Sample records for rao-blackwellized mixed state

  1. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard


    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  2. Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation (United States)

    Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet


    each component weight during the nonlinear propagation stage an approximation of the true pdf can be successfully reconstructed. Particle filtering (PF) methods have gained popularity recently for solving nonlinear estimation problems due to their straightforward approach and the processing capabilities mentioned above. The basic concept behind PF is to represent any pdf as a set of random samples. As the number of samples increases, they will theoretically converge to the exact, equivalent representation of the desired pdf. When the estimated qth moment is needed, the samples are used for its construction allowing further analysis of the pdf characteristics. However, filter performance deteriorates as the dimension of the state vector increases. To overcome this problem Ref. [5] applies a marginalization technique for PF methods, decreasing complexity of the system to one linear and another nonlinear state estimation problem. The marginalization theory was originally developed by Rao and Blackwell independently. According to Ref. [6] it improves any given estimator under every convex loss function. The improvement comes from calculating a conditional expected value, often involving integrating out a supportive statistic. In other words, Rao-Blackwellization allows for smaller but separate computations to be carried out while reaching the main objective of the estimator. In the case of improving an estimator's variance, any supporting statistic can be removed and its variance determined. Next, any other information that dependents on the supporting statistic is found along with its respective variance. A new approach is developed here by utilizing the strengths of the adaptive Gaussian sum propagation in Ref. [2] and a marginalization approach used for PF methods found in Ref. [7]. In the following sections a modified filtering approach is presented based on a special state-space model within nonlinear systems to reduce the dimensionality of the optimization problem in

  3. Particle rejuvenation of Rao-Blackwellized sequential Monte Carlo smoothers for conditionally linear and Gaussian models (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Corff, Sylvain Le; Moulines, Éric


    This paper focuses on sequential Monte Carlo approximations of smoothing distributions in conditionally linear and Gaussian state spaces. To reduce Monte Carlo variance of smoothers, it is typical in these models to use Rao-Blackwellization: particle approximation is used to sample sequences of hidden regimes while the Gaussian states are explicitly integrated conditional on the sequence of regimes and observations, using variants of the Kalman filter/smoother. The first successful attempt to use Rao-Blackwellization for smoothing extends the Bryson-Frazier smoother for Gaussian linear state space models using the generalized two-filter formula together with Kalman filters/smoothers. More recently, a forward-backward decomposition of smoothing distributions mimicking the Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother for the regimes combined with backward Kalman updates has been introduced. This paper investigates the benefit of introducing additional rejuvenation steps in all these algorithms to sample at each time instant new regimes conditional on the forward and backward particles. This defines particle-based approximations of the smoothing distributions whose support is not restricted to the set of particles sampled in the forward or backward filter. These procedures are applied to commodity markets which are described using a two-factor model based on the spot price and a convenience yield for crude oil data.

  4. Gating Techniques for Rao-Blackwellized Monte Carlo Data Association Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhao Wang


    Full Text Available This paper studies the Rao-Blackwellized Monte Carlo data association (RBMCDA filter for multiple target tracking. The elliptical gating strategies are redesigned and incorporated into the framework of the RBMCDA filter. The obvious benefit is the reduction of the time cost because the data association procedure can be carried out with less validated measurements. In addition, the overlapped parts of the neighboring validation regions are divided into several separated subregions according to the possible origins of the validated measurements. In these subregions, the measurement uncertainties can be taken into account more reasonably than those of the simple elliptical gate. This would help to achieve higher tracking ability of the RBMCDA algorithm by a better association prior approximation. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed gating techniques.

  5. Gibbs Sampler-Based λ-Dynamics and Rao-Blackwell Estimator for Alchemical Free Energy Calculation. (United States)

    Ding, Xinqiang; Vilseck, Jonah Z; Hayes, Ryan L; Brooks, Charles L


    λ-dynamics is a generalized ensemble method for alchemical free energy calculations. In traditional λ-dynamics, the alchemical switch variable λ is treated as a continuous variable ranging from 0 to 1 and an empirical estimator is utilized to approximate the free energy. In the present article, we describe an alternative formulation of λ-dynamics that utilizes the Gibbs sampler framework, which we call Gibbs sampler-based λ-dynamics (GSLD). GSLD, like traditional λ-dynamics, can be readily extended to calculate free energy differences between multiple ligands in one simulation. We also introduce a new free energy estimator, the Rao-Blackwell estimator (RBE), for use in conjunction with GSLD. Compared with the current empirical estimator, the advantage of RBE is that RBE is an unbiased estimator and its variance is usually smaller than the current empirical estimator. We also show that the multistate Bennett acceptance ratio equation or the unbinned weighted histogram analysis method equation can be derived using the RBE. We illustrate the use and performance of this new free energy computational framework by application to a simple harmonic system as well as relevant calculations of small molecule relative free energies of solvation and binding to a protein receptor. Our findings demonstrate consistent and improved performance compared with conventional alchemical free energy methods.

  6. [Mixed states and schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Cermolacce, M; Corréard, N; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Azorin, J-M


    Because of their compilation of contrasted symptoms and their variable clinical presentation, mixed episodes have been withdrawn from the DSM. However, mixed states question not only the bonds between depression and mania, but also the distinction between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. Indeed, doubts about the dichotomy introduced by Kraepelin between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia is as old as the nosolgy itself, as attest the later works of this author revealing his hesitations on his own classification. But findings here reviewed issued from recent technical advances, particularly in the imaging and genetic fields, offer a better understanding of the boundaries between these two disorders. Yet, when confronted to an acute episode, clinicians may find it challenging to distinguish a mixed state from a schizophrenic relapse. Indeed, there is no pathognomonic manifestation allowing to retain a diagnosis with confidence. The physician will therefore have to identify a pattern of signs, which will orient his assessment with no certainty. Thus, negative rather than affective or psychotic symptomatology appears to be useful in discriminating schizophrenia (or schizoaffective) disorders from mixed mania. However, a conclusion during this acute stage appears in definitive a formal exercise, first because the final diagnosis will only be ascertained once the symptoms are amended, and second because, according to our classifications, a mood episode, including mania and mixed mania, can be observed without ruling out the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple object tracking in molecular bioimaging by Rao-Blackwellized marginal particle filtering. (United States)

    Smal, I; Meijering, E; Draegestein, K; Galjart, N; Grigoriev, I; Akhmanova, A; van Royen, M E; Houtsmuller, A B; Niessen, W


    Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy imaging has rapidly evolved in the past decade and has opened new avenues for studying intracellular processes in vivo. Such studies generate vast amounts of noisy image data that cannot be analyzed efficiently and reliably by means of manual processing. Many popular tracking techniques exist but often fail to yield satisfactory results in the case of high object densities, high noise levels, and complex motion patterns. Probabilistic tracking algorithms, based on Bayesian estimation, have recently been shown to offer several improvements over classical approaches, by better integration of spatial and temporal information, and the possibility to more effectively incorporate prior knowledge about object dynamics and image formation. In this paper, we extend our previous work in this area and propose an improved, fully automated particle filtering algorithm for the tracking of many subresolution objects in fluorescence microscopy image sequences. It involves a new track management procedure and allows the use of multiple dynamics models. The accuracy and reliability of the algorithm are further improved by applying marginalization concepts. Experiments on synthetic as well as real image data from three different biological applications clearly demonstrate the superiority of the algorithm compared to previous particle filtering solutions.

  8. Recovering Sample Diversity in Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (United States)


    infinite particles [39]. As computational power increases, estimators based on particle filtering will only improve their characterization of the...levi- atio~ii of the kernel depenident on thle uiminber of particles samnpledl at that poin t aii(l th le (’iil~i-l cal covariance miatrix of the...potent ial to I ecoimie a powerful estimation techiniquie. As evbncd y tests wvithi Swiss Planger (lata, they prov’ide 104 s~it ilali I)etortla ii8CC 10o

  9. Fermion mixing in quasifree states

    CERN Document Server

    Hannabuss, K C


    Quantum field-theoretic treatments of fermion oscillations are typically restricted to calculations in Fock space. In this letter, we extend the oscillation formulae to include more general quasifree states, and also consider the case when the mixing is not unitary. (letter to the editor)

  10. The psychophysiology of mixed emotional states. (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D; Samson, Andrea C; Gross, James J


    How to conceptualize mixed emotional states is a central issue in the field of affective science. Nondifferentiation, additive, and emergence accounts of mixed emotions make divergent predictions regarding physiological responses in mixed emotions. To test these predictions, 43 women watched film clips that elicited amusement, disgust, or mixed emotions while feeling self-report, facial electromyography, cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory measures were assessed. Simultaneous self-reports of amusement and disgust confirmed elicitation of a mixed emotional state. Physiologically, mixed emotions differed from pure amusement and pure disgust both in intensity and pattern. This suggests a distinct physiological response of the mixed emotional state, as predicted by the emergence account of mixed emotions. Implications for emotion theory and research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Experimental evidence for mixed reality states

    CERN Document Server

    Hubler, Alfred; 10.1002/cplx.20234


    Recently researchers at the University of Illinois coupled a real pendulum to its virtual counterpart. They observed that the two pendulums suddenly start to move in synchrony if their lengths are sufficiently close. In this synchronized state, the boundary between the real system and the virtual system is blurred, that is, the pendulums are in a mixed reality state. An instantaneous, bidirectional coupling is a prerequisite for mixed reality states. In this article we explore the implications of mixed reality states in the context of controlling real-world systems.

  12. The Rao-Blackwellized marginal M-SMC filter for Bayesian multi-target tracking and labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aoki, E.H.; Boers, Y.; Svensson, L.; Mandal, Pranab K.; Bagchi, Arunabha

    In multi-target tracking (MTT), we are often interested not only in finding the position of the objects, but also allowing individual objects to be uniquely identified with the passage of time, by placing a label on each track. In some situations, however, observability conditions do not allow us to

  13. Purification of Gaussian maximally mixed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kabgyun [Center for Macroscopic Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Youngrong, E-mail: [Center for Macroscopic Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)


    We find that the purifications of several Gaussian maximally mixed states (GMMSs) correspond to some Gaussian maximally entangled states (GMESs) in the continuous-variable regime. Here, we consider a two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) state as a purification of the thermal state and construct a general formalism of the Gaussian purification process. Moreover, we introduce other kind of GMESs via the process. All of our purified states of the GMMSs exhibit Gaussian profiles; thus, the states show maximal quantum entanglement in the Gaussian regime. - Highlights: • Candidates of Gaussian maximally mixed state are proposed. • Obtaining Gaussian maximally entangled states using the purification process. • The suggested states can be applicable for the test of capacity problem in Gaussian regime.

  14. Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eDe Massari


    Full Text Available The combination of Brain-Computer Interface technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. In this context, assessing to what extent brain states can be discriminated during mixed reality experience is critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded EEG data while participants experienced a mixed reality scenario implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM. The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in mixed reality, using LDA and SVM classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled mixed reality scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in mixed reality.

  15. Quantum Darwinism for mixed-state environment (United States)

    Quan, Haitao; Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech


    We exam quantum darwinism when a system is in the presence of a mixed environment, and we find a general relation between the mutual information for the mixed-state environment and the change of the entropy of the fraction of the environment. We then look at a particular solvable model, and we numerically exam the time evolution of the ``mutual information" for large environment. Finally we discuss about the exact expressions for all entropies and the mutual information at special time.

  16. Mixed state dynamical quantum phase transitions (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Utso; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Dutta, Amit


    Preparing an integrable system in a mixed state described by a thermal density matrix, we subject it to a sudden quench and explore the subsequent unitary dynamics. To address the question of whether the nonanalyticities, namely, the dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs), persist when the initial state is mixed, we consider two versions of the generalized Loschmidt overlap amplitude (GLOA). Our study shows that the GLOA constructed using the Uhlmann approach does not show any signature of DQPTs at any nonzero initial temperature. On the other hand, a GLOA defined in the interferometric phase approach through the purifications of the time-evolved density matrix, indeed shows that nonanalyiticies in the corresponding "dynamical free-energy density" persist, thereby establishing the existence of mixed state dynamical quantum phase transitions (MSDQPTs). Our work provides a framework that perfectly reproduces both the nonanalyticities and also the emergent topological structure in the pure state limit. These claims are corroborated by analyzing the nonequilibrium dynamics of a transverse Ising chain initially prepared in a thermal state and subjected to a sudden quench of the transverse field.

  17. Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality. (United States)

    De Massari, Daniele; Pacheco, Daniel; Malekshahi, Rahim; Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J; Birbaumer, Niels; Caria, Andrea


    The combination of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality (MR) systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. Brain states discrimination during mixed reality experience is thus critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) data while participants experienced MR scenarios implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM). The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in MR, using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled MR scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in MR.

  18. Mixed quantum states with variable Planck constant (United States)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.


    Recent cosmological measurements tend to confirm that the fine structure constant α is not immutable and has undergone a tiny variation since the Big Bang. Choosing adequate units, this could also reflect a variation of Planck's constant h. The aim of this Letter is to explore some consequences of such a possible change of h for the pure and mixed states of quantum mechanics. Surprisingly enough it is found that not only is the purity of a state extremely sensitive to such changes, but that quantum states can evolve into classical states, and vice versa. A complete classification of such transitions is however not possible for the moment being because of yet unsolved mathematical difficulties related to the study of positivity properties of trace class operators.

  19. Multistability with a Metastable Mixed State (United States)

    Sneppen, Kim; Mitarai, Namiko


    Complex dynamical systems often show multiple metastable states. In macroevolution, such behavior is suggested by punctuated equilibrium and discrete geological epochs. In molecular biology, bistability is found in epigenetics and in the many mutually exclusive states that a human cell can take. Sociopolitical systems can be single-party regimes or a pluralism of balancing political fractions. To introduce multistability, we suggest a model system of D mutually exclusive microstates that battle for dominance in a large system. Assuming one common intermediate state, we obtain D+1 metastable macrostates for the system, one of which is a self-reinforced mixture of all D+1 microstates. Robustness of this metastable mixed state increases with diversity D.

  20. Quantum Correlations in Mixed-State Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavan Modi


    Full Text Available We analyze the effects of quantum correlations, such as entanglement and discord, on the efficiency of phase estimation by studying four quantum circuits that can be readily implemented using NMR techniques. These circuits define a standard strategy of repeated single-qubit measurements, a classical strategy where only classical correlations are allowed, and two quantum strategies where nonclassical correlations are allowed. In addition to counting space (number of qubits and time (number of gates requirements, we introduce mixedness as a key constraint of the experiment. We compare the efficiency of the four strategies as a function of the mixedness parameter. We find that the quantum strategy gives sqrt[N] enhancement over the standard strategy for the same amount of mixedness. This result applies even for highly mixed states that have nonclassical correlations but no entanglement.

  1. Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin, E-mail: [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Singh, Uttam, E-mail: [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India); Pati, Arun K., E-mail: [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India)


    Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.

  2. Bipolar patients' quality of life in mixed states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee Mortensen, Gitte; Vinberg, Maj; Lee Mortensen, Steen


    anthropological approach was applied to analyse the data. RESULTS: Participants described mixed states as worse than other bipolar disorder states and their residual symptoms were prolonged. Mixed states affected the functioning of patients in key life domains such as self-esteem, family, love and social life...

  3. From Shannon to Quantum Information Science-Mixed States

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 5. From Shannon to Quantum Information Science - Mixed States. Rajiah Simon. General Article Volume 7 Issue 5 May 2002 pp 16-33 ... Keywords. Mixed states; entanglement witnesses; partial transpose; quantum computers; von Neumann entropy ...

  4. Geometric multiaxial representation of N -qubit mixed symmetric separable states (United States)

    SP, Suma; Sirsi, Swarnamala; Hegde, Subramanya; Bharath, Karthik


    The study of N -qubit mixed symmetric separable states is a longstanding challenging problem as no unique separability criterion exists. In this regard, we take up the N -qubit mixed symmetric separable states for a detailed study as these states are of experimental importance and offer an elegant mathematical analysis since the dimension of the Hilbert space is reduced from 2N to N +1 . Since there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the spin-j system and an N -qubit symmetric state, we employ Fano statistical tensor parameters for the parametrization of the spin-density matrix. Further, we use a geometric multiaxial representation (MAR) of the density matrix to characterize the mixed symmetric separable states. Since the separability problem is NP-hard, we choose to study it in the continuum limit where mixed symmetric separable states are characterized by the P -distribution function λ (θ ,ϕ ) . We show that the N -qubit mixed symmetric separable states can be visualized as a uniaxial system if the distribution function is independent of θ and ϕ . We further choose a distribution function to be the most general positive function on a sphere and observe that the statistical tensor parameters characterizing the N -qubit symmetric system are the expansion coefficients of the distribution function. As an example for the discrete case, we investigate the MAR of a uniformly weighted two-qubit mixed symmetric separable state. We also observe that there exists a correspondence between the separability and classicality of states.

  5. Depressive mixed states: A reappraisal of Koukopoulos' criteria. (United States)

    Faedda, Gianni L; Marangoni, Ciro; Reginaldi, Daniela


    Mixed states have been a fundamental part of Kraepelin׳s conceptualization of the manic-depressive illness. However, after Kraepelin, the study of mixed states was not of great interest, until the publication of the RDC criteria (1978) and then the DSM-III edition (1980), where criteria for mixed manic states were operationalized. The most notable victims of DSM nosology were depressive mixed states, in particular depression with flight of ideas and excited (agitated) depression. We briefly review the clinical work of Athanasios Koukopoulos on depressive mixed states (in particular agitated depression) pointing out the diagnostic and therapeutic contributions, especially in the lights of Koukopoulos׳ first description of depressive mixed syndrome in 1992. The mixed depressive syndrome is not a transitory state but a state of long duration, which may last weeks or several months. The clinical picture is characterized by dysphoric mood, emotional lability, psychic and/or motor agitation, talkativeness, crowded and/or racing thoughts, rumination, initial or middle insomnia. Impulsive suicidal attempts may be frequent. The family observes incessant complaints, irritability, occasional verbal outbursts, occasional physical aggression, and occasional hypersexuality. Treatment with antipsychotics and ECT is very effective; antidepressants can worsen the clinical picture. Selective but not systematic review of the literature on depressive mixed states. Relatively little research data is currently available for validation of the criteria proposed by Koukopoulos. Koukopoulos׳ proposal of mixed depression, besides its diagnostic implications, clearly identifying it as manifestations of bipolar disorder, allows for better clinical characterization of cases and improves treatment decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mixed States in Bipolar Disorder: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment (United States)


    Many bipolar disorder patients exhibit mixed affective states, which portend a generally more severe illness course and treatment resistance. In the previous renditions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual mixed states were narrowly defined in the context of bipolar I disorder, but with the advent of DSM-5 the term “mixed episode” was dropped and replaced by “mixed features” specifier which could be broadly applied to manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes in both the bipolar spectrum and major depressive disorders. This paradigm shift reflected their significance in the prognosis and overall management of mood disorders, so that the clinicians should thoroughly familiarize themselves with the contemporary notions surrounding these conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to bring to light the current conceptualizations regarding the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of mixed states. To achieve this goal, in June 2016 an extensive literature search was undertaken using the PubMed database. Some exploratory terms utilized included “mixed states”, “mixed episodes”, “switching”, “rapid cycling” cross referenced with “bipolar disorder”. Focusing on the most relevant and up to date studies, it was revealed that mixed states result from genetic susceptibility in the circadian and dopamine neurotransmission apparatuses and disturbance in the intricate catecholamine-acetylcholine neurotransmission balance which leads to mood fluctuations. The management of mixed states is challenging with atypical antipsychotics, newer anticonvulsants and electroconvulsive therapy emerging as the foremost treatment options. In conclusion, while progress has been made in the neurobiological understanding of mixed states, the currently available therapeutic modalities have only shown limited effectiveness. PMID:28184334

  7. Nonlocality in pure and mixed n-qubit X states (United States)

    Batle, J.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Farouk, Ahmed; Abdalla, S.


    Nonlocality for general multiqubit X states is studied in detail. Pure and mixed states are analyzed as far as their maximum amount of nonlocality is concerned, and analytic results are obtained for important families of these states. The particular form of nonzero diagonal and antidiagonal matrix elements makes the corresponding study easy enough to obtain exact results. We also provide a numerical recipe to randomly generate an important family of X states endowed with a given degree of mixture.

  8. Symmetry conserving configuration mixing method with cranked states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borrajo


    Full Text Available We present the first calculations of a symmetry conserving configuration mixing method (SCCM using time-reversal symmetry breaking Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB states with the Gogny D1S interaction. The method includes particle number and tridimensional angular momentum symmetry restorations as well as configuration mixing within the generator coordinate method (GCM framework. The nucleus 32Mg is chosen to show the performance and reliability of the calculations. Additionally, 01+, 21+ and 41+ states are computed for the magnesium isotopic chain, where a noticeable compression of the spectrum is obtained by including cranked states, leading to a very good agreement with the known experimental data.

  9. Y(3940) as a mixed charmonium-molecule state (United States)

    Albuquerque, R. M.; Dias, J. M.; Nielsen, M.; Zanetti, C. M.


    Using the QCD sum rules approach, we study the mass and the decay widths of the Y(3940) state, assuming that it can be described by a mixed charmonium-molecule scalar state, i.e., a mixture between the χc0 charmonium and D*D ¯* molecule. Using a current with JPC=0++, we estimate for the mixing angle, θ =(76.0±5.0)°, resulting in a mass value of MY=(3.95±0.11) GeV, which is in reasonable agreement with the experimental mass of the Y(3940) state. For the decay width, we evaluate the channels Y→J/ψω and Y→γγ. We find the values ΓY→J/ψω≈(1.7±0.6) MeV and ΓY→γγ≈(1.6±1.3) KeV, respectively. We also study the decay process of this state into channels containing DD ¯ mesons in the final state. The result for the order of magnitude of the product ΓY→γγ×ΓY→J/ψω˜O(103) KeV2 is also in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. We thus conclude that the present description of the Y(3940) as a mixed charmonium-molecule state is a possible scenario to explain the structure of such a state.

  10. Mixed Charmonium-Molecule Interpretation for the Y (3940) State (United States)

    Albuquerque, R. M.; Dias, J. M.; Nielsen, M.; Zanetti, C. M.


    QCD sum rules are used to study the mass and the decay widths of the Y(3940) state. We assume that it can be described by a mixed charmonium-molecule scalar current with JPC = 0++. Using a mixing angle θ = (76.0±5.0)°, we obtain MY = (3.95±0.11) GeV, which is in good agreement with the experimental mass of the Y(3940) state. We also evaluate the decay width in the channels Y → J/ψω and Y → γγ obtaining the values ΓY → j/ψω ≈ (1.7± 0.6) MeV and ΓY→γγ ≈ (1.6 ± 1.3) KeV, respectively. We also study the decay process of this state into channels containing DD mesons in the final state.

  11. Photonic states mixing beyond the plasmon hybridization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryadharma, Radius N. S.; Iskandar, Alexander A., E-mail:; Tjia, May-On [Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)


    A study is performed on a photonic-state mixing-pattern in an insulator-metal-insulator cylindrical silver nanoshell and its rich variations induced by changes in the geometry and dielectric media of the system, representing the combined influences of plasmon coupling strength and cavity effects. This study is performed in terms of the photonic local density of states (LDOS) calculated using the Green tensor method, in order to elucidate those combined effects. The energy profiles of LDOS inside the dielectric core are shown to exhibit consistently growing number of redshifted photonic states due to an enhanced plasmon coupling induced state mixing arising from decreased shell thickness, increased cavity size effect, and larger symmetry breaking effect induced by increased permittivity difference between the core and the background media. Further, an increase in cavity size leads to increased additional peaks that spread out toward the lower energy regime. A systematic analysis of those variations for a silver nanoshell with a fixed inner radius in vacuum background reveals a certain pattern of those growing number of redshifted states with an analytic expression for the corresponding energy downshifts, signifying a photonic state mixing scheme beyond the commonly adopted plasmon hybridization scheme. Finally, a remarkable correlation is demonstrated between the LDOS energy profiles outside the shell and the corresponding scattering efficiencies.

  12. Ferroelectric-antiferroelectric mixed systems. Equation of state, thermodynamic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The problem of equation of state for ferroelectric-antiferroelectric mixed systems in the whole region of a concentration change (0≤n≤1 is discussed. The main peculiarity of the presented model turns out to be the possibility for the site dipole momentum to be oriented ferroelectrically in z-direction and antiferroelectrically in x-direction. Such a situation takes place in mixed compounds of KDP type. The different phases (ferro-, antiferro-, paraelectric, dipole glass and some combinations of them have been found and analyzed.

  13. Dynamical topological quantum phase transitions for mixed states (United States)

    Heyl, M.; Budich, J. C.


    We introduce and study the dynamical probes of band-structure topology in the postquench time evolution of quantum many-body systems initialized in mixed states. Our construction generalizes the notion of dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs), a real-time counterpart of conventional equilibrium phase transitions in quantum dynamics, to finite temperatures and generalized Gibbs ensembles. The nonanalytical signatures hallmarking these mixed-state DQPTs are found to be characterized by observable phase singularities manifesting in the dynamical formation of vortex-antivortex pairs in the interferometric phase of the density matrix. Studying quenches in Chern insulators, we find that changes in the topological properties of the Hamiltonian can be identified in this scenario, without ever preparing a topologically nontrivial or low-temperature initial state. Our observations are of immediate relevance for current experiments aimed at realizing topological phases in ultracold atomic gases.

  14. Experimental evidence for mixed reality states in an interreality system. (United States)

    Gintautas, Vadas; Hübler, Alfred W


    We present experimental data on the limiting behavior of an interreality system comprising a virtual horizontally driven pendulum coupled to its real-world counterpart, where the interaction time scale is much shorter than the time scale of the dynamical system. We present experimental evidence that, if the physical parameters of the simplified virtual system match those of the real system within a certain tolerance, there is a transition from an uncorrelated dual reality state to a mixed reality state of the system in which the motion of the two pendula is highly correlated. The region in parameter space for stable solutions has an Arnold tongue structure for both the experimental data and a numerical simulation. As virtual systems better approximate real ones, even weak coupling in other interreality systems may produce sudden changes to mixed reality states.

  15. Volatility and mixing states of ultrafine particles from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruf Hossain, A.M.M.; Park, Seungho; Kim, Jae-Seok [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kihong, E-mail: [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size distribution, volatility, and mixing states of ultrafine particles emitted from rice straw, oak, and pine burning under different burning conditions were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smoldering combustion emitted larger mode particles in higher numbers than smaller mode particles, while the converse was true for flaming combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer While the flaming combustion and open burning results imply there is internal mixing of OC and BC, smoldering combustion in rice straw produced ultrafine particles devoid of BC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mixing state of ultrafine particles from biomass burning can alter the single scattering albedo, and might even change the sign of radiative forcing. - Abstract: Fine and ultrafine carbonaceous aerosols produced from burning biomasses hold enormous importance in terms of assessing radiation balance and public health hazards. As such, volatility and mixing states of size-selected ultrafine particles (UFP) emitted from rice straw, oak, and pine burning were investigated by using volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) technique in this study. Rice straw combustion produced unimodal size distributions of emitted aerosols, while bimodal size distributions from combustions of oak (hardwood) and pine (softwood) were obtained. A nearness of flue gas temperatures and a lower CO ratio of flaming combustion (FC) to smoldering combustion (SC) were characteristic differences found between softwood and hardwood. SC emitted larger mode particles in higher numbers than smaller mode particles, while the converse was true for FC. Rice straw open burning UFPs exhibited a volatilization behavior similar to that between FC and SC. In addition, internal mixing states were observed for size-selected UFPs in all biomasses for all combustion conditions, while external mixing states were only observed for rice straw combustion. Results for FC and open

  16. Optimal discrimination of single-qubit mixed states (United States)

    Weir, Graeme; Barnett, Stephen M.; Croke, Sarah


    We consider the problem of minimum-error quantum state discrimination for single-qubit mixed states. We present a method which uses the Helstrom conditions constructively and analytically; this algebraic approach is complementary to existing geometric methods, and solves the problem for any number of arbitrary signal states with arbitrary prior probabilities. It has long been known that the minimum-error probability is given by the trace of the Lagrange operator Γ . The remarkable feature of our approach is the central role played not by Γ , but by its inverse.

  17. Free energy surfaces in the superconducting mixed state (United States)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Fang, M. M.; Bansal, N. P.; Farrell, D. E.


    The free energy surface for Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O1O has been measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field to determine the fundamental thermodynamic properties of the mixed state. The change in free energy, G(H)-G(O), is found to be linear in temperature over a wide range indicating that the specific heat is independent of field.

  18. Discrimination of mixed quantum states. Reversible maps and unambiguous strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinmann, Matthias


    The discrimination of two mixed quantum states is a fundamental task in quantum state estimation and quantum information theory. In quantum state discrimination a quantum system is assumed to be in one of two possible - in general mixed - non-orthogonal quantum states. The discrimination then consists of a measurement strategy that allows to decide in which state the system was before the measurement. In unambiguous state discrimination the aim is to make this decision without errors, but it is allowed to give an inconclusive answer. Especially interesting are measurement strategies that minimize the probability of an inconclusive answer. A starting point for the analysis of this optimization problem was a result by Eldar et al. [Phys. Rev. A 69, 062318 (2004)], which provides non-operational necessary and sufficient conditions for a given measurement strategy to be optimal. These conditions are reconsidered and simplified in such a way that they become operational. The simplified conditions are the basis for further central results: It is shown that the optimal measurement strategy is unique, a statement that is e.g. of importance for the complexity analysis of optimal measurement devices. The optimal measurement strategy is derived for the case, where one of the possible input states has at most rank two, which was an open problem for many years. Furthermore, using the optimality criterion it is shown that there always exists a threshold probability for each state, such that below this probability it is optimal to exclude this state from the discrimination strategy. If the two states subject to discrimination can be brought to a diagonal structure with (2 x 2)-dimensional blocks, then the unambiguous discrimination of these states can be reduced to the unambiguous discrimination of pure states. A criterion is presented that allows to identify the presence of such a structure for two self-adjoint operators. This criterion consists of the evaluation of three

  19. Mixed state of a π-striped superconductor (United States)

    Zelli, M.; Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, A. John


    A model of an antiphase modulated d-wave superconductor has been proposed to describe the decoupling between Cu-O planes in 1/8 doped La2-xBaxCuO4. Unlike a uniform d-wave superconductor, this model exhibits an extended Fermi surface. Within Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory, we study the mixed state of this model and compare it to the case of a uniform d-wave superconductor. We find a periodic structure of the low-energy density of states, with a period that is proportional to B, corresponding to Landau levels that are a coherent mixture of particles and holes. These results are also discussed in the context of experiments which observe quantum oscillations in the cuprates, and are compared to those for models in which the Fermi surface is reconstructed due to translational symmetry breaking in the nonsuperconducting state and to a model of a Fermi-arc metal.

  20. Geometric phases for mixed states of the Kitaev chain. (United States)

    Andersson, Ole; Bengtsson, Ingemar; Ericsson, Marie; Sjöqvist, Erik


    The Berry phase has found applications in building topological order parameters for certain condensed matter systems. The question whether some geometric phase for mixed states can serve the same purpose has been raised, and proposals are on the table. We analyse the intricate behaviour of Uhlmann's geometric phase in the Kitaev chain at finite temperature, and then argue that it captures quite different physics from that intended. We also analyse the behaviour of a geometric phase introduced in the context of interferometry. For the Kitaev chain, this phase closely mirrors that of the Berry phase, and we argue that it merits further investigation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Chemical composition and mixing-state of ice residuals sampled within mixed phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ebert


    Full Text Available During an intensive campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, in February/March 2006 ice particle residuals within mixed-phase clouds were sampled using the Ice-counterflow virtual impactor (Ice-CVI. Size, morphology, chemical composition, mineralogy and mixing state of the ice residual and the interstitial (i.e., non-activated aerosol particles were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ice nuclei (IN were identified from the significant enrichment of particle groups in the ice residual (IR samples relative to the interstitial aerosol. In terms of number lead-bearing particles are enriched by a factor of approximately 25, complex internal mixtures with silicates or metal oxides as major components by a factor of 11, and mixtures of secondary aerosol and carbonaceous material (C-O-S particles by a factor of 2. Other particle groups (sulfates, sea salt, Ca-rich particles, external silicates observed in the ice-residual samples cannot be assigned unambiguously as IN. Between 9 and 24% of all IR are Pb-bearing particles. Pb was found as major component in around 10% of these particles (PbO, PbCl2. In the other particles, Pb was found as some 100 nm sized agglomerates consisting of 3–8 nm sized primary particles (PbS, elemental Pb. C-O-S particles are present in the IR at an abundance of 17–27%. The soot component within these particles is strongly aged. Complex internal mixtures occur in the IR at an abundance of 9–15%. Most IN identified at the Jungfraujoch station are internal mixtures containing anthropogenic components (either as main or minor constituent, and it is concluded that admixture of the anthropogenic component is responsible for the increased IN efficiency within mixed phase clouds. The mixing state appears to be a key parameter for the ice nucleation behaviour that cannot be predicted from the sole knowledge of the main component of an individual particle.

  2. Mixed configuration ground state in iron(II) phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Javier; Toby, Brian; van Veenendaal, Michel


    We calculate the angular dependence of the x-ray linear and circular dichroism at the L2,3 edges of α-Fe(II) Phthalocyanine (FePc) thin films using a ligand-field model with full configuration interaction. We find the best agreement with the experimental spectra for a mixed ground state of 3E (a2 e3b1 ) and 3B (a1 e4b1 ) g 1g g 2g 2g 1g g 2g with the two configurations coupled by the spin-orbit interaction. The 3Eg(b) and 3B2g states have easy-axis and easy-plane anisotropies, respectively. Our model accounts for an easy-plane magnetic anisotropy and the measured magnitudes of the in-plane orbital and spin moments. The proximity in energy of the two configurations allows a switching of the magnetic anisotropy from easy plane to easy axis with a small change in the crystal field, as recently observed for FePc adsorbed on an oxidized Cu surface. We also discuss the possibility of a quintet ground state (5A1g is 250 meV above the ground state) with planar anisotropy by manipulation of the Fe-C bond length by depositing the complex on a substrate that is subjected to a mechanical strain.

  3. Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Davidovits, P. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Lewis, E. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Onasch, T. B. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States)


    Interpreting the temporal relationship between the scattering and incandescence signals recorded by the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), Sedlacek et al. (2012) reported that 60% of the refractory black carbon containing particles in a plume containing biomass burning tracers exhibited non-core-shell structure. Because the relationship between the rBC (refractory black carbon) incandescence and the scattering signals had not been reported in the peer-reviewed literature, and to further evaluate the initial interpretation by Sedlacek et al., a series of experiments was undertaken to investigate black carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for collapsed soot, as the light-absorbing substance to characterize this signal relationship. Particles were formed by coagulation of RB with either a solid substance (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) or a liquid substance (dioctyl sebacate), and by condensation with dioctyl sebacate, the latter experiment forming particles in a core-shell configuration. Each particle type experienced fragmentation (observed as negative lagtimes), and each yielded similar lagtime responses in some instances, confounding attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. SP2 operating conditions, specifically laser power and sample flow rate, which in turn affect the particle heating and dissipation rates, play an important role in the behavior of particles in the SP2, including probability of fragmentation. This behavior also depended on the morphology of the particles and on the thermochemical properties of the non-RB substance. Although these influences cannot currently be unambiguously separated, the SP2 analysis may still provide useful information on particle mixing states and black carbon particle sources. This work was communicated in a 2015 publication (Sedlacek et al. 2015)

  4. Dynamics of the superconducting mixed state in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mixed state of these superlattices has been probed through measurements of radio frequency penetration depth () as a function of temperature (), magnetic field () and it's orientation () with respect to the planes of the superlattices. These data reflect the two-dimensional nature of the mixed state in these systems.

  5. Generation of two-temporal-mode photon states by vector four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mckinstrie, C. J.; Christensen, J. B.; Rottwitt, Karsten


    Photon pair states and multiple-photon squeezed states have many applications in quantum information science. In this paper, Green functions are derived for spontaneous four-wave mixing in the low-and high-gain regimes. Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a strongly-birefringent medium generates...

  6. Quantifying entanglement properties of qudit mixed states with incomplete permutation symmetry (United States)

    Barasiński, Artur; Nowotarski, Mateusz


    The characterization of entanglement properties in mixed states is important from both a theoretical and a practical point of view. While the estimation of entanglement of bipartite pure states is well established, for mixed states it is a considerably much harder task. The key elements of the mixed-state entanglement theory are given by the exact solutions which sometimes are possible for special states of high symmetry problems. In this paper, we present the exact investigation on the entanglement properties for a five-parameter family of highly symmetric two-qudit mixed states with equal but arbitrary finite local Hilbert space dimension. We achieve this by extensive analysis of various conditions of separability and the entanglement classification with respect to stochastic local operations and classical communication. Furthermore, our results can be used for an arbitrary state by proper application of the proposed twirling operator.

  7. Using critical state theory for modelling of asphalt mix compaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henny L.; van Maarseveen, Martin F.A.M.; Molenaar, Andre A.A.; van de Ven, Martin F.C.


    This paper focuses on modeling of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) material behavior during compaction. During compaction the particle configuration inside the HMA is changing from a relatively loose into a denser one while the bitumen is fluid. Initially particle reorientation is easily possible due to the

  8. Charge state distribution studies of pure and oxygen mixed krypton ECR plasma - signature of isotope anomaly and gas mixing effect. (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Mal, Kedar; Rodrigues, G


    We report the charge state distributions of the pure, 25% and 50% oxygen mixed krypton plasma to shed more light on the understanding of the gas mixing and the isotope anomaly [A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2875 and Y Kawai, D Meyer, A Nadzeyka, U Wolters and K Wiesemann, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 (2001) 451] in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The krypton plasma was produced using a 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source. The intensities of the highly abundant four isotopes, viz. 82 Kr (~11.58%), 83 Kr (~11.49%), 84 Kr (~57%) and 86 Kr (17.3%) up to ~ +14 charge state have been measured by extracting the ions from the plasma and analysing them in the mass and the energy using a large acceptance analyzer-cum-switching dipole magnet. The influence of the oxygen gas mixing on the isotopic krypton ion intensities is clearly evidenced beyond +9 charge state. With and without oxygen mixing, the charge state distribution of the krypton ECR plasma shows the isotope anomaly with unusual trends. The anomaly in the intensities of the isotopes having quite closer natural abundance, viz. 82 Kr, 86 Kr and 83 Kr, 86 Kr is prominent, whereas the intensity ratio of 86 Kr to 84 Kr shows a weak signature of it. The isotope anomaly tends to disappear with increasing oxygen mixing in the plasma. The observed trends in the intensities of the krypton isotopes do not follow the prediction of linear Landau wave damping in the plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Mixed states in bipolar disorder - changes in DSM-5 and current treatment recommendations. (United States)

    Betzler, Felix; Stöver, Laura Apollonia; Sterzer, Philipp; Köhler, Stephan


    Mixed states in affective disorders represent a particular challenge in clinical routine, characterized by a complicated course of treatment and a worse treatment response. Clinical features of mixed states and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria are presented and critical discussed. We then performed a systematic review using the terms 'bipolar', 'mixed' and 'randomized' to evaluate current treatment options. For pharmacological treatment of mixed states in total, there is still insufficient data from RCTs. However, there is some evidence for efficacy in mixed states from RCTs for atypical antipsychotics, especially olanzapine, aripiprazole and asenapine as well as mood stabilizers as valproate and carbamazepine. Mixed states are of a high clinical relevance and the DSM-5 criteria substantially reduced the diagnostic threshold. Besides advantages of a better characterization of patients with former DSM-IV-defined mixed episodes, disadvantages arise for example differential diagnoses with a substantial overlap in symptoms such as borderline personality disorders. Atypical antipsychotics, valproate and carbamazepine demonstrated efficacy in a limited sample of RCTs. The number of RCTs in the treatment of mixed states is highly limited. Furthermore, nearly all studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies which may lead to an underestimation of classical mood stabilizers such as lithium.

  10. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya


    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  11. Understanding the Role of Water in Modifying Particle Mixing States for CCN Activity (United States)

    Vu, D. N.; Gao, S.; Pierce, J. R.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.


    CCN data sets from ambient and chamber studies, which consist of complex heterogeneous mixtures of organic and inorganic aerosol mixtures, may not show a single activation curve but instead can exhibit multiple activations not associated with doubly charged particles. It has been suggested that these activation curves may be representative of multiple externally mixed compounds, whereas single activation curves are representative of single component or multicomponent internally mixed aerosols. To characterize and modify mixing states, a new laminar flow tube apparatus was developed to control the extent of mixing of organic and inorganic fractions under different environmental conditions such as relative humidity. Data sets yielding multiple activation curves have been recreated by mixing multiple inorganic and organic compounds. Preliminary results suggest that aerosol water is a significant factor; under dry conditions, the aerosols remained externally mixed while humid conditions facilitated internal mixing. For example, ammonium sulfate (inorganic) and succinic acid (organic) when dry, maintained an external mixture and multiple activation curves were observed to be constant. Under humid conditions, external mixing was initially observed; however, the aerosol water promoted internal mixing and the activation curves were observed to converge into a single curve. The data agrees well with Köhler Theory and single parameter (kappa) theory thermodynamic predictions of droplet activation. Data sets are also compared with a diffusion based coagulation particle model to predict mixing behavior. The method of analysis and the effect of mixing states of multiple components on the supersaturated hygroscopic properties of aerosols are presented.

  12. Excited state charge transfer reaction in (mixed solvent + electrolyte ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) in two sets of mixed solvents, (1-propanol + ethyl acetate) and (propylene ...... Harun Al Rasid Gazi and Ranjit Biswas. PrOH+EA. Normalized F.I.. 0. 1. Normalized F.I.. 0. 1. -3. 0. 3. 3000. 4000. 5000. 6000. Residual. -3. 0. 3. Residual. -3. 0. 3. Time(ps). 3000. 4000.

  13. Most probable mixing state of aerosols in Delhi NCR, northern India (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh


    Unknown mixing state is one of the major sources of uncertainty in estimating aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF). Aerosol DRF in India is usually reported for external mixing and any deviation from this would lead to high bias and error. Limited information on aerosol composition hinders in resolving this issue in India. Here we use two years of aerosol chemical composition data measured at megacity Delhi to examine the most probable aerosol mixing state by comparing the simulated clear-sky downward surface flux with the measured flux. We consider external, internal, and four combinations of core-shell (black carbon, BC over dust; water-soluble, WS over dust; WS over water-insoluble, WINS and BC over WINS) mixing. Our analysis reveals that choice of external mixing (usually considered in satellite retrievals and climate models) seems reasonable in Delhi only in the pre-monsoon (Mar-Jun) season. During the winter (Dec-Feb) and monsoon (Jul-Sep) seasons, 'WS coating over dust' externally mixed with BC and WINS appears to be the most probable mixing state; while 'WS coating over WINS' externally mixed with BC and dust seems to be the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) season. Mean seasonal TOA (surface) aerosol DRF for the most probable mixing states are 4.4 ± 3.9 (- 25.9 ± 3.9), - 16.3 ± 5.7 (- 42.4 ± 10.5), 13.6 ± 11.4 (- 76.6 ± 16.6) and - 5.4 ± 7.7 (- 80.0 ± 7.2) W m- 2 respectively in the pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Our results highlight the importance of realistic mixing state treatment in estimating aerosol DRF to aid in policy making to combat climate change.

  14. Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren


    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  15. High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light. (United States)

    Afek, Itai; Ambar, Oron; Silberberg, Yaron


    Precision measurements can be brought to their ultimate limit by harnessing the principles of quantum mechanics. In optics, multiphoton entangled states, known as NOON states, can be used to obtain high-precision phase measurements, becoming more and more advantageous as the number of photons grows. We generated "high-NOON" states (N = 5) by multiphoton interference of quantum down-converted light with a classical coherent state in an approach that is inherently scalable. Super-resolving phase measurements with up to five entangled photons were produced with a visibility higher than that obtainable using classical light only.

  16. Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states. (United States)

    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J


    Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems.

  17. Temperature control in a continuously mixed bioreactor for solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.J.I.; Tramper, J.; Bakker, M.S.N.; Rinzema, A.


    A continuously mixed, aseptic paddle mixer was used successfully for solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus oryzae on whole wheat kernels. Continuous mixing improved temperature control and prevented inhomogeneities in the bed. Respiration rates found in this system were comparable to those

  18. Representation and evaluation of aerosol mixing state in a climate model (United States)

    Bauer, S. E.; Prather, K. A.; Ault, A. P.


    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are composed out of multiple chemical species. The aerosol mixing state is an important aerosol property that will determine the interaction of aerosols with the climate system via radiative forcings and cloud activation. Through the introduction of aerosol microphysics into climate models, aerosol mixing state is by now taken into account to a certain extend in climate models, and evaluation of mixing state is the next challenge. Here we use data from the Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) and compare the results to the GISS-modelE-MATRIX model, a global climate model including a detailed aerosol micro-physical scheme. We use data from various field campaigns probing, urban, rural and maritime air masses and compare those to climatological and nudged simulations for the years 2005 to 2009. ATOFMS provides information about the size distributions of several mixing state classes, including the chemical components of black and organic carbon, sulfates, dust and salts. MATRIX simulates 16 aerosol populations, which definitions are based on mixing state. We have grouped ATOFMS and MATRIX data into similar mixing state classes and compare the size resolved number concentrations against each other. As a first result we find that climatological simulations are rather difficult to evaluate with field data, and that nudged simulations give a much better agreement. However this is not just caused by the better fit of natural - meteorological driven - aerosol components, but also due to the interaction between meteorology and aerosol formation. The model seems to get the right amount of mixing state of black carbon material with sulfate and organic components, but seems to always overestimate the fraction of black carbon that is externally mixed. In order to understand this bias between model and the ATOFMS data, we will look into microphysical processes near emission sources and investigate the climate relevance of these sub

  19. Mixed density wave state in quasi-2D organic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katono, K., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ichimura, K. [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Center of Education and Research for Topological Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Kawashima, Y.; Yamaya, K. [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Tanda, S. [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Center of Education and Research for Topological Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)


    The density wave phase of {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} was investigated by transport properties and magnetic susceptibility. The density wave transition was observed as a broad increase at T{sub DW}=9 K by resistance measurement. Temperature dependence of the static magnetic susceptibility {chi} shows a large Curie tail below 100 K. By subtracting the Curie component, we found that the magnetic susceptibility increases like weak ferromagnetism with decreasing temperature below 7.4 K. The gradual increase of {chi} below T{sub DW} is not expected in simple CDW or SDW, where the magnetic susceptibility decreases with decreasing temperature due to the reduction of Pauli paramagnetic component. To explain the weak ferromagnetic behavior, we consider the coexistence of CDW and SDW. We propose a model of the mixed density wave, where CDW exists with antiferromagnetically coupled canting spins.

  20. The psychophysiology of mixed emotional states: Internal and external replicability analysis of a direct replication study. (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D; Samson, Andrea C; Gross, James J


    The replicability of emotion-related physiological changes constitutes a fundamental issue in affective science. We undertook a direct replication of the physiological differentiation of amusement, disgust, and a mixed emotional state as previously reported (Kreibig, Samson, & Gross, 2013). In the current study, 48 women watched 54 amusing, disgusting, and mixed emotional film clips while cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory measures were obtained. Primary analyses indicated physiological differentiation of the mixed emotional state from amusement and disgust. We evaluated (a) the probability that future replications of the current study would yield similar results using bootstrapped confidence intervals of effect sizes, and (b) the stability of results of physiological reactivity between actual replications using correlation and regression analyses. Findings suggest replicable differentiation of amusement, disgust, and a mixed emotional state. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Metrics to quantify the importance of mixing state for CCN activity (United States)

    Ching, Joseph; Fast, Jerome; West, Matthew; Riemer, Nicole


    It is commonly assumed that models are more prone to errors in predicted cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations when the aerosol populations are externally mixed. In this work we investigate this assumption by using the mixing state index (χ) proposed by Riemer and West (2013) to quantify the degree of external and internal mixing of aerosol populations. We combine this metric with particle-resolved model simulations to quantify error in CCN predictions when mixing state information is neglected, exploring a range of scenarios that cover different conditions of aerosol aging. We show that mixing state information does indeed become unimportant for more internally mixed populations, more precisely for populations with χ larger than 75 %. For more externally mixed populations (χ below 20 %) the relationship of χ and the error in CCN predictions is not unique and ranges from lower than -40 % to about 150 %, depending on the underlying aerosol population and the environmental supersaturation. We explain the reasons for this behavior with detailed process analyses.

  2. Metrics to quantify the importance of mixing state for CCN activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ching


    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that models are more prone to errors in predicted cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations when the aerosol populations are externally mixed. In this work we investigate this assumption by using the mixing state index (χ proposed by Riemer and West (2013 to quantify the degree of external and internal mixing of aerosol populations. We combine this metric with particle-resolved model simulations to quantify error in CCN predictions when mixing state information is neglected, exploring a range of scenarios that cover different conditions of aerosol aging. We show that mixing state information does indeed become unimportant for more internally mixed populations, more precisely for populations with χ larger than 75 %. For more externally mixed populations (χ below 20 % the relationship of χ and the error in CCN predictions is not unique and ranges from lower than −40 % to about 150 %, depending on the underlying aerosol population and the environmental supersaturation. We explain the reasons for this behavior with detailed process analyses.

