydricity in liquid medium. P. indica treated in vitro plantlets were better adapted for establishment under green house compared to the non treated plants due to fungal intervention.

  10. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L. Preformulation of tablets from Tamarindus indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen interacciones que afecten el color, el olor ni la concentración de polifenoles en las mezclas binarias extracto blando de tamarindo-excipientes a 30 ºC, y a temperaturas mayores se reduce la cantidad de polifenoles en las mezclas. La formulación preliminar número tres produce tabletas de calidad tecnológica y resulta adecuada para los subsecuentes estudios de formulación y optimización de tabletas de tamarindo.A pre-formulation study for tablet preparation using soft extract from Tamarindus indica L. leaves was conducted. Possible interactions in binary mixtures of Tamarindus indica L. soft extract and selected excipients in a 1:3 ratio, which may affect the amount of polyphenols in the mixture at 30°, 45° and 60 °C temperatures, were analyzed. Three preliminary tablet formulations were designed and then the quality of granules and tables were researched in all the cases. It was concluded that there were no interactions affecting the color, the smell and the polyphenol concentration in the evaluated binary mixtures at 30°. At higher temperatures, the amount of polyphenols decreased. Pre-formulation number 3 yielded the best technological quality in tablet production and thus can be used for future formulation and optimization studies of Tamarind tables.

  11. Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important Acari: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc

    2010-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the economically most important pests in a wide range of outdoor and protected crops worldwide. Its control has been and still is largely based on the use of insecticides and acaricides. However, due to its short life cycle, abundant progeny and arrhenotokous reproduction, it is able to develop resistance to these compounds very rapidly. As a consequence, it has the dubious reputation to be the"most resistant species" in terms of the total number of pesticides to which populations have become resistant, and its control has become problematic in many areas worldwide. Insecticide and acaricide resistance has also been reported in the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, the causative organism of scabies, and other economically important Acari, such as the Southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, one of the biggest arthropod threats to livestock, and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, a major economic burden for beekeepers worldwide. Although resistance research in Acari has not kept pace with that in insects, a number of studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistant phenotype has been conducted recently. In this review, state-of-the-art information on T. urticae resistance, supplemented with data on other important Acari has been brought together. Considerable attention is given to the underlying resistance mechanisms that have been elucidated at the molecular level. The incidence of bifenazate resistance in T. urticae is expanded as an insecticide resistance evolutionary paradigm in arthropods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  13. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Neeraja M; Jain, Prachi; Gupta, Saurabh; Hariharan, Arun K; Panda, Binay

    2016-07-07

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0) yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0). The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome. Copyright © 2016 Krishnan et al.

  14. Azadirachta indica attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Othman, Mohamed S; Aref, Ahmed M

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt) on cisplatin- (CP-) induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i) as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii) as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii) as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), (iv) as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v) as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.

  15. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt on cisplatin- (CP- induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO, (iv as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.

  16. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  17. Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development.

  18. Tn5 transposase-assisted transformation of indica rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Du, Hongwei; Liao, Xuewei; Zhao, Yu; Li, Liguan; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-10-01

    Here, we describe experiments on Tn5 transposase-assisted transformation of indica rice. Transposomes were formed in vitro as a result of hyperactive Tn5 transposase complexing with a transposon that contained a 19-bp tetracycline operator (tetO) sequence. To form modified projectiles for transformation, the Tn10-derived prokaryotic tetracycline repressor (TetR) proteins, which can bind transposomes via the high affinity of TetR for tetO, were immobilized onto the surface of bare gold microscopic particles. These projectiles were introduced into cells of the indica rice cultivar Zhuxian B by particle bombardment. Once projectiles were inside the cell, tetracycline induced an allosteric conformational change in TetR that resulted in the dissociation of TetR from tetO, and thus generated free transposomes. Molecular evidence of transposition was obtained by the cloning of insertion sites from many transgenic plants. We also demonstrated that the introduced foreign DNA was inherited stably over several generations. This technique is a promising transformation method for other plant species as it is species independent. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-10-23

    The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae), a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs), a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%), which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03). The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp), lacking either the T- or D-arm, as found in P. ulmi

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae: high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks. Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae, a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs, a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%, which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03. The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp, lacking

  1. Mutual interference between adult females of Galendromus flumenis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) feeding on eggs of Banks grass mite decreases predation efficiency and increases emigration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganjisaffar, Fatemeh; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Perring, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    : Phytoseiidae). In California date gardens, this predator is found in low numbers that are insufficient for the economic suppression of Banks grass mites, and our research aims to understand why it fails to keep up with prey densities. The hypothesis that prey density and predator interference interactively......The Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae) causes significant damage to dates in California (USA), if not controlled. Studies are underway to develop biological control strategies against this pest in dates using the predatory mite Galendromus flumenis (Chant) (Acari...

  2. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaroidea from Bosnia and Herzegovina, with description of a new species, Aturus gordani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Vladimir M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presented faunistic catalogue of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaroidea from Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on all published data and numerous new records from the investigated area. Twenty two species were identified, 12 of which new to Bosnia and Herzegovina and one species Mideopsis roztoczensis was recorded for the first time in the Balkans. The species Aturus gordani was described as new to science; halacarid mites were recorded (Acari: Halacaroidea for the first time in the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ecological significance of the new records was briefly discussed.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae), a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs), a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%), which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03). The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp), lacking either the T- or D-arm, as

  4. Biology, Predation, and Life Table of Cydnoseius negevi and Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the Old World Date Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W.; Alatawi, Fahad J.; Aldryhim, Yousif N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a severe spider mite pest of date palm in most of the Middle East and North Africa. Considering that nothing is known about the performance of phytoseiid predators against O. afrasiaticus , biology, predation, and life table parameters of Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski and Amitai) and Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae), collected from date palm orchards, were studied under laboratory conditions (25, 35°C and 35 ± 10% RH) as a first step to understand their effectiveness against all mobile life stages of O. afrasiaticus . For both predators, oviposition period was significantly shorter at 35°C than at 25°C. The following parameters were obtained for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively: female longevity, 31.8, 20.1, 35.7, 27.4 d; fecundity, 21.6, 38.0, 18.8, 34.8 eggs per female; oviposition period, 23.9, 13.7, 25.9, 18.1 d. Total predation of C. negevi and N. barkeri female was 246.0, 270.0, 227.6, 205.3 prey at 25 and 35°C, respectively. Rectal plugs were observed attached to the opisthosoma of some adult females of N. barkeri , which often cause the mite to stick to the surface. Life table parameters were estimated as net reproductive rate ( R0 ) 10.44, 17.35, 10.19, 13.84, intrinsic rate of increase ( rm ) 0.14, 0.19, 0.13, 0.16 d −1 , finite rate of increase (λ) 1.15, 1.21, 1.12, 1.17 d −1 , generation time ( T ) 17.03, 15.17, 17.83, 16.61 d, doubling time (DT) 04.95, 03.64, 05.33, 04.33 d for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively. The values of intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were higher in C. negevi than N. barkeri at both temperature regimes. Therefore, it could be concluded that C. negevi performance was better than N. barkeri against O. afrasiaticus and can be considered as a valuable addition to the existing methods for spider mites control. PMID:25368087

  5. Biology, predation, and life table of Cydnoseius negevi and Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Alatawi, Fahad J; Aldryhim, Yousif N

    2014-01-01

    The old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a severe spider mite pest of date palm in most of the Middle East and North Africa. Considering that nothing is known about the performance of phytoseiid predators against O. afrasiaticus, biology, predation, and life table parameters of Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski and Amitai) and Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae), collected from date palm orchards, were studied under laboratory conditions (25, 35°C and 35 ± 10% RH) as a first step to understand their effectiveness against all mobile life stages of O. afrasiaticus. For both predators, oviposition period was significantly shorter at 35°C than at 25°C. The following parameters were obtained for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively: female longevity, 31.8, 20.1, 35.7, 27.4 d; fecundity, 21.6, 38.0, 18.8, 34.8 eggs per female; oviposition period, 23.9, 13.7, 25.9, 18.1 d. Total predation of C. negevi and N. barkeri female was 246.0, 270.0, 227.6, 205.3 prey at 25 and 35°C, respectively. Rectal plugs were observed attached to the opisthosoma of some adult females of N. barkeri, which often cause the mite to stick to the surface. Life table parameters were estimated as net reproductive rate (R0) 10.44, 17.35, 10.19, 13.84, intrinsic rate of increase (rm) 0.14, 0.19, 0.13, 0.16 d(-1), finite rate of increase (λ) 1.15, 1.21, 1.12, 1.17 d(-1), generation time (T) 17.03, 15.17, 17.83, 16.61 d, doubling time (DT) 04.95, 03.64, 05.33, 04.33 d for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively. The values of intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were higher in C. negevi than N. barkeri at both temperature regimes. Therefore, it could be concluded that C. negevi performance was better than N. barkeri against O. afrasiaticus and can be considered as a valuable addition to the existing methods for spider mites control. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  6. A study of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Danube Delta and Tulcea district in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIRESCU Alexandru Filip

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out to investigate the occurrence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae infesting different vertebrate species in the Danube Delta in 2005. Ticks were collected from ten locations (Babadag, Crisan, Grindul Lupilor, Luncavita, Macin, Mila 26, Periteasca, Portita, Sfantu-Gheorghe, Tulcea. The study was meant to assess which places have a high tick infestation, in view of future distribution studies, which will be conducted in the next three years. In total, 314 ticks were collected from 15 different species. Six species were found: Boophilus calcaratus (7.64%, Dermacentor marginatus (11.47%, Hyalomma plumbeum (16.57%, Ixodes ricinus (6.69%, Rhipicephalus bursa (0.63%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (57%.

  7. A new Paraleius species (Acari, Oribatida, Scheloribatidae associated with bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Knee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Scolytinae are hosts to a broad diversity of mites (Acari, including several genera of Oribatida (Sarcoptiformes. Of these, Paraleius (Scheloribatidae species are the most frequently collected oribatid mites associated with bark beetles. A new species was discovered while surveying the acarofauna of bark beetles in Eastern Canada and is described as Paraleius leahae sp. n. (Oribatida, Scheloribatidae. This species was collected from two host beetle species, Hylastes porculus Erickson and Dendroctonus valens LeConte, in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The genus Paraleius is rediagnosed, Metaleius is considered a synonym of Paraleius, and the proposed synonymy of Paraleius with Siculobata is rejected. The three known species are Paraleius leontonycha (Berlese, P. leahae sp. n., and P. strenzkei (Travé, comb. n. The barcode region of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI was amplified from P. leahae sp. n.

  8. A New Species of Chigger Mite (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Rodents in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tian-Guang; Wu, Dian; Fletcher, Quinn E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new species of chigger mite (Acari: Trombiculidae), Gahrliepia cangshanensis n. sp., from rodents in southwest China. The specimens were collected from Yunnan red-backed voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas, 1914), and a Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) in Yunnan Province. The new species is unique mainly in its number of dorsal setae (n=21), and it has the following features: fT (formula of palpotarsus)=4B (B=branched), fp (formula of palpal seta)=B/N/N/N/B (N=naked), a broad tongue-shaped scutum with an almost straight posterior margin, and 17 PPLs (posterior posterolateral seta) with a length of 36-43 µm. This chigger mite may also infect other rodent hosts and may be distributed in other localities. PMID:24623884

  9. A new Paraleius species (Acari, Oribatida, Scheloribatidae) associated with bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles (Scolytinae) are hosts to a broad diversity of mites (Acari), including several genera of Oribatida (Sarcoptiformes). Of these, Paraleius (Scheloribatidae) species are the most frequently collected oribatid mites associated with bark beetles. A new species was discovered while surveying the acarofauna of bark beetles in Eastern Canada and is described as Paraleius leahaesp. n. (Oribatida, Scheloribatidae). This species was collected from two host beetle species, Hylastes porculus Erickson and Dendroctonus valens LeConte, in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The genus Paraleius is rediagnosed, Metaleius is considered a synonym of Paraleius, and the proposed synonymy of Paraleius with Siculobata is rejected. The three known species are Paraleius leontonycha (Berlese), P. leahaesp. n., and P. strenzkei (Travé), comb. n. The barcode region of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was amplified from P. leahaesp. n.

  10. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  11. Benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari extracts in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpio Rodríguez-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The records of patients from the Allergology Service in the Previsora Policlinic, Camagüey were revised to evaluate benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy (ITSC with extracts of acari. The study was observational, analytic and retrospective of cases and controls in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma. A total of 160 subjects, older than 18 years old, were chosen. Eighty out of them had already received ITSC with dose increase during 13 weeks and maintenance with monthly injections during 18 months. A total of 80 patients who only received prevention measures and medications during the crises were paired. Questionnaires were applied for quality of rhinoconjunctivitis life and asthma, about the consumption of medications and the frequency of the crises. The adverse events were measured, as they were local and systemic to the cutaneous tests, to the ITSC and the different pharmacological treatments. There was a significant increase of the punctuation of life quality questionnaires, (p=0.011. The consumption of medications decreased in both the cases and the controls, without significant differences (p=0.083. The frequency of the rhinitis and asthma crises decrease in the group of ITSC (p=0.029. Slight local and systemic reactions were reported in both groups with Odds ratio (OR=2.029 in the ITSC group, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.114–3.967 (p=0.019. The results show that the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari offers benefits and few risks to patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma.

  12. Strengthening of antioxidant defense by Azadirachta indica in alloxan-diabetic rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shailey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica has been reported to correct altered glycaemia in diabetes. Objective: The aqueous extract of A. indica leaf and bark has been evaluated for its effect on antioxidant status of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500 mg/kg body weight and A. indica bark (100 mg/kg body weight were given once daily for 21 days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period blood glucose level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD, and membrane lipid peroxidation were determined in different fractions of liver and kidney tissues. Results: Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P<0.01, increased level of malondialdehyde (P<0.05 and a significant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with insulin, A. indica leaf extract (AILE, and A. indica bark extract (AIBE restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. Conclusions: Both AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in reducing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of A. indica as alternative medicine to prevent long-term complications of diabetes.

  13. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Colonic Mucosal Damage in Experimental Colitis Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M K; Goel, Shalini; Ghatule, R R; Singh, A; Joshi, V K; Goel, R K

    2013-09-01

    Azadirachta indica leaves indicated the presence of active principles with proven antioxidants, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, free radical scavenging and healing properties. In the present study we evaluated the healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats. Azadirachta indica extract (500 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days and studied for its effects on diarrhoea, food and water intake, body weight changes, colonic damage and inflammation, histology, antibacterial activity and free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and myeloperoxidase activities in colonic tissue. Intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid increased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, but decreased body weight which were reversed by Azadirachta indica extract and sulfasalazine (positive control) treatments. Azadirachta indica extract showed antibacterial activity. Azadirachta indica extract and sulfasalazine enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities affected in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Azadirachta indica extract, thus seemed to be effective in healing trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  14. Indica rice genome assembly, annotation and mining of blast disease resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, H B; Shirke, Meghana Deepak; Singh, Siddarth; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Hittalmani, Shailaja; Wang, Guo-Liang; Gowda, Malali

    2016-03-16

    Rice is a major staple food crop in the world. Over 80% of rice cultivation area is under indica rice. Currently, genomic resources are lacking for indica as compared to japonica rice. In this study, we generated deep-sequencing data (Illumina and Pacific Biosciences sequencing) for one of the indica rice cultivars, HR-12 from India. We assembled over 86% (389 Mb) of rice genome and annotated 56,284 protein-coding genes from HR-12 genome using Illumina and PacBio sequencing. Comprehensive comparative analyses between indica and japonica subspecies genomes revealed a large number of indica specific variants including SSRs, SNPs and InDels. To mine disease resistance genes, we sequenced few indica rice cultivars that are reported to be highly resistant (Tetep and Tadukan) and susceptible (HR-12 and Co-39) against blast fungal isolates in many countries including India. Whole genome sequencing of rice genotypes revealed high rate of mutations in defense related genes (NB-ARC, LRR and PK domains) in resistant cultivars as compared to susceptible. This study has identified R-genes Pi-ta and Pi54 from durable indica resistant cultivars; Tetep and Tadukan, which can be used in marker assisted selection in rice breeding program. This is the first report of whole genome sequencing approach to characterize Indian rice germplasm. The genomic resources from our work will have a greater impact in understanding global rice diversity, genetics and molecular breeding.

  15. Antibacterial effects of Pluchea indica Less leaf extract on E. faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Febrina Pargaputri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus. faecalis (E. faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum are the most common bacteria found in infected tooth root canal. Most of these bacteria often cause failure in endodontic treatments. Pluchea indica Less leaf is a species of plants that has several chemical properties. It consists of flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, and essensial oils which have been reported as antibacterial agents. Because of its benefits, the extract of Pluchea indica Less leaves may be potentially developed as one of root canal sterilization dressing. Purpose: This study aimed to determine antibacterial activity of Pluchea indica Less leaves extract against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria. Method: Dilution method was conducted first to show Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extract against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum. The antibacterial activity test on Pluchea indica Less leaves extract was performed on E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria using agar diffusion method. The Pluchea indica Less leaves extract used for antibacterial activity test was at a concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%. Thirty-five petridiscs were used and divided into five groups based on the extract concentration. Result: The results showed strong and moderate antibacterial effects of the Pluchea indica Less leaves extract on E. faecalis at the concentrations of 100% and 50%, while on F. nucleatum only at the concentration of 100% with moderate effect. Conclusion: Pluchea indica Less leaves extract has antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria with strong-moderate effect.

  16. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides. PMID:22958331

  17. Simultaneous Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interest in Tatera indica rodent arises mostly because it is believed that this species is survived among four subspecies reported from Iran, two of which exist in Khuzestan Province. In addition, it might has a role as res­ervoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the transmission of Leishmania major in some of the widespread Asian foci including southwestern Iran.Methods: Diagnostic morphological and molecular markers for T. indica were sought by characterizing from indi­vidual specimens, such as some taxonomic features and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that had previously proven useful for the taxonomy of rodents. Wild rodents were caught using live wooden and wire traps. The specimens were identified morphologically using external criteria and molecularly by sequencing of Cyt b gene and phylogenetic analyses. Results: Forty one T. indica were collected and identified morphologically in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Two morphotypes of T. indica were found and classified but sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial Cyt b gene did not support any subspecies between two morphotypes of T. indica.  Because all 21 sequences of both morphotypes of T. indica had no variation with only one common and novel haplotype (GenBank accession No KP001566.Conclusion: This is the first time that T. indica was characterized molecularly in Iran. There is no molecular evi­dence for T. indica morphotypes or subspecies, and so a population genetics approach using several polymorphic genes might be employed using species-specific molecular markers. In addition, more specimens of T. indica species in large geographical locations should be tested. 

  18. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities of Hippocratea Indica Root Bark and Poga Oleosa Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbole, O. O.; Ekor, M N; Oluremi, B B; E. O. Ajaiyeoba; Gbolade, A A; Ayoola, M A; Adeyemi, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic extracts of Hippocratea indica root bark and Poga oleosa fruits were investigated for anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Both extracts inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema significantly in rats in a dose-dependent manner in 4 h. H. indica inhibited oedema significantly at the minimal dose (125 mg/ml, p< 0.05) from 2 h onward, and gave 100% inhibition in 4 h. at 250 mg/kg. It was shown to be a more potent anti-inflammatory agent than P. oleosa. Also, H. indica e...

  20. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshkhah, R.; Cabello, S.; Rozanska, E.; Sobczak, M.; Grundler, F. M. W.; Wieczorek, K.; Hofmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

  1. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshkhah, R; Cabello, S; Rozanska, E; Sobczak, M; Grundler, F M W; Wieczorek, K; Hofmann, J

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii.

  2. História de vida de Neoseiulus californicus(McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), alimentado com pólen de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.) em condição de laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    PP Marafeli; PR, Reis; EC. da Silveira; GC Souza-Pimentel; MA. de Toledo

    2014-01-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus(McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticaeKoch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the de...

  3. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Toxqui-López, Santa; Padilla-Velasco, Ana L.

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm). We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  6. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  7. Utilization of Anting-Anting (Acalypha indica) Leaves as Antibacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Irmanida; Wahyuni, Wulan Tri; Firdaus, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Anting-anting (Acalypha indica) plants is a species of plant having catkin type of inflorescence. This research aims to utilize anting-anting as antibacterial toward Streptococcus mutans and degradation of biofilm on teeth. Anting-anting leaves were extracted by maceration technique using methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane. Antibacterial and biofilm degradation assays were performed using microdilution technique with 96 well. n-Hexane extracts of anting-anting leaves gave the best antibacterial potency with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration value of 500 μg/mL and exhibited good biofilm degradation activity. Fraction of F3 obtained from fractionation of n-hexane's extract with column chromatography was a potential for degradation of biofilm with IC50 value of 56.82 μg/mL. Alkaloid was suggested as antibacterial and degradation of biofilm in the active fraction.

  8. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  9. Effects of Powdery Mildew Fungicide Programs on Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), Hop Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae), and Their Natural Enemies in Hop Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari:Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera:Aphidiae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological c...

  10. Two new species and one new record of larvae of the family Johnstonianidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from Iran with a key to species of the genus Diplothrombium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noei, Javad; Saboori, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Jalil

    2014-04-03

    Diplothrombium sahragardi sp. nov. and Diplothrombium ostovani sp. nov. (Acari: Johnstonianidae) collected from soil samples (off host) in a forest near Asalem city (Iran) are described. Another species of this family Johnstoniana parva Wendt, Wohltmann, Eggers and Otto, 1994 is reported for the first time from Iran. A larva-based key to Diplothrombium is provided.

  11. Pyemotes tritici (Acari: Pyemotidae): a parasitoid of Agrilus auroguttatus and Agrilus coxalis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the southwestern United States of America and southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Michael I. Jones; Mark S. Hoddle; Laurel J. Haavik; John C. Moser; Mary L. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    The straw itch mite, Pyemotes tritici Lagrèze-Fossat andMontané (Acari: Pyemotidae), was discovered parasitising the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive exotic species to California, United States of America, and the Mexican goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera:...

  12. A new species of Aculops (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) from Serbia on Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae), a weed target of classical biological control in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) in northern Serbia is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Aculops salixis Xue, Song and Hong. This is the first e...

  13. Efficacité des extraits de neem ( Azadirachta indica ) et de papayer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité des extraits de neem ( Azadirachta indica ) et de papayer ( Carica papaya ) dans la lutte contre les insectes ravageurs du gombo ( Abelmoschus esculentus ) et du chou ( Brassica oleracea ) en Côte d'Ivoire.

  14. Effet de L'hyptis ( Hyptis suaveolens ), du Neem ( Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de L'hyptis ( Hyptis suaveolens ), du Neem ( Azadirachta indica ), du Vernonia ( Vernonia amygdalina ), et de L'amarante ( Amaranthus sp.) sur les nematodes A Galles ( Meloidogyne spp.) en cultures Maraicheres.

  15. Efficacité d'extraits de feuilles de neem Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité d'extraits de feuilles de neem Azadirachta indica (Sapindale) sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae), Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) et Lipaphis erysimi (Hemiptera : Aphididae) du chou Brassica oleracea (Brassicaceae) da.

  16. A Review on Ethnopharmacological Applications, Pharmacological Activities, and Bioactive Compounds of Mangifera indica (Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meran Keshawa Ediriweera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica (family Anacardiaceae, commonly known as mango, is a pharmacologically, ethnomedically, and phytochemically diverse plant. Various parts of M. indica tree have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments, and a number of bioactive phytochemical constituents of M. indica have been reported, namely, polyphenols, terpenes, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and amino acids, and so forth. Several studies have proven the pharmacological potential of different parts of mango trees such as leaves, bark, fruit peel and flesh, roots, and flowers as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiplasmodial, and antihyperlipemic. In the present review, a comprehensive study on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities, and bioactive compounds of M. indica has been described.

  17. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency.

  18. Effects of Chalkiness on Cooking, Eating and Nutritional Qualities of Rice in Two indica Varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LIU Qi-hua ZHOU Xue-biao YANG Lian-qun LI Tian

    2009-01-01

    ... (conventional indica rice) as materials. Compared with the milled rice without chalkiness, amylose content, final viscosity, setback and consistence increased significantly, while gel consistence, peak viscosity and breakdown decreased...

  19. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Arora, M.; Anil, A.C.; Burgess, K.; Delany, J.E.; Mesbahi, E.

    algae as the evolutionary link between cellular individuality and cellular cooperation has been largely unstudied. Here, we show that clonal populations of a unicellular chlorophyte, Tetraselmis indica, consist of morphologically and ultrastructurally...

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the greater bandicoot rat Bandicota indica (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihu; Cong, Haiyan; Kong, Lingming; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yuchun

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the greater bandicoot rat (Bandicota indica) was first sequenced and characterized. The genome was 16 326 bp in length, the composition and arrangement of its genes were analogous to other rodents. To confirm the phylogenetic position of B. indica, the mitochondrial nucleotide sequence data of other 20 Rodentia species were used to construct phylogenetic tree by maximum likelihood. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that genera Bandicota and Rattus were sister taxa, and B. indica was closer to the genus Rattus than to genera Niviventer and Leopoldamys. The mitochondrial genome of B. indica presented in this study can provide useful information for species delimitation, taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses as well as other studies of the species.

  1. MANGO ( Mangifera indica ) AND AMBARELLA ( Spondias cytherea ) PEEL EXTRACTED PECTINS IMPROVE VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF DERIVED JAMS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koubala, BB; Kansci, G; Garnier, C; Ralet, MC; Thibault, JF

    2012-01-01

    Food industries in developing countries are faced with the problem of inadequate supply of additives which can be met by proper utilization of local pectin sources. Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and ambarella ( Spondias cytherea...

  2. Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangar, Subhash Chander; Sandhir, Rajat; Rai, Durg Vijay; Koul, Ashwani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the chemopreventive effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica (A indica) leaf extract (AAILE) against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in Balb/c mice. METHODS: Female Balb/c mice were divided into four groups of 10-12 animals each. For induction of forestomach tumors, starting from d 14 of the experi-ment, mice of B(a)P and B(a)P + A indica groups were given intra-gastric instillations of B(a)P (40 mg/kg), twice a week for four weeks. Mice of A indica and B(a)P + A indica groups were orally administered with AAILE (100 mg/kg), two weeks prior to B(a)P instillations till the end of the experiment. After 22 wk of the first B(a)P instillation, mice were sacrificed and the forestomachs were analyzed for development of tumors, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histopathology. RESULTS: Tumor incidence was observed to be 100% in mice that received only B(a)P. However, treatment with AAILE reduced the tumor incidence by 58.4% as observed in mice of B(a)P + A indica group when compared to that of B(a)P group. Similarly, the tumor burden and multiplicity were seen to decrease by 87.3% and 69.6% respectively in mice of B(a)P + A indica group when compared to those of B(a)P group. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that AAILE treatment itself did not cause any abnormalities on the surface architecture of forestomach epithelium. In tumorous forestomach, surface disruption was observed. Over the forestomach tumors of B(a)P group of mice certain rounded structures were seen in addition to closely placed tongue-shaped squamous cells. Interestingly, these rounded structures were not observed in B(a)P + A indica group of mice. Histopathalogically, the tumors were identical and diagnosed to be papillomas. Mice from control and A indica groups of mice did not develop any forestomach tumors and showed normal histo-architecture. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that A indica exerts chemopreventive effects against B

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity as a Function of the Genetic Diversity of Canna indica Complex

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rattanapittayapron; O. Vanijajiva

    2016-01-01

    Canna indica is a prominent species complex in tropical and subtropical areas. They become indigenous in Southeast Asia where they have been introduced. At present, C. indica complex comprises over hundred hybrids, are cultivated as commercial horticulture. The species complex contains starchy rhizome having economic value in terms of food and herbal medicine. In addition, bright color of the flowers makes it a valuable ornamental plant and potential source for natural colorant. This study ai...

  4. Plant growth-promoting endophyte Piriformospora indica alleviates salinity stress in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhu, Pengyue; Wu, Hongqing; Qi, Shuting

    2017-10-01

    Piriformospora indica, a cultivable root endophytic fungus, induces growth promotion as well as biotic stress resistance and tolerance to abiotic stress in a broad range of host plants. In this study, the potential protection for M Medicago truncatula plants from salinity stress by P. indica was explored. The improved plant growth under severe saline condition was exhibited in P. indica-colonized lines. Moreover, the antioxidant enzymes activities and hyphae density in roots were increased by the endophyte under high salt concentration. Conversely, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) activity, Na + content and relative electrolyte conductivity (REC) were observed in P. indica colonized plants. Especially, osmoprotectant proline accumulated and the expression of Delta 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene (P5CS2) was induced. The defense related genes PR1 and PR10 and the transcription factors MtAlfin1-like and C2H2-type zinc finger protein MtZfp-c2h2 were induced by P. indica colonization as well. Further work indicated that salinity resistance was increased in overexpressing P5CS2, MtAlfin1-like and MtZfp-c2h2 transgenic M. truncatula plants. Interestingly, our data showed that the transcription factors MtAlfin1-like and MtZfp-c2h2 were positively contributed to P. indica colonization. These results demonstrate that tolerance to salinity stress was conferred by P. indica in M. truncatula via accumulation of osmoprotectant, stimulating antioxidant enzymes and the expression of defense-related genes. This work revealed the potential application of P. indica's as a plant growth-promoting fungus for the target improvement either in crop protection or in the salinized soil improvement indirectly. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Proteomics study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying water stress tolerance induced by Piriformospora indica in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabooli, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Ahmadi, Farajolah Shahriary; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Amirkhani, Ardeshir; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-12-06

    Piriformospora indica is a mutualistic root endophytic fungus, which transfers several benefits to hosts including enhance plant growth and increase yield under both normal and stress conditions. It has been shown that P. indica root-colonization enhances water stress tolerance based on general and non-specific plant-species mechanism. To better understand the molecular mechanism of P. indica-mediated drought stress tolerance, we designed a set of comparative experiments to study the impact of P. indica on barely plants cultivar "Golden Promise" grown under different drought levels [Filed capacity (F.C.) and 25% F.C.]. P. indica enhanced root and shoot biomass of colonized plants under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. Proteome analysis of P. indica-colonized barley leaves under well-treated and water-deficit conditions resulted in detection of 726 reproducibly protein spots. Mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the identification of 45 differentially accumulated proteins involved in photosynthesis, reactive oxygen scavenging, metabolisms, signal transduction, and plant defense responses. Interestingly, P. indica increased the level of proteins involved in photosynthesis, antioxidative defense system and energy transport. We propose that P. indica-mediated drought stress tolerance in barely is through photosynthesis stimulation, energy releasing and enhanced antioxidative capacity in colonized plants. Plant mutualistic symbionts offer long-term abiotic stress tolerance through the host adaptation to environmental stress. There have been a few published proteomic studies of plant symbionts to drought, and this is thought to be the first proteomic analysis, demonstrating the impact of endophyte on barley plant under drought stress. For some of identified proteins like TCTP and PCNA, a connection to physiological function in plants is novel, and can be the best candidates for sources of drought tolerance in future studies. © 2013.

  6. The maturation zone is an important target of Piriformospora indica in Chinese cabbage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheqin; Tian, Zhihong; Chen, Peng Jen; Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin Hui; Cai, Daguang; Oelmüllar, Ralf; Yeh, Kai Wun

    2013-11-01

    The mutualistic symbiont Piriformospora indica exhibits a great potential in agriculture. The interaction between P. indica and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cv. Chinensis) results in growth and biomass promotion of the host plant and in particular in root hair development. The resulting highly bushy root phenotype of colonized Chinese cabbage seedlings differs substantially from reports of other plant species, which prompted the more detailed study of this symbiosis. A large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) data set was obtained from a double-subtractive EST library, by subtracting the cDNAs of Chinese cabbage root tissue and of P. indica mycelium from those of P. indica-colonized root tissue. The analysis revealed ~700 unique genes rooted in 141 clusters and 559 singles. A total of 66% of the sequences could be annotated in the NCBI GenBank. Genes which are stimulated by P. indica are involved in various types of transport, carbohydrate metabolism, auxin signalling, cell wall metabolism, and root development, including the root hair-forming phosphoinositide phosphatase 4. For 20 key genes, induction by fungal colonization was confirmed kinetically during the interaction by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Moreover, the auxin concentration increases transiently after exposure of the roots to P. indica. Microscopic analyses demonstrated that the development of the root maturation zone is the major target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. Taken together, the symbiotic interaction between Chinese cabbage and P. indica is a novel model to study root growth promotion which, in turn, is important for agriculture and plant biotechnology.

  7. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    OpenAIRE

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling compo...

  8. Evaluation of acute toxicity of water extract of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Shori Amal

    2013-07-15

    This study 'in vivo' was applied on rats "Rattus norvegicus" to determine the acute toxicity of water extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds during 48 hours and the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values were calculated. Different doses of A. indica water extracts of leaves and seeds were injected to the rats (Rattus norvegicus) and the percentage of death was recorded during 48 hours. The present study, found that the percentage of death in all treated rats with A. indica leaves and seeds water extracts were increased by doses increased (R2 = 0.9). Rats injected with higher doses of water extract ofA. indica leaves (0.1 and 0.092 g mL(-1)) and seeds (0.2 g mL(-1)) showed 100% death. The LD50 of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds were 6.2, 9.4 mL kg(-1), respectively. Based on these results, it may be concluded that doses of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds injected to rats showed significant acute toxicity.

  9. Antidiabetic Properties of Azardiracta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In Vivo Studies in Murine Diabetes Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Menakshi; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar K; Tirmale, Amruta R; Bhargava, Shobha Y; Joshi, Bimba N

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by an increase in the blood glucose level. Treatment of diabetes is complicated due to multifactorial nature of the disease. Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss and Bougainvillea spectabilis are reported to have medicinal values including antidiabetic properties. In the present study using invivo diabetic murine model, A. indica and B. spectabilis chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated for the biochemical parameters important for controlling diabetes. It was found that A. indica chloroform extract and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts showed a good oral glucose tolerance and significantly reduced the intestinal glucosidase activity. Interestingly, A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts showed significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hepatic, skeletal muscle glycogen content after 21 days of treatment. In immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a regeneration of insulin-producing cells and corresponding increase in the plasma insulin and c-peptide levels with the treatment of A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts. Analyzing the results, it is clear that A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts are good candidates for developing new neutraceuticals treatment for diabetes.

  10. Antidiabetic Properties of Azardiracta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In Vivo Studies in Murine Diabetes Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by an increase in the blood glucose level. Treatment of diabetes is complicated due to multifactorial nature of the disease. Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss and Bougainvillea spectabilis are reported to have medicinal values including antidiabetic properties. In the present study using in vivo diabetic murine model, A. indica and B. spectabilis chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated for the biochemical parameters important for controlling diabetes. It was found that A. indica chloroform extract and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts showed a good oral glucose tolerance and significantly reduced the intestinal glucosidase activity. Interestingly, A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts showed significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hepatic, skeletal muscle glycogen content after 21 days of treatment. In immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a regeneration of insulin-producing cells and corresponding increase in the plasma insulin and c-peptide levels with the treatment of A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts. Analyzing the results, it is clear that A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts are good candidates for developing new neutraceuticals treatment for diabetes.

  11. The ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as cleaner of the root canal wall smear layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is one of traditional medicines. Pulpa tamaridorum consist of organic acid that is usually used as irrigant and to remove root canal wall smear layer. The aimed of this study was to elucidate the ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as a root canal irrigant to remove root canal wall smear layer. Eighteen tooth samples were cut on cervical line and divided into 2 then groups were prepared with K file and irrigated. Group 1 was irrigated by sterile aquabidest and group 2 was irrigated by 5% Tamarindus indica extract. Samples were cut longitudinally and formed 7 × 2× 2 mm specimen. Each specimen was photographed by scanning electron microscope, scored and summed. The total score obtained is used as the hygiene value of root canal wall. The collected data were statistically analyzed by using independent t test at 0.05 level. The result of the study showed there was a significant difference between 5% Tamarindus indica extract and sterile aquabidest (p < 0.05, the hygiene value of 5% Tamarindus indica extract was higher than sterile aquabidest. The conclusion of this investigation showed that 5% Tamarindus indica extract remove root canal wall smear layer.

  12. Strengthening of antioxidant defense by Azadirachta indica in alloxan-diabetic rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailey, Sweta; Basir, Seemi Farhat

    2012-07-01

    Azadirachta indica has been reported to correct altered glycaemia in diabetes. The aqueous extract of A. indica leaf and bark has been evaluated for its effect on antioxidant status of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500 mg/kg body weight) and A. indica bark (100 mg/kg body weight) were given once daily for 21 days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period blood glucose level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and membrane lipid peroxidation were determined in different fractions of liver and kidney tissues. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (Pindica leaf extract (AILE), and A. indica bark extract (AIBE) restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. Both AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in reducing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of A. indica as alternative medicine to prevent long-term complications of diabetes.

  13. Piriformospora indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis through regulation of the photoperiod and gibberellin pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rui; Xu, Le; Wei, Qiao; Wu, Chu; Tang, Wenlin; Oelmüller, Ralf; Zhang, Wenying

    2017-01-01

    Flowering in plants is synchronized by both environmental cues and internal regulatory factors. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the growth and early flowering in Coleus forskohlii (a medicinal plant) and Arabidopsis. To further dissect the impact of P. indica on pathways responsible for flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated Arabidopsis with P. indica and used RT-qPCR to analyze the main gene regulation networks involved in flowering. Our results revealed that the symbiotic interaction of Arabidopsis with P. indica promotes early flower development and the number of siliques. In addition, expression of the core flowering regulatory gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), of genes controlling the photoperiod [CRYPTOCHROMES (CRY1, CRY2) and PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB)] and those related to gibberellin (GA) functions (RGA1, AGL24, GA3, and MYB5) were induced by the fungus, while key genes controlling the age and autonomous pathways remained unchanged. Moreover, early flowering promotion conferred by P. indica was promoted by exogenous GA and inhabited by GA inhibitor, and this effect could be observed under long day and neutral day photoperiod. Therefore, our data suggested that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely through photoperiod and GA rather than age or the autonomous pathway.

  14. Evaluation of antisecretory, gastroprotective and in-vitro antacid capacity of Fumaria indica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Phool; Kishore, Kamal; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Fumaria indica is used for its anthelmintic, antidyspeptic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, laxative, stomachic, tonic properties and claimed to possess various properties for the ailments of blood, skin, gastrointestinal systems and central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to evaluate antisecretory, gastroprotective and in-vitro antacid capacity of ethanol extract from F. indica in rats. Evaluation of F. indica extract as antisecretory was carried out by pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. The gastroprotective effect was carried out by absolute ethanol induced ulcer model. Integrity of gastric mucosa was evaluated by estimation of GSH and gastric mucus level. The in-vitro antacid capacity was evaluated by titration method. Ethanol extract of F. indica at 200 mg kg(-1), orally showed inhibition of secretion in pyloric ligation model. GSH level (1.67 μg mg(-1) protein), gastricwall mucus (240.76 μg g(-1) wet glandular tissue) and percentage protection (77.59%) of ulcer were significantly (P indica was compared with the standard. Conclusively, it appears that F. indica possess antisecretory (inhibition of acid secretion), gastroprotective (potentiation of defensive factors) and in-vitro antacid activity.

  15. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of Garcinia indica fruit rind via monoaminergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamija, Isha; Parle, Milind; Kumar, Sandeep

    2017-06-01

    Depression and anxiety are the most crippling neuropsychiatric disorders of this modern era. These mostly occur as anxiety followed by depression or in mixed state. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a safe and effective treatment, which proves its worth in this ailment. What else than a conventional food would be a better choice for a convenient therapy. Therefore, Garcinia indica, commonly known as Kokam, fruit rind has been used in the present study to investigate its antidepressant and anti-anxiety potential using forced swim test, tail suspension test, and reserpine-induced hypothermia; and elevated plus maze, hole-board test, and light dark model, respectively. Garcinia indica fruit rind given to mice with food for consecutive 14 days at 0.5, 1, and 2% w/w significantly (p indica significantly (p indica significantly reduced monoamine oxidase and malondialdehyde levels providing support to neuroprotective potential of fruit rind. The mechanistic study showed the participation of G. indica at α1-adrenoceptor and D2-dopamine receptor, by attenuating prazosin and sulpiride-induced increase in immobility duration. Garcinia indica fruit rind showed a significant antidepressant and anxiolytic effect while no effect on locomotor activity, i.e., no psycho-stimulation.

  16. Isolation of genes conferring salt tolerance from Piriformospora indica by random overexpression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlot, Sunayna; Joshi, Amita; Singh, Pratap; Tuteja, Renu; Dua, Meenakshi; Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Manoj; Raj, Sumit; Dayaman, Vikram; Johri, Atul Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-08-01

    Piriformospora indica, a root endophytic fungus identified in the Indian Thar desert, colonizes the roots of plants and provides resistance towards biotic stress as well as tolerance to abiotic stress in the plants. Despite its positive impact on the host, little is known about the P. indica genes that are involved in salt stress tolerance. Therefore this study was conducted to identify and isolate high salinity-tolerance genes from P. indica. Thirty-six salinity-tolerance genes were obtained by functional screening, based on random over expression of a P. indica cDNA library in Escherichia coli grown on medium supplemented with 0.6 M NaCl. The salinity tolerance conferred by these 36 genes in bacteria was further confirmed by using another strain of E. coli (DH5α) transformants. However when the expression of these 36 genes was analysed in P. indica using quantitative RT-PCR, we found only six genes were up-regulated by salt stress. These six genes are involved in different cellular processes, such as metabolism, energy and biosynthetic processes, DNA repair, regulation of protein turnover, transport and salt stress tolerance. This work presents the basis for further molecular analyses of the mechanisms of salt tolerance in P. indica and for the use of this endophyte to confer salt tolerance to plants.