  3. A review of changes in composition of hot mix asphalt in the United States. (United States)

    Mundt, Diane J; Marano, Kristin M; Nunes, Anthony P; Adams, Robert C


    This review researched the materials, methods, and practices in the hot mix asphalt industry that might impact future exposure assessments and epidemiologic research on road paving workers. Since World War II, the U.S. interstate highway system, increased traffic volume, transportation speeds, and vehicle axle loads have necessitated an increase in demand for hot mix asphalt for road construction and maintenance, while requiring a consistent road paving product that meets state-specific physical performance specifications. We reviewed typical practices in hot mix asphalt paving in the United States to understand the extent to which materials are and have been added to hot mix asphalt to meet specifications and how changes in practices and technology could affect evaluation of worker exposures for future research. Historical documents were reviewed, and industry experts from 16 states were interviewed to obtain relevant information on industry practices. Participants from all states reported additive use, with most being less than 2% by weight. Crumb rubber and recycled asphalt pavement were added in concentrations approximately 10% per unit weight of the mix. The most frequently added materials included polymers and anti-stripping agents. Crumb rubber, sulfur, asbestos, roofing shingles, slag, or fly ash have been used in limited amounts for short periods of time or in limited geographic areas. No state reported using coal tar as an additive to hot mix asphalt or as a binder alternative in hot mix pavements for high-volume road construction. Coal tar may be present in recycled asphalt pavement from historical use, which would need to be considered in future exposure assessments of pavers. Changes in hot mix asphalt production and laydown emission control equipment have been universally implemented over time as the technology has become available to reduce potential worker exposures. This work is a companion review to a study undertaken in the petroleum refining

  4. Mixed-state certification of quantum capacities for noisy communication channels (United States)

    Macchiavello, Chiara; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.


    We extend a recent method to detect lower bounds to the quantum capacity of quantum communication channels by considering realistic scenarios with general input probe states and arbitrary detection procedures at the output. Realistic certification relies on a bound for the coherent information of a quantum channel that can be applied with arbitrary bipartite mixed input states and generalized output measurements.

  5. Numerical analysis of magnetic states mixing in the Heisenberg model with the dihedral symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaśniewicz-Pacer K.


    Full Text Available The total spin number S is not a ‘good quantum number for’ the Heisenberg model with singleion anisotropy, so the Hamiltonian eigenstates with different S may form linear combinations. Sometimes it is assumed that S can be used as an ‘approximate quantum number’, though some results show that mixing of S-states is important in investigations of magnetic molecules. Some small spin systems with the dihedral symmetry are analyzed to investigate different schemes of mixing and its dependence on the anisotropy parameter. The results show various behavior of the magnetic state mixing. The mean (over a state value of total spin is quite stable for the ground state, but in other cases this dependence is nonlinear and sometimes non-monotonic.

  6. Optimization of solid-state synthesis process of advanced ceramics materials: influence of mixing conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakri Adel


    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of mixing process on solid state reaction of solid oxide material mixture was studied. Lead piezoelectric ceramic specimens 0.5 Pb(Zn1/3,Sb2/3O3-0.5 Pb0.98La0.02(Zr0.48,Ti0.52O3 prepared by different mixing procedures, were conducted under different conditions such as order, combination and mixing time. The phase formation, composition nature, structural properties of powder mixture was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The obtained results for different mixing processes make the solid state reaction method more selective, taking into consideration the attraction forces between the reactants and the electronegativity of oxide reactants.

  7. Classical memoryless noise-induced maximally discordant mixed separable steady states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Kurt, Arzu [Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 14280 (Turkey); Eryigit, Resul, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 14280 (Turkey)


    We have investigated the dynamics of quantum discord and entanglement for two qubits subject to independent global transverse and/or longitudinal memoryless noisy classical fields. Global transverse and/or longitudinal random fields are found to drive the system to maximally discordant mixed separable steady states for suitable initial conditions. Moreover, two independent noises in the system are found to enhance both the steady state randomness and quantum discord in the absence of entanglement for some initial states.

  8. Generation of two-temporal-mode photon states by vector four-wave mixing. (United States)

    McKinstrie, C J; Christensen, J B; Rottwitt, K; Raymer, M G


    Photon pair states and multiple-photon squeezed states have many applications in quantum information science. In this paper, Green functions are derived for spontaneous four-wave mixing in the low- and high-gain regimes. Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a strongly-birefringent medium generates signal and idler photons that are associated with only one pair of temporal (Schmidt) modes, for a wide range of pump powers and arbitrary pump shapes. The Schmidt coefficients (expected photon numbers) depend sensitively on the pump powers, and the Schmidt functions (shapes of the photon wavepackets) depend sensitively on the pump powers and shapes, which can be controlled.

  9. Experimentally testing Hardy’s theorem on nonlocality with entangled mixed states (United States)

    Fan, Dai-He; Dai, Mao-Chun; Guo, Wei-Jie; Wei, Lian-Fu


    Hardy’s theorem on nonlocality has been verified by a series of experiments with two-qubit entangled pure states. However, in this paper we demonstrate the experimental test of the theorem by using the two-photon entangled mixed states. We first investigate the generic logic in Hardy’s proof of nonlocality, which can be applied for arbitrary two-qubit mixed polarization entangled states and can be reduced naturally to the well-known logic tested successfully by the previous pure state experiments. Then, the optimized violations of locality for various experimental parameters are delivered by the numerical method. Finally, the logic argued above for testing Hardy’s theorem on nonlocality is demonstrated experimentally by using the mixed entangled-photon pairs generated via pumping two type-I BBO crystals. Our experimental results shows that Hardy’s proof of nonlocality can also be verified with two-qubit polarization entangled mixed states, with a violation of about 3.4 standard deviations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308008 and U1330201).

  10. Mixing state of aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Radiative forcing and heating rate (United States)

    Srivastava, R.; Ramachandran, S.


    Aerosols are a major atmospheric variable which perturb the Earth-atmosphere radiation balance by absorbing and scattering the solar and terrestrial radiation. Aerosols are produced by natural and anthropogenic processes. The presence of different types of aerosol over a location and aerosols transported from long-range can give rise to different mixing states because of aging and interaction among the different aerosol species. Knowledge of the mixing state of aerosols is important for an accurate assessment of aerosols in climate forcing, as assumptions regarding the mixing state of aerosol and its effect on optical properties can give rise to uncertainties in modeling their direct and indirect effects [1]. Seasonal variations in mixing states of aerosols over an urban (Kanpur) and a rural location (Gandhi College) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are determined using the measured and modeled aerosol optical properties, and the impact of aerosol mixing state on aerosol radiative forcing are investigated. IGP is one of the most populated and polluted river basins in the world, rich in fertile lands and agricultural production. Kanpur is an urban, industrial and densely populated city, and has several large/small scale industries and vehicles, while Gandhi College in IGP is a rural village, located southeast of Kanpur. Aerosol optical properties obtained from Aerosol Robotic Network sun/sky radiometers [2] over these two environmentally distinct locations in Indo-Gangetic Plain are used in the study, along with aerosol vertical profiles obtained from CALIPSO (Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) lidar observations. Probable mixing state of aerosols is determined utilizing the aerosol optical properties viz., aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter. The coated-sphere Mie calculation requires the refractive index of core and shell species, and the radius of core and shell particles. Core to shell radius

  11. Transition Rates between Mixed Symmetry States First Measurement in $^{94}Mo$

    CERN Document Server

    Pietralla, N; Belic, D; Von Brentano, P; Friessner, C; Kneissl, U; Linnemann, A; Nord, A; Pitz, H H; Otsuka, T; Schneider, I; Werner, V; Wiedenhöver, I


    The nucleus 94Mo was investigated using a powerful combination of gamma-singles photon scattering experiments and gamma-gamma-coincidence studies following the beta-decay of 94mTc. The data survey short-lived J^pi=1+,2+ states and include branching ratios, E2/M1 mixing ratios, lifetimes, and transition strengths. The mixed-symmetry (MS) 1+ scissors mode and the 2+ MS state are identified from M1 strengths. A gamma transition between MS states was observed and its rate was measured. Nine M1 and E2 strengths involving MS states agree with the O(6) limit of the interacting boson model-2 using the proton boson E2 charge as the only free parameter.

  12. Effect of substrate-seed mixing and leachate recirculation on solid state digestion of biowaste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.


    Lab-scale experiments were performed and a mechanistic model was developed to simulate the solid state digestion of biowaste in a batch reactor. Both experiments and model showed that the substrate-seed mixing degree and leachate recirculation rate have a strong effect on the reactor performance.

  13. Self-Mixing Thin-Slice Solid-State Laser Metrology (United States)

    Otsuka, Kenju


    This paper reviews the dynamic effect of thin-slice solid-state lasers subjected to frequency-shifted optical feedback, which led to the discovery of the self-mixing modulation effect, and its applications to quantum-noise-limited versatile laser metrology systems with extreme optical sensitivity. PMID:22319406

  14. Size-resolved measurement of the mixing state of soot in the megacity Beijing, China: Diurnal cycle, aging and parameterization (United States)

    Cheng, Y. F.; Su, H.; Rose, D.; Gunthe, S. S.; Berghof, M.; Wehner, B.; Achtert, P.; Nowak, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Shiraiwa, M.; Gong, Y. G.; Shao, M.; Hu, M.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Y. H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.


    In the summer of 2006, measurements of the mixing state of non-volatile particles were carried out at a suburban site of Beijing in the North China Plain by using a VTDMA. In this study, we perform an in-depth analysis of VTDMA results, focusing on the following topics: (1) comparison of the mixing state of soot measured by a VTDMA and the aerosol hygroscopicity mixing state determined by a CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) counter; (2) diurnal variation and evolution of soot mixing state at different size ranges; (3) calculation of kex→in and the influence of emissions on it; and (4) potential parameterization methods.

  15. Clusters on the basis of bright multimode light in a mixed state (United States)

    Korolev, S. B.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Golubeva, T. Yu.; Golubev, Yu. M.


    The possibility of cluster-state generation on the basis of mixing radiation from two independent lasers in an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer is shown in this paper. The formulation of the problem is close to that considered before by Menicucci (Phys. Rev. A 83, 62314 (2011)) and Yokouama et al. (Nature Photonics 7, 982 (2013)). The specificity of the current consideration is that our sources of squeezed light (phase-locked sub-Poissonian lasers) radiate bright light in a mixed state, in contrast to an optical parametric oscillator in the subthreshold mode. We also take into account the multimode structure of the radiation, not restricting ourselves to only a constant component of the field-noise characteristics. To set the cluster state, the van Loock-Furusawa separability criterion is used.

  16. Quantum wave mixing and visualisation of coherent and superposed photonic states in a waveguide. (United States)

    Dmitriev, A Yu; Shaikhaidarov, R; Antonov, V N; Hönigl-Decrinis, T; Astafiev, O V


    Superconducting quantum systems (artificial atoms) have been recently successfully used to demonstrate on-chip effects of quantum optics with single atoms in the microwave range. In particular, a well-known effect of four wave mixing could reveal a series of features beyond classical physics, when a non-linear medium is scaled down to a single quantum scatterer. Here we demonstrate the phenomenon of quantum wave mixing (QWM) on a single superconducting artificial atom. In the QWM, the spectrum of elastically scattered radiation is a direct map of the interacting superposed and coherent photonic states. Moreover, the artificial atom visualises photon-state statistics, distinguishing coherent, one- and two-photon superposed states with the finite (quantised) number of peaks in the quantum regime. Our results may give a new insight into nonlinear quantum effects in microwave optics with artificial atoms.

  17. Depressive mixed state: Evidence for a new form of depressive state in type I and II bipolar patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia M’Bailara


    Full Text Available Katia M’Bailara1, Donatienne Van den Bulke2, Nicolas Demazeau2, Jacques Demotes-Mainard3, Chantal Henry11EA4139 Laboratoire de psychologie, Université Victor Segalen, Bordeaux Cedex, France; 2Centre Hospitalier Charles Perrens, Bordeaux Cedex, France; 3INSERM-DRCT, ECRIN, Paris, FranceBackground: A high proportion of unipolar and bipolar type II patients can present a depressive mixed state (DMX. This state is defined by an association of a major depressive episode with at least two specific hypomanic symptoms. This state seems underdiagnosed and this could have treatment implications. The aims of our study were: (i to investigate the frequency of DMX in type I and II bipolar patients hospitalized for a severe or resistant depressive episode and (ii to assess the therapeutic response in naturalistic conditions.Methods: Forty-two consecutive bipolar patients referred by psychiatrists for a severe or resistant depressive episode were assessed using the French version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0 (MINI 5.0, which assesses the suicide risk and provides DSM-IV diagnosis. The intensity of mood episodes was evaluated using the MADRS and Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale. One group of patients included patients presenting only depressive symptoms (ie, pure major depressive episode (MDE, and the second group included patients with a major depressive episode and at least two specific hypomanic symptoms (DMX.Results: Twenty-one patients (50% had a pure MDE and 21 patients (50% had a DMX. The treatment leading to recovery was very different in the two groups. Antidepressants were effective (77% in MDE patients, whereas antipsychotics were effective (81% in DMX. 38% of patients with a MDE also received a mood stabilizer versus 86% in the group of DMX. Five MDE patients (24% and one DMX patient required electroconvulsive therapy. The suicidal ideations did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.7.Conclusions: Some mood episodes in

  18. Eliciting positive, negative and mixed emotional states: A film library for affective scientists. (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C; Kreibig, Sylvia D; Soderstrom, Blake; Wade, A Ayanna; Gross, James J


    We describe the creation of a film library designed for researchers interested in positive (amusing), negative (repulsive), mixed (amusing and repulsive) and neutral emotional states. Three hundred 20- to 33-second film clips videotaped by amateurs were selected from video-hosting websites and screened in laboratory studies by 75 female participants on self-reported amusement and repulsion (Experiments 1 and 2). On the basis of pre-defined cut-off values, 51 positive, 39 negative, 59 mixed and 50 neutral film clips were selected. These film clips were then presented to 411 male and female participants in a large online study to identify film clips that reliably induced the target emotions (Experiment 3). Depending on the goal of the study, researchers may choose positive, negative, mixed or neutral emotional film clips on the basis of Experiments 1 and 2 or Experiment 3 ratings.

  19. Mixing of S-Wave Charmonia with $\\mathrm{D}\\overline{\\mathrm{D}}$ Molecule States

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, Gunnar


    Charmonium states can decay into pairs of $D$ and $\\overline{D}$ mesons if their masses are above the allowed decay thresholds. In general $c\\bar{c}$ states near threshold will also undergo mixing with $D\\overline{D}$ molecular (or tetraquark) states, by creation and annihilation of light quark-antiquark pairs. The investigation of such effects sheds light on the higher Fock state contributions to charmonium wavefunctions and on mass shifts, relative to a scenario where such mixing effects are neglected. A variational approach is applied to a mixing matrix between operators of both sectors, of $c\\bar{c}$ and of $D\\overline{D}$ molecular type. The efficient calculation of several diagrams appearing in this matrix requires all-to-all propagators, which are realized by sophisticated stochastic estimator techniques. The runs are performed on $n_F=2$ $24^3\\times 48$ lattice volumes with $m_{\\pi} \\approx 280$ MeV, using the non-perturbatively improved clover Wilson action, both for valence and for sea quarks.

  20. Mixing of MnPc electronic states at the MnPc/Au(110) interface (United States)

    Gargiani, Pierluigi; Lisi, Simone; Avvisati, Giulia; Mondelli, Pierluigi; Fatale, Sara; Betti, Maria Grazia


    Manganese-phthalocyanines form assembled chains with a variety of ordered super-structures, flat lying along the Au(110) reconstructed channels. The chains first give rise to a ×5 symmetry reconstruction, while further deposition of MnPc leads to a ×7 periodicity at the completion of the first single layer. A net polarization with the formation of an interface dipole is mainly due to the molecular π-states located on the macrocycles pyrrole rings, while the central metal ion induces a reduction in the polarization, whose amount is related to the Mn-Au interaction. The adsorption-induced interface polarization is compared to other 3d-metal phthalocyanines, to unravel the role of the central metal atom configuration in the interaction process of the d-states. The MnPc adsorption on Au(110) induces the re-hybridization of the electronic states localized on the central metal atom, promoting a charge redistribution of the molecular orbitals of the MnPc molecules. The molecule-substrate interaction is controlled by a symmetry-determined mixing between the electronic states, involving also the molecular empty orbitals with d character hybridized with the nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring, as deduced by photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy exploiting light polarization. The symmetry-determined mixing between the electronic states of the Mn metal center and of the Au substrate induces a density of states close to the Fermi level for the ×5 phase.

  1. Dynamics of the superconducting mixed state in YBa2Cu3O7−δ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamics of the superconducting mixed state in YBa2Cu3O7−δ/PrBa2Cu3O7−δ superlattices in radio frequency regime. K SENAPATI and R C BUDHANI. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India. Abstract. Epitaxial multilayers of YBa2Cu3O7−δ and PrBa2Cu3O7−δ have been deposited ...

  2. Aerosol mixing state, hygroscopic growth and cloud activation efficiency during MIRAGE 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lance


    Full Text Available Observations of aerosol hygroscopic growth and CCN activation spectra for submicron particles are reported for the T1 ground site outside of Mexico City during the MIRAGE 2006 campaign. κ-Köhler theory is used to evaluate the characteristic hygroscopicity parameter, κ*, for the CCN active aerosol population using both size-resolved HTMDA and size-resolved CCNc measurements. Organic mass fractions (forg are evaluated from size-resolved aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements, from which predictions of the hygroscopicity parameter are compared against κ*. Strong diurnal changes in aerosol water uptake parameters and aerosol composition are observed. We find that new particle formation (NPF events are correlated with an increased κ* and CCN-active fraction during the daytime, with greater impact on smaller particles. During NPF events, the number concentration of 40 nm particles acting as CCN at 0.51% ± 0.06% supersaturation can surpass by more than a factor of two the corresponding concentrations of 100 nm particles. We also find that at 06:00–08:00 LT throughout the campaign, fresh traffic emissions result in substantial changes to the chemical distribution of the aerosol, with on average 65% externally mixed fraction for 40 nm particles and 30% externally mixed fraction for 100 nm particles, whereas at midday nearly all particles of both sizes can be described as "internally mixed". Average activation spectra and growth factor distributions are analyzed for different time periods characterizing the daytime (with and without NPF events, the early morning "rush hour" and the entire campaign. We show that κ* derived from CCNc measurements decreases as a function of size during all time periods, while the CCN-active fraction increases as a function of size. Size-resolved AMS measurements do not predict the observed trend for κ* versus particle size, which can be attributed to unresolved mixing state and the presence of refractory

  3. Effects of excited state mixing on transient absorption spectra in dimers Application to photosynthetic light-harvesting complex II

    CERN Document Server

    Valkunas, L; Trinkunas, G; Müller, M G; Holzwarth, A R


    The excited state mixing effect is taken into account considering the difference spectra of dimers. Both the degenerate (homo) dimer as well as the nondegenerate (hetero) dimer are considered. Due to the higher excited state mixing with the two-exciton states in the homodimer, the excited state absorption (or the difference spectrum) can be strongly affected in comparison with the results obtained in the Heitler-London approximation. The difference spectrum of the heterodimer is influenced by two resonance effects (i) mixing of the ground state optical transitions of both monomers in the dimer and (ii) mixing of the excited state absorption of the excited monomer with the ground state optical transition in the nonexcited monomer. These effects have been tested by simulating the difference absorption spectra of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC II) experimentally obtained with the 60 fs excitation pulses at zero delay times and various excitation wavelengths. The pairs of coupled chlorophylls...

  4. Universal three-body bound states in mixed dimensions beyond the Efimov paradigm (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yu, Zhenhua


    The Efimov effect was first predicted for three particles interacting at an s -wave resonance in three dimensions. A subsequent study showed that the same effect can be realized by considering two-body and three-body interactions in mixed dimensions. In this work, we consider the three-body problem of two bosonic A atoms interacting with another single B atom in mixed dimensions: The A atoms are confined in a space of dimension dA and the B atom in a space of dimension dB, and there is an interspecies s -wave interaction in a dint-codimensional space accessible to both species. We find that when the s -wave interaction is tuned on resonance, there emerge an infinite series of universal three-body bound states for {dA,dB,dint} ={2 ,2 ,0 } and {2 ,3 ,1 } . Going beyond the Efimov paradigm, the binding energies of these states follow the scaling ln| En|˜-s(n π -θ ) 2/4 , with the scaling factor s being unity for the former case and √{mB(2 mA+mB) }/(mA+mB) for the latter. We discuss the possibility of realizing our mixed-dimensional systems in a cold-atom experiment and how the effects of these universal three-body bound states may be detected.

  5. Distinctive Resting State Network Disruptions Among Alzheimer's Disease, Subcortical Vascular Dementia, and Mixed Dementia Patients. (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Cha, Jungho; Lee, Jong-Min; Shin, Ji Soo; Jung, Na-Yeon; Kim, Yeo Jin; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Jae Seung; Lee, Jae Hong; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won


    Recent advances in resting-state functional MRI have revealed altered functional networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially those of the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN). However, few studies have evaluated whether small vessel disease (SVD) or combined amyloid and SVD burdens affect the DMN or CEN. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SVD or combined amyloid and SVD burdens affect the DMN or CEN. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the resting-state functional connectivity within DMN and CEN in 37 Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB)(+) AD, 37 PiB(-) subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD), 13 mixed dementia patients, and 65 normal controls. When the resting-state DMN of PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD patients were compared, the PiB(+) AD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the inferior parietal lobule while the PiB(-) SVaD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the medial frontal and superior frontal gyri. Compared to the PiB(-) SVaD or PiB(+) AD, the mixed dementia patients displayed lower functional connectivity within the DMN in the posterior cingulate gyrus. When the resting-state CEN connectivity of PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD patients were compared, the PiB(-) SVaD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the anterior insular region. Compared to the PiB(-) SVaD or PiB(+) AD, the mixed dementia patients displayed lower functional connectivity within the CEN in the inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings suggest that in PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD, there is divergent disruptions in resting-state DMN and CEN. Furthermore, patients with combined amyloid and SVD burdens exhibited more disrupted resting-state DMN and CEN than patients with only amyloid or SVD burden.

  6. Measurement-induced qubit state mixing in circuit QED from up-converted dephasing noise. (United States)

    Slichter, D H; Vijay, R; Weber, S J; Boutin, S; Boissonneault, M; Gambetta, J M; Blais, A; Siddiqi, I


    We observe measurement-induced qubit state mixing in a transmon qubit dispersively coupled to a planar readout cavity. Our results indicate that dephasing noise at the qubit-readout detuning frequency is up-converted by readout photons to cause spurious qubit state transitions, thus limiting the nondemolition character of the readout. Furthermore, we use the qubit transition rate as a tool to extract an equivalent flux noise spectral density at f~1 GHz and find agreement with values extrapolated from a 1/f(α) fit to the measured flux noise spectral density below 1 Hz.

  7. Impact of superconducting gap on the phonon mode mixing itinerant and localized electron states (United States)

    Örd, Teet; Veende, Kadri; Rägo, Küllike


    The influence of superconducting ordering on the optical lattice vibration modified through the mixing of localized states with Hubbard correlation and itinerant band states is analyzed. We consider the situation where the broad electron band is located between lower and upper Hubbard levels. The hardening or softening of phonon dynamics caused by the opening of superconducting gap in the band of itinerant carriers appears in dependence on the disposition of the electron spectrum and chemical potential. The effect varies substantially if the chemical potential approaches the edges of the band of itinerant carriers or the van Hove singularity.

  8. Scheme for directly measuring the concurrences of Collins-Gisin and Werner classes polarization entangled mixed states (United States)

    Zeng, Ting; Chu, Wen-Jing; Yang, Qing; Yang, Ming; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang


    We present a two-copy-based protocol for directly measuring the concurrence of two-photon polarization entangled mixed states (Collins-Gisin class state and the more complicated bipartite mixed entangled state—Werner class state) without quantum state tomography. The quantum circuit designed for directly measuring concurrence can be realized in an optical system. Our protocol works without the sophisticated controlled-NOT gate, which makes it much simpler than the previous ones. Because all the operations used here are local, the scheme can be used for directly measuring remote mixed entanglement too.

  9. Ice and liquid partitioning in mid-latitude and artic mixed-phase clouds: how common is the real mixed-phase state (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica; Krämer, Martina; Afchine, Armin; Gallagher, Martin; Dorsey, James; Brown, Phil; Woolley, Alan; Bierwirth, Eike; Ehrlich, Andre; Wendisch, Manfred; Gehrmann, Martin


    The influence of mixed-phase clouds on the radiation budget of the earth is largely unknown. One of the key parameters to determine mixed-phase cloud radiative properties however is the fraction of ice particles and liquid droplets in these clouds. The separate detection of liquid droplets and ice crystals especially in the small cloud particle size range below 50 µm remains challenging though. Here, we present airborne NIXE-CAPS mixed-phase cloud particle measurements observed in mid-latitude and Arctic low-level mixed-phase clouds during the COALESC field campaign in 2011 and the Arctic field campaign VERDI in 2012. NIXE-CAPS (Novel Ice EXpEriment - Cloud and Aerosol Particle Spectrometer, manufactured by DMT) is a cloud particle spectrometer which measures the cloud particle number, size as well as their phase for each cloud particle in the diameter range 0.6 to 945 µm. The common understanding in mixed-phase cloud research is that liquid droplets and ice crystals in the same cloud volume are rather sparse, but instead either liquid droplets or ice crystals are present. However, recently published model studies (e.g. Korolev, A. & Field, P., The effect of dynamics on mixed-phase clouds: Theoretical considerations. J. Atmos. Sci. 65, 66-86, 2008) indicate that a cloud state containing both liquid droplets and ice crystals can be kept up by turbulence. Indeed, our particle by particle analyses of the observed mixed-phase clouds during COALESC and VERDI indicate that the real mixed-phase state is rather common in the atmosphere. The spatial distribution of the mixed-phase ice fraction and the size of the droplets and ice crystals however vary substantially from case to case. The latter parameters seem to be influenced not only by concentration of ice nuclei but also - to a large degree - by cloud dynamics.

  10. Symmetry restoration for mixed-spin pairing states in heavy nuclei (United States)

    Rrapaj, Ermal; Gezerlis, Alexandros; Macchiavelli, Augusto


    Hatree-Fock Bogoliubov (HFB) mean field theory is the method of choice for describing heavy nuclei and has been very useful in nuclear physics over the decades. However, the wave-function obtained usually does not respect the symmetries of the Hamiltonian it is based upon. In this talk, I will focus on the ground state wave-function obtained by the gradient descent method and recent developments in projecting onto eigenstates of fixed particle number, isospin, and nuclear spin. The isotopes under investigation will be selected nuclei with A = 132, which exhibit spin-singlet, spin-triplet, and mixed-spin pairing. This work is meant to serve as a guide for future experimental searches of mixed-spin pairing in heavy nuclei.

  11. The state of the art of visualization in mixed reality image guided surgery. (United States)

    Kersten-Oertel, Marta; Jannin, Pierre; Collins, D Louis


    This paper presents a review of the state of the art of visualization in mixed reality image guided surgery (IGS). We used the DVV (data, visualization processing, view) taxonomy to classify a large unbiased selection of publications in the field. The goal of this work was not only to give an overview of current visualization methods and techniques in IGS but more importantly to analyze the current trends and solutions used in the domain. In surveying the current landscape of mixed reality IGS systems, we identified a strong need to assess which of the many possible data sets should be visualized at particular surgical steps, to focus on novel visualization processing techniques and interface solutions, and to evaluate new systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon. (United States)

    Cappa, Christopher D; Onasch, Timothy B; Massoli, Paola; Worsnop, Douglas R; Bates, Timothy S; Cross, Eben S; Davidovits, Paul; Hakala, Jani; Hayden, Katherine L; Jobson, B Tom; Kolesar, Katheryn R; Lack, Daniel A; Lerner, Brian M; Li, Shao-Meng; Mellon, Daniel; Nuaaman, Ibraheem; Olfert, Jason S; Petäjä, Tuukka; Quinn, Patricia K; Song, Chen; Subramanian, R; Williams, Eric J; Zaveri, Rahul A


    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) warms Earth's climate, and its reduction has been targeted for near-term climate change mitigation. Models that include forcing by BC assume internal mixing with non-BC aerosol components that enhance BC absorption, often by a factor of ~2; such model estimates have yet to be clearly validated through atmospheric observations. Here, direct in situ measurements of BC absorption enhancements (E(abs)) and mixing state are reported for two California regions. The observed E(abs) is small-6% on average at 532 nm-and increases weakly with photochemical aging. The E(abs) is less than predicted from observationally constrained theoretical calculations, suggesting that many climate models may overestimate warming by BC. These ambient observations stand in contrast to laboratory measurements that show substantial E(abs) for BC are possible.

  13. State and non-state mental health service collaboration in a South African district: a mixed methods study. (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, André; Petersen, Inge; Wouters, Edwin; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Kigozi, Gladys; Fourie, Pieter; van Rensburg, Dingie; Bracke, Piet


    The Life Esidimeni tragedy in South Africa showed that, despite significant global gains in recognizing the salience of integrated public mental health care during the past decade, crucial gaps remain. State and non-state mental health service collaboration is a recognized strategy to increase access to care and optimal use of community resources, but little evidence exist about how it unfolds in low- to middle-income countries. South Africa's Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan 2013-20 (MHPF) underlines the importance of collaborative public mental health care, though it is unclear how and to what extent this happens. The aim of the study was to explore the extent and nature of state and non-state mental health service collaboration in the Mangaung Metropolitan District, Free State, South Africa. The research involved an equal status, sequential mixed methods design, comprised of social network analysis (SNA) and semi-structured interviews. SNA-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating state and non-state mental health service providers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating partners and key stake holders. Descriptive network analyses of the SNA data were performed with Gephi, and thematic analysis of the semi-structured interview data were performed in NVivo. SNA results suggested a fragmented, hospital centric network, with low average density and clustering, and high authority and influence of a specialist psychiatric hospital. Several different types of collaborative interactions emerged, of which housing and treatment adherence a key point of collaboration. Proportional interactions between state and non-state services were low. Qualitative data expanded on these findings, highlighting the range of available mental health services, and pointed to power dynamics as an important consideration in the mental health service network. The fostering of a well-integrated system of care as proposed in the MHPF requires

  14. Mixing states of soot and BC particles measured using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and single particle soot photometer (SP2) (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Moteki, N.; Kondo, Y.; Igarashi, Y.


    Soot and black carbon (BC) aerosol particles largely affect global climate and commonly mix with other materials such as organic materials and sulfate. Their optical, chemical, and hygroscopic properties largely depend on the coatings. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a single particle soot photometer (SP2) measure mixing states of soot particles and BC, respectively, with different approaches. Here we use the term 'soot' for TEM and 'BC' for SP2 analyses because they have different definitions although soot and BC would be essentially the same material. TEM visually shows mixing states of each particle, i.e., since soot and its coating have different interferences to an electron beam, we can directly observe how soot and its coating mix within particles. SP2, on the other hand, measures aerosol light scattering and BC incandescence signals and analyzes the entire particle sizes and the amounts of BC if internally mixed. SP2 also has a capability to distinguish BC in the center of other materials and on that on the surface. Although TEM directly observes particle configurations particle by particle, it is off-line measurements and analyzes limited particles. SP2 does on-line analysis and thus measures ambient particles continuously, but it needs interpretations to evaluate the mixing states. In this study, we aim to compare the both instruments and use their advantages for better approaches to measure the mixing states of soot and BC particles. Here, we collected aerosol samples from the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan during August 2012. TEM aerosol samples and SP2 measurements were done simultaneously. The results show good agreements between soot and BC mass and the changes of the mixing states. We will also discuss the diurnal changes of the mixing states from the data obtained using TEM and SP2. The knowledge of detailed soot and BC mixing states will contribute to accurate evaluations of the global climate modeling.

  15. Description of mixed symmetry states in 96Ru using IBM-2 (United States)

    Zhang, DaLi; Mu, ChengFu


    We have investigated the properties of low-lying states in 96Ru within the framework of the neutron-proton interacting boson model (IBM-2), with special attention paid to the characteristics of the mixed symmetry states. By considering the relative energy of d proton boson to be different from that of neutron boson, the level energies and M1, E2 transition strengths have been calculated. The IBM-2 calculation is consistent with the experimental data of 96Ru both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, the strong M1 transition between the 42 + and 41 + states has been reproduced nicely. The calculated results show that the M1 transition strength of B( M1; 42 + → 41 +) in 96Ru can be described successfully by the IBM-2.

  16. Parity mixing in the single particle states of quadrupole-octupole deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkov, N; Drenska, S [Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigrad Road 72, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Strecker, M; Scheid, W, E-mail: nminkov@inrne.bas.b [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)


    The effect of parity mixing in the single particle (s.p.) states of odd-mass nuclei with quadrupole-octupole deformations is examined through a reflection-asymmetric deformed shell model. A strong coupling scheme between the parity mixed s.p. state and a coherent quadrupole-octupole vibration mode in the core is considered. The Coriolis decoupling factor is obtained in a projected form corresponding to the good total parity of the system. The average parity of the s.p. state and the decoupling factor are evaluated in several nuclei as functions of the quadrupole and octupole deformation parameters {beta}{sub 2} and {beta}{sub 3}. It is found that the average s.p. parity obtains various dominant (+ or -) values in the ({beta}{sub 2},{beta}{sub 3})-plane, while the s.p. wave function is strongly fragmented into components with different parities. It is shown that by comparing the behaviour of the decoupling factor in the ({beta}{sub 2},{beta}{sub 3})-plane to values obtained in a collective quadrupole-octupole model one can determine physically reasonable regions for the deformation parameters.

  17. Random magnetic field and quasiparticle transport in the mixed state of high- Tc cuprates. (United States)

    Ye, J


    By a singular gauge transformation, the quasiparticle transport in the mixed state of high- Tc cuprates is mapped into a charge-neutral Dirac moving in short-range correlated random scalar and long-range correlated vector potential. A fully quantum mechanical approach to longitudinal and transverse thermal conductivities is presented. The semiclassical Volovik effect is presented in a quantum mechanical way. The quasiparticle scattering from the random magnetic field which was completely missed in all the previous semiclassical approaches is the dominant scattering mechanism at sufficient high magnetic field. The implications for experiments are discussed.

  18. Local Optical Closure Using Single Particle Mixing State Observations during the 2010 DOE CARES Campaign (United States)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D. B.; Barnard, J.; Beranek, J.; Cappa, C. D.; Chand, D.; Dubey, M. K.; Easter, R. C.; Flowers, B. A.; Gyawali, M. S.; Jobson, B. T.; Pekour, M. S.; Riemer, N. S.; Subramanian, R.; Song, C.; Zelenyuk, A.


    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles readily absorb both upwelling and downwelling broadband radiation and are thought to be second only to CO2 in contributing to global warming. However large uncertainties still exist in the global estimates of BC radiative forcing, which depend not only on our ability to accurately simulate the global loading and distribution of BC, but also on the precise knowledge of the mixing state and morphology of BC particles due to aging. To this end, one of the objectives of the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) conducted in Sacramento, CA, during June 2010 was to investigate the evolution of urban BC particles and the associated optical properties, with the overarching goal of improving their process-level model representations. The daytime Sacramento urban plume was routinely transported to the northeast into the Sierra Nevada foothills area rich in biogenic emissions, and the aged aerosols were often recirculated back into the urban area the next morning. The CARES campaign observational strategy was designed to take advantage of this flow pattern by setting up two observation supersites - one located within the Sacramento urban area, referred to as the "T0 site," and another located about 24 km to the northeast in Cool, CA, a small town in the rural foothills area, referred to as the "T1 site." BC size distribution and mixing state were measured at both the sites with single particle soot photometry (SP2). The single particle mass spectrometer SPLAT II was also deployed at the T0 site to characterize the size, composition (mixing state), density, and morphology of BC and non-BC containing particles. Non-refractory aerosol species were measured by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Aerosol light absorption and scattering (or extinction) at multiple wavelengths were measured using several techniques, including photoacoustic, cavity ring-down, nephelometer as well as the filter-based particle

  19. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.


    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  20. Onset of solid state mantle convection and mixing during magma ocean solidification (United States)

    Maurice, Maxime; Tosi, Nicola; Samuel, Henri; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Hüttig, Christian; Breuer, Doris


    The fractional crystallization of a magma ocean can cause the formation of a compositional layering that can play a fundamental role for the subsequent long-term dynamics of the interior, for the evolution of geochemical reservoirs, and for surface tectonics. In order to assess to what extent primordial compositional heterogeneities generated by magma ocean solidification can be preserved, we investigate the solidification of a whole-mantle Martian magma ocean, and in particular the conditions that allow solid state convection to start mixing the mantle before solidification is completed. To this end, we performed 2-D numerical simulations in a cylindrical geometry. We treat the liquid magma ocean in a parametrized way while we self-consistently solve the conservation equations of thermochemical convection in the growing solid cumulates accounting for pressure-, temperature- and, where it applies, melt-dependent viscosity as well as parametrized yield stress to account for plastic yielding. By testing the effects of different cooling rates and convective vigor, we show that for a lifetime of the liquid magma ocean of 1 Myr or longer, the onset of solid state convection prior to complete mantle crystallization is likely and that a significant part of the compositional heterogeneities generated by fractionation can be erased by efficient mantle mixing.

  1. Quantification of black carbon mixing state from traffic: implications for aerosol optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Willis


    Full Text Available The climatic impacts of black carbon (BC aerosol, an important absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, remain poorly constrained and are intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modelling informed by quantitative measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer, we confirm that the mixing state (the distribution of co-emitted aerosol amongst fresh BC-containing particles at the time of emission significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble aerosol mass spectrometry observations indicate that BC near the point of emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA in two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon in HOA-rich and BC-rich particle classes was  < 0.1 and 0.8, respectively. Notably, approximately 90 % of BC mass resides in BC-rich particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1 arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection into the atmosphere.

  2. Tuning between singlet, triplet, and mixed pairing states in an extended Hubbard chain (United States)

    Sun, Kuei; Chiu, Ching-Kai; Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Wu, Jiansheng


    We study spin-half fermions in a one-dimensional extended Hubbard chain at low filling. We identify three triplet and one singlet pairing channels in the system, which are independently tunable as a function of nearest-neighbor charge and spin interactions. In a large-size system with translational invariance, we derive gap equations for the corresponding pairing gaps and obtain a Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian with its nontrivial topology determined by the interplay of these gaps. In an open-end system with a fixed number of particles, we compute the exact many-body ground state and identify the dominant pairing revealed by the pair density matrix. Both cases show competition between the four pairing states, resulting in broad regions for each of them and relatively narrow regions for mixed-pairing states in the parameter space. Our results enable the possibility of tuning a nanowire between singlet and triplet pairing states without breaking time-reversal or SU(2) symmetry, accompanied by a change in the system's topology.

  3. Thermodynamical analysis of spin-state transitions in LaCo O3 : Negative energy of mixing to assist thermal excitation to the high-spin excited state (United States)

    Kyômen, Tôru; Asaka, Yoshinori; Itoh, Mitsuru


    Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity due to the spin-state transition in LaCoO3 were calculated by a molecular-field model in which the energy-level diagram of high-spin state reported by Ropka and Radwanski [Phys. Rev. B 67, 172401 (2003)] is assumed for the excited state, and the energy and entropy of mixing of high-spin Co ions and low-spin Co ions are introduced phenomenologically. The experimental data below 300K were well reproduced by this model, which proposes that the high-spin excited state can be populated even if the energy of high-spin state is much larger than that of low-spin state, because the negatively large energy of mixing reduces the net excitation energy. The stability of each spin state including the intermediate-spin state is discussed based on the present results and other reports.

  4. The self-consistent multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing. Motivations, state of the art and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, N.; Dupuis, M.; Hupin, G.; Berger, J.F. [DAM, CEA, Arpajon (France); Robin, C. [Western Michigan University, Department of Physics, Kalamazoo, MI (United States)


    The main objective of this paper is to review the state of the art of the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing approach which was proposed and implemented using the Gogny interaction ∝ 10 years ago. Various theoretical aspects are re-analyzed when a Hamiltonian description is chosen: the link with exact many-body theories, the impact of truncations in the multiconfigurational space, the importance of defining single-particle orbitals which are consistent with the correlations introduced in the many-body wave function, the role of the self-consistency, and more practically the numerical convergence algorithm. Several applications done with the phenomenological effective Gogny interaction are discussed. Finally, future directions to extend and generalize the method are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Influence of anthropic impacts on remnants of Ombrophilous Mixed Forest in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Liebsch


    Full Text Available Selective cutting and pastures are common activities in the Ombrophilous Mixed Forest, which is part of the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome. Our goal was to relate floristic composition and structure unit with its past use. Adult and juvenile wood species of twelve forest fragments were evaluated in Santa Catarina State. Fragments with less anthropic impacts showed greater richness and diameter range, and lower density and frequency of multiple stems in the adult stratum, although basal area did not differ among fragments. Fragments with higher historical impact showed greater richness and lower density of juvenile stratum. The results showed that human impact on wood species community was so great that even after some decades floristic composition and structure differences remain evident and might remain over a long period.

  6. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy


    Full Text Available Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC, organic aerosol (OA, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, a thermal–optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC. ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67–0.78, and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the

  7. A hybrid fault diagnosis approach based on mixed-domain state features for rotating machinery. (United States)

    Xue, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jianzhong


    To make further improvement in the diagnosis accuracy and efficiency, a mixed-domain state features data based hybrid fault diagnosis approach, which systematically blends both the statistical analysis approach and the artificial intelligence technology, is proposed in this work for rolling element bearings. For simplifying the fault diagnosis problems, the execution of the proposed method is divided into three steps, i.e., fault preliminary detection, fault type recognition and fault degree identification. In the first step, a preliminary judgment about the health status of the equipment can be evaluated by the statistical analysis method based on the permutation entropy theory. If fault exists, the following two processes based on the artificial intelligence approach are performed to further recognize the fault type and then identify the fault degree. For the two subsequent steps, mixed-domain state features containing time-domain, frequency-domain and multi-scale features are extracted to represent the fault peculiarity under different working conditions. As a powerful time-frequency analysis method, the fast EEMD method was employed to obtain multi-scale features. Furthermore, due to the information redundancy and the submergence of original feature space, a novel manifold learning method (modified LGPCA) is introduced to realize the low-dimensional representations for high-dimensional feature space. Finally, two cases with 12 working conditions respectively have been employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, where vibration signals were measured from an experimental bench of rolling element bearing. The analysis results showed the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method of which the diagnosis thought is more suitable for practical application. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of Black Carbon (BC) mixing state and flux in Beijing using single particle measurements. (United States)

    Joshi, Rutambhara; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James; Coe, Hugh; Flynn, Michael; Broda, Kurtis; Olfert, Jason; Irwin, Martin; Sun, Yele; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Junfeng; Ge, Xinlei; Langford, Ben; Nemitz, Eiko; Mullinger, Neil


    BC is generated by the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuels and it is an important component of fine PM2.5. In the atmosphere BC particles have a complex structure and its mixing state has crucial impact on optical properties. Quantifying the sources and emissions of black carbon in urban environments is important and presently uncertain, particularly in megacities undergoing rapid growth and change in emissions. During the winter of 2016 (10th Nov-10th Dec) the BC was characterised as part of a large joint UK-China field experiment in Beijing. This paper focuses on understanding the mixing state of BC as well as identification and quantification of BC sources. We used a combination of a Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyser (CPMA) and a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to uniquely quantify the morphology independent mass of single refractory BC particles and their coating content. The CPMA allows us to select pre-charged aerosol particles according to their mass to charge ratio and the SP2 provides information on the mass of refractory BC through a laser-induced incandescence method. Furthermore, another SP2 was used to measure the BC flux at 100m height using the Eddy Covariance method. We have successfully gathered 4 weeks of continuous measurements which include several severe pollution events in Beijing. Here we present preliminary results, characterising the distribution of coating mass on BC particles in Beijing and linking this to the main sources of BC in the city. We will provide initial estimates of the BC flux over a several kilometre footprint. Such analysis will provide important information for the further investigation of source distribution, emission, lifetime and optical properties of BC under complex environments in Beijing.

  9. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy


    mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data compared with 85% and 15% respectively for BC estimated from the aethalometer model. On average, the mass size distribution for EC particles is bimodal; the smaller mode is attributed to locally emitted, mostly externally mixed EC particles, while the larger mode is dominated by aged, internally mixed ECOCNOx particles associated with continental transport events. Periods of continental influence were identified using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM "FLEXPART". A consistent minimum between the two EC mass size modes was observed at approximately 400 nm for the measurement period. EC particles below this size are attributed to local emissions using chemical mixing state information and contribute 79% of the scaled ATOFMS EC particle mass, while particles above this size are attributed to continental transport events and contribute 21% of the EC particle mass. These results clearly demonstrate the potential benefit of monitoring size-resolved mass concentrations for the separation of local and continental EC emissions. Knowledge of the relative input of these emissions is essential for assessing the effectiveness of local abatement strategies.

  10. Effect of emission controls on mixing state and light absorption of black carbon particles during APEC 2014 (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Q.


    The light absorption of black carbon (BC)-containing particles depends not only on their mass concentration but also on their mixing state. During an intensive field study, we found that the evolution of BC mixing state coincided with pollution development, indicating emission controls would influence BC aging process. In this work, we have investigated the effect of emission control measures on BC mixing state and light absorption, based on statistical comparison of the in situ observations before and during 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in Beijing, China under similar meteorological conditions. As expected, BC aging degree during APEC decreased by 26% compared with before APEC period, which led to a decrease of 13% in light-absorbing capability of BC-containing particle. The calculated absorption coefficient of BC-containing particles with and without considering the weakening of light-absorbing capability due to emission controls during APEC, decreased by 42% and 33%, respectively, indicating the importance of the changes in light-absorbing capability strongly related to BC mixing state. These results could be explained by the weakened photochemical production in the atmosphere due to the reduction of gaseous aerosol precursors (e.g. SO2 and NO2) when the emission control measures were in place during APEC. Our work suggested that the assessment of the effect of BC emission controls on the visibility and radiative forcing in model study can be improved by considering the changes in BC mixing state and its light-absorbing capability.

  11. What dynamics can be expected for mixed states in two-slit experiments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Óptica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Ángel S., E-mail: [Instituto de Física Fundamental (IFF-CSIC), Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Weak-measurement-based experiments (Kocsis et al., 2011) have shown that, at least for pure states, the average evolution of independent photons in Young’s two-slit experiment is in compliance with the trajectories prescribed by the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. But, what happens if the same experiment is repeated assuming that the wave function associated with each particle is different, i.e., in the case of mixed (incoherent) states? This question is investigated here by means of two alternative numerical simulations of Young’s experiment, purposely devised to be easily implemented and tested in the laboratory. Contrary to what could be expected a priori, it is found that even for conditions of maximal mixedness or incoherence (total lack of interference fringes), experimental data will render a puzzling and challenging outcome: the average particle trajectories will still display features analogous to those for pure states, i.e., independently of how mixedness arises, the associated dynamics is influenced by both slits at the same time. Physically this simply means that weak measurements are not able to discriminate how mixedness arises in the experiment, since they only provide information about the averaged system dynamics. - Highlights: • The dynamics associated with mixture states in investigated by means of two simple Young’s two-slit models. • The models are prepared to be easily implemented and tested in the laboratory by means of weak measurements. • Bohmian mechanics has been generalized to encompass statistical mixtures. • Even for conditions of maximal mixedness numerical simulations show that the dynamics is strongly influenced by both slits. • Accordingly, weak measurements are unable to discriminate how mixedness arises in an experiment.

  12. Electronic spectra of azaindole and its excited state mixing: A symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmozhiraja, Sundaram, E-mail:; Coote, Michelle L. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, 2601 ACT (Australia); Hasegawa, Jun-ya [Institute for Catalysis, Hokkaido University, Kita 21, Nishi 10, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan)


    Electronic structures of azaindole were studied using symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction theory utilizing Dunning’s cc-pVTZ basis set augmented with appropriate Rydberg spd functions on carbon and nitrogen atoms. The results obtained in the present study show good agreement with the available experimental values. Importantly, and contrary to previous theoretical studies, the excitation energy calculated for the important n–π{sup ∗} state agrees well with the experimental value. A recent study by Pratt and co-workers concluded that significant mixing of π-π{sup ∗} and n-π{sup ∗} states leads to major change in the magnitude and direction of the dipole moment of the upper state vibrational level in the 0,0 + 280 cm{sup −1} band in the S{sub 1}←S{sub 0} transition when compared to that of the zero-point level of the S{sub 1} state. The present study, however, shows that all the four lowest lying excited states, {sup 1}L{sub b} π-π{sup ∗}, {sup 1}L{sub a} π-π{sup ∗}, n-π{sup ∗}, and π-σ{sup ∗}, cross each other in one way or another, and hence, significant state mixing between them is likely. The upper state vibrational level in the 0,0 + 280 cm{sup −1} band in the S{sub 1}←S{sub 0} transition benefits from this four-state mixing and this can explain the change in magnitude and direction of the dipole moment of the S{sub 1} excited vibrational level. This multistate mixing, and especially the involvement of π-σ{sup ∗} state in mixing, could also provide a route for hydrogen atom detachment reactions. The electronic spectra of benzimidazole, a closely related system, were also investigated in the present study.

  13. Multinuclear metalladithiolenes: focusing on electronic communication in mixed-valent states. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Tsukada, Satoru; Nishihara, Hiroshi


    This Perspective addresses our recent studies relating to metalladithiolenes and their cluster complexes that exhibit peculiar electronic communication in mixed-valent (MV) states. Chapter 1 provides an introduction for the Perspective. Chapter 2 enumerates a series of phenylene-annulated π-conjugated trinuclear metalladithiolenes with intense electronic communication in the MV states. Chapter 3 treats heterometal cluster complexes synthesized by integrating zero-valent metal carbonyls on mononuclear metalladithiolenes, taking advantage of the coordination unsaturation of the latter. In the field of MV chemistry, their electronic communication through metal-metal bonds and potential inversion behavior are intriguing properties. Chapter 4 describes hexanuclear and nonanuclear heterometal cluster complexes created in combination with the methods introduced in Chapters 2 and 3. The resultant heterometal cluster complexes feature electronic communication through the vast phenylene-annulated π-conjugated trinuclear metalladithiolene frameworks, the intensity of which correlates with their planarity. Each chapter describes the synthesis, structural features, and electrochemical properties of the relevant compounds.

  14. Clinical utilisation of the "G.T. MSRS", the rating scale for mixed states: 35 cases report. (United States)

    Tavormina, Giuseppe


    The knowledge of the clinical features of the mixed states and of the symptoms of the "mixity" of mood disorders is crucial: to mis-diagnose or mis-treat patients with these symptoms may increase the suicide risk and make worse the evolution of mood disorders. The rating scale "G.T. MSRS" has been designed to improve the clinical effectiveness of both psychiatrists and GPs by enabling them to make an early "general" diagnosis of mixed states. This study presents some cases in which the "G.T. MSRS" scale has been used, in order to demonstrate its usefullness.

  15. Autler-Townes spectroscopy of high-lying state by phase conjugate six-wave mixing (United States)

    Bai, Jin-Hai; Li, Jian-Jun; Wu, Ling-An; Fu, Pan-Ming; Wang, Ru-Quan; Zuo, Zhan-Chun


    An Autler-Townes (AT) spectroscopy based on phase conjugate six-wave mixing (SWM) is proposed to detect AT doublet of high-lying state in a Doppler-broadened cascade four-level system. It is found that the SWM spectrum is dependent strongly on the ratios between the magnitudes of the wave vectors. We discuss how the Doppler broadening affects the SWM spectrum from a time-domain viewpoint and find that, due the atomic motion, the atomic polarizations acquire different phases for atoms with different velocities as time evolves. The Doppler free SWM spectrum can be obtained only when the atomic polarization can be rephasing again at certain time after the interactions of all the incident fields. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922002), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274376 and 61308011), and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA120102).

  16. A Mixed Methods Study of Health Care Experience Among Asian Indians in the Southeastern United States. (United States)

    De Gagne, Jennie C; Oh, Jina; So, Aeyoung; Haidermota, Murtaza; Lee, Shih-Yu


    The study explored health care experiences among Asian Indian immigrants living in the Southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used with a purposive sample of 125 Asian Indian immigrants aged between 40 and 64 years in the survey and 10 participants in the focus group. The majority of the participants had health insurance and higher socioeconomic status. They had a moderate level of knowledge on the U.S. health care system and health insurance while presenting moderate satisfaction with the system. Barriers to health care services and needs in the health care system were identified from both quantitative and qualitative data. Some of the barriers were high costs, dissatisfaction with services, and inconvenience in accessing services. Participants called for self-management and community-based health programs as well as culturally tailored health care services. Findings congruent with prior studies further support the importance of comprehending Asian Indians' unique cultural background and experiences in the health care system. This study can be the foundation for culturally competent care to advance the body of transcultural nursing knowledge. Culturally congruent community-based health care programs are needed to provide better care for the ethnic minority to maintain and promote their health status. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Coulomb Excitation of a Neutron-Rich $^{88}$Kr Beam Search for Mixed Symmetry States

    CERN Document Server

    Andreoiu, C; Napiorkowski, P J; Iwanicki, J S


    We propose to use the ISOLDE/REX/MINIBALL/CD set-up to perform a Coulomb Excitation experiment with a $^{88}$Kr radioactive beam. The motivation includes a search for $Mixed$ $Symmetry$ states predicted by the IBM-2 model, gathering more spectroscopy data about the $^{88}$Kr nucleus and extending shape coexistence studies (performed previously by the proposers for neutron-deficient Kr isotopes) to the neutron-rich side. The proposed experiment will provide data complementary to the Coulomb Excitation of a relativistic $^{88}$Kr beam proposed by D. Tonev et al. for a RISING experiment. A total of 12 days of beam time is necessary for the experiment, equally divided into two runs. One run with a 2.2 MeV/A beam energy on a $^{48}$Ti target and a second run with the maximum available REX energy of 3.1 MeV/A on a $^{208}$Pb target are requested. Using either a UC$_{x}$ or ThC$_{x}$ fissioning primary target coupled with a plasma source by a cooled transfer line seems to be the best choice for the proposed experime...

  18. The state of interprofessional collaboration in Northern Italy: a mixed methods study. (United States)

    Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Wieser, Heike; Cavada, Luisa; Lochner, Lukas; Vittadello, Fabio; Fink, Verena; Reeves, Scott


    Health care systems are facing continual reorganizations in response to scientific and technological innovations as well as financial constraints. Simultaneously the rising prevalence of chronic diseases call for a kind of health care organization in which interprofessional collaboration (IPC) functions on a high level. This article describes a research project that aims to generate an empirical account of the current state of IPC in the South Tyrolean Health Trust, located in a bilingual region in northern Italy. The study will employ a sequential mixed methods' design. A survey will be followed by individual and focus group interviews. An innovative aspect of the study is that it will include participants from six different health professions (dieticians, nurses, occupational therapists, physicians, physiotherapists, and speech therapists). Qualitative data analysis will draw on the negotiated order/structural ordering approach and on the social world/arena perspective. The results are expected to generate specific recommendations to improve IPC in the South Tyrolean Health Trust and inform further research.

  19. Morphology, Composition, and Mixing State of Individual Aerosol Particles in Northeast China during Wintertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu


    Full Text Available Northeast China is located in a high latitude area of the world and undergoes a cold season that lasts six months each year. Recently, regional haze episodes with high concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5 have frequently been occurring in Northeast China during the heating period, but little information has been available. Aerosol particles were collected in winter at a site in a suburban county town (T1 and a site in a background rural area (T2. Morphology, size, elemental composition, and mixing state of individual aerosol particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Aerosol particles were mainly composed of organic matter (OM and S-rich and certain amounts of soot and K-rich. OM represented the most abundant particles, accounting for 60.7% and 53.5% at the T1 and T2 sites, respectively. Abundant spherical OM particles were likely emitted directly from coal-burning stoves. Soot decreased from 16.9% at the T1 site to 4.6% at the T2 site and sulfate particles decrease from 35.9% at the T2 site to 15.7% at the T1 site, suggesting that long-range transport air masses experienced more aging processes and produced more secondary particles. Based on our investigations, we proposed that emissions from coal-burning stoves in most rural areas of the west part of Northeast China can induce regional haze episodes.

  20. Structures of riboswitch RNA reaction states by mix-and-inject XFEL serial crystallography (United States)

    Stagno, J. R.; Liu, Y.; Bhandari, Y. R.; Conrad, C. E.; Panja, S.; Swain, M.; Fan, L.; Nelson, G.; Li, C.; Wendel, D. R.; White, T. A.; Coe, J. D.; Wiedorn, M. O.; Knoska, J.; Oberthuer, D.; Tuckey, R. A.; Yu, P.; Dyba, M.; Tarasov, S. G.; Weierstall, U.; Grant, T. D.; Schwieters, C. D.; Zhang, J.; Ferré-D'Amaré, A. R.; Fromme, P.; Draper, D. E.; Liang, M.; Hunter, M. S.; Boutet, S.; Tan, K.; Zuo, X.; Ji, X.; Barty, A.; Zatsepin, N. A.; Chapman, H. N.; Spence, J. C. H.; Woodson, S. A.; Wang, Y.-X.


    Riboswitches are structural RNA elements that are generally located in the 5‧ untranslated region of messenger RNA. During regulation of gene expression, ligand binding to the aptamer domain of a riboswitch triggers a signal to the downstream expression platform. A complete understanding of the structural basis of this mechanism requires the ability to study structural changes over time. Here we use femtosecond X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) pulses to obtain structural measurements from crystals so small that diffusion of a ligand can be timed to initiate a reaction before diffraction. We demonstrate this approach by determining four structures of the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain during the course of a reaction, involving two unbound apo structures, one ligand-bound intermediate, and the final ligand-bound conformation. These structures support a reaction mechanism model with at least four states and illustrate the structural basis of signal transmission. The three-way junction and the P1 switch helix of the two apo conformers are notably different from those in the ligand-bound conformation. Our time-resolved crystallographic measurements with a 10-second delay captured the structure of an intermediate with changes in the binding pocket that accommodate the ligand. With at least a 10-minute delay, the RNA molecules were fully converted to the ligand-bound state, in which the substantial conformational changes resulted in conversion of the space group. Such notable changes in crystallo highlight the important opportunities that micro- and nanocrystals may offer in these and similar time-resolved diffraction studies. Together, these results demonstrate the potential of ‘mix-and-inject’ time-resolved serial crystallography to study biochemically important interactions between biomacromolecules and ligands, including those that involve large conformational changes.

  1. Entanglement of mixed quantum states for qubits and qudit in double photoionization of atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Asansol Girls’ College, Asansol 713304 (India); Sen, S. [Department of Physics, Triveni Devi Bhalotia College, Raniganj 713347 (India)


    Highlights: • We study tripartite entanglement between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. • We study bipartite entanglement between any two subsystems of a tripartite system. • We have presented a quantitative application of entangled properties in Neon atom. - Abstract: Quantum entanglement and its paradoxical properties are genuine physical resources for various quantum information tasks like quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computer technology. The physical characteristic of the entanglement of quantum-mechanical states, both for pure and mixed, has been recognized as a central resource in various aspects of quantum information processing. In this article, we study the bipartite entanglement of one electronic qubit along with the ionic qudit and also entanglement between two electronic qubits. The tripartite entanglement properties also have been investigated between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. All these studies have been done for the single-step double photoionization from an atom following the absorption of a single photon without observing spin orbit interaction. The dimension of the Hilbert space of the qudit depends upon the electronic state of the residual photoion A{sup 2+}. In absence of SOI, when Russell–Saunders coupling (L–S coupling) is applicable, dimension of the qudit is equal to the spin multiplicity of A{sup 2+}. For estimations of entanglement and mixedness, we consider the Peres–Horodecki condition, concurrence, entanglement of formation, negativity, linear and von Neumann entropies. In case of L–S coupling, all the properties of a qubit–qudit system can be predicted merely with the knowledge of the spins of the target atom and the residual photoion.

  2. Substrate aggregation due to aerial hyphae during discontinuously mixed solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae: Experiments and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; de Pagter, P.; Weber, F.J.; Briels, Willem J.; Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Rinzema, A.


    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is prone to process failure due to channeling caused by evaporative cooling and the formation of an interparticle mycelium network. Mixing is needed to break the mycelium network and to avoid such failure. This study presents the first attempt to quantify and predict

  3. Qualitative Contrast between Knowledge-Limited Mixed-State and Variable-Resources Models of Visual Change Detection (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Donkin, Chris


    We report an experiment designed to provide a qualitative contrast between knowledge-limited versions of mixed-state and variable-resources (VR) models of visual change detection. The key data pattern is that observers often respond "same" on big-change trials, while simultaneously being able to discriminate between same and small-change…

  4. Knowledge, illness perceptions and stated clinical practice behaviour in management of gout: a mixed methods study in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaetgens, B.; Pustjens, T.; Scheepers, L.E.; Janssens, H.J.E.M.; Linden, S. van der; Boonen, A.


    The objective of the present study is to explore knowledge, illness perceptions and stated practice behaviour in relation to gout in primary care. This is a mixed methods study among 32 general practitioners (GPs). The quantitative assessment included the Gout Knowledge Questionnaire (GKQ; range

  5. Multiple states of environmental regulation in well-mixed model biospheres. (United States)

    Nicholson, Arwen E; Wilkinson, David M; Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M


    The Gaia hypothesis postulates that life influences Earth's feedback mechanisms to form a self regulating system. This provokes the question: how can global self-regulation evolve? Most models demonstrating environmental regulation involving life have relied on alignment between local selection and global regulation. In these models environment-improving individuals or communities spread to outcompete environment degrading individuals/communities, leading to global regulation, but this depends on local differences in environmental conditions. In contrast, well-mixed components of the Earth system, such as the atmosphere, lack local environmental differentiation. These previous models do not explain how global regulation can emerge in a system with no well defined local environment, or where the local environment is overwhelmed by global effects. We present a model of self-regulation by 'microbes' in an environment with no spatial structure. These microbes affect an abiotic 'temperature' as a byproduct of metabolism. We demonstrate that global self-regulation can arise in the absence of spatial structure in a diverse ecosystem without localised environmental effects. We find that systems can exhibit nutrient limitation and two temperature limitation regimes where the temperature is maintained at a near constant value. During temperature regulation, the total temperature change caused by the microbes is kept near constant by the total population expanding or contracting to absorb the impacts of new mutants on the average affect on the temperature per microbe. Dramatic shifts between low temperature regulation and high temperature regulation can occur when a mutant arises that causes the sign of the temperature effect to change. This result implies that self-regulating feedback loops can arise without the need for spatial structure, weakening criticisms of the Gaia hypothesis that state that with just one Earth, global regulation has no mechanism for developing

  6. Solid-state reaction synthesis for mixed-phase Eu3+-doped bismuth molybdate and its luminescence properties (United States)

    Liang, Danyang; Ding, Yu; Wang, Nan; Cai, Xiaomeng; Li, Jia; Han, Linyu; Wang, Shiqi; Han, Yuanyuan; Jia, Guang; Wang, Liyong


    A method for mixed-phase bismuth molybdate doped with Eu3+ ions was developed by solid-state reaction assisting with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The results of powder X-ray diffraction showed a mixed-phase structure and the microscopical characterization technology revealed the formation process with the addition of PVA. As a structure inducer, the PVA molecules played a vital role in the formation of phase structure. The as-obtained Eu3+-doped bismuth molybdates were also characterized by using different spectroscopic techniques including FTIR and photoluminescence (PL). The results show that doping concentration, PVA addition and calcination temperature affect photoluminescence properties remarkably.

  7. DFT study on the electronic structure and chemical state of Americium in an (Am,U) mixed oxide (United States)

    Suzuki, Chikashi; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Nakada, Masami; Tsuru, Tomohito; Akabori, Mitsuo; Hirata, Masaru; Kaji, Yoshiyuki


    We investigated the electronic state of an (Am,U) mixed oxide with the fluorite structure using the all-electron full potential linear augmented plane wave method and compared it with those of Am2O3, AmO2, UO2, and La0.5U0.5O2. The valence of Am in the mixed oxide was close to that of Am2O3 and the valence of U in the mixed oxide was pentavalent. The electronic structure of AmO2 was different from that of Am2O3, particularly just above the Fermi level. In addition, the electronic states of Am and U in the mixed oxide were similar to those of trivalent Am and pentavalent U oxides. These electronic states reflected the high oxygen potential of AmO2 and the heightened oxygen potential resulting from the addition of Am to UO2 and also suggested the occurrence of charge transfer from Am to U in the solid solution process.

  8. The Chemical Composition and Mixing State of Sea Spray Aerosol and Organic Aerosol in the Winter-Spring Arctic (United States)

    Kirpes, R.; Bondy, A. L.; Bonanno, D.; Moffet, R.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Ault, A. P.; Pratt, K.


    The Arctic region is undergoing rapid transformations and loss of sea ice due to climate change. With increased sea ice fracturing resulting in greater open ocean surface, winter emissions of sea spray aerosol (SSA) are expected to be increasing. Additionally, during the winter-spring transition, Arctic haze contributes to the Arctic aerosol budget. The magnitude of aerosol climate effects depends on the aerosol composition and mixing state (distribution of chemical species within and between particles). However, few studies of aerosol chemistry have been conducted in the winter Arctic, despite it being a time when aerosol impacts on clouds are expected to be significant. To study aerosol composition and mixing state in the winter Arctic, atmospheric particles were collected near Barrow, Alaska in January and February 2014 for off-line individual particle chemical analysis. SSA was the most prevalent particle type observed. Sulfate and nitrate were observed to be internally mixed with SSA and organic aerosol. Greater than 98% of observed SSA particles contained organic content, with 15-35% organic volume fraction on average for individual particles. The SSA organic compounds consisted of carbohydrates, lipids, and fatty acids found in the seawater surface microlayer. SSA was determined to be emitted from open leads, while transported sulfate and nitrate contributed to aging of SSA and organic aerosol. Determining the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the winter Arctic will further the understanding of how individual aerosol particles impact climate through radiative effects and cloud formation.

  9. Influence of biomass burning on mixing state of sub-micron aerosol particles in the North China Plain (United States)

    Kecorius, Simonas; Ma, Nan; Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Zhang, Shenglan; Gröβ, Johannes; Spindler, Gerald; Müller, Konrad; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Hu, Min; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred


    Particulate emissions from crop residue burning decrease the air quality as well as influence aerosol radiative properties on a regional scale. The North China Plain (NCP) is known for the large scale biomass burning (BB) of field residues, which often results in heavy haze pollution episodes across the region. We have been able to capture a unique BB episode during the international CAREBeijing-NCP intensive field campaign in Wangdu in the NCP (38.6°N, 115.2°E) from June to July 2014. It was found that aerosol particles originating from this BB event showed a significantly different mixing state compared with clean and non-BB pollution episodes. BB originated particles showed a narrower probability density function (PDF) of shrink factor (SF). And the maximum was found at shrink factor of 0.6, which is higher than in other episodes. The non-volatile particle number fraction during the BB episode decreased to 3% and was the lowest measured value compared to all other predefined episodes. To evaluate the influence of particle mixing state on aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), SSA at different RHs was simulated using the measured aerosol physical-chemical properties. The differences between the calculated SSA for biomass burning, clean and pollution episodes are significant, meaning that the variation of SSA in different pollution conditions needs to be considered in the evaluation of aerosol direct radiative effects in the NCP. And the calculated SSA was found to be quite sensitive on the mixing state of BC, especially at low-RH condition. The simulated SSA was also compared with the measured values. For all the three predefined episodes, the measured SSA are very close to the calculated ones with assumed mixing states of homogeneously internal and core-shell internal mixing, indicating that both of the conception models are appropriate for the calculation of ambient SSA in the NCP.

  10. Quantum-state-preserving Frequency Conversion Using Four-wave Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Reddy, Dileep V.; McKinstrie, Colin J.


    We investigate the applicability of temporal multiplexing using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering for quantum frequency conversion. Various pump shapes are considered and we find that a large selectivity is possible for all the pump shapes.......We investigate the applicability of temporal multiplexing using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering for quantum frequency conversion. Various pump shapes are considered and we find that a large selectivity is possible for all the pump shapes....

  11. Mixed emotions across the adult life span in the United States (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A.


    Mixed emotions involve the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect, such that people feel happy and sad at the same time. The purpose of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in the experience of mixed emotions across the adult life span in two nationally representative samples of U.S. residents. Data collected by the Princeton Affect and Time Survey (PATS, n = 3,948) and by the 2010 Wellbeing Module of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS, n = 12,828) were analyzed. In both surveys, respondents (aged 15 years or older) provided a detailed time diary about the preceding day and rated their happiness and sadness for three of the day's episodes. From these reports, three different indices of mixed emotions were derived. Results indicated small, but robust, increases in mixed emotions with age. Linear age increases were consistently evident in both PATS and ATUS, and replicated across the different indices of mixed emotions. There was no significant evidence for curvilinear age trends in either study. Several sociodemographic factors that could plausibly explain age-differences in mixed emotions (e.g., retirement, disability) did not alter the age-effects. The present study adds to the growing literature documenting vital changes in the complexity of emotional experience over the lifespan. PMID:25894487

  12. Evidence for coherent mixing of excited and charge-transfer states in the major plant light-harvesting antenna, LHCII. (United States)

    Ramanan, Charusheela; Ferretti, Marco; van Roon, Henny; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; van Grondelle, Rienk


    LHCII, the major light harvesting antenna from plants, plays a dual role in photosynthesis. In low light it is a light-harvester, while in high light it is a quencher that protects the organism from photodamage. The switching mechanism between these two orthogonal conditions is mediated by protein dynamic disorder and photoprotective energy dissipation. The latter in particular is thought to occur in part via spectroscopically 'dark' states. We searched for such states in LHCII trimers from spinach, at both room temperature and at 77 K. Using 2D electronic spectroscopy, we explored coherent interactions between chlorophylls absorbing on the low-energy side of LHCII, which is the region that is responsible for both light-harvesting and photoprotection. 2D beating frequency maps allow us to identify four frequencies with strong excitonic character. In particular, our results show the presence of a low-lying state that is coupled to a low-energy excitonic state. We assign this to a mixed excitonic-charge transfer state involving the state with charge separation within the Chl a603-b609 heterodimer, borrowing some dipole strength from the Chl a602-a603 excited states. Such a state may play a role in photoprotection, in conjunction with specific and environmentally controlled realizations of protein dynamic disorder. Our identification and assignment of the coherences observed in the 2D frequency maps suggests that the structure of exciton states as well as a mixing of the excited and charge-transfer states is affected by coupling of these states to resonant vibrations in LHCII.

  13. The role of asenapine in the treatment of manic or mixed states associated with bipolar I disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompili M


    Full Text Available Maurizio Pompili1,2, Paola Venturini1, Marco Innamorati1, Gianluca Serafini1, Ludovica Telesforo1, David Lester3, Roberto Tatarelli1, Paolo Girardi11Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Functions, Suicide Prevention Center, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Pomona, NJ, USABackground: Bipolar disorders (BD are of particular public health significance as they are prevalent, severe and disabling, and often associated with elevated risks of premature mortality. The aim of this concise overview is to investigate the role of asenapine in the treatment of manic and mixed states associated with BD type 1 disorder.Method: MedLine, Excerpta Medica and PsycINFO searches were performed to identify papers in English published over the past 7 years. Search terms were "asenapine", "manic" OR "mixed states", "bipolar I disorder". Subjects included in this study suffered from BD type 1 disorder.Results: To date, only four studies of asenapine for the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with BD type 1 have been published.Conclusion: Research indicates that asenapine is generally well-tolerated, and that asenapine is efficacious and not inferior to olanzapine in the treatment of mixed or manic episodes associated with BD type 1 in the short-term and long-term.Keywords: asenapine, bipolar disorder, side effects

  14. Size-resolved measurement of the mixing state of soot in the megacity Beijing, China: diurnal cycle, aging and parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Cheng


    Full Text Available Soot particles are the most efficient light absorbing aerosol species in the atmosphere, playing an important role as a driver of global warming. Their climate effects strongly depend on their mixing state, which significantly changes their light absorbing capability and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. Therefore, knowledge about the mixing state of soot and its aging mechanism becomes an important topic in the atmospheric sciences.

    The size-resolved (30–320 nm diameter mixing state of soot particles in polluted megacity air was measured at a suburban site (Yufa during the CAREBeijing 2006 campaign in Beijing, using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA. Particles in this size range with non-volatile residuals at 300 °C were considered to be soot particles. On average, the number fraction of internally mixed soot in total soot particles (Fin, decreased from 0.80 to 0.57 when initial Dp increased from 30 to 320 nm. Further analysis reveals that: (1 Fin was well correlated with the aerosol hygroscopic mixing state measured by a CCN counter. More externally mixed soot particles were observed when particles showed more heterogeneous features with regard to hygroscopicity. (2 Fin had pronounced diurnal cycles. For particles in the accumulation mode (Dp at 100–320 nm, largest Fin were observed at noon time, with "apparent" turnover rates (kex → in up to 7.8% h−1. (3 Fin was subject to competing effects of both aging and emissions. While aging increases Fin by converting externally mixed soot particles into internally mixed ones, emissions tend to reduce Fin by emitting more fresh and externally mixed soot particles. Similar competing effects were also found with air mass age indicators. (4 Under the estimated emission

  15. Morphological changes of a superconducting phase in a mixed state with a normal current: a multiple scale analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyay, A [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick (United Kingdom)


    The mixed states of superconducting (SC) and normal (N) phases in one-dimensional systems are characterized by several phase slips and localization of the order parameter of the SC phase. The phenomenon is explained on the basis of a complex Ginzburg Landau (CGL) model. We present a simple analysis of the system on multiple scales to capture localization and phase slips when phases coexist. (fast track communication)

  16. (Ethnically)Mixed parenting challenges in context of Danish Welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    . Another focus area is the implication of this phenomenon for provision of relevant services for mixed families in Danish welfare society with emphasis on gender and ethnic egalitarianism, wealth redistribution, universal healthcare and public services that provide elaborate safety net. The research......, everyday life perspective and mixed parenting theories. The results highlight the couples’ diverse parenting approaches in dealing with the external aspects such as the societal discrimination, other (s) gaze towards the visible differences. Similarly some type of racial discrimination, such as racist...

  17. The state of mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak management in Missouri (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; David Gwaze


    Mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak stands allow flexibility in type and timing of regeneration, release, and harvesting treatments for managers; provide unique wildlife and herbaceous community niches; and increase visual diversity. Most of the research to date focused on growing pure pine or oak stands, with little research on today's need to grow pine-oak mixtures...

  18. Redox-induced spin-state switching and mixed valency in quinonoid-bridged dicobalt complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schweinfurth, D.; Rechkemmer, Y.; Hohloch, S.; Deibel, N.; Peremykin, I.; Fiedler, Jan; Marx, R.; Neugebauer, P.; van Slageren, J.; Sarkar, B.


    Roč. 20, č. 12 (2014), s. 3475-3486 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0705 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : bridging ligands * mixed-valent compounds * non-innocent ligands Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.731, year: 2014

  19. Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State. (United States)

    Omage, Kingsley; Omage, Sylvia O


    People do not generally eat single or individual meals; rather they eat mixed meals, consisting of two or more individual meals. These mixed meals usually have glycemic indices which differ from that of the individual food type. This study was aimed at evaluating the glycemic indices of three commonly consumed mixed meals eaten in Okada; rice and beans (test food 1), rice and plantain (test food 2), beans and plantain (test food 3). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged between 18 and 30 participated in this study. They were randomized into three groups of eighty persons each, and fed with the standard food (50 g glucose) on day one and one of the test foods on day two, after an overnight fast. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the food had been eaten. The results showed that the Glycemic Index (GI) values for the test foods were high: 86.60 (test food 1), 89.74 (test food 2), 86.93(test food 3). The incremental increase in blood glucose was monitored and calculated for each food and when compared with that of the standard food (glucose), there was significant differences ( p   .05). The results from this study indicated that the GI of the mixed meals was affected by the constituent nutrient and the response is also affected by the proportion of each nutrient. Our findings show that the selected test foods (mixed meals) consumed in Okada have high GI values.

  20. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arndt


    Full Text Available An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon, K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon, V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC, organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass. Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5 accounted for 70–90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich and biomass burning (K-rich particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA. This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which

  1. State bistability between pure- and mixed-mode states in a 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser subject to parallel optical injection (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Chen, Jianjun; Xia, Guangqiong; Wu, Zhengmao


    Polarization dynamics in a 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (1550 nm VCSEL) under parallel optical injection (POI) is investigated experimentally, and we experimentally observe the state bistability (SB) between pure- and mixed-mode states by scanning the injection power along different routes. Such a SB occurs only when the frequency of injection light is lower than that of the excited mode of a free-running 1550 nm VCSEL. Moreover, the effect of frequency detuning on the hysteresis loop width is analyzed.

  2. Airborne measurements of hygroscopicity and mixing state of aerosols in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns (United States)

    Rosati, Bernadette; Weingartner, Ernest; Gysel, Martin; Rubach, Florian; Mentel, Thomas; Baltensperger, Urs


    Aerosols interact directly with the incident solar radiation by scattering or absorbing the light. The optical properties of an aerosol particle can strongly be altered at enhanced relative humidity (RH). Depending on the particle's chemical composition, it can experience hygroscopic growth, leading to a change in size and index of refraction compared to the dry particle (Zieger et al., 2011). Besides, aerosols can exist in different mixing states which are usually divided into internal and external mixtures. If all particles of a certain size have the same chemical composition, they are described as internally mixed, whereas if particles of equal size have different chemical composition, they are defined as externally mixed. Depending on the mixture the hygroscopic behavior will change: internally mixed aerosols will grow uniformly with increasing RH, while the different substances in external mixtures will experience different growing behaviors leading to a mode-splitting or broadened size distribution. Laboratory studies are commonly performed at dry conditions but it is known that temperature and RH as well as chemical composition are changing with altitude (Morgan et al., 2010). This further leads to the conclusion that the in-situ measurements of optical properties at different heights are crucial for climate forcing calculations. Within the Pan-European Gas-Aerosols-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) the white- light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS) was developed and installed on the Zeppelin to investigate changes of light scattering with regard to water uptake and altitude. This instrument firstly selects a dry monodisperse aerosol by its electrical mobility and then exposes it to a well-defined RH (typically 95%). Alternately, the dry and humidified particles are measured in a white-light optical particle spectrometer (WELAS). In this way it is possible to infer the effective index of refraction of the dry particles, their hygroscopic

  3. Thermal transport in topological-insulator-based superconducting hybrid structures with mixed singlet and triplet pairing states (United States)

    Li, Hai; Zhao, Yuan Yuan


    In the framework of the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation, we investigate the thermal transport properties in topological-insulator-based superconducting hybrid structures with mixed spin-singlet and spin-triplet pairing states, and emphasize the different manifestations of the spin-singlet and spin-triplet pairing states in the thermal transport signatures. It is revealed that the temperature-dependent differential thermal conductance strongly depends on the components of the pairing state, and the negative differential thermal conductance only occurs in the spin-singlet pairing state dominated regime. It is also found that the thermal conductance is profoundly sensitive to the components of the pairing state. In the spin-singlet pairing state controlled regime, the thermal conductance obviously oscillates with the phase difference and junction length. With increasing the proportion of the spin-triplet pairing state, the oscillating characteristic of the thermal conductance fades out distinctly. These results suggest an alternative route for distinguishing the components of pairing states in topological-insulator-based superconducting hybrid structures.

  4. A 6 week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of ziprasidone for the acute depressive mixed state. (United States)

    Patkar, Ashwin; Gilmer, William; Pae, Chi-un; Vöhringer, Paul A; Ziffra, Michael; Pirok, Edward; Mulligan, Molly; Filkowski, Megan M; Whitham, Elizabeth A; Holtzman, Niki S; Thommi, Sairah B; Logvinenko, Tanya; Loebel, Antony; Masand, Prakash; Ghaemi, S Nassir


    To examine the efficacy of ziprasidone vs. placebo for the depressive mixed state in patients with bipolar disorder type II or major depressive disorder (MDD). 73 patients were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to ziprasidone (40-160 mg/d) or placebo for 6 weeks. They met DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE), while also meeting 2 or 3 (but not more nor less) DSM-IV manic criteria. They did not meet DSM-IV criteria for a mixed or manic episode. Baseline psychotropic drugs were continued unchanged. The primary endpoint measured was Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores over time. The mean dose of ziprasidone was 129.7±45.3 mg/day and 126.1±47.1 mg/day for placebo. The primary outcome analysis indicated efficacy of ziprasidone versus placebo (p = 0.0038). Efficacy was more pronounced in type II bipolar disorder than in MDD (p = 0.036). Overall ziprasidone was well tolerated, without notable worsening of weight or extrapyramidal symptoms. There was a statistically significant benefit with ziprasidone versus placebo in this first RCT of any medication for the provisional diagnostic concept of the depressive mixed state. NCT00490542.

  5. A 6 week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of ziprasidone for the acute depressive mixed state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Patkar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of ziprasidone vs. placebo for the depressive mixed state in patients with bipolar disorder type II or major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: 73 patients were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to ziprasidone (40-160 mg/d or placebo for 6 weeks. They met DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE, while also meeting 2 or 3 (but not more nor less DSM-IV manic criteria. They did not meet DSM-IV criteria for a mixed or manic episode. Baseline psychotropic drugs were continued unchanged. The primary endpoint measured was Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS scores over time. The mean dose of ziprasidone was 129.7±45.3 mg/day and 126.1±47.1 mg/day for placebo. RESULTS: The primary outcome analysis indicated efficacy of ziprasidone versus placebo (p = 0.0038. Efficacy was more pronounced in type II bipolar disorder than in MDD (p = 0.036. Overall ziprasidone was well tolerated, without notable worsening of weight or extrapyramidal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There was a statistically significant benefit with ziprasidone versus placebo in this first RCT of any medication for the provisional diagnostic concept of the depressive mixed state. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00490542.

  6. CCN predictions using simplified assumptions of organic aerosol composition and mixing state: a synthesis from six different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ervens


    Full Text Available An accurate but simple quantification of the fraction of aerosol particles that can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN is needed for implementation in large-scale models. Data on aerosol size distribution, chemical composition, and CCN concentration from six different locations have been analyzed to explore the extent to which simple assumptions of composition and mixing state of the organic fraction can reproduce measured CCN number concentrations.

    Fresher pollution aerosol as encountered in Riverside, CA, and the ship channel in Houston, TX, cannot be represented without knowledge of more complex (size-resolved composition. For aerosol that has experienced processing (Mexico City, Holme Moss (UK, Point Reyes (CA, and Chebogue Point (Canada, CCN can be predicted within a factor of two assuming either externally or internally mixed soluble organics although these simplified compositions/mixing states might not represent the actual properties of ambient aerosol populations, in agreement with many previous CCN studies in the literature. Under typical conditions, a factor of two uncertainty in CCN concentration due to composition assumptions translates to an uncertainty of ~15% in cloud drop concentration, which might be adequate for large-scale models given the much larger uncertainty in cloudiness.

  7. Characterization, mixing state, and evolution of urban single particles in Xi'an (China) during wintertime haze days. (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Yang, Fumo; Wang, Qiyuan; Wang, Yichen


    A Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed in the urban area of Xi'an to investigate size-resolved chemical composition and mixing state of single particles during the heavy haze episode occurred from January 13 to January 27 in 2013. Nine major single particle types were resolved with ART-2a algorithm including biomass burning (BB), Potassium-Secondary (KSec), elemental and organic Carbon (ECOC), sodium-potassium-rich ECOC (NaKECOC), sodium-potassium-rich-secondary (NaKSec), EC, OC, and Dust. Daily PM2.5 mass concentration was 213±122μgm-3. ~96% of the ambient particles were carbonaceous and internally mixed with secondary species such as sulfate and nitrate. The major particle types were from combustion sources, including coal burning, biomass burning, and vehicle exhaust. Mixing state analysis suggests gas-to-particle conversion was an important mechanism forming organic species during the winter haze episode. The relative abundances of the aged particle types, such as KSec and NaKSec increased with the elevated RH when RH<80%. The fraction of aged particles in terms of number concentration was prominent during high levels of PM2.5 under stagnant air conditions. This study gained new knowledge on atmospheric aerosol formation and evolution in urban environment heavy winter haze condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Agitated "unipolar" depression re-conceptualized as a depressive mixed state: implications for the antidepressant-suicide controversy. (United States)

    Akiskal, Hagop S; Benazzi, Franco; Perugi, Giulio; Rihmer, Zoltán


    The nosologic status of agitated depression is unresolved. Are they unipolar (UP) or bipolar (BP)? Are they mixed states? Even more controversial is the notion that antidepressants might play some role in the suicidality of such patients (Akiskal and Mallya, 1987) [Akiskal, H.S., Mallya, G., 1987. Criteria for the "soft" bipolar spectrum: treatment implications. Psychopharmacol Bull. 23, 68-73]. After excluding all patients with history of hypomanic episodes occurring outside the frame of a major depressive episode (MDE), even those with a shorter duration of hypomanic symptoms than stipulated in DSM-IV, the remaining consecutive 254 unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) private adult (> 21 years old) outpatients were interviewed (off psychoactive drugs for 2 weeks) with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-CV), the Hypomania Interview Guide (HIGH-C), and the Family History Screen. Intra-MDE hypomanic symptoms were systematically assessed, with > or = 3 such symptoms required for a diagnosis of depressive mixed state (DMX). Agitated depression was defined as an MDE with HIGH-C psychomotor agitation score > or = 2. Logistic regression was used to study associations and control for confounding variables. In this strictly defined unipolar sample, agitated depression was present in 19.7%. Compared with its non-agitated counterpart, it had significantly fewer recurrences, less chronicity, higher rate of family history for bipolar disorder, and DMX; and, among the intra-depressive non-euphoric hypomanic symptoms (in decreasing order of frequency), distractibility, racing/crowded thoughts, irritable mood, talkativeness, and risky behavior. The most striking finding was the robust association between agitated depression and DMX (OR = 36.9). Furthermore, patients with psychomotor agitation had significantly higher rate of weight loss and suicidal ideation. Of DMX symptoms, we found an association between suicidal ideation, psychomotor activation, and racing

  9. Black carbon physical properties and mixing state in the European megacity Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laborde


    found to have a medium coating thickness as well as slightly larger mean rBC core sizes and MAC values compared to traffic emissions. The aerosol observed under the influence of aged air masses and air masses from Eastern Continental Europe was dominated by a~more-hygroscopic mode peaking at GF ≈ 1.6. Most particles (95%, in the more-hygroscopic mode at D0 = 265 nm, did not contain a detectable rBC core. A significant fraction of the BC-containing particles had a substantial coating with non-refractory aerosol components. MAC values of ~ 8.8 m2g−1 and ~ 8.3 m2g−1 at λ = 880 nm and mass mean rBC core diameters of 150 nm and 200 nm were observed for the aged and continental air mass types, respectively. The reason for the larger rBC core sizes compared to the fresh emissions – transport effects or a different rBC source – remains unclear. The dominant fraction of the BC-containing particles was found to have no or very little coating with non-refractory matter. The lack of coatings is consistent with the observation that the BC-containing particles are non- or slightly-hygroscopic, which makes them poor cloud condensation nuclei. It can therefore be expected that wet removal through nucleation scavenging is inefficient for fresh BC-containing particles in urban plumes. The mixing-state-specific cloud droplet activation behaviour of BC-containing particles including the effects of atmospheric aging processes should be considered in global simulations of atmospheric BC, as the wet removal efficiency remains a major source of uncertainty in its life-cycle.

  10. Solid-state characterization of spray-dried ice cream mixes. (United States)

    Vega, Cesar; Kim, Esther-H-J; Chen, Xiao D; Roos, Yrjö H


    The main physicochemical properties of spray-dried ice cream mixes (i.e. surface composition, wettability, flowability and microstructure) were analyzed. Emulsions contained 19-44% milk fat on a dry basis and included mixes with no added emulsifier and/or sucrose. The time necessary for complete wetting of the powders correlated with the amount of surface free-fat measured by means of solvent extraction. Non-micellar casein (sodium caseinate) showed to be a better co-encapsulant than micellar casein (skim milk) as demonstrated by surface fat coverage measured by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Emulsifiers influenced the fat surface composition of the powders by reducing the amount of surface protein due to their lower interfacial tension. Surface fat caused an initial overestimation of the particle size of the powders due to fat-related caking. Powders showed no flow before and after surface fat extraction which was attributed to fat-related caking and very small particle size (<80 microm), respectively.

  11. Where are you going? Marketing mix analysis of a tourim destination in Santa Catarina state (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlos Francisco Miguel


    Full Text Available This paper presents a research carried out in order to analyze the “four P” of the marketing mix (product, price, place and promotion in a seaside tourism destination in Santa Catarina, through the eyes of some interviewees representing each public and private business sector. It was a qualitative research, exploratory and descriptive, and the data were obtained through semi strutured interviews. The outcome revealed that the destination is not structured yet to be considered a touristic product, because at present it is changing from sun and sea tourism to nature tourism and it lacks investments for infra structure, mainly in sewage and roads. Price was considered fair by entrepreneurs and extremely high by civil servants. Commonly the destination is placed directly in the market, with no intermediation of tour operators or retail agents. and it is promoted through tourism fairs, newspapers and journals as well as internet. Actions are generally not planned, no partnerships between trade and public sector were detected nor integration with other components of the marketing mix.

  12. Using mixed methods research to explore the effect of an adaptation exercise on general population valuations of health states. (United States)

    McTaggart-Cowan, Helen M; O'Cathain, Alicia; Tsuchiya, Aki; Brazier, John E


    To understand the effect of an adaptation exercise (AE) on general population values for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) states. A sequential mixed methods design was employed: an analysis of a dataset to develop RA states for valuing in later phases of the study; a qualitative interview study with members of the general population to identify how an AE affected valuing of the RA states and to help design a questionnaire for the final phase; and a quantitative quasi-experimental study to identify factors that influence change in values after being informed about adaptation. Three RA states were developed using Rasch and cluster analyses. Participants in the qualitative phase identified a range of ways in which information about adaptation affected their values. For example, they realized they could adapt to RA because their family and friends who had RA, or similar conditions, could cope. A 25-item questionnaire was developed and used during the final phase to identify that younger and healthier individuals were more likely to increase their values after being informed about disease adaptation. The qualitative findings were revisited and found to support the quantitative results. This approach facilitated understanding of whether and how an AE affected valuing of health states. Each phase affected the next phase of the study, leading to the conclusion that general population respondents who have little experience of disease will likely increase their health state values after being informed about adaptation because they understand that they could cope with the disease.

  13. Adaptive mobile tracking in unknown non-line-of-sight conditions with application to digital TV networks (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Piché, Robert; Kuusniemi, Heidi; Chen, Ruizhi


    This paper studies the problem of tracking a mobile device in mixed line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. NLOS error is assumed to be Gaussian with unknown mean and variance. An adaptive Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is proposed for mobile tracking in such scenarios. An extended Kalman filter is used to approximately estimate the mobile state, and the particle filter is applied to estimate the posterior distribution of sight conditions and the unknown static parameters, the distribution of which is updated by sufficient statistics. To improve the efficiency of the particle filtering, we use the approximate optimal proposal distribution for particle inference. Algorithm performance is investigated in the scenario of mobile tracking using signals of opportunity from digital TV (DTV) network. Simulation results show that the adaptive RBPF method is effective to infer the unknown NLOS parameter and can achieve good tracking accuracy using a small number of particles.

  14. Photoelectron angular distributions for states of any mixed character: An experiment-friendly model for atomic, molecular, and cluster anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuseynov, Dmitry; Blackstone, Christopher C.; Culberson, Lori M.; Sanov, Andrei, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)


    We present a model for laboratory-frame photoelectron angular distributions in direct photodetachment from (in principle) any molecular orbital using linearly polarized light. A transparent mathematical approach is used to generalize the Cooper-Zare central-potential model to anionic states of any mixed character. In the limit of atomic-anion photodetachment, the model reproduces the Cooper-Zare formula. In the case of an initial orbital described as a superposition of s and p-type functions, the model yields the previously obtained s-p mixing formula. The formalism is further advanced using the Hanstorp approximation, whereas the relative scaling of the partial-wave cross-sections is assumed to follow the Wigner threshold law. The resulting model describes the energy dependence of photoelectron anisotropy for any atomic, molecular, or cluster anions, usually without requiring a direct calculation of the transition dipole matrix elements. As a benchmark case, we apply the p-d variant of the model to the experimental results for NO{sup −} photodetachment and show that the observed anisotropy trend is described well using physically meaningful values of the model parameters. Overall, the presented formalism delivers insight into the photodetachment process and affords a new quantitative strategy for analyzing the photoelectron angular distributions and characterizing mixed-character molecular orbitals using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of negative ions.

  15. EU Member State Enforcement of Mixed Agreements and Access to Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd


    “Article 344 TFEU forbids Member States to pursue any other means of dispute settlement, when issues regarding the application and interpretation of the Treaties are concerned. The Court of Justice extended this principle to include disputes arising under international agreements, where the subject...... matter falls under EU competence. At the same time the number of international agreements to which direct effect is not granted is slowly rising. Consequently, the question arises whether Member States still have proper access to justice under these international regimes vis-à-vis other Member States...... of the direct effect doctrine of international agreements is necessary. Member States should not be equated with individuals, when invoking international agreements before the Court to challenge the validity of EU acts.”...

  16. Networked traffic state estimation involving mixed fixed-mobile sensor data using Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.


    Nowadays, traffic management has become a challenge for urban areas, which are covering larger geographic spaces and facing the generation of different kinds of traffic data. This article presents a robust traffic estimation framework for highways modeled by a system of Lighthill Whitham Richards equations that is able to assimilate different sensor data available. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton–Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton–Jacobi equation are linear ones. We then pose the problem of estimating the traffic density given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then extend the density estimation framework to highway networks with any available data constraint and modeling junctions. Finally, we present a travel estimation application for a small network using real traffic measurements obtained obtained during Mobile Century traffic experiment, and comparing the results with ground truth data.

  17. Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles. (United States)

    China, Swarup; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Gorkowski, Kyle; Aiken, Allison C; Dubey, Manvendra K


    Biomass burning is one of the largest sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere, significantly affecting earth's radiation budget and climate. Tar balls, abundant in biomass burning smoke, absorb sunlight and have highly variable optical properties, typically not accounted for in climate models. Here we analyse single biomass burning particles from the Las Conchas fire (New Mexico, 2011) using electron microscopy. We show that the relative abundance of tar balls (80%) is 10 times greater than soot particles (8%). We also report two distinct types of tar balls; one less oxidized than the other. Furthermore, the mixing of soot particles with other material affects their optical, chemical and physical properties. We quantify the morphology of soot particles and classify them into four categories: ~50% are embedded (heavily coated), ~34% are partly coated, ~12% have inclusions and~4% are bare. Inclusion of these observations should improve climate model performances.

  18. MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state: an aerosol microphysical module for global atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bauer


    Full Text Available A new aerosol microphysical module MATRIX, the Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state, and its application in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS climate model (ModelE are described. This module, which is based on the quadrature method of moments (QMOM, represents nucleation, condensation, coagulation, internal and external mixing, and cloud-drop activation and provides aerosol particle mass and number concentration and particle size information for up to 16 mixed-mode aerosol populations. Internal and external mixing among aerosol components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, carbonaceous aerosols, dust and sea-salt particles are represented. The solubility of each aerosol population, which is explicitly calculated based on its soluble and insoluble components, enables calculation of the dependence of cloud drop activation on the microphysical characterization of multiple soluble aerosol populations.

    A detailed model description and results of box-model simulations of various aerosol population configurations are presented. The box model experiments demonstrate the dependence of cloud activating aerosol number concentration on the aerosol population configuration; comparisons to sectional models are quite favorable. MATRIX is incorporated into the GISS climate model and simulations are carried out primarily to assess its performance/efficiency for global-scale atmospheric model application. Simulation results were compared with aircraft and station measurements of aerosol mass and number concentration and particle size to assess the ability of the new method to yield data suitable for such comparison. The model accurately captures the observed size distributions in the Aitken and accumulation modes up to particle diameter 1 μm, in which sulfate, nitrate, black and organic carbon are predominantly located; however the model underestimates coarse-mode number concentration and size, especially in the marine environment

  19. Theoretical aspects of solid state reactions in a mixed particulate ensemble and kinetics of lead zirconate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandratreya, S.S.


    A theoretical analysis was carried out to estimate the quasi-steady-state external mass transport by lattice, surface and gaseous diffusion in terms of the stereologically measurable microstructural parameters of a mixed powder compact. It was shown that the gaseous transport can be described by a single dimensionless quantity termed sublimation transport modulus. Using these equations, the relative importance of the alternate external transport modes can be evaluated. Experimental work determined the reaction isotherms for the formation of lead zirconate from yellow PbO and monoclinic zirconia between 710/sup 0/C to 810/sup 0/C for two zirconia size distributions. The larger zirconia showed diffusion controlled shrinking core kinetics up to about 90 percent reaction while the smaller zirconia indicated a diffusion controlled spherical growth of up to 85 percent reaction after an instantaneous nucleation at a limited number of sites. The difference was attributed to the differences in the mixing time and not to the particulate sizes. It was observed that for the same size range, a longer mixing operation gave a better dispersion of reactants which resulted in a higher nucleation site density required for a shrinking core type of product morphology and faster kinetics. A microprobe profile analysis of partially reacted particles confirmed that for the shorter mixing period, reaction resultedin a nucleation-growth-impingement type of morphology. The activation energy as calculated from the nucleation-growth model fit to the data was 138 Kcal/mole which is close to 131 Kcal/mole reported for Pb/sup 2 +/ diffusion in PbZrO/sub 3/. Approximate calculations show that the gaseous external mass flux of PbO was negligible compared to the lattice or surface diffusive flux.

  20. Budget- and Priority-Setting Criteria at State Health Agencies in Times of Austerity: A Mixed-Methods Study (United States)

    Resnick, Beth; Kass, Nancy; Sellers, Katie; Young, Jessica; Bernet, Patrick; Jarris, Paul


    Objectives. We examined critical budget and priority criteria for state health agencies to identify likely decision-making factors, pressures, and opportunities in times of austerity. Methods. We have presented findings from a 2-stage, mixed-methods study with state public health leaders regarding public health budget- and priority-setting processes. In stage 1, we conducted hour-long interviews in 2011 with 45 health agency executive and division or bureau leaders from 6 states. Stage 2 was an online survey of 207 executive and division or bureau leaders from all state health agencies (66% response rate). Results. Respondents identified 5 key criteria: whether a program was viewed as “mission critical,” the seriousness of the consequences of not funding the program, financing considerations, external directives and mandates, and the magnitude of the problem the program addressed. Conclusions. We have presented empirical findings on criteria used in state health agency budgetary decision-making. These criteria suggested a focus and interest on core public health and the largest public health problems with the most serious ramifications. PMID:24825212

  1. Size Resolved measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity and mixing state during Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014 (United States)

    Thalman, R. M.; Artaxo, P.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Barbosa, H. M.; Day, D. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kuang, C.; Palm, B. B.; Krüger, M. L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Poeschl, U.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Senum, G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Springston, S. R.; Alexander, M. L.; Watson, T. B.; Wang, J.


    Measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nucleai (CCN) spectra were performed at the T3 site of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) field project located near Manacapuru, Brazil during 2014. The T3 site is a receptor site for both polluted urban down-wind (Manaus, BR a city of several million 70 km up wind) and background (Amazon rainforest) air-masses and can provide a contrast between clean and polluted conditions. Particle hygroscopicity (kappa) and mixing state were calculated from the particle activation spectrum measured by size selecting aerosols and exposing them to a wide range of supersaturation in the CCN counter (Droplet Measurement Technologies Continuous-Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber). The supersaturation was varied between 0.07 and 1.1% by changing a combination of both total flow rate and temperature gradient in the CCN counter. Measured spectra were examined for air masses with different level of influence from Manaus plume. Particle hygroscopicity generally peaked near noon local time which was broadly consistent with the trend in aerosol sulfate. The average kappa values during the first intensive operation period were 0.14±0.05, 0.14±0.04 and 0.16±0.06 for 75, 112 and 171 nm particles respectively. Evaluation of particle hygroscopicity and dispersion (mixing state) will be presented with respect to size and level of pollution.

  2. Landau Level Mixing and the Ground State of the ν=5/2 Quantum Hall Effect. (United States)

    Rezayi, Edward H


    Inter-Landau-level transitions break particle hole symmetry and will choose either the Pfaffian or the anti-Pfaffian state as the absolute ground state at 5/2 filling of the fractional quantum Hall effect. An approach based on truncating the Hilbert space has favored the anti-Pfaffian. A second approach based on an effective Hamiltonian produced the Pfaffian. In this Letter, perturbation theory is applied to finite sizes without bias to any specific pseudopotential component. This method also singles out the anti-Pfaffian. A critical piece of the effective Hamiltonian, which was absent in previous studies, reverts the ground state at 5/2 to the anti-Pfaffian.

  3. Single-Particle Momentum Distributions of Efimov States in Mixed-Species Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Yamashita, M.; F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.


    We solve the three-body bound state problem in three dimensions for mass imbalanced systems of two identical bosons and a third particle in the universal limit where the interactions are assumed to be of zero-range. The system displays the Efimov effect and we use the momentum-space wave equation...... to derive formulas for the scaling factor of the Efimov spectrum for any mass ratio assuming either that two or three of the two-body subsystems have a bound state at zero energy. We consider the single-particle momentum distribution analytically and numerically and analyse the tail of the momentum...

  4. Effect of sea breeze circulation on aerosol mixing state and radiative properties in a desert setting (United States)

    Derimian, Yevgeny; Choël, Marie; Rudich, Yinon; Deboudt, Karine; Dubovik, Oleg; Laskin, Alexander; Legrand, Michel; Damiri, Bahaiddin; Koren, Ilan; Unga, Florin; Moreau, Myriam; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Karnieli, Arnon


    Chemical composition, microphysical, and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel are found to be influenced by daily occurrences of sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Abrupt increases in aerosol volume concentration and shifts of size distributions towards larger sizes, which are associated with increase in wind speed and atmospheric water content, were systematically recorded during the summertime at a distance of at least 80 km from the coast. Chemical imaging of aerosol samples showed an increased contribution of highly hygroscopic particles during the intrusion of the sea breeze. Besides a significant fraction of marine aerosols, the amount of internally mixed marine and mineral dust particles was also increased during the sea breeze period. The number fraction of marine and internally mixed particles during the sea breeze reached up to 88 % in the PM1-2. 5 and up to 62 % in the PM2. 5-10 size range. Additionally, numerous particles with residuals of liquid coating were observed by SEM/EDX analysis. Ca-rich dust particles that had reacted with anthropogenic nitrates were evidenced by Raman microspectroscopy. The resulting hygroscopic particles can deliquesce at very low relative humidity. Our observations suggest that aerosol hygroscopic growth in the Negev Desert is induced by the daily sea breeze arrival. The varying aerosol microphysical and optical characteristics perturb the solar and thermal infrared radiations. The changes in aerosol properties induced by the sea breeze, relative to the background situation, doubled the shortwave radiative cooling at the surface (from -10 to -20.5 W m-2) and increased by almost 3 times the warming of the atmosphere (from 5 to 14 W m-2), as evaluated for a case study. Given the important value of observed liquid coating of particles, we also examined the possible influence of the particle homogeneity assumption on the retrieval of aerosol microphysical characteristics

  5. Effect of sea breeze circulation on aerosol mixing state and radiative properties in a desert setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Derimian


    Full Text Available Chemical composition, microphysical, and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel are found to be influenced by daily occurrences of sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Abrupt increases in aerosol volume concentration and shifts of size distributions towards larger sizes, which are associated with increase in wind speed and atmospheric water content, were systematically recorded during the summertime at a distance of at least 80 km from the coast. Chemical imaging of aerosol samples showed an increased contribution of highly hygroscopic particles during the intrusion of the sea breeze. Besides a significant fraction of marine aerosols, the amount of internally mixed marine and mineral dust particles was also increased during the sea breeze period. The number fraction of marine and internally mixed particles during the sea breeze reached up to 88 % in the PM1–2. 5 and up to 62 % in the PM2. 5–10 size range. Additionally, numerous particles with residuals of liquid coating were observed by SEM/EDX analysis. Ca-rich dust particles that had reacted with anthropogenic nitrates were evidenced by Raman microspectroscopy. The resulting hygroscopic particles can deliquesce at very low relative humidity. Our observations suggest that aerosol hygroscopic growth in the Negev Desert is induced by the daily sea breeze arrival. The varying aerosol microphysical and optical characteristics perturb the solar and thermal infrared radiations. The changes in aerosol properties induced by the sea breeze, relative to the background situation, doubled the shortwave radiative cooling at the surface (from −10 to −20.5 W m−2 and increased by almost 3 times the warming of the atmosphere (from 5 to 14 W m−2, as evaluated for a case study. Given the important value of observed liquid coating of particles, we also examined the possible influence of the particle homogeneity assumption on the

  6. Welfare state and voluntarism. Or why 'changing the welfare mix' means different things in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas; Ibsen, Bjarne

    general and popular ‘civil society talk’ leaves too little room for taking into consideration the specific ‘division of labour’ between state, market and voluntary sector that characterize different welfare systems; a fact that, as we shall demonstrate, is highly consequential for not only the capacity...

  7. "A Decided Disadvantage for the Kindergarten Students to Mix with the State Teachers" (United States)

    Whitehead, Kay


    In early twentieth-century Australia, men managed coeducational state training colleges (equivalent to normal schools) but teacher education programmes for kindergartners were initiatives of the free kindergarten movement and firmly in women's hands. The Kindergarten Training College in Adelaide, South Australia, was established in 1907 with…

  8. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.


    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…


    The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...

  10. Bioethanol production by solid state fermentation from cheese whey mixed with brewer’s spent grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi COMAN


    Full Text Available Food by-products, whey mixed with spent grains are renewable resources which can be used as fermentation susbtrates for bioethanol production using selected Kluyveromyces spp. yeast strains. These food by-products have extensive results as wastes in food industry, are cheap and readily available sources and their use has also important benefit for the environmental protection. The ability of some Kluyveromyces spp. yeast strains (commercial starter culture and wild culture to ferment the carbohydrates mixture from a complex fermentation substrate based on hydrolyzed brewer’s spent grains and cheese whey was analyzed. Three brewer’s spent grains (hydrolyzed and cheese whey (heat treated ratios (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 were considered in the study. Studies have shown that using an optimum combination of fermentation substrate, respectively hydrolyzed brewer’s spent grains and heat treated cheese whey in ratio of 1:2 have influence on yeast fermentation behavior and yield ethanol production.

  11. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel


    is, however, hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous...... variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order nonlinearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which...... the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements, and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some...

  12. Probing the Electromagnetic Local Density of States with a Strongly Mixed Electric and Magnetic Dipole Emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Karaveli, Sinan; Zia, Rashid


    We identify a solid-state quantum emitter whose room-temperature radiative decay is mediated by a nearly equal mixture of isotropic electric dipole (ED) and magnetic dipole (MD) transitions. Using energy-momentum spectroscopy, we experimentally show that the near-infrared $^3$T$_2{\\rightarrow}^3$A$_2$ emission from divalent-nickel-doped magnesium oxide (Ni$^{2+}$:MgO) is composed of $\\sim$50% MD and $\\sim$50% ED transitions. We then demonstrate that the spontaneous emission rate of these ions near planar interfaces is determined by the combined electric and magnetic local density of optical states (LDOS). This electromagnetic LDOS probes the total mode density, and thus similar to thermal emission, these unique electronic emitters effectively excite all polarizations and orientations of the electromagnetic field.

  13. Anthropogenic Effects on the Mixing State of Aerosols over Manaus during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) Campaign (United States)

    Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Harder, T.; O'Brien, R.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.


    The role that anthropogenic aerosols play in cloud formation is uncertain and contributes largely to the uncertainty in predicting future climate. One region of particular importance is the Amazon rainforest, which accounts for over half of the world's rainforest. During GoAmazon2014/15 IOP2, aerosol samples were collected at multiple sites in and around the rapidly growing industrial city of Manaus in the Amazon basin. Manaus is of scientific interest due to the pristine nature of the surrounding rainforest and the high levels of pollution coming from the city in the form of SO2, NOx, and soot. Some sites, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science center (TES, also designated ZF2) located to the north of Manaus, represent air masses which have not interacted with emissions from the city. The comparison of pristine atmosphere with heavy pollution allows both for the determination of a natural baseline level of pollutants, as well as the study of pollutant's impact on the conversion of biogenic volatile organic compounds to secondary organic aerosols. Towards this goal, samples from ZF2 and other unpolluted sites will be compared to samples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Manacapuru (T3), which is southwest (downwind) of Manaus. Spatially resolved spectra were recorded at the sub-particle level using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen K-absorption edges. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) was also performed on to characterize higher Z elements. These two techniques together will allow for the mass fraction of atmospherically relevant elements to be determined on a per-particle basis. We will apply established procedures to determine the mixing state index for samples collected at ZF2 and T3 using elemental mass fractions. Preliminary results will be presented which focus on investigating the difference between mixing

  14. Morphochemical characteristics and mixing state of long range transported wildfire particles at Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard Islands) (United States)

    Moroni, Beatrice; Cappelletti, David; Crocchianti, Stefano; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Mazzola, Mauro; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Ritter, Christoph; Zielinski, Tymon


    A prolonged and exceptionally intense air mass advection event transporting biomass burning aerosols generated in Alaska affected Ny-Ålesund in the mid of July 2015. This paper reports the morphochemical characteristics and mixing state of individual aerosol particles collected during the event. To this aim aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore polycarbonate membrane filters using a DEKATI 12-stage low volume impactor and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Results of SEM investigations depict a complex aerosol characterized by an external mixing between a main part of carbonaceous organic particles (tar balls and organic particles), lower ammonium sulfate and minor potassium chloride and mineral dust amounts. The carbonaceous particles are spherical to slightly elongated and the organic particles show an internal mixing of low density organics and/or ammonium sulfate upon denser nuclei. Most particles are in the accumulation mode size range although the size and the morphology of the chloride and the sulfate salts evidence the growth of these species both in the air and upon the sampling membranes. Individual particle analyses were complemented by aerosol size distribution (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) and optical (Particle Soot Absorption Photometer, nephelometer) measurements at ground level in order to retrieve the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol in the atmosphere and to predict the fate and behaviour of particles upon deposition at ground level. Individual particle analyses were also compared with bulk chemical analyses on daily sampling filters and back-trajectory analyses of the air mass movement in order to enucleate distinct sources of the aerosol during the long range transport.

  15. Size-resolved measurements of mixing state and cloud-nucleating ability of aerosols in Nanjing, China (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Li, Shizheng; Zheng, Jun; Khalizov, Alexei; Wang, Xing; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Yaoyao


    An integrated aerosol analytical system was deployed in Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta, to measure size-resolved aerosol mixing states, effective densities, cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activities, and chemical composition in August 2013. It was found that aerosols were predominantly internally mixed. The average effective densities were 1.38 ± 0.09, 1.48 ± 0.08, and 1.53 ± 0.07 g cm-3 for 50, 80, and 120 nm particles, respectively. Although black carbon (BC) represented only 0.3%, 1.6%, and 3.3% of the particle mass, on average, it was present in 7%, 38%, and 47% of the total particle number concentration at 50, 80, and 120 nm, respectively, indicating that BC particles may contribute significantly to the total atmospheric aerosol population. Externally mixed BC was only occasionally observed with an effective density of 0.67-0.97 g cm-3. Aerosols sampled generally exhibited a relatively high CCN activity and hygroscopicity (κ = 0.35 ± 0.13). Both newly formed particles and freshly emitted BC particles were observed to age rapidly from photochemical processes, with a significant enhancement in the particle CCN activity and an increase in the effective density. Aerosols influenced by four different air masses presented similar CCN activation, indicating that CCN activation would be primarily dependent on the particle size rather than the particle origin (and hence original composition). Our results suggest that under highly active photochemical conditions as encountered in this study, particles from both local sources and regional transport can be rapidly converted into efficient CCN by photochemical aging, thereby making important contributions to the atmospheric CCN budget and exerting profound implications on aerosol indirect climate forcing.

  16. Mixing of electronic states in molybdenum complexes involved in nitrogen activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranger, Robert [Department of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); School of Chemistry, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart TAS 7001 (Australia); Yates, Brian F. [Department of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); School of Chemistry, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart TAS 7001 (Australia)], E-mail:


    The mechanism for nitrogen activation by molybdenum complexes is a complicated one, involving as it does the coupling of a quartet molybdenum reactant with a singlet nitrogen molecule, passing via a series of quartet and doublet encounter complexes to a triplet intermediate, with the subsequent spin crossing to the singlet surface which then leads via a singlet transition state to the final pair of singlet products. We have investigated in detail a variety of levels of theory to describe the crossing of these electronic surfaces and have calculated both lower-bound and actual minimum energy crossing points for the key spin inversion processes.

  17. Response to comment on "Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon". (United States)

    Cappa, Christopher D; Onasch, Timothy B; Massoli, Paola; Worsnop, Douglas R; Bates, Timothy S; Cross, Eben S; Davidovits, Paul; Hakala, Jani; Hayden, Katherine L; Jobson, B Tom; Kolesar, Katheryn R; Lack, Daniel A; Lerner, Brian M; Li, Shao-Meng; Mellon, Daniel; Nuaaman, Ibraheem; Olfert, Jason S; Petäjä, Tuukka; Quinn, Patricia K; Song, Chen; Subramanian, R; Williams, Eric J; Zaveri, Rahul A


    Jacobson argues that our statement that "many climate models may overestimate warming by BC" has not been demonstrated. Jacobson challenges our results on the basis that we have misinterpreted some model results, omitted optical focusing under high relative humidity conditions and by involatile components, and because our measurements consist of only two locations over short atmospheric time periods. We address each of these arguments, acknowledging important issues and clarifying some misconceptions, and stand by our observations. We acknowledge that Jacobson identified one detail in our experimental technique that places an additional constraint on the interpretation of our observations and reduces somewhat the potential consequences of the stated implications.

  18. isospin mixing in the 4He bound state and the nucleon strange form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco Schiavilla


    The contribution of isospin admixtures in the ground state of the {sup 4}He nucleus is studied using wave functions derived from the most modern nuclear interactions, including isospin symmetry breaking terms. The present calculations show that this contribution is larger than previous estimates had indicated. Its effect on parity violating elastic scattering of polarized electrons from {sup 4}He is investigated. In particular, a simple analysis of the recently measured left-right asymmetry at low Q{sup 2} shows that the contribution of these isospin admixtures is of comparable magnitude to that associated with strangeness components in the nucleon electric form factor.

  19. One for Many: A Metadata Concept for Mixed Digital Content at a State Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Naumann


    Full Text Available The Landesarchiv (State Archive of Baden-Württemberg has designed and implemented a metadata concept for digital content covering a heterogenous range of digital-born and digitised material. Special attention was given to matters of authenticity and to economic ingest and dissemination methods under the requirements of a public archive. This paper describes the outcome of metadata discussions during the implementation period of the DIMAG repository. It treats integration of the repository’s architecture with the archival classification concept, measures for long-term accessibility, the creation of adapted metadata placement, and provisions for exchange with other applications for ingest and use. The deliberately short list of metadata elements is included in this paper. Some existing standards have been evaluated under a real use environment; this paper also introduces modifications applied to them in the project context.

  20. The menthol marketing mix: targeted promotions for focus communities in the United States. (United States)

    Cruz, Tess Boley; Wright, La Tanisha; Crawford, George


    This study analyzes tobacco industry menthol marketing strategies aimed at urban predominantly Black populations. Data are drawn from an interview with a former Brown & Williamson Tobacco Company trade marketing manager, tobacco industry documents on Kool promotions in urban areas, and public health literature on tobacco marketing. Tobacco companies recognize the growth potential for the menthol segment in these urban communities. They have higher levels of price discounts and signage, exert tight controls over the retail environment, and use hip-hop lifestyle to associate menthol products with urban nightlife, music, fame, and cultural edginess among younger smokers. Tobacco companies regard the urban Black menthol segment as one of the few markets in which they can grow sales despite declines elsewhere in the United States. Consequently, this population is surrounded by intense and integrated levels of marketing. We need strong monitoring, regulation, and enforcement efforts that will counter the industry's use of menthol at multiple levels in urban environments.

  1. Enhanced viability of Lactobacillus reuteri for probiotics production in mixed solid-state fermentation in the presence of Bacillus subtilis. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Ran; Xiong, Hai-Rong; Guo, Xiao-Hua


    In order to develop a multi-microbe probiotic preparation of Lactobacillus reuteri G8-5 and Bacillus subtilis MA139 in solid-state fermentation, a series of parameters were optimized sequentially in shake flask culture. The effect of supplementation of B. subtilis MA139 as starters on the viability of L. reuteri G8-5 was also explored. The results showed that the optimized process was as follows: water content, 50 %; initial pH of diluted molasses, 6.5; inocula volume, 2 %; flask dry contents, 30∼35 g/250 g without sterilization; and fermentation time, 2 days. The multi-microbial preparations finally provided the maximum concentration of Lactobacillus of about 9.01 ± 0.15 log CFU/g and spores of Bacillus of about 10.30 ± 0.08 log CFU/g. Compared with pure fermentation of L. reuteri G8-5, significantly high viable cells, low value of pH, and reducing sugar in solid substrates were achieved in mixed fermentation in the presence of B. subtilis MA139 (P fermentation showed the significantly higher antimicrobial activity against E. coli K88 (P solid-state fermentation with low cost. Moreover, the viability of L. reuteri G8-5 could be significantly enhanced in the presence of B. subtilis MA139 in solid-state fermentation, which favored the production of probiotics for animal use.

  2. Direct Succinic Acid Production from Minimally Pretreated Biomass Using Sequential Solid-State and Slurry Fermentation with Mixed Fungal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerico Alcantara


    Full Text Available Conventional bio-based succinic acid production involves anaerobic bacterial fermentation of pure sugars. This study explored a new route for directly producing succinic acid from minimally-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass via a consolidated bioprocessing technology employing a mixed lignocellulolytic and acidogenic fungal co-culture. The process involved a solid-state pre-fermentation stage followed by a two-phase slurry fermentation stage. During the solid-state pre-fermentation stage, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were co-cultured in a nitrogen-rich substrate (e.g., soybean hull to induce cellulolytic enzyme activity. The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown separately on carbon-rich birch wood chips to induce ligninolytic enzymes, rendering the biomass more susceptible to cellulase attack. The solid-state pre-cultures were then combined in a slurry fermentation culture to achieve simultaneous enzymatic cellulolysis and succinic acid production. This approach generated succinic acid at maximum titers of 32.43 g/L after 72 h of batch slurry fermentation (~10 g/L production, and 61.12 g/L after 36 h of addition of fresh birch wood chips at the onset of the slurry fermentation stage (~26 g/L production. Based on this result, this approach is a promising alternative to current bacterial succinic acid production due to its minimal substrate pretreatment requirements, which could reduce production costs.

  3. The mixed-valence state of Ce in the hexagonal CeNi sub 4 B compound

    CERN Document Server

    Tolinski, T; Pugaczowa-Michalska, M; Chelkowska, G


    Measurements of the magnetic susceptibility chi, x-ray photoemission spectra (XPS), electrical resistivity rho and electronic structure calculations for CeNi sub 4 B are reported. In the paramagnetic region, CeNi sub 4 B follows the Curie-Weiss law with mu sub e sub f sub f = 0.52 mu sub B /fu and theta -10.7 K. The effective magnetic moment is lower than the free Ce sup 3 sup + -ion value. The Ce(3d) XPS spectra have confirmed the mixed-valence state of Ce ions in CeNi sub 4 B. The f occupancy, n sub f , and the coupling DELTA between the f level and the conduction states were derived to be about 0.83 and 85 meV, respectively. Both susceptibility data and XPS spectra show that Ce ions in CeNi sub 4 B are in the intermediate-valence state. At low temperatures (below 12 K), the magnetic contribution to the electrical resistivity reveals a logarithmic slope characteristic of Kondo-like systems.

  4. Notes on Ground-State Properties of Mixed Spin-1 and Spin-1/2 Lieb-Lattice Heisenberg Antiferromagnets (United States)

    Hirose, Yuhei; Miura, Shoma; Yasuda, Chitoshi; Fukumoto, Yoshiyuki


    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations are performed to study ground-state properties of a mixed spin-1 and spin-1/2 Lieb-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, in order to get further insight beyond the modified spin-wave (MSW) study reported in [" xlink:type="simple">J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 86, 014002 (2017)]. It is confirmed that the MSW results are in good agreement with the QMC results. In particular, the scaling relation found in the MSW study, which argues that sublattice spin reductions are inversely proportional to the sublattice sizes, is observed in our QMC simulation. We present a rigorous proof for spontaneous sublattice magnetizations induced by an infinitesimal uniform magnetic field. The calculation process in the MSW theory is reexamined to clarify the mathematical structure behind the scaling relation for sublattice long-range orders.

  5. Strain Field in Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Cerium-Based Mixed Oxides. Key Influence of the Support Redox State. (United States)

    López-Haro, Miguel; Yoshida, Kenta; Del Río, Eloy; Pérez-Omil, José A; Boyes, Edward D; Trasobares, Susana; Zuo, Jian-Min; Gai, Pratibha L; Calvino, José J


    Using a method that combines experimental and simulated Aberration-Corrected High Resolution Electron Microscopy images with digital image processing and structure modeling, strain distribution maps within gold nanoparticles relevant to real powder type catalysts, i.e., smaller than 3 nm, and supported on a ceria-based mixed oxide have been determined. The influence of the reduction state of the support and particle size has been examined. In this respect, it has been proven that reduction even at low temperatures induces a much larger compressive strain on the first {111} planes at the interface. This increase in compression fully explains, in accordance with previous DFT calculations, the loss of CO adsorption capacity of the interface area previously reported for Au supported on ceria-based oxides.

  6. A Two-State Study of Family Child Care Engagement in Quality Rating and Improvement Systems: A Mixed-Methods Analysis (United States)

    Hallam, Rena; Hooper, Alison; Bargreen, Kaitlin; Buell, Martha; Han, Myae


    Research Findings: The current study is a mixed-methods investigation of family child care provider participation in voluntary Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) in 2 states. Study 1 is an analysis of matched QRIS and child care licensing administrative data extracted from both states in May, 2014. Poverty and population density…

  7. Elemental Mixing State of Aerosol Particles Collected in Central Amazonia during GoAmazon2014/15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraund, Matthew; Pham, Don; Bonanno, Daniel; Harder, Tristan; Wang, Bingbing; Brito, Joel; de Sá, Suzane; Carbone, Samara; China, Swarup; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot; Pöhlker, Christopher; Andreae, Meinrat; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary; Moffet, Ryan


    Two complementary techniques, Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy/Near Edge Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), have been quantitatively combined to characterize individual atmospheric particles. This pair of techniques was applied to particle samples at three sampling sites (ATTO, ZF2, and T3) in the Amazon basin as part of the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign during the dry season of 2014. The combined data was subjected to k-means clustering using mass fractions of the following elements: C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn. Cluster analysis identified 12 particle types, across different sampling sites and particle sizes. Samples from the remote Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, also T0a) exhibited less cluster variety and fewer anthropogenic clusters than samples collected at the sites nearer to the Manaus metropolitan region, ZF2 (also T0t) or T3. Samples from the ZF2 site contained aged/anthropogenic clusters not readily explained by transport from ATTO or Manaus, possibly suggesting the effects of long range atmospheric transport or other local aerosol sources present during sampling. In addition, this data set allowed for recently established diversity parameters to be calculated. All sample periods had high mixing state indices (χ) that were >0.8. Two individual particle diversity (Di) populations were observed, with particles <0.5 μm having a Di of ~2.4 and >0.5 μm particles having a Di of ~3.6, which likely correspond to fresh and aged aerosols respectively. The diversity parameters determined by the quantitative method presented here will serve to aid in the accurate representation of aerosol mixing state, source apportionment, and aging in both less polluted and more industrialized environments in the Amazon Basin.

  8. Elemental Mixing State of Aerosol Particles Collected in Central Amazonia during GoAmazon2014/15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Fraund


    Full Text Available Two complementary techniques, Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy/Near Edge Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX, have been quantitatively combined to characterize individual atmospheric particles. This pair of techniques was applied to particle samples at three sampling sites (ATTO, ZF2, and T3 in the Amazon basin as part of the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5 field campaign during the dry season of 2014. The combined data was subjected to k-means clustering using mass fractions of the following elements: C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn. Cluster analysis identified 12 particle types across different sampling sites and particle sizes. Samples from the remote Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, also T0a exhibited less cluster variety and fewer anthropogenic clusters than samples collected at the sites nearer to the Manaus metropolitan region, ZF2 (also T0t or T3. Samples from the ZF2 site contained aged/anthropogenic clusters not readily explained by transport from ATTO or Manaus, possibly suggesting the effects of long range atmospheric transport or other local aerosol sources present during sampling. In addition, this data set allowed for recently established diversity parameters to be calculated. All sample periods had high mixing state indices (χ that were >0.8. Two individual particle diversity (Di populations were observed, with particles <0.5 µm having a Di of ~2.4 and >0.5 µm particles having a Di of ~3.6, which likely correspond to fresh and aged aerosols, respectively. The diversity parameters determined by the quantitative method presented here will serve to aid in the accurate representation of aerosol mixing state, source apportionment, and aging in both less polluted and more developed environments in the Amazon Basin.

  9. Becoming pregnant during secondary school: findings from concurrent mixed methods research in Anambra State, Nigeria. (United States)

    Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Miettola, Juhani; Ilika, Amobi L; Vaskilampi, Tuula


    Pregnancies among teenagers and problems associated with premarital births have raised concerns in many countries. It is important to explore unintended pregnancy from the viewpoints of local stakeholders such as students, schools/teachers, and community members. This study assessed reported cases of unintended pregnancy among students and perceptions of these pregnancies by members of the community. This study took place in a rural community in Anambra state, southeastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 1,234 students and 46 teachers in five secondary schools was carried out using self-administered questionnaires. In addition, focus group discussions (FGD) involving 10 parents and in-depth interview (IDI) with a student who became pregnant were conducted. Reports of pregnancy were more common during second and third years of junior secondary school than other school years or level. According to teachers, ignorance was the main reason given by students who became pregnant. Students who became pregnant were reported to have performed poorly academically and lived with both parents, who were either subsistence farmers or petty traders. In the IDI, the ex-student opined that pregnant students faced shame, marital limitations and lack of respect from community members. Participants in the FGD suggested that teenagers should be provided with sex education in schools and in churches; parents should communicate with teenagers about sexual matters and make adequate financial provision; and the male partners should be held more accountable for the pregnancies. Poor sexual knowledge and poor socioeconomic conditions play important roles in teenage pregnancy. Male participation may enhance effectiveness of prevention programmes.

  10. Influence of the magnetic field orientation on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconductors: an ac shielding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, B


    This work deals with the influence of the orientation of an applied static magnetic field on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconducting cuprates. The mixed state is characterized by the presence of vortices (quanta of magnetic flux). Their properties have been tested via the dynamic approach of the shielding of an ac magnetic field. In pristine Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} crystals the first order transition of the vortex system from an ordered to a disordered state has been studied. It has been found that in the material the transition is mainly determined by the component of the field perpendicular to the superconducting copper oxide layers. However, the value of this component at the transition diminishes with the increase of the field component parallel to the layers. This is explained by the decrease of the Josephson coupling between 2D vortices in neighbouring planes in the presence of a parallel component. In heavy ion irradiated Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} the subject under investigation has been the pinning of the vortices by the irradiation tracks. These defects push the irreversibility line towards higher fields. In the field range that has become irreversible after irradiation pinning by columnar defects is anisotropic. This anisotropy in pinning indicates that a coupling exists between the 2D vortices that form a vortex line, in contrast to the behaviour in the pristine material in the same field range. HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} with columnar defects shows essentially the same behaviour as Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, the differences being well explained by the lower anisotropy of HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} which leads to a more linear character of the vortices. Finally, it has been shown that in pristine Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} the concentration of the vortices in the center of the sample is explained by the surface barrier alone. (author)

  11. A sensor network architecture for urban traffic state estimation with mixed eulerian/lagrangian sensing based on distributed computing

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.


    This article describes a new approach to urban traffic flow sensing using decentralized traffic state estimation. Traffic sensor data is generated both by fixed traffic flow sensor nodes and by probe vehicles equipped with a short range transceiver. The data generated by these sensors is sent to a local coordinator node, that poses the problem of estimating the local state of traffic as a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The resulting optimization program is then solved by the nodes in a distributed manner, using branch-and-bound methods. An optimal amount of noise is then added to the maps before dissemination to a central database. Unlike existing probe-based traffic monitoring systems, this system does not transmit user generated location tracks nor any user presence information to a centralized server, effectively preventing privacy attacks. A simulation of the system performance on computer-generated traffic data shows that the system can be implemented with currently available technology. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  12. Mixing Bandt-Pompe and Lempel-Ziv approaches: another way to analyze the complexity of continuous-state sequences (United States)

    Zozor, S.; Mateos, D.; Lamberti, P. W.


    In this paper, we propose to mix the approach underlying Bandt-Pompe permutation entropy with Lempel-Ziv complexity, to design what we call Lempel-Ziv permutation complexity. The principle consists of two steps: (i) transformation of a continuous-state series that is intrinsically multivariate or arises from embedding into a sequence of permutation vectors, where the components are the positions of the components of the initial vector when re-arranged; (ii) performing the Lempel-Ziv complexity for this series of `symbols', as part of a discrete finite-size alphabet. On the one hand, the permutation entropy of Bandt-Pompe aims at the study of the entropy of such a sequence; i.e., the entropy of patterns in a sequence (e.g., local increases or decreases). On the other hand, the Lempel-Ziv complexity of a discrete-state sequence aims at the study of the temporal organization of the symbols (i.e., the rate of compressibility of the sequence). Thus, the Lempel-Ziv permutation complexity aims to take advantage of both of these methods. The potential from such a combined approach - of a permutation procedure and a complexity analysis - is evaluated through the illustration of some simulated data and some real data. In both cases, we compare the individual approaches and the combined approach.

  13. A single-column particle-resolved model for simulating the vertical distribution of aerosol mixing state: WRF-PartMC-MOSAIC-SCM v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Curtis


    Full Text Available The PartMC-MOSAIC particle-resolved aerosol model was previously developed to predict the aerosol mixing state as it evolves in the atmosphere. However, the modeling framework was limited to a zero-dimensional box model approach without resolving spatial gradients in aerosol concentrations. This paper presents the development of stochastic particle methods to simulate turbulent diffusion and dry deposition of aerosol particles in a vertical column within the planetary boundary layer. The new model, WRF-PartMC-MOSAIC-SCM, resolves the vertical distribution of aerosol mixing state. We verified the new algorithms with analytical solutions for idealized test cases and illustrate the capabilities with results from a 2-day urban scenario that shows the evolution of black carbon mixing state in a vertical column.

  14. A single-column particle-resolved model for simulating the vertical distribution of aerosol mixing state: WRF-PartMC-MOSAIC-SCM v1.0 (United States)

    Curtis, Jeffrey H.; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew


    The PartMC-MOSAIC particle-resolved aerosol model was previously developed to predict the aerosol mixing state as it evolves in the atmosphere. However, the modeling framework was limited to a zero-dimensional box model approach without resolving spatial gradients in aerosol concentrations. This paper presents the development of stochastic particle methods to simulate turbulent diffusion and dry deposition of aerosol particles in a vertical column within the planetary boundary layer. The new model, WRF-PartMC-MOSAIC-SCM, resolves the vertical distribution of aerosol mixing state. We verified the new algorithms with analytical solutions for idealized test cases and illustrate the capabilities with results from a 2-day urban scenario that shows the evolution of black carbon mixing state in a vertical column.

  15. The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux on growth NLBCO superconductor by solid state reaction and wet-mixing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suharta, W. G., E-mail:; Wendri, N.; Ratini, N.; Suarbawa, K. N. [Departement of Physics Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Udayana University Bali Indonesia (Indonesia)


    The synthesis of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux substituted NLBCO superconductor NdBa{sub 1.75}La{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-∂} has been done using solid state reaction and wet-mixing methods in order to obtain homogeneous crystals and single phase. From DTA/TGA characteritations showed the synthesis process by wet-mixing requires a lower temperature than the solid state reaction in growing the superconductor NdBa{sub 1.75}La{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-∂}. Therefore, in this research NdBa{sub 1.75}La{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-∂} sample calcinated at 650°C for wet-mixing method and 820°C for solid state reaction methods. The all samples was sintered at 950°C for ten hours. Crystallinity of the sample was confirmed using X-ray techniques and generally obtained sharp peaks that indicates the sample already well crystallized. Search match analyses for diffraction data gave weight fractions of impurity phase of the solid state reaction method higher than wet-mixing method. In this research showed decreasing the price of the lattice parameter about 1% with the addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux for the both synthesis process and 2% of wet mixing process for all samples. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the distribution of crystal zise for wet-mixing method more homogeneous than solid state reaction method, with he grain size of samples is around 150–250 nm. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed the paramagnetic properties for all samples.

  16. A new method to determine the mixing state of light absorbing carbonaceous using the measured aerosol optical properties and number size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ma


    Full Text Available In this paper, the mixing state of light absorbing carbonaceous (LAC was investigated with a two-parameter aerosol optical model and in situ aerosol measurements at a regional site in the North China Plain (NCP. A closure study between the hemispheric backscattering fraction (HBF measured by an integrating nephelometer and that calculated with a modified Mie model was conducted. A new method was proposed to retrieve the ratio of the externally mixed LAC mass to the total mass of LAC (rext-LAC based on the assumption that the ambient aerosol particles were externally mixed and consisted of a pure LAC material and a core-shell morphology in which the core is LAC and the shell is a less absorbing material. A Monte Carlo simulation was applied to estimate the overall influences of input parameters of the algorithm to the retrieved rext-LAC. The diurnal variation of rext-LAC was analyzed and the PartMC-MOSAIC model was used to simulate the variation of the aerosol mixing state. Results show that, for internally mixed particles, the assumption of core-shell mixture is more appropriate than that of homogenous mixture which has been widely used in aerosol optical calculations. A significant diurnal pattern of the retrieved rext-LAC was found, with high values during the daytime and low values at night. The consistency between the retrieved rext-LAC and the model results indicates that the diurnal variation of LAC mixing state is mainly caused by the diurnal evolution of the mixing layer.

  17. The role of jet and film drops in controlling the mixing state of submicron sea spray aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deane, Grant B.; Moore, Kathryn A.; Ryder, Olivia S.; Stokes, M. Dale; Beall, Charlotte M.; Collins, Douglas B.; Santander, Mitchell V.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Sultana, Camille M.; Prather, Kimberly A.


    Covering 71% of the Earth’s surface, oceans represent a significant global source of atmospheric aerosols. The size and composition of sea spray aerosols (SSA) affect their ability to serve as cloud seeds and thus understanding the factors controlling their composition is critical to predicting their impact on clouds and climate. SSA particles have been shown to be an external mixture of particles with different compositions. Film and jet drop production mechanisms ultimately determine the individual particle compositions which are comprised of an array of salt/organic mixtures ranging from pure sea salt to nearly pure organic particles. It is often assumed that the majority of submicron SSA are formed by film drops produced from bursting hydrophobic organic-rich bubble film caps at the sea surface, and in contrast, jet drops are postulated to produce larger supermicron particles from underlying seawater comprised largely of salts and water soluble organic species. However, here we show that jet drops produced by bursting sub-100 m bubbles account for up to 40 % of all submicron particles. They have distinct chemical compositions, organic volume fractions and ice nucleating activities from submicron film drops. Thus a substantial fraction of submicron particles will not necessarily be controlled by the composition of the sea surface microlayer as has been assumed in many studies. This finding has significant ramifications for the size-resolved mixing states of SSA particles which must be taken into consideration when accessing SSA impacts on clouds.

  18. The role of jet and film drops in controlling the mixing state of submicron sea spray aerosol particles. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deane, Grant B; Moore, Kathryn A; Ryder, Olivia S; Stokes, M Dale; Beall, Charlotte M; Collins, Douglas B; Santander, Mitchell V; Burrows, Susannah M; Sultana, Camille M; Prather, Kimberly A


    The oceans represent a significant global source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles comprise sea salts and organic species in varying proportions. In addition to size, the overall composition of SSA particles determines how effectively they can form cloud droplets and ice crystals. Thus, understanding the factors controlling SSA composition is critical to predicting aerosol impacts on clouds and climate. It is often assumed that submicrometer SSAs are mainly formed by film drops produced from bursting bubble-cap films, which become enriched with hydrophobic organic species contained within the sea surface microlayer. In contrast, jet drops formed from the base of bursting bubbles are postulated to mainly produce larger supermicrometer particles from bulk seawater, which comprises largely salts and water-soluble organic species. However, here we demonstrate that jet drops produce up to 43% of total submicrometer SSA number concentrations, and that the fraction of SSA produced by jet drops can be modulated by marine biological activity. We show that the chemical composition, organic volume fraction, and ice nucleating ability of submicrometer particles from jet drops differ from those formed from film drops. Thus, the chemical composition of a substantial fraction of submicrometer particles will not be controlled by the composition of the sea surface microlayer, a major assumption in previous studies. This finding has significant ramifications for understanding the factors controlling the mixing state of submicrometer SSA particles and must be taken into consideration when predicting SSA impacts on clouds and climate.

  19. The role of jet and film drops in controlling the mixing state of submicron sea spray aerosol particles (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deane, Grant B.; Moore, Kathryn A.; Ryder, Olivia S.; Stokes, M. Dale; Beall, Charlotte M.; Collins, Douglas B.; Santander, Mitchell V.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Sultana, Camille M.; Prather, Kimberly A.


    The oceans represent a significant global source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles comprise sea salts and organic species in varying proportions. In addition to size, the overall composition of SSA particles determines how effectively they can form cloud droplets and ice crystals. Thus, understanding the factors controlling SSA composition is critical to predicting aerosol impacts on clouds and climate. It is often assumed that submicrometer SSAs are mainly formed by film drops produced from bursting bubble-cap films, which become enriched with hydrophobic organic species contained within the sea surface microlayer. In contrast, jet drops formed from the base of bursting bubbles are postulated to mainly produce larger supermicrometer particles from bulk seawater, which comprises largely salts and water-soluble organic species. However, here we demonstrate that jet drops produce up to 43% of total submicrometer SSA number concentrations, and that the fraction of SSA produced by jet drops can be modulated by marine biological activity. We show that the chemical composition, organic volume fraction, and ice nucleating ability of submicrometer particles from jet drops differ from those formed from film drops. Thus, the chemical composition of a substantial fraction of submicrometer particles will not be controlled by the composition of the sea surface microlayer, a major assumption in previous studies. This finding has significant ramifications for understanding the factors controlling the mixing state of submicrometer SSA particles and must be taken into consideration when predicting SSA impacts on clouds and climate.

  20. Gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric aerosols: interplay of physical state, non-ideal mixing and morphology. (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Zuend, Andreas; Bertram, Allan K; Seinfeld, John H


    Atmospheric aerosols, comprising organic compounds and inorganic salts, play a key role in air quality and climate. Mounting evidence exists that these particles frequently exhibit phase separation into predominantly organic and aqueous electrolyte-rich phases. As well, the presence of amorphous semi-solid or glassy particle phases has been established. Using the canonical system of ammonium sulfate mixed with organics from the ozone oxidation of α-pinene, we illustrate theoretically the interplay of physical state, non-ideality, and particle morphology affecting aerosol mass concentration and the characteristic timescale of gas-particle mass transfer. Phase separation can significantly affect overall particle mass and chemical composition. Semi-solid or glassy phases can kinetically inhibit the partitioning of semivolatile components and hygroscopic growth, in contrast to the traditional assumption that organic compounds exist in quasi-instantaneous gas-particle equilibrium. These effects have significant implications for the interpretation of laboratory data and the development of improved atmospheric air quality and climate models.

  1. Knowledge, illness perceptions and stated clinical practice behaviour in management of gout: a mixed methods study in general practice. (United States)

    Spaetgens, Bart; Pustjens, Tobias; Scheepers, Lieke E J M; Janssens, Hein J E M; van der Linden, Sjef; Boonen, Annelies


    The objective of the present study is to explore knowledge, illness perceptions and stated practice behaviour in relation to gout in primary care. This is a mixed methods study among 32 general practitioners (GPs). The quantitative assessment included the Gout Knowledge Questionnaire (GKQ; range 0-10; better) and Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (BIPQ; nine items, range 0-10; stronger). Structured individual interviews obtained further qualitative insight into knowledge and perceptions, in the context of daily practice. Among 32 GPs, 18 (56.3 %) were male, mean age 44.4 years (SD 9.6) and mean working experience 17.1 years (SD 9.7). Median score [interquartile ranges (IQR)] on the GKQ was 7.8 [6.7-8.9] and 9.0 [8.0-10.0], when presented as open or multiple-choice questions, respectively. The BIPQ (median; [IQR]) revealed that gout was seen as a chronic disease (8.0; [7.0-9.0]), affecting life and emotions moderately (6.5; [5.0-7.0]), having many severe symptoms (8.0; [7.0-9.0]) and in which treatment could be very helpful (8.0; [7.0-9.0]). Further interviews revealed large variation in specific aspects of knowledge and about gaps concerning indications for uric acid-lowering therapy (UALT), duration of UALT, target serum uric acid (sUA) level or duration of prophylactic treatment. Finally, patients' adherence was not checked systematically. Specific knowledge gaps and discrepancies between perceptions and stated practice behaviour were identified, which might hamper effective management of this well-treatable disease. Improving evidence on the rationale and effectiveness of treatment targets and adherence interventions, tailoring guidelines to general practice and intensification of implementation of guidelines in primary health care seem to be needed.

  2. Equation of state modeling of the phase equilibria of asymmetric CO2+n-alkane binary systems using mixing rules cubic with respect to mole fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cismondi, Martin; Mollerup, Jørgen M.; Zabaloy, Marcelo S.


    Both the equation of state (EOS) and the quadratic mixing rules proposed by van der Waals towards the end of the XIX century were enormous contributions to the understanding and modeling of fluids phase behavior. They set the basis for a consistent and useful representation of phase equilibria...... for a great diversity of mixtures. Nevertheless, the models for representing phase equilibria and physico-chemical properties of asymmetric systems may require more flexible mixing rules than the classical quadratic van der Waals (vdW) mixing rules or their equivalent (with regard to the number of available...... interaction parameters) in modern equations of state.In particular, the phase equilibria of binary mixtures containing CO2 and heavy n-alkanes have been studied by an important number of authors and using different types of models, achieving only partially accurate results and realizing the difficulties...

  3. X-ray structures of progesterone receptor ligand binding domain in its agonist state reveal differing mechanisms for mixed profiles of 11beta-substituted steroids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lusher, S.J.; Raaijmakers, H.C.A.; Vu-Pham, D.; Kazemier, B.; Bosch, R.; McGuire, R.; Azevedo, R.; Hamersma, H.; Dechering, K.; Oubrie, A.; Duin, M. van; Vlieg, J. de


    We present here the x-ray structures of the progesterone receptor (PR) in complex with two mixed profile PR modulators whose functional activity results from two differing molecular mechanisms. The structure of Asoprisnil bound to the agonist state of PR demonstrates the contribution of the ligand

  4. Individual tree diameter increment model for managed even-aged stands of ponderosa pine throughout the western United States using a multilevel linear mixed effects model (United States)

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh; William W. Oliver


    A diameter increment model is developed and evaluated for individual trees of ponderosa pine throughout the species range in the United States using a multilevel linear mixed model. Stochastic variability is broken down among period, locale, plot, tree and within-tree components. Covariates acting at tree and stand level, as breast height diameter, density, site index...

  5. Short communication: Variability in milk urea nitrogen and dairy total mixed ration composition in the northeastern United States. (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Harper, M; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Cudoc, G; Clay, J; Ward, R; Chase, L E


    The main objective of this survey was to examine variability in milk urea nitrogen (MUN) for Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) herds in the northeastern United States (the Northeast), examine trends in dairy cow diet composition, and determine potential relationships for MUN and diet composition. Trends in milk fat and protein concentrations, milk yield, days in milk on test day, and lactation number of the cows were also evaluated. The data set for the survey included 10,839,461 DHIA dairy cow records from 2004 to 2015 for 13 states (CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, and WV) and was retrieved from Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC). Average (across states and years) milk yield, milk fat, and milk protein were 31.6 ± 0.24 kg/d, 3.85 ± 0.021%, and 3.13 ± 0.013%, respectively. No obvious trends were observed for milk fat or protein content, but milk yield steadily increased during the survey period. Milk urea N concentration averaged 13.3 ± 0.13 mg/dL, with no obvious or consistent trends. Examination of variability in dairy feed cost and all milk price for the Northeast indicated that high MUN generally coincided with high feed cost and high milk price. For the diet composition survey, 9,707 records of total mixed ration (TMR) analyses, unrelated to the milk composition data set, from the Cumberland Valley Analytical Service (Maugansville, MD) database were examined. Concentration of TMR crude protein (CP) decreased from 17.1% in 2007 to 16.4% in 2015, but there was not an obvious trend in soluble protein concentration. Concentration of TMR neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 24-h in vitro NDF degradability declined steadily during the survey period and was accompanied by a steady increase in TMR starch concentration. Examination of these unrelated data sets revealed lack of correlation between MUN and diet chemical composition. Thus, we conclude that individual cow MUN in Northeast dairy herds fluctuated between 2004 and 2015. It

  6. Alteration of the size distributions and mixing states of black carbon through transport in the boundary layer in east Asia (United States)

    Miyakawa, Takuma; Oshima, Naga; Taketani, Fumikazu; Komazaki, Yuichi; Yoshino, Ayako; Takami, Akinori; Kondo, Yutaka; Kanaya, Yugo


    Ground-based measurements of black carbon (BC) were performed near an industrial source region in the early summer of 2014 and at a remote island in Japan in the spring of 2015. Here, we report the temporal variations in the transport, size distributions, and mixing states of the BC-containing particles. These particles were characterized using a continuous soot monitoring system, a single particle soot photometer, and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor. The effects of aging on the growth of BC-containing particles were examined by comparing the ground-based observations between the near-source and remote island sites. Secondary formation of sulfate and organic aerosols strongly affected the increases in BC coating (i.e., enhancement of cloud condensation nuclei activity) with air mass aging from the source to the outflow regions. The effects of wet removal on BC microphysics were elucidated by classifying the continental outflow air masses depending on the enhancement ratios of BC to CO (ΔBC / ΔCO), which were used as an indicator of the transport efficiency of BC. It was found that ΔBC / ΔCO ratios were controlled mainly by the wet removal during transport in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on the timescale of 1-2 days. The meteorological conditions and backward trajectory analyses suggested that air masses strongly affected by wet removal originated mainly from a region in southern China (20-35° N) in the spring of 2015. Removal of large and thickly coated BC-containing particles was detected in the air masses that were substantially affected by the wet removal in the PBL, as predicted by Köhler theory. The size and water solubility of BC-containing particles in the PBL can be altered by the wet removal as well as the condensation of non-BC materials.