  17. The OXI1 kinase pathway mediates Piriformospora indica-induced growth promotion in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camehl, Iris; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Shahollari, Bationa; Sherameti, Irena; Forzani, Celine; Munnik, Teun; Hirt, Heribert; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2011-05-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1) gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H₂O₂ and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1). A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA) and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H₂O₂ formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLD)α1 or PLDδ mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade.

  18. Piriformospora indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis through regulation of the photoperiod and gibberellin pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Pan

    Full Text Available Flowering in plants is synchronized by both environmental cues and internal regulatory factors. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the growth and early flowering in Coleus forskohlii (a medicinal plant and Arabidopsis. To further dissect the impact of P. indica on pathways responsible for flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated Arabidopsis with P. indica and used RT-qPCR to analyze the main gene regulation networks involved in flowering. Our results revealed that the symbiotic interaction of Arabidopsis with P. indica promotes early flower development and the number of siliques. In addition, expression of the core flowering regulatory gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT, of genes controlling the photoperiod [CRYPTOCHROMES (CRY1, CRY2 and PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB] and those related to gibberellin (GA functions (RGA1, AGL24, GA3, and MYB5 were induced by the fungus, while key genes controlling the age and autonomous pathways remained unchanged. Moreover, early flowering promotion conferred by P. indica was promoted by exogenous GA and inhabited by GA inhibitor, and this effect could be observed under long day and neutral day photoperiod. Therefore, our data suggested that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely through photoperiod and GA rather than age or the autonomous pathway.

  19. The role of auxins and cytokinins in the mutualistic interaction between Arabidopsis and Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Ritter, Claudia; Venus, Yvonne; Camehl, Iris; Varma, Ajit; Shahollari, Bationa; Novák, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2008-10-01

    Arabidopsis growth and reproduction are stimulated by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The fungus produces low amounts of auxins, but the auxin levels and the expression of auxin-regulated genes are not altered in colonized roots. Also, mutants with reduced auxin levels (ilr1-1, nit1-3, tfl2, cyp79 b2b3) respond to P. indica. However, the fungus rescues the dwarf phenotype of the auxin overproducer sur1-1 by converting free auxin into conjugates, which also results in the downregulation of the auxin-induced IAA6 and the upregulation of the P. indica-induced LRR1 gene. The fungus produces relatively high levels of cytokinins, and the cytokinin levels are higher in colonized roots compared with the uncolonized controls. trans-Zeatin cytokinin biosynthesis and the CRE1/AHK2 receptor combination are crucial for P. indica-mediated growth stimulation, while mutants lacking cis-zeatin, impaired in other cytokinin receptor combinations, or containing reduced cytokinin levels respond to the fungus. Since root colonization is not affected in the cytokinin mutants, we propose that cytokinins are required for P. indica-induced growth promotion. Finally, a comparative analysis of the phytohormone mutants allows the conclusion that the response to P. indica is independent of the architecture and size of the roots.

  20. The OXI1 kinase pathway mediates Piriformospora indica-induced growth promotion in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Camehl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1 gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H₂O₂ and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1. A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H₂O₂ formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLDα1 or PLDδ mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade.

  1. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  2. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  3. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis. Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitosSe determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  4. A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

    2014-02-04

    A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided.

  5. A new species of Litarachna (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Pontarachnidae from a Caribbean mesophotic coral ecosystem

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    Vladimir Pesic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New records of pontarachnid mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia from the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico are presented. Litarachna lopezae sp. n., from substrata collected from Bajo de Sico, a mesophotic coral reef ecosystem in Mona Passage off Puerto Rico, is described as new to science. The new species was collected from nearly 70 m depth, the greatest depth from which pontarachnid mites have been found until now. In addition, a Litarachna sp. was also found in association with the tube of the polychaete Sabellastarte magnifica (Shaw, 1800 at the shallow waters of north Puerto Rico.

  6. Estructura genética de poblaciones de Oligonychus perseae y Oligonychus punicae (Acari: Tetranychidae) en huertos de aguacate.

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Valencia, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    La identidad y estructura genética de poblaciones de Oligonychus punicae y O. perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) fue estudiada en siete localidades productoras de aguacate Persea americana var. Hass. La identidad de los ácaros fue determinada morfológica y molecularmente mediante la secuenciación de una fracción del gen Citocromo Oxidasa subunidad I (COI). La variación genética intraespecífica de diferentes poblaciones de ambas especies de ácaros fue estudiada mediante la secuenciación de las reg...

  7. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from three Lamiaceae plant species on Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Aydın, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-10-01

    Acaricidal effects of three Labiatae essential oils extracted from ariel parts of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus, Mentha longifolia L., and Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 1-0.1% (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1% w/v). Results showed that all essential oils had very similar activity, producing complete mortality (100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-day-old R. turanicus tick larvae.

  8. Dentinal Tubule Disinfection with Propolis & Two Extracts of Azadirachta indica Against Candida albicans Biofilm Formed on Tooth Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Joy Sinha, Dakshita; Garg, Paridhi; Verma, Anurag; Malik, Vibha; Maccune, Edgar Richard; Vasudeva, Agrima

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluates the disinfection of dentinal tubules using Propolis, Azadirachta indica (alcoholic and aqueous extracts), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide against Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate. Materials & Method: One hundred and five human teeth were infected with Candida albicans for 2 days. Samples were divided into 7 groups. Group I- Propolis, Group II- Alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica, Group III- Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica, Group...

  9. Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Samadera indica for skin diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya Viswanad; Aleykutty, N. A.; B Jayakar; Subin Mary Zacharia; Litha Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Samadera indica Gaetrn (Simaroubaceae) is claimed to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, antiviral, and so on, but its taste is bitter. The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity of the methanolic extract and to develop suitable herbal formulations of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica, having efficient antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract prepared from the dried leaves of Samadera indica by continuous hot perco...

  10. Marked enhancement in the artemisinin content and biomass productivity in Artemisia annua L. shoots co-cultivated with Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Agrawal, Veena

    2013-06-01

    A significant enhancement in artemisinin content, an important anti-malarial compound, has been achieved in Artemisia annua L. shoots by co-cultivating with Piriformospora indica, a mycorrhiza-like fungus. The in vitro shoots derived from nodal cultures of A. annua were implanted on four different culture media namely, (i) Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal, (ii) MS + 5 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), (iii) MS + P. indica and, (iv) MS + 5 μM IBA + P. indica. After 2 months, it was observed that the cultures reared on MS + 5 μM IBA + P. indica showed optimum growth in terms of shoot and root proliferation over those cultured without P. indica. The average shoot number on MS + 5 μM IBA + P. indica was 17.83 ± 1.01 and on MS + P. indica alone was 12.75 ± 1.10. A drastic decline in shoot number was observed without P. indica which was 2.0 ± 0.12 on basal and 4.9 ± 1.52 on 5 μM IBA. Similarly, a maximum average of 16.83 ± 0.82 roots were achieved on MS + 5 μM IBA + P. indica which declined to 10.75 ± 1.02 on MS + P. indica. A further decrease in root number occurred in shoots without P. indica, their average being 2.5 ± 0.12 on basal and 8.91 ± 1.57 on 5 μM IBA. HPLC analysis of the aforesaid cultures revealed that the quantity of artemisinin was significantly higher (1.30 ± 0.03 %) in shoots cultured on 5 μM IBA + P. indica compared to those of control (0.80 ± 0.01 %).

  11. Triterpenoids from the fruits of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Shin-ichiro; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Ahmed, Fakhruddin Ali; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpenoids, indicalilacols A-D (1-4), were isolated from the MeOH extract of the fruits of Azadirachta indica, including a new 19(10→9β)abeo-tirucallane derivative, two new tirucallane-type triterpenoids, and a new euphane-type triterpenoid, along with three known tirucallane-type triterpenoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of 2 was elucidated by the chemical conversion of 2 into 21-oxo-melianodiol 24,25-acetonide. Compounds 2, 6-8 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells (KB-C2). Although compound 5 was not cytotoxic against any of the tested cancer cell lines, 5 showed cytotoxicity against KB-C2 cells in the presence of 2.5 μM colchicine, suggesting that 5 might have an MDR-reversal effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Azadirachta indica attenuates cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Azadirachta indica leaves against cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity. Female Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (control); a single intraperitoneal 5 mg/kg CP (CP group); neem leaves (orally 500 mg/kg) for 5 and 10 days, N5 and N10 groups, respectively; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days after CP injection, collagenous protein nitrogen (CPN) group; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days before CP injection, noncollagenous protein group and neem leaves in a dose of 500 mg/kg for 5 days before and after CP injection, noncollagenous protein nitrogen group. Rats were sacrificed 5 days after CP injection to determine neural lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The neuronal antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in brain homogenates. CP injection increased LPO, NO levels and decreased GSH level, whereas neem reversed these effects. Morphological brain damage and apoptosis induction were apparent in the CP group. In the CPN group, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by CP was improved, whereas morphological findings of neem before and after CP injection implied a well preserved brain tissue. No changes, in biochemical parameters were observed with neem treated groups. This study suggests that methanolic extract of neem leaves may be of therapeutic benefit when used with CP.

  13. Ethnomedicine: Applications of Neem (Azadirachta indica in dentistry

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    Atul Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicine is the study of traditional medicines having relevant written sources (Ayurveda, traditional Chinese Medicine as well as those whose knowledge and practices have been orally transmitted over the centuries. The Neem tree (Azadirachta indica has been known as the wonder tree for centuries in the Indian subcontinent. It has become important in the global context today because it offers solutions to the multiple concerns faced by mankind. Each part of the Neem tree has some medicinal property and the broad range of biologic activities and pharmacologic actions of Neem tree are very well established. Although literature search reveals that Neem tree has multiple potential uses in dentistry, its application is limited in routine dental practice. The following manuscript is an attempt to throw light on the potential and immense uses of Neem tree products for oral care, which forms a critical issue in both developing countries where professional dental care is limited and in developed nations where populations are aging.

  14. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Sara J; Boersma, Marelle G; Alink, Gerrit M; van Loon, Joop J A; van Huis, Arnold; Dicke, Marcel; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2004-09-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 microg/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 microl/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as an insecticide should not be discouraged.

  15. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L.

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    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen interacciones que afecten el color, el olor ni la concentración de polifenoles en las mezclas binarias extracto blando de tamarindo-excipientes a 30 ºC, y a temperaturas mayores se reduce la cantidad de polifenoles en las mezclas. La formulación preliminar número tres produce tabletas de calidad tecnológica y resulta adecuada para los subsecuentes estudios de formulación y optimización de tabletas de tamarindo.

  16. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  17. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

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    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  18. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro.

  19. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunyachulee Ganogpichayagrai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC 50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC 50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro.

  20. Development of mango (Mangifera indica L. energy drinks

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    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two hydrocolloids, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, was evaluated in mango beverage stability (Mangifera indica L. formulated and developed with caffeine at a concentration of 30 mg/100 mL. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of color, acidity, viscosity, total soluble solids, pH, flavor, aroma and texture were studied every three days over a 12-day period. The beverages were packaged in high-density polyethylene containers with a 250 mL capacity and were stored at 5 °C and 90% RH for the duration of the experimentation period. The drinks with added pectin showed greater stability and lower acidity values than the control, but higher values than those prepared with CMC. The drinks made with CMC had a significantly higher viscosity at a 95% confidence level than those made with pectin or the control beverages. The treatment that showed the lowest browning index was the one added with pectin. Concerning the sensory evaluation, the drinks showed significant differences at a 95% confidence level; the drink made with pectin was the most widely accepted. It was concluded that the most stable drinks were those made with pectin because they presented the lowest height in millimeters of precipitate solids over the storage period. No off-flavors in beverages were perceived by the judges.

  1. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Nadine; Mönchgesang, Susann; Herklotz, Siska; Krüger, Sylvia; Ziegler, Jörg; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana’s roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes PMID:27399695

  2. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia Indica Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the easily reproducible biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature with extract prepared using three year old dried Garcinia Indica (GI) fruit rind. Due to the presence of two major bioactive compounds garcinol and hydroxy citric acid, rinds of GI fruit exhibit anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. The quantity of fruit rind extract directed the morphology of the as synthesized particles. The nucleation and growth of AuNPs and catalytic activity are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of biosynthesized AuNPs is corroborated by X-ray Diffraction techniques. The morphology is studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of AuNPs. As the Fermi potential of noble metal NPs becomes more negative, they are used in various electron transfer processes. The AuNPs produced using GI extract showed excellent catalytic activity when used as a catalyst in the reduction of well-known toxic pollutant 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess sodium borohydride.

  3. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Nadine Strehmel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana’s roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI-QTOFMS and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS, and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes

  4. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Nadine; Mönchgesang, Susann; Herklotz, Siska; Krüger, Sylvia; Ziegler, Jörg; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-07-08

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana's roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes.

  5. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  6. Primeiro registro no Brasil de Erythrina velutina Willd. como hospedeira de Tetranychus neocaledonicus (Acari: Tetranychidae First Brazilian report of Erythrina velutina Willd. as host of Tetranychus neocaledonicus (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.M. Poderoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros tetraniquídeos representam importantes pragas para diversas culturas agrícolas em todo o mundo. Durante a prospecção em mudas de Erytrina velutina no distrito de São Cristovão, Estado de Sergipe, Brasil, a ocorrência destes foi observada em 15% das mudas que foram levadas ao laboratório para a caracterização dos danos. As mudas apresentavam sintomas de redução e encarquilhamento do limbo. Foram coletados 100 indivíduos destas plantas, os quais foram montados em lâminas de microscopia para a identificação taxonômica. Os ácaros foram identificados como pertencentes à espécie Tetranychus neocaledonicus (Acari: Tetranychidae. Este é o primeiro relato em E. velutina, como hospedeira para T. neocaledonicus no Brasil.Spider mites are important pests to several crops worldwide. During prospecting in Erytrina velutina specimens from São Cristovão District, Sergipe State, Brazil, their occurrence was observed in 15% seedlings, which were taken to the laboratory for description of damages. The seedlings presented leaf blade reduction and crumpling symptoms. One hundred mites were collected from these seedlings and mounted on microscope slides for taxonomic identification. The identified mites belonged to the species Tetranychus neocaledonicus (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first report of E. velutina as host for T. neocaledonicus in Brazil.

  7. Preliminary assays for efficiency avaliation of neem oil for control of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae / Ensaios preliminares para avaliação da eficiência de óleo de neem no controle de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Renato C. Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a commercial formulation of the neem oil (azadirachtina was evaluated in different stages of the biological cycle of the red mite of the paraguay tea Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae. The formulation was shown efficient in the adults control, as well as it affected the fecundity of the females of the mite, however it didn’t inhabited oviposition, when the leaves were treated with the product.Avaliou-se o efeito de uma formulação comercial a base de neem (azadirachtina em diferentes etapas do ciclo biológico do ácaro vermelho da erva-mate Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae. A formulação mostrou-se eficiente no controle de adultos, bem como afetou a fecundidade das fêmeas do ácaro, contudo não ocasionou inibição na oviposição, quando as folhas foram tratadas com o produto.

  8. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J; Tsao, Jean I; Ginsberg, Howard S

    2013-06-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  10. Factors determining species displacement of related predatory mite species (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Tetsuo; Hanawa, Masumi; Shimazaki, Sayaka; Yokoyama, Natsuki; Fu, Chun-Qing; Sugawara, Reo; Yano, Shuichi

    2014-06-01

    Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) used to be the dominant species in fruit-tree orchards throughout Japan, but starting in the 1990s, N. womersleyi began to be displaced by Neoseiulus californicus in central and southwestern Japan. The present study was conducted to examine factors explaining the displacement of N. womersleyi by N. californicus. First, we confirmed under laboratory conditions that N. californicus could exclude N. womersleyi if they initially coexisted in a 1:1 ratio. During a 2-h continuous observation period, none of the heterospecific pairs had copulated and after 5 days together with heterospecific males, none of the females had laid eggs. When these females were placed with conspecific males, normal numbers of offspring were produced. Moreover, conspecific matings were not substantially disturbed in the presence of heterospecific males or females. Total fecundity was significantly lower in N. womersleyi than in N. californicus, but their r m values did not differ from each other. On the other hand, the frequency of intraguild predation by N. californicus on N. womersleyi was significantly higher than vice versa. From these results, we concluded that not reproductive interference nor differential female fecundity but asymmetrical intraguild predation seemed to explain the competitive exclusion of N. womersleyi by N. californicus.

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, northwest of Iran

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    Zahra Ramezani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, in northwest of Iran, including the combination of two of the geographical regions of Iran (Caspian and mountain plateau where the majority of the domestic ruminants in Iran exist. Methods: Fifteen villages of Meshkin-Shahr County were selected randomly from different areas of the county. The animal dwellings were visited and the whole body of sheep, cows, goats and dogs were examined for their probable infestation. Samples were identified at the level of species according to the standard morphological key. Results: In this study 1 208 specimen were collected and totally nine species (Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor niveus, Haemaphysalis erinacei, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were identified in this study. Also 569 host including 40 cows, 450 sheep, 70 goats and 9 dogs were examined for infestation and among them 255 were infested which showed a 44% of infestation among examined livestock. The infestation rate among sheep (46% was higher than other hosts. The infestation rates among the rest of hosts were as: cows (40%, goat (37% and dogs (33%. Conclusions: The results of this study and other studies of the region showed the probability of the establishment and development of the burden of several tick-borne diseases.

  12. Residual bioassay to assess the toxicity of Acaricides against Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Vaneska B; Lima, Debora B; Gondim, Manoel G C; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2012-08-01

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) is considered a major pest of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and the use of pesticides is the current method to control it. However, no standard toxicological tests exist to select and assess the efficiency of molecules against the coconut mite. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology that allows for the evaluation of the relative toxicity of acaricides to A. guerreronis through rapid laboratory procedures. We confined A. guerreronis on arenas made out of coconut leaflets and tested two application methods: immersing the leaf fragments in acaricides and spraying acaricides on the leaf fragments under a Potter spray tower. In the latter application method, we sprayed leaf fragments both populated with and devoid of mites. We evaluated the comparative toxicity of two populations (Itamaracá and Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil) by spraying on leaflets without mites and submitted the mortality data to probit analysis after 24 h of exposure. No difference was observed in the LC50, regardless of whether the leaflets were immersed or sprayed with acaricide (abamectin, chlorfenapyr or fenpyroximate). The toxicity of chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate did not differ, irrespective of whether it was applied directly to the leaflet or to the mite; however, the toxicity of abamectin was higher when applied directly to the mite. Chlorpyrifos and abamectin toxicities were lower for the Petrolina population than for the Itamaracá population. Immersing and spraying coconut leaflets can be used to assess the mortality of A. guerreronis under laboratory conditions.

  13. Approaches for sampling the twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on clementines in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, M T; Jacas, J A; Ripollés-Moles, J L; Aucejo-Romero, S

    2006-08-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important pest of clementine mandarins, Citrus reticulata Blanco, in Spain. As a first step toward the development of an integrated crop management program for clementines, dispersion patterns of T. urticae females were determined for different types of leaves and fruit. The study was carried out between 2001 and 2003 in different commercial clementine orchards in the provinces of Castelló and Tarragona (northeastern Spain). We found that symptomatic leaves (those exhibiting typical chlorotic spots) harbored 57.1% of the total mite counts. Furthermore, these leaves were representative of mite dynamics on other leaf types. Therefore, symptomatic leaves were selected as a sampling unit. Dispersion patterns generated by Taylor's power law demonstrated the occurrence of aggregated patterns of spatial distribution (b > 1.21) on both leaves and fruit. Based on these results, the incidence (proportion of infested samples) and mean density relationship were developed. We found that optimal binomial sample sizes for estimating low populations of T. urticae on leaves (up to 0.2 female per leaf) were very large. Therefore, enumerative sampling would be more reliable within this range of T. urticae densities. However, binomial sampling was the only valid method for estimating mite density on fruit.

  14. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

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    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  15. Feeding by Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Enhances Rickettsia parkeri (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection in the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy W.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Peterson, Karin E.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri Luckman (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), a member of the spotted fever group of Rickettsia, is the tick-borne causative agent of a newly recognized, eschar-associated rickettsiosis. Because of its relatively recent designation as a pathogen, few studies have examined the pathogenesis of transmission of R. parkeri to the vertebrate host. To further elucidate the role of tick feeding in rickettsial infection of vertebrates, nymphal Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) were fed on C3H/HeJ mice intradermally inoculated with R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain). The ticks were allowed to feed to repletion, at which time samples were taken for histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for rickettsial quantification, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)for expression of Itgax, Mcp1, and Il1β. The group of mice that received intradermal inoculation of R. parkeri with tick feeding displayed significant increases in rickettsial load and IHC staining, but not in cytokine expression, when compared with the group of mice that received intradermal inoculation of R. parkeri without tick feeding. Tick feeding alone was associated with histopathologic changes in the skin, but these changes, and particularly vascular pathology, were more pronounced in the skin of mice inoculated previously with R. parkeri and followed by tick feeding. The marked differences in IHC staining and qPCR for the R. parkeri with tick feeding group strongly suggest an important role for tick feeding in the early establishment of rickettsial infection in the skin. PMID:25118419

  16. Subfamily Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae), with Description of One New Species from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Ali, Shaukat; Kamran, Muhammad; Honey, Sabyan Faris

    2014-01-01

    The Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan are summarized in this paper. Two species of Scutascirus Den Heyer (S. pirgus Chaudhri and Akbar and S. tactus Chaudhri and Akbar), ten species of Coleoscirus Berlese (C. baptos (Chaudhri and Akbar), C. carex (Inayatullah and Shahid), C. carnus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. comis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. disparis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. irroratus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. mardi (Inatullah and Shahid), C. raviensis Afzal, Ashfaq and Khan, C. tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq, and Khan, and C. trudus Bashir, Afzal and Akbar), and three species of Pseudobonzia Smiley (P. ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal and Akbar, P. numida Chaudhri and Akbar, and P. parilus Chaudhri) have been previously reported. One new species of Pseudobonzia, Pseudobonzia bakeri sp. n., is herein described and illustrated. A key to the genera of the subfamily and keys to the species in each genus are given to incorporate the new species from Pakistan. Distribution records of all known species in Pakistan are also given.

  17. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis.

  18. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

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    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  19. UM OLHAR SOBRE A CIDADE DE ACARI: DO APOGEU AO ANONIMATO

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    Maria Luiza Medeiros Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consta do presente trabalho uma análise do quadro de desaceleração socioeconômica da cidade de Acari, causada pelo fim das atividades das agroindústrias algodoeiras. Para a compreensão da cidade, adotamos como metodologia uma abordagem geohistórica, privilegiando, ainda que em breve, a importância do gado e do algodão para origem e expansão, respectivamente do seu sítio urbano. Como discussão teórica, trabalhamos o conceito de cidade, com duplo objetivo: refletir sobre ela como lugar de reprodução do capital e das relações de trabalho; e compreendê-la como lugar da memória e da história. Por fim, discorremos sobre aspectos do cotidiano da cidade, objeto de estudo, na qual coexistem, como pares contraditórios, a crise, deflagrada desde o fechamento das indústrias, e o harmonioso cotidiano, embora anônimo, demonstrado pelos seus moradores. Por ter ocupado posição de destaque no cenário econômico e histórico do Rio Grande do Norte, abordamos a história e memória, para justificar a cidade como espaço de referência.

  20. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

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    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  1. Desiccation tolerance in diapausing spider mites Tetranychus urticae and T. kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the effects of changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the survival of diapausing (winter form) and non-diapausing (summer form) spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). Adult females of both species were kept without food at VPDs of 0.0, 0.4, 0.7, 1.5, 1.9, or 2.7 kPa for 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 days at 25 °C. Diapausing females of both species kept at a VPD of ≥0.4 kPa for ≥6 days clearly tolerated desiccation. Under water-saturated conditions (VPD = 0.0 kPa), in which no desiccation occurred, diapausing females showed high starvation tolerance: 90 % survived for up to 15 days. No interspecific differences in tolerance to desiccation or starvation were observed under most conditions. These results indicate that diapause functions increase tolerance to desiccation and starvation. Such multiple tolerances to harsh environments might support winter survival in spider mites.

  2. Deoxidant-induced anoxia as a physical measure for controlling spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Wang, Chih-Hung; Gotoh, Tetsuo; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    Tiny agricultural pests such as spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) attached to seedlings grown outdoors often invade greenhouses, thereby triggering pest outbreaks. To solve the problem, we examined whether differences in anoxia tolerance between animals and plants would permit the application of an anoxic environment to control spider mites without the aid of acaricides. Under an anoxic environment created by using a commercial deoxidant at 25 °C, the time for 50 % mortality of eggs, non-diapausing adults (summer form), and diapausing adults (winter form) were 6.1, 5.5, and 23.6 h, respectively, for Tetranychus urticae Koch and 5.4, 3.9, and 23.2 h, respectively, for Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. With anoxia for 12 h, no eggs and non-diapausing adults survived in either species, whereas most diapausing adults (98 % for T. urticae and 88 % for T. kanzawai) survived. Under this treatment, host Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings showed serious physiological disorders in their primary leaves and apical buds, and unusual lateral buds developed in the cotyledon axils. The spider mites acquire anoxia tolerance during diapause, but anoxia can potentially control them during the summer if no negative effects are observed in the treated seedlings.

  3. Development and reproduction of spider mites Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae under water deficit condition in soybeans

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    Ivelina Nikolova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the major pests of soybeans in Bulgaria is the spider mite Tetranychus turkestani Ug et Nik (Acari: Tetranychidae and different results have been reported about the impact of water stress on its development and reproduction. Soybean plants exposed to natural infestation by spider mites, water deficit and treatment with imidacloprid were examined under greenhouse conditions at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria, over the period 2011-2012. The development of mites and their eggs was faster when plants were exposed to water deficit, which created favorable conditions for high density and reproduction of T. turkestani. There was a vertical distribution of protonymphs, deutonymphs and adults as their numbers and egg counts were significantly higher under conditions of water deficit on the upper and middle plant parts, compared with their bottom parts, and imidacloprid treatment had a stronger and more prolonged activity against mites, compared to its influence on well-watered plants. Spider mites on water-stressed plants caused a 24.8% reduction in the contents of plastid pigments, and carotenoids, and 21.5% decrease on well-watered plants.

  4. Beat sampling accuracy in estimating spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations and injury on juniper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2004-08-01

    The use of a standardized beat sampling method for estimating spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae), densities on a widely used evergreen ornamental plant species, Juniperus chinensis variety 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae), was examined. There was a significant positive relationship between total spruce spider mite densities and spider mite densities from beat sampling on juniper. The slope and intercept of the relationship may be used by pest managers to predict total spider mite densities on plants from beat sample counts. Beat sampling dramatically underestimates the total number of spider mites on a foliage sample. The relationships between spruce spider mite feeding injury and spider mite density estimates from beat sampling juniper foliage and total spider mite counts on foliage were also examined. There was a significant positive relationship between spruce spider mite density as estimated from beat sampling and injury to the plants. There was a similar positive relationship between the total number of spruce spider mites and injury to the plants, suggesting that a pest manager could use beat sampling counts to estimate plant injury and related thresholds. These findings have important implications to decision-making for spruce spider mite control, especially as it relates to threshold levels and determining rates of predator releases. Further assessment of the effectiveness of beat and other sampling methods across multiple spider mite- host plant associations needs to be examined to enable pest managers to select sampling plans that are feasible and reliable.

  5. Antioxidant effect of Azadirachta indica on high fat diet induced diabetic Charles Foster rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Atul; Chaturvedi, Upma; Sonkar, Ravi; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, J K; Bhatia, Gitika

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. Excessively high levels of free radicals cause damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids, and eventually cell death. The present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract in high fat diet induced diabetic Charles Foster rats. The increased level of lipidperoxidation and altered levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione) antioxidants were seen in high fructose fed animals. The treatment with A. indica leaf extract significantly normalized the altered levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status at 400 mg/kg b.w. dose. The A. indica leaf extract was also tested for in vitro inhibition of generation of superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radical in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. The A. indica leaf extract was found to inhibit generation of superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radical significantly at 200 μg/ml concentration. Data of present study demonstrated that the A. indica leaf extract has both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties.

  6. Potential of neem (Azadirachta indica L.) for prevention and treatment of oncologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shradha M; Nagulapalli Venkata, Kalyan C; Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Sethi, Gautam; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-10-01

    Throughout time, plants have often displayed medicinal properties that have been underscored. We often derive medicines involved in treating cancer from components in plants. Azadirachta indica, commonly known as "neem", has been used to treat different ailments in many Asian countries. Due to its widespread beneficial uses, A. indica has often been referred to as "the wonder tree" or "nature's drug store". Various parts of this plant, including, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots, bark and oil, produce a large number of phytochemicals with various biological and pharmacological activities. The numerous biological activities of the phytoconstituents of A. indica explain its beneficial uses for the prevention and therapy of cancer. The chemopreventive and anticancer therapeutic efficacy of A. indica fractions and compounds could be explained by multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms, including free radical scavenging, carcinogen-detoxification, DNA repair, cell cycle alteration, programmed cell death (apoptosis) and autophagy, immune surveillance, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activities as well as their ability to modulate several dysregulated oncogenic signaling pathways. This article aims to present the collective and critical analysis of multiple phytoconstituents of A. indica and their molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic effects based on published preclinical and clinical results. Current limitations and future directions of research on this medicinal plant are also critically discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Azadirachta indica exhibits chemopreventive action against hepatic cancer: Studies on associated histopathological and ultrastructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Sanjay; Rishi, Praveen; Koul, Ashwani

    2012-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the anticarcinogenic potential of Azadirachta indica against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Further, the associated histopathological and ultrastructural changes were also analyzed. Hepatic cancer model was developed by the intraperitoneal administration of NDEA to mice at weekly intervals, in successive increasing doses, for a period of 8 weeks. Aqueous A. indica leaf extract (AAILE) was administered orally at a dosage of 100 μg/g body weight thrice a week till termination of the study. A relationship between histopathological grading and chemopreventive effect of A. indica had been established at various stages of carcinogenesis. Anticancer activity of A. indica was evaluated in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and survival rate. A significant reduction in tumor incidence (33%), tumor multiplicity (42%), and increase in survival (34%) was observed upon administration of AAILE to NDEA-abused mice. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic investigations showed severe alterations in organelle organization, cellular arrangement, degree of differentiation, cellular metabolism, and morphology of the hepatocytes. These changes appeared to be distinctly delayed upon AAILE supplementation. The results suggest A. indica may have anticancer potential against NDEA-induced hepatic cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. TEST OF Morus khunpai AND M.indica HYBRID TOWARDS SILKWORM FEED

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    Nurhaedah Muin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of silkworm rearing depends on the availability of qualified mulberry plants. The research is aimed to observe the compatibility of hybrid Morus khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm's feeding. It is related to the cocoon and filament quality. KI hybrids are a result of pollination control male parent M.khunpai and female parent M.indica S-54. The research applied a Randomized Complete Design by measuring variables, i.e.: the percentage of cocoon, number of normal cocoon, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio and filament length. The result showed that cocoon and filament quality of silkworm fed by mulberry hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI have shown non-significant differences compared with silkworm fed by mulberry parents (M.khunpai and M.indica and the control (M.nigra. This situation showed that there has not been recognised yet as the compatibility of hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm feeding.

  9. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  10. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  11. Induction of root colonization by Piriformospora indica leads to enhanced asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica.

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    Satheesan, Jisha; Narayanan, Anith K; Sakunthala, Manjula

    2012-04-01

    Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort) has wide application in Indian and Chinese traditional medicines with documented evidence for wound healing and neuroprotective and anti-aging potential. Asiaticoside, a trisaccharide triterpene, is the most medicinally active compound in the plant. β-Amyrin synthase and squalene synthase have been identified as the two key genes in the triterpenoid pathway which regulate the production of asiaticoside in C. asiatica. The paper reports salient findings of our study utilizing the growth-promoting endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica to successfully colonize roots of C. asiatica in vitro cultures for investigating the effect of the mutualistic association on asiaticoside production. Co-cultivation of P. indica resulted in the rapid enhancement of root and shoot biomass of host plant, which was visible after 7 days of culture and continued up to 45 days. P. indica co-cultivation also favored the synthesis of asiaticosides, as evidenced by HPLC analysis which indicated about twofold increase (0.53% (w/w) in leaves and 0.23% (w/w) in whole plant) over control (0.33% (w/w) in leaves and 0.14% (w/w) in whole plant). Real-time PCR results confirmed the strong upregulation of squalene synthase and β-amyrin synthase transcripts in P. indica-challenged plants compared with the control. Our data demonstrate the potential use of P. indica as a means to enhance plant secondary metabolite production in planta with scope for further field evaluation. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  12. Effects of Funnelliformis mosseae inoculation on alleviating atrazine damage in Canna indica L. var. flava Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Yang, Jixian; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Ting; Qi, Shanshan

    2017-01-02

    Atrazine residue in the environment continually damages plants and therefore requires immediate attention and effective development of methods for its decontamination. The effects of Funnelliformis mosseae inoculation on growth and physiology in atrazine-treated Canna indica L. var. flava Roxb. were investigated. At atrazine concentrations up to 15 mg L-1, the growth of C. indica plants were negatively affected. Inoculation with F. mosseae alleviated the atrazine inhibition of plant growth and biomass. Furthermore, the chlorophyll content and root function increased under F. mosseae inoculation, and the oxidative stress of malondialdehyde, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities induced by atrazine were also alleviated by F. mosseae inoculation. The removal rate of atrazine by untreated C. indica was significant, with removal rates of 20.5-55.3% by the end of a 14-day experiment; however, F. mosseae inoculation increased the removal rate to 35.6-75.1%. In conclusion, F. mosseae inoculation can alleviate the damage induced by atrazine in C. indica. Accordingly, C. indica inoculated with F. mosseae has excellent potential to be used in phytoremediation in habitats polluted by high atrazine concentrations.

  13. Interaction of copper nanoparticles and an endophytic growth promoter Piriformospora indica with Cajanus cajan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, Jyoti; Bawaskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Agarkar, Gauravi; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, agro-bionanotechnology has paved the way towards revolutionizing current practices in the food and agricultural fields. In the present study, the effect of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) alone and in combination with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica on 2-week-old seedlings of Cajanus cajan was evaluated. Gelatin-coated stable CuNPs were synthesized by the chemical reduction method using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. CuNPs were characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were found to be quite spherical with a diameter within the range 40 ± 10 nm. After the application of CuNPs and P. indica to the host plant C. cajan, the vitality of plants was determined using a Handy-PEA (plant efficiency analyzer) instrument. Handy-PEA analysis (which measures chlorophyll a fluorescence) indicated that seedlings inoculated with a combination of CuNPs and P. indica were the healthiest and also showed maximum vitality as compared to seedlings inoculated with CuNPs or P. indica alone. These results suggest that CuNPs in combination with P. indica can serve as a nanobiofertilizer for enhancement of the growth and productivity of C. cajan. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Mitochondrial genome of Diaphania indica(saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea) and implications for its phylogeny.

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    Dai, Li-Shang; Zhou, Xu-Dong; Kausar, Saima; Abbas, Muhammad Nadeem; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Hai-Ling

    2018-03-01

    The cucumber moth, Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepipdoptera: Pyralidae) is an economically important insect pest of cucurbits and is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Herein, we obtained entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of D. indica using polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing method. The complete mitogenome of D. indica is 15,367bp long, including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and an A+T rich element. Both the AT skew and GC skew are slightly negative in the newly sequenced mitogenome. All of the 12 PCGs initiate with canonical start codon (ATN), except for coxI that initiate with CGA. The A+T rich element of D. indica is 467bp long and contains many features common to Pyraloidea insects. In addition, we reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among the eight superfamiles of lepidopterans by employing Neighbor joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods, and both yielded identical topologies. The phylogeny results supported the monophyly of lepidopteran superfamilies. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree showed that D. indica belongs to the Pyraloidea superfamily. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Piriformospora indica-a mutualistic basidiomycete with an exceptionally large plant host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaoyu; Weiss, Michael; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a basidiomycete of the order Sebacinales, representing a model for the study of mutualistic symbiosis and, beyond that, the plant immune system. The fungus colonizes the roots of a wide range of vascular plants, increasing their growth, seed yield and adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. The fungal colonization of roots begins with a biotrophic growth phase, in which living cells are colonized, and continues with a cell death-dependent phase, in which root cells are actively killed by the fungus. The complexity of sebacinalean symbiosis is further enhanced by the presence of endocellular bacteria which may represent significant determinants for a successful outcome of the symbioses. Molecular ecological analyses have revealed an exceptional relevance of sebacinoid fungi in natural ecosystems worldwide. This natural competence could be rooted in their phenotypic adaptability, which, for instance, allows P. indica to grow readily on various synthetic media and to colonize distinct hosts. In molecular and genetic studies, P. indica's mutualistic colonization strategy has been partly unravelled, showing that the jasmonate pathway is exploited for immune suppression and successful development in roots. Research on P. indica supports efforts to make the bioprotective potential of the fungus accessible for agricultural plant production. The decoding of P. indica's genome has revealed its potential for application as bioagent and for targeted improvement of crop plants in biotechnology-based approaches. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2011 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  16. Impact of Piriformospora indica on tomato growth and on interaction with fungal and viral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhro, Ahmad; Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocío; von Bargen, Susanne; Bandte, Martina; Büttner, Carmen; Grosch, Rita; Schwarz, Dietmar; Franken, Philipp

    2010-03-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root endophytic fungus with plant-promoting properties in numerous plant species and induces resistance against root and shoot pathogens in barley, wheat, and Arabidopsis. A study over several years showed that the endophyte P. indica colonised the roots of the most consumed vegetable crop tomato. P. indica improved the growth of tomato resulting in increased biomass of leaves by up to 20%. Limitation of disease severity caused by Verticillium dahliae by more than 30% was observed on tomato plants colonised by the endophyte. Further experiments were carried out in hydroponic cultures which are commonly used for the indoor production of tomatoes in central Europe. After adaptation of inoculation techniques (inoculum density, plant stage), it was shown that P. indica influences the concentration of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato shoots. The outcome of the interaction seems to be affected by light intensity. Most importantly, the endophyte increases tomato fruit biomass in hydroponic culture concerning fresh weight (up to 100%) and dry matter content (up to 20%). Hence, P. indica represents a suitable growth promoting endophyte for tomato which can be applied in production systems of this important vegetable plant not only in soil, but also in hydroponic cultures.

  17. Role of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, M; Maiti, Rituparna; Kumar, Shafalika; Acharya, SB

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, is often accompanied by behavioral disorders and mood changes. Because of the non-availability of proper curative/preventive therapy for AD, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of Azadirachta indica in experimental AD in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental AD in rats was produced by nucleus basalis magnacellularis lesion with ibotenic acid (IB) and intacerebroventricular administration of colchicine (Col). Different behavioral tests and biochemical analysis were performed to explore the role to A. indica in AD. Results: A. indica exhibited anxiolytic activity in the open field test in Col lesion animals, which was comparable to that of diazepam. In the Elevated plus maze test, A. indica significantly alleviated IB and Col-induced anxiety. IB and Col-induced depression was mitigated by A. indica, and the results were comparable to that of imipramine. In Morris’ water maze test, A. indica pre-treatment improved reference memory, working memory and spatial learning, which are at par with the effects of donepezil. Both IB and Col-induced deficits in active avoidance learning and retention of learned behavior were significantly reversed by A. indica. IB and Col-induced increased lipid peroxidase activity was significantly reversed by A. indica (reductions in malondialdehyde level). A. indica stabilized rise in superoxide dismutase and a decreasing trend in acetylcholine-esterase (AChE) activity was seen with IB and Col lesions. A. indica had no effect over the AChE activity. Conclusion: A. indica might be effective in clinical AD by virtue of its cognition enhancement, antidepressant and antianxiety properties. PMID:23776838

  18. Role of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, M; Maiti, Rituparna; Kumar, Shafalika; Acharya, Sb

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, is often accompanied by behavioral disorders and mood changes. Because of the non-availability of proper curative/preventive therapy for AD, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of Azadirachta indica in experimental AD in rats. Experimental AD in rats was produced by nucleus basalis magnacellularis lesion with ibotenic acid (IB) and intacerebroventricular administration of colchicine (Col). Different behavioral tests and biochemical analysis were performed to explore the role to A. indica in AD. A. indica exhibited anxiolytic activity in the open field test in Col lesion animals, which was comparable to that of diazepam. In the Elevated plus maze test, A. indica significantly alleviated IB and Col-induced anxiety. IB and Col-induced depression was mitigated by A. indica, and the results were comparable to that of imipramine. In Morris' water maze test, A. indica pre-treatment improved reference memory, working memory and spatial learning, which are at par with the effects of donepezil. Both IB and Col-induced deficits in active avoidance learning and retention of learned behavior were significantly reversed by A. indica. IB and Col-induced increased lipid peroxidase activity was significantly reversed by A. indica (reductions in malondialdehyde level). A. indica stabilized rise in superoxide dismutase and a decreasing trend in acetylcholine-esterase (AChE) activity was seen with IB and Col lesions. A. indica had no effect over the AChE activity. A. indica might be effective in clinical AD by virtue of its cognition enhancement, antidepressant and antianxiety properties.