  7. Composition and mixing states of brown haze particle over the Himalayas along two transboundary south-north transects (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Kang, Shichang; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Wang, Xuejia; Qin, Dahe


    Pollutants that are usually transported from southern Asia to the Tibetan Plateau deposit on the Plateau surface, change snow albedo and thereby surface radiative flux. This results numerous climatic implications like as erratic monsoon, perturbation in hydrological cycle, etc. However, the accurate estimation of these climatic implications is not well understood, because the atmospheric pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of various particle types. Therefore, this part of climate research requires a detailed investigation of physical and chemical properties of atmospheric pollutants. This study aimed to examine the physical and chemical properties of atmospheric pollutants across the Himalayan regions along two transboundary south-north transects. The information of individual-particles was obtained using microscopy-based techniques that comprises transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). Study capture the signatures of various types of atmospheric species such as black carbon (BC), mineral dust, fly ash, organic matter, sulfate, nitrite, ammonium, and NaCl. Microscopy-based techniques confirm that these particles were generally in mixing state, for example salt-coated particles accounting for 25-56% of the total particles in sampled locations. Our analysis shows that urban and rural locations are characterized with atmospheric particles which sourced from anthropogenic activities, whereas remote locations with those released from natural crustal. However, the relative contributions of anthropogenic particles were higher than that of particles released from natural crustal. The presence of such particles over remote locations of Himalayan region provides an evidence of prevailing atmospheric transport processes, which further need to be well understood. It is expected that this work would be helpful in understanding the regional atmospheric conditions and the transboundary transport process of haze particles. As these

  8. Perspectives on learning to cook and public support for cooking education policies in the United States: A mixed methods study. (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Teret, Stephen P


    Declines in cooking skills in the United States may contribute to poor diet quality and high obesity rates. Little is known about how Americans learn to cook or their support for cooking education policies. The objective of this study was to examine how Americans learn to cook, attributions of responsibility for teaching children how to cook, and public support for policies to teach cooking skills. We used a concurrent, triangulation mixed-methods design that combined qualitative focus group data (from 7 focus groups in Baltimore, MD (N = 53)) with quantitative survey data from a nationally representative, web-based survey (N = 1112). We analyzed focus group data (using grounded theory) and survey data (using multivariable logistic regression). We find that relatively few Americans learn to cook from formal instruction in school or community cooking classes; rather, they primarily learn from their parents and/or by teaching themselves using cookbooks, recipe websites or by watching cooking shows on television. While almost all Americans hold parents and other family members responsible for teaching children how to cook, a broad majority of the public supports requiring cooking skills to be taught in schools either through existing health education (64%) or through dedicated home economics courses (67%). Slightly less than half of all Americans (45%) support increasing funding for cooking instruction for participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Broad public support for teaching cooking skills in schools suggests that schools are one promising avenue for policy action. However, school-based strategies should be complemented with alternatives that facilitate self-learning. More research is needed to identify effective means of teaching and disseminating the key cooking skills and knowledge that support healthy eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.


    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  10. Diagnostic and therapeutic hardships with mixed affective state presenting as catatonia in a patient with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthick Subramanian


    Full Text Available Mixed affective episodes can be misdiagnosed, especially in patients with intellectual disability (ID. We describe the case of an 18-year-old girl with mild ID, who presented with features of catatonia during the first mixed episode. These symptoms responded well to electroconvulsive therapy, following which clear affective symptoms emerged. Her affective episode did not respond adequately to olanzapine but improved significantly after the addition of sodium valproate. The difficulties of diagnosing affective episodes in persons with intellectual disabilities are discussed. This case suggests that mixed affective episodes should be considered in the differential diagnosis when poorly elaborated affective and psychotic symptoms are present in a patient with ID.

  11. The single-particle mixing state and cloud scavenging of black carbon: a case study at a high-altitude mountain site in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhang


    Full Text Available In the present study, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor (GCVI was used to sample cloud droplet residual (cloud RES particles, while a parallel PM2.5 inlet was used to sample cloud-free or cloud interstitial (cloud INT particles. The mixing state of black carbon (BC-containing particles and the mass concentrations of BC in the cloud-free, RES and INT particles were investigated using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS and two aethalometers, respectively, at a mountain site (1690 m a. s. l.  in southern China. The measured BC-containing particles were extensively internally mixed with sulfate and were scavenged into cloud droplets (with number fractions of 0.05–0.45 to a similar (or slightly lower extent as all the measured particles (0.07–0.6 over the measured size range of 0.1–1.6 µm. The results indicate the preferential activation of larger particles and/or that the production of secondary compositions shifts the BC-containing particles towards larger sizes. BC-containing particles with an abundance of both sulfate and organics were scavenged less than those with sulfate but limited organics, implying the importance of the mixing state on the incorporation of BC-containing particles into cloud droplets. The mass scavenging efficiency of BC with an average of 33 % was similar for different cloud events independent of the air mass. This is the first time that both the mixing state and cloud scavenging of BC in China have been reported. Our results would improve the knowledge on the concentration, mixing state, and cloud scavenging of BC in the free troposphere.

  12. Generation of pure heralded single-photon states by cross-polarized spontaneous four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; McKinstrie, Colin J.; Rottwitt, Karsten


    We propose a novel scheme which employs cross-polarized pumps to generate temporally and spectrally uncorrelated signal-idler photon-pairs through spontaneous fourwave mixing in a birefringent third-order nonlinear waveguide.......We propose a novel scheme which employs cross-polarized pumps to generate temporally and spectrally uncorrelated signal-idler photon-pairs through spontaneous fourwave mixing in a birefringent third-order nonlinear waveguide....

  13. Probing Aerosol Mixing State and Composition via Direct Hygroscopicity Measurements of Highly-Representative, Laboratory-Generated Sea-Spray Aerosol


    Schill, Steven Robert


    Aerosol particles impact global climate in large part by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and seeding cloud formation events in the atmosphere, which alters the Earth’s albedo. The cloud formation ability of aerosol particles is determined by their water uptake tendencies, which is defined by their chemicophysical properties. Detailed composition information, such as the distribution of chemical components within the particles know as mixing state, is therefore essential for assessin...

  14. On the role of particle inorganic mixing state in the reactive uptake of N2O5 to ambient aerosol particles. (United States)

    Ryder, Olivia S; Ault, Andrew P; Cahill, John F; Guasco, Timothy L; Riedel, Theran P; Cuadra-Rodriguez, Luis A; Gaston, Cassandra J; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth; Lee, Christopher; Prather, Kimberly A; Bertram, Timothy H


    The rates of heterogeneous reactions of trace gases with aerosol particles are complex functions of particle chemical composition, morphology, and phase state. Currently, the majority of model parametrizations of heterogeneous reaction kinetics focus on the population average of aerosol particle mass, assuming that individual particles have the same chemical composition as the average state. Here we assess the impact of particle mixing state on heterogeneous reaction kinetics using the N2O5 reactive uptake coefficient, γ(N2O5), and dependence on the particulate chloride-to-nitrate ratio (nCl(-)/nNO3(-)). We describe the first simultaneous ambient observations of single particle chemical composition and in situ determinations of γ(N2O5). When accounting for particulate nCl(-)/nNO3(-) mixing state, model parametrizations of γ(N2O5) continue to overpredict γ(N2O5) by more than a factor of 2 in polluted coastal regions, suggesting that chemical composition and physical phase state of particulate organics likely control γ(N2O5) in these air masses. In contrast, direct measurement of γ(N2O5) in air masses of marine origin are well captured by model parametrizations and reveal limited suppression of γ(N2O5), indicating that the organic mass fraction of fresh sea spray aerosol at this location does not suppress γ(N2O5). We provide an observation-based framework for assessing the impact of particle mixing state on gas-particle interactions.

  15. Intraoperative auditory steady state response measurements during Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implantation in patients with mixed hearing loss: preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, V.J.O.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Noten, J.F.P.; Luijten, B.M.A.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Snik, A.F.M.


    OBJECTIVE: To optimize intraoperatively the coupling of the floating mass transducer (FMT) of the Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implant to the round or oval cochlear window in patients with mixed hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Intraoperative measurement of objective hearing thresholds using auditory

  16. Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior (United States)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Wex, Heike; Denjean, Cyrielle; Hartmann, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susann; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank


    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INMs). It has been suggested that these INMs maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INMs in soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INMs. If particles from such soils which contain biological INMs are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C, while they might be characterized as mineral dust particles due to a possibly low content of biological material. We conducted a study within the research unit INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). A very important topic concerning the investigations presented here as well as for atmospheric application is the characterization of the mixing state of aerosol particles. In the present study we used different methods like single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VH-TDMA) to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. Not all applied methods performed similarly well in detecting small amounts of biological material on the mineral dust particles. Measuring the hygroscopicity/volatility of the mixed particles with the VH-TDMA was the most

  17. Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Augustin-Bauditz


    Full Text Available Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INMs. It has been suggested that these INMs maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INMs in soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INMs. If particles from such soils which contain biological INMs are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above −20 up to almost 0 °C, while they might be characterized as mineral dust particles due to a possibly low content of biological material. We conducted a study within the research unit INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS. A very important topic concerning the investigations presented here as well as for atmospheric application is the characterization of the mixing state of aerosol particles. In the present study we used different methods like single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, and a Volatility–Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VH-TDMA to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. Not all applied methods performed similarly well in detecting small amounts of biological material on the mineral dust particles. Measuring the hygroscopicity/volatility of the mixed particles with the VH

  18. Solid-state fermentation of corn-soybean meal mixed feed with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium for degrading antinutritional factors and enhancing nutritional value. (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen


    Corn and soybean meal (SBM) are two of the most common feed ingredients used in pig feeds. However, a variety of antinutritional factors (ANFs) present in corn and SBM can interfere with the bioavailability of nutrients and have negative health effects on the pigs. In the present study, two-stage fermentation using Bacillus subtilis followed by Enterococcus faecium was carried out to degrade ANFs and improve the nutritional quality of corn and SBM mixed feed. Furthermore, the microbial composition and in vitro nutrient digestibility of inoculated mixed feed were determined and compared those of the uninoculated controls. During the fermentation process, B. subtilis and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the main dominant bacteria in the solid-state fermented inoculated feed, and fermentation produced a large amount of lactic acid (170 mmoL/kg), which resulted in a lower pH (5.0 vs. 6.4) than the fermented uninoculated feed. The amounts of soybean antigenic proteins (β-conglycinin and glycinin) in mixed feed were significantly decreased after first-stage fermentation with B. subtilis. Inoculated mixed feed following two-stage fermentation contained greater concentratioin of crude protein (CP), ash and total phosphorus (P) compared to uninoculated feed, whereas the concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), hemicellulose and phytate P in fermendted inoculated feed declined (P two-stage fermentation. There was no difference in the total AA content between fermented inoculated and uninoculated feed. However, aromatic AAs (Phe and Tyr) and Lys in inoculated feed increased, and some polar AAs, including Arg, Asp, and Glu, decreased compared with the uninoculated feed. In vitro dry matter and CP digestibility of inoculated feed improved (P two-stage fermentation using B. subtilis followed by E. faecium is an effective approach to improve the quality of corn-soybean meal mixed feed.

  19. Influence of vanadium oxidation states on the performance of V-Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, L. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Av. IPN s/n, Edificio 9, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Navarrete, J.; Schacht, P.; Ramirez, M. A., E-mail: pschacha@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    V-Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane were prepared by thermal decomposition of Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides with vanadium interlayer doping. The obtained catalysts were tested for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, obtaining good results in catalytic activity (conversion 16.55 % and selectivity 99.97 %) Results indicated that catalytic performance of these materials depends on how vanadium is integrated in the layered structure, which is determined by the Mg/Al ratio. Vanadium interlayer doping modifies the oxidation state of vanadium and consequently catalytic properties. Surface properties were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and diffuse reflectance, UV-visible spectroscopy, and temperature programmed reduction. The analyses provided information about the oxidation state, before and after the reaction. From these results, it is suggested that selectivity to propylene and catalytic activity depend mainly of vanadium oxidation state. (Author)

  20. Final Report - Montana State University - Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Robin [Montana State University


    Background. The use of biological and chemical processes that degrade or immobilize contaminants in subsurface environments is a cornerstone of remediation technology. The enhancement of biological and chemical processes in situ, involves the transport, displacement, distribution and mixing of one or more reactive agents. Biological and chemical reactions all require diffusive transport of solutes to reaction sites at the molecular scale and accordingly, the success of processes at the meter-scale and larger is dictated by the success of phenomena that occur at the micron-scale. However, current understanding of scaling effects on the mixing and delivery of nutrients in biogeochemically dynamic porous media systems is limited, despite the limitations this imposes on the efficiency and effectiveness of the remediation challenges at hand. Objectives. We therefore proposed to experimentally characterize and computationally describe the growth, evolution, and distribution of microbial activity and mineral formation as well as changes in transport processes in porous media that receive two or more reactive amendments. The model system chosen for this project was based on a method for immobilizing 90Sr, which involves stimulating microbial urea hydrolysis with ensuing mineral precipitation (CaCO3), and co-precipitation of Sr. Studies at different laboratory scales were used to visualize and quantitatively describe the spatial relationships between amendment transport and consumption that stimulate the production of biomass and mineral phases that subsequently modify the permeability and heterogeneity of porous media. Biomass growth, activity, and mass deposition in mixing zones was investigated using two-dimensional micro-model flow cells as well as flow cells that could be analyzed using synchrotron-based x-ray tomography. Larger-scale flow-cell experiments were conducted where the spatial distribution of media properties, flow, segregation of biological activity and

  1. Light absorption of black carbon aerosol and its enhancement by mixing state in an urban atmosphere in South China (United States)

    Lan, Zi-Juan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Kuang-You; Sun, Tian-Le; Zeng, Li-Wu; Hu, Min


    The effects of black carbon (BC) aerosol on climate warming have been the study focus in the recent decade, and the reduction of BC is now expected to have significant near-term climate change mitigation. Large uncertainties of BC optical properties, however, still exist and seriously restrict the ability to quantify BC's climate effects. In this study, advanced instrumentation (a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and a single particle soot photometer (SP2)) were used to measure black carbon aerosol and analyze its optical properties in a mega-city in South China, Shenzhen, during the summer of 2011. The results indicated that the average BC mass concentration was 4.0 ± 3.1 μg m-3 during the campaign, accounting for ˜11% of the total PM2.5 mass concentration. The PM2.5 light absorption at 405, 532 and 781 nm was 37.1 ± 28.1, 25.4 ± 19.0 and 17.6 ± 12.9 Mm-1, respectively. The average absorption Angstrom exponent of PM2.5 in visual spectrum (AAE405-781 nm) was 1.1 ± 0.1 during the campaign, indicating that the light absorbing carbon mainly came from vehicular emissions, with little contributions from biomass burning emissions. The mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of BC at 532 nm ranged from 5.0 to 8.5 m2 g-1 during the campaign, with an average of 6.5 ± 0.5 m2 g-1, and showed an obvious diurnal pattern with high values in the daytime. The average percentage of internally mixed BC was 24.3 ± 7.9% during the campaign, showing significant positive correlation relationship with the MAE of BC. More quantitative data analysis indicated that the internally mixed BC would amplify MAE by about 7% during the campaign, which stands in accordance with the new finding of a very recent Science magazine paper (Cappa et al., 2012) that the BC absorption enhancement due to internal mixing in the real atmosphere is relatively low, in apparent contrast to theoretical model predictions.

  2. [Organization of the drug supply chain in state health services: potential consequences of the public-private mix]. (United States)

    López-Moreno, Sergio; Martínez-Ojeda, Rosa Haydeé; López-Arellano, Oliva; Jarillo-Soto, Edgar; Castro-Albarrán, Juan Manuel


    To assess the consequences of private outsourcing on the overall supply and filling of prescriptions in state health services. The research was conducted using quantitative and qualitative techniques in 13 states. The information was collected through interviews and direct observation. The interviews were carried on staff of state health services related to the drug supply chain and users of health services. The quantitative approach examined the percentage of stocked full recipes in a sample of users. States that have opted for the fully outsourced model, and properly monitored this choice, have increased the supply of drugs to their users and guaranteed the supply in the care units in charge. Other states with the outsourced model have multiple problems: direct purchase of drugs not included in the basic drugs catalogue, failure of suppliers and shortage of supplies in the laboratories that provide the company. The main disadvantages identified in all models were: the subordination of the medical criteria to administrative criteria, insufficient planning based on local care needs, heterogeneous procedures, insufficient knowledge of regulations and lack of normativity. The results indicate that the incorporation of private providers in the drug supply chain may not be the solution to bring down the shortage faced by health services, especially at the hospital level. The shift to outsourcing models has developed without incorporating evaluation mechanisms and the consequences that this transition can have on state health systems must be investigated more deeply.

  3. Determination of velocity of self-mobile phytoplankton using a self-mixing thin-slice solid-state laser. (United States)

    Sudo, Seiichi; Ohtomo, Takayuki; Takahashi, Yohei; Oishi, Tomohiko; Otsuka, Kenju


    We present an analysis of the shoulder-shaped power spectrum observed in the modulated laser output due to feedback light scattered from dynamic changes in self-mobile phytoplankton with flagella in seawater performed using a self-mixing laser Doppler vibrometry system. The power spectrum occasionally has shoulder-shaped broad frequency components superimposed on a Lorentz-type spectrum. This reflects the translational motion of phytoplankton moving across the beam-focus area. The velocity of phytoplankton in the focus area can be obtained by applying a curve fitting procedure to the power spectrum. Moreover, the average velocity and the velocity distribution of phytoplankton can be determined from curve fitting of the long-term power spectrum.

  4. Evaluation of agro-industrial wastes, their state, and mixing ratio for maximum polygalacturonase and biomass production in submerged fermentation. (United States)

    Göğüş, Nihan; Evcan, Ezgi; Tarı, Canan; Cavalitto, Sebastián F


    The potential of important agro-industrial wastes, apple pomace (AP) and orange peel (OP) as C sources, was investigated in the maximization of polygalacturonase (PG), an industrially significant enzyme, using an industrially important microorganism Aspergillus sojae. Factors such as various hydrolysis forms of the C sources (hydrolysed-AP, non-hydrolysed-AP, hydrolysed-AP + OP, non-hydrolysed-AP + OP) and N sources (ammonium sulphate and urea), and incubation time (4, 6, and 8 days) were screened. It was observed that maximum PG activity was achieved at a combination of non-hydrolysed-AP + OP and ammonium sulphate with eight days of incubation. For the pre-optimization study, ammonium sulphate concentration and the mixing ratios of AP + OP at different total C concentrations (9, 15, 21 g l(-1)) were evaluated. The optimum conditions for the maximum PG production (144.96 U ml(-1)) was found as 21 g l(-1) total carbohydrate concentration totally coming from OP at 15 g l(-1) ammonium sulphate concentration. On the other hand, 3:1 mixing ratio of OP + AP at 11.50 g l(-1) ammonium sulphate concentration also resulted in a considerable PG activity (115.73 U ml(-1)). These results demonstrated that AP can be evaluated as an additional C source to OP for PG production, which in turn both can be alternative solutions for the elimination of the waste accumulation in the food industry with economical returns.

  5. Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductance Measurements of a Superconducting-Normal Mixed State by Detection of Single 3 eV Photons in a Magnetic Penetration Thermometer (United States)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Balvin, M. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Denis, K. L.; Lee, S.-J.; Nagler, P. C.; Smith, S. J.


    We report on measurements of the detected signal pulses in a molybdenum-gold Magnetic Penetration Thermometer (MPT) in response to absorption of one or more 3 eV photons. We designed and used this MPT sensor for x-ray microcalorimetry. In this device, the diamagnetic response of a superconducting MoAu bilayer is used to sense temperature changes in response to absorbed photons, and responsivity is enhanced by a Meissner transition in which the magnetic flux penetrating the sensor changes rapidly to minimize free energy in a mixed superconducting normal state. We have previously reported on use of our MPT to study a thermal phonon energy loss to the substrate when absorbing x-rays. We now describe results of extracting heat capacity C and thermal conductance G values from pulse height and decay time of MPT pulses generated by 3 eV photons. The variation in C and G at temperatures near the Meissner transition temperature (set by an internal magnetic bias field) allow us to probe the behavior in superconducting normal mixed state of the condensation energy and the electron cooling power resulting from quasi-particle recombination and phonon emission. The information gained on electron cooling power is also relevant to the operation of other superconducting detectors, such as Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  6. Perceptions and Use of Social Networking Sites in the United States and Ecuador: A Mixed-Methods Approach (United States)

    Pumper, Megan A.; Yaeger, Jeffery P.; Moreno, Megan A.


    Social networking sites are globally popular. In the United States, these types of sites are perceived positively by users and used at high rates, which has likely yielded personal health behavior displays such as substance abuse and depression. Due to possible cultural influence present on these sites, it remains unknown if SNS could be utilized…

  7. The importance of aerosol mixing state and size-resolved composition on CCN concentration and the variation of the importance with atmospheric aging of aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang


    Full Text Available Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and local photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. CCN concentrations (NCCN are derived using Köhler theory from the measured aerosol size distribution and various simplified aerosol mixing state and chemical composition, and are compared to concurrent measurements at five supersaturations ranging from 0.11% to 0.35%. The influence of assumed mixing state on calculated NCCN is examined using both aerosols observed during MILAGRO and representative aerosol types. The results indicate that while ambient aerosols often consist of particles with a wide range of compositions at a given size, NCCN may be derived within ~20% assuming an internal mixture (i.e., particles at a given size are mixtures of all participating species, and have the identical composition if great majority of particles has an overall κ (hygroscopicity parameter value greater than 0.1. For a non-hygroscopic particle with a diameter of 100 nm, a 3 nm coating of sulfate or nitrate is sufficient to increase its κ from 0 to 0.1. The measurements during MILAGRO suggest that the mixing of non-hygroscopic primary organic aerosol (POA and black carbon (BC particles with photochemically produced hygroscopic species and thereby the increase of their κ to 0.1 take place in a few hours during daytime. This rapid process suggests that during daytime, a few tens of kilometers away for POA and BC sources, NCCN may be derived with sufficient accuracy by assuming an internal mixture, and using bulk chemical composition. The rapid mixing also

  8. The importance of aerosol mixing state and size-resolved composition on CCN concentration and the variation of the importance with atmospheric aging of aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Cubison, M. J.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Collins, D. R.


    Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and local photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. CCN concentrations (N{sub CCN}) are derived using Kohler theory from the measured aerosol size distribution and various simplified aerosol mixing state and chemical composition, and are compared to concurrent measurements at five supersaturations ranging from 0.11% to 0.35%. The influence of assumed mixing state on calculated N{sub CCN} is examined using both aerosols observed during MILAGRO and representative aerosol types. The results indicate that while ambient aerosols often consist of particles with a wide range of compositions at a given size, N{sub CCN} may be derived within {approx}20% assuming an internal mixture (i.e., particles at a given size are mixtures of all participating species, and have the identical composition) if great majority of particles has an overall {kappa} (hygroscopicity parameter) value greater than 0.1. For a non-hygroscopic particle with a diameter of 100 nm, a 3 nm coating of sulfate or nitrate is sufficient to increase its {kappa} from 0 to 0.1. The measurements during MILAGRO suggest that the mixing of non-hygroscopic primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) particles with photochemically produced hygroscopic species and thereby the increase of their {kappa} to 0.1 take place in a few hours during daytime. This rapid process suggests that during daytime, a few tens of kilometers away for POA and BC sources, N{sub CCN} may be derived with sufficient accuracy by assuming an internal mixture, and using bulk chemical composition. The rapid mixing also indicates that, at least for very active

  9. Significant impacts of heterogeneous reactions on the chemical composition and mixing state of dust particles: A case study during dust events over northern China (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Pan, Xiaole; Uno, Itsushi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Xueshun; Fu, Pingqing; Yang, Ting; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu


    The impact of heterogeneous reactions on the chemical components and mixing state of dust particles are investigated by observations and an air quality model over northern China between March 27, 2015 and April 2, 2015. Synergetic observations were conducted using a polarization optical particle counter (POPC), a depolarized two-wavelength Lidar and filter samples in Beijing. During this period, dust plume passed through Beijing on March 28, and flew back on March 29 because of synoptic weather changes. Mineral dust mixed with anthropogenic pollutants was simulated using the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) to examine the role of heterogeneous processes on the dust. A comparison of observations shows that the NAQPMS successfully reproduces the time series of the vertical profile, particulate matter concentration, and chemical components of fine mode (diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) and coarse mode (2.5 μm < diameter ≤ 10 μm) particles. After considering the heterogeneous reactions, the simulated nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate are in better agreement with the observed values during this period. The modeling results with observations show that heterogeneous reactions are the major mechanisms producing nitrate reaching 19 μg/m3, and sulfate reaching 7 μg/m3, on coarse mode dust particles, which were almost 100% of the coarse mode nitrate and sulfate. The heterogeneous reactions are also important for fine mode secondary aerosols, for producing 17% of nitrate and 11% of sulfate on fine mode dust particles, with maximum mass concentrations of 6 μg/m3 and 4 μg/m3. In contrast, due to uptake of acid gases (e.g. HNO3 and SO2) by dust particles, the fine mode anthropogenic ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate decreased. As a result, the total fine mode nitrate decreased with a maximum of 14 μg/m3, while the total fine mode sulfate increased with a maximum of 2 μg/m3. Because of heterogeneous reactions, 15% of fine mode secondary inorganic aerosols and

  10. Justice Is the Missing Link in One Health: Results of a Mixed Methods Study in an Urban City State. (United States)

    Lysaght, Tamra; Capps, Benjamin; Bailey, Michele; Bickford, David; Coker, Richard; Lederman, Zohar; Watson, Sangeetha; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah


    One Health (OH) is an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to human and animal health that aims to break down conventional research and policy 'silos'. OH has been used to develop strategies for zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). However, the ethical case for OH as an alternative to more traditional public health approaches is largely absent from the discourse. To study the ethics of OH, we examined perceptions of the human health and ecological priorities for the management of zoonotic EID in the Southeast Asia country of Singapore. We conducted a mixed methods study using a modified Delphi technique with a panel of 32 opinion leaders and 11 semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of those experts in Singapore. Panellists rated concepts of OH and priorities for zoonotic EID preparedness planning using a series of scenarios developed through the study. Interview data were examined qualitatively using thematic analysis. We found that panellists agreed that OH is a cross-disciplinary collaboration among the veterinary, medical, and ecological sciences, as well as relevant government agencies encompassing animal, human, and environmental health. Although human health was often framed as the most important priority in zoonotic EID planning, our qualitative analysis suggested that consideration of non-human animal health and welfare was also important for an effective and ethical response. The panellists also suggested that effective pandemic planning demands regional leadership and investment from wealthier countries to better enable international cooperation. We argue that EID planning under an OH approach would benefit greatly from an ethical ecological framework that accounts for justice in human, animal, and environmental health.

  11. Justice Is the Missing Link in One Health: Results of a Mixed Methods Study in an Urban City State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamra Lysaght

    Full Text Available One Health (OH is an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to human and animal health that aims to break down conventional research and policy 'silos'. OH has been used to develop strategies for zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID. However, the ethical case for OH as an alternative to more traditional public health approaches is largely absent from the discourse. To study the ethics of OH, we examined perceptions of the human health and ecological priorities for the management of zoonotic EID in the Southeast Asia country of Singapore.We conducted a mixed methods study using a modified Delphi technique with a panel of 32 opinion leaders and 11 semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of those experts in Singapore. Panellists rated concepts of OH and priorities for zoonotic EID preparedness planning using a series of scenarios developed through the study. Interview data were examined qualitatively using thematic analysis.We found that panellists agreed that OH is a cross-disciplinary collaboration among the veterinary, medical, and ecological sciences, as well as relevant government agencies encompassing animal, human, and environmental health. Although human health was often framed as the most important priority in zoonotic EID planning, our qualitative analysis suggested that consideration of non-human animal health and welfare was also important for an effective and ethical response. The panellists also suggested that effective pandemic planning demands regional leadership and investment from wealthier countries to better enable international cooperation.We argue that EID planning under an OH approach would benefit greatly from an ethical ecological framework that accounts for justice in human, animal, and environmental health.

  12. One-pot strategy for on-site enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production using the whole solid-state fermentation medium of mixed filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Maehara, Larissa; Pereira, Sandra C; Silva, Adilson J; Farinas, Cristiane S


    The efficient use of renewable lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain biofuels and other bioproducts is a key requirement for a sustainable biobased economy. This requires novel and effective strategies to reduce the cost contribution of the cellulolytic enzymatic cocktails needed to convert the carbohydrates into simple sugars, in order to make large-scale commercial processes economically competitive. Here, we propose the use of the whole solid-state fermentation (SSF) medium of mixed filamentous fungi as an integrated one-pot strategy for on-site enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production. Ten different individual and mixed cultivations of commonly used industrial filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma reesei) were performed under SSF and the whole media (without the extraction step) were used in the hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The cocultivation of T. reesei with A. oryzae increased the amount of glucose released by around 50%, compared with individual cultivations. The release of glucose and reducing sugars achieved using the whole SSF medium was around 3-fold higher than obtained with the enzyme extract. The addition of soybean protein (0.5% w/w) during the hydrolysis reaction further significantly improved the saccharification performance by blocking the lignin and avoiding unproductive adsorption of enzymes. The results of the alcoholic fermentation validated the overall integrated process, with a volumetric ethanol productivity of 4.77 g/L.h, representing 83.5% of the theoretical yield. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed one-pot integrated strategy using the whole SSF medium of mixed filamentous fungi for on-site enzymes production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Exploring unnecessary invasive procedures in the United States: a retrospective mixed-methods analysis of cases from 2008-2016. (United States)

    DuBois, James M; Chibnall, John T; Anderson, Emily E; Walsh, Heidi A; Eggers, Michelle; Baldwin, Kari; Dineen, Kelly K


    Unnecessary invasive procedures risk harming patients physically, emotionally, and financially. Very little is known about the factors that provide the motive, means, and opportunity (MMO) for unnecessary procedures. This project used a mixed-methods design that involved five key steps: (1) systematically searching the literature to identify cases of unnecessary procedures reported from 2008 to 2016; (2) identifying all medical board, court, and news records on relevant cases; (3) coding all relevant records using a structured codebook of case characteristics; (4) analyzing each case using a MMO framework to develop a causal theory of the case; and (5) identifying typologies of cases through a two-step cluster analysis using variables hypothesized to be causally related to unnecessary procedures. Seventy-nine cases met inclusion criteria. The mean number of documents or sources examined for each case was 36.4. Unnecessary procedures were performed for at least five years in most cases (53.2%); 56.3% of the cases involved 30 or more patients, and 37.5% involved 100 or more patients. In nearly all cases the physician was male (96.2%) and working in private practice (92.4%); 57.0% of the physicians had an accomplice, 48.1% were 50 years of age or older, and 40.5% trained outside the U.S. The most common motives were financial gain (92.4%) and suspected antisocial personality (48.1%), followed by poor problem-solving or clinical skills (11.4%) and ambition (3.8%). The most common environmental factors that provided opportunity for unnecessary procedures included a lack of oversight (40.5%) or oversight failures (39.2%), a corrupt moral climate (26.6%), vulnerable patients (20.3%), and financial conflicts of interest (13.9%). Unnecessary procedures usually appear motivated by financial gain and occur in settings that have oversight problems. Preventive efforts should focus on early detection by peers and institutions, and decisive action by medical boards and federal

  14. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Acute and long-term treatment of mixed states in bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Grunze, Heinz; Vieta, Eduard; Goodwin, Guy M; Bowden, Charles; Licht, Rasmus W; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Yatham, Lakshmi; Mosolov, Sergey; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Kasper, Siegfried


    Although clinically highly relevant, the recognition and treatment of bipolar mixed states has played only an underpart in recent guidelines. This WFSBP guideline has been developed to supply a systematic overview of all scientific evidence pertaining to the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar mixed states in adults. Material used for these guidelines is based on a systematic literature search using various data bases. Their scientific rigour was categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F), and different grades of recommendation to ensure practicability were assigned. We examined data pertaining to the acute treatment of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar mixed patients, as well as data pertaining to the prevention of mixed recurrences after an index episode of any type, or recurrence of any type after a mixed index episode. Manic symptoms in bipolar mixed states appeared responsive to treatment with several atypical antipsychotics, the best evidence resting with olanzapine. For depressive symptoms, addition of ziprasidone to treatment as usual may be beneficial; however, the evidence base is much more limited than for the treatment of manic symptoms. Besides olanzapine and quetiapine, valproate and lithium should also be considered for recurrence prevention. The concept of mixed states changed over time, and recently became much more comprehensive with the release of DSM-5. As a consequence, studies in bipolar mixed patients targeted slightly different bipolar subpopulations. In addition, trial designs in acute and maintenance treatment also advanced in recent years in response to regulatory demands. Current treatment recommendations are still based on limited evidence, and there is a clear demand for confirmative studies adopting the DSM-5 specifier with mixed features concept.

  15. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States. (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M


    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Formation Dirac point and the topological surface states for HgCdTe-QW and mixed 3D HgCdTe TI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchewka Michał


    Full Text Available In this paper the results of numerical calculations based on the finite difference method (FDM for the 2D and 3D TI with and without uniaxial tensile strain for mixed Hg1-xCdxTe structures are presented. The numerical calculations were made using the 8×8 model for x from 0 up to 0.155 and for the wide range for the thickness from a few nm for 2D up to 150 nm for 3D TI as well as for different mismatch of the lattice constant and different barrier potential in the case of the QW. For the investigated region of the Cd composition (x value the negative energy gap (Eg=Γ8-Γ6 in the Hg1-xCdxTe is smaller than in the case of pure HgTe which, as it turns out, has a significant influence on the topological surface states (TSS and the position of the Dirac point for QW as well as for 3D TI. The results show that the strained gap and the position of the Dirac point against the Γ8 is a function of the x-Cd compounds in the case of the 3D TI as well as the critical width of the mixed Hg1-xCdxTe QW.

  17. New insights into the nonadiabatic state population dynamics of model proton-coupled electron transfer reactions from the mixed quantum-classical Liouville approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib, Farnaz A.; Hanna, Gabriel, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada)


    In a previous study [F. A. Shakib and G. Hanna, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 044122 (2014)], we investigated a model proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction via the mixed quantum-classical Liouville (MQCL) approach and found that the trajectories spend the majority of their time on the mean of two coherently coupled adiabatic potential energy surfaces. This suggested a need for mean surface evolution to accurately simulate observables related to ultrafast PCET processes. In this study, we simulate the time-dependent populations of the three lowest adiabatic states in the ET-PT (i.e., electron transfer preceding proton transfer) version of the same PCET model via the MQCL approach and compare them to the exact quantum results and those obtained via the fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) approach. We find that the MQCL population profiles are in good agreement with the exact quantum results and show a significant improvement over the FSSH results. All of the mean surfaces are shown to play a direct role in the dynamics of the state populations. Interestingly, our results indicate that the population transfer to the second-excited state can be mediated by dynamics on the mean of the ground and second-excited state surfaces, as part of a sequence of nonadiabatic transitions that bypasses the first-excited state surface altogether. This is made possible through nonadiabatic transitions between different mean surfaces, which is the manifestation of coherence transfer in MQCL dynamics. We also investigate the effect of the strength of the coupling between the proton/electron and the solvent coordinate on the state population dynamics. Drastic changes in the population dynamics are observed, which can be understood in terms of the changes in the potential energy surfaces and the nonadiabatic couplings. Finally, we investigate the state population dynamics in the PT-ET (i.e., proton transfer preceding electron transfer) and concerted versions of the model. The PT


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Patrick Donlan


    Full Text Available This issue of the Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal (South Africa sees thepublication of a selection of articles derived from the Third International Congress ofthe World Society of Mixed Jurisdiction Jurists (WSMJJ. That Congress was held atthe Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel in the summer of 2011. It reflected athriving Society consolidating its core scholarship on classical mixed jurisdictions(Israel, Louisiana, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Quebec, Scotland, and South Africawhile reaching to new horizons (including Cyprus, Hong Kong and Macau, Malta,Nepal, etc. This publication reflects in microcosm the complexity of contemporaryscholarship on mixed and plural legal systems. This complexity is, of course, wellunderstoodby South African jurists whose system is derived both from the dominantEuropean traditions as well as from African customary systems, including both thosethat make up part of the official law of the state as well as those non-state norms thatcontinue to be important in the daily lives of many South Africans.

  19. Influences of quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational pigment states in 2D electronic spectra of photosynthetic systems: Strong electronic coupling cases

    CERN Document Server

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito


    In 2D electronic spectroscopy studies, long-lived quantum beats have recently been observed in photosynthetic systems, and it has been suggested that the beats are produced by quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational states. Concerning the electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures, the impact of protein-induced fluctuations was examined by calculating the 2D electronic spectra of a weakly coupled dimer with vibrational modes in the resonant condition [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 212403 (2015)]. This analysis demonstrated that quantum mixtures of the vibronic resonance are rather robust under the influence of the fluctuations at cryogenic temperatures, whereas the mixtures are eradicated by the fluctuations at physiological temperatures. However, this conclusion cannot be generalized because the magnitude of the coupling inducing the quantum mixtures is proportional to the inter-pigment coupling. In this study, we explore the impact of the fluctuations on electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures in a strongl...

  20. Real-time aerosol optical properties, morphology and mixing states under clear, haze and fog episodes in the summer of urban Beijing (United States)

    Li, Rui; Hu, Yunjie; Li, Ling; Fu, Hongbo; Chen, Jianmin


    , soot was found mostly internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate during a soot fog episode (EP-3), resulting in evident enhancement of light absorption. The larger size distribution was likely to be caused by both hygroscopic growth and collision between particles during the aging. About 28 % of particles were internally mixed during the foggy days, which favoured the light absorption. The comparison of all the episodes provides a deeper insight into how mixing states influence the aerosol extinction properties and also a clue as to how to control air pollution in the crop burning seasons.

  1. Using the Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo and Angstrom Exponent from AERONET to Determine Aerosol Origins and Mixing States over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (United States)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Slutsker, I.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Ghauri, B.


    Aerosol mixtures—whether dominated by dust, carbon, sulfates, nitrates, sea salt, or mixtures of them—complicate the retrieval of remotely sensed aerosol properties from satellites and possibly increase the uncertainty of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Major aerosol source regions in South Asia include the Thar Desert as well as agricultural lands, Himalayan foothills, and large urban centers in and near the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Over India and Pakistan, seasonal changes in meteorology, including the monsoon (June-September), significantly affect the transport, lifetime, and type of aerosols. Strong monsoonal winds can promote long range transport of dust resulting in mixtures of dust and carbonaceous aerosols, while more stagnant synoptic conditions (e.g., November-January) can prolong the occurrence of urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, or mixtures of them over the IGP. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun/sky radiometer data are analyzed to show the aerosol optical depth (AOD) seasonality and aerosol dominant mixing states. The Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) relationship has been shown to provide sound clustering of dominant aerosol types using long term AERONET site data near known source regions [Giles et al., 2012]. In this study, aerosol type partitioning using the SSA (440 nm) and EAE (440-870 nm) relationship is further developed to quantify the occurrence of Dust, Mixed (e.g., dust and carbonaceous aerosols), Urban/Industrial (U/I) pollution, and Biomass Burning (BB) smoke. Based on EAE thresholds derived from the cluster analysis (for AOD440nm>0.4), preliminary results (2001-2010) for Kanpur, India, show the overall contributions of each dominant particle type (rounded to the nearest 10%): 10% for Dust (EAE≤0.25), 60% for Mixed (0.251.25). In the IGP, BB aerosols may have varying sizes (e.g., corresponding to 1.2agricultural waste, forest, or dung burning), combustion phases, or

  2. Toward practical all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and safety: Comparative study for electrodes fabricated by dry- and slurry-mixing processes (United States)

    Nam, Young Jin; Oh, Dae Yang; Jung, Sung Hoo; Jung, Yoon Seok


    Owing to their potential for greater safety, higher energy density, and scalable fabrication, bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASLBs) employing deformable sulfide superionic conductors are considered highly promising for applications in battery electric vehicles. While fabrication of sheet-type electrodes is imperative from the practical point of view, reports on relevant research are scarce. This might be attributable to issues that complicate the slurry-based fabrication process and/or issues with ionic contacts and percolation. In this work, we systematically investigate the electrochemical performance of conventional dry-mixed electrodes and wet-slurry fabricated electrodes for ASLBs, by varying the different fractions of solid electrolytes and the mass loading. This information calls for a need to develop well-designed electrodes with better ionic contacts and to improve the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes. As a scalable proof-of-concept to achieve better ionic contacts, a premixing process for active materials and solid electrolytes is demonstrated to significantly improve electrochemical performance. Pouch-type 80 × 60 mm2 all-solid-state LiNi0·6Co0·2Mn0·2O2/graphite full-cells fabricated by the slurry process show high cell-based energy density (184 W h kg-1 and 432 W h L-1). For the first time, their excellent safety is also demonstrated by simple tests (cutting with scissors and heating at 110 °C).

  3. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implications for the formation mechanism of oxalic acid (United States)

    Cheng, Chunlei; Li, Mei; Chan, Chak K.; Tong, Haijie; Chen, Changhong; Chen, Duohong; Wu, Dui; Li, Lei; Wu, Cheng; Cheng, Peng; Gao, Wei; Huang, Zhengxu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhijuan; Fu, Zhong; Bi, Yanru; Zhou, Zhen


    The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were studied using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. Oxalic-acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elemental and organic carbon (ECOC), biomass burning (BB), heavy metal (HM), secondary (Sec), sodium-potassium (NaK), and dust. Oxalic acid was found predominantly mixing with sulfate and nitrate during the whole sampling period, likely due to aqueous-phase reactions. In summer, oxalic-acid-containing particle number and ozone concentration followed a very similar trend, which may reflect the significant contribution of photochemical reactions to oxalic acid formation. The HM particles were the most abundant oxalic acid particles in summer and the diurnal variations in peak area of iron and oxalic acid show opposite trends, which suggests a possible loss of oxalic acid through the photolysis of iron oxalato-complexes during the strong photochemical activity period. In wintertime, carbonaceous particles contained a substantial amount of oxalic acid as well as abundant carbon clusters and BB markers. The general existence of nitric acid in oxalic-acid-containing particles indicates an acidic environment during the formation process of oxalic acid. The peak areas of nitrate, sulfate and oxalic had similar temporal change in the carbonaceous type oxalic acid particles, and the organosulfate-containing oxalic acid particles correlated well with total oxalic acid particles during the haze episode, which suggests that the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.

  4. Improvement of the course “Management of intellectual property” based on the mixed state contract in the field of scientific R&D (United States)

    Yakovlev, D.; Ageev, A.; Yushkov, E.; Bogatyreova, M.


    Intellectual property (IP) is one of the forms of storing knowledge - intangible assets of knowledge economy. The translation of IP knowledge to the young generation is one of the challenges of nuclear knowledge management. At the NRNU MEPhI (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI), the subject is studied within the framework of the academic course “Management of intellectual property. The aim of the course is to train qualified specialists, ready to use modern methods of strategic management of IP in commercial firms. The article is devoted to the strengthening and transfer of IP rights for scientific output application in industry and commerce. The state remains the main source that finances all the significant developments in the field of science and technology. Therefore, the primary task is to effectively utilize the R&D output created at the expense of the Federal budget, both within the state order and the estimated budget financing. Currently, there exist contradictions in the area of strengthening and transfer of rights for R&D in the field of science. The newly borne concept dealing with the strengthening of IP rights for the scientific R&D output, centers on the theory of a mixed state contract and is conveniently integrated with the academic course mentioned. Knowledge itself takes the form of IP, as soon as it becomes formalized. The academic course when supplemented with various approaches to strengthening and transfer of IP rights for the scientific R&D output certainly gives a better understanding of the commercialization process of the intellectual capital and structures relevance to intellectual property. The research material is integrated with the educational process, and the academic course “Management of intellectual property” is designed both for economic and engineering specialties.

  5. Nature of mixed symmetry 2{sup +} states in {sup 94}Mo from high resolution electron and proton scattering and line shape of the first excited 1/2{sup +} state in {sup 9}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Oleksiy


    The present work contains two parts. The first one is devoted to the investigation of mixed-symmetry structure in {sup 94}Mo and the second one to the astrophysical relevant line shape of the first excited 1/2{sup +} state in {sup 9}Be. In the first part of the thesis the nature of one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} states in {sup 94}Mo is investigated with high-resolution inelastic electron and proton scattering experiments in a combined analysis. The (e,e') experiments were carried out at the 169 magnetic spectrometer at the S-DALINAC. Data were taken at a beam energy E e=70 MeV and scattering angles {theta}{sub e}=93 -165 . In dispersion-matching mode an energy resolution {delta}{sub E}=30-45 keV (full width at half maximum) was achieved. The (p,p') measurements were performed at iThemba LABS, South Africa, using a K600 magnetic spectrometer at a proton energy E p=200 MeV and scattering angles {theta}{sub p}=4.5 -26 . Typical energy resolutions were {delta}{sub E}{approx_equal}35 keV. The combined analysis reveals a dominant one-phonon structure of the transitions to the first and third 2{sup +} states, as well as an isovector character of the transition to the one-phonon mixed-symmetric state within the valence shell. Quantitatively consistent estimates of the one-phonon admixtures are obtained from both experimental probes when two-step contributions to the proton scattering cross sections are taken into account. In the second part of the thesis the line shape of the first excited 1/2{sup +} state in {sup 9}Be is studied. Spectra of the {sup 9}Be(e,e') reaction were measured at the S-DALINAC at an electron energy E e=73 MeV and scattering angles of 93 and 141 with high energy resolution up to excitation energies E{sub x}=8 MeV. The form factor of the first excited state has been extracted from the data. The astrophysical relevant {sup 9}Be({gamma},n) cross sections have been extracted from the (e,e') data. The

  6. Trap-State Suppression and Improved Charge Transport in PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Synergistic Mixed-Ligand Treatments. (United States)

    Pradhan, Santanu; Stavrinadis, Alexandros; Gupta, Shuchi; Bi, Yu; Di Stasio, Francesco; Konstantatos, Gerasimos


    The power conversion efficiency of colloidal PbS-quantum-dot (QD)-based solar cells is significantly hampered by lower-than-expected open circuit voltage (VOC ). The VOC deficit is considerably higher in QD-based solar cells compared to other types of existing solar cells due to in-gap trap-induced bulk recombination of photogenerated carriers. Here, this study reports a ligand exchange procedure based on a mixture of zinc iodide and 3-mercaptopropyonic acid to reduce the VOC deficit without compromising the high current density. This layer-by-layer solid state ligand exchange treatment enhances the photovoltaic performance from 6.62 to 9.92% with a significant improvement in VOC from 0.58 to 0.66 V. This study further employs optoelectronic characterization, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy to understand the origin of VOC improvement. The mixed-ligand treatment reduces the sub-bandgap traps and significantly reduces bulk recombination in the devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Study on Thermodynamics and Adsorption kinetics of Purified endoglucanase (CMCase from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 produced under mixed solid-state fermentation of waste cabbage and Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpan Das


    Full Text Available In the current study, one thermostable endoglucanase was purified from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 through mixed solid state fermentation of waste cabbage and bagasse. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 55kDa as determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The enzyme had low activation energy (Ea of 36.39KJ mol-1 for carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysis and the enthalpy and entropy for irreversible inactivation was 87 kJ mol −1 and 59.3 J mol −1 K−1 respectively. The enzyme was quite thermostable with a Tm value of 62.2˚C. The pKa1 and pKa2 of ionizable groups of the active sites were 2.5 and 5.3 respectively. Apparent Km, Vmax and Kcat of the enzyme were found to be 5.2 mg mL-1, 80 U/gds and 322.4 sec-1 respectively. The enzyme showed about 1.4 fold increased activity in presence of 10mM MgSO4. Adsorption of endoglucanase on Avicel at wide pH range was studied at different temperatures. Langmuir type adsorption isotherm at 10˚C showed maximum adsorption strength of enzyme at pH 3.0, which was in a range of optimum pH of the enzyme.

  8. Dopant distribution and influence of sonication temperature on the pure red light emission of mixed oxide phosphor for solid state lighting. (United States)

    Som, S; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Vinod; Gohain, Mukut; Pandey, Anurag; Duvenhage, M M; Terblans, J J; Bezuindenhoud, B C B; Swart, H C


    In this study, europium doped yttrium gadolinium (Y1.4Gd0.5Eu0.1O3) mixed oxide phosphors were synthesized by a sonochemical method at different growth temperatures (50°C, 100°C, 150°C and 200°C) for pure red light emission applications. The compositional identification, presence of dopants and the distribution of doping materials in the crystal lattice was studied by TOF-SIMS. The formation and growth mechanisms in the sonochemical synthesis of Y1.4Gd0.5Eu0.1O3 nanophosphors are discussed in detail. Different spectral and Judd-Ofelt parameters were estimated from photoluminescence data. Optical gain and efficiency parameters were calculated with the variation of synthesis environment and an efficient synthesis method to make good red emitting phosphors for solid-state lighting and display applications were proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Journal of Mixed Methods Research Starts a New Decade: Perspectives of Past Editors on the Current State of the Field and Future Directions


    Fetters, Michael D.; Molina-Azorín, José F.


    In this last editorial of 2017, and in celebration of the first decade of mixed methods research scholarship in the Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR), we provide special commentary from the former editors. In the January issue, we examined language of the field and principles for adding new language and divesting of old language as the mixed methods research field develops (Fetters & Molina-Azorin, 2017a). In the April issue, we described the main features of editorials and manuscripts...

  10. Impact of the Manaus urban plume on trace gas mixing ratios near the surface in the Amazon Basin: Implications for the NO-NO2-O-3 photostationary state and peroxy radical levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.; Mayol-Bracero, O.L.; Pauliquevis, T.; Kuhn, U.; Sander, R.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Meixner, F.X.; Kesselmeier, J.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M.O.


    We measured the mixing ratios of NO, NO2, O-3, and volatile organic carbon as well as the aerosol light-scattering coefficient on a boat platform cruising on rivers downwind of the city of Manaus (Amazonas State, Brazil) in July 2001 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in

  11. Influence of Information and Communication Technologies on the Resilience and Coping of Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in the United States and Canada (Project #Queery): Mixed Methods Survey. (United States)

    Craig, Shelley L; McInroy, Lauren B; D'Souza, Sandra A; Austin, Ashley; McCready, Lance T; Eaton, Andrew D; Shade, Leslie R; Wagaman, M Alex


    Sexual and gender minority youth are a population in peril, exemplified by their disproportionate risk of negative experiences and outcomes. Sexual and gender minority youth may be particularly active users of information and communication technologies (ICTs), and it is important to identify the potential contributions of ICTs to their resilience and well-being. Our aim was to (1) investigate the use of ICTs by sexual and gender minority youth, (2) identify the ways that ICTs influence the resilience and coping of sexual and gender minority youth, focusing on promotion of well-being through self-guided support-seeking (particularly using mobile devices), (3) develop a contextually relevant theoretical conceptualization of resilience incorporating minority stress and ecological approaches, (4) generate best practices and materials that are accessible to multiple interested groups, and (5) identify whether video narratives are a viable alternative to collect qualitative responses in Web-based surveys for youth. Mixed methods, cross-sectional data (N=6309) were collected via a Web-based survey from across the United States and Canada from March-July 2016. The sample was generated using a multipronged, targeted recruitment approach using Web-based strategies and consists of self-identified English-speaking sexual and gender minority youth aged 14-29 with technological literacy sufficient to complete the Web-based survey. The survey was divided into eight sections: (1) essential demographics, (2) ICT usage, (3) health and mental health, (4) coping and resilience, (5) sexual and gender minority youth identities and engagement, (6) fandom communities, (7) nonessential demographics, and (8) a video submission (optional, n=108). The option of a 3-5 minute video submission represents a new research innovation in Web-based survey research. Data collection is complete (N=6309), and analyses are ongoing. Proposed analyses include (1) structural equation modeling of quantitative

  12. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle


    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D


    schedule savings. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria associated with the waste processing at SRS and to quantify the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed briefly, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide the DWPF a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (typically {approx}13 wt%) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying to DWPF, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition for DWPF? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination? Grenville and Tilton (1996) investigated the mixing process by giving a pulse of tracer (electrolyte) through the submersible jet nozzle and by monitoring the conductivity at three locations within the cylindrical tank. They proposed that the mixing process was controlled by the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the region far away from the jet entrance. They took the energy dissipation rates in the regions remote from the nozzle to be proportional to jet velocity and jet diameter at that location. The reduction in the jet velocity was taken to be proportional to the nozzle velocity and distance from the nozzle. Based on their analysis, a correlation was proposed. The proposed correlation was shown to be valid over a wide range of Reynolds numbers

  14. Mixed Signals. (United States)

    Danforth, Eric L.


    According to the Education Commission of the States, 14 states prohibit pagers and/or cell phones in schools, 8 states have repealed bans, and the rest have no statutes on the issue. Ten states, including some that have repealed bans, grant policymaking authority to local boards. Presents arguments pro and con on cell phones and school district…

  15. Mixed labelling in multitarget particle filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Y.; Sviestins, Egils; Driessen, Hans


    The so-called mixed labelling problem inherent to a joint state multitarget particle filter implementation is treated. The mixed labelling problem would be prohibitive for track extraction from a joint state multitarget particle filter. It is shown, using the theory of Markov chains, that the mixed


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D


    height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide feed of a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (e.g. typically {approx}13 wt% at SRS) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination?

  17. Mixing state of regionally transported soot particles and the coating effect on their size and shape at a mountain site in Japan (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kajino, Mizuo; Igarashi, Yasuhito


    Soot particles influence the global climate through interactions with sunlight. A coating on soot particles increases their light absorption by increasing their absorption cross section and cloud condensation nuclei activity when mixed with other hygroscopic aerosol components. Therefore, it is important to understand how soot internally mixes with other materials to accurately simulate its effects in climate models. In this study, we used a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with an auto particle analysis system, which enables more particles to be analyzed than a conventional TEM. Using the TEM, soot particle size and shape (shape factor) were determined with and without coating from samples collected at a remote mountain site in Japan. The results indicate that ~10% of aerosol particles between 60 and 350 nm in aerodynamic diameters contain or consist of soot particles and ~75% of soot particles were internally mixed with nonvolatile ammonium sulfate or other materials. In contrast to an assumption that coatings change soot shape, both internally and externally mixed soot particles had similar shape and size distributions. Larger aerosol particles had higher soot mixing ratios, i.e., more than 40% of aerosol particles with diameters >1 µm had soot inclusions, whereas <20% of aerosol particles with diameters <1 µm included soot. Our results suggest that climate models may use the same size distributions and shapes for both internally and externally mixed soot; however, changing the soot mixing ratios in the different aerosol size bins is necessary.

  18. Mixed parentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Appel, Helene; Singla, Rashmi


    Despite an increase in cross border intimate relationships and children of mixed parentage, there is little mention or scholarship about them in the area of childhood and migrancy in the Nordic countries. The international literature implies historical pathologisation, contestation and current...

  19. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten

    This book is about using recent developments in the fields of data analytics and data visualization to frame new ways of identifying target groups in media communication. Based on a mixed-methods approach, the authors combine psychophysiological monitoring (galvanic skin response) with textual...

  20. Aerosol particle mixing state, refractory particle number size distributions and emission factors in a polluted urban environment: Case study of Metro Manila, Philippines (United States)

    Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Vallar, Edgar; Alas, Honey; Betito, Grace; Birmili, Wolfram; Cambaliza, Maria Obiminda; Catipay, Grethyl; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Lorenzo, Genie; Müller, Thomas; Simpas, James B.; Tamayo, Everlyn Gayle; Wiedensohler, Alfred


    Ultrafine soot particles (black carbon, BC) in urban environments are related to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects, increased cases of asthma and premature deaths. These problems are especially pronounced in developing megacities in South-East Asia, Latin America, and Africa, where unsustainable urbanization ant outdated environmental protection legislation resulted in severe degradation of urban air quality in terms of black carbon emission. Since ultrafine soot particles do often not lead to enhanced PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, the risks related to ultrafine particle pollution may therefore be significantly underestimated compared to the contribution of secondary aerosol constituents. To increase the awareness of the potential toxicological relevant problems of ultrafine black carbon particles, we conducted a case study in Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Here, we present a part of the results from a detailed field campaign, called Manila Aerosol Characterization Experiment (MACE, 2015). Measurements took place from May to June 2015 with the focus on the state of mixing of aerosol particles. The results were alarming, showing the abundance of externally mixed refractory particles (soot proxy) at street site with a maximum daily number concentration of approximately 15000 #/cm3. That is up to 10 times higher than in cities of Western countries. We also found that the soot particle mass contributed from 55 to 75% of total street site PM2.5. The retrieved refractory particle number size distribution appeared to be a superposition of 2 ultrafine modes at 20 and 80 nm with a corresponding contribution to the total refractory particle number of 45 and 55%, respectively. The particles in the 20 nm mode were most likely ash from metallic additives in lubricating oil, tiny carbonaceous particles and/or nucleated and oxidized organic polymers, while bigger ones (80 nm) were soot agglomerates. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no other

  1. Electroconvulsive therapy for manic state with mixed and psychotic features in a teenager with bipolar disorder and comorbid episodic obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report. (United States)

    Rask, Olof; Suneson, Klara; Holmström, Eva; Bäckström, Beata; Johansson, Björn Axel


    Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder is common in adolescence. Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms may be episodic and secondary to alterations in mood, and display specific features. Management of pediatric bipolar disorder-obsessive-compulsive disorder is challenging, as pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder may induce or exacerbate manic episodes and there is limited evidence of treatment efficacy. Electroconvulsive therapy is sparsely used in children and adolescents, but is documented to be a safe and efficacious intervention in adults with bipolar disorder. In view of the severity of symptoms in juvenile mania, studies on treatment strategies are warranted. We report a case of an adolescent with bipolar disorder-obsessive-compulsive disorder who was successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy during an episode of severe mania. A 16-year-old girl of Middle East origin first presented to us with depressed mood, irritability, and increased obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, which were initially interpreted in the context of acute stress secondary to migration. She had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder in her previous home country, but had difficulties in accounting for earlier psychiatric history. During hospitalization her mood switched to a manic state with mixed and psychotic features, at times showing aggression toward others. Interruption in her lithium treatment for a short period and possibly the introduction of an atypical antipsychotic could in part have been triggering factors. After 8 weeks of in-patient care and psychotropic drug trials, electroconvulsive therapy was initiated and administered every second or third day for 4 weeks, with marked positive response. No apparent side effects were reported. This case demonstrates the need for a detailed medical history, taking special note of periodicity and character of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, in

  2. Smog chamber study on aging of combustion soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system: Changes of mass, size, effective density, morphology and mixing state (United States)

    Li, Kangwei; Chen, Linghong; Han, Ke; Lv, Biao; Bao, Kaiji; Wu, Xuecheng; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa


    Atmospheric soot aging process is always accompanied by secondary particle formation, which is a comprehensive environmental issue that deserves great attention. On one hand, aging of primary soot could change its own physicochemical properties; on the other hand, complex air pollution caused by pollutant emission from various sources (e.g., vehicle exhausts, coal-fired flue gases and biogenic VOCs emission) may contribute to secondary particle formation onto primary particle surface. In this study, aging of combustion soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions in several smog chamber experiments. During the evolution of soot, several physical properties such as mass, size, effective density, morphology and mixing state were determined simultaneously by an integrated aerosol analytical system of Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer-Condensation Particle Counter (DMA-APM-CPC) and Transmission Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (TEM/EDX) techniques. Here, based on the experimental results of soot aging under different gas-phase composition and relative humidity (RH), we firstly proposed possible aging pathways of soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system. A synergetic effect was speculated to exist between SO2 and isoprene on soot aging process, which led to more secondary particle formation. At the same time, TEM/EDX analysis showed that a competitive mechanism between H2SO4(g) and isoprene oxidation vapor may exist: H2SO4(g) firstly condensed onto fresh soot, then an acceleration of isoprene oxidation products formed onto H2SO4 pre-coated soot. In isoprene/SO2/NOx system, high RH conditions could contribute to soot aging and new particle formation. The changes of effective density and dynamic shape factor of soot also indicated that high RH conditions could accelerate soot aging process, and led chain-like soot into more spherical

  3. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.


    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  4. Impact of the cation distribution homogeneity on the americium oxidation state in the U0.54Pu0.45Am0.01O2-x mixed oxide (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Martin, Philippe M.; Belin, Renaud C.; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Hodaj, Fiqiri


    The impact of the cation distribution homogeneity of the U0.54Pu0.45Am0.01O2-x mixed oxide on the americium oxidation state was studied by coupling X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Oxygen-hypostoichiometric Am-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxide pellets were fabricated by two different co-milling based processes in order to obtain different cation distribution homogeneities. The americium was generated from β- decay of 241Pu. The XRD analysis of the obtained compounds did not reveal any structural difference between the samples. EPMA, however, revealed a high homogeneity in the cation distribution for one sample, and substantial heterogeneity of the U-Pu (so Am) distribution for the other. The difference in cation distribution was linked to a difference in Am chemistry as investigated by XAS, with Am being present at mixed +III/+IV oxidation state in the heterogeneous compound, whereas only Am(IV) was observed in the homogeneous compound. Previously reported discrepancies on Am oxidation states can hence be explained by cation distribution homogeneity effects.

  5. Association of total mixed ration particle fractions retained on the Penn State Particle Separator with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the cow level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Ferguson, J.D.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Schadt, I.; Petriflieri, R.; Azzaro, G.; Pozzebon, A.; Licitra, G.


    As part of a larger project aiming to develop management evaluation tools based on results from test-day (TD) models, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of physical composition of total mixed rations (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 on milk, fat, and

  6. Mixing Ratios and Photostationary State of NO and NO2 Observed During the POPCORN Field Campaign at a Rural Site in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrer, F.; Brüning, D.; Grobler, E.S.; Weber, M.; Ehhalt, D.H.; Neubert, R.; Schüßler, W.; Levin, I.


    Ambient mixing ratios of NO, NO2, and O3 were determined together with the photolysis frequency of NO2, JNO2, at a rural, agricultural site in Germany. The data were collected during the POPCORN-campaign from August 1 to August 24, 1994, in a maize field 6 m above ground. The medians of the NO, NO2,

  7. Regeneration in United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service mixed conifer partial cuttings in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. (United States)

    K.W. Seidel; S. Conrade. Head


    A survey in the Blue Mountains of north-eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington showed that, on the average, partial cuts in the grand fir/big huckleberry community were well stocked with a mixture of advance, natural post-harvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Partial cuts in the mixed conifer/pinegrass community had considerably fewer seedlings...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ikeda


    Full Text Available Cs2[AuIX2][AuIIIX4](X = Cl, Br, and I is well known for the perovskite-type gold mixed-valence system. This system undergoes pressure-induced and photo-induced Au valence transition from the mixed valence state of AuI,III to the single valence state of AuII. Recently, we have succeeded in synthesizing new gold mixed-valence complexes having perovskite-type structure, Cs2[AuIX2][AuIIIY4](X, Y = halogen, X ¹ Y, in organic solvent by using a new method. This hetero-halogen bridged gold mixed-valence system was confirmed by means of Raman spectroscopy. From the analysis of 197Au Mössbauer spectra, it was elucidated that the charge transfer interaction between AuI(5dx2-y2 and AuIII(5dx2-y2in the a-b plane becomes dominant for the AuI-AuIII interaction in Cs2[AuIX2][AuIIIY4] (X, Y = Cl, Br, and I in the order of X = Cl < Br < I, where Y is fixed. In order to elucidate the Au valence transition for Cs2[AuIX2][AuIIIY4], we have investigated the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra under high pressure. Moreover, we have synthesized TlAuX3(X = Cl and Br having cubic perovskite structure and highly conducting behavior. The Au valence state in TlAuX3 is considered to be AuII at ambient pressure.

  9. Role of the phase-matching condition in nondegenerate four-wave mixing in hot vapors for the generation of squeezed states of light (United States)

    Turnbull, M. T.; Petrov, P. G.; Embrey, C. S.; Marino, A. M.; Boyer, V.


    Nondegenerate forward four-wave mixing in hot atomic vapors has been shown to produce strong quantum correlations between twin beams of light [McCormick , Opt. Lett.OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.32.000178 32, 178 (2007)], in a configuration which minimizes losses by absorption. In this paper, we look at the role of the phase-matching condition in the trade-off that occurs between the efficiency of the nonlinear process and the absorption of the twin beams. To this effect, we develop a semiclassical model by deriving the atomic susceptibilities in the relevant double-Λ configuration and by solving the classical propagation of the twin-beam fields for parameters close to those found in typical experiments. These theoretical results are confirmed by a simple experimental study of the nonlinear gain experienced by the twin beams as a function of the phase mismatch. The model shows that the amount of phase mismatch is key to the realization of the physical conditions in which the absorption of the twin beams is minimized while the cross coupling between the twin beams is maintained at the level required for the generation of strong quantum correlations. The optimum is reached when the four-wave mixing process is not phase matched for fully resonant four-wave mixing.

  10. Understanding Mixed Emotions: Paradigms and Measures. (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D; Gross, James J


    In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions.

  11. Semi-empirical correlation for binary interaction parameters of the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the van der Waals mixing rules for the prediction of high-pressure vapor–liquid equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif-Eddeen K. Fateen


    Full Text Available Peng–Robinson equation of state is widely used with the classical van der Waals mixing rules to predict vapor liquid equilibria for systems containing hydrocarbons and related compounds. This model requires good values of the binary interaction parameter kij. In this work, we developed a semi-empirical correlation for kij partly based on the Huron–Vidal mixing rules. We obtained values for the adjustable parameters of the developed formula for over 60 binary systems and over 10 categories of components. The predictions of the new equation system were slightly better than the constant-kij model in most cases, except for 10 systems whose predictions were considerably improved with the new correlation.

  12. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M.; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Michalek, Jeremy J.


    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally.

  13. Quantifying Flow and Pollutant Loading at Nested-Scales in a Mixed-Land-Use Watershed of the Central United States (United States)

    Zeiger, S. J.; Hubbart, J. A.


    The impacts of land use on flow and pollutant loading regimes are poorly understood in mixed-land-use watersheds. Stream water quantity and quality was monitored using a nested-scale experimental watershed study design in a rapidly urbanizing mixed-land-use watershed of the central USA. Agricultural land use decreased by 18.4% and urban land use increased by 21.6% from the headwaters toward the watershed outlet. Four years of grab samples were collected at each site (n=836 samples per site) and analyzed for suspended sediment, total phosphorus, and inorganic nitrogen species during the study period (2010 - 2013). Daily flow and load duration curves were generated to quantify daily flow and pollutant yields at multiple flow intervals [high flow (0-10%), moist conditions (10-40%), mid-range flows (40-60%), dry conditions (60-90%), and low flow (90-100%)]. Greater than 92.1% of the total pollutant loads were transported during the high flow interval. Less than 0.1% suspended sediments and less than 1.0% TP-P were transported during mid-range conditions. Concentrations of NO3-N exceeding 5.0 mg L-1 were observed during moist conditions when median daily flow was 0.06 m3 s-1 in the headwaters where agricultural land use dominated 57% of the total drainage area (78.9 km2). The eutro-mesotrophic boundary was exceeded by a range of 37.8% (NO3-N in the agricultural headwaters) to 182.2% [(suspended sediment near the watershed outlet where urban land use accounted for 26% of the total drainage area (207.5 km2)] during the high flow interval. The eutro-mesotrophic boundary was exceeded by 56.3% for suspended sediment near the watershed outlet during moist conditions. However, the observed median daily pollutant loading did not exceed the load duration curve below the mid-range flow interval. Results highlight a critical need for pollutant monitoring at multiple flow intervals to capture the variability of pollutant loading in mixed-land-use watersheds.

  14. B Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, C


    The neutral $B$ mesons, $B^0$ and $B_s$, can oscillate between their particle and antiparticle states owing to flavor-changing weak interactions. In recent years, techniques to detect these oscillations as a function of the meson's decay time have been developed. In this article the physics of flavor oscillations is reviewed and theoretical predictions are summarized. The many observations that demonstrate the time-dependence of $B^0-\\B0bar$ oscillations are presented along with a combined measurement of its frequency, $\\delta m_d$. The attempts to measure the $B_s$ oscillation frequency, both directly and indirectly, are then summarized. Finally, values for the CKM elements $|V_{td}|$ and $|V_{ts}/V_{td}|$ are extracted.

  15. Mixed features in bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard


    Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.

  16. Mixing of exciton and charge-transfer states in Photosystem II reaction centers: Modeling of stark spectra with modified redfield theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novoderezhkin, V.I.; Dekker, J.P.; van Grondelle, R.


    We propose an exciton model for the Photosystem II reaction center (RC) based on a quantitative simultaneous fit of the absorption, linear dichroism, circular dichroism, steady-state fluorescence, triplet-minus-singlet, and Stark spectra together with the spectra of pheophytin-modified RCs, and

  17. Individual tree height increment model for managed even-aged stands of ponderosa pine throughout the western United States using linear mixed effects models (United States)

    Fabian Uzoh; William W. Oliver


    A height increment model is developed and evaluated for individual trees of ponderosa pine throughout the species range in western United States. The data set used in this study came from long-term permanent research plots in even-aged, pure stands both planted and of natural origin. The data base consists of six levels-of-growing stock studies supplemented by initial...

  18. Identification of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and Potato latent virus (PotLV) as mixed infection in Chinese lantern (Physalis alkekengi) in the United States (United States)

    Chinese lantern (Physalis alkekengi L., family Solanaceae) is a popular ornamental plant in the United State because of its colorful inflated calyx (similar to a paper lantern). On the other hand, Chinese lantern can spread aggressively, becoming a weedy plant and pathogen reservoir. During the summ...

  19. A novel marketing mix and choice architecture framework to nudge restaurant customers toward healthy food environments to reduce obesity in the United States. (United States)

    Kraak, V I; Englund, T; Misyak, S; Serrano, E L


    This review identified and adapted choice architecture frameworks to develop a novel framework that restaurant owners could use to promote healthy food environments for customers who currently overconsume products high in fat, sugar and sodium that increase their risk of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. This review was conducted in three steps and presented as a narrative summary to demonstrate a proof of concept. Step 1 was a systematic review of nudge or choice architecture frameworks used to categorize strategies that cue healthy behaviours in microenvironments. We searched nine electronic databases between January 2000 and December 2016 and identified 1,244 records. Inclusion criteria led to the selection of five choice architecture frameworks, of which three were adapted and combined with marketing mix principles to highlight eight strategies (i.e. place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, prompting or priming and proximity). Step 2 involved conducting a comprehensive evidence review between January 2006 and December 2016 to identify U.S. recommendations for the restaurant sector organized by strategy. Step 3 entailed developing 12 performance metrics for the eight strategies. This framework should be tested to determine its value to assist restaurant owners to promote and socially normalize healthy food environments to reduce obesity and non-communicable diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Forced Mixing of a Turbulent Boundary Layer in an Annular Diffuser. Ph.D. Thesis - Ohio State Univ.; [for boundary layer control (United States)

    Shaw, R. J.


    The forced mixing process of a turbulent boundary layer in an axisymmetric annular diffuser using conventional wing-like vortex generators was studied. Flow field measurements were made at four axial locations downstream of the vortex generators. At each axial location, a total of 25 equally spaced profiles were measured behind three consecutive vortex generators which formed two pairs of vortex generators. Hot film anemometry probes measured the boundary layer turbulence structure at the same locations where pressure measurements were made. Both single and cross film probes were used. The diffuser turbulence data was teken only for a nominal inlet Mach number of 0.3. Three vortex generator configurations were tested. The differences between configurations involved changes in size and relative vortex generator positions. All three vortex generator configurations tested provided increases in diffuser performance. Distinct differences in the boundary layer integral properties and skin friction levels were noted between configurations. The axial turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress profiles measured displayed similarities in trends but differences in levels for the three configurations.

  1. Mixe de Tlahuitoltepec, Oaxaca (Mixe of Tlahuitoltepec, Oaxaca). (United States)

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Mixe, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in Tlahuitoltepec, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the…

  2. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce


    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  3. Mixed messages on tobacco: comparative exposure to public health, tobacco company- and pharmaceutical company-sponsored tobacco-related television campaigns in the United States, 1999-2003. (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Szczypka, Glen; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Flay, Brian; Chaloupka, Frank; Saffer, Henry


    To describe and compare the extent of exposure among youth and adults to antitobacco advertising funded by tobacco control agencies, and to smoking-related advertising from tobacco and pharmaceutical companies. Archival records of television advertising exposures from Nielsen Media Research for the largest 75 media markets in the United States from 1999 to 2003. Mean monthly advertising exposures for households with televisions and adolescents aged 12-17 years for: state tobacco control programs; the national American Legacy Foundation (Legacy) program; tobacco company advertising for youth smoking prevention, parent advertising and corporate image; pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy and Zyban; and other miscellaneous tobacco-related advertising. Combined tobacco company youth/parent advertising exposures matched those for combined State/Legacy campaigns (4.56 advertisements/month versus 4.97 advertisements/month among households; 3.05 advertisements/month versus 3.38 advertisements/month among adolescents). Tobacco company corporate image advertising averaged 3.25 advertisements/month among households and 0.73 advertisements/month among adolescents. Tobacco company advertising exceeded public health-sponsored advertising by a factor of 1.57-1, and among youth by 1.11-1. Pharmaceutical companies were the largest sponsor of tobacco-related advertising for households (10.37 advertisements/month) and provided significant exposure among adolescents (2.61 advertisements/month). This is the first study to demonstrate systematically that public health-sponsored antitobacco campaigns in the United States are matched or exceeded by tobacco company advertising, as well as pharmaceutical cessation product advertising. Research is needed to determine whether such advertising may dilute or undermine the established benefits of tobacco control-sponsored campaigns.

  4. Attestation in self-propagating combustion approach of spinel AFe2O4 (A = Co, Mg and Mn) complexes bearing mixed oxidation states: Magnetostructural properties (United States)

    Bennet, J.; Tholkappiyan, R.; Vishista, K.; Jaya, N. Victor; Hamed, Fathalla


    Spinel type nano-sized ferrite compounds AFe2O4 (A = Co, Mg and Mn) have been successfully prepared by self-propagating combustion method using glycine as fuel at 400 °C under air atmosphere for 4 h. The crystal structure, chemical composition, morphology and magnetic properties of the synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Energy dispersive X-ray, Scanning and Transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The chemical reaction and role of fuel on the nanoparticles formation were discussed. The XRD pattern of the synthesized samples shows the formation of pure phase with average crystallite size of 97, 57 and 98 nm from Scherrer formula and 86, 54 and 87 nm from Williamson and Hall (W-H) formula respectively. FTIR absorption spectra revealed that the presence of strong absorption peaks near 400-600 cm-1 corresponds to tetrahedral and octahedral complex of spinel ferrites. The relative concentrations of electronic states of elements such as cobalt (Co2+ and Co3+), iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and manganese (Mn2+ and Mn3+) oxidation states were studied from XPS and it is found that 55% of Fe ions are in Fe2+ state and the remaining is in Fe3+ state and thus the cationic distribution of Fe ions occurred in both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. SEM analysis indicates the presence of pore like morphology which is nearly homogenous because of combustion process. EDS analysis confirms the presence of elements in the ferrite samples. By replacing the active 'A' site cations in AFe2O4 (A = Co, Mg and Mn) samples show the different magnetic properties. The parameters like saturation magnetization, coercivity and remnant magnetization obtained from M-H loops are studied in room temperature.

  5. Solute mixing regulates heterogeneity of mineral precipitation in porous media: Effect of Solute Mixing on Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cil, Mehmet B.; Xie, Minwei; Packman, Aaron I.; Buscarnera, Giuseppe (NWU); (HKUST-- China)


    Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to track the spatiotemporal evolution of mineral precipitation and the consequent alteration of the pore structure. Column experiments were conducted by injecting CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions into granular porous media either as a premixed supersaturated solution (external mixing) or as separate solutions that mixed within the specimen (internal mixing). The two mixing modes produced distinct mineral growth patterns. While internal mixing promoted transverse heterogeneity with precipitation at the mixing zone, external mixing favored relatively homogeneous precipitation along the flow direction. The impact of precipitation on pore water flow and permeability was assessed via 3-D flow simulations, which indicated anisotropic permeability evolution for both mixing modes. Under both mixing modes, precipitation decreased the median pore size and increased the skewness of the pore size distribution. Such similar pore-scale evolution patterns suggest that the clogging of individual pores depends primarily on local supersaturation state and pore geometry.

  6. Nonlinear Bayesian Tracking Loops for Multipath Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Closas


    Full Text Available This paper studies Bayesian filtering techniques applied to the design of advanced delay tracking loops in GNSS receivers with multipath mitigation capabilities. The analysis includes tradeoff among realistic propagation channel models and the use of a realistic simulation framework. After establishing the mathematical framework for the design and analysis of tracking loops in the context of GNSS receivers, we propose a filtering technique that implements Rao-Blackwellization of linear states and a particle filter for the nonlinear partition and compare it to traditional delay lock loop/phase lock loop-based schemes.

  7. Effects of chemical composition and mixing state on size-resolved hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei activity of submicron aerosols at a suburban site in northern Japan in summer (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Miyazaki, Yuzo; Aggarwal, Shankar G.; Kitamori, Yasuyuki; Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Kawamura, Kimitaka


    Ambient hygroscopic properties, numbers of size-segregated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at different supersaturations (0.1%-0.8%), and the chemical composition of submicron particles were simultaneously measured at a suburban site in northern Japan in summer. Two distinct periods with different growth factors (GF), CCN activation diameters, and chemical compositions were observed. The data suggest that internally mixed sulfate aerosols dominated the accumulation size mode in relatively aged aerosols during the first period, whereas particles observed during the latter periods showed external mixing dominated by organics, which was linked to low hygroscopicity and CCN activity. In particular, the higher loading of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM; 60% of OM by mass) with increased WSOM/sulfate ratios corresponded to a low hygroscopicity parameter derived from the CCN measurement (κCCN = 0.15 ± 0.02) at a dry diameter (Ddry) of 146 nm. The results suggest that WSOM, likely dominated by the influence of biogenic sources, contributed to reducing the hygroscopicity and CCN activation at this particle size. Temporal variations in the number concentrations for low GF mode at Ddry = 49.6 nm were similar to those in the elemental carbon (EC) concentration, suggesting that EC contributed to reducing hygroscopicity at this smaller size. Our results suggest that chemical composition and mixing state are important factors controlling the hygroscopicity and CCN activation of submicron particles. These results provide useful data sets of size-resolved subsaturated and supersaturated hygroscopicity and highlight the importance of the abundance of OM relative to sulfate in predicting the effects on climate change.

  8. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.804 Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. (a) U.S. Mixed Grain (grade). Mixed grain...

  9. Mixed-dimensional Bose polaron (United States)

    Loft, Niels Jakob Søe; Wu, Zhigang; Bruun, G. M.


    A new generation of cold atom experiments trapping atomic mixtures in species-selective optical potentials opens up the intriguing possibility to create systems in which different atoms live in different spatial dimensions. Inspired by this, we investigate a mixed-dimensional Bose polaron consisting of an impurity particle moving in a two-dimensional (2D) layer immersed in a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), using a theory that includes the mixed-dimensional vacuum scattering between the impurity and the bosons exactly. We show that similarly to the pure 3D case, this system exhibits a well-defined polaron state for attractive boson-impurity interaction that evolves smoothly into a mixed-dimensional dimer for strong attraction, as well as a well-defined polaron state for weak repulsive interaction, which becomes overdamped for strong interaction. We furthermore find that the properties of the polaron depend only weakly on the gas parameter of the BEC as long as the Bogoliubov theory remains a valid description for the BEC. This indicates that higher-order correlations between the impurity and the bosons are suppressed by the mixed-dimensional geometry in comparison to a pure 3D system, which led us to speculate that the mixed-dimensional polaron has universal properties in the unitarity limit of the impurity-boson interaction.

  10. Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduncin, Gonzalo, E-mail: [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Departamento de Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Geofísica (Mexico)


    Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

  11. A mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics study of anti-tetrol and syn-tetrol dissolved in liquid chloroform II: infrared emission spectra, vibrational excited-state lifetimes, and nonequilibrium hydrogen-bond dynamics. (United States)

    Kwac, Kijeong; Geva, Eitan


    The effect of vibrational excitation and relaxation of the hydroxyl stretch on the hydrogen-bond structure and dynamics of stereoselectively synthesized syn-tetrol and anti-tetrol dissolved in deuterated chloroform are investigated via a mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulation. Emphasis is placed on the changes in hydrogen-bond structure upon photoexcitation and the nonequilibrium hydrogen-bond dynamics that follows the subsequent relaxation from the excited to the ground vibrational state. The propensity to form hydrogen bonds is shown to increase upon photoexcitation of the hydroxyl stretch, thereby leading to a sizable red-shift of the infrared emission spectra relative to the corresponding absorption spectra. The vibrational excited state lifetimes are calculated within the framework of Fermi's golden rule and the harmonic-Schofield quantum correction factor, and found to be sensitive reporters of the underlying hydrogen-bond structure. The energy released during the relaxation from the excited to the ground state is shown to break hydrogen bonds involving the relaxing hydroxyl. The spectral signature of this nonequilibrium relaxation process is analyzed in detail.

  12. Isospin mixing in magnesium-24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, Charles David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    The ß-γ circular polarization correlation asymmetry was measured for the pure Gamow-Teller decay of 28Al, for the pure Fermi decay of 14O and for the mixed decay of the 24Al 4+ ground state to the 8.437 MeV, 4+ state in 24Mg. The expected results were obtained for the pure Gamow-Teller and Fermi decays. From the results of the 24Al decay the isospin mixing of the 8.437 MeV, 4+ state and the 9.515 MeV, 4+ analog state in /sup 24/Mg was determined. The charge dependent matrix element mixing these two states was determined to be -95 ± 36 keV. This is the largest charge dependent matrix element observed in β decay to date. This large value has not been completely explained and suggests the existence of a ΔT = 1 nuclear force.

  13. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.


    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP.

  14. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune


    The method of mixing may affect the degree of agglomeration of particles in cement-based materials and thus the properties of the materials in their fresh, hardening, and hardened state. The larger the external force applied during mixing, the larger surface forces can be overcome and the smaller...... agglomerates will remain. The paper focuses on the effect of mixing schedule on self-compacting concrete properties. Workability and micro structure of a typical Danish self-compacting concrete mixed at varying intensity and with addition of superplasticizer in either one or two batches are described...

  15. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides. (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M


    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  16. Mixing in explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A.L.


    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  17. Evaluating the impact of Mexico's drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda. (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Garfein, Richard S; Wagner, Karla D; Mehta, Sanjay R; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Moreno-Zuniga, Patricia Gonzalez; Strathdee, Steffanie A


    Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing "war on drugs," Mexico recently implemented drug policy reforms that partially decriminalized possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use while promoting drug treatment. Recognizing important epidemiologic, policy, and socioeconomic differences between the United States-where possession of any psychoactive drugs without a prescription remains illegal-and Mexico-where possession of small quantities for personal use was partially decriminalized, we sought to assess changes over time in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and infectious disease profiles among PWID in the adjacent border cities of San Diego, CA, USA, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Based on extensive binational experience and collaboration, from 2012-2014 we initiated two parallel, prospective, mixed methods studies: Proyecto El Cuete IV in Tijuana (n = 785) and the STAHR II Study in San Diego (n = 575). Methods for sampling, recruitment, and data collection were designed to be compatible in both studies. All participants completed quantitative behavioral and geographic assessments and serological testing (HIV in both studies; hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis in STAHR II) at baseline and four semi-annual follow-up visits. Between follow-up assessment visits, subsets of participants completed qualitative interviews to explore contextual factors relating to study aims and other emergent phenomena. Planned analyses include descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data, content analysis and other mixed-methods approaches for qualitative data, and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-positive samples to understand cross-border transmission dynamics. Investigators and research staff shared preliminary findings across studies to provide feedback on instruments and insights regarding local phenomena. As a result, recruitment and data

  18. Lagrangian mixing in an axisymmetric hurricane model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rutherford


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extension of established Lagrangian mixing measures to make them applicable to data extracted from a 2-D axisymmetric hurricane simulation. Because of the non-steady and unbounded characteristics of the simulation, the previous measures are extended to a moving frame approach to create time-dependent mixing rates that are dependent upon the initial time of particle integration, and are computed for nonlocal regions. The global measures of mixing derived from finite-time Lyapunov exponents, relative dispersion, and a measured mixing rate are applied to distinct regions representing different characteristic feautures within the model. It is shown that these time-dependent mixing rates exhibit correlations with maximal tangential winds during a quasi-steady state, establishing a connection between mixing and hurricane intensity.

  19. Optimal Mixing Evolutionary Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Thierens (Dirk); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); N. Krasnogor


    htmlabstractA key search mechanism in Evolutionary Algorithms is the mixing or juxtaposing of partial solutions present in the parent solutions. In this paper we look at the efficiency of mixing in genetic algorithms (GAs) and estimation-of-distribution algorithms (EDAs). We compute the mixing

  20. Mixed methods research. (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise


    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  1. Mixing of solids in different mixing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as devices for powder mixing, are tested as well as Turbula and V-shaped drum mixer, since those devices .... 1679·90. 13 force on the particles exceeds the pull of gravity), its working capacity is about 50% to 60% of volume. ... In solid/solid mixing the unit is usually vertical with the flow being by gravity only. The material is ...

  2. Attestation in self-propagating combustion approach of spinel AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Co, Mg and Mn) complexes bearing mixed oxidation states: Magnetostructural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennet, J., E-mail: [Department of Physics, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai,600025 (India); Tholkappiyan, R. [Department of Physics, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai,600025 (India); Department of Physics, College of Science, UAE University, Al Ain 15551 (United Arab Emirates); Vishista, K.; Jaya, N. Victor [Department of Physics, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai,600025 (India); Hamed, Fathalla [Department of Physics, College of Science, UAE University, Al Ain 15551 (United Arab Emirates)


    Highlights: • Spinel type ferrite compounds AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Co, Mg and Mn) have been successfully prepared by self-propagating combustion method using glycine as fuel. • To investigate and confirms the presence of phases in the synthesized ferrite nanoparticles by XRD and FTIR analysis. • The formation of mixed oxidation state of cobalt (Co{sup 2+} and Co{sup 3+}), iron (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and manganese (Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+}) ions were studied and confirmed from XPS analysis. • The magnetic properties of the synthesized ferrites were studied by VSM measurement. - Abstract: Spinel type nano-sized ferrite compounds AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Co, Mg and Mn) have been successfully prepared by self-propagating combustion method using glycine as fuel at 400 °C under air atmosphere for 4 h. The crystal structure, chemical composition, morphology and magnetic properties of the synthesized samples were characterized by X−ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X−ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Energy dispersive X−ray, Scanning and Transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The chemical reaction and role of fuel on the nanoparticles formation were discussed. The XRD pattern of the synthesized samples shows the formation of pure phase with average crystallite size of 97, 57 and 98 nm from Scherrer formula and 86, 54 and 87 nm from Williamson and Hall (W–H) formula respectively. FTIR absorption spectra revealed that the presence of strong absorption peaks near 400–600 cm{sup −1} corresponds to tetrahedral and octahedral complex of spinel ferrites. The relative concentrations of electronic states of elements such as cobalt (Co{sup 2+} and Co{sup 3+}), iron (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and manganese (Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+}) oxidation states were studied from XPS and it is found that 55% of Fe ions are in Fe{sup 2+} state and the remaining is in Fe{sup 3+} state and thus the cationic distribution

  3. A mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics study of the hydroxyl stretch in methanol/carbon tetrachloride mixtures: equilibrium hydrogen-bond structure and dynamics at the ground state and the infrared absorption spectrum. (United States)

    Kwac, Kijeong; Geva, Eitan


    We present a mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics study of the structure and dynamics of the hydroxyl stretch in methanol/carbon tetrachloride mixtures. One of the methanol molecules is tagged, and its hydroxyl stretch is treated quantum-mechanically, while the remaining degrees of freedom are treated classically. The adiabatic Hamiltonian of the quantum-mechanical hydroxyl is diagonalized on-the-fly to obtain the corresponding adiabatic energy levels and wave functions which depend parametrically on the instantaneous configuration of the classical degrees of freedom. The dynamics of the classical degrees of freedom are in turn affected by the quantum-mechanical state of the tagged hydroxyl stretch via the corresponding Hellmann-Feynman forces. The ability of five different force-field combinations to reproduce the experimental absorption infrared spectrum of the hydroxyl stretch is examined for different isotopomers and on a wide range of compositions. It is found that, in addition to accounting for the anharmonic nature of the hydroxyl stretch, one also has to employ polarizable force fields and account for the damping of the polarizability at short distances. The equilibrium ground-state hydrogen-bonding structure and dynamics is analyzed, and its signature on the absorption infrared spectrum of the hydroxyl stretch is investigated in detail. Five different hydroxyl stretch subpopulations are identified and spectrally assigned: monomers (α), hydrogen-bond acceptors (β), hydrogen-bond donors (γ), simultaneous hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors (δ), and simultaneous hydrogen-bond donors and double-acceptors (ε). The fundamental transition frequencies of the α and β subpopulations are found to be narrowly distributed and to overlap, thereby giving rise to a single narrow band whose intensity is significantly diminished by rotational relaxation. The fundamental transition frequency distributions of the γ, δ, and ε subpopulations are found to be

  4. Quantum Markov Chain Mixing and Dissipative Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael James


    This thesis is the fruit of investigations on the extension of ideas of Markov chain mixing to the quantum setting, and its application to problems of dissipative engineering. A Markov chain describes a statistical process where the probability of future events depends only on the state...... (stationary states). The aim of Markov chain mixing is to obtain (upper and/or lower) bounds on the number of steps it takes for the Markov chain to reach a stationary state. The natural quantum extensions of these notions are density matrices and quantum channels. We set out to develop a general mathematical...... framework for studying quantum Markov chain mixing. We introduce two new distance measures into the quantum setting; the quantum $\\chi^2$-divergence and Hilbert's projective metric. With the help of these distance measures, we are able to derive some basic bounds on the the mixing times of quantum channels...

  5. Mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixes (United States)

    Yildirim, Yetkin

    According to Superpave mixture design, gyratory specimens are mixed and compacted at equiviscous binder temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 0.17 and 0.28 Pa.s. respectively. These were the values previously used in the Marshal mix design method to determine optimal mixing and compaction temperatures. In order to estimate the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixture design, a temperature-viscosity relationship for the binder needs to be developed (ASTM D 2493, Calculation of Mixing and Compaction Temperatures). The current approach is simple and provides reasonable temperatures for unmodified binders. However, some modified binders have exhibited unreasonably high temperatures for mixing and compaction using this technique. These high temperatures can result in construction problems, damage of asphalt, and production of fumes. Heating asphalt binder to very high temperatures during construction oxidizes the binder and separates the polymer from asphalt binder. It is known that polymer modified asphalt binders have many benefits to the roads, such as; increasing rutting resistance, enhancing low temperature cracking resistance, improving traction, better adhesion and cohesion, elevating tensile strength which are directly related to the service life of the pavement. Therefore, oxidation and separation of the polymer from the asphalt binder results in reduction of the service life. ASTM D 2493 was established for unmodified asphalt binders which are Newtonian fluids at high temperatures. For these materials, viscosity does not depend on shear rate. However, most of the modified asphalt binders exhibit a phenomenon known as pseudoplasticity, where viscosity does depend on shear rate. Thus, at the high shear rates occurring during mixing and compaction, it is not necessary to go to very high temperatures. This research was undertaken to determine the shear rate during compaction such that the effect of this parameter could be

  6. Further evidence for mixed emotions. (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; McGraw, A Peter


    Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able to experience such mixed emotions. The authors tested several alternative interpretations for prior evidence that happiness and sadness can co-occur in bittersweet situations (i.e., those containing both pleasant and unpleasant aspects). One possibility is that subjects who reported mixed emotions merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 1-3 by asking subjects to complete online continuous measures of happiness and sadness. Subjects reported more simultaneously mixed emotions during a bittersweet film clip than during a control clip. Another possibility is that subjects in earlier studies reported mixed emotions only because they were explicitly asked whether they felt happy and sad. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 4-6 with open-ended measures of emotion. Subjects were more likely to report mixed emotions after the bittersweet clip than the control clip. Both patterns occurred even when subjects were told that they were not expected to report mixed emotions (Studies 2 and 5) and among subjects who did not previously believe that people could simultaneously feel happy and sad (Studies 3 and 6). These results provide further evidence that positivity and negativity are separable in experience. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.


    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  8. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian


    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients). The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used...

  9. Position Assignment and Oxidation State Recognition of Fe and Co Centers in Heterometallic Mixed-Valent Molecular Precursors for the Low-Temperature Preparation of Target Spinel Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Craig M. [Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, Albany, New York 12222, United States; Barry, Matthew C. [Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, Albany, New York 12222, United States; Wei, Zheng [Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, Albany, New York 12222, United States; Rogachev, Andrey Yu. [Department; Wang, Xiaoping [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, United States; Liu, Jun-Liang [CNRS, CRPP, UPR 8641, F-33600 Pessac, France; Univ. Bordeaux, UPR 8641, F-33600 Pessac, France; MOE Key Lab of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry,; Clérac, Rodolphe [CNRS, CRPP, UPR 8641, F-33600 Pessac, France; Univ. Bordeaux, UPR 8641, F-33600 Pessac, France; Chen, Yu-Sheng [ChemMatCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation; Filatov, Alexander S. [Department; Dikarev, Evgeny V. [Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, Albany, New York 12222, United States


    A series of mixed-valent, heterometallic (mixed-transition metal) diketonates that can be utilized as prospective volatile single-source precursors for the low-temperature preparation of MxM'3–xO4 spinel oxide materials is reported. Three iron–cobalt complexes with Fe/Co ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 were synthesized by several methods using both solid-state and solution reactions. On the basis of nearly quantitative reaction yields, elemental analyses, and comparison of metal–oxygen bonds with those in homometallic analogues, heterometallic compounds were formulated as [FeIII(acac)3][CoII(hfac)2] (1), [CoII(hfac)2][FeIII(acac)3][CoII(hfac)2] (2), and [FeII(hfac)2][FeIII(acac)3][CoII(hfac)2] (3). In the above heteroleptic complexes, the Lewis acidic, coordinatively unsaturated CoII/FeII centers chelated by two hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfac) ligands maintain bridging interactions with oxygen atoms of acetylacetonate (acac) groups that chelate the neighboring FeIII metal ion. Preliminary assignment of Fe and Co positions/oxidation states in 1–3 drawn from X-ray structural investigation was corroborated by a number of complementary techniques. Single-crystal resonant synchrotron diffraction and neutron diffraction experiments unambiguously confirmed the location of Fe and Co sites in the molecules of dinuclear (1) and trinuclear (2) complexes, respectively. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry revealed the presence of FeIII- and CoII-based fragments in the gas phase upon evaporation of precursors 1 and 2 as well as of FeIII, FeII, and CoII species for complex 3. Theoretical investigation of two possible “valent isomers”, [FeIII(acac)3

  10. Mixing of solids in different mixing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Agitation of the powder (especially powders with different bulk densities) may result in migration of smaller particles downwards and of larger ones upwards. Another problem is segregation whose main cause is the difference in particle size, density shape and resilience. There are standard mixing devices, such as drum ...

  11. Nanoscale mixing of soft solids. (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E; Lodge, Timothy P; Bates, Frank S


    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C(30)H(62)) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ((1)H and (2)H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  12. [Mixed episode: complex recognition and complicated treatment]. (United States)

    Gargoloff, Pedro Rafael


    Mixed Episode is a complex syndrome with difficult in its recognition, the most prolonged duration of bipolar episodes, more frequent psychotic profile than Pure Manic Episode, with high suicidality and poor response to drugs. There are evidences of less efficacy with Lithium and Carbamazepine in Manic Episode than mixed states. Valproate improve both, manic and depressive symptoms, and it is proposed to be first choice. Olanzapine has been widely evaluated, showing robust response in acute Mania as well in depressive symptoms during Mixed episode. In the field of clinical practice, there are many patients receiving more than one drug, usually Valproate plus a second generation antipsychotic.

  13. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  14. System equivalent model mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Steven W.B.; van der Seijs, M.V.; de Klerk, D.


    This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model.

  15. High-mix insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra


    Full Text Available Premix insulins are commonly used insulin preparations, which are available in varying ratios of different molecules. These drugs contain one short- or rapid-acting, and one intermediate- or long-acting insulin. High-mix insulins are mixtures of insulins that contain 50% or more than 50% of short-acting insulin. This review describes the clinical pharmacology of high-mix insulins, including data from randomized controlled trials. It suggests various ways, in which high-mix insulin can be used, including once daily, twice daily, thrice daily, hetero-mix, and reverse regimes. The authors provide a rational framework to help diabetes care professionals, identify indications for pragmatic high-mix use.

  16. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature


    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko


    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  17. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Technical Support Program; Owens, C.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). National Low-Level Waste Management Program


    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  18. The mixing of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottino, J.M.


    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils.

  19. Theoretical analysis of mixing in liquid clouds – Part 3: Inhomogeneous mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pinsky


    Full Text Available An idealized diffusion–evaporation model of time-dependent mixing between a cloud volume and a droplet-free volume is analyzed. The initial droplet size distribution (DSD in the cloud volume is assumed to be monodisperse. It is shown that evolution of the microphysical variables and the final equilibrium state are unambiguously determined by two non-dimensional parameters. The first one is the potential evaporation parameter R, proportional to the ratio of the saturation deficit to the liquid water content in the cloud volume, that determines whether the equilibrium state is reached at 100 % relative humidity, or is characterized by a complete evaporation of cloud droplets. The second parameter Da is the Damkölher number equal to the ratio of the characteristic mixing time to the phase relaxation time. Parameters R and Da determine the type of mixing.The results are analyzed within a wide range of values of R and Da. It is shown that there is no pure homogeneous mixing, since the first mixing stage is always inhomogeneous. The mixing type can change during the mixing process. Any mixing type leads to formation of a tail of small droplets in DSD and, therefore, to DSD broadening that depends on Da. At large Da, the final DSD dispersion can be as large as 0.2. The total duration of mixing varies from several to 100 phase relaxation time periods, depending on R and Da.The definitions of homogeneous and inhomogeneous types of mixing are reconsidered and clarified, enabling a more precise delimitation between them. The paper also compares the results obtained with those based on the classic mixing concepts. >

  20. News on Deep Mixing (United States)

    Lattanzio, John C.; Dearborn, Davis S. P.; Eggleton, Peter P.


    We briefly summarize the abundant observational evidence for the need of a ``deep mixing'' mechanism in first-ascent red-giant stars, and probably in AGB stars as well. By the term ``deep mixing'' we mean some mixing mechanism which operates in the radiative zone below the convective envelope, and which transports material from the convective region to hotter regions, near the top of the hydrogen shell, where nuclear burning may take place. We then discuss a recent discovery of deep-mixing caused by the burning of 3He following first dredge-up in low-mass stars. This is expected to be a thermohaline process and preliminary calculations show that it has many of the properties required to explain the observations.

  1. Music Mixing Surface


    Gelineck, Steven; Büchert, Morten; Andersen, Jesper


    This paper presents a multi-touch based interface for mixing music. The goal of the interface is to provide users with a more intuitive control of the music mix by implementing the so-called stage metaphor control scheme, which is especially suitable for multi-touch surfaces. Specifically, we discuss functionality important for the professional music technician (main target user) - functionality, which is especially challenging to integrate when implementing the stage metaphor. Finally we pro...

  2. The health marketing mix


    Pralea, A. R.