  19. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Variability in Neem (Azadirachta indica) with respect to azadirachtin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, O P; Kumar, Vishal; Behl, Hari M

    2003-02-12

    There is a controversy over variations in azadirachtin content in neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds among various provenances and countries. Also, variations in azadirachtins are usually attributed to climatic conditions such as temperature and humidity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate qualitative and quantitative variability in azadirachtins A and B among various neem provenances or individual neem trees. Forty-three provenances of India were examined for intraprovenance variability in azadirachtin A and B content and oil percentage. Twenty-eight individual neem trees from five provenances of different agroclimatic regions were also examined for interprovenance variability. The azadirachtins were quantified using reversed phase analytical HPLC. There were wide variations in oil and azadirachtin contents among different provenances. Azadirachtin A ranged from 556.9 to 3030.8 mg kg(-)(1) of kernels, whereas azadirachtin B was in the range 43.1-590.6 mg kg(-)(1) of kernel among the provenances investigated. Analysis of variance among various neem provenances showed significant differences in oil content, azadirachtin A, total azadirachtin (A + B), and A:B ratio. There were individuals with high and low azadirachtins within a single provenance, and this trend was observed in all of the provenances selected from five agroclimatic regions of the country. Variations among individual trees of a particular provenance indicated that climatic factors such as rainfall, humidity, or temperature did not influence azadirachtin content in the neem trees. The present study shows that there are individual genetic differences among neem trees. A systematic study for tree improvement with a population of mother trees with desired traits should be undertaken by performing half-sib progeny trials and further selections by clonal propagations. The role of genetic makeup needs further research.

  1. How much Dillenia indica seed predation occurs from Asian elephant dung?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Giam, Xingli; Sharma, Netra Prasad; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Elephants are thought to be effective seed dispersers, but research on whether elephant dung effectively protects seeds from seed predation is lacking. Quantifying rates of seed predation from elephant dung will facilitate comparisons between elephants and alternative dispersers, helping us understand the functional role of megaherbivores in ecosystems. We conducted an experiment to quantify the predation of Dillenia indica seeds from elephant dung in Buxa Reserve, India from December 2012 to April 2013. Using dung boluses from the same dung pile, we compared the number of seeds in boluses that are a) opened immediately upon detection (control boluses), b) made available only to small seed predators (indica. Exposure to larger seed predators and secondary dispersers did not lead to a significant additional reduction in the number of seeds per dung bolus. Our findings suggest that post-dispersal seed predation by small insects (indica in a tropical moist forest habitat.

  2. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  3. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771) published by Vahabi et al. (2015) in BMC Plant Biology [1].

  4. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabat Vahabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771 published by Vahabi et al. (2015 in BMC Plant Biology [1].

  5. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae and Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to analyze genetic diversity within Lagerstroemia cultivars and related species. Methods and Results: Using simple sequence repeat (SSR-enriched libraries, 11 species-specific polymorphic genomic SSRs were developed from L. indica ‘Hong Die Fei Wu’. All primers were tested on 48 L. indica individuals from China, the United States, and France. The primers amplified four to 12 alleles per locus, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1875 to 0.7609 and 0.2836 to 0.8385, respectively. The primers were also highly cross-transferrable to L. subcostata, L. limii, L. fauriei, L. caudata, and L. speciosa. Conclusions: The new primers will enlarge the bank of SSRs available to genetic research of Lagerstroemia. These SSR markers will facilitate population genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection of L. indica.

  6. Preconditioning with Azadirachta indica ameliorates cardiorenal dysfunction through reduction in oxidative stress and extracellular signal regulated protein kinase signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temidayo Olutayo Omóbòwálé

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Together, A. indica and vitamin C prevented IRI-induced cardiorenal dysfunction via reduction in oxidative stress, improvement in antioxidant defence system and increase in the ERK1/2 expressions. Therefore, A. indica can be a useful chemopreventive agent in the prevention and treatment of conditions associated with intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

  7. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. and Manihot esculenta Extracts on Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Zenon Machado; da Trindade, Lenilson Santos; Santana, Genelane Cruz; Padilha, Francine Ferreira; da Costa Mendonça, Marcelo; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; López, Jorge A.; Macedo, Maria Lucila Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Background: The chemical composition of plants used in traditional medicine exhibits biologically active compounds, such as tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids and becomes a promising approach to treat microbial infections, mainly with drug-resistant bacteria. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) as antimicrobial potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolated and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Hydroethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection, Fourier transform infrared, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and ultraviolet-visible methods. The antimicrobial activity against four strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the microdilution method at minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results: Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids were detected in the plant extracts. T. indica extract at 500 μg/mL showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa; however, M. esculenta showed only activity against P. aeruginosa in this concentration. Conclusions: Our results suggested that polyphenols and flavonoids present in T. indica leaf extracts are a potential source of antimicrobial compound. The T. indica extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while M. esculenta had effect only on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. SUMMARY Antibacterial effect of T. indica and M. esculenta leaf extract was evaluated.T. indica extract displayed activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains.M. esculenta showed effect on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. Abbreviations Used: BHI: Agar brain heart infusion, CAPES: Coordination for the improvement of higher education personnel, DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, FAPITEC/SE: Foundation for support to research and technological innovation of the state of

  8. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. and Manihot esculenta Extracts on Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Zenon Machado; da Trindade, Lenilson Santos; Santana, Genelane Cruz; Padilha, Francine Ferreira; da Costa Mendonça, Marcelo; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; López, Jorge A; Macedo, Maria Lucila Hernández

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of plants used in traditional medicine exhibits biologically active compounds, such as tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids and becomes a promising approach to treat microbial infections, mainly with drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) as antimicrobial potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolated and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Hydroethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection, Fourier transform infrared, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and ultraviolet-visible methods. The antimicrobial activity against four strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the microdilution method at minimum inhibitory concentrations. Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids were detected in the plant extracts. T. indica extract at 500 μg/mL showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa; however, M. esculenta showed only activity against P. aeruginosa in this concentration. Our results suggested that polyphenols and flavonoids present in T. indica leaf extracts are a potential source of antimicrobial compound. The T. indica extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while M. esculenta had effect only on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. Antibacterial effect of T. indica and M. esculenta leaf extract was evaluated.T. indica extract displayed activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains.M. esculenta showed effect on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. Abbreviations Used: BHI: Agar brain heart infusion, CAPES: Coordination for the improvement of higher education personnel, DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, FAPITEC/SE: Foundation for support to research and technological innovation of the state of sergipe, FTIR: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, HPLC: High

  9. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 μM 2,4-D and 0.1 μM BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica.

  10. Synthesis and paste properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified early Indica rice starch*

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qi-He; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing; Xu, Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified early Indica rice starch was prepared in aqueous slurry systems using response surface methodology. The paste properties of the OSA starch were also investigated. Results indicated that the suitable parameters for the preparation of OSA starch from early Indica rice starch were as follows: reaction period 4 h, reaction temperature 33.4 °C, pH of reaction system 8.4, concentration of starch slurry 36.8% (in proportion to water, w/w), amount of OSA 3% (...

  11. Indicações de ceratoplastia: estudo retrospectivo em um Hospital Universitário

    OpenAIRE

    Zeschau, Anderson; Balestrin, Illan George; Stock, Ricardo Alexandre; Bonamigo, Elcio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil demográfico-epidemiológico e as indicações de ceratoplastia no Hospital Universitário Santa Terezinha de Joaçaba/SC no período de outubro de 2006 a abril de 2011. MÉTODOS: Os prontuários foram examinados no Centro Oftalmológico Belloto Stock de Joaçaba (SC) e os pacientes foram acompanhados antes e depois da ceratoplastia. Os dados analisados foram cidade de origem, idade, gênero, etnia e indicação da ceratoplastia. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados os prontuários de 8...

  12. A review of Acalypha indica L. (Euphorbiaceae) as traditional medicinal plant and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahidin, Nor Syahiran; Saidin, Syafiqah; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Ya'akob, Harisun; Nur, Hadi

    2017-07-31

    Acalypha indica is an herbal plant that grows in wet, temperate and tropical region, primarily along the earth's equator line. This plant is considered by most people as a weed and can easily be found in these regions. Although this plant is a weed, Acalypha indica has been acknowledged by local people as a useful source of medicine for several therapeutic treatments. They consume parts of the plant for many therapeutics purposes such as anthelmintic, anti-ulcer, bronchitis, asthma, wound healing, anti-bacterial and other applications. As this review was being conducted, most of the reports related to ethnomedicinal practices were from Asian and African regions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current studies on ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry, pharmacological studies and a potential study of Acalypha indica in different locations around the world. This review updates related information regarding the potential therapeutic treatments and also discusses the toxicity issue of Acalypha indica. This review was performed through a systematic search related to Acalypha indica including the ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies around the world. The data was collected from online journals, magazines, and books, all of which were published in English, Malay and Indonesian. Search engine websites such as Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Researchgate and other online collections were utilized in this review to obtain information. The links between ethnomedicinal practices and scientific studies have been discussed with a fair justification. Several pharmacological properties exhibited certain potentials based on the obtained results that came from different related studies. Based on literature studies, Acalypha indica has the capability to serve as anthelmintic, anti-inflammation, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-obesity, anti-venom, hepatoprotective, hypoxia, and wound

  13. Evaluation of biological control of Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L.) by applying flower-eater mite (Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev) (Acari: Eriophyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Asadi; R. Ghorbani; S. Khorramdel

    2016-01-01

    Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L.) is a perennial weed of Aceraceae that is becoming a dominant weed in suitable conditions. In order to find an ecological non-chemical approach for controlling Russian knapweed and studying the possibility of using flower-eater mite (Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev) (Acari: Eriophyidae), a series of studies including field survey and field experiments were conducted in North Khorasan province, Agricultural Research Station of Shirvan College duri...

  14. Two new families (Acari: Alicorhagiidae and Platyhelminthes: Prorhynchidae reported for the Hungarian fauna From leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfliegler, W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new members of the Hungarian fauna are reported, both of them were collected in beech forest leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains, North-East Hungary: Alicorhagia fragilis Berlese, 1910 (Arthropoda: Arachnida: Acari: Sarcoptiformes: Endeostigmata: Alicorhagiidae and Geocentrophora baltica (Kennel, 1883 (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Trepaxonemata: Amplimatricata: 'Lecithoepitheliata': Prorhynchida: Prorhynchidae. The families Alicorhagiidae and Prorhynchidae both represent new taxa in the fauna of the country.

  15. Secondary structure of expansion segment D1 in LSU rDNA from Arachnida and its phylogenetic application in Eriophyoid mites and in Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Hang; Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Yang; Hu, Li; Chen, Yi-Meng

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of researchers have applied secondary-structure based multiple alignments of rDNA genes in phylogeny. These studies mostly depended on a few valuable divergent domains in LSU and SSU rDNA. Yet other divergent domains, e.g. D1, were poorly investigated and rarely used. However, these domains might contain additional evolutionary data and play a vital role in DNA-based phylogenetic study. Here, we investigated all available D1 sequences of Arachnida taxa and predicted corresponding secondary structures to help identify homologous positions in the D1 region. Long insertions were found exclusive to Eriophyoidea and folded into three newly proposed helices. Non-Acari taxa were all GC rich. In Acari, most Trombidiformes and all Mesostigmata (Parasitiformes) taxa were AT rich and Ixodida (Parasitiformes) GC rich; however there was no consistent base bias in Sarcoptiformes sequences. For Eriophyoid mites, genera Cecidophyopsis and Aceria were both well supported in MP, NJ, ME and ML tress based on D1 sequences, and clusters of Cecidophyopsis species were identical with former study. This demonstrated that the D1 region could act as a valuable molecular marker in phylogenetic reconstruction of Eriophyoidea. Additionally, D1 has been proven suitable in phylogenetic analysis at the family and genus level in Acari, but not in Opiliones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of companion animals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greay, Telleasha L; Oskam, Charlotte L; Gofton, Alexander W; Rees, Robert L; Ryan, Una M; Irwin, Peter J

    2016-05-10

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting companion animals, and also cause health problems such as tick paralysis, anaemia, dermatitis, and secondary infections. Twenty ixodid species have previously been recorded on dogs, cats, and horses in Australia, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes holocyclus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, which transmit tick-borne diseases. A survey of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) was conducted during 2012-2015 to investigate tick species that infest dogs, cats, and horses in Australia. Individual tick specimens were collected from dogs, cats and horses across Australia and sample collection locations were mapped using QGIS software. Ticks were morphologically examined to determine species, instar and sex. The companion animal owners responded to questionnaires and data collected were summarised with SPSS software. A total of 4765 individual ticks were identified in this study from 7/8 states and territories in Australia. Overall, 220 larvae, 805 nymphs, 1404 males, and 2336 females of 11 tick species were identified from 837 companion animal hosts. One novel host record was obtained during this study for Ixodes myrmecobii, which was found on Felis catus (domestic cat) in the town of Esperance, Western Australia. The most common tick species identified included R. sanguineus on dogs (73 %), I. holocyclus on cats (81 %) and H. longicornis on horses (60 %). This study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Australia and our results contribute to the understanding of the species and distribution of ticks that parasitise dogs, cats, and horses in Australia. Records of R. sanguineus outside of the recorded distribution range emphasise the need for a systematic study of the habitat range of this species. Several incomplete descriptions of ixodid species encountered in this study hindered morphological identification.

  17. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic (Liliaceae against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Nchu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (DCM extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98 with increasing concentration (40.03% – 86.96% yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks and 87.5% (female ticks in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  18. Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae on Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA. Silva

    Full Text Available Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook, is an ornamental Asteraceae of great commercial value, and pests can affect adversely its cultivation. More than 20 species of arthropods cause economic damage on gerbera, among them the two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae, considered a key pest for this and other ornamental plants. In this work, some life-cycle aspects of T. urticae on gerbera, considered important for the knowledge of its population dynamics and for pest management programs, were studied. Mites were reared on 3-cm diameter arenas of gerbera leaf discs maintained on distilled water in Petri dishes, under laboratory conditions of 25 ºC, 70 ± 10% RU and 14-hour photophase, with only one egg left per arena, in a total of 262 arenas. Egg viability was 96.5% and 97.1% for unmated and mated females, respectively. Unmated females originated larvae which lived for 3.2 days and the stages of protonymph and deutonymph, 1.9 and 1.6 days, respectively; those from mated females lived 3.5 days and for protonymphs and deutonymphs, 2.0 and 1.6 days, respectively. Except for the duration of one generation (T, with similar values, 18.6 and 19.7 days, respectively for unmated and mated females, the net reproductive rate of increase (Rº, the innate capacity to increase in number (r m and the finite rate of growth (λ were different for mated and unmated females, respectively 11.5 and 24.6 for R0; 0.12 and 0.17 for r m and 1.13 and 1.19 for λ.

  19. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv. Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae. Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates wereevaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mortality due to mycoses, corrected for mortality in the control variant. Virulence of the isolates was estimated based on values of the median lethal time (LT50 calculated by probit analysis for the variants treated with conidial suspensions at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml.The two-spotted spider mite was found susceptible to the examined isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. Mycosis caused to T. urticae by the B. bassiana isolates 444 Bb and 445 Bb had fast lethal effect after treatment with conidial suspensions even at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml. The mean mortality values of host individuals were 83.78 ± 3.62% and 68.49 ± 4.28% on the first day, respectively, and up to 100% in both variants on the fourth day.The isolates 426 Bb, 444 Bb and 445 Bb of B. bassiana were highly virulent to two-spotted spider mites with values of the median lethal time varied within overlapped narrow confidence intervals from 0.122 to 1.084 days (average value 0.162 days, from 0.117 to 1.398 days (average value 0.146 days and from 0.106 to 1.162 days (average value 0.131 days,respectively. Significant differences regarding virulence of the three isolates at p-level < 0.05 could not been proved. The other two examined isolates were distinctly less virulent to T. urticae than these three B. bassiana isolates.

  20. Prevalence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia, and Rickettsial agents in Amblyomma americanum (Acari : Ixodidae) collected from nine states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.

  1. Bloodmeal Size and Spirochete Acquisition of Ornithodoros hermsi (Acari: Argasidae) During Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Lopez, Job E.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2011-01-01

    Ornithodoros hermsi Wheeler (Acari: Argasidae) is the vector of Borrelia hermsii, the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in North America. This tick is one of the smallest Ornithodoros species involved with the biological transmission of spirochetes; yet, the amount of blood ingested while feeding is unknown. Therefore, we determined the amount of blood O. hermsi ingested during a bloodmeal to establish its potential for spirochete acquisition while feeding on an infected host. Ticks at different developmental stages were weighed before and after feeding and the volume of blood ingested was calculated. Females ingested the most blood, averaging ≈15 µl per meal, but late-stage nymphs took in the most blood in proportion to unfed body weight. A cohort of nymphs was weighed three more times during the 48 h after feeding, which demonstrated that O. hermsi may have excreted coxal fluid ranging from 24 –36% of the bloodmeal weight. We also developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method to determine the number of spirochetes ingested and maintained within the ticks after feeding. The density of spirochetes in ticks having just engorged was slightly less than in the host’s blood. In the first 5 d after feeding, the number of spirochetes within the ticks declined from the number initially ingested but then remained constant through 15 d. These observations establish a basis for future studies to determine the minimum number of spirochetes required in the host’s blood to allow O. hermsi to become persistently infected and transmit during subsequent bloodmeals. PMID:21175068

  2. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  3. A genetic map and germplasm diversity estimation of Mangifera indica (mango) with SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is often referred to as the “King of Fruits”. As the first steps in developing a mango genomics project, we genotyped 582 individuals comprising six mapping populations with 1054 SNP markers. The resulting consensus map had 20 linkage groups defined by 726 SNP markers with...

  4. Effect of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica and plant ash on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedlings of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp attacked by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus were treated with water extracts of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and plant ash separately. The extract was found to exhibit an insecticidal effect. It has an antifeedant and growth regulating effects on the pulse beetle.

  5. Studies on the anti-sickling effects of Azadirachta indica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of hemoglobin S polymerization in the presence of ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica and Vernonia amygdalina were used as the basis for ascertaining the possible anti-sickling properties of the two plant species on HbSS erythrocytes. In vitro HbS polymerization was induced by 2% sodium ...

  6. In vitro azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in nutrient mist bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-01-01

    Azadirachtin, a well-known biopesticide is a secondary metabolite conventionally extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. The present study involved in vitro azadirachtin production by developing hairy roots of A. indica via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. indica explants. Liquid culture of hairy roots was established in shake flask to study the kinetics of growth and azadirachtin production. A biomass production of 13.3 g/L dry weight (specific growth rate of 0.7 day(-1)) was obtained after 25 days of cultivation period with an azadirachtin yield of 3.3 mg/g root biomass. To overcome the mass transfer limitation in conventionally used liquid-phase reactors, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in gas-phase reactors (nutrient spray and nutrient mist bioreactor) to investigate the possible scale-up of A. indica hairy root culture. The nano-size nutrient mist particles generated from the nozzle of the nutrient mist bioreactor could penetrate till the inner core of the inoculated root matrix, facilitating uniform growth during high-density cultivation of hairy roots. A biomass production of 9.8 g/L dry weight with azadirachtin accumulation of 2.8 mg/g biomass (27.4 mg/L) could be achieved in 25 days of batch cultivation period, which was equivalent to a volumetric productivity of 1.09 mg/L per day of azadirachtin.

  7. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  8. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Selma; Khalil, Eltahir A; Khalid, Sami A; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Mohieldein, Abdlmarouf; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Seke Etet, Paul Faustin; Farahna, Mohammed

    2013-08-29

    Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells' fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices.

  9. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity.

  10. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S. [P.G. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pawate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations. (author)

  11. Synthesis of natural products from the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Gemma E; Pinto, Andrea; Boyer, Alistair; Beckmann, Edith; Anderson, James C; Ley, Steven V

    2008-02-21

    The synthesis of five natural products (3, 6, 7, 10, and 14), isolated from the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica, is reported from a common intermediate (2). The judicious choice of transacetalization conditions allows efficient access to both the azadirachtinin (9 and 10) and the azadirachtin (3, 6, 7, and 14) skeletons.

  12. The effect of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf meal on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the growth performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens. The neem leaf meal was used in replacing parts of wheat offal in the diets of 192 day-old broiler chickens fed ad libitum at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% levels of ...

  13. Effect of Neem ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  14. Ecology of Pleuromamma indica Wolfenden (Copepoda - Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswathy, M.; Iyer, H.K.

    Pleuromamma indica was the only species among the 7 species of the genus, recorded in the area, to be present in 2 restricted areas, one near the mouth of the Gulf of Oman in the Arabian Sea and the other in the Bay of Bengal. High productivity...