    The well-known marketing mix of the commercial sector has found its application and has been developing in the non-profit sector. In most of the cases, the techniques and tools of commercial marketing are used to change behaviours in order to achieve social good. The targeted behaviours range widely from environmental ones to health related behaviours. The aim of the current paper is to highlight some of the characteristics of the marketing mix when applied to change health related behaviours...

  3. Music Mixing Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Büchert, Morten; Andersen, Jesper


    This paper presents a multi-touch based interface for mixing music. The goal of the interface is to provide users with a more intuitive control of the music mix by implementing the so-called stage metaphor control scheme, which is especially suitable for multi-touch surfaces. Specifically, we...... discuss functionality important for the professional music technician (main target user) - functionality, which is especially challenging to integrate when implementing the stage metaphor. Finally we propose and evaluate solutions to these challenges....

  4. Direct numerical simulations of the double scalar mixing layer. Part I: Passive scalar mixing and dissipation (United States)

    Cha, Chong M.; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen M.; Mortensen, Mikael


    The double scalar mixing layer (DSML) is a canonical problem for studying the mixing of multiple streams and, with reaction, combustion of the partially premixed type. In a DSML, a third stream consisting of a premixture of the reactants is introduced in between the pure fuel and air streams of the classic twin-feed or binary mixing problem. The well-known presumed probability density function (PDF), such as the β-PDF, can adequately model passive scalar mixing for the binary mixing problem on which state-of-the-art turbulent combustion models such as conditional moment closure and flamelet approaches rely. However, the β-PDF model, now a standard in CFD simulation, cannot describe turbulent mixing involving multiple streams; e.g., the asymmetric three-stream mixing characterizing the DSML. In this paper, direct numerical simulations of the DSML are performed to make available a high-fidelity database for developing more general, fine-scale mixing models required to compute turbulent combustion problems of practical engineering interest, which usually involve mixing between multiple streams. In this first part of two investigations, nonreacting numerical experiments are presented with emphasis on the nontrivial distributions of the passive scalar and its dissipation rate. Mapping closure modeling is applied to describe the PDFs and conditional dissipation rates of a single mixture fraction.

  5. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997 Volume 2-Calculations Performed in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm III, RT


    This volume of the progress report provides documentation of reactor physics and criticality safety studies conducted in the US during fiscal year 1997 and sponsored by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program of the US Department of Energy. Descriptions of computational and experimental benchmarks for the verification and validation of computer programs for neutron physics analyses are included. All benchmarks include either plutonium, uranium, or mixed uranium and plutonium fuels. Calculated physics parameters are reported for all of the computational benchmarks and for those experimental benchmarks that the US and Russia mutually agreed in November 1996 were applicable to mixed-oxide fuel cycles for light-water reactors.

  6. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  7. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health


    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  8. Mixed-parity superconductivity in centrosymmetric crystals


    Sergienko, I. A.


    A weak-coupling formalism for superconducting states possessing both singlet (even parity) and triplet (odd parity) components of the order parameter in centrosymmetric crystals is developed. It is shown that the quasiparticle energy spectrum may be non-degenerate even if the triplet component is unitary. The superconducting gap of a mixed-parity state may have line nodes in the strong spin-orbit coupling limit. The pseudospin carried by the superconducting electrons is calculated, from which...

  9. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques. (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J


    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  10. Neutrino Mixing: Theoretical Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido


    We present a concise review of the recent important experimental developments on neutrino mixing (hints for sterile neutrinos, large $\\theta_{13}$, possible non maximal $\\theta_{23}$, approaching sensitivity on $\\delta_{CP}$) and their implications on models of neutrino mixing. The new data disfavour many models but the surviving ones still span a wide range going from Anarchy (no structure, no symmetry in the lepton sector) to a maximum of symmetry, as for the models based on discrete non-abelian flavour groups that can be improved following the indications from the data.

  11. Mixing navigation on networks (United States)

    Zhou, Tao


    In this article, we propose a mixing navigation mechanism, which interpolates between random-walk and shortest-path protocol. The navigation efficiency can be remarkably enhanced via a few routers. Some advanced strategies are also designed: For non-geographical scale-free networks, the targeted strategy with a tiny fraction of routers can guarantee an efficient navigation with low and stable delivery time almost independent of network size. For geographical localized networks, the clustering strategy can simultaneously increase efficiency and reduce the communication cost. The present mixing navigation mechanism is of significance especially for information organization of wireless sensor networks and distributed autonomous robotic systems.

  12. Mixed Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Müller


    Full Text Available Currently one of the most challenging aspects of human computer interaction design is the integration of physical and digital worlds in a single environment. This fusion involves the development of "Mixed Reality Systems”, including various technologies from the domains of augmented and virtual reality. In this paper I will present related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our own research and prototype development. Our recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pure’ virtual reality techniques to support seamless collaborative work between remote and hands-on laboratories.

  13. Mixing in a river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernath, L.; Menegus, R.L.; Ring, H.F.


    Many rivers are burdened with tributary streams of warm water and/or liquid wastes containing dissolved or suspended matter. The warm water and waste matter mix thoroughly with the river water some distance downstream from the point of entry of the tributary, but near the point of entry there may be high local temperatures or concentrations of waste. It is often necessary to know the local temperatures or concentrations of waste. The authors have used a formula for computing the turbulent mixing that takes place in such a situation; this formula fits quite well in the case of one Southern river.

  14. Turbulence and Interfacial Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glimm, James; Li, Xiaolin


    The authors study mix from analytical and numerical points of view. These investigations are linked. The analytical studies (in addition to laboratory experiments) provide bench marks for the direct simulation of mix. However, direct simulation is too detailed to be useful and to expensive to be practical. They also consider averaged equations. Here the major issue is the validation of the closure assumptions. They appeal to the direct simulation methods for this step. They have collaborated with several NNSA teams; moreover, Stony Brook alumni (former students, faculty and research collaborators) presently hold staff positions in NNSA laboratories.

  15. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang


    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  16. Transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Siyuan


    Full Text Available Rotating drums are widely used in industry for mixing, milling, coating and drying processes. In the past decades, mixing of granular materials in rotating drums has been extensively investigated, but most of the studies are based on spherical particles. Particle shape has an influence on the flow behaviour and thus mixing behaviour, though the shape effect has as-yet received limited study. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is employed to study the transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum. The effects of aspect ratio and rotating speed on mixing quality and mixing rate are investigated. The results show that mixing index increases exponentially with time for both spheres and ellipsoids. Particles with various aspect ratios are able to reach well-mixed states after sufficient revolutions in the rolling or cascading regime. Ellipsoids show higher mixing rate when rotational speed is set between 25 and 40 rpm. The relationship between mixing rate and aspect ratio of ellipsoids is established, demonstrating that, particles with aspect ratios of 0.5 and 2.0 achieve the highest mixing rates. Increasing rotating speed from 15 rpm to 40 rpm does not necessarily increase the mixing speed of spheres, while monotonous increase is observed for ellipsoids.

  17. Investigating goal conflict as a source of mixed emotions. (United States)

    Berrios, Raul; Totterdell, Peter; Kellett, Stephen


    This research investigated whether (1) the experience of mixed emotions is a consequence of activating conflicting goals and (2) mixed emotions are distinct from emotional conflict. A preliminary experiment (Study 1, N = 35) showed that an elicited goal conflict predicted more mixed emotions than a condition where the same goals were not in conflict. The second experiment was based on naturally occurring goal activation (Study 2, N = 57). This illustrated that mixed emotions were experienced more following conflicting goals compared with a facilitating goals condition-on both a direct self-report measure of mixed emotions and a minimum index measure. The results also showed that mixed emotions were different to emotional conflict. Overall, goal conflict was found to be a source of mixed emotions, and it is feasible that such states have a role in resolving personal dilemmas.

  18. Mixed Interaction Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas; Eriksson, E.; Hansen, T.R.

    In this paper, we describe a new interaction technique for mobile devices named Mixed Interaction Space that uses the camera of the mobile device to track the position, size and rotation of a fixed-point. In this demonstration we will present a system that uses a hand-drawn circle, colored object...

  19. Mediterranean Outflow Mixing Dynamics (United States)


    34 26 FEBRUARY 1993 Our hydrographic data show that the identity at least as far south as the tropics. ( Sociedad Espanola de Estudios para la Commu...mixing that in- tic , it has properties that make it neutrally of the marginal seas, and second, to allow corporates overlying North Atlantic water into

  20. Glueball-meson mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vento, Vicente [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)


    Calculations in unquenched QCD for the scalar glueball spectrum have confirmed previous results of Gluodynamics finding a glueball at ∝1750 MeV. I analyze the implications of this discovery from the point of view of glueball-meson mixing in light of the experimental scalar spectrum. (orig.)

  1. Mixed-Initiative Clustering (United States)

    Huang, Yifen


    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  2. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista


    . Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix...... computer programs and scripts one of which was developed in house (available at:

  3. Against Mixed Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Milburn


    Full Text Available We can call any reductive account of knowledge that appeals to both safety and ability conditions a mixed account of knowledge. Examples of mixed accounts of knowledge include Pritchard’s (2012 Anti-Luck Virtue Epistemology, Kelp’s (2013 Safe-Apt account of knowledge, and Turri’s (2011 Ample belief account of knowledge. Mixed accounts of knowledge are motivated by well-known counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge. It is thought that by combining both safety and ability conditions we can give an extensionally adequate reductive account of knowledge. In this paper I argue that the putative counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge fail to motivate mixed accounts of knowledge. In particular, I argue that if the putative counterexamples are problematic for safety accounts they are problematic for ability accounts and vice-versa. The reason for this, I argue, is that the safety condition and ability condition should be understood as alternative expressions of the same intuition — that knowledge must come from a reliable source.

  4. Mixed Partnering and Parenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Book of Abstracts ICCP 2016 This proposal deals with psychosocial intervention of couples in mixed-marriages in Denmark, which has barely been scientifically explored due to the homogeneity and colourblindness dominant discourse. The term “mixed” is used for couples who feel that their intimate r...

  5. Sylgard® Mixing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Welch, Cynthia F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodwin, Lynne Alese [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Sylgard® 184 and Sylgard® 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning® are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY™ Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  6. Mixing Dutch neighbourhoods through the sale of social housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, S.


    Mixing in neighbourhoods is a goal that has been stated by national government for many years. One of the ways to reach the desired mix is by selling homes owned by social landlords or housing associations. Since the new millennium “for dwell” (also known as Clients’ Choice Programme) has gained

  7. Donor‐specific tolerance induction in organ transplantation via mixed splenocytes chimerism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamazaki, S; Kanamoto, A; Takayama, T


    ... ). We have also shown the usefulness of the chimeric state for the induction of DST . Further analysis of mixed splenocytes chimera, especially the role of each T cells in mixed splenocytes chimera, is indispensable issue for its clinical use...

  8. Effect of Mix Parameters on the Strength Performance of Waste Plastics Incorporated Concrete Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh M. Malkapur


    Full Text Available Disposal of solid wastes has been a major problem all over the world. Out of all the different types of solid wastes, the major challenge of disposal is posed by the ever increasing volumes of plastic wastes. While several methods are in practice, producing newer useful materials by recycling of such plastic wastes is, by far, the best method of their disposal. One such possible method is to use the waste plastics as an ingredient in the production of the concrete mixes in the construction industry. The present study aims to investigate the relative contributions of the various mix parameters to the mechanical properties of concrete mixes produced with waste plastics as partial replacement (10–30% by volume to coarse aggregates. Initially, strength test results of a set of trial mixes, selected based on Taguchi’s design of experiments (DOE method are obtained. A detailed analysis of the experimental results is carried out to study the effect of using waste plastics as a partial replacement to coarse aggregates on the strength parameters of these concrete mixes. It is found that all these trial mixes have performed satisfactorily in terms of workability in the fresh state and strength properties in their hardened state.

  9. Charm lifetimes and mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry W.K. Cheung


    A review of the latest results on charm lifetimes and D-mixing is presented. The e{sup +}e{sup -} collider experiments are now able to measure charm lifetimes quite precisely, however comparisons with the latest results from fixed-target experiments show that possible systematic effects could be evident. The new D-mixing results from the B-factories have changed the picture that is emerging. Although the new world averaged value of y{sub CP} is now consistent with zero, there is still a very interesting and favored scenario if the strong phase difference between the Doubly-Cabibbo-suppressed and the Cabibbo-flavored D{sup 0} {yields} K{pi} decay is large.

  10. Renormalization of fermion mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiopu, R.


    Precision measurements of phenomena related to fermion mixing require the inclusion of higher order corrections in the calculation of corresponding theoretical predictions. For this, a complete renormalization scheme for models that allow for fermion mixing is highly required. The correct treatment of unstable particles makes this task difficult and yet, no satisfactory and general solution can be found in the literature. In the present work, we study the renormalization of the fermion Lagrange density with Dirac and Majorana particles in models that involve mixing. The first part of the thesis provides a general renormalization prescription for the Lagrangian, while the second one is an application to specific models. In a general framework, using the on-shell renormalization scheme, we identify the physical mass and the decay width of a fermion from its full propagator. The so-called wave function renormalization constants are determined such that the subtracted propagator is diagonal on-shell. As a consequence of absorptive parts in the self-energy, the constants that are supposed to renormalize the incoming fermion and the outgoing antifermion are different from the ones that should renormalize the outgoing fermion and the incoming antifermion and not related by hermiticity, as desired. Instead of defining field renormalization constants identical to the wave function renormalization ones, we differentiate the two by a set of finite constants. Using the additional freedom offered by this finite difference, we investigate the possibility of defining field renormalization constants related by hermiticity. We show that for Dirac fermions, unless the model has very special features, the hermiticity condition leads to ill-defined matrix elements due to self-energy corrections of external legs. In the case of Majorana fermions, the constraints for the model are less restrictive. Here one might have a better chance to define field renormalization constants related by

  11. Observation of Bs mixing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    A peculiar and most important property of Bs mesons is that they transform spontaneously into their own antiparticles, and back again. These transitions, known as flavor oscillations or mixing, are extremely rapid, rendering their measurement a very challenging experimental task. The determination of the Bs oscillation frequency is, at the same time, of great interest for constraining elements of the Standard Model CKM matrix and its unitarity. Large samples of Bs mesons collected by the CDF and D0 experiments operating at the Fermilab Tevatron have recently yielded unprecedented results, which are here reported. Emphasis is given to details of the analysis developed at CDF, presenting the observation of Bs mixing, the precise measurement of the oscillation frequency, and a discussion of its impact on the description of the flavor sector.

  12. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A


    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  13. Marketing Mix in Services


    Cătălin Grădinaru; Sorin-George Toma; Paul Marinescu


    In a hypercompetitive environment, one in which it is difficult to gain substantial competitiveadvantages, it is becoming harder and harder to differentiate yourself from the rest, especially whenactivating in the services field. In order for a company to scientifically act, react and manage to satisfyas well as possible the customer’s needs, it should carry out a rigorous management process ofservices marketing. In the past, the marketing mix comprised 4Ps: product, price, place and promotio...

  14. Mixing of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Weinekötter, Ralf


    This book is a welcome edition to the Particle Technology Series, formerly Powder Technology Series. It is the second book in the series which describes powder mixing and we make no excuses for that. The topic of powder mixing is fundamental to powder technology and is one which always aroses interest. That will not change. As powder products become more complex they will pose new mixing problems. The solutions lie in the intelligent use of equipment, an understanding of powder properties and a good knowledge of basic statistics. The authors of this book have presented those three ingredients with great clarity. The book is based on long experience and deep thought, I have enjoyed reading it and am pleased to recommend it. Delft University of Technology, NL-Delft, July 1999 Brian Scarlett, Series Editor IX VII Foreword to the English Edition In response to many enquiries from industrial organisations and institutes involved with the technology of processing bulk materials, we are pleased to present the Englis...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković


    Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.

  16. Pre-Mix and on-site mixing of fumigants


    Ryan, R F; Shore, W. P.


    Pre-Mix or On-Site mixing, a common practice with liquid insecticides, has benefits of increased synergy with fumigants. Both Pre-Mix and On-Site mixing have some issues with compatibility (e.g., active ingredient chemical stability; material compatibility; reaction with other ingredients). In addition to its fumigant properties, carbon dioxide (CO₂), has a synergistic effect on other fumigants and reduces flammability. The general consensus on the amount of CO₂ to improve efficacy is in the ...

  17. Calculation of collisional mixing (United States)

    Koponen, I.; Hautala, M.


    Collisional mixing of markers is calculated by splitting the calculation into two parts. Relocation cross sections have been calculated using a realistic potential in a Monte Carlo simulation. The cross sections are used in the computation of marker relocation. The cumulative effect of successive relocations is assumed to be an uncorrelated transport process and it is treated as a weighted random walk. Matrix relocation was not included in the calculations. The results from this two-step simulation model are compared with analytical models. A fit to the simulated differential relocation cross sections has been found which makes the numerical integration of the Bothe formula feasible. The influence of primaries has been treated in this way. When all the recoils are included the relocation profiles are nearly Gaussian and the Pearson IV distributions yield acceptable profiles in the studied cases. The approximations and cut-off procedures which cause the major uncertainties in calculations are pointed out. The choice of the cut-off energy is shown to be the source of the largest uncertainty whereas the mathematical approximations can be used with good accuracy. The methods are used to study the broadening of a Pt marker in Si mixed by 300 keV Xe ions, broadening of a Ti marker in Al mixed by 300 keV Xe ions and broadening of a Ti marker in Hf mixed by 750 keV Kr ions. The fluence in each case is 2 × 10 16{ions}/{cm 2}. The calculated averages of half widths at half maximum vary between 11-18, 9-12 and 10-15 nm, respectively, depending on the cut-off energy and the mixing efficiencies vary between 11-29, 6-11 and 6-14 {Å5}/{eV}, respectively. The broadenings of Pt in Si and Ti in Al are about two times smaller than the measured values and the broadening of Ti in Hf is in agreement with the measured values.

  18. MixSIAR: advanced stable isotope mixing models in R (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods The development of stable isotope mixing models has coincided with modeling products (e.g. IsoSource, MixSIR, SIAR), where methodological advances are published in parity with software packages. However, while mixing model theory has recently been ex...

  19. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.


    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  20. Mixed Method Research: An Overview


    Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN


    This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed meth...

  1. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing (United States)


    the Gulf Stream warm core, Ro and Rig O(1) at the Gulf Stream north wall) allowed for efficient investigation of submesoscale mixing resulting from...Float and dye revealed energetic mixing in the negative PV region, with dye spreading indicating lateral mixing rates of ~100 m2/s. Please see

  2. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul


    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  3. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur Rahaman


    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  4. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I


    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  5. MixedNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokela, Tero; Lucero, Andrés


    Affinity Diagramming is a technique to organize and make sense of qualitative data. It is commonly used in Contextual Design and HCI research. However, preparing notes for and building an Affinity Diagram remains a laborious process, with a wide variety of different approaches and practices....... In this paper, we present MixedNotes, a novel technique to prepare physical paper notes for Affinity Diagramming, and a software tool to support this technique. The technique has been tested with large real-life Affinity Diagrams with overall positive results....

  6. Mixing between hyporheic flow cells and upwelling groundwater: laboratory simulations and implications for mixing-dependent reactions (United States)

    Hester, E. T.; Nida, A.


    The hyporheic zone is the region where surface water and groundwater interact beneath and adjacent to stream and river systems. The hyporheic zone has been shown to affect water quality constituents such as heat, pollutants, and nutrients in this interfacial region. Recent modeling studies have shown that some compounds upwelling from groundwater toward surface water only react when water originating in surface water and groundwater mix at the edge of the hyporheic zone. These "mixing-dependent" reactions may be important for addressing upwelling pollution, yet depend on the extent of the mixing zone. Recent modeling studies have also shown this mixing zone to be thin, but this has not been confirmed in lab or field studies. Our current study took the first step toward such confirmation by simulating mixing between hyporheic flow cells and upwelling groundwater in a 1.7 m x 1m flow-through laboratory sediment mesocosm. We used tracer dyes and digital photographs taken through the glass wall of the mesocosm to quantify mixing zone thickness. We varied key hydraulic controls such as the surface water head drop that drives the hyporheic flow cells. Steady-state results confirm the thin mixing zones predicted by the earlier modeling. Mixing zone length increases with increasing surface water head drop, but mixing zone thickness appears to remain relatively constant. Furthermore, if the head drop in surface water changes rapidly, the mixing zone moves through riverbed sediments but does not appear to change appreciably in thickness. As a result, we conclude that mixing zones are probably thin under a range of field conditions. This has implications for one common definition of the hyporheic zone as an area of substantial mixing of surface water and groundwater. Thin mixing zones also may limit mixing-dependent reactions of upwelling contaminants, which bears further study.

  7. Quantum Darwinism in a Mixed Environment (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H. T.; Zurek, Wojciech H.


    Quantum Darwinism recognizes that we—the observers—acquire our information about the “systems of interest” indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Here, we show that information about a system can be acquired from a mixed-state, or hazy, environment, but the storage capacity of an environment fragment is suppressed by its initial entropy. In the case of good decoherence, the mutual information between the system and the fragment is given solely by the fragment’s entropy increase. For fairly mixed environments, this means a reduction by a factor 1-h, where h is the haziness of the environment, i.e., the initial entropy of an environment qubit. Thus, even such hazy environments eventually reveal the state of the system, although now the intercepted environment fragment must be larger by ˜(1-h)-1 to gain the same information about the system.

  8. Mixed Rademacher and BPS black holes (United States)

    Ferrari, Francesca; Reys, Valentin


    Dyonic 1/4-BPS states in Type IIB string theory compactified on K3 × T 2 are counted by meromorphic Jacobi forms. The finite parts of these functions, which are mixed mock Jacobi forms, account for the degeneracy of states stable throughout the moduli space of the compactification. In this paper, we obtain an exact asymptotic expansion for their Fourier coefficients, refining the Hardy-Ramanujan-Littlewood circle method to deal with their mixed-mock character. The result is compared to a low-energy supergravity computation of the exact entropy of extremal dyonic 1/4-BPS single-centered black holes, obtained by applying supersymmetric localization techniques to the quantum entropy function.

  9. Evaluating the impact of Mexico’s drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda (United States)


    Background Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing “war on drugs,” Mexico recently implemented drug policy reforms that partially decriminalized possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use while promoting drug treatment. Recognizing important epidemiologic, policy, and socioeconomic differences between the United States—where possession of any psychoactive drugs without a prescription remains illegal—and Mexico—where possession of small quantities for personal use was partially decriminalized, we sought to assess changes over time in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and infectious disease profiles among PWID in the adjacent border cities of San Diego, CA, USA, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Methods Based on extensive binational experience and collaboration, from 2012–2014 we initiated two parallel, prospective, mixed methods studies: Proyecto El Cuete IV in Tijuana (n = 785) and the STAHR II Study in San Diego (n = 575). Methods for sampling, recruitment, and data collection were designed to be compatible in both studies. All participants completed quantitative behavioral and geographic assessments and serological testing (HIV in both studies; hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis in STAHR II) at baseline and four semi-annual follow-up visits. Between follow-up assessment visits, subsets of participants completed qualitative interviews to explore contextual factors relating to study aims and other emergent phenomena. Planned analyses include descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data, content analysis and other mixed-methods approaches for qualitative data, and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-positive samples to understand cross-border transmission dynamics. Results Investigators and research staff shared preliminary findings across studies to provide feedback on instruments and insights regarding local

  10. Fast mixing condensation nucleus counter


    Flagan, Richard C.; Wang, Jian


    A fast mixing condensation nucleus counter useful for detecting particles entrained in a sample gas stream is provided. The fast mixing condensation nucleus counter comprises a detector and a mixing condensation device having a mixing chamber adapted to allow gas to flow from an inlet to an outlet, wherein the outlet directs the gas flow to the detector. The mixing chamber has an inlet for introducing vapor-laden gas into the chamber and at least one nozzle for introducing a sample gas having...

  11. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Dushoff, Jonathan


    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors' behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually, the square lattice) and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously either by picking a random individual and either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in case of a finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing...

  12. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert


    mixing dynamics are interplayed with fundamental properties of the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations, with the problem sensitivity to the initial conditions and to the boundary conditions at the discontinuities, and with its stochastic description. The state-of-the-art numerical simulations of the multi-phase non-equilibrium dynamics suggest new methods for capturing discontinuities and singularities and shock-interface interaction, for predictive modeling of the multi-scale dynamics in fluids and plasmas, for error estimate and uncertainty quantification as well as for novel data assimilation techniques. The First International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' (TMB-2007), was held on 18-26 August 2007 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. This was a highly informative and exciting meeting, by all the standards a major success. The Conference brought together 120 participants (307 authors) from five continents, ranging from students to members of National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and including researchers from the Universities, National Laboratories, Leading Scientific Institutions and Industry. TMB-2007 covered 16 different topics, maintaining the scope and the interdisciplinary character of the meeting, and kept the focus on a fundamental fluid dynamic problem of unsteady turbulent processes and the Conference Objectives. The success of the TMB-07 was a result of the successful work of all the participants, who were serious and professional people, caring for the quality of their research and sharing their scientific vision. The level of presentations was high, and the presentations included 87 oral contributions, 32 invited lectures and 5 tutorials and over 30 poster contributions. The round table discussions held at TMB-2007 investigated the organization of a Collaborative Computing Environment for the Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Community. The abstracts of the 150 accepted Conference

  13. Quantum state certification


    Bădescu, Costin; O'Donnell, Ryan; Wright, John


    We consider the problem of quantum state certification, where one is given $n$ copies of an unknown $d$-dimensional quantum mixed state $\\rho$, and one wants to test whether $\\rho$ is equal to some known mixed state $\\sigma$ or else is $\\epsilon$-far from $\\sigma$. The goal is to use notably fewer copies than the $\\Omega(d^2)$ needed for full tomography on $\\rho$ (i.e., density estimation). We give two robust state certification algorithms: one with respect to fidelity using $n = O(d/\\epsilon...

  14. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan


    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  15. Chaotic mixing and mixing efficiency in a short time (United States)

    Funakoshi, Mitsuaki


    Several studies of the chaotic motion of fluid particles by two-dimensional time-periodic flows or three-dimensional steady flows, called Lagrangian chaos, are first introduced. Secondly, some of the studies on efficient mixing caused by Lagrangian chaos, called chaotic mixing, are reviewed with discussion of several indices for the estimation of mixing efficiency. Finally, several indices to estimate the efficiency of mixing in a short time, such as those related to transport matrices, stable and unstable manifolds of hyperbolic periodic points of Poincaré maps, and lines of separation, are explained by showing examples of mixing by two-dimensional time-periodic flows between eccentric rotating cylinders and mixing by three-dimensional steady flows in a model of static mixers.

  16. Treatment recommendations for DSM-5-defined mixed features. (United States)

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; McIntyre, Roger S


    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) mixed features specifier provides a less restrictive definition of mixed mood states, compared to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), including mood episodes that manifest with subthreshold symptoms of the opposite mood state. A limited number of studies have assessed the efficacy of treatments specifically for DSM-5-defined mixed features in mood disorders. As such, there is currently an inadequate amount of data to appropriately inform evidence-based treatment guidelines of DSM-5 defined mixed features. However, given the high prevalence and morbidity of mixed features, treatment recommendations based on the currently available evidence along with expert opinion may be of benefit. This article serves to provide these interim treatment recommendations while humbly acknowledging the limited amount of evidence currently available. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) appear to have the greatest promise in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) with mixed features. Conventional mood stabilizing agents (ie, lithium and divalproex) may also be of benefit; however, they have been inadequately studied. In the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) with mixed features, the comparable efficacy of antidepressants versus other treatments, such as SGAs, remains unknown. As such, antidepressants remain first-line treatment of MDD with or without mixed features; however, there are significant safety concerns associated with antidepressant monotherapy when mixed features are present, which merits increased monitoring. Lurasidone is the only SGA monotherapy that has been shown to be efficacious specifically in the treatment of MDD with mixed features. Further research is needed to accurately determine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of treatments specifically for mood episodes with mixed features to adequately inform

  17. Combining tower mixing ratio and community model data to estimate regional-scale net ecosystem carbon exchange by boundary layer inversion over four flux towers in the United States (United States)

    Xueri Dang; Chun-Ta Lai; David Y. Hollinger; Andrew J. Schauer; Jingfeng Xiao; J. William Munger; Clenton Owensby; James R. Ehleringer


    We evaluated an idealized boundary layer (BL) model with simple parameterizations using vertical transport information from community model outputs (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis and ECMWF Interim Analysis) to estimate regional-scale net CO2 fluxes from 2002 to 2007 at three forest and one grassland flux sites in the United States. The BL modeling...

  18. Fluid mixing in stratified gravity currents: the Prandtl mixing length. (United States)

    Odier, P; Chen, J; Rivera, M K; Ecke, R E


    Shear-induced vertical mixing in a stratified flow is a key ingredient of thermohaline circulation. We experimentally determine the vertical flux of momentum and density of a forced gravity current using high-resolution velocity and density measurements. A constant eddy-viscosity model provides a poor description of the physics of mixing, but a Prandtl mixing length model relating momentum and density fluxes to mean velocity and density gradients works well. For the average gradient Richardson number Ri(g) approximately 0.08 and a Taylor Reynolds number Re(lambda) approximately 100, the mixing lengths are fairly constant, about the same magnitude, comparable to the turbulent shear length.

  19. Rational choice, neuroeconomy and mixed emotions (United States)

    Livet, Pierre


    Experimental psychology has shown differences between predictions of theory of decision and human choices. Emotions like regret can partly explain these differences. Neuroimagery used in combination with behavioural economics (neuroeconomics) has been used in order to try to disentangle the different emotional and rational factors (regret, rejoicing, reward, costs, uncertainty, trade-off between positive and negative aspects of different options). Emotions then appear as much more complex and mixed affective states than usually assumed. Not only might we feel a positive affect in punishing unfair partners, but mixed emotions can, for example, combine transmutation of previous anxiety into relief and elation by comparison with another less exciting option (elating relief). At the level of complexity of these mixed emotions—which we formally represent by comparisons between ‘unexpected utilities’ and expected ones—the main biases that Kahnemann and Tversky have shown can be explained. In spite of the complexity of these mixed emotions, some of these hypotheses might be partially tested by brain imagery. PMID:20026464

  20. Mix It Up (United States)

    Vasquez-Mireles, Selina; West, Sandra


    A correlated science lesson is characterized as an integrated science lesson in that it may incorporate traditionally integrated activities and use math as a tool. However, a correlated math-science lesson also: (1) has the pertinent math and science objectives aligned with state standards; and (2) teaches parallel science and math ideas equally.…

  1. Mixing Ventilation. Guide on mixing air distribution design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection...... of air diffusers and exhaust openings....

  2. Mixing ventilation guide on mixing air distribution design

    CERN Document Server

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Krikor Melikov, Arsen; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm


    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection of air diffusers and exhaust openings.

  3. Functional Additive Mixed Models (United States)

    Scheipl, Fabian; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Greven, Sonja


    We propose an extensive framework for additive regression models for correlated functional responses, allowing for multiple partially nested or crossed functional random effects with flexible correlation structures for, e.g., spatial, temporal, or longitudinal functional data. Additionally, our framework includes linear and nonlinear effects of functional and scalar covariates that may vary smoothly over the index of the functional response. It accommodates densely or sparsely observed functional responses and predictors which may be observed with additional error and includes both spline-based and functional principal component-based terms. Estimation and inference in this framework is based on standard additive mixed models, allowing us to take advantage of established methods and robust, flexible algorithms. We provide easy-to-use open source software in the pffr() function for the R-package refund. Simulations show that the proposed method recovers relevant effects reliably, handles small sample sizes well and also scales to larger data sets. Applications with spatially and longitudinally observed functional data demonstrate the flexibility in modeling and interpretability of results of our approach. PMID:26347592

  4. MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad


    We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041

  5. Mixing measures in non-conservative transport systems (United States)

    Engdahl, N. B.; Fogg, G. E.


    Predictions of the fate of reactive solutes in porous media are often made by using the mixing state of the system to determine effective reaction rates. This approach can be useful when the mixing measure accurately characterizes the behavior of the solutes, but, in many cases, the behavior of the mixing measure depends on the reaction system itself. Quantifying mixing is further complicated because the mixing measures often require complete knowledge of the concentration field which is never available in practice. Here we investigate the behavior of the scalar dissipation rate, the dilution index, the variance, and total solute mass in non-conservative transport systems for three component kinetic reactions in large, but finite, monitoring areas. The effects of different reaction rates, mass transfer, mobility, and different initial conditions are considered for these mixing measures. Mass transfer can cause a delay in the time required for the reaction system to reach an equilibrium state, and the magnitude of the delay depends on the mass transfer rate. The effects of this multi-step equilibrium process can manifest contrarily for different mixing measures, and these effects are amplified when the reaction product is immobile. For precipitation-dissolution reactions, the mass transfer rate may depend on the concentration of an immobile precipitate. This process causes sharp transitions in the mixing measures that are the result of a lingering chemical disequilibrium, caused by the concentration dependent mass transfer rates. The immobile domain and the initial conditions can have strong effects on the mixing state for long times, and, without knowledge of immobile concentrations, these effects could easily be attributed to measurement errors.

  6. Mixing in polymeric microfluidic devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Davis, Robert H. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO); Brotherton, Christopher M. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO)


    This SAND report describes progress made during a Sandia National Laboratories sponsored graduate fellowship. The fellowship was funded through an LDRD proposal. The goal of this project is development and characterization of mixing strategies for polymeric microfluidic devices. The mixing strategies under investigation include electroosmotic flow focusing, hydrodynamic focusing, physical constrictions and porous polymer monoliths. For electroosmotic flow focusing, simulations were performed to determine the effect of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with heterogeneous surface potential. The heterogeneous surface potential caused recirculations to form within the microchannel. These recirculations could then be used to restrict two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the mixing region surface potential to the average channel surface potential was made large in magnitude and negative in sign, and when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Based on these results, experiments were performed to evaluate the manipulation of surface potential using living-radical photopolymerization. The material chosen to manipulate typically exhibits a negative surface potential. Using living-radical surface grafting, a positive surface potential was produced using 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and a neutral surface was produced using a poly(ethylene glycol) surface graft. Simulations investigating hydrodynamic focusing were also performed. For this technique, mixing is enhanced by using a tertiary fluid stream to constrict the two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the tertiary flow stream flow-rate to the mixing streams flow-rate was maximized. Also, like the electroosmotic focusing mixer, mixing was also maximized when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the

  7. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models using R

    CERN Document Server

    Berridge, Damon Mark


    Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using R presents robust and methodologically sound models for analyzing large and complex data sets, enabling readers to answer increasingly complex research questions. The book applies the principles of modeling to longitudinal data from panel and related studies via the Sabre software package in R. A Unified Framework for a Broad Class of Models The authors first discuss members of the family of generalized linear models, gradually adding complexity to the modeling framework by incorporating random effects. After reviewing the generalized linear model notation, they illustrate a range of random effects models, including three-level, multivariate, endpoint, event history, and state dependence models. They estimate the multivariate generalized linear mixed models (MGLMMs) using either standard or adaptive Gaussian quadrature. The authors also compare two-level fixed and random effects linear models. The appendices contain additional information on quadrature, model...

  8. Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika


    Organic mixed conductors have garnered significant attention in applications from bioelectronics to energy storage/generation. Their implementation in organic transistors has led to enhanced biosensing, neuromorphic function, and specialized circuits. While a narrow class of conducting polymers continues to excel in these new applications, materials design efforts have accelerated as researchers target new functionality, processability, and improved performance/stability. Materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) require both efficient electronic transport and facile ion injection in order to sustain high capacity. In this work, we show that the product of the electronic mobility and volumetric charge storage capacity (µC*) is the materials/system figure of merit; we use this framework to benchmark and compare the steady-state OECT performance of ten previously reported materials. This product can be independently verified and decoupled to guide materials design and processing. OECTs can therefore be used as a tool for understanding and designing new organic mixed conductors.

  9. Isospin Mixing In N $\\approx$ Z Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    Srnka, D; Versyck, S; Zakoucky, D


    Isospin mixing in N $\\approx$ Z nuclei region of the nuclear chart is an important phenomenon in nuclear physics which has recently gained theoretical and experimental interest. It also forms an important nuclear physics correction in the precise determination of the $ft$-values of superallowed 0$^+ \\rightarrow 0^+ \\beta$- transitions. The latter are used in precision tests of the weak interaction from nuclear $\\beta$- decay. We propose to experimentally measure isospin mixing into nuclear ground states in the N $\\approx$ Z region by determining the isospin forbidden Fermi-component in the Gamow-Teller dominated $J^{\\pi} \\rightarrow J^{\\pi} \\beta$- transitions through the observation of anisotropic positron emission from oriented nuclei. First measurements were carried out with $^{71}$As and are being analyzed now.

  10. Weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration


    The Talk will cover weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders ATLAS and CMS in particular. ATLAS has measured the forward-backward asymmetry for the neutral current Drell Yan process in a wide mass range around the Z resonance region using dielectron and dimuon final states with $\\sqrt{s}$ =7 TeV data. For the dielectron channel, the measurement includes electrons detected in the forward calorimeter which extends the covered phase space. The result is then used to extract a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle. Uncertainties from the limited knowledge on the parton distribution functions in the proton constitute a significant part of the uncertainty and a dedicated study is performed to obtain a PDF set describing W and Z data measured previously by ATLAS. Similar studies from CMS will be reported.

  11. Supercritical fluid mixing in Diesel Engine Applications (United States)

    Bravo, Luis; Ma, Peter; Kurman, Matthew; Tess, Michael; Ihme, Matthias; Kweon, Chol-Bum


    A numerical framework for simulating supercritical fluids mixing with large density ratios is presented in the context of diesel sprays. Accurate modeling of real fluid effects on the fuel air mixture formation process is critical in characterizing engine combustion. Recent work (Dahms, 2013) has suggested that liquid fuel enters the chamber in a transcritical state and rapidly evolves to supercritical regime where the interface transitions from a distinct liquid/gas interface into a continuous turbulent mixing layer. In this work, the Peng Robinson EoS is invoked as the real fluid model due to an acceptable compromise between accuracy and computational tractability. Measurements at supercritical conditions are reported from the Constant Pressure Flow (CPF) chamber facility at the Army Research Laboratory. Mie and Schlieren optical spray diagnostics are utilized to provide time resolved liquid and vapor penetration length measurement. The quantitative comparison presented is discussed. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU).

  12. Unidirectional ring-laser operation using sum-frequency mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Pedersen, Christian


    A technique enforcing unidirectional operation of ring lasers is proposed and demonstrated. The approach relies on sum-frequency mixing between a single-pass laser and one of the two counterpropagating intracavity fields of the ring laser. Sum-frequency mixing introduces a parametric loss...... where lossless second-order nonlinear materials are available. Numerical modeling and experimental demonstration of parametric-induced unidirectional operation of a diode-pumped solid-state 1342 nm cw ring laser are presented....

  13. Wave-mixing solitons in bulk photorefractive crystals (United States)

    Bugaychuk, S. A.; Kovács, Laszlo; Mandula, Gabor; Polgár, Katalin; Rupp, Romano A.


    Instead of unstable solutions for conventional four-wave mixing equation set, we obtain the stationary soliton solution for the dynamic grating amplitude and stable auto-oscillations of the dynamic grating. The dynamics of grating recording is described by the sine-Gordon equations in transmission four-wave mixing with non-local grating. The method to calculate the grating amplitude profile and the both steady state and oscillation regimes is developed.

  14. Quark flavor mixing, CP violation, and all that

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, F.J.


    We review the present state of knowledge of the mixing of quark flavors under weak interactions and the associated explanation of CP violation inherent in the single nontrivial phase present in the three-generation mixing matrix. In this context we present the phenomenological basis for the increasing possibility that large CP violation asymmetries can be experimentally observed in the B meson system. 39 refs., 11 figs.,

  15. Engineering of mixed pairing and non-Abelian Majorana states in chiral p-wave superconductor Sr2RuO4 and other materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    This project deals with odd-parity superconductor Sr2RuO4 and related material systems, aiming at understanding the unconventional nature of superconductivity in this material. An odd-parity superconductor is expected to feature a novel topological object, the half-flux-quantum vortex that hosts a Majorana anyons. Majorana anyons carry non-Abelian statistics that can be used as the building block for constructing a fault-tolerated topological quantum computer. Half-flux-quantum vortices form in an odd-parity superconductor because of the availability of charge neutral spin supercurrent in addition to the normal supercurrent. Half-height magnetization steps were found in a cantilever magnetometry measurement of doubly connected mesoscopic samples of Sr2RuO4 in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field (J. Jang, D. G. Ferguson, V. Vakaryuk, R. Budakian, S. B. Chung, P. M. Goldbart, and Y. Maeno, Science 331, 186 (2011)), which suggests the presence of a half-flux-quantum (Φ0/2 = h/4e) state. Evidence for half flux quantum states, which can be viewed as coreless half vortices, was obtained in mesoscopic samples of Sr2RuO4 in the torque magnetomitry measurements. However, the existence of such an important property has not been confirmed by any other independent measurement.

  16. Reactivity trends of hydroxide ion attack on high spin Fe(II complexes including bromosalicylidene amino acid ligands in some mixed aqueous solvents: Gibb’s Free Energy of Transfer and initial-transition state analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila H. Abdel-Rahman


    Full Text Available The kinetics of hydroxide ion attack on bis(bromosalicylidene alanateiron (II (bsali, bis(bromosalicylidene phenylalanateiron(II (bsphali, bis(bromosalicylidene aspartateiron(II (bsasi, (bromosalicylidene histidinateiron(II (bshi, bis(bromosalicylidene arginateiron(II (bsari have been reported in different binary aqueous solvent mixtures at 298 K. The observed reactivity trends are discussed in terms of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic forms of the complexes investigated, as well as the transfer chemical potentials of hydroxide ion and the complex. Both the solvent–solute and solvent–solvent interactions have been considered. The hydrophobic character of the complexes studied was manifested by decreasing in reactivity. Solvent effect on reactivity trends of the investigated complexes has been analyzed into initial and transition state components by using the transfer chemical potentials of the reactants and the kinetic data of the studied compounds. The decrease in the observed rate constant values (kobs of the base hydrolysis of the investigated complexes with increasing of solvent % is dominated by the initial state (IS.

  17. Environmental Protection Agency update on mixed waste regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A. [Environmental Protection Agency (United States)


    This paper is divided into discussion of the following four basic areas: (1) dual regulation; (2) the state role; (3) an overview of current agency activities; and (4) current issues. The first area, dual regulation of mixed waste, requires the cooperation between regulatory agencies, whether federal or state, for managing the chemical and radioactive aspects of mixed waste. Dual or joint regulation of mixed waste is now a well established fact. The second area is state involvement. Dual regulation involves not only the EPA, DOE, and NRC, but also state authorities. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is implemented for the most part by the individual states. Congress intended that the states be the primary implementers of RCRA and created provisions in the Act to authorize state programs. The third area discussed in this paper is concerned with EPA`s progress on current issues. EPA has progressed on several promises to create strong centralized guidance. Fourth and finally, there are many issues outstanding and some may have direct specific significant impact on DOE facility operations. Perhaps the biggest outstanding issue is how the land disposal restrictions will affect the treatment, storage, and disposal of mixed waste at DOE facilities.

  18. Mixing in a Microfluid Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Deryabin, Mikhail

    Mixing of fluids in microchannels cannot rely on turbulence since the flow takes place at extremly low Reynolds numbers. Various active and passive devices have been developed to induce mixing in microfluid flow devices. We describe here a model of an active mixer where a transverse periodic flow...

  19. mixed type partial differential equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Denche


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a mixed problem with integral boundary conditions for a high order partial differential equation of mixed type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The proof is based on energy inequality, and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the considered problem.

  20. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  1. Mixing and CP Violation in Charm Meson Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, B; /Cincinnati U.


    Mixing and CP violation (CPV ) in the neutral D system were first discussed over thirty years ago but mixing was observed for the first time only very recently. Since then, these observations have been confirmed in other experiments and in other D{sup 0} decay modes. Unlike the K, B and B{sub s} systems, for which mixing was observed years earlier, the short distance ({Delta}C = 2) amplitude contributing to mixing in the D system arises from box diagrams with down- rather than up-type quarks in the loops. The d and s components are GIM-suppressed, and the b component is suppressed by the small V{sub ub} CKM coupling. In the standard model (SM), therefore, long range, non-perturbative effects, a coherent sum over intermediate states accessible to both D{sup 0} and {bar D}{sup 0}, are the main contribution to mixing. These are hard to compute reliably, however. The phenomenon of mixing in neutral meson systems has now been observed in all flavours, but only in the past year in the D{sup 0} system. The standard model anticipated that, for the charm sector, the mixing rate would be small, and also that CP violation, either in mixing or in direct decay, would be below the present levels of observability. It is hoped that further study of these phenomena might reveal signs of new physics. A review of recently available, experimental results is given.

  2. Mixed finite elements for global tide models. (United States)

    Cotter, Colin J; Kirby, Robert C


    We study mixed finite element methods for the linearized rotating shallow water equations with linear drag and forcing terms. By means of a strong energy estimate for an equivalent second-order formulation for the linearized momentum, we prove long-time stability of the system without energy accumulation-the geotryptic state. A priori error estimates for the linearized momentum and free surface elevation are given in [Formula: see text] as well as for the time derivative and divergence of the linearized momentum. Numerical results confirm the theoretical results regarding both energy damping and convergence rates.

  3. Four-wave mixing with femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skenderovic, H [Institute of Physics, Bijenicka cesta 46, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail:


    The recent development of noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers (NOPAs) has equipped many laboratories with widely tunable, spectrally broad ultrashort laser pulses with a duration of 15-30 fs. The present work deals with sub-20 fs pulsed degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) on high-frequency vibrational levels in all-trans-{beta}-carotene. The observed wavepacket motion on the electronic ground state revealed fast oscillating vibrational modes whose frequencies and time development were measured. The coherent control in an open loop is demonstrated by appropriate phase shaping of the pulses.

  4. Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models

    CERN Document Server

    McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M


    An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m

  5. Reactive mixing in swirling flows (United States)

    Cheng, W. K.


    The effect of swirl on the mixing of two gas streams of the same density and axial velocity in a coaxial annular geometry has been examined. The flow is studied via a fluorescent tracer, 2-3 biacetyl. Through direct excitation, collisional excitation, and collisional de-excitation of the tracer, the turbulent transport, molecularly mixed and unmixed regions in the flow are visualized. The visualization results indicate that there are interesting three dimensional inviscid large scale structures. Mixing in the molecular level is found to be mainly localized in these structures.

  6. Equations of the mixed type

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsadze, A V


    Equations of the Mixed Type compiles a series of lectures on certain fundamental questions in the theory of equations of mixed type. This book investigates the series of problems concerning linear partial differential equations of the second order in two variables, and possessing the property that the type of the equation changes either on the boundary of or inside the considered domain. Topics covered include general remarks on linear partial differential equations of mixed type; study of the solutions of second order hyperbolic equations with initial conditions given along the lines of parab

  7. [Marketing mix in health service]. (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio


    The marketing mix is the combination of the marketing variables that a firm employs with the purpose to achieve the expected volume of business within its market. In the sale of goods, four variables compose the marketing mix (4 Ps): Product, Price, Point of sale and Promotion. In the case of providing services, three further elements play a role: Personnel, Physical Evidence and Processes (7 Ps). The marketing mix must be addressed to the consumers as well as to the employees of the providing firm. Furthermore, it must be interpreted as employees ability to satisfy customers (interactive marketing).

  8. Optimal convex approximations of quantum states (United States)

    Sacchi, Massimiliano F.


    We consider the problem of optimally approximating an unavailable quantum state ρ by the convex mixing of states drawn from a set of available states {νi} . The problem is recast to look for the least distinguishable state from ρ among the convex set ∑ipiνi , and the corresponding optimal weights {pi} provide the optimal convex mixing. We present the complete solution for the optimal convex approximation of a qubit mixed state when the set of available states comprises the three bases of the Pauli matrices.

  9. Mixing Study in a Multi-dimensional Motion Mixer (United States)

    Shah, R.; Manickam, S. S.; Tomei, J.; Bergman, T. L.; Chaudhuri, B.


    Mixing is an important but poorly understood aspect in petrochemical, food, ceramics, fertilizer and pharmaceutical processing and manufacturing. Deliberate mixing of granular solids is an essential operation in the production of industrial powder products usually constituted from different ingredients. The knowledge of particle flow and mixing in a blender is critical to optimize the design and operation. Since performance of the product depends on blend homogeneity, the consequence of variability can be detrimental. A common approach to powder mixing is to use a tumbling blender, which is essentially a hollow vessel horizontally attached to a rotating shaft. This single axis rotary blender is one of the most common batch mixers among in industry, and also finds use in myriad of application as dryers, kilns, coaters, mills and granulators. In most of the rotary mixers the radial convection is faster than axial dispersion transport. This slow dispersive process hinders mixing performance in many blending, drying and coating applications. A double cone mixer is designed and fabricated which rotates around two axes, causing axial mixing competitive to its radial counterpart. Discrete Element Method (DEM) based numerical model is developed to simulate the granular flow within the mixer. Digitally recorded mixing states from experiments are used to fine tune the numerical model. Discrete pocket samplers are also used in the experiments to quantify the characteristics of mixing. A parametric study of the effect of vessel speeds, relative rotational speed (between two axes of rotation), on the granular mixing is investigated by experiments and numerical simulation. Incorporation of dual axis rotation enhances axial mixing by 60 to 85% in comparison to single axis rotation.