  15. Is oxidative stress involved in the loss of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Aelst, van A.C.; Vos, de C.H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a valuable multipurpose tree of tropical arid and semi-arid regions. The use of its seeds is hindered by their short storage longevity. The possible causes of rapid loss of viability were investigated on different seed lots during exposure to 32% and 75% RH at 20°C.

  16. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  17. Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L) Kuntze in Mice. Chung-Shih Chen, Mei-Lin Wang, Rosa Huang Liu, Shih-Pin Chen, Tsong-Ming Lu, Wei-Yu Tsai, Chien-Fu Huang, Chi-Chiang Yang, Yew-Min Tzeng ...

  18. Ageing increases the sensitivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds to imbibitional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.; Golovina, E.A.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Imbibitional stress was imposed on neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds by letting them soak for 1 h in water at unfavourable, low temperatures before further incubation at 30degreesC. Sensitivity to low imbibition temperatures increased with a decrease in seed moisture content (MC). To investigate a

  19. Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of bioactives from leaves of Mangifera indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, G M; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Dethe, Shekhar M; Sangli, Gopala K; Abhilash, K; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    In the earlier studies, methanolic extract of Mangifera indica L leaf was exhibited hypocholesterol activity. However, the bioactive compounds responsible for the same are not reported so far. To isolate the bioactive compounds with hypocholesterol activity from the leaf extract using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay which can be used for the standardization of extract. The leaf methanolic extract of M. indica (Sindoora variety) was partitioned with ethyl acetate and chromatographed on silica gel to yield twelve fractions and the activity was monitored by using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. Active fractions were re-chromatographed to yield individual compounds. A major compound mangiferin present in the extract was screened along with other varieties of mango leaves for cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. However, the result indicates that compounds other than mangiferin may be active in the extract. Invitro pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibition assay was used for bioactivity guided fractionation (BAGF) to yield bioactive compound for standardization of extract. Bioactivity guided fractionation afford the active fraction containing 3b-taraxerol with an IC50 value of 0.86μg/ml. This study demonstrates that M. indica methanol extract of leaf have significant hypocholesterol activity which is standardized with 3b-taraxerol, a standardized extract for hypocholesterol activity resulted in development of dietary supplement from leaves of Mangifera indica.

  20. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  1. Mangifera indica L. (the mango plant) of Anacardiaceae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mangifera indica L. (the mango plant) of Anacardiaceae is a large spreading evergreen tree with simple leaves and small reddish white or yellowish green flowers borne on much-branched inflorescences. More than 500 varieties of mango are cultivated in Indiafor their large, sweet, edible fruits which are of high economic ...

  2. The extraction of proteins from the neem seed ( Indica azadirachta A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for maximizing the extraction of protein from the neem seed (Indica azadirachta A. Juss) were investigated. Extractants used were sodium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions of varying concentration and pH. Maximum extractions of 17.86 g of extractable protein was obtained from 1 kg of crude protein, using ...

  3. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaf of azadirachta indica on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extract of the leaf of Azadirachta indica on haematological indices of rats. Twenty four adult male rats (weighing between 100 and 120g) were randomly but equally divided into four groups of six rats per group. Rats in group I (control) were administered with ...

  4. Effects of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the groCulex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neem tree Azadirachta indica Juss (Meliaceae) is one of the most studied plant species for pest control, including mosquitoes. However, the effect of aqueous neem seed extracts (ANSE) on each of the 4 instars of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is unknown. In order to determine the effect of ...

  5. The OXI1 kinase pathway mediates Piriformospora indica-induced growth promotion in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camehl, I.; Drzewiecki, C.; Vadassery, J.; Shahollari, B.; Sherameti, I.; Forzani, C.; Munnik, T.; Hirt, H.; Oelmüller, R.

    2011-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen

  6. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp(AP-BL)) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp(AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp(AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  7. Structure and digestion of hybrid Indica rice starch and its biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Qirong; Xu, Jinchuan; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Sumei; Liu, Xingxun

    2016-12-01

    The fine structure (including contents, size and chains length distribution) of amylose and amylopectin of Hybrid Indica Rice starch have an impact on digestion properties of Indica Rice. Indica Rice starches with different amylose contents were chosen as model materials in this study. The amylose and amylopectin size were characterized using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), the fine structure of amylopectin were studied by flurophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and parameterized by amylopectin biosynthesis model to identify associations with starch digestibility. The digestograms of all starches fit first-order kinetics. All results show that the hybrid Indica rice starch with higher amylose content has a slower digestion rate. SEC results show that there is no obviously in chains length distribution (CLD) for amylopectin, but a significantly sharp difference in amylose. No difference in amylopectin was also observed from FACE result. The amylose starch controlled by GBSSI enzyme may be the key parameter to influence starch digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) varieties as a source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) serves as a source of food, feed, as well as a means of additional income to the people in northern Ethiopia. The species has different varieties with varied rate of productivity and palatability. This study was conducted to assess the food and feed value of the Cactus Pear varieties in ...

  10. Deletion of a target gene in Indica rice via CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Geng, Lizhao; Yuan, Menglong; Wei, Juan; Jin, Chen; Li, Min; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Ya; Jin, Huaibing; Wang, Eric; Chai, Zhijian; Fu, Xiangdong; Li, Xianggan

    2017-08-01

    Using CRISPR/Cas9, we successfully deleted large fragments of the yield-related gene DENSE AND ERECT PANICLE1 in Indica rice at relatively high frequency and generated gain-of-function dep1 mutants. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 is a rapidly developing technology used to produce gene-specific modifications in both mammalian and plant systems. Most CRISPR-induced modifications in plants reported to date have been small insertions or deletions. Few large target gene deletions have thus far been reported, especially for Indica rice. In this study, we designed multiple CRISPR sgRNAs and successfully deleted DNA fragments in the gene DENSE AND ERECT PANICLE1 (DEP1) in the elite Indica rice line IR58025B. We achieved deletion frequencies of up to 21% for a 430 bp target and 9% for a 10 kb target among T0 events. Constructs with four sgRNAs did not generate higher full-length deletion frequencies than constructs with two sgRNAs. The multiple mutagenesis frequency reached 93% for four targets, and the homozygous mutation frequency reached 21% at the T0 stage. Important yield-related trait characteristics, such as dense and erect panicles and reduced plant height, were observed in dep1 homozygous T0 mutant plants produced by CRISPR/Cas9. Therefore, we successfully obtained deletions in DEP1 in the Indica background using the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool at relatively high frequency.

  11. Opprimo ergo sum--evasion and suppression in the root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, Urs; Zuccaro, Alga

    2012-06-01

    The genetically tractable endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica is able to colonize the root cortex of a great variety of different plant species with beneficial effects to its hosts, and it represents a suitable model system to study symbiotic interactions. Recent cytological studies in barley and Arabidopsis showed that, upon penetration of the root, P. indica establishes a biotrophic interaction during which fungal cells are encased by the host plasma membrane. Large-scale transcriptional analyses of fungal and plant responses have shown that perturbance of plant hormone homeostasis and secretion of fungal lectins and other small proteins (effectors) may be involved in the evasion and suppression of host defenses at these early colonization steps. At later stages, P. indica is found more often in moribund host cells where it secretes a large variety of hydrolytic enzymes that degrade proteins. This strategy of colonizing plants is reminiscent of that of hemibiotrophic fungi, although a defined shift to necrotrophy with massive host cell death is missing. Instead, the association with the plant root leads to beneficial effects for the host such as growth promotion, increased resistance to root as well as leaf pathogens, and increased tolerance to abiotic stresses. This review describes current advances in understanding the components of the P. indica endophytic lifestyle from molecular and genomic analyses.

  12. Effect of Pollen from Different Plant Species on Development of Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae Efecto del Polen de Diferentes Especies Vegetales sobre el Desarrollo de Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermúdez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a phytoseiid mite with a high potential in controlling the false Chilean mite (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different plant species pollen as a complementary food in the development of T. pyri when its prey is in low levels of availability. Mites were individually placed on black plastic boxes with pollen and maintained at a temperature of 26 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L:D. Postembryonic development of T. pyri was studied in 11 pollen species, as well as in a mixed diet of Hirschfeldia incana (L. and B. chilensis. Results show that H. incana was the only pollen in which there was no mortality (P > 0.05 along with the control (Oxalis pes-caprae L.. Mean duration from egg to adult with H. incana was 8.70 ± 1.66 d, protonymph 3.27 ± 0.21 d, and deutonymph 2.90 ± 1.45 d (P > 0.05. The mix feeding of T. pyri did not show any significant differences neither in the mean time from egg to adult, nor in mortality by feeding only with B. chilensis. Survival curves of T. pyri fed only with H. incana pollen, combined with B. chilensis, and only with B. chilensis are higher in the first 14 d of life. The sex ratio was not significantly affected by being fed only with H. incana pollen, B. chilensis, or by a combination of both.Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un ácaro que presenta un alto potencial de uso para el control de la falsa arañita roja de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del polen de diferentes especies vegetales como alimento complementario para T. pyri cuando escasea su presa. Los parámetros post-embrionarios de T. pyri se estudiaron en 11 especies de polen, en una dieta mixta de polen de Hirschfeldia incana (L. y B. chilensis. Los ácaros se colocaron individualmente sobre

  13. Acari; Tetranychidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a serious pest of vegetables, fruits and field crops in. Ghana but hardly noticed ... were collected from four suburbs in Accra (Opeibea, Ashaiman, University of Ghana Farm and Department of Crop Science Sinna ... greenhouse production and field, vine, and orchard crops ...

  14. Projeto de caixa de madeira para manga (Mangifera Indica L. Project of wooden boxes for mangoes (Mangifera Indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Janet Teruel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As perdas de produtos hortícolas no Brasil são significativas e dentre as causas cita-se o uso de caixas inadequadas e ausência da cadeia do frio. Propõe-se um método de projeto de caixas, baseado em simulação computacional, otimização e validação experimental, minimizando o volume de madeira, associado a aspectos estruturais, ergonômicos e distribuição da área de aberturas. Foram projetados e construídos três protótipos de caixas (ripas retas com diferentes configurações e área efetiva de abertura de 54% e 36%. A eficiência do resfriamento de mangas variedade Tommy Atkins (Mangifera Indica L., foi avaliada determinando o tempo de resfriamento, acondicionando as frutas nas caixas de madeira desenvolvidas e de papelão usadas comercialmente, resfriadas com ar forçado à temperatura de 6ºC e umidade relativa média de 85,4±2,1%. Foi aplicado o Método de Elementos Finitos, para dimensionamento e otimização estrutural do modelo com melhor comportamento durante o resfriamento. Todas as caixas de madeira foram submetidas a ensaios de vibração, por duas horas (freqüência de 20 Hz. Não houve diferença significativa no tempo de resfriamento das frutas nas caixas de madeira (38,00±1,70 min, no entanto houve diferença significativa nas caixas de papelão (82,74±29,58 min. O modelo submetido à otimização estrutural (6% área efetiva e duas ripas laterais teve diminuição de volume de 60% e 83% de redução da seção transversal das colunas, com relação às condições iniciais. Não houve incidência de danos de mecânicos nas frutas após a vibração. A simulação computacional e estrutural pode ser ferramenta de apoio para desenvolver projetos de caixas, com grande aproximação, atendendo a critérios geométricos, ergonômicos e térmicos.Losses of horticulture product in Brazil are significant and among the main causes are the use of inappropriate boxes and the absence of a cold chain. A project for boxes

  15. Primer registro del hongo Neozygites sp. (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales, patógeno de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae en la República Argentina First record of Neozygites sp. (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales, pathogen of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Scorsetti

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se cita por primera vez para la Argentina la presencia del hongo entomopatógeno Neozygites cf. floridana (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales como patógeno de la «arañuela roja», Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, importante plaga de cultivos hortícolas en la región. Los muestreos fueron realizados en el cinturón hortícola del Gran La Plata sobre cultivos de tomate, pimiento, berenjena, y otras hortalizas. El material de herbario, como preparaciones microscópicas y ácaros infectados fue depositado en el Herbario del Instituto de Botánica C. Spegazzini y en el herbario micológico del CEPAVE. Este trabajo contribuye a ampliar la distribución y el espectro de hospedadores de Neozygites , así como ampliar la información de los hongos entomopatógenos en la Argentina.In this paper, the presence of the fungi Neozygites cf. floridana (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales, as pathogen of the mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, is recorded for first time in Argentina. Samplings were carried out in La Plata , on tomato, pepper, egg-plant, and other horticultural crops. Microscopic slides and mites infected were placed in the Herbarium of the Institute of Botany C. Spegazzini and in the Herbarium of CEPAVE. This work contributes to further expand the distribution and the host range of Neozygites as well as the information of entomopathogenic fungi in Argentina.

  16. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2017-06-28

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  17. Extensive sequence divergence between the reference genomes of two elite indica rice varieties Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Xing, Feng; Kudrna, David A; Yao, Wen; Copetti, Dario; Mu, Ting; Li, Weiming; Song, Jia-Ming; Xie, Weibo; Lee, Seunghee; Talag, Jayson; Shao, Lin; An, Yue; Zhang, Chun-Liu; Ouyang, Yidan; Sun, Shuai; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Lv, Fang; Du, Bogu; Luo, Meizhong; Maldonado, Carlos Ernesto; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Xiong, Lizhong; Wu, Changyin; Xing, Yongzhong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu; Yu, Sibin; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Gongwei; Yu, Yeisoo; Luo, Yijie; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Hurtado, Beatriz Elena Padilla; Danowitz, Ann; Wing, Rod A; Zhang, Qifa

    2016-08-30

    Asian cultivated rice consists of two subspecies: Oryza sativa subsp. indica and O. sativa subsp. japonica Despite the fact that indica rice accounts for over 70% of total rice production worldwide and is genetically much more diverse, a high-quality reference genome for indica rice has yet to be published. We conducted map-based sequencing of two indica rice lines, Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and Minghui 63 (MH63), which represent the two major varietal groups of the indica subspecies and are the parents of an elite Chinese hybrid. The genome sequences were assembled into 237 (ZS97) and 181 (MH63) contigs, with an accuracy >99.99%, and covered 90.6% and 93.2% of their estimated genome sizes. Comparative analyses of these two indica genomes uncovered surprising structural differences, especially with respect to inversions, translocations, presence/absence variations, and segmental duplications. Approximately 42% of nontransposable element related genes were identical between the two genomes. Transcriptome analysis of three tissues showed that 1,059-2,217 more genes were expressed in the hybrid than in the parents and that the expressed genes in the hybrid were much more diverse due to their divergence between the parental genomes. The public availability of two high-quality reference genomes for the indica subspecies of rice will have large-ranging implications for plant biology and crop genetic improvement.

  18. Comparative analysis of the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach by RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Jin; Xun, Hang; Sun, Jia; Tang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem) is the only source of azadirachtin, which is known for its insecticide activity. Melia azedarach is a related species of A. indica, widely distributed in the south of China. In this study, the leaf transcriptomes of these two Meliaceae plants were sequenced. More than 40 million clean reads were generated from each library. About 80 % of A. indica reads were mapped to the neem genome, while 93 % of M. azedarach reads were mapped to its assembled transcripts and unigenes dateset. After mapping and assembly, 225,972 transcripts and 91,607 unigenes of M. azedarach were obtained and 1179 new genes of A. indica were detected. Comparative analysis of the annotated differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that all six DEGs involved in terpenoid backbone biosynthesis were up-regulated in A. indica. Chemical analysis of the two plants revealed A. indica leaves contained 2.45 % total terpenoid and nearly 20-50 µg azadirachtin per gram, whereas azadirachtin was not detected in M. azedarach and total terpenoid content was reached 1.67 %. These results give us a better insight into the transcriptomes differences between A. indica and M. azedarach, and help us to understand the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in vivo.

  19. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjin; Abdelaziz, Mohamad E; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Guo, Xiujie; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-09-02

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes.

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    Dua, Virendra K; Pandey, Akhilesh C; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Gupta, Ashish; Sharma, Trilochan; Dash, Aditya P

    2009-06-08

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin) developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5-5.0 ppm) of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m(2) to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC(50) values of the formulation stored at 26 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 45 degrees C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC(90) values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC(50) and LC(90) values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m(2) in different breeding sites under natural

  1. Screening of antidepressant activity and estimation of quercetin from Coccinia indica using TLC densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Kudrat; Kumar, Deepak; Jamwal, Anupam; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Coccinia indica Naud (Cucurbitaceae) has been traditionally used for the treatment of depression but these claims have not been validated. The objective of this study is to investigate antidepressant activity of various extracts and fractions of C. indica aerial parts, and to estimate content of quercetin in the plant using TLC densitometry. Coccinia indica aerial parts were successively extracted using solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, methanol, and water. Various extracts were evaluated for antidepressant activity at doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o., upon acute administration in mice using the forced swim test (FST). The bioactive extract was partitioned successively using solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. All fractions were also screened for antidepressant activity at doses of 25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o., upon acute administration in mice. The methanol extract significantly reduced the duration of immobility in FST at dose of 400 mg/kg without affecting locomotor activity in open field test, thus, confirmed its antidepressant activity, which was statistically equivalent to the standard drug (imipramine, 15 mg/kg, i.p.). Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited antidepressant activity at 50 mg/kg. Comparative TLC fingerprint studies confirmed the presence of quercetin in methanol extract and EAF. Quercetin was used as a chemical marker to standardize C. indica aerial parts using the validated TLC densitometric method, and the content of quercetin was found to be 0.00172% w/w. The present studies scientifically validated traditional claims of C. indica for antidepressant activity.

  2. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

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    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  3. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, G M; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity.

  4. TAMBO VIEJO: UN ASENTAMIENTO FORTIFICADO EN EL VALLE DE ACARÍ, PERÚ (Tambo Viejo: A Fortified Settlement in the Acari Valley, Peru

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    Lidio M. Valdez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de los asentamientos fortificados y el origen del conflicto violento son temas poco discutidos en el contexto de la arqueología peruana. Considero que es oportuno investigar y determinar cuándo y por qué surgieron los primeros asentamientos fortificados. El propósito central de este artículo está precisamente orientado a responder tales interrogantes y discutir el tema del conflicto violento en el valle de Acarí y, por extensión, en la costa sur del Perú. Las evidencias arqueológicas disponibles señalan que, durante el periodo Intermedio Temprano, Tambo Viejo fue un asentamiento defendido por varias estructuras perimétricas. Otros sitios contemporáneos de Tambo Viejo en Acarí también fueron fortificados. Además, existe en el mismo valle evidencia tangible de violencia en la forma de prisioneros que posteriormente fueron decapitados. En contraste a la evidencia proveniente de Acarí, no existen asentamientos del periodo Intermedio Temprano identificables como fortificaciones, lo que hace de los sitios de Acarí los primeros asentamientos fortificados de toda la costa sur. ENGLISH: The emergence of violent conflict and of fortified settlements is a subject little studied within Peruvian archaeology. However, I consider it vital to investigate and determine the time and the reasons under which fortified settlements were first established. The central aim of this paper is to discuss when and why fortified settlements emerged first in the Acari Valley and, by extension, in the south coast of Peru. Available archaeological evidence indicates that during the Early Intermediate Period, Tambo Viejo was a fortified settlement protected by several massive walls. Other neighbouring sites in Acari were also fortified. Furthermore, in Acari there is conclusive evidence for violence in the form of decapitated individuals. In contrast to evidence coming from Acari, not a single Early Intermediate Period settlement from other

  5. Selection of strawberry cultivars with tolerance to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and high yield under different managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A F; Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Fornazier, M J; Andrade, J S; Martins, D S; Zanuncio Junior, J S

    2017-04-28

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered the main pest of strawberry. Several factors can favor its development, among them the genotype susceptibility and cropping system. The aims of this study were to evaluate the agronomic performance of strawberry cultivars under different managements and to identify strawberry cultivars that meet tolerance to T. urticae and high fruit yield. Thirteen cultivars of strawberry ('Albion', 'Aleluia', 'Aromas', 'Camarosa', 'Camino Real', 'Campinas', 'Diamante', 'Dover', 'Festival', 'Seascape', 'Toyonoka', 'Tudla', and 'Ventana') under three managements (open field, low tunnel, and high tunnel) were evaluated. The T. urticae attack to different cultivars was influenced by managements, being low tunnel the one that provided higher infestations in the most evaluated cultivars. 'Camarosa' was the cultivar with the lower incidence of pest and 'Dover' had the higher infestation. The genotype most suitable for growing under different managements is the 'Festival' genotype, since it meets tolerance to T. urticae, high fruit yield, and phenotypic stability.

  6. Peruvian oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) from the German Biological Expedition, with description of a new species of the genus Pergalumna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study is based on oribatid mite material (Acari, Oribatida) collected during the German Expedition in 2011 in Peru. An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites, including 16 species from 14 genera and 8 families, is provided. Thirteen species and two genera (Notohermannia, Zetomimus) are recorded for the first time in Peru; the genus Notohermannia and species Notohermannia obtusa are recorded for the first time in the Neotropical region. A new species of the genus Pergalumna (Galumnidae), Pergalumna paraboliviana sp. n., is described. The new species is most similar to Pergalumna boliviana Ermilov, 2013 from Bolivia, however, it differs from the latter by the body size, morphology of porose areas A1 and the presence of interlamellar setae. PMID:25829850

  7. Relationship between body colour, feeding, and reproductive arrest under short-day development in Tetranychus pueraricola (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Katsura; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Ryo; Saito, Yutaka

    2013-08-01

    In Tetranychus spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae), diapausing females have a conspicuous orange body colour, which is used as an indicator of diapause induction in many laboratory studies. However, to which extent body colour reflects reproductive activity is scarcely investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship between body colour, reproductive arrest, and food intake in the inbred strain of T. pueraricola individually reared at 20 °C with a 10:14 h light: dark photoperiod. Our results showed that (1) body colour is a good indicator of reproductive arrest 11 days after adult emergence but does not completely reflect reproductive status at an earlier age; (2) even orange females intermittently feed, and the arrest of feeding comes after the change in body colour; and (3) reproducing females have a higher risk of death than non-reproducing females. These results suggest that measurement of diapause incidence by body colour alone may miss the variation in reproductive status in early adult life.

  8. Efficacy of dry ice-baited traps for sampling Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) varies with life stage but not habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, B J; Allan, B F

    2011-05-01

    The carbon dioxide-baited trap is the most common and effective method for sampling vector life-stage Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), although confounding environmental variables are rarely considered. A mark-recapture experiment was designed to compare recapture proportions of A. americanum nymphs and adults between two habitat types: old field and oak-hickory forest. Powdered fluorescent dye was used to mark A. americanum ticks released in 1-m increments from carbon dioxide-baited traps. Adults were recaptured in significantly higher proportion than nymphs, but habitat type had no significant effect on recapture proportions. Tick abundance is an important parameter in the estimation of human risk of exposure to tick-borne disease and the influence of life stage on capture rates should be considered when calculating entomological risk.

  9. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-06-13

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabert, Miroslawa; Witalinski, Wojciech; Kazmierski, Andrzej; Olszanowski, Ziemowit; Dabert, Jacek

    2010-07-01

    Acariformes (one of the two main lineages of Acari) represent an exceptionally diverse group of Arachnida. We performed first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Acariformes using sequence data from the nuclear small subunit rRNA gene (18S rDNA) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, amino acids). Our analyses confirm the monophyly of Acariformes and recognize two orders within Acariformes: Sarcoptiformes, consisting of Endeostigmata and Oribatida+Astigmata, and Trombidiformes. The data revealed the origin of Astigmata within Oribatida with the desmonomatan superfamily Crotonioidea as the source of astigmatan radiation and the sexual family Hermanniidae as the sister group, which generally supports previous morphological hypotheses. These results were found despite the strong conflict between long-branch attraction (LBA) artifacts and phylogenetic signal. It is likely that the conflict resulted from differences in the substitution rates among acariform lineages, especially comparing slowly evolving Oribatida with rapidly evolving Astigmata. The use of likelihood methods considered more resistant to LBA only slightly decreased the chance of falling into the LBA trap; the probability of recovering the origin of Astigmata within Desmonomata differs only by about 10% from that of having the long branched Astigmata and Trombidiformes either connected directly or shifted to deep parts of the tree due to outgroup attraction. Molecular dating using the rate-smoothing method PATHd8 shows that Acariformes originated c. 435 MYA and were probably among the earliest arthropods invading terrestrial habitats in late Silurian or the Lower Devonian, when the first vascular plants are thought to have arisen. Our analyses did not support the monophyly of Acari because we recovered clades Acariformes-Solifugae and Parasitiformes-Pseudoscorpionida. However, a formal revision of arachnid classification that would reflect these results must await future analyses

  11. Ácaros oribátidos (Acari: Oribatei del Parque Nacional de la isla de Coiba, Panamá

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    L. Subías

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del programa para el inventario de la fauna y flora del Parque Nacional de la Isla de Coiba (Panamá, se presenta un primer listado de los ácaros oribátidos (Acari: Oribatei que habitan en el parque. El material objeto de este estudio, procede de diversos muestreos edáficos, incluyendo hojarasca y humus, realizados en el sitio en julio de 1998. Para un total de 1 053 ejemplares colectados en las muestras se han identificado 134 especies diferentes, de las cuales, practicamente todas son nuevas para Panamá y 8 especies se citan por vez primera en la región neotropical. Se da un nuevo nombre: Aeroppia mariehammerae n.nom. para Aeroppia sp. (Hammer, 1962 y una combinación nueva para Protoribates antillensis (Mahunka, 1985 n. comb. (XylobatesTaking part of the Program for The Inventory of Flora and Fauna of Coiba Island National Park (Panamá, a first list of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatei is presented. Materials studied come from several soil samplings, including humus and fallen leaves, done in Coiba Island in July 1998. 134 species were identified from a total amount of 1 053 individuals collected. Almost all the identified species are new records for Panamá as well as eigth species that represent first records for the Neotropical Region. A new name is given: Aeroppia mariehammerae n. nom. for Aeroppia sp. and a new combination is proposed: Protoribates antillensis (Mahunka, 1985 n. comb. (Xylobates

  12. Efek Antioksidan Kombinasi Ekstrak Etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica pada Fungsi Hati Tikus Pascahipoksia Sistemik

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    Agnes Frethernety

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hipoksia adalah defisiensi suplai oksigen ke dalam sel atau jaringan karena gagalnya sistem respirasi yang membawa oksigen sehingga mengakibatkan kerusakan jaringan. Hati merupakan organ yang sensitif terhadap hipoksia. Tanaman Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica memiliki efek antioksidan dan dapat melindungi banyak organ dari hipoksia. Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis pengaruh pemberian kombinasi ekstrak etanol A.indica dan C.asiatica pascahipoksia sistemik terhadap fungsi hati, stres oksidatif dan aktivitas antioksidan hati. Sebanyak 28 tikus spraquedawley dibagi secara acak menjadi 7 kelompok. Kelompok kontrol adalah perlakuan tanpa hipoksia, perlakuan enam kelompok lainnya pascahipoksia 7 hari diberikan zat uji sebagai berikut: air, kombinasi dosis 1 dan 2, dosis tunggal A.indica, dosis tunggal C. asiatica dan dosis tunggal vitamin C selama 7 hari. Parameter yang diukur adalah aktivitas ALT dan AST, kadar MDA, rasio GSH/GSSG. Tidak ada perbedaan aktivitas ALT dan AST yang bermakna pada semua kelompok. Kadar MDA meningkat pada kelompok pascahipoksia 7 hari dibanding kontrol (p=0,007. Kelompok kombinasi 1 memiliki MDA yang rendah, rasio GSH/GSSG dan aktivitas SOD yang meningkat dibandingkan kelompok pascahipoksia 7 hari. Pemberian zat uji kombinasi 1 memiliki efek perlindungan pada hati tikus terhadap pascahipoksia 7 hari melalui mekanisme stres oksidatif dan antioksidan. Kata kunci: Acalypha indica, Centella asiatica,hipoksia sistemik, antioksidan   The Effect of A. Indica  and C.Asiatica Ethanol Extract Combination on Rats Liver Function Post-Hypoxic Condition Abstract Hypoxia occurs due to the deficiency of oxygen supply to cells or tissue caused by the failure of the respiratory system that carries oxygen which results in cell or tissue damage. Liver is an organ sensitive to hypoxia. Acalypha  indica  and Centella asiatica are proven to have antioxidant effects and can protect many organs from hypoxic conditions. This study was

  13. Enzyme expression in indica and japonica rice cultivars under saline stress=Expressão de enzimas em cultivares de arroz indica e japonica sob estresse salino

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    Cristina Rodrigues Mendes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is the main rice producer in Brazil with a 60% participation of the national production and 86% participation of the region. Rice culture irrigation system is done by flooding, which leads to soil salinization, a major environmental constraint to production since it alters the plants’ metabolism exposed to this type of stress. The indica cultivar, widely used in RS, has a higher sensitivity to salinity when compared to that of the japonica cultivar in other physiological aspects. Current research analyzes enzymes expression involved in salt-subjected indica and japonica rice cultivars’ respiration. Oryza sativa L. spp. japonica S.Kato (BRS Bojuru, IAS 12-9 Formosa and Goyakuman and Oryza sativa L. spp. indica S. Kato (BRS Taim-7, BRS Atalanta and BRS Querencia were the cultivars employed. Seedlings were transferred to 15 L basins containing 50% Hoagland nutrient solution increased by 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl, and collected at 14, 28 and 42 days after transfer (DAT. Plant tissues were macerated and placed in eppendorf tubes with Scandálios extractor solution. Electrophoresis was performed in 7% of the polyacrylamide gels in vertical vats. Bands were revealed for the following enzymes systems: esterase, alcohol dehydrogenase, phosphoglucoisomerase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and alpha amylase. The enzymes expression was greater in subspecies japonica, with more intense bands in proportion to salinity increase. Results show that enzyme systems are involved in the salinity defense mechanisms in O. sativa spp. japonica cultivar.O Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS destaca-se como principal produtor de arroz, participando com 60% da produção nacional e 86% da regional. O sistema de irrigação da cultura é por inundação, que induz o solo à salinização, um dos maiores limitadores ambientais à produção, alterando o metabolismo da plantas expostas a este tipo de estresse. As cultivares

  14. VARIASI KONSENTRASI BUAH ASAM (Tamarindus indica L. DAN SUSU SKIM TERHADAP KUALITAS YOGHURT KUNIR ASAM

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    Ni Putu Rahayu Artini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi buah asam (Tamarindus indica L. dan  susu skim untuk menghasilkan kualitas yoghurt sesuai  dengan SNI 01-2981-2009.Rancangan percobaan yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri atas sembilan perlakuan. Yoghurt kunir asam dibuat dari variasi penambahan variasi konsentrasi Tamarindus indica L. 30%, 40%, dan 50% (b/V dan  susu skim 5%, 10%, dan 15% (b/V. Sifat fisika, kimia, dan mikrobiologi  yoghurt kunir asam diamati. Dihasilkan kualitas terbaik yoghurt kunir asam dengan penambahan 30% Tamarindus indica L. (b/V0dan 15% susu skim (b/V. Dengan hasil analisis penampakan cairan kental; konsistensi homogen; rasa asam; bau khas; viskositas 89,3 cP; pH 4,85; kadar abu 1,52%; kadar lemak total 2,53%; kadar protein total 3,74%; kadar asam laktat 0,223%, kadar kurkumin 0,389%; cemaran logam Pb dan Cu serta Total Coliform dan E. coli negatif. ABSTRACT:.The objective of this research was to determinethe influence of concentrated Tamarindus indica L. and skim milk powder in producing tumuric curcumin yogurt towards its product based on SNI 01-2981-2009. The research was conducted in completely randomized design which consisted of nine treatments. The yogurt mixtures were made from a variation of 30%, 40%, and 50% of Tamarindus indica L. and addition of  5%, 10%, and 15% of skim milk powder.  Physical, chemical, and microbiology properties of the turmeric curcuma yogurts were observed.  The results showed the best quality of turmeric curcumin  yogurt was formulated by the addition of 30% Tamarindus indica L. and 15% skim milk powder,  with the results of the analysis: the appearance of a viscous fluid; homogeneous consistency; sour taste; distinctive smell; viscosity of 89.3 cP; pH of 4.85; ash content of 1.52%; total fat content of 2.53%; total protein content of 3.74%; lactic acid levels of 0.22%, curcumin content of 0

  15. A transcriptomic insight into the infective juvenile stage of the insect parasitic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somvanshi, Vishal S; Gahoi, Shachi; Banakar, Prakash; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Kumar, Mukesh; Sajnani, Manisha; Pandey, Priyatama; Rao, Uma

    2016-03-01

    Nematodes are the most numerous animals in the soil. Insect parasitic nematodes of the genus Heterorhabditis are capable of selectively seeking, infecting and killing their insect-hosts in the soil. The infective juvenile (IJ) stage of the Heterorhabditis nematodes is analogous to Caenorhabditis elegans dauer juvenile stage, which remains in 'arrested development' till it finds and infects a new insect-host in the soil. H. indica is the most prevalent species of Heterorhabditis in India. To understand the genes and molecular processes that govern the biology of the IJ stage, and to create a resource to facilitate functional genomics and genetic exploration, we sequenced the transcriptome of H. indica IJs. The de-novo sequence assembly using Velvet-Oases pipeline resulted in 13,593 unique transcripts at N50 of 1,371 bp, of which 53 % were annotated by blastx. H. indica transcripts showed higher orthology with parasitic nematodes as compared to free living nematodes. In-silico expression analysis showed 30 % of transcripts expressing with ≥100 FPKM value. All the four canonical dauer formation pathways like cGMP-PKG, insulin, dafachronic acid and TGF-β were active in the IJ stage. Several other signaling pathways were highly represented in the transcriptome. Twenty-four orthologs of C. elegans RNAi pathway effector genes were discovered in H. indica, including nrde-3 that is reported for the first time in any of the parasitic nematodes. An ortholog of C. elegans tol-1 was also identified. Further, 272 kinases belonging to 137 groups, and several previously unidentified members of important gene classes were identified. We generated high-quality transcriptome sequence data from H. indica IJs for the first time. The transcripts showed high similarity with the parasitic nematodes, M. hapla, and A. suum as opposed to C. elegans, a species to which H. indica is more closely related. The high representation of transcripts from several signaling pathways in the IJs

  16. Phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity of Leea indica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Nidyaletchmy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves of Leea indica (Vitaceae, commonly known as ‘Huo Tong Shu’ in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. The current study reports the outcome of antioxidant and cytotoxic investigation of L. indica leaves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water for evaluation of total phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell lines. Methods In the present study, L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water were firstly prepared prior to phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity assessment. Folin-Ciocalteau’s method was used for the measurement of total phenolic content of the extracts. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, reducing power assay and SOD (superoxide dismutase activity assay. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts were evaluated against three colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (HT-29, HCT-15 and HCT-116 by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Results The total phenolic content and antioxidant capabilities differed significantly among the L. indica leaf extracts. A strong correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant properties was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributor to the antioxidant properties of these extracts. Among the crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts, fractionated water extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content and strongest antioxidant effect in all the antioxidant testing systems employed in this study. All the four extracts exert no damage to the selected colon cancer

  17. Biometric and morphometric studies of Perna viridis and Perna indica along the southwest coast of India: a statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, R.; Vijayan, M.

    morphometric gradient groups (spat and adult), indicating the different phenotypic plasticity between them. The factor scores classified P. indica as a unimodal, positively skewed leptokurtic population and P. viridis as a unimodal, negatively skewed...

  18. Ameliorating effects of Tamarindus indica fruit extract on anti-tubercular drugs induced liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Mohd; Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Ahmad, Sayeed; Akhtar, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica fruit against combination of two antitubercular drugs viz. Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of T. indica by DPPH-HPLC method was found to be 81.48%. Treatment with aqueous extract of T. indica significantly reduced the elevated levels of biochemical markers such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin, TBARS and increased the albumin level as well antioxidant activities of SOD, CAT and GSH in intoxicated rats. The biochemical changes were supported by histological observations. Results of this study clearly demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. indica fruit protects against anti tuberculosis induced oxidative liver damage in rats and thus possess significant hepatoprotective activity. Further, it could be suggested that supplementation with this food extract might prove beneficial in the individuals on anti-TB drugs.

  19. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a cyclophilin A-like protein from Piriformospora indica

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Harshesh; Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Pal, Ravi Kant; Johri, Atul Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2012-01-01

    Cyclophin A like protein from Piriformospora indica involved in salt-stress tolerance was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted X-rays to 2 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2221.

  20. Physiological Response Of Laying Birds To Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaf Meal-Based Diets: Body Weight Organ Characteristics And Haematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esonu BO; Opara MN; Okoli IC; Obikaonu HO; Udedibie C; Iheshiulor OOM

    2006-01-01

    A 12-weeks feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leafmeal (NLM) on body weight gain, carcass and organ characteristics and haematological values of laying hens...

  1. Avaliação cromatográfica e atividade Antimicrobiana de produtos preparados com NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae): Azadirachta indica A. Juss.; Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Drumond Alves

    2007-01-01

    Nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae) é uma árvore indiana conhecida por sua atividade pesticida e por suas várias atividades farmacológicas, entre elas, ação de amplo espectro contra microorganismos patogênicos. Dentre mais de 300 compostos já isolados, a azadiractina (AZA) foi identificada como seu principal componente ativo. Prepararam-se extratos hidroalcoólicos de folhas de nim em diferentes concentrações de etanol (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% e 90% (V/V)) por percolação. A presença de ...

  2. Cucurbitane-Type Triterpenoids from the Blood Glucose-Lowering Extracts of Coccinia indica and Momordica balsamina Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ujjwal; Aeri, Vidhu; Showkat, R Mir; Ali, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Few vegetables that are commonly consumed in India as part of diet have been claimed for their antidiabetic potential. The present study was aimed at evaluating preventive effects of cucurbit vegetables namely, Coccinia indica and Momordica balsamina belonging to family Cucurbitaceae in diabetic hyperglycemia. The fruits of M. balsamina and C. indica were extracted with chloroform and fractionated with hexane to prepare an extract rich in moderately polar components. These extracts were used for evaluating the effect of these cucurbits in nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic animals were orally treated with chloroform extract of fruits (250 mg/kg BW) given daily for a week separately. Both the extracts reduced fasting blood glucose significantly (P indica and M. balsamina fruits possess beneficial effects in diabetes by lowering elevated blood glucose level. Six cucurbitane-type triterpenoids were isolated from bioactive extracts of C. indica ((1-3) and M. balsamina (4-6). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. The study concludes that the inclusion of C. indica and M. balsamina fruits in food can be useful for newly diagnosed diabetic patients or highrisk group of population for glycemic control. "Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the blood glucose-lowering extracts of Coccinia indica and M. balsamina fruit" The beneficial effects of chloroform extracts of vegetal cucurbits namely C. indica (Ivy gourd) and M. balsamina (Balsam apple) in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced diabetic rats has been evaluated.The isolation and characterization of six cucurbitacins from bioactive extracts of C. indica (Coccinoside A, B, and C) and M. balsamina (cucurbit-5, 7-dien-3ß-ol, cucurbita-5-en-3ß-ol-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside, and cucurbit-5-en-3ß-ol-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(4'→1")-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside) have been reported for the first time

  3. Genetics and mechanisms of permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew Y; Davey, Ronald B; Miller, Robert J; Guerrero, Felix D; George, John E

    2008-05-01

    The Santa Luiza strain of the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae), is resistant to both permethrin and amitraz. A study was conducted at the USDA Cattle Fever Tick Research Laboratory in Texas to investigate the genetic basis of permethrin resistance with cross-mating experiments, and to determine the mechanisms of permethrin resistance through synergist bioassays and biochemical analysis of esterase profiles. The Muñoz strain, an acaricide-susceptible reference strain, was used as the susceptible parent and the Santa Luiza strain, originating in Brazil, was used as the resistant parent. The Food and Agriculture Organization larval packet test was used to measure the levels of susceptibility of larvae of the parental strains, F1, backcross, F2, and F3 generations to permethrin. Results of reciprocal crossing experiments suggested that permethrin resistance was inherited as an incomplete recessive trait. There was no significant maternal effect on larval progeny's susceptibility to permethrin in the F1 and subsequent generations. The values of the degree of dominance were estimated at -0.700 and -0.522 for the F1 larvae with resistant and susceptible female parents, respectively. Results of bioassays on larval progeny of the F1 backcrossed with the resistant parent strain and of the F2 generations suggested that one major gene was responsible for permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain. Selection of F3 larvae with either permethrin or amitraz led to significantly increased resistance to both permethrin and amitraz, indicating a close linkage between genes responsible for permethrin and amitraz resistance. The possible involvement of metabolic enzymes in permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain of B. microplus was dismissed by the lack of enhanced synergism by TPP or PBO, as observed in synergist bioassays, as well as by the lack of enhanced esterase activity in the Santa Luiza strain relative to the susceptible

  4. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na + /K + homeostasis under salt stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis

    2017-07-13

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na+/K+ ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K+ channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na+ and K+ homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na+/K+ ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na+ and K+ ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na+/K+ under salt stress conditions.

  5. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P.; Dadu, Shifali S.; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper p...

  6. In vivo biochemical and gene expression analyses of the antioxidant activities and hypocholesterolaemic properties of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Yin Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tamarindus indica (T. indica is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9 ± 10.1 mg GAE/extract and flavonoid (93.9 ± 2.6 mg RE/g extract content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia.