  10. Discriminative Mixed-Membership Models (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Although mixed-membership models have achieved great success in unsupervised learning, they have not been widely applied to classification problems. In this paper,...

  11. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.


    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  12. Mixed methods research for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James; Farr, Fiona


    Defining and discussing the relevance of theoretical and practical issues involved in mixed methods research. Covering the basics of research methodology, this textbook shows you how to choose and combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to b

  13. Promocja a marketing-mix


    Cyrson, Edward F.


    Many companies have often forgotten that promotion is an element of marketing-mix. Therelore their promotional campain has not always been as effective as it could be. In designing and developing marketing communication one should consider all elements of marketing-mix as well as all promotional tools. They together create a promotional system in which all the elements are Mutually reinforcing and give the system the most efficient and effective power. The major thrust of promo...

  14. Markets: Ready-Mixed Concrete


    Chad Syverson


    Concrete's natural color is gray. Its favored uses are utilitarian. Its very ubiquity causes it to blend into the background. But ready-mix concrete does have one remarkable characteristic: other than manufactured ice, perhaps no other manufacturing industry faces greater transport barriers. The transportation problem arises because ready-mix concrete both has a low value-to-weight ratio and is highly perishable -- it absolutely must be discharged from the truck before it hardens. These trans...

  15. PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.


    acceleration. Their scaling, spectral and invariant properties differ substantially from those of classical Kolmogorov turbulence. At atomistic and meso-scales, the non-equilibrium dynamics depart dramatically from a standard scenario given by the Gibbs statistic ensemble average and quasi-static Boltzmann equation. The singular aspect and the similarity of the non-equilibrium dynamics at macroscopic scales are interplayed with the fundamental properties of the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations and with the problem sensitivity to the boundary conditions at discontinuities. The state-of-the-art numerical simulations of multi-phase flows suggest new methods for predictive modeling of the multi-scale non-equilibrium dynamics in fluids and plasmas, up to peta-scale level, for error estimate and uncertainty quantification, as well as for novel data assimilation techniques. The Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, was held on 27 July-7 August 2009 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. This was a highly informative and exciting meeting, and it strengthened and reaffirmed the success of TMB-2007. TMB-2009 brought together over 180 participants from five continents, ranging from students to members of National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and including researchers at experienced and early stages of their carriers from leading scientific institutions in academia, national laboratories, corporations and industry, from developed and developing countries. The success of TMB-2009 came from the successful work of all the participants, who were responsible professionals caring for the quality of their research and sharing their scientific vision. The level of presentations was high; about 170 presentations included over 60 invited lectures and 15 tutorials (4500 minutes of talks in total), about 40 posters and two Round Tables. TMB-2009 covered 17 different topics

  16. An evaluation of mixed-mode delamination failure criteria (United States)

    Reeder, J. R.


    Many different failure criteria have been suggested for mixed mode delamination toughness, but few sets of mixed mode data exist that are consistent over the full mode I opening to mode II shear load range. The mixed mode bending (MMB) test was used to measure the delamination toughness of a brittle epoxy composite, a state of the art toughened epoxy composite, and a tough thermoplastic composite over the full mixed mode range. To gain insight into the different failure responses of the different materials, the delamination fracture surfaces were also examined. An evaluation of several failure criteria which have been reported in the literature was performed, and the range of responses modeled by each criterion was analyzed. A new bilinear failure criterion was analyzed. A new bilinear failure criterion was developed based on a change in the failure mechanism observed from the delamination surfaces. The different criteria were compared to the failure criterion. The failure response of the tough thermoplastic composite could be modeled well with the bilinear criterion but could also be modeled with the more simple linear failure criterion. Since the materials differed in their mixed mode failure response, mixed mode delamination testing will be needed to characterize a composite material. A critical evaluation is provided of the mixed mode failure criteria and should provide general guidance for selecting an appropriate criterion for other materials.

  17. Mixed features in major depressive disorder: diagnoses and treatments. (United States)

    Suppes, Trisha; Ostacher, Michael


    For the first time in 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) updated the psychiatric diagnostic system for mood disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Perhaps one of the most notable changes in the DSM-5 was the recognition of the possibility of mixed symptoms in major depression and related disorders (MDD). While MDD and bipolar and related disorders are now represented by 2 distinct chapters, the addition of a mixed features specifier to MDD represents a structural bridge between bipolar and major depression disorders, and formally recognizes the possibility of a mix of hypomania and depressive symptoms in someone who has never experienced discrete episodes of hypomania or mania. This article reviews historical perspectives on "mixed states" and the recent literature, which proposes a range of approaches to understanding "mixity." We discuss which symptoms were considered for inclusion in the mixed features specifier and which symptoms were excluded. The assumption that mixed symptoms in MDD necessarily predict a future bipolar course in patients with MDD is reviewed. Treatment for patients in a MDD episode with mixed features is critically considered, as are suggestions for future study. Finally, the premise that mood disorders are necessarily a spectrum or a gradient of severity progressing in a linear manner is argued.

  18. Perfect mixing of immiscible macromolecules at fluid interfaces (United States)

    Sheiko, Sergei; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Tsukruk, Vladimir; Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Rubinstein, Michael; Dobrynin, Andrey; Zhou, Jing


    Macromolecules typically phase separate unless their shapes and chemical compositions are tailored to explicitly drive mixing. But now our research has shown that physical constraints can drive spontaneous mixing of chemically different species. We have obtained long-range 2D arrays of perfectly mixed macromolecules having a variety of molecular architectures and chemistries, including linear chains, block-copolymer stars, and bottlebrush copolymers with hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and lipophobic chemical compositions. This is achieved by entropy-driven enhancement of steric repulsion between macromolecules anchored on a substrate. By monitoring the kinetics of mixing, we have proved that molecular intercalation is an equilibrium state. The array spacing is controlled by the length of the brush side chains. This entropic templating strategy opens new ways for generating patterns on sub-100 nm length scales with potential application in lithography, directed self-assembly, and biomedical assays. Financial support from the National Science Foundation DMR-0906985, DMR-1004576, DMR-1122483, and DMR-0907515.

  19. Mixed-mode modelling mixing methodologies for organisational intervention

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Steve; Lehaney, Brian


    The 1980s and 1990s have seen a growing interest in research and practice in the use of methodologies within problem contexts characterised by a primary focus on technology, human issues, or power. During the last five to ten years, this has given rise to challenges regarding the ability of a single methodology to address all such contexts, and the consequent development of approaches which aim to mix methodologies within a single problem situation. This has been particularly so where the situation has called for a mix of technological (the so-called 'hard') and human­ centred (so-called 'soft') methods. The approach developed has been termed mixed-mode modelling. The area of mixed-mode modelling is relatively new, with the phrase being coined approximately four years ago by Brian Lehaney in a keynote paper published at the 1996 Annual Conference of the UK Operational Research Society. Mixed-mode modelling, as suggested above, is a new way of considering problem situations faced by organisations. Traditional...

  20. New Hampshire binder and mix review. (United States)


    This review was initiated to compare relative rut testing and simple performance tests (now known as Asphalt Mix : Performance Tests) for the New Hampshire inch mix with 15% Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP). The tested mixes were : made from ...

  1. Performance life of HMA mixes : final report. (United States)


    A number of hot mix asphalt (HMA) types, such as permeable friction course (PFC), stone mastic asphalts : (SMA), performance design mixes and conventional dense graded mixes are currently used to construct or overlay : roads. One of the important inp...

  2. Tri-bimaximal-Cabibbo mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.F., E-mail: [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)


    Recent measurements of the lepton mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} by the Daya Bay and RENO reactor experiments are consistent with the relationship {theta}{sub 13} Almost-Equal-To {theta}{sub C}/{radical}(2) where {theta}{sub C} is the Cabibbo angle. We propose Tri-Bimaximal-Cabibbo (TBC) mixing, in which sin{theta}{sub 13}=sin{theta}{sub C}/{radical}(2), sin{theta}{sub 23}=1/{radical}(2) and sin{theta}{sub 12}=1/{radical}(3). We show that TBC mixing may arise approximately from tri-bimaximal, bi-maximal or Golden Ratio neutrino mixing, together with Cabibbo-like charged lepton corrections arising from a Pati-Salam gauge group, leading to predictions for the CP-violating phase of {delta} Almost-Equal-To {+-}90 Degree-Sign ,{+-}180 Degree-Sign ,{+-}75 Degree-Sign , respectively. Alternatively, we show that TBC neutrino mixing may realised accurately using the type I see-saw mechanism with partially constrained sequential right-handed neutrino dominance, assuming a family symmetry which is broken by a flavon common to quarks and neutrinos.

  3. Turbulent mix experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimonte, G.; Schneider, M.; Frerking, C.E.


    Hydrodynamic instabilities produce material mixing that can significantly degrade weapons performance. We investigate the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in the turbulent regime in two experimental venues. RM experiments are conducted on the Nova laser with strong radiatively driven shocks (Mach > 20) in planar, two fluid targets. Interfacial perturbations are imposed with single sinusoidal modes to test linear theory and with three dimensional (3D) random modes to produce turbulent mix. RT experiments are conducted on a new facility, the Linear Electric Motor (LEM), in which macroscopic fluids are accelerated with arbitrary temporal profiles. This allows detailed diagnosis of the turbulence over a wide range of conditions. The Nova experiments study the high compression regime whereas the LEM experiments are incompressible. The results are compared to hydrodynamic simulations with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian code (CALE). The goal is to develop and test engineering models of mix.

  4. language choice, code-switching and code- mixing in biase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    switching and code- mixing in a multi-lingual Biase Local Government Area in Cross River State, Nigeria. It looks at the different languages spoken in Biase - from the local languages which serve as mother tongues (MT/L1) to other languages in use in ...

  5. Mixed-Age Grouped Preschoolers' Moral Behavior and Understanding. (United States)

    Derscheid, Linda E.


    Investigated relationship of preschoolers' helping behaviors and their younger peer-directed internal state language, perspective-taking, and attendance at mixed-age day care. Found that helping behaviors were positively related to frequency of vocal turns to younger peer, perspective-taking ability, and length of day care attendance;…

  6. Faecal nitrogen of browser and mixed feeder game species during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A practical measure of assessing periods of potential nutritional stress of game species is needed in the management of these species in the Acacia karroo Riparian Thicket of the central Free State. The objectives of the study were to determine Nf concentration of four game species (browsers and mixed feeders) during ...

  7. Preferences for housing, jobs, and commuting : A mixed logit analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.; Meijer, Erik

    This paper reports stated preferences of Dutch workers for combinations of housing, employment, and commuting. The analysis uses standard logit models as well as mixed logit models. Estimation results offer insights into the relative importance of various aspects of housing, employment, and

  8. Preferences for Housing, Jobs and Commuting: A Mixed Logit Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.; Meijer, E.


    This paper reports stated preferences of Dutch workers for combinations of housing, employment, and commuting. The analysis uses standard logit models as well as mixed logit models. Estimation results offer insights into the relative importance of various aspects of housing, employment, and

  9. Material acceptance risk analysis : superpave hot mix asphalt. (United States)


    The objective of this study is to review Superpave Hot Mix asphalt used by other state DOTs and make recommendation to Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) in using this product in its roadways and in particular in low-traffic roadways. Based on the...

  10. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior (United States)

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan


    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  11. Substrate inhibition kinetics of phenol degradation by binary mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steady states of a continuous culture with an inhibitory substrate were used to estimate kinetic parameters under substrate limitation (chemo stat operation). Mixed cultures of an indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescence and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were grown in continuous culture on phenol as the sole source of carbon ...

  12. Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Sayed, Karim El; Vadim, Lyssenko


    Summary form only given. We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of ultrafast transient four-wave mixing (TFWM) of GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells for simultaneous excitation of exciton and continuum states. Recent TFWM experiments on semiconductors have shown unexpected results when b...

  13. Improvement of acid protease production by a mixed culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of acid protease by Aspergillus oryzae AS3042 was enhanced significantly with the mixed culture of Aspergillus niger SL-09 using solid-state fermentation technique. The influence of carbon sources, nitrogen sources and the addition of phytic acid on acid protease production were investigated. The enzyme ...

  14. Grain damage, phase mixing and plate-boundary formation (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Skemer, Philip


    experiments, but the transition to a steady-state localized mixed layer, as a proxy for a mylonitic zone, can take a few million years at mid lithospheric conditions. Moreover, a transition in mixing efficiency occurs as grain size reduces, which can induce hysteretic behavior, wherein strong, slowly deforming regions can co-exist with weak rapidly deforming zones, analogous to plate tectonic states with large strong plates and narrow weak boundaries.

  15. Chlorophyll modulation of mixed layer thermodynamics in a mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    model used in this study, hereafter referenced to as OPYC, is an updated version of the model developed by Oberhuber (1993). It is an isopyc- nal model with an actively coupled mixed layer and detailed flux parameterization. The model cov- ers global ocean from North Pole to Antarctica, with sea ice processes included.

  16. Mix It Up: Teachers' Beliefs on Mixing Mathematics and Science (United States)

    Offer, Joey; Mireles, Selina Vasquez


    This paper defines correlation, describes the Mix It Up program, discusses the teachers' beliefs about the value of correlating mathematics and science prior to program participation, and identifies problems teachers associated with correlation before and during the program. Teachers' beliefs about the value of correlation and about the problems…

  17. Evaluating Mixed Research Studies: A Mixed Methods Approach (United States)

    Leech, Nancy L.; Dellinger, Amy B.; Brannagan, Kim B.; Tanaka, Hideyuki


    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate application of a new framework, the validation framework (VF), to assist researchers in evaluating mixed research studies. Based on an earlier work by Dellinger and Leech, a description of the VF is delineated. Using the VF, three studies from education, health care, and counseling fields are…

  18. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf


    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... in conflict over the foundation of the regime, they are more likely to rebalance the paradigm blend. We show that despite being a mixture of two contradictory paradigms, the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Agriculture has proven resilient when the power balance within the WTO and the policy...

  19. Mix-and-match holography

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan


    Computational caustics and light steering displays offer a wide range of interesting applications, ranging from art works and architectural installations to energy efficient HDR projection. In this work we expand on this concept by encoding several target images into pairs of front and rear phase-distorting surfaces. Different target holograms can be decoded by mixing and matching different front and rear surfaces under specific geometric alignments. Our approach, which we call mix-and-match holography, is made possible by moving from a refractive caustic image formation process to a diffractive, holographic one. This provides the extra bandwidth that is required to multiplex several images into pairing surfaces.

  20. An electrolyte CPA equation of state for mixed solvent electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.


    using a self-consistent model for the static permittivity. A simple scheme for parameterization of salts with a limited number of parameters is proposed and model parameters for a range of salts are determined from experimental data of activity and osmotic coefficients as well as freezing point...

  1. Excited state charge transfer reaction in (mixed solvent+ electrolyte ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Harun Al Rasid Gazi1 Ranjit Biswas1. Department of Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata, 700 098, India ...

  2. Excited states 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C


    Excited States, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that deals with molecules in the excited states. The book describes the geometries of molecules in the excited electronic states. One paper describes the geometries of a diatomic molecule and of polyatomic molecules; it also discusses the determination of the many excited state geometries of molecules with two, three, or four atoms by techniques similar to diatomic spectroscopy. Another paper introduces an ordered theory related to excitons in pure and mixed molecular crystals. This paper also presents some experimental data such as those invo

  3. Patch testing with corticosteroid mixes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandão, F M


    This study investigated whether a corticosteroid mix containing tixocortol pivalate, budesonide, and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate could detect contact allergy to corticosteroids. 2 corticosteroid mixes, 1 with a high (mix I) and 1 with a low (mix II) concentration and the 3 individual constituents,...

  4. Hydrothermodynamic mixing of fluids across phases in porous media (United States)

    Amooie, Mohammad Amin; Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Moortgat, Joachim


    We investigate the coupled dynamics of fluid mixing and viscously unstable flow under both miscible (single-phase) and partially miscible (two-phase) conditions, and in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. Higher-order finite element methods and fine grids are used to resolve the small-scale onset of fingering and tip splitting. An equation of state determines the thermodynamic phase behavior and Fickian diffusion. We compute global quantitative measures of the spreading and mixing of a diluting slug to elucidate key differences between miscible and partially miscible systems. Hydrodynamic instabilities are the main driver for mixing in miscible flow. In partially miscible flow, however, we find that relative permeabilities spread the two-phase zone. Within this mixing zone dissolution and evaporation drive mixing thermodynamically while reducing mobility contrasts and thus fingering instabilities. The different mixing dynamics in systems involving multiple phases with mutual solubilities have important implications in hydrogeology and energy applications, such as geological carbon sequestration and gas transport in hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  5. The ecological importance of mixed-severity fires: Nature's phoenix [Book Review (United States)

    Carolyn H. Sieg


    The stated goal of a recent book, The Ecological Importance of Mixed-Severity Fires: Nature’s Phoenix, edited by Dominick A. DellaSala and Chad T. Hansen, is to provide a global reference on the benefits of mixed- and high-severity fires. Note that the goal is not to provide an objective reference on the ecological aspects of mixed- and high-severity fires. Rather, the...

  6. VLSI mixed signal processing system (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Premkumar, A. B.


    An economical and efficient VLSI implementation of a mixed signal processing system (MSP) is presented in this paper. The MSP concept is investigated and the functional blocks of the proposed MSP are described. The requirements of each of the blocks are discussed in detail. A sample application using active acoustic cancellation technique is described to demonstrate the power of the MSP approach.

  7. Mixed Hitting-Time Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.


    We study mixed hitting-time models, which specify durations as the first time a Levy process (a continuous-time process with stationary and independent increments) crosses a heterogeneous threshold. Such models of substantial interest because they can be reduced from optimal-stopping models with

  8. Mixed Hitting-Time Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.


    We study a mixed hitting-time (MHT) model that specifies durations as the first time a Lévy process - a continuous-time process with stationary and independent increments� crosses a heterogeneous threshold. Such models are of substantial interest because they can be reduced from optimal-stopping

  9. Mixed hitting-time models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.


    We study mixed hitting-time models that specify durations as the first time a Lévy process—a continuous-time process with stationary and independent increments—crosses a heterogeneous threshold. Such models are of substantial interest because they can be deduced from optimal-stopping models with

  10. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter


    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  11. Social mix in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.


    In Western countries, it appears to have become ‘fashionable’ for politicians who are engaged in urban issues to argue for more social mix of the population at the neighbourhood level. It is assumed that a concentration of poverty reproduces a lack of social opportunities. Therefore, a more balanced

  12. Non-Linear Mixed Logit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Hole, Arne Risa


    We develop an extension of the familiar linear mixed logit model to allow for the direct estimation of parametric non-linear functions defined over structural parameters. Classic applications include the estimation of coefficients of utility functions to characterize risk attitudes and discountin...

  13. A bilinear failure criterion for mixed-mode delamination (United States)

    Reeder, James R.


    Many different failure criteria have been suggested for mixed-mode delamination toughness, but few sets of mixed-mode data exist that are consistent over the full range of Mode 1 opening load to Mode 2 shear load range. The mixed-mode bending (MMB) test was used to measure the delamination toughness of a brittle epoxy composite, a state-of-the-art toughened epoxy composite, and a tough thermoplastic composite over the full mixed-mode range. To gain insight into the different failure responses of the different materials, the delamination fracture surfaces were also examined. An evaluation of several failure criteria that have been reported in the literature was performed, and the range of responses modeled by each criterion was analyzed. A bilinear failure criterion was introduced based on a change in the failure mechanism observed from the delamination surfaces. The different criteria were compared to the failure response of the three materials tested. The responses of the two epoxies were best modeled with the new bilinear failure criterion. The failure response of the tough thermoplastic composite could be modeled well with the bilinear criterion but could also be modeled with the more simple linear failure criterion. Since the materials differed in their mixed-mode failure response, mixed-mode delamination testing will be needed to characterize a composite material. This paper presents consistent sets of mixed-mode data, provides a critical evaluation of the mixed-mode failure criteria, and should provide general guidance for selecting an appropriate criterion for other materials.

  14. Convection and Mixing in Classical Novae Precursors (United States)

    Dursi, L. J.; Calder, A. C.; Alexakis, A.; Truran, J. W.; Zingale, M.; Times, F. X.; Ricker, P. M.; Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.; Rosner, R.; MacNeice, P.


    To explain observed abundances from classical nova outbursts, and to help explain their energetics, nova models must incorporate a mechanism that will dredge up the heavier white dwarf material into the lighter accreted atmosphere. One proposed mechanism relies on the fluid motions from an early convective phase to do the mixing. We present recent work investigating two aspects of this mechanism. We examine results from two-dimensional simulations of classical nova precursor models that demonstrate the beginning of a convective phase during the `simmering' of a nova precursor. We use a new hydrostatic equilibrium hydrodynamics module recently developed for the adaptive-mesh code FLASH. The two-dimensional models are based on the one-dimensional models of Ami Glasner (Glasner et al. 1997), and were evolved with FLASH from a pre-convective state to the onset of convection. The onset of convection induces a velocity field near the C,O/H,He interface, which can then cause mixing through interactions with gravity waves. We show results from simulations of these wind-wave interactions, and estimate whether the `wind' caused by the convection could induce sufficient dredge-up to power a classical novae. This research has been supported by the US. Department of Energy under grant no. B341495 to the ASCI Flash Center at the University of Chicago

  15. Translation of health surveys using mixed methods. (United States)

    Baker, Dian L; Melnikow, Joy; Ly, May Ying; Shoultz, Janice; Niederhauser, Victoria; Diaz-Escamilla, Rafael


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a process-based translation method for a health survey instrument, Searching for Hardships and Obstacles to Shots (SHOTS), using a community-based participatory approach with the Hmong community. The study was based on a cross-sectional survey to assess the reliability and validity of the SHOTS immunization survey, an instrument used in the Hmong community, who are refugees originally from Laos living in the United States. Process-based universalistic health survey translation methods were used in a six-step procedure to translate the instrument. Mixed methods were used to analyze results, including cognitive interviewing, content validity indexing, Cronbach's α, t tests, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Participants were able to accurately complete the SHOTS survey in either Hmong or English, depending on participant preference. Universalistic, process-based, mixed methods used to analyze language translation, in combination with the principles of community-based participatory research, provide effective methods to translate health surveys. Involvement of the community strengthens the quality of translation and improves reliability and validity of survey results. Healthcare providers require accurate and reliable information from evidence-based health surveys to plan for culturally responsive care. Cross-cultural research often relies on language translation. Translation of a health survey instrument may be improved with universalistic, process-based methodology. © 2010 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Mixed-quantum-dot solar cells. (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Fan, James Z; Proppe, Andrew H; Arquer, F Pelayo García de; Rossouw, David; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Lan, Xinzheng; Liu, Min; Walters, Grant; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Sun, Bin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Botton, Gianluigi A; Kelley, Shana O; Sargent, Edward H


    Colloidal quantum dots are emerging solution-processed materials for large-scale and low-cost photovoltaics. The recent advent of quantum dot inks has overcome the prior need for solid-state exchanges that previously added cost, complexity, and morphological disruption to the quantum dot solid. Unfortunately, these inks remain limited by the photocarrier diffusion length. Here we devise a strategy based on n- and p-type ligands that judiciously shifts the quantum dot band alignment. It leads to ink-based materials that retain the independent surface functionalization of quantum dots, and it creates distinguishable donor and acceptor domains for bulk heterojunctions. Interdot carrier transfer and exciton dissociation studies confirm efficient charge separation at the nanoscale interfaces between the two classes of quantum dots. We fabricate the first mixed-quantum-dot solar cells and achieve a power conversion of 10.4%, which surpasses the performance of previously reported bulk heterojunction quantum dot devices fully two-fold, indicating the potential of the mixed-quantum-dot approach.

  17. Mixed-Mode Decohesion Elements for Analyses of Progressive Delamination (United States)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; deMoura, Marcelo F.


    A new 8-node decohesion element with mixed mode capability is proposed and demonstrated. The element is used at the interface between solid finite elements to model the initiation and propagation of delamination. A single displacement-based damage parameter is used in a strain softening law to track the damage state of the interface. The method can be used in conjunction with conventional material degradation procedures to account for inplane and intra-laminar damage modes. The accuracy of the predictions is evaluated in single mode delamination tests, in the mixed-mode bending test, and in a structural configuration consisting of the debonding of a stiffener flange from its skin.

  18. Mixed Heritage College Student Experiences of Race-Oriented Student Services (United States)

    Cabinte, Desiree C.


    The mixed heritage population is one of the fastest growing in the United States. With mixed heritage youth doubling in the past ten years, higher education institutions can expect an increase of this minority group. Historically higher education has responded to underrepresented student needs and designed student services for monoracial students…

  19. Mixed Heritage Said to Present Complex Issues: Multiracial Children Attracting Interest as Visibility Increases (United States)

    Viadero, Debra


    With Barack Obama making history by becoming the United States' first mixed-race president, his inauguration is calling attention to the nation's growing multiracial population, whose youngest members are showing up with increasing frequency at schoolhouse doors. Yet while the growth of the U.S. population of children with mixed-race backgrounds…

  20. Application of circular dichroism spectroscopy in the study of mixed-valence asymmetric ruthenium polypyridyl complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Hamid M. Y.; Coburn, Nadia; Dini, Danilo; de Jong, Jaap J. D.; Villani, Claudio; Browne, Wesley R.; Vos, Johannes G.


    Circular dichroism (CD) spectroelectrochemistry is used to determine the extent of singly occupied molecular orbital delocalization in mixed-valence multinuclear complexes, specifically the mixed-valence (RuRuIII)-Ru-II states of the four diastereoisomers of [(Ru(bpy)(2))(2)(bpt)](3+) [1; bpy =

  1. effects of mixed of mixed of mixed alkaline earth oxides in potash

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    EFFECTS OF MIXED ALKALINE EARTH OXIDES IN POTASH SILICATE GLASS. F. I. Ashiedu & E. E. Akpan. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 34 No. 4, October 2015 732 glass transition temperatures to glass melting ratio greater than 0.7 are good formers. Generally, glass formers are oxides which produce.

  2. Plate Tearing Under Mixed Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Felter, Christian Lotz


    Cohesive-zone finite element modeling is often the technique of choice when dealing with extensive crack growth in large-scale ductile sheet metal structures. Shell elements with in-plane dimensions much larger than the plate thickness are typically employed to discretize the structure, and thus...... that takes place in front of an advancing crack can significantly enhance the crack growth resistanceas the energy going into thinning the sheet typically dominates the total fracture energy.This has been investigated in great details for the case of pure Mode I tearing and both the energy dissipation, peak...... stress, and shape of the cohesive traction-separation law have been laid out. In a similar fashion, the present study resolves the sequence of failure details related to steady-state sheet tearing under mixed mode loading by employing the micro-mechanics based Gurson model. But, the fracture process...

  3. Rubber mixing process and its relationship with bound rubber and crosslink density (United States)

    Hasan, A.; Rochmadi; Sulistyo, H.; Honggokusumo, S.


    This research studied the relationship between bound rubber and crosslink density based on rubber mixing process. Bound rubber was obtained after natural rubber was masticated and mixed with rubber chemicals and filler while crosslink density was collected after rubber compound was vulcanized. Four methods are used and each method refers to four ways of incorporating carbon black during mixing. The first method, after rubber was masticated for 5 minutes, the addition of rubber chemicals and filler was done simultaneously. Rubber was masticated for 1 minute and continued mixing of rubber chemicals and filler where mixing was different from first method. This was the second method. The third method was the same as the second method but the filler used N 660 while in the second method N 330. The last method is not the same as the first and second, the rubber is only masticated for 3 minutes and then mixed with filler and followed by rubber chemicals sequentially. The results showed that bound rubber and crosslink density were influenced by mixing and mastication process. Bound rubber dropped and crosslink density was relatively stable in the first three mixing methods for increasing carbon black at the beginning of the mixing process. Bound rubber and crosslink density stated opposite results in the fourth mixing method. The higher the bound rubber the lower the crosslink density. Without regard to mixing methods, there is a non-linear relationship between bound rubber formation and crosslink density determination

  4. Markov chains and mixing times

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, David A


    Markov Chains and Mixing Times is a magical book, managing to be both friendly and deep. It gently introduces probabilistic techniques so that an outsider can follow. At the same time, it is the first book covering the geometric theory of Markov chains and has much that will be new to experts. It is certainly THE book that I will use to teach from. I recommend it to all comers, an amazing achievement. -Persi Diaconis, Mary V. Sunseri Professor of Statistics and Mathematics, Stanford University Mixing times are an active research topic within many fields from statistical physics to the theory of algorithms, as well as having intrinsic interest within mathematical probability and exploiting discrete analogs of important geometry concepts. The first edition became an instant classic, being accessible to advanced undergraduates and yet bringing readers close to current research frontiers. This second edition adds chapters on monotone chains, the exclusion process and hitting time parameters. Having both exercises...

  5. Linear mixed models in sensometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra

    of this project is to propose a methodology for analyzing more complex models together with tools facilitating the methodology. This was accomplished by contributing to the mixed effects ANOVA modelling in general and specifically applied to sensory and consumer studies through a series of papers and software...... tools facilitating the developed methodologies. The primary advantage of the ANOVA approach is that it gives confidence intervals and significance tests for the various effects including the background variables used in the model and consequently a fast and reliable assessment and ranking...... quality of decision making in Danish as well as international food companies and other companies using the same methods. The two open-source R packages lmerTest and SensMixed implement and support the methodological developments in the research papers as well as the ANOVA modelling part of the Consumer...

  6. Mixing Tamiflu with Sweet Liquids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    If your doctor prescribes Tamiflu® capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow them, this podcast describes how to mix the contents of the capsules with a sweet thick liquid so they can be given that way.  Created: 11/16/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/16/2009.

  7. Delta(X)-L intervalley mixing in SiGe heterostructures for electron spin manipulation (United States)

    Kiselev, A. A.; Kim, K. W.; Yablonovitch, E.


    The technical ability to manipulate quantum information can result from the intervalley mixing in heterostructures. A SiGe structure with two active layers, Si-rich and Ge-rich can serve as an example. g factors for Delta and L electrons are way different, so shifting electron across the interface can be used for the practical spin manipulation, with the degree of modulation governed by the strength of intervalley mixing. We propose a general approach to the problem of intervalley mixing of electron states in heterostructures in the framework of transparent effective mass method. Calculation of the mixing potentials can be done, considering changes in the constituent concentrations of individual heterolayers from some "virtual crystal level" as a bunch of microscopic single-ion perturbations. For the Delta and L states at the (001) interface, the magnitude of mixing is random and residually small. For the (111) interface, large mixing does take place, but only for one of the higher confinement-shifted L valleys. The (311) interface presents a solution, allowing, simultaneously, to (i) lift degeneracy of the Delta states; (ii) lift degeneracy of the L states, and (iii) allow strong mixing between lowest L and Delta states.

  8. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.


    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  9. Shear mixing in classical Novae (United States)

    Alexakis, A.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Times, F. X.; Truran, J. W.; Rosner, R.; Lamb, D. M.; Mignone, A.; Fryxel, B.; Zingale, M.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P.


    The mixing of white dwarf material with the accretion envelope in classical novae scenarios is essential for the later evolution and the outburst. One of the plausible mechanisms for the enrichment involves the coupling of large scale flows like convection or accretion with the breaking interfacial waves at the white dwarf surface. We examine how the interaction of accretion wind with a white dwarf surface can lead to a substantial C/O enrichment that can power a novae. We use the FLASH code to perform two and three dimensional simulations of wind driven gravity waves and investigate their growth and non-linear development for a variety of wind profiles. Our results show that even weak winds generate gravity waves through a resonant mechanism with the wind that grow nonlinear and break leading to spray formation and mixing. The total amount of white dwarf material mixed at late times, is shown to be proportional to the square of the maximum wind velocity, inversely proportional to gravity and independent of the functional form of the wind profile. This work has been supported by the DOE ASCI/Alliances program at the University of Chicago under grant No. B341495.

  10. Femtosecond Non-degenerate Four Wave Mixing Spectroscopy: The Two Color Photon Echo Peak Shift

    CERN Document Server

    Prall, B S


    The couplings between multiple electronic states and electronic and nuclear coordinates are examined for condensed phase systems by femtosecond degenerate and non-degenerate four wave mixing. The two-color photon echo peak shift experiment is developed which allows measurement of the correlation between transition frequencies in two different spectral regions. Two-color photon echo peak shift (2C3PEPS) experiments are used to study coupling between electronic states in the lutetium bisphthalocyanine anion, LuPc2−. Electronically induced mixing between exciton and charge resonance states leads to correlations in transition energies for the two observed transitions. This correlation generates non-zero 2C3PEPS which, when compared with 1C3PEPS, allows experimental determination of the degree of mixing, which was in good agreement with theoretical predictions. By exploiting a coherently excited nuclear wavepacket, the nuclear dependence on the electronic mixing between exciton and charge resonance state...

  11. Infrared thermography-driven flaw detection and evaluation of hot mix asphalt pavements. (United States)


    This research was conducted to study more realistic explanations of how variables are created and : dealt with during hot mix asphalt (HMA) paving construction. Several paving projects across the : state of Nebraska have been visited where sensory de...

  12. A mixed finite element method for nonlinear diffusion equations

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin


    We propose a mixed finite element method for a class of nonlinear diffusion equations, which is based on their interpretation as gradient flows in optimal transportation metrics. We introduce an appropriate linearization of the optimal transport problem, which leads to a mixed symmetric formulation. This formulation preserves the maximum principle in case of the semi-discrete scheme as well as the fully discrete scheme for a certain class of problems. In addition solutions of the mixed formulation maintain exponential convergence in the relative entropy towards the steady state in case of a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation with uniformly convex potential. We demonstrate the behavior of the proposed scheme with 2D simulations of the porous medium equations and blow-up questions in the Patlak-Keller-Segel model. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  13. Analysis of the Δ(X) - L intervalley mixing in group-IV heterostructures (United States)

    Kiselev, A. A.; Kim, K. W.; Yablonovitch, E.


    We provide a treatment of the problem of Δ(X) - L intervalley mixing in differently oriented SiGe heterostructures in the transparent effective mass method. Mixing potentials can be calculated, considering changes in the constituent Concentrations of individual heterolayers from some "virtual crystal level" as a bunch of microscopic single-ion perturbations. Strong mixing between lowest localized Δ and L states can be achieved in (113) structures, making them favorable for the electrically controlled gigantic intervalley g factor modulation. We provide estimates for the mixing potential and further consider limitations related to the strength of the in-plane localization and quality of the interface.

  14. Polarization switch of four-wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin


    Degenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing is considered in a large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fiber. Numerical and experimental results show birefringence assisted four-wave mixing for a certain polarization state of the pump field. The parametric gain can be turned on and off by switching...... the polarization state of the pump field between the two principal axis of the hybrid photonic crystal fiber. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul M. Sharma; George J. Hirasaki


    The objectives of the this research project were to: (1) Quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir; (2) Study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states; (3) Clarify the effect of mixed-wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods; and (4) Develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturations and relative permeabilities.

  16. Observability of ``cascade mixing'' in Bo→J/ψKo (United States)

    Stodolsky, L.


    In high statistics observations of Bo→J/ψKo originating from the process Υ(4S)→BoB¯o it should be possible to observe “cascade mixing,” where one mixing particle, the Bo, turns into another, the Ko. This is possible despite the difficulty that the length of the beam crossing region makes a precise definition of the primary vertex impossible. This difficulty is circumvented by using an “away side” tag to specify the initial time. We review the formalism for describing such processes, and first apply it to simple Bo mixing, noting that it gives a transparent description for CP and T asymmetries. In particular, we show that three different asymmetries of the CP and T type, with neglect of direct CP violation, are given by the same expression. For cascade mixing we present predictions for processes of the type Bi→Kj via J/ψ, where in the limit of no direct CP violation each state i or j is determined by a simple tag. There are 16 such simple measurable processes, involving 10 functions of the two time intervals involved. The coefficients of the functions are different for each of the processes and are given in terms of the mass splitting and the CP, T violating parameter of the Bo mass matrix m2. The results presented here are just consequences of the quantum mechanics of particle mixing and do not involve any particular model of CP violation.

  17. A review of warm mix asphalt. (United States)


    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By : lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA : technology allows the mixing, ...

  18. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah


    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  19. Exclusion of overlapping symptoms in DSM-5 mixed features specifier: heuristic diagnostic and treatment implications. (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha; Outhred, Tim; Fritz, Kristina


    This article focuses on the controversial decision to exclude the overlapping symptoms of distractibility, irritability, and psychomotor agitation (DIP) with the introduction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) mixed features specifier. In order to understand the placement of mixed states within the current classification system, we first review the evolution of mixed states. Then, using Kraepelin's original classification of mixed states, we compare and contrast his conceptualization with modern day definitions. The DSM-5 workgroup excluded DIP symptoms, arguing that they lack the ability to differentiate between manic and depressive states; however, accumulating evidence suggests that DIP symptoms may be core features of mixed states. We suggest a return to a Kraepelinian approach to classification-with mood, ideation, and activity as key axes-and reintegration of DIP symptoms as features that are expressed across presentations. An inclusive definition of mixed states is urgently needed to resolve confusion in clinical practice and to redirect future research efforts.

  20. On the effect of mixing on property development of cement pastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Bøhm, Anja; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette


    The method of mixing may affect the degree of agglomeration of particles in cement-based materials and thus the properties of the materials in their fresh, hardening, and hardened state. Paste (w/c=0.35) of white Portland cement with and without 10% silica fume and 0.65% superplasticizer were mixed...... by hand and in a high-speed mixer. Chemical shrinkage was measured to illustrate the effect of mixing on development of hydration. Chloride migration was measured on 28 days old pastes to illustrate the effect of mixing on the hydrated pastes. The present investigation of pastes of white Portland cement...... showed an effect of mixing on the development of chemical shrinkage, i.e. hydration, of pastes with superplasticizer, but without silica fume. Silica fume agglomerates were observed in thin sections of pastes with silica fume and mixed by hand; however no effect on the development of hydration...

  1. Mixed Effects Models for Complex Data

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lang


    Presenting effective approaches to address missing data, measurement errors, censoring, and outliers in longitudinal data, this book covers linear, nonlinear, generalized linear, nonparametric, and semiparametric mixed effects models. It links each mixed effects model with the corresponding class of regression model for cross-sectional data and discusses computational strategies for likelihood estimations of mixed effects models. The author briefly describes generalized estimating equations methods and Bayesian mixed effects models and explains how to implement standard models using R and S-Pl

  2. Injury profile of mixed martial arts competitors. (United States)

    McClain, Rance; Wassermen, Jason; Mayfield, Carlene; Berry, Andrew C; Grenier, Greg; Suminski, Richard R


    To provide an updated comprehensive profile of mixed martial arts (MMAs) injuries. Correlational and multivariate analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data to examine injuries sustained during 711 MMA bouts. One physician diagnosed any injuries occurring during the bouts. Various sports venues in Kansas and Missouri holding MMA competitions. Male and female and amateur and professional MMA competitors contributing to 1422 fight participations (fight participations = 711 bouts × 2 fighters/bout). State, level (amateur or professional), gender, number of rounds, and bout outcome (knockout/technical knockout [KO/TKO] vs other outcomes [eg, decision]). Injuries/fight participations, injury sustained (yes vs no), and fighter referred to emergency room (ER; yes vs no). The overall injury rate was 8.5% of fight participations (121 injuries/1422 fight participations) or 5.6% of rounds (121/2178 rounds). Injury rates were similar between men and women, but a greater percentage of the injuries caused an altered mental state in men. The risk of being injured was significantly greater for bouts held in Kansas, at the professional level, lasting more rounds, and ending in a KO/TKO. Fighters also were more likely to be referred to the ER if they participated in longer bouts ending in a KO/TKO. The observed injury rate was lower than previously reported suggesting recent regulatory changes have made MMA a safer sport. Increased clinical awareness and additional research should be extended to head-related injuries in MMAs especially those associated with KOs/TKOs.

  3. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.


    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  4. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles (United States)

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.


    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  5. Predictions from high scale mixing unification hypothesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 9, 2016 ... Starting with 'high scale mixing unification' hypothesis, we investigate the renormalization group evolution of mixing parameters and masses for both Dirac and Majorana-type neutrinos. Following this hypothesis, the PMNS mixing parameters are taken to be identical to the CKM ones at a unifying high ...

  6. The fragrance mix and its constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Menné, T


    Results from 14 years of patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents are reviewed. From 1979-1992, 8215 consecutive patients were patch tested with the fragrance mix and 449 (5.5%) had a positive reaction. An increase in the frequency of reactions to fragrance mix was seen from the ...

  7. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suk Lee


    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  8. Turbulent diapycnal mixing in the northwestern Pacific (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie


    Nearly vertical mixing in the oceans across surfaces of constant density (isopycnals), known as diapycnal mixing, transports heat, modifies water masses, and maintains stratification. This mixing needs to be included in models of large-scale ocean circulation and climate models, but it is not fully understood. Some studies have suggested that wind is a key source of energy for diapycnal mixing in the deep ocean, but observational and modeling studies have been contradictory. To learn more, Jing et al. used data from recent hydrographic studies to study turbulent diapycnal mixing in the subtropical northwestern Pacific Ocean, a region that encompasses a range of ocean conditions, including both flat and rough seafloor. They examined spatial and seasonal variations as well as the role of eddies. They found that enhanced mixing occurred over rougher seafloor. Over flatter seafloor the researchers found that mixing is probably stirred by wind near the surface, with eddies playing an important role in enhancing mixing at greater depths. In the upper 600 meters of the ocean, the wind and diapycnal mixing varied seasonally, with stronger winds and mixing in winter and weaker winds and mixing in summer. This is different from the midlatitude northwestern Pacific, where seasonality of diapycnal mixing can be found at 1500-meter depth. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2011JC007142, 2011)

  9. Patch testing with the "sesquiterpene lactone mix"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducombs, G; Benezra, C; Talaga, P


    6278 patients were patch tested with a sesquiterpene lactone mix (SL-mix) in 10 European clinics. 4011 patients were tested only with 0.1% SL-mix, 63 (approximately 1.5%) of whom were positive, with 26 (41%) of these cases being considered clinically relevant. There were no cases of active...

  10. Mixed embeddedness and rural entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferguson, Richard; Gaddefors, Johan; Korsgaard, Steffen

    Entrepreneurship is a key driver of development in rural areas. Some studies have shown that in-migrants and returnees are overrepresented among rural entrepreneurs, and that their entrepreneurship might be more important for local development than the efforts of local entrepreneurs, at least...... in terms of economic value creation. Other studies have shown that local embeddedness is a significant source of opportunities for rural entrepreneurs, yet at the same time, over-embeddedness can inhibit entrepreneurial activities. These contrasting studies suggest that some form of mixed embeddedness...

  11. Thermoluminescent Detectors in Mixed Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mala, P; Biskup, B; Roeed, K


    This note reports on using of thermoluminescent detectors for radiation monitoring in the LHC tunnel and in the shielded areas around the tunnel. The accumulated annual doses in these areas vary a lot so a dosimeter used there should cover a large dose range. TL detectors can measure dose from 0.1 mGy to few kGy (with a recently proposed new technique which needs more studies up to 1 MGy). This report presents studies of these detectors in mixed fields similar to radiation field in the LHC and the possible usage of their results for calculation of high energy hadron and thermal neutron fluence.

  12. Correlation of Steam Generator Mixing Parameters for Severe Accident Hot-Leg Natural Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yehong; Guentay, Salih [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI, CH-5232 (Switzerland)


    Steam generator inlet plenum mixing phenomenon with hot-leg counter-current natural circulation during a PWR station blackout severe accident is one of the important processes governing which component will fail first as a result of thermal challenge from the circulating gas with high temperature and pressure. Since steam generator tube failure represents bypass release of fission product from the reactor to environment, study of inlet plenum mixing parameters is important to risk analysis. Probability distribution functions of individual mixing parameter should be obtained from experiments or calculated by analysis. In order to perform sensitivity studies of the synergetic effects of all mixing parameters on the severe accident-induced steam generator tube failure, the distribution and correlation of these mixing parameters must be known to remove undue conservatism in thermal-hydraulic calculations. This paper discusses physical laws governing three mixing parameters in a steady state and setups the correlation among these mixing parameters. The correlation is then applied to obtain the distribution of one of the mixing parameters that has not been given in the previous CFD analysis. Using the distributions and considering the inter-dependence of the three mixing parameters, three sensitivity cases enveloping the mixing parameter uncertainties are recommended for the plant analysis. (authors)

  13. Effect of Mixed Systems on Crop Productivity (United States)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric


    The goals of this non-irrigated research has been to determine the effect of mixed systems integration on crop, soil, and beef cattle production in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. Over a 5-year period, growing spring wheat (HRSW-C) continuously year after year was compared to a 5-year crop rotation that included spring wheat (HRSW-R), cover crop (dual crop consisting of winter triticale/hairy vetch seeded in the fall and harvested for hay followed by a 7-species cover crop that was seeded in June after hay harvest), forage corn, field pea/barley, and sunflower. Control 5-year HRSW yield was 2690 kg/ha compared to 2757 kg/ha for HRSW grown in rotation. Available soil nitrogen (N) is often the most important limitation for crop production. Expensive fertilizer inputs were reduced in this study due to the mixed system's complementarity in which the rotation system that included beef cattle grazing sustained N availability and increased nutrient cycling, which had a positive effect on all crops grown in the rotation. Growing HRSW continuously requires less intensive management and in this research was 14.5% less profitable. Whereas, when crop management increased and complementing crops were grown in rotation to produce crops and provide feed for grazing livestock, soil nutrient cycling improved. Increased nutrient cycling increased crop rotation yields and yearling beef cattle steers that grazing annual forages in the rotation gain more body weight than similar steers grazing NGP native range. Results of this long-term research will be presented in a PICO format for participant discussion.

  14. Mixing on a Continental Shelf (United States)

    Chernys, Michael; Dhanak, Manhar


    Small scale turbulence measurements over a warm continental shelf during the passage of a cold front over the Eastern Florida coast are described. Over a 22 hour period microstructure velocity shear, conductivity, and temperature, together with background current profiles and CTD were measured using an autonomous underwater vehicle. The aim was to investigate the impact of the front on mixing in the shallow water column. Periodic CTD casts were taken from the boat and surface currents were measured from a shore fixed surface current radar system. The AUV surveyed the water column at 10m depth. A cold front appraoched the region 4/18/2000 with wind speeds of 3-6 m/s, originating from a westerly direction the ambient air temperature being 27^0C. Dissipation rates, O(10-6 W/kg) were measured, with good agreement of the shear spectra with the Nasmyth spectra. As the front progressed, the winds switched to a northerly direction and the air temperature dropped to 22^0C, lower dissipation rates, O(2 × 10-7 W/kg) were observed. The associated mixing rates and values of the flow Richardson number will be described.

  15. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos


    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  16. Method for estimating glueball-meson mixing in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandula, J.E.; Papanicolaou, N. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    A systematic expansion of lattice QCD amplitudes based on the replica trick is discussed, the leading term of which is the quenched approximation. A parameter is defined that estimates the mixing between glueball and q anti q meson states and provides a test for the reliability of the quenched approximation. The procedure is illustrated by an explicit Monte Carlo calculation for a model system on a one-dimensional lattice.



    Kumar GAUTAM; Raghbir SINGH


    The aim of the paper is to study the product planning and positioning, factors influencing their price decision, selection of distribution and media channels by the Small-Scale manufactures in the leading industrial state of Punjab. In the era of globalization Small manufacturers are facing lot of problems in areas of marketing mix such as product planning and positioning, pricing and distribution issues. The entrepreneur’s perception relating to these various issues have been highlighted in ...

  18. Configuration mixing in the sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouldjedri, A [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Batna, Avenue Boukhelouf M El Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Van Isacker, P [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen cedex 5 (France); Zerguine, S [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Batna, Avenue Boukhelouf M El Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria)


    A wavefunction analysis of the strong-coupling limits of the sdg interacting boson model is presented. The analysis is carried out for two-boson states and allows us to characterize the boson configuration mixing in the different limits. Based on these results and those of a shell-model analysis of the sdg IBM, qualitative conclusions are drawn about the range of applicability of each limit.

  19. Mixing audio concepts, practices and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Izhaki, Roey


    Your mix can make or break a record, and mixing is an essential catalyst for a record deal. Professional engineers with exceptional mixing skills can earn vast amounts of money and find that they are in demand by the biggest acts. To develop such skills, you need to master both the art and science of mixing. The new edition of this bestselling book offers all you need to know and put into practice in order to improve your mixes. Covering the entire process --from fundamental concepts to advanced techniques -- and offering a multitude of audio samples, tips and tricks, this boo

  20. Transverse mixing in three-dimensional nonstationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirpka, Olaf; Chiogna, Gabriele; Rolle, Massimo


    that nonstationary anisotropy in the correlation structure has a significant impact on transverse plume deformation and mixing. In natural sediments, contaminant plumes most likely mix more effectively in the transverse directions than predicted by models that neglect the nonstationarity of anisotropy.......Groundwater plumes originating from continuously emitting sources are typically controlled by transverse mixing between the plume and reactants in the ambient solution. In two-dimensional domains, heterogeneity causes only weak enhancement of transverse mixing in steady-state flows. In three......-dimensional domains, more complex flow patterns are possible because streamlines can twist. In particular, spatially varying orientation of anisotropy can cause steady-state groundwater whirls. We analyze steady-state solute transport in three-dimensional locally isotropic heterogeneous porous media with blockwise...