  7. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed E; Kim, Dongjin; Ali, Shawkat; Fedoroff, Nina V; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-10-01

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na+/K+ ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K+ channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na+ and K+ homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na+/K+ ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na+ and K+ ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na+/K+ under salt stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo biochemical and gene expression analyses of the antioxidant activities and hypocholesterolaemic properties of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9 ± 10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9 ± 2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia.

  9. Mineral composition of Tamarindus indica LINN (tamarind) pulp and seeds from different agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Jaspher; Okullo, John B L; Eilu, Gerald; Nyeko, Philip; Obua, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Mineral composition of dry Tamarindus indica LINN pulp and seeds was evaluated on samples collected from three different agro-ecological zones of Uganda (Lake Victoria Crescent, and Eastern and West Nile). The objective of the study was to evaluate the mineral composition of T. indica pulp and seed samples from across Uganda's different agro-ecological zones and land use types. Separately grounded samples of T. indica pulp and seeds were analyzed for Zn, Fe, Mg, P, Na, K, and Ca. The univariate analysis of variance in the General Linear Model was used to compare differences in mineral composition. Treatment means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) in Post Hoc Tests. The results showed that there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.005) in mineral composition levels of T. indica pulp and seed samples between the different agro-ecological zones with the exception of P and Na (for pulp). The T. indica pulp and seeds samples from the Lake Victoria Crescent zone and wild land use type had generally higher mineral levels than T. indica samples from other agro-ecological zones and different land use types. As mineral composition levels were generally higher in the seed than the pulp samples, consumption of T. indica seeds should be promoted. There is also need to conserve individual species both on-farm and in the wild population, but T. indica mineral concentrations (both pulp and seeds) were higher in the samples from the wild population, making them good for human and animal diets.

  10. Piriformospora indica Reprograms Gene Expression in Arabidopsis Phosphate Metabolism Mutants But Does Not Compensate for Phosphate Limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Sherameti, Irena; Meichsner, Doreen; Thürich, Johannes; Varma, Ajit; Johri, Atul K.; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus of Sebacinaceae which colonizes the roots of many plant species and confers benefits to the hosts. We demonstrate that approximately 75% of the genes, which respond to P. indica in Arabidopsis roots, differ among seedlings grown on normal phosphate (Pi) or Pi limitation conditions, and among wild-type and the wrky6 mutant impaired in the regulation of the Pi metabolism. Mapman analyses suggest that the fungus activates different signaling, transpo...

  11. Growth promotion of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis by Piriformospora indica is not stimulated by mycelium-synthesized auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yin-Chen; Johnson, Joy Michal; Chien, Ching-Te; Sun, Chao; Cai, Daguang; Lou, Binggan; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2011-04-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of the order Sebacinales, interacts with the roots of a large variety of plant species. We compared the interaction of this fungus with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. chinensis) and Arabidopsis seedlings. The development of shoots and roots of Chinese cabbage seedlings was strongly promoted by P. indica and the fresh weight of the seedlings increased approximately twofold. The strong stimulation of root hair development resulted in a bushy root phenotype. The auxin level in the infected Chinese cabbage roots was twofold higher compared with the uncolonized controls. Three classes of auxin-related genes, which were upregulated by P. indica in Chinese cabbage roots, were isolated from a double-subtractive expressed sequence tag library: genes for proteins related to cell wall acidification, intercellular auxin transport carrier proteins such as AUX1, and auxin signal proteins. Overexpression of B. campestris BcAUX1 in Arabidopsis strongly promoted growth and biomass production of Arabidopsis seedlings and plants; the roots were highly branched but not bushy when compared with colonized Chinese cabbage roots. This suggests that BcAUX1 is a target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. P. indica also promoted growth of Arabidopsis seedlings but the auxin levels were not higher and auxin genes were not upregulated, implying that auxin signaling is a more important target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage than in Arabidopsis. The fungus also stimulated growth of Arabidopsis aux1 and aux1/axr4 and rhd6 seedlings. Furthermore, a component in an exudate fraction from P. indica but not auxin stimulated growth of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis seedlings. We propose that activation of auxin biosynthesis and signaling in the roots might be the cause for the P. indica-mediated growth phenotype in Chinese cabbage.

  12. Improvement of Soil Properties, Growth of Cucumber and Protection against Fusarium Wilt by Piriformospora indica and Two Industrial Organic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work was focused on characterizing bagasse ash (BA and press mud (PM as soil amendments and to study their effect in combination with the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on Fusarium wilt (FW of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Fo. Whereas BA and PM improved almost all physico-chemical properties of the soil evaluated, seed treatment with P. indica had no such effect. In shake culture in potato dextrose broth (PDB medium amended with aqueous extracts of BA and PM, alone or in combination, production mycelial mass of Fo was significantly decreased by PM extract, while production mycelial mass of P. indica was highly improved. The colonization rate of cucumber roots by P. indica as determined by microscopy was highly increased by increasing amounts of BA, PM and BA+PM added to the soil. Seed treatment of cucumber with P. indica before plant cultivation in non-amended soil significantly decreased the disease severity of FW and improved plant growth. When seed treated with P. indica was sown into soil amended with BA, PM or the combination of both, the disease severity was even more reduced than after seed treatment with P. indica alone. In this respect, amendment with PM was more effective than with BA, and the combinations were more effective than the single treatments. Hence, there is a scope to integrate PM and BA as soil amendments in combination with P. indica for eco-friendly FW management, improving soil properties and growth of cucumber plants.

  13. Protective Effect of Azadirachta indica and Vitamin E Against Arsenic Acid-Induced Genotoxicity and Apoptosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Ola-Davies, Olufunke Eunice; Adejumobi, Olumuyiwa Abiola; Asenuga, Ebunoluwa Rachael; Adeniji, Funmilola Kehinde; Adedapo, Adeolu Alex; Yakubu, Momoh Audu

    2018-05-04

    Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) is one of the major environmental toxicants with severe toxicological consequences in some developing and developed countries. Rats in Group A received normal saline. Genotoxicity and apoptosis were induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg sodium arsenite to rats in Groups B-F. Rats in Groups C and D had earlier been pretreated with Azadirachta indica (100 and 200 mg/kg) or E and F with vitamin E (50 and 100 mg/kg), respectively. Markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, hepatic damage, genotoxicity, and apoptosis were assessed. Pretreatment of rats with either Azadirachta indica or vitamin E led to a significant (p indica or vitamin E. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) and expression of caspase-3 were significantly (p indica or vitamin E compared to rats intoxicated with arsenite. Histopathology of the liver showed areas of infiltration of inflammatory cells with deaths of numerous hepatocytes in NaAsO2-intoxicated rats, and these were reversed by Azadirachta indica. Together, we report for the first time the genoprotective and antiapoptotic effect of Azadirachta indica by a significant reduction in the frequency of micronuclei-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress by arsenic intoxication.

  14. Growth Promotion-Related miRNAs in Oncidium Orchid Roots Colonized by the Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica. PMID:24409313

  15. Chemopreventive effect of methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica on experimental Trypanosoma brucei induced oxidative stress in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omobowale, Temidayo O; Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Oyewunmi, Oyefunbi A; Adejumobi, Olumuyiwa A

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal properties of Azadirachta indica have been harnessed for many years in the treatment of many diseases in both humans and animals. Twenty-five apparently healthy dogs weighing between 3 and 8 kg were randomly divided into five groups with five dogs in each group. Ameliorative effect of A. indica on erythrocyte antioxidant status and markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Liver and kidney function tests were also performed. Pre-treatment with methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (MEAI) at different doses did not significantly alter the values of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in Trypanosoma brucei infection. Although, serum creatinine significantly (P indica, after 2 weeks of T. brucei infection. However, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content of the erythrocyte increased significantly in animals pre-treated with 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica respectively. Markers of oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generated were higher in animals infected with T. brucei with no significant (P >0.05) difference compared to the values obtained in pre-treated animals. Pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica significantly (P < 0.05) decreased serum myeloperoxidase activity at 2 weeks post-infection with T. brucei. From this study, MEAI showed significant ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation during experimental T. brucei infection.

  16. Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banhara, Aline; Ding, Yi; Kühner, Regina; Zuccaro, Alga; Parniske, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs and that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection.

  17. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Shen, Chin-Hui; Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  18. Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eBanhara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi (Glomeromycota form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs. Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota, raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type, suggesting that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs.

  19. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  20. The complete validated mitochondrial genome of the black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier, 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Samuel M; Morgan, Jess A T; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    Two complete mitochondrial genomes of the black marlin Istiompax indica were assembled from approximately 3.5 and 2.5 million reads produced by Ion Torrent next generation sequencing. The complete genomes were 16,531 bp and 16,532 bp in length consisting of 2 rRNA, 13 protein-coding genes, 22tRNA and 2 coding regions. They demonstrated a similar A + T base (52.6%) to other teleosts. Intraspecific sequence variation was 99.5% for three I. indica mitogenomes and 99.7% for X. gladius. A lower value (85%) was found for the I. platypterus mitogenomes from genbank and accredited to inadvertent inclusion of gene regions from a con-familial species in one record, highlighting the need for cautious downstream use of genbank data.

  1. Azadirachta indica triterpenoids promote osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Priyanka; Khedgikar, Vikram; Haldar, Saikat; Gautam, Jyoti; Mulani, Fayaj A; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-08-01

    Terpenoids were isolated using chromatographic purification through solvent purification technique and identified as Azadirone (1), Epoxyazadiradione (2) Azadiradione (3) Gedunin (4) Nimbin (5) Salannin (6) Azadirachtin A (7) and Azadirachtin B (8) from Azadirachta indica. Out of eight compounds, only three compounds had osteogenic activity and enhanced osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization in osteoblast cells. Active compounds stimulated osteogenic genes ALP, RunX-2 and OCN expressions in vitro, but Azadirachtin A had a maximum ability to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and mineralization compared to other two active compounds. For in vivo study, Azadirachtin A injected subcutaneously in pups, which enhanced osteogenic gene expressions and promoted bone formation rate significantly. Here, we conclude that active compounds of Azadirachta indica have osteogenic activity and Azadirachtin A has a beneficial effects on bone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transmission blocking effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel limonoids on Plasmodium berghei early sporogonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanelli, Sofia; Chianese, Giuseppina; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Yerbanga, Rakiswendé Serge; Habluetzel, Annette; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2016-10-01

    Azadirachta indica, known as neem tree and traditionally called "nature's drug store" makes part of several African pharmacopeias and is widely used for the preparation of homemade remedies and commercial preparations against various illnesses, including malaria. Employing a bio-guided fractionation approach, molecules obtained from A. indica ripe and green fruit kernels were tested for activity against early sporogonic stages of Plasmodium berghei, the parasite stages that develop in the mosquito mid gut after an infective blood meal. The limonoid deacetylnimbin (3) was identified as one the most active compounds of the extract, with a considerably higher activity compared to that of the close analogue nimbin (2). Pure deacetylnimbin (3) appeared to interfere with transmissible Plasmodium stages at a similar potency as azadirachtin A. Considering its higher thermal and chemical stability, deacetylnimbin could represent a suitable alternative to azadirachtin A for the preparation of transmission blocking antimalarials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestra, Giovanna; Parker, Mary L; Bennett, Richard N; Robertson, Jim; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2009-11-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes represent the green stem of the plant and are generally used as animal feed or disposed of in landfills. The present work investigated the anatomical and chemical composition of Opuntia cladodes, which form the basis of their pharmacological effects. Glucose and galacturonic acid were the main sugars of Opuntia cladodes, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of mainly kaempherol and isorhamnetin glycosides (glucoside and rhamnoside). The presence of high amounts of calcium oxalate crystals was demonstrated by light microscopy on fresh and lyophilized cladodes. No antimicrobial activity was observed even after enzymatic treatment. O. ficus-indica cladodes may retain material tightly associated with cell-wall components, and this property will have the potential to greatly reduce the bioavailability of bioactive compounds.

  5. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  6. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Lauriano, E R; Pergolizzi, S; Faggio, C

    2017-08-14

    Plants with beneficial properties are known in traditional medicine. Nowadays, in spite of widespread availability of synthetic compounds, the search goes towards natural compounds to lower cost and few side effects. The increasing interest in preventive medicine encourages use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values. Among the medicinal plants, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Family Cactaceae, subfamily Opuntiodeae, Genus Opuntia, subgenus Platyopuntia, species Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) is widely known for its beneficial properties. The aim of the present review is to stress the major classes of Opuntia components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefits and therapeutic impacts on fish and mammals.

  7. Effects of Chalkiness on Cooking, Eating and Nutritional Qualities of Rice in Two indica Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua Liu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of chalkiness on cooking, eating and nutrition qualities of rice using Gangyou 527 (indica hybrid rice and Zhaiyeqing 8 (conventional indica rice as materials. Compared with the milled rice without chalkiness, amylose content, final viscosity, setback and consistence increased significantly, while gel consistence, peak viscosity and breakdown decreased remarkably and other RVA values did not have significant changes in the chalky rice of Gangyou 527. The differences in the above indices between the chalky and non-chalky rice was not remarkable in Zhaiyeqing 8. The crude protein content of chalky rice in Zhaiyeqing 8 was significantly lower than that of non-chalky rice, but there was no remarkable change between the chalky and non-chalky rice in Gangyou 527. Glutelin content fell significantly, and albumin, globulin, prolamine and lysine contents did not change significantly in chalky rice compared with non-chalky rice in the two varieties.

  8. Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using Azadirachta indica Extract and Its Catalytic Activity Toward Nitrophenol Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, C; Ranjani, M; Kim, Ae Rhan; Yoo, Dong Jin; Kumar, G Gnana

    2016-03-01

    A simple, hasty and eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles has been developed using the medicinally important Azadirachta indica extract, which act as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation and morphological properties of iron nanoparticles as a function of metallic precursor and Azadirachta indica extract concentration have been investigated. The influence of solvent over the size and texture of iron nanoparticles has also been evaluated in detail. The thermal behavior of prepared nanoparticles was identified from thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of prepared iron nanoparticles toward the reduction of p-nitrophenol was analyzed and the reduction process was occurred within 30 sec. The cost and time efficient biosynthesis process and excellent catalytic activity of the prepared iron nanoparticles construct this protocol attractive.

  9. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzohairy, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways. PMID:27034694

  10. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of Asplenium nidus, Phaleria macrocarpa and Eleusine indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mariya Mohd; Ibrahim, Nazlina; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Three local medicinal plants namely Asplenium nidus (langsuyar), Eleusine indica (sambau) and Phaleria macrocarpa (mahkota dewa) were screened for the cytotoxicity and antiviral activities. Six plant extracts were prepared including the aqueous and methanol extracts from A. nidus leaf and root, aqueous extract from dried whole plant of E. indica and methanol extract from P. macrocarpa fruits. Cytotoxicity screening in Vero cell line by MTT assay showed that the CC50 values ranged from 15 to 60 mg/mL thus indicating the safety of the extracts even at high concentrations. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The EC50 concentrations were between 3.2 to 47 mg/mL. The selectivity indices (SI = CC50/EC50) of each tested extracts ranged from 4.3 to 63.25 indicating the usefulness of the extracts as potential antiviral agents.

  11. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eRafiqi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the emerging systems in plant-microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis.

  12. Exogenous auxin affects the oxidative burst in barley roots colonized by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Magdalena; Nostadt, Robin; Zuccaro, Alga

    2013-04-01

    Beside a cardinal role in coordination of many developmental processes in the plant, the phytohormone auxin has been recognized as a regulator of plant defense. The molecular mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. Using a sensitive chemiluminescence assay, which measures the oxidation of luminol in the presence of H₂O₂ by horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we report here on the ability of exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to enhance the suppressive effect of the root endophyte Piriformospora indica on the chitin-elicited oxidative burst in barley roots. Thus, the potential of P. indica to produce free IAA during the early colonization phase in barley might provide the symbiont with a means to interfere with the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP)-triggered immunity.

  13. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiqi, Maryam; Jelonek, Lukas; Akum, Ndifor F; Zhang, Feng; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    One of the emerging systems in plant-microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis.

  14. The plant strengthening root endophyte Piriformospora indica: potential application and the biology behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, P

    2012-12-01

    The successful conversion of plant production systems from conventional resource-exhausting to sustainable strategies depends on knowledge-based management of environmental factors. Root-inhabiting fungi came more and more into focus because their hyphae connect in ideal manner resources and challenges of the surrounding with the plant. A paradigm for such root endophytes is presented by the basidiomycete Piriformospora indica. This fungus possesses a broad host spectrum and positively affects different aspects of plant performance. This so far unique combination of attributes makes P. indica and its close relatives among the Sebacinales very interesting tools for cultivation of various crops. This review will outline the different aspects required to apply this root endophyte in agri- and horticulture concerning plant growth, plant nutrition and plant defence or tolerance thereby explaining what is known about the biological basis for the observed effects. Open questions and challenges for successful inoculum production and application will be discussed.

  15. Five New Guaiane Sesquiterpenes from the Endophytic Fungus Xylaria sp. YM 311647 of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Xie, Xiao-Song; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Kai-Xia; Wu, Shao-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Five new guaiane sesquiterpenes, 1-5, were isolated from the culture broth of the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. YM 311647, isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, and their inhibitory activities against five pathogenic fungi were evaluated. All guaiane sesquiterpenes showed moderate or weak antifungal activities in a broth microdilution assay. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Multi-constituent synergism is responsible for anti-inflammatory effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sadikun, Amirin; Abdul Majid, A M S; Atangwho, Item Justin; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B; Altaf, Rabia; Ahmad, Ashfaq

    2014-11-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceaes) leaves have been used traditionally to treat swelling and rheumatism in Indian cultures. To fractionate A. indica leaf extracts using bioactivity guided manner for identification of the active anti-inflammatory principles. Polarity-gradient sequential extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and water) of A. indica leaves were screened for their anti-inflammatory potential using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model (1 g/kg). The chloroform extract was sequentially fractionated to obtain n-hexane (F-1), n-hexane-chloroform (F-2), and chloroform (F-3) fractions and their inhibitory effect on rat paw edema was evaluated (500 mg/kg). Inhibitory effect of F-2 on granuloma formation, plasma interleukin (IL-1), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) was assessed at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg using the cotton pellet assay in rats. Three sub-fractions (SF-1, SF-2, and SF-3) were obtained upon chromatography of F-2, and their inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase was assessed at 200 µg/mL concentration. The sub-fractions were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All the extracts showed significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, chloroform extract was the most effective against paw edema (53.25% inhibition). The three fractions of chloroform extract showed significant effect, while F-2 being the most potent (51.02%). F-2 demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of granuloma and cytokines. Interestingly, all the sub-fractions of F-2 inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 with almost equal potential. GC-MS revealed that chemically the sub-fractions were totally different from each other. Anti-inflammatory effect of A. indica is a result of cumulative and synergistic effects of diversified constituents with varying polarities that collectively exert the effect via suppression of cyclo-oxygenases and cytokines (IL-1 and TNF-α).

  17. Nitric Oxide Production-Inhibitory Activity of Limonoids from Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Nishimoto, Yuki; Ogihara, Eri; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Zhang, Jie; Abe, Masahiko

    2017-06-01

    Seventy-three limonoids isolated from three Meliaceae plants, Azadirachta indica, A. indica var. siamensis, and Melia azedarach, or semi-synthesized from the Meliaceae limonoids, were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a primary screening test for anti-inflammatory agents. Of the compounds tested, 21 compounds exhibited inhibitory activity (IC50 4.6 - 58.6 μm) without any significant toxicity (IC50 > 100 μm) which were more potent than l-NMMA (NO-production inhibitory activity, IC50 65.6 μm; cytotoxicity, IC50 > 100 μm), and among which, nine compounds, i.e., 17-hydroxy-15-methoxynimbocinol (6), ohchinin (20), 1-cis-cinnamoyl-1-decinnamoylohchinin (24), salannin (27), methyl nimbidate (32), isosalannin (55), nimbolinin D (58), mesendanin E (69), and 7-deacetylgedunin (73) exhibited potent inhibitory activity (IC50 4.6 - 29.3 μm). In particular, compounds 6 (IC50 7.3 μm), an azadirone-type limonoid, and 73 (IC50 4.6 μm), a gedunin-type limonoid, exhibited remarkable activity. Western blot analysis revealed that 27 and 73 reduced the expression levels of the inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that limonoids of A. indica, A. indica var. siamensis, and M. azedarach, and their semi-synthetic derivatives may be effective against inflammation. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    OpenAIRE

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A.; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M.; Elnazeer I Hamedelniel

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream fro...

  19. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Arindam Dutta; Mala Kundabala

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups ...

  20. Antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi and 2% CHX on multispecies dentinal biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Kunjal S.; Sanghvi, Zarna; Parmar, Girish; Shah, Samir; Pushpalatha, Kasukurthi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To check the antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Mimusops elengi (Bakul), and Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on multispecies biofilm of common endodontic pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Settings and Design: In vitro dentin disinfection model used to check the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal extracts. Materials and Methods: The in vitro dentin disinfection model was used to check the antim